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Sample records for agriculture olives grown

  1. 77 FR 33104 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased... increase the assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2012 and subsequent fiscal years from $16.61 to $31.32 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee...

  2. 75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased... increase the assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2010 and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee...

  3. 78 FR 24979 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2013 and subsequent fiscal years from $31.32 to $21.16 per ton of assessable olives handled. The Committee locally administers...

  4. 78 FR 45841 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2013 and subsequent fiscal years from $31.32 to $21.16 per ton of assessable olives handled. The Committee locally administers...

  5. 76 FR 35957 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... the assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent fiscal years from $44.72 to $16.61 per ton of olives handled. The Committee locally administers...

  6. 76 FR 11937 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent fiscal years from $44.72 to $16.61 per ton of olives handled. The Committee locally administers the...

  7. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment...

  8. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment...

  9. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  10. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  11. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  12. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  13. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  14. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  15. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  16. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  17. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  18. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  19. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  20. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  1. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  2. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  3. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  4. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  5. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  6. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  7. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  8. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  9. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate). ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils. PMID:26959010

  10. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-04

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  11. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  12. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  13. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  14. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  15. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  16. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  17. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  18. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  19. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  20. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  1. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  2. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  3. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  4. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  5. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  6. Olive

    MedlinePlus

    ... teeth, ears, and urinary tract, and infections following surgery. Other uses include high blood pressure, diabetes, hay fever, improving kidney and digestive function, and increasing urine flow. Water extracts of olive fruit pulp are used for rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

  7. 7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section 932.153 Agriculture Regulations of the..., Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.153 Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a)...

  8. 7 CFR 932.149 - Modified minimum quality requirements for specified styles of canned olives of the ripe type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... styles of canned olives of the ripe type. 932.149 Section 932.149 Agriculture Regulations of the..., VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.149 Modified minimum quality requirements for specified styles of canned olives of the ripe type. (a) Except...

  9. 7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section 932.153 Agriculture Regulations of the..., Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.153 Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a)...

  10. 7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section 932.153 Agriculture Regulations of the..., Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.153 Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a)...

  11. 7 CFR 932.149 - Modified minimum quality requirements for specified styles of canned olives of the ripe type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... styles of canned olives of the ripe type. 932.149 Section 932.149 Agriculture Regulations of the..., Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.149 Modified minimum quality requirements for specified styles of canned olives of the ripe type. (a) Except...

  12. 7 CFR 932.149 - Modified minimum quality requirements for specified styles of canned olives of the ripe type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... styles of canned olives of the ripe type. 932.149 Section 932.149 Agriculture Regulations of the..., Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.149 Modified minimum quality requirements for specified styles of canned olives of the ripe type. (a) Except...

  13. 7 CFR 932.149 - Modified minimum quality requirements for specified styles of canned olives of the ripe type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... styles of canned olives of the ripe type. 932.149 Section 932.149 Agriculture Regulations of the..., Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.149 Modified minimum quality requirements for specified styles of canned olives of the ripe type. (a) Except...

  14. 7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section 932.153 Agriculture Regulations of the..., VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.153 Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a)...

  15. 7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section 932.153 Agriculture Regulations of the..., VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.153 Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a)...

  16. 7 CFR 932.149 - Modified minimum quality requirements for specified styles of canned olives of the ripe type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... styles of canned olives of the ripe type. 932.149 Section 932.149 Agriculture Regulations of the..., VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.149 Modified minimum quality requirements for specified styles of canned olives of the ripe type. (a) Except...

  17. Comparative gas exchange characteristics of potted, glasshouse-grown almond, apple, fig, grape, olive, peach and Asian pear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, S.S.; Larsen, F.E.; Bendel, R.B.; Radamaker, G.K.; Bassman, J.H.; Bidlake, W.R.; Wir, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Net photosynthesis (Pn), dark respiration (Rd), transpirational flux density (TFD) and leaf conductance (kl) on glasshouse-grown plants of almond, apple, fig, grape, olive, peach and Asian pear were examined under various laboratory environmental conditions. Grape and almond had the highest light-saturated photosynthetic rates, greater than 20 ??mol CO2 m-2 s-1. Apple had the lowest temperature optimum for Pn, 20??C. Almond had the highest Rd rate between 10 and 50??C, but grape had the highest Q10 for respiration, a value of 2.5. Apple, olive and grape stomata were most sensitive to the leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference. Apple had the greatest sensitivity of Pn to the vapor pressure difference. ?? 1992.

  18. Quality and Composition of Virgin Olive Oil from Varietties Grown in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain).

    PubMed

    Alvarruiz, Andres; Álvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Mateos, Braulia; Sena, Estela; Pardo, Jose Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The regulated physicochemical quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide value and UV absorption characteristics), sensory parameters (median of fruity, median of defect, panel classification, bitterness and pungency), stability parameters (total phenols and oxidative stability at 100°C) and chemical composition (fatty acids, sterols and triterpenic dialcohols) of virgin olive oils obtained from 12 olive varieties cultivated in 6 of the most representative zones of Castilla-La Mancha (La Alcarria, Campos de Calatrava, Campos de Hellín, Campos de Montiel, Montes de Toledo and Sierra de Alcaraz) were evaluated. The varieties Cornicabra and Picual showed remarkable total polyphenols content and high stability, in contrast with Arbequina. The other less common varieties were in-between these two groups. Cornicabra and Picual showed also high oleic and low linoleic acids content, while Arbequina showed low oleic, high linoleic high palmitic and high palimitoleic acid content. The varieties Benizal and Cornicabra showed very high campesterol content. Benizal stood out by its high stigmasterol, low apparent β-sitosterol and low total sterols content, and the latter was below the established limit for olive oil. Triterpenic dialcohol content was significantly lower for Arbequina than for Cornicabra.

  19. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) of the... marketplace, provide definitions for olive oil and olive-pomace oil, promote truth in labeling, and provide...

  20. Molecular characterization of genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation in the olive (Olea europaea L.) germplasm collection of the united states department of agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen microsatellite loci were used to genotype 108 accessions of cultivated olive, Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea var. europaea, and eight of O. europaea L. ssp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Ciferri from the germplasm collection of the United States Department of Agriculture in Davis, California. ...

  1. Quantitative study of lipase secretion, extracellular lipolysis, and lipid storage in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica grown in the presence of olive oil: analogies with lipolysis in humans.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Amal; Robert, Sylvie; Guérin, Clémence; Violet-Asther, Michèle; Carrière, Frédéric

    2011-03-01

    Lipase secretion, extracellular lipolysis, and fatty acid uptake were quantified in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica grown in the presence of olive oil and/or glucose. Specific lipase assays, Western blot analysis, and ELISA indicated that most of the lipase activity measured in Y. lipolytica cultures resulted from the YLLIP2 lipase. Lipase production was triggered by olive oil and, during the first hours of culture, most of the lipase activity and YLLIP2 immunodetection remained associated with the yeast cells. YLLIP2 was then released in the culture medium before it was totally degraded by proteases. Olive oil triglycerides were largely degraded when the lipase was still attached to the cell wall. The fate of lipolysis products in the culture medium and inside the yeast cell, as well as lipid storage, was investigated simultaneously by quantitative TLC-FID and GC analysis. The intracellular levels of free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides increased transiently and were dependent on the carbon sources. A maximum fat storage of 37.8% w/w of yeast dry mass was observed with olive oil alone. A transient accumulation of saturated FFA was observed whereas intracellular triglycerides became enriched in unsaturated fatty acids. So far, yeasts have been mainly used for studying the intracellular synthesis, storage, and mobilization of neutral lipids. The present study shows that yeasts are also interesting models for studying extracellular lipolysis and fat uptake by the cell. The quantitative data obtained here allow for the first time to establish interesting analogies with gastrointestinal and vascular lipolysis in humans.

  2. Morphological cladistic analysis of eight popular Olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars grown in Saudi Arabia using Numerical Taxonomic System for personal computer to detect phyletic relationship and their proximate fruit composition.

    PubMed

    Al-Ruqaie, I; Al-Khalifah, N S; Shanavaskhan, A E

    2016-01-01

    Varietal identification of olives is an intrinsic and empirical exercise owing to the large number of synonyms and homonyms, intensive exchange of genotypes, presence of varietal clones and lack of proper certification in nurseries. A comparative study of morphological characters of eight olive cultivars grown in Saudi Arabia was carried out and analyzed using NTSYSpc (Numerical Taxonomy System for personal computer) system segregated smaller fruits in one clade and the rest in two clades. Koroneiki, a Greek cultivar with a small sized fruit shared arm with Spanish variety Arbosana. Morphologic analysis using NTSYSpc revealed that biometrics of leaves, fruits and seeds are reliable morphologic characters to distinguish between varieties, except for a few morphologically very similar olive cultivars. The proximate analysis showed significant variations in the protein, fiber, crude fat, ash and moisture content of different cultivars. The study also showed that neither the size of fruit nor the fruit pulp thickness is a limiting factor determining crude fat content of olives.

  3. A yearly spraying of olive mill wastewater on agricultural soil over six successive years: impact of different application rates on olive production, phenolic compounds, phytotoxicity and microbial counts.

    PubMed

    Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Rouina, Béchir Ben; Boukhris, Makki; Ammar, Emna

    2012-07-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) spraying effects onto olive-tree fields were investigated. Three OMW levels (50, 100 and 200 m(3)ha(-1)year(-1)) were applied over six successive years. Olive-crop yields, phenolic compounds progress, phytotoxicity and microbial counts were studied at different soil depths. Olive yield showed improvements with OMW level applied. Soil polyphenolic content increased progressively in relation to OMW levels in all the investigated layers. However, no significant difference was noted in lowest treatment rate compared to the control field. In the soil upper-layers (0-40 cm), five phenolic compounds were identified over six consecutive years of OMW-spraying. In all the soil-layers, the radish germination index exceeded 85%. However, tomato germination test values decreased with the applied OMW amount. For all treatments, microbial counts increased with OMW quantities and spraying frequency. Matrix correlation showed a strong relationship between soil polyphenol content and microorganisms, and a negative one to tomato germination index.

  4. Production and characterization of violacein by locally isolated Chromobacterium violaceum grown in agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Wan Azlina; Yusof, Nur Zulaikha; Nordin, Nordiana; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar; Rezali, Mohd Fazlin

    2012-07-01

    The present work highlighted the production of violacein by the locally isolated Chromobacterium violaceum (GenBank accession no. HM132057) in various agricultural waste materials (sugarcane bagasse, solid pineapple waste, molasses, brown sugar), as an alternative to the conventional rich medium. The highest yield for pigment production (0.82 g L⁻¹) was obtained using free cells when grown in 3 g of sugarcane bagasse supplemented with 10% (v/v) of L-tryptophan. A much lower yield (0.15 g L⁻¹) was obtained when the cells were grown either in rich medium (nutrient broth) or immobilized onto sugarcane bagasse. Violacein showed similar chemical properties as other natural pigments based on the UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry analysis. The pigment is highly soluble in acetone and methanol, insoluble in water or non-polar organic solvents, and showed good stability between pH 5-9, 25-100 °C, in the presence of light metal ions and oxidant such as H₂O₂. However, violacein would be slowly degraded upon exposure to light. This is the first report on the use of cheap and easily available agricultural wastes as growth medium for violacein-producing C. violaceum.

  5. Sorption interactions of organic compounds with soils affected by agricultural olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Keren, Yonatan; Borisover, Mikhail; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda

    2015-11-01

    The organic compound-soil interactions may be strongly influenced by changes in soil organic matter (OM) which affects the environmental fate of multiple organic pollutants. The soil OM changes may be caused by land disposal of various OM-containing wastes. One unique type of OM-rich waste is olive mill-related wastewater (OMW) characterized by high levels of OM, the presence of fatty aliphatics and polyphenolic aromatics. The systematic data on effects of the land-applied OMW on organic compound-soil interactions is lacking. Therefore, aqueous sorption of simazine and diuron, two herbicides, was examined in batch experiments onto three soils, including untreated and OMW-affected samples. Typically, the organic compound-soil interactions increased following the prior land application of OMW. This increase is associated with the changes in sorption mechanisms and cannot be attributed solely to the increase in soil organic carbon content. A novel observation is that the OMW application changes the soil-sorbent matrix in such a way that the solute uptake may become cooperative or the existing ability of a soil sorbent to cooperatively sorb organic molecules from water may become characterized by a larger affinity. The remarkable finding of this study was that in some cases a cooperative uptake of organic molecules by soils makes itself evident in distinct sigmoidal sorption isotherms rarely observed in soil sorption of non-ionized organic compounds; the cooperative herbicide-soil interactions may be characterized by the Hill model coefficients. However, no single trend was found for the effect of applied OMW on the mechanisms of organic compound-soil interactions.

  6. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods

    PubMed Central

    Lages Barbosa, Guilherme; Almeida Gadelha, Francisca Daiane; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2015-01-01

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture. PMID:26086708

  7. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Guilherme Lages; Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-06-16

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture.

  8. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are those which have not been pitted. (b) Pitted. “Pitted” olives are those...

  9. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Olive Regulation 1. 944.401 Section 944.401....401 Olive Regulation 1. (a) Definitions. (1) Canned ripe olives means olives in hermetically sealed... in the current U.S. Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives. The term does not include...

  10. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Olive Regulation 1. 944.401 Section 944.401....401 Olive Regulation 1. (a) Definitions. (1) Canned ripe olives means olives in hermetically sealed... in the current U.S. Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives. The term does not include...

  11. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Olive Regulation 1. 944.401 Section 944.401....401 Olive Regulation 1. (a) Definitions. (1) Canned ripe olives means olives in hermetically sealed... in the current U.S. Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives. The term does not include...

  12. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Olive Regulation 1. 944.401 Section 944.401....401 Olive Regulation 1. (a) Definitions. (1) Canned ripe olives means olives in hermetically sealed... in the current U.S. Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives. The term does not include...

  13. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are those which have not been pitted. (b) Pitted. “Pitted” olives are those...

  14. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Olive Regulation 1. 944.401 Section 944.401....401 Olive Regulation 1. (a) Definitions. (1) Canned ripe olives means olives in hermetically sealed... in the current U.S. Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives. The term does not include...

  15. Selenium bioaccessibility and speciation in biofortified Pleurotus mushrooms grown on selenium-rich agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Poonam; Aureli, Federica; D'Amato, Marilena; Prakash, Ranjana; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Nagaraja, Tejo Prakash; Cubadda, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Cultivation of saprophytic fungi on selenium-rich substrates can be an effective means to produce selenium-fortified food. Pleurotus florida, an edible species of oyster mushrooms, was grown on wheat straw from the seleniferous belt of Punjab (India) and its potential to mobilize and accumulate selenium from the growth substrate was studied. Selenium concentration in biofortified mushrooms was 800 times higher compared with control samples grown on wheat straw from non selenium-rich areas (141 vs 0.17 μg Se g(-1) dry weight). Seventy-five percent of the selenium was extracted after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion and investigation of the selenium molecular fractions by size exclusion HPLC-ICP-MS revealed that proteins and any other high molecular weight selenium-containing molecule were hydrolyzed to peptides and low molecular weight selenocompounds. Analysis of the gastrointestinal hydrolysates by anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS showed that the bioaccessible selenium was mainly present as selenomethionine, a good bioavailable source of selenium, which accounted for 73% of the sum of the detected species. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing selenium-biofortified edible mushrooms using selenium-rich agricultural by-products as growth substrates. The proposed approach can be used to evaluate whether selenium-contaminated plant waste materials harvested from high-selenium areas may be used to produce selenium-biofortified edible mushrooms based on the concentration, bioaccessibility and speciation of selenium in the mushrooms.

  16. Environmental fate of the herbicide MCPA in agricultural soils amended with fresh and aged de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste.

    PubMed

    Peña, David; López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Albarrán, Ángel; Becerra, Daniel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Olive oil agrifood industry generates large amounts of waste whose recycling as organic amendment represents an alternative to their disposal. The impact of de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DW) on the fate of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in Mediterranean agricultural soils was evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of the transformation of organic matter from this waste under field conditions was assessed. Four Mediterranean agricultural soils were selected and amended in laboratory with fresh DW and field-aged DW (DW and ADW treatments, respectively). Adsorption capacity increased by factors between 1.18 and 3.59, for the DW-amended soils, and by factor of 4.93, for ADW-amended soil, with respect to unamended soils, when 5% amendment was applied. The DW amendment had inhibitory effect on dehydrogenase activity and slowed herbicide dissipation, whereas the opposite effect was observed in ADW treatments. In the field-amended soil, the amount of MCPA leached was significantly reduced from 56.9% for unamended soil to 15.9% at the 5% rate. However, leaching losses of MCPA increased in the laboratory-amended soils, because of their high water-soluble organic carbon values which could enhance MCPA mobility, especially in the acidic soils. Therefore, the application of DW as organic amendment in Mediterranean agricultural soils could be an important management strategy to reduce MCPA leaching, especially if the organic matter had been previously transformed by ageing processes.

  17. Maslinic Acid, a Triterpene from Olive, Affects the Antioxidant and Mitochondrial Status of B16F10 Melanoma Cells Grown under Stressful Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Khalida; Rufino-Palomares, Eva E.; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J.; Figuera, Celeny; García-Salguero, Leticia; Medina, Pedro P.; Peragón, Juan; Lupiáñez, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Maslinic acid (MA) is a natural compound whose structure corresponds to a pentacyclic triterpene. It is abundant in the cuticular lipid layer of olives. MA has many biological and therapeutic properties related to health, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antihypertensive, and antioxidant activities. However, no studies have been performed to understand the molecular mechanism induced by this compound in melanoma cancer. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of MA in melanoma (B16F10) cells grown in the presence or absence of fetal bovine serum (FBS). We performed cell proliferation measurements, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements using dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR 123) and activities of catalase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase. These changes were corroborated by expression assays. FBS absence reduced cell viability decreasing IC50 values of MA. The DHR 123 data showed an increase in the ROS level in the absence of FBS. Furthermore, MA had an antioxidant effect at lower assayed levels measured as DHR and antioxidant defense. However, at higher dosages MA induced cellular damage by apoptosis as seen in the results obtained. PMID:26236377

  18. Glucose(xylose) isomerase production by Streptomyces sp. CH7 grown on agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    Chanitnun, Kankiya; Pinphanichakarn, Pairoh

    2012-07-01

    Streptomyces sp. CH7 was found to efficiently produce glucose(xylose) isomerase when grown on either xylan or agricultural residues. This strain produced a glucose(xylose) isomerase activity of roughly 1.8 U/mg of protein when it was grown in medium containing 1% xylose as a carbon source. Maximal enzymatic activities of about 5 and 3 U/mg were obtained when 1% xylan and 2.5% corn husks were used, respectively. The enzyme was purified from a mycelial extract to 16-fold purity with only two consecutive column chromatography steps using Macro-prep DEAE and Sephacryl-300, respectively. The approximate molecular weight of the purified enzyme is 170 kDa, and it has four identical subunits of 43.6 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. Its K m values for glucose and xylose were found to be 258.96 and 82.77 mM, respectively, and its V max values are 32.42 and 63.64 μM/min/mg, respectively. The purified enzyme is optimally active at 85°C and pH 7.0. It is stable at pH 5.5-8.5 and at temperatures up to 60°C after 30 min. These findings indicate that glucose(xylose) isomerase from Streptomyces sp. CH7 has the potential for industrial applications, especially for high-fructose syrup production and bioethanol fermentation from hemicellulosic hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  19. Morphological cladistic analysis of eight popular Olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars grown in Saudi Arabia using Numerical Taxonomic System for personal computer to detect phyletic relationship and their proximate fruit composition

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ruqaie, I.; Al-Khalifah, N.S.; Shanavaskhan, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Varietal identification of olives is an intrinsic and empirical exercise owing to the large number of synonyms and homonyms, intensive exchange of genotypes, presence of varietal clones and lack of proper certification in nurseries. A comparative study of morphological characters of eight olive cultivars grown in Saudi Arabia was carried out and analyzed using NTSYSpc (Numerical Taxonomy System for personal computer) system segregated smaller fruits in one clade and the rest in two clades. Koroneiki, a Greek cultivar with a small sized fruit shared arm with Spanish variety Arbosana. Morphologic analysis using NTSYSpc revealed that biometrics of leaves, fruits and seeds are reliable morphologic characters to distinguish between varieties, except for a few morphologically very similar olive cultivars. The proximate analysis showed significant variations in the protein, fiber, crude fat, ash and moisture content of different cultivars. The study also showed that neither the size of fruit nor the fruit pulp thickness is a limiting factor determining crude fat content of olives. PMID:26858547

  20. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  1. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed as two distinct types. Unless a specific type is stated in this...

  2. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality of canned ripe olives of whole, pitted, halved, segmented, sliced,...

  3. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  4. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed as...

  5. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed as two distinct types. Unless a specific type is stated in this...

  6. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality of canned ripe olives of whole, pitted, halved, segmented, sliced,...

  7. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  8. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed as...

  9. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed as...

  10. Comparing the historic olive trees (Olea europaea L.) of Santa Cruz with contemporaneous trees in the Santa Barbara, CA area: a case study of diversity and structure in an introduced agricultural species conserved in situ

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic populations of crop species outside their centers of origin and diversity, like the domestic olive (Olea europaea L.) in North America, are genetic resources for contemporary agriculture, including genotypes that could be adapted to, local conditions. The primary goal of this study was to d...

  11. Sample preparation approaches for the analysis of pesticide residues in olives and olive oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural practices generally require the use of pesticides by olive growers for the best olive and olive oil production. Thus, analytical methods are needed to identify and quantify the pesticide residues that may be present, and ensure that the product complies with regulatory requirements. I...

  12. The efficacy of kaolin particle film on oil quality indices of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) cv 'Zard' grown under warm and semi-arid region of Iran.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, Esmaeil; Arzani, Kazem; Moallemi, Norollah; Barzegar, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Kaolin particle film (0%, 3% and 6%; w/v), as an antitranspirant treatment, was applied to mature 'Zard' olive trees (Olea europaea L.). Olive oil was extracted from harvested fruit and fatty acid composition and other oil quality indices of the fruit assessed over crop seasons. Kaolin increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, but decreased peroxide and iodine values, and UV absorbance extinction coefficients, of the oil. The highest palmitic acid was observed in the oil obtained from untreated trees (17%). Kaolin increased oleic acid up to 65% and 64% in the first and second crop seasons, respectively, but decreased linoleic and linolenic acid contents. Monounsaturated acids (65%) and oleic acid/linoleic acid ratios (4) were higher in oil obtained from kaolin treated than untreated trees. Therefore it can be expected that extracted olive oil from kaolin treated trees has a higher oxidative stability and shelf life than untreated trees.

  13. An evaluation study of mycelium based acoustic absorbers grown on agricultural by-product substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research examines the use of a novel new renewable resource in acoustic absorption applications. The material under test is based on the fruiting body of fungi, a mushroom, in the phylum of Basidiomycetes, which are grown on semi-hydrophobic substrates such as cotton by-products, leaves, sticks...

  14. Evaluation of Mycelium Based Acoustic Absorbers Grown on Select Agricultural Byproduct Substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research examines the use of a novel new renewable resource in acoustic absorption applications. The material under test is based on the fruiting body of fungi, a mushroom, in the phylum of Basidiomycetes, which are grown on semi-hydrophobic substrates such as cotton byproducts, leaves, sticks ...

  15. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series.

  16. Metal uptake by agricultural plant species grown in sludge-amended soil following ecosystem restoration practices

    SciTech Connect

    Peles, J.D.; Barrett, G.W.; Brewer, S.R.

    1996-12-01

    The disposal of municipal sewage sludge is an important environmental problem presently facing society. Because sludge is rich in plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous, land application as a fertilizer has been proposed as a cost-effective means of disposal. This method of disposal, however, is frequently the subject of public health concern since municipal sludge may contain heavy metals that potentially could be introduced into the human food chain. This study examined metal concentrations in two agricultural species at a study site where ecosystem restoration practices (liming and tilling) had been conducted for 5 years following 11 years of sludge enrichment. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Does consumption of leafy vegetables grown in peri-urban agriculture pose a risk to human health?

    PubMed

    Nabulo, G; Black, C R; Craigon, J; Young, S D

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of potentially toxic elements were measured in soils and five contrasting tropical leafy vegetables grown in a replicated field trial at five contaminated urban agriculture sites in Kampala City, Uganda. Soil contamination at each site could be tentatively ascribed to known waste disposal practices. There was considerable variation in metal uptake between vegetable types. Washing leafy vegetables reduced chromium and lead concentrations but exogenous contamination of leaves also depended on vegetable type, with Gynandropsis gynandra L. showing a marked tendency to accumulate Pb and Cr. For the worst case scenario of children consuming unwashed vegetables, some metal 'hazard quotient' (HQ) limits (1.0) were violated at four of the five sites studied. For the 25 'site-vegetable' combinations assessed, the HQ for Pb exceeded 1.0 in 36% of cases. A vegetable-specific site screening tool based on soil extraction with 0.01 M CaCl(2) and extrapolation to provide HQ values was assessed.

  18. Phytoremediation combined with biorefinery on the example of two agricultural crops grown on Ni soil and degraded by P. chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Sotenko, Maria; Coles, Stuart; Barker, Guy; Song, Lijiang; Jiang, Ying; Longhurst, Philip; Romanova, Tamara; Shuvaeva, Olga; Kirwan, Kerry

    2016-12-12

    During the last few decades, phytoremediation process has attracted much attention because of the growing concerns about the deteriorating quality of soil caused by anthropogenic activities. Here, a tandem phytoremediation/biorefinery process was proposed as a way to turn phytoremediation into a viable commercial method by producing valuable chemicals in addition to cleaned soil. Two agricultural plants (Sinapis alba and Helianthus annuus) were grown in moderately contaminated soil with ca. 100 ppm of Ni and further degraded by a fungal lignin degrader - Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Several parameters have been studied: the viability of plants, biomass yield and their accumulating and remediating potentials. Further down-stream processing showed that up to 80% of Ni can be easily extracted from contaminated biomass by aqueous extraction at mild conditions. Finally, it was demonstrated that the grown onto contaminated soil plants can be degraded by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the effect of nickel and biomass pre-treatment on the solid state fermentation was studied. The proposed and studied in this work methodology can pave the way to successful commercialization of the phytoremediation process in the near future.

  19. Canopy light heterogeneity drives leaf anatomical, eco-physiological, and photosynthetic changes in olive trees grown in a high-density plantation.

    PubMed

    Larbi, Ajmi; Vázquez, Saúl; El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Msallem, Monji; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2015-02-01

    In the field, leaves may face very different light intensities within the tree canopy. Leaves usually respond with light-induced morphological and photosynthetic changes, in a phenomenon known as phenotypic plasticity. Canopy light distribution, leaf anatomy, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and pigment composition were investigated in an olive (Olea europaea, cvs. Arbequina and Arbosana) orchard planted with a high-density system (1,250 trees ha(-1)). Sampling was made from three canopy zones: a lower canopy (<1 m), a central one (1-2 m), and an upper one (>2 m). Light interception decreased significantly in the lower canopy when compared to the central and top ones. Leaf angle increased and photosynthetic rates and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) decreased significantly and progressively from the upper canopy to the central and the lower canopies. The largest leaf areas were found in the lower canopy, especially in the cultivar Arbequina. The palisade and spongy parenchyma were reduced in thickness in the lower canopy when compared to the upper one, in the former due to a decrease in the number of cell layers from three to two (clearly distinguishable in the light and fluorescence microscopy images). In both cultivars, the concentration of violaxanthin-cycle pigments and β-carotene was higher in the upper than in the lower canopy. Furthermore, the de-epoxidized forms zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin increased significantly in those leaves from the upper canopy, in parallel to the NPQ increases. In conclusion, olive leaves react with morphological and photosynthetic changes to within-crown light gradients. These results strengthen the idea of olive trees as "modular organisms" that adjust the modules morphology and physiology in response to light intensity.

  20. Community perspectives on barriers and strategies for promoting locally grown produce from an urban agriculture farm.

    PubMed

    Hu, Alice; Acosta, Angela; McDaniel, Abigail; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Although much is understood about barriers to healthy food consumption in low-income, urban communities, knowledge regarding the crucial next step of building feasible, community-supported approaches to address those barriers remains limited. This qualitative study used in-depth interviews (n = 20), focus groups (n = 2), and participant observations (n = 3) to identify strategies to promote locally grown produce from an urban food security project, Produce From the Park (PFP), an urban farm. Informants included community organization representatives and residents from low-income neighborhoods in a mid-Atlantic city. Informants identified structural and cultural barriers to purchasing healthy food, including price, location, food culture, and lack of interest. Participants proposed a number of strategies, such as distribution through mobile food carts and farm stands, marketing new foods through taste tests and cooking demonstrations, and youth mentorship. Informants also described their perceptions of the local urban farm and suggested ways to increase community buy-in. Strategies mentioned were inexpensive and incorporated cultural norms and local assets. These community perspectives can provide insights for those promoting healthy eating in urban African American communities through urban food security projects.

  1. Production of Endoglucanase, Beta-glucosidase and Xylanase by Bacillus licheniformis Grown on Minimal Nutrient Medium Containing Agriculture Residues

    PubMed Central

    Seo, J.; Park, T. S.; Kim, J. N.; Ha, Jong K.; Seo, S.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis was grown in minimal nutrient medium containing 1% (w/v) of distillers dried grain with soluble (DDGS), palm kernel meal (PKM), wheat bran (WB) or copra meal (CM), and the enzyme activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, xylanase and reducing sugars was measured to investigate a possibility of using cost-effective agricultural residues in producing cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. The CM gave the highest endoglucanase activity of 0.68 units/mL among added substrates at 48 h. CM yielded the highest titres of 0.58 units/ml of β-glucosidase, compared to 0.33, 0.23, and 0.16 units/mL by PKM, WB, and DDGS, respectively, at 72 h. Xylanase production was the highest (0.34 units/mL) when CM was added. The supernatant from fermentation of CM had the highest reducing sugars than other additional substrates at all intervals (0.10, 0.12, 0.10, and 0.11 mg/mL respectively). It is concluded that Bacillus licheniformis is capable of producing multiple cellulo- and hemicellololytic enzymes for bioethanol production using cost-effective agricultural residues, especially CM, as a sole nutrient source. PMID:25050035

  2. Evidence of cross-reactivity between olive, ash, privet, and Russian olive tree pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Kernerman, S M; McCullough, J; Green, J; Ownby, D R

    1992-12-01

    In a clinical investigation, 103 Michigan residents with symptoms suggestive of allergic rhinitis or asthma were skin tested with olive (Olea europaea) pollen extract. Nineteen had positive reactions. Since the olive tree is not native to nor grown in Michigan, this study was undertaken to determine whether the skin test reactivity was the result of cross-reactivity among tree pollen allergens. ELISAs were developed to measure olive, ash (Fraxinus americana), privet (Ligustrum vulgare), and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) specific IgE antibodies. Inhibition studies were performed to determine whether pollen extracts from each of these tree species could inhibit IgE antibody binding to olive extracts. Eleven of the 19 skin test-positive patients were olive-ELISA positive, eight either were ELISA-positive to ash, seven to privet and ten to Russian olive. There were significant correlations between the ELISA results to olive and each of the other three pollens. The inhibition studies demonstrated that all three of the tree pollens were capable of inhibiting the binding of IgE to olive extract in a dose-response fashion. IgE-immunoblot studies demonstrated several proteins common to olive, ash, and privet. Twelve of the olive skin test-positive patients were contacted and 75% were exposed to one or more of the studied trees in their yards. Five patients had traveled to areas where olive trees are grown. We conclude that there is a high degree of cross-reactivity among allergens from native Michigan trees and from olive trees. This cross-reactivity is the most likely reason for skin test reactivity to olive pollen extract in Michigan.

  3. Hydrogen Production and Enzyme Activities in the Hyperthermophile Thermococcus paralvinellae Grown on Maltose, Tryptone, and Agricultural Waste

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Sarah A.; Moreira, Emily; Holden, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Thermococcus may be an important alternative source of H2 in the hot subseafloor in otherwise low H2 environments such as some hydrothermal vents and oil reservoirs. It may also be useful in industry for rapid agricultural waste treatment and concomitant H2 production. Thermococcus paralvinellae grown at 82°C without sulfur produced up to 5 mmol of H2 L−1 at rates of 5–36 fmol H2 cell−1 h−1 on 0.5% (wt vol−1) maltose, 0.5% (wt vol−1) tryptone, and 0.5% maltose + 0.05% tryptone media. Two potentially inhibiting conditions, the presence of 10 mM acetate and low pH (pH 5) in maltose-only medium, did not significantly affect growth or H2 production. Growth rates, H2 production rates, and cell yields based on H2 production were the same as those for Pyrococcus furiosus grown at 95°C on the same media for comparison. Acetate, butyrate, succinate, isovalerate, and formate were also detected as end products. After 100 h, T. paralvinellae produced up to 5 mmol of H2 L−1 of medium when grown on up to 70% (vol vol−1) waste milk from cows undergoing treatment for mastitis with the bacterial antibiotic Ceftiofur and from untreated cows. The amount of H2 produced by T. paralvinellae increased with increasing waste concentrations, but decreased in P. furiosus cultures supplemented with waste milk above 1% concentration. All mesophilic bacteria from the waste milk that grew on Luria Bertani, Sheep's Blood (selective for Staphylococcus, the typical cause of mastitis), and MacConkey (selective for Gram-negative enteric bacteria) agar plates were killed by heat during incubation at 82°C. Ceftiofur, which is heat labile, was below the detection limit following incubation at 82°C. T. paralvinellae also produced up to 6 mmol of H2 L−1 of medium when grown on 0.1–10% (wt vol−1) spent brewery grain while P. furiosus produced < 1 mmol of H2 L−1. Twelve of 13 enzyme activities in T. paralvinellae showed significant (p < 0.05) differences across six different

  4. Hydrogen Production and Enzyme Activities in the Hyperthermophile Thermococcus paralvinellae Grown on Maltose, Tryptone, and Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Sarah A; Moreira, Emily; Holden, James F

    2016-01-01

    Thermococcus may be an important alternative source of H2 in the hot subseafloor in otherwise low H2 environments such as some hydrothermal vents and oil reservoirs. It may also be useful in industry for rapid agricultural waste treatment and concomitant H2 production. Thermococcus paralvinellae grown at 82°C without sulfur produced up to 5 mmol of H2 L(-1) at rates of 5-36 fmol H2 cell(-1) h(-1) on 0.5% (wt vol(-1)) maltose, 0.5% (wt vol(-1)) tryptone, and 0.5% maltose + 0.05% tryptone media. Two potentially inhibiting conditions, the presence of 10 mM acetate and low pH (pH 5) in maltose-only medium, did not significantly affect growth or H2 production. Growth rates, H2 production rates, and cell yields based on H2 production were the same as those for Pyrococcus furiosus grown at 95°C on the same media for comparison. Acetate, butyrate, succinate, isovalerate, and formate were also detected as end products. After 100 h, T. paralvinellae produced up to 5 mmol of H2 L(-1) of medium when grown on up to 70% (vol vol(-1)) waste milk from cows undergoing treatment for mastitis with the bacterial antibiotic Ceftiofur and from untreated cows. The amount of H2 produced by T. paralvinellae increased with increasing waste concentrations, but decreased in P. furiosus cultures supplemented with waste milk above 1% concentration. All mesophilic bacteria from the waste milk that grew on Luria Bertani, Sheep's Blood (selective for Staphylococcus, the typical cause of mastitis), and MacConkey (selective for Gram-negative enteric bacteria) agar plates were killed by heat during incubation at 82°C. Ceftiofur, which is heat labile, was below the detection limit following incubation at 82°C. T. paralvinellae also produced up to 6 mmol of H2 L(-1) of medium when grown on 0.1-10% (wt vol(-1)) spent brewery grain while P. furiosus produced < 1 mmol of H2 L(-1). Twelve of 13 enzyme activities in T. paralvinellae showed significant (p < 0.05) differences across six different growth

  5. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  6. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  7. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  8. Shade-grown coffee in Puerto Rico: Opportunities to preserve biodiversity while reinvigorating a struggling agricultural commodity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borkhataria, R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.; Jordan-Garcia, A.

    2012-01-01

    Shade-grown coffee contributes to biodiversity conservation and has many ecological benefits. We reviewed historical trends in coffee production and interviewed 100 coffee growers in 1999 to determine current management practices and attitudes toward the cultivation of sun and shade coffee in Puerto Rico. We discuss the outlook for the coffee industry in the 21st century and implications for biodiversity conservation, hoping lessons from Puerto Rico will apply to the international coffee industry. Throughout the 20th century, government intervention, including subsidies and technical assistance, supported coffee farming in Puerto Rico. In an effort to modernize coffee production and increase yields, the conversion from shade to sun coffee plantations was encouraged. Despite government support, the amount of land devoted to this once dominant agricultural commodity declined markedly between 1982 and 2007 (84%), due to labor shortages, low income, and catastrophic hurricanes. We found that a return to shaded plantations would be embraced by most farmers. Growers of shaded coffee were generally happier with their cultivation practices (89.3% satisfied) than growers of sun coffee (60.9% satisfied), valued biodiversity, and were willing to cultivate coffee under shade if given similar incentives to those received for farming sun coffee. The future of the coffee industry in Puerto Rico may depend on government programs that capitalize upon emerging markets for sustainably produced, shade-grown coffee. We conclude that where governments have close ties to the coffee industry, they should strive to wed economic development with the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecological services by providing support and incentives for the production of shade coffee. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Impact of agricultural management on bacterial laccase-encoding genes with possible implications for soil carbon storage in semi-arid Mediterranean olive farming

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this work, we aimed to gain insights into the contribution of soil bacteria to carbon sequestration in Mediterranean habitats. In particular, we aimed to use bacterial laccase-encoding genes as molecular markers for soil organic C cycling. Using rainfed olive farming as an experimental model, we determined the stability and accumulation levels of humic substances and applied these data to bacterial laccase-encoding gene expression and diversity in soils under four different agricultural management systems (bare soils under tillage/no tillage and vegetation cover under chemical/mechanical management). Materials and Methods: Humic C (> 104 Da) was subjected to isoelectric focusing. The GC-MS method was used to analyze aromatic hydrocarbons. Real-Time PCR quantification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for functional bacterial laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO)-encoding genes and transcripts were also carried out. Results: Soils under spontaneous vegetation, eliminated in springtime using mechanical methods for more than 30 years, showed the highest humic acid levels as well as the largest bacterial population rich in laccase genes and transcripts. The structure of the bacterial community based on LMCO genes also pointed to phylogenetic differences between these soils due to the impact of different management systems. Soils where herbicides were used to eliminate spontaneous vegetation once a year and those where pre-emergence herbicides resulted in bare soils clustered together for DNA-based DGGE analysis, which indicated a certain amount of microbial selection due to the application of herbicides. When LMCO-encoding gene expression was studied, soils where cover vegetation was managed either with herbicides or with mechanical methods showed less than 10% similarity, suggesting that the type of weed management strategy used can impact weed community composition and consequently laccase substrates derived from vegetation decay

  10. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  11. Raw or incubated olive-mill wastes and its biotransformed products as agricultural soil amendments-effect on sorption-desorption of triazine herbicides.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Almendros, Gonzalo; Peña, Aránzazu

    2007-02-07

    Raw olive-mill waste and soil amendments obtained from their traditional composting or vermicomposting were added, at rates equivalent to 200 Mg ha-1, to a calcareous silty clay loam soil in a laboratory test, in order to improve its fertility and physicochemical characteristics. In particular, the effects on the sorption-desorption processes of four triazine herbicides have been examined. We found that comparatively hydrophobic herbicides terbuthylazine and prometryn increased their retention on amended soil whereas the more polar herbicides simazine and cyanazine were less affected. Soil application of olive cake, without transformation, resulted in the highest herbicide retention. Its relatively high content in aliphatic fractions and lipids could explain the increased herbicide retention through hydrophobic bonding and herbicide diffusion favored by poorly condensed macromolecular structures. On the other hand, the condensed aromatic structure of the compost and vermicompost from olive cake could hinder diffusion processes, resulting in lower herbicide sorption. In fact, the progressive humification in soil of olive-mill solid waste led to a decrease of sorption capacity, which suggested important changes in organic matter quality and interactions during the mineralization process. When soil amended with vermicompost was incubated for different periods of time, the enhanced herbicide sorption capacity persisted for 2 months. Pesticide desorption was reduced by the addition of fresh amendments but was enhanced during the transformation process of amendments in soil. Our results indicate the potential of soil amendments based on olive-mill wastes in the controlled, selective release of triazine herbicides, which varies depending on the maturity achieved by their biological transformation.

  12. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Tsimidou, Maria Z.

    2014-01-01

    Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars—excluding clonal selections—is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO) namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis. PMID:26784878

  13. Evaluation of the effects, on canopy arthropods, of two agricultural management systems to control pests in olive groves from north-east of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sónia A P; Pereira, José A; Torres, Laura M; Nogueira, António J A

    2007-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of management regime on canopy arthropod community of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.). Field studies were performed in two successive years, 2002 and 2003, in two olive groves, one under organic farming and the other under integrated protection. The integrated protection grove was sprayed once a year in June, with dimethoate, to control the anthophagous generation of the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bern.). From April to November of each year, the canopy arthropods were sampled weekly. PRC method was used to analyse the effect of management regime at the community level and results showed that taxa responded differently to insecticide application suggesting that the organic grove was a more suitable habitat for the arthropods than the integrated protection grove. Abundance of arthropods peaked in May and June for both years but, after spraying with dimethoate, decreased significantly in integrated protection grove, recovering very slowly thereafter. Psocoptera, Miridae, Formicidae and Coccinellidae were the most sensitive taxa to insecticide application. Their decreasing in abundance was more evident in the second year of the trial. On the other hand chrysopids showed some tolerance to insecticide applications. These results suggest that the timing of spray is of utmost importance in reducing the side effects of spraying on beneficial arthropods. Moreover, differences in population susceptibility as well as in life cycle patterns must be considered.

  14. Biochemical, photosynthetic and productive parameters of Chinese cabbage grown under blue-red LED assembly designed for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avercheva, Olga; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana; Bassarskaya, Elizaveta; Pogosyan, Sergey; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Erokhin, Alexei; Zhigalova, Tatiana

    2014-06-01

    Currently light emitting diodes (LEDs) are considered to be most preferable source for space plant growth facilities. We performed a complex study of growth and photosynthesis in Chinese cabbage plants (Brassica chinensis L.) grown with continuous LED lighting based on red (650 nm) and blue (470 nm) LEDs with a red to blue photon ratio of 7:1. Plants grown with high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps were used as a control. PPF levels used were about 100 μmol/(m2 s) (PPF 100) and nearly 400 μmol/(m2 s) (PPF 400). One group of plants was grown with PPF 100 and transferred to PPF 400 at the age of 12 days. Plants were studied at the age of 15 and 28 days (harvest age); some plants were left to naturally end their life cycle. We studied a number of parameters reflecting different stages of photosynthesis: photosynthetic pigment content; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (photosystem II quantum yield, photochemical and non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching); electron transport rate, proton gradient on thylakoid membranes (ΔpH), and photophosphorylation rate in isolated chloroplasts. We also tested parameters reflecting plant growth and productivity: shoot and root fresh and dry weight, sugar content and ascorbic acid content in shoots. Our results had shown that at PPF 100, plants grown with LEDs did not differ from control plants in shoot fresh weight, but showed substantial differences in photophosphorylation rate and sugar content. Differences observed in plants grown with PPF 100 become more pronounced in plants grown with PPF 400. Most parameters characterizing the plant photosynthetic performance, such as photosynthetic pigment content, electron transport rate, and ΔpH did not react strongly to light spectrum. Photophosphorylation rate differed strongly in plants grown with different spectrum and PPF level, but did not always reflect final plant yield. Results of the present work suggest that narrow-band LED lighting caused changes in Chinese

  15. Analysis of olive allergens.

    PubMed

    Esteve, C; Montealegre, C; Marina, M L; García, M C

    2012-04-15

    Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of seasonal respiratory allergy in Mediterranean countries, where this tree is intensely cultivated. Besides this, some cases of contact dermatitis and food allergy to the olive fruit and olive oil have been also described. Several scientific studies dealing with olive allergens has been reported, being the information available about them constantly increasing. Up to date, twelve allergens have been identified in olive pollen while just one allergen has been identified in olive fruit. This review article describes considerations about allergen extraction and production, also describing the different methodologies employed in the physicochemical and immunological characterization of olive allergens. Finally, a revision of the most relevant studies in the analysis of both olive pollen and olive fruit allergens is carried out.

  16. Comparison of some chemical parameters of a naturally debittered olive (Olea europaea L.) type with regular olive varieties.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ayse Burcu; Ozen, Banu; Tokatli, Figen; Sen, Ilknur

    2014-10-15

    Some olives grown in Karaburun peninsula in the west part of Turkey and mostly coming from Erkence variety lose their bitterness while still on the tree and are called Hurma among locals. This olive type does not require further processing to remove the bitter compounds. In this study, sugar, organic acid and fatty acid profiles of Hurma, Erkence (not naturally debittered) and Gemlik (commonly consumed as table olive) olives were determined throughout 8weeks of maturation period for two consecutive harvest seasons, and the results were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA of sugar and organic acid data revealed a differentiation in terms of harvest year but not on variety. Hurma olive is separated from others due to its fatty acid profile, and it has higher linoleic acid content compared to others. This might be an indication of increased desaturase enzyme activity for Hurma olives during natural debittering phase.

  17. Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil.

  18. Olives and olive oil in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Owen, R W; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Hull, E; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H

    2004-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the latter part of the twentieth century demonstrate fairly conclusively that the people of the Mediterranean basin enjoy a healthy lifestyle with decreased incidence of degenerative diseases. The data show that populations within Europe that consume the so-called 'Mediterranean diet' have lower incidences of major illnesses such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Studies have suggested that the health-conferring benefits of the Mediterranean diet are due mainly to a high consumption of fibre, fish, fruits and vegetables. More recent research has focused on other important factors such as olives and olive oil. Obviously fibre (especially wholegrain-derived products), fruits and vegetables supply an important source of dietary antioxidants. What is the contribution from olives and olive oil? Apparently the potential is extremely high but epidemiologic studies rarely investigate consumption of these very important products in-depth, perhaps due to a lack of exact information on the types and amounts of antioxidants present. Recent studies have shown that olives and olive oil contain antioxidants in abundance. Olives (especially those that have not been subjected to the Spanish brining process) contain up to 16 g/kg typified by acteosides, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and phenyl propionic acids. Olive oil, especially extra virgin, contains smaller amounts of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, but also contains secoiridoids and lignans in abundance. Both olives and olive oil contain substantial amounts of other compounds deemed to be anticancer agents (e.g. squalene and terpenoids) as well as the peroxidation-resistant lipid oleic acid. It seems probable that olive and olive oil consumption in southern Europe represents an important contribution to the beneficial effects on health of the Mediterranean diet.

  19. Pesticide residues in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Lentza-Rizos, C; Avramides, E J

    1995-01-01

    The attacks of pests and diseases and the presence of weeds make it necessary to apply pesticides to olive trees to ensure crop protection. Residues of these compounds may remain and contaminate the oil produced. For the analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil, the most common methods are multiresidue methods for fatty substrates, based on partitioning between hexane or light petroleum and acetonitrile. Recently, other methods have been applied, such as ready-to-use, disposable minicolumns or direct injection of oil into a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a precolumn with an oil recovery tank. Although several pesticides are registered in oil-producing countries for use on olive trees, available literature on the level and fate of residues is very limited. However, it is clear that fat-soluble pesticides tend to concentrate in the oil, both after full coverage and bait spraying, and their use close to harvest should therefore be avoided. Because it is sometimes necessary to use such pesticides late in autumn because of their effectiveness in cases of severe attack, residue trials should be carried out to determine the residue concentration in oil and to set a reasonable preharvest safety interval. Data produced by such trials would permit the establishment of MRLs (tolerances) in olive oil to cover cases where the residues, although relatively high, are not of toxicological significance for consumers (risk assessment). Such is the case with corn oil and the fat-soluble insecticide methyl pirimiphos, registered in the U.S. for use on corn. The U.S. EPA tolerance for methyl pirimiphos in corn is 8 mg/kg, whereas it is 11 times higher (88 mg/kg) for corn oil because it is known to concentrate in the oil. Similar provisions for olive oil, based on data from residue trials according to Good Agricultural Practice, the long-term toxicity of each pesticide as expressed by its ADI for man, and olive oil consumption patterns, would facilitate international trade

  20. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    PubMed

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits.

  1. Olive orchard amended with olive mill wastewater: effects on olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Mechri, B; Issaoui, M; Echbili, A; Chehab, H; Mariem, F B; Braham, M; Hammami, M

    2009-12-30

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) in a field of olive trees on olive fruit and olive oil quality. Agronomic application of OMW increased significantly the fungal:bacteria ratio, whereas the root colonisation and the photosynthetic rates decreased significantly. Consequently, the oil content expressed as a percentage of dry weight, decreased significantly after agronomic application of OMW. Land spreading of OMW altered the relative proportion of individual olive fruit sugar and decreased significantly the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of the fruit. A significant increase was observed in total phenol content of oil after agronomic application of OMW. alpha-Tocopherol content, on the contrary, decreased with OMW application. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected by the treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of change in the olive fruit and olive oil quality following agronomic application of OMW.

  2. Combination of Fenton oxidation and composting for the treatment of the olive solid residue and the olive mile wastewater from the olive oil industry in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Costa, Costa N

    2010-10-01

    Co-composting of olive oil solid residue (OOSR) and treated wastewaters (with Fenton) from the olive oil production process has been studied as an alternative method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants in small olive oil industry in Cyprus. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW) is detoxified at the end of Fenton Process and the COD is reduced up to 70%. The final co-composted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW) is presented with optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose. The final product coming out from an in-Vessel reactor seems to mature faster than the product from the windrow system and is presented with a better soil conditioner.

  3. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  4. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

  5. Genetically biodiverse potato cultivars grown on a suitable agricultural soil under compost amendment or mineral fertilization: yield, quality, genetic and epigenetic variations, soil properties.

    PubMed

    Cicatelli, Angela; Baldantoni, Daniela; Iovieno, Paola; Carotenuto, Maurizio; Alfani, Anna; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

    2014-09-15

    The use of compost for soil amendment is a promising agricultural practice environmentally and economically viable. In the framework of a wide research project designed to evaluate the effects of soil amendment with municipal solid waste compost in comparison with traditional mineral fertilization practices, 54 different cultivars (Cvs) of potatoes were AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) molecularly fingerprinted. The seven most genetically biodiverse potato Cvs were used to establish an experimental field in southern Italy. The field area was divided into two portions fertilized with compost (20 Mg ha(-1)) or with ammonium sulphate (200 kg ha(-1)). No significant differences in productivity, organoleptic characteristics and element concentrations were observed between the potato tubers obtained with both kinds of soil fertilization, while the tubers grown on compost amended soil showed, on average, higher K concentrations with respect to those grown on mineral fertilised soil. cDNA-AFLP (complementary DNA-AFLP) and MSAP (methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism) analyses were carried out on both leaves and tubers of one selected Cv to estimate if any transcriptome alterations or epigenetic modifications were induced by the two kinds of fertilization, however no variations were detected. Chemical and biological soil qualities (i.e., microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis, alkaline and acid phosphatase) were assessed on soil samples at the start of the experiment and at the end of potato crop cycle. No significant differences in soil pH and limited ones, in the available fraction of some trace elements, were observed; while conductivity was much higher for the compost amended portion of the experimental field. Microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis and acid phosphatase activities were significantly increased by compost amendment, in comparison with mineral fertilization. Finally, a sensory panel of potato Cvs detected no significant differences among

  6. Characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from Moroccan olive and olive cake: toxinogenic potential of Aspergillus strains.

    PubMed

    Roussos, Sevastianos; Zaouia, Nabila; Salih, Ghislane; Tantaoui-Elaraki, Abdelrhafour; Lamrani, Khadija; Cheheb, Mostafa; Hassouni, Hicham; Verhé, Fréderic; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Augur, Christopher; Ismaili-Alaoui, Mustapha

    2006-05-01

    During the 2003 and 2004 olive oil production campaigns in Morocco, 136 samples from spoiled olive and olive cake were analyzed and 285 strains were isolated in pure culture. Strains included 167 mesophilic strains belonging to ten genera: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Alternaria, Acremonium, Humicola, Ulocladium as well as 118 thermophilic strains isolated in 2003 and 2004, mainly belonging to six species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, Mucor pusillus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Humicola grisea, and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Penicillium and Aspergillus, respectively, 32.3 and 26.9% of total isolates represented the majority of mesophilic fungi isolated. When considering total strains (including thermotolerant strains) Aspergillus were the predominant strains isolated; follow-up studies on mycotoxins therefore focused primarily on aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) from the latter strains. All isolated Aspergillus flavus strains (9) and Aspergillus niger strains (36) were studied in order to evaluate their capacity to produce AFs and OTA, respectively, when grown on starch-based culture media. Seven of the nine tested A. flavus strains isolated from olive and olive cake produced AF B1 at concentrations between 48 and 95 microg/kg of dry rice weight. As for the A. niger strains, 27 of the 36 strains produced OTA.

  7. Saline irrigation and Zn amendment effect on Cd phytoavailability to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) grown on a long-term amended agricultural soil: a human risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Valdez-González, J C; López-Chuken, U J; Guzmán-Mar, J L; Flores-Banda, F; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L

    2014-05-01

    Crops, particularly in the Northeast region of Mexico, have to cope with increasing soil salinization due to irrigation. Chloride (Cl(-)) concentration has been strongly related to enhance cadmium (Cd) uptake by plants due to increased solubility in the soil solution. The effect of irrigation with slightly saline water from a local well was evaluated in this work on the accumulation and translocation of Cd in Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in soil historically amended with stabilized sewage sludge under a regime of phosphorus and zinc fertilization. A factorial pot experiment was conducted with two phosphate fertilizer levels (PF, 0 and 80 kg ha(-1) dry soil, respectively), two Zn levels (0 and 7 kg ha(-1) dry soil), and two sources of water for irrigation deionized water (DW) and slightly saline well water (WW) from an agricultural site. Additionally, a human risk assessment for Cd ingestion from plants was assessed. Results showed that Cl(-) salinity in the WW effectively mobilized soil Cd and increased its phytoavailability. A higher level of Cd was found in roots (46.41 mg kg(-1)) compared to shoots (10.75 mg kg(-1)). Although the total content of Cd in the edible parts of the Swiss chard irrigated with WW exceeded permissible recommended consumption limit, bioavailable cadmium in the aboveground parts of the plant in relation to the total cadmium content was in the range from 8 to 32 %. Therefore, human health risks might be overestimated when the total concentration is taken into account.

  8. Effect of Olive-mill Waste Addition to Soil on Sorption, Persistence, and Leaching of the Herbicide Fluometuron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic amendment addition to agricultural soils is an agronomic practice that can greatly affect the behavior of pesticides. Olive-mill waste (OMW) is an organic residue generated in great amounts in olive oil producing countries, and its addition to agricultural soils has been proposed as an alter...

  9. Modeling olive-crop forecasting in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Dhiab, Ali; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Oteros, Jose; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio; Galán, Carmen; Abichou, Mounir; Msallem, Monji

    2016-01-01

    Tunisia is the world's second largest olive oil-producing region after the European Union. This paper reports on the use of models to forecast local olive crops, using data for Tunisia's five main olive-producing areas: Mornag, Jemmel, Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis. Airborne pollen counts were monitored over the period 1993-2011 using a Cour trap. Forecasting models were constructed using agricultural data (harvest size in tonnes of fruit/year) and data for several weather-related and phenoclimatic variables (rainfall, humidity, temperature, Growing Degree Days, and Chilling). Analysis of these data revealed that the amount of airborne pollen emitted over the pollen season as a whole (i.e., the Pollen Index) was the variable most influencing harvest size. Findings for all local models also indicated that the amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall (except during blooming) had a positive impact on final olive harvests. Air temperature also influenced final crop yield in three study provinces (Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis), but with varying consequences: in the model constructed for Chaal, cumulative maximum temperature from budbreak to start of flowering contributed positively to yield; in the Menzel Mhiri model, cumulative average temperatures during fruit development had a positive impact on output; in Zarzis, by contrast, cumulative maximum temperature during the period prior to flowering negatively influenced final crop yield. Data for agricultural and phenoclimatic variables can be used to construct valid models to predict annual variability in local olive-crop yields; here, models displayed an accuracy of 98, 93, 92, 91, and 88 % for Zarzis, Mornag, Jemmel, Chaal, and Menzel Mhiri, respectively.

  10. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  11. Agricultural by-products with bioactive effects: A multivariate approach to evaluate microbial and physicochemical changes in a fresh pork sausage enriched with phenolic compounds from olive vegetation water.

    PubMed

    Fasolato, Luca; Carraro, Lisa; Facco, Pierantonio; Cardazzo, Barbara; Balzan, Stefania; Taticchi, Agnese; Andreani, Nadia Andrea; Montemurro, Filomena; Martino, Maria Elena; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Novelli, Enrico

    2016-07-02

    The use of phenolic compounds derived from agricultural by-products could be considered as an eco-friendly strategy for food preservation. In this study a purified phenol extract from olive vegetation water (PEOVW) was explored as a potential bioactive ingredient for meat products using Italian fresh sausage as food model. The research was developed in two steps: first, an in vitro delineation of the extract antimicrobial activities was performed, then, the PEOVW was tested in the food model to investigate the possible application in food manufacturing. The in vitro tests showed that PEOVW clearly inhibits the growth of food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The major part of Gram-positive strains was inhibited at the low concentrations (0.375-3mg/mL). In the production of raw sausages, two concentrates of PEOVW (L1: 0.075% and L2: 0.15%) were used taking into account both organoleptic traits and the bactericidal effects. A multivariate statistical approach allowed the definition of the microbial and physicochemical changes of sausages during the shelf life (14days). In general, the inclusion of the L2 concentration reduced the growth of several microbial targets, especially Staphylococcus spp. and LABs (2log10CFU/g reduction), while the increasing the growth of yeasts was observed. The reduction of microbial growth could be involved in the reduced lipolysis of raw sausages supplemented with PEOVW as highlighted by the lower amount of diacylglycerols. Moisture and aw had a significant effect on the variability of microbiological features, while food matrix (the sausages' environment) can mask the effects of PEOVW on other targets (e.g. Pseudomonas). Moreover, the molecular identification of the main representative taxa collected during the experimentation allowed the evaluation of the effects of phenols on the selection of bacteria. Genetic data suggested a possible strain selection based on storage time and the addition of

  12. Enlargement of cultivated olive fruit reduces the efficiency of the larval olive fruit fly parasitoid Psyttalia concolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated olive fruit are greatly enlarged as a result of domestication. In this study, we examined the effects of fruit size within a cultivar (Sevillano) and across four different-sized cultivars (in order of decreasing size: Sevillano, Ascolano, Manzanillo, and Mission) grown in California on th...

  13. Acephate and buprofezin residues in olives and olive oil.

    PubMed

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Garau, V L; Pirisi, F M; Cabitza, F; Pala, M

    2000-10-01

    Field trials were carried out to study the persistence of acephate and buprofezin on olives. Two cultivars, pizz'e carroga and pendolino, with very large and small fruits respectively were used. After treatment, no difference was found between the two pesticide deposits on the olives. The disappearance rates, calculated as pseudo first order kinetics, were similar for both pesticides (on average 12 days). Methamidophos, the acephate metabolite, was always present on all olives, and in some pendolino samples it showed higher residues than the maximum residue limit (MRL). During washing, the first step of olive processing, the residue level of both pesticides on the olives did not decrease. After processing of the olives into oil, no residues of acephate or methamidophos were found in the olive oil, while the residues of buprofezin were on average four times higher than on olives.

  14. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long...

  16. Effects of olive mill wastes added to olive grove soils on erosion and soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION The increasing degradation of olive groves by effect of organic matter losses derived from intensive agricultural practices has promoted the use (by olive farmers) of olive mill wastes (olive leaves and alperujo) which contain large amounts of organic matter and are free of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work we compared the effects of these oil mill wastes on the decrease of soil erosion, also, we undertook the assessment of the organic carbon and nitrogen contents of soil, their distribution across the profile, the accumulation and Stratification ratios (SRs) of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and the C:N ratio, in Cambisols in Mediterranean olive groves treated with olive leaves and alperujo. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study area was a typical olive grove in southern Spain under conventional tillage (CT). Three plots were established. The first one was the control plot; the second one was treated with olive leaves (CTol) and the third one, with alperujo (CTa). 9 samples per plot were collected to examine the response of the soil 3 years after application of the wastes. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, pH, bulk density, the available water capacity, SOC, TN and C:N ratio. SOC and N stock, expressed for a specific depth in Mg ha-1. Stratification ratios (SRs) (that can be used as an indicator of dynamic soil quality) for SOC and TN at three different depths were calculated. The erosion study was based on simulations of rain; that have been carried out in order to highlight differences in the phenomena of runoff and soil losses in the three plots considered. The effect of different treatments on soil properties was analyzed using a ANOVA, followed by an Anderson-Darling test. RESULTS Supplying the soil with the wastes significantly improved physical and chemical properties in the studied soils with respect to the control. C and N stocks increased, the SOC stock was 75.4 Mg ha-1 in CT, 91.5 Mg

  17. Environmental impacts in the life cycle of olive oil: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Banias, Georgios; Achillas, Charisios; Vlachokostas, Christos; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Stefanou, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The production of olive oil is considered to be one of the largest agricultural business sectors in the Mediterranean area. Apart from its significant impact on the economies of countries in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle East, olive oil production also involves considerable social and environmental considerations. However, despite such importance, the environmental effects of olive oil production have not been studied as much other agricultural productions and farming systems, which are more characteristic of central and northern Europe. We present a thorough and systematic literature review of scientific publications with respect to the use of environmental tools in the life cycle of olive oil. The analysis takes into consideration the farming of olive trees, the manufacture of olive oil, packaging, transportation and reverse logistics. To that end, journal publications up to 2015 in this specific field are recorded and, at the same time, the most important environmental impacts are revealed and a gap analysis is carried out. The analysis conducted reveals that farming of olive trees (with pesticide use and waste/by-product production being the 'hottest' topics) and the manufacturing of olive oil (concentrating mostly on waste/by-product production and management) are the phases with the highest environmental focus from the scientific community. Moreover, gaps in the literature are detected mostly with respect to fuel consumption and the use and promotion of renewable energy sources in olive oil production. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; Salido, Sofía; Sánchez, Adolfo; van Beek, Teris A.; Altarejos, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the extraction yield and the radical scavenging activity from the agricultural by-product olive tree wood (Olea europaea L., cultivar Picual) using six different extraction protocols was carried out. Four olive wood samples from different geographical origin, and harvesting time have been used for comparison purposes. Among the fifty olive wood extracts obtained in this study, the most active ones were those prepared with ethyl acetate, either through direct extraction or by successive liquid-liquid partitioning procedures, the main components being the secoiridoids oleuropein and ligustroside. An acid hydrolysis pretreatment of olive wood samples before extractions did not improve the results. In the course of this study, two compounds were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of olive wood collected during the olives' harvesting season and identified as (7′′R)-7′′-ethoxyoleuropein (1) and (7′′S)-7′′-ethoxyoleuropein (2). PMID:26904608

  19. Transcript levels of CHL P gene, antioxidants and chlorophylls contents in olive (Olea europaea L.) pericarps: a comparative study on eleven olive cultivars harvested in two ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana Ada

    2011-03-01

    The effects of ripening stage on the antioxidant content in olive pericarps were evaluated in eleven olive genotypes grown in the same bioagronomic conditions in Southern Italy. We examined the transcript levels of geranylgeranyl reductase (CHL P) gene and the content of tocopherols, phenolic compounds and chlorophylls in the pericarps. The examined genotypes showed an increase of CHL P transcripts during pericarps ripening. Significant differences were reported in the antioxidant proportions in the same cultivars at different pericarp ripening stage. We show an inverse correlation between phenols and tocopherols content. In particular, during the ripening phase, tocopherols increased rapidly in olive pericarps while phenolic compounds and chlorophyll levels declined significantly. The significant amounts of these antioxidants confirm the nutritional and medicinal value of olive drupes and its products (table olives and olive oil). We suggest, for the first time, a link between CHL P transcript levels and tocopherols content during the ripening of olive pericarps. Besides, we revealed that this trend of CHL P transcript levels during pericarps ripening is independent from the olive genotypes.

  20. Spatiotemporal analysis of olive flowering using geostatistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Analysis of flowering patterns in the olive (Olea europaea L.) are of considerable agricultural and ecological interest, and also provide valuable information for allergy-sufferers, enabling identification of the major sources of airborne pollen at any given moment by interpreting the aerobiological data recorded in pollen traps. The present spatiotemporal analysis of olive flowering in central Spain combined geostatistical techniques with the application of a Geographic Information Systems, and compared results for flowering intensity with airborne pollen records. The results were used to obtain continuous phenological maps which determined the pattern of the succession of the olive flowering. The results show also that, although the highest airborne olive-pollen counts were recorded during the greatest flowering intensity of the groves closest to the pollen trap, the counts recorded at the start of the pollen season were not linked to local olive groves, which had not yet begin to flower. To detect the remote sources of olive pollen several episodes of pollen recorded before the local flowering season were analysed using a HYSPLIT trajectory model and the findings showed that western, southern and southwestern winds transported pollen grains into the study area from earlier-flowering groves located outside the territory.

  1. Characterization of the nutritional components in fruit and cladode of selenium-enriched nutraceutical cactus pear fruit varieties grown on agricultural sediment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different accessions of different colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus Indica) were grown in soils high in salts, boron and selenium (Se) located in the Westside of central California. The changes in the nutritional status and biological transformation of the absorbed inorganic Se from the soils into ...

  2. Olive oil phenols and neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Khalatbary, Ali Reza

    2013-11-01

    Olive oil is a rich source of phenolic components which have a wide variety of beneficial health effects in vitro, in vivo, and clinically. The beneficial effects of olive oil phenols attributed to a variety of biological activities including free radical scavenging/antioxidant actions, anti-inflammatory effects, anti-carcinogenic properties, and anti-microbial activities. On the other hand, olive oil phenols have been shown to be some of neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia, spinal cord injury, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's diseases, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, aging, and peripheral neuropathy. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of olive oil phenols.

  3. The Effects of Different Irrigation Treatments on Olive Oil Quality and Composition: A Comparative Study between Treated and Olive Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ben Brahim, Samia; Gargouri, Boutheina; Marrakchi, Fatma; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2016-02-17

    In the present paper, two irrigation treatments were applied to olive trees cv. Chemlali: irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW) and with olive mill wastewater (OMW), which was spread at three levels (50, 100, and 200 m(3)/ha). This work is interested in two topics: (1) the influence of different irrigation treatments on olive oil composition and quality and (2) the comparison between OMW and TWW application using different statistical analyses. The obtained variance analysis (ANOVA) has confirmed that there are no significant differences in oil quality indices and flavonoids between the control and treatments amended by OMW or TWW (p > 0.05). However, the irrigation affected some aspects of olive oil composition such as the reduction in palmitic acid (16.32%) and increase in linoleic acid (19.55%). Furthermore, the total phenols and α-tocopherol contents increased significantly following OMW and TWW treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) defined three irrigation groups: OMW 50 and 100 m(3)/ha, OMW 200 m(3)/ha and control, and TWW treatment. The full factorial design revealed that OMW amendment by 100 m(3)/ha is the best irrigation treatment. Thus, the optimal performances in terms of olive oil quality and composition were shown by olive oil extracted from olives grown under irrigation with 100 m(3)/ha of OMW.

  4. Antimicrobial activity and agricultural properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) grown in northern parts of Turkey: a case study for adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yaldız, Gülsüm; Sekeroglu, Nazım; Kulak, Muhittin; Demirkol, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the adaptation capability of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.), which is widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates, in northern parts of Turkey. In this study, plant height, number of fruits, fruit length, fruit width, number of seeds and fruit weight of bitter melon grown in field conditions were determined. The antimicrobial effect of the ethanol extract of fruit and seeds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans microorganisms was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion method. In conclusion, plant height (260 cm), number of fruits (16 per  plant), number of seeds (30.2  per fruit), fruit width (3.8 cm), fruit length (10.6 cm) and fruit weight (117.28 g fruit(- 1)) were determined; fruits were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger; oil and seeds were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger and E. coli.

  5. 78 FR 77367 - Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 981 Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that...

  6. The Vine and Olive Colony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albinski, Nan Bowman

    1985-01-01

    Traces the historical sources of "Some Plant Olive Trees," a utopian novel by Emma Gelders Sterne, which offers a fictional account of the Vine and Olive colony, one of the most colorful yet least known utopian communities of the nineteenth century. (AYC)

  7. Olive oil and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Covas, María-Isabel; Konstantinidou, Valentini; Fitó, Montserrat

    2009-12-01

    The Mediterranean diet, in which olive oil is the primary source of fat, is associated with a low mortality for cardiovascular disease. Data concerning olive oil consumption and primary end points for cardiovascular disease are scarce. However, a large body of knowledge exists providing evidence of the benefits of olive oil consumption on secondary end points for the disease. Besides the classical benefits on the lipid profile provided by olive oil consumption compared with that of saturated fat, a broad spectrum of benefits on cardiovascular risk factors is now emerging associated with olive oil consumption. We review the state of the art concerning the knowledge of the most important biological and clinical effects related to olive oil and its minor components. The recent advances in human nutrigenomics associated with olive oil consumption will also be assessed. The wide range of benefits associated with olive oil consumption could contribute to explaining the low rate of cardiovascular mortality found in southern European-Mediterranean countries, in comparison with other westernized countries, despite a high prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors.

  8. Introducing cultivated trees into the wild: Wood pigeons as dispersers of domestic olive seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perea, Ramón; Gutiérrez-Galán, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    Animals may disperse cultivated trees outside the agricultural land, favoring the naturalization or, even, the invasiveness of domestic plants. However, the ecological and conservation implications of new or unexplored mutualisms between cultivated trees and wild animals are still far from clear. Here, we examine the possible role of an expanding and, locally, overabundant pigeon species (Columba palumbus) as an effective disperser of domestic olive trees (Olea europaea), a widespread cultivated tree, considered a naturalized and invasive species in many areas of the world. By analyzing crop and gizzard content we found that olive fruits were an important food item for pigeons in late winter and spring. A proportion of 40.3% pigeons consumed olive seeds, with an average consumption of 7.8 seeds per pigeon and day. Additionally, most seed sizes (up to 0.7 g) passed undamaged through the gut and were dispersed from cultivated olive orchards to areas covered by protected Mediterranean vegetation, recording minimal dispersal distances of 1.8-7.4 km. Greenhouse experiments showed that seeds dispersed by pigeons significantly favored the germination and establishment in comparison to non-ingested seeds. The ability of pigeons to effectively disperse domestic olive seeds may facilitate the introduction of cultivated olive trees into natural systems, including highly-protected wild olive woodlands. We recommend harvesting ornamental olive trees to reduce both pigeon overpopulation and the spread of artificially selected trees into the natural environment.

  9. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  10. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    PubMed

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs.

  11. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    PubMed Central

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  12. Genetic Relationships Among Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars Native to Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sakar, Ebru; Unver, Hulya; Bakir, Melike; Ulas, Mehmet; Sakar, Zeynep Mujde

    2016-08-01

    Olive is a widely cultivated, mainly in the Mediterranean region, and economically important fruit species used as both olive oil and table olive consumption. In Turkey, more than 50 olive cultivars have been authorized for commercial plantations, representing the developmental base for the olive industry. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic relationships among the most widely grown 27 olive cultivars in Turkey, using microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers. Nine well-known foreign olive cultivars from different countries are also included in the study to compare the Turkish cultivars. To determine genetic relationship and diversity, 10 SSR loci (DCA3, DCA9, DCA15, DCA18, UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, UDO24, UDO28) were used. Jaccard's similarity coefficient and the UPGMA method for cluster analysis were performed using the software NTSYSpc. The results showed that the number of alleles per locus ranging from 4 (UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, DCA15) to 12 (DCA9) presenting high polymorphism. There were no identical cultivars. High similarity was shown by cultivars Maviand Adana topağı (0.754). The most genetically divergent cultivars, Domat-Meski (0.240) and Domat-NizipYağlık (0.245), were also identified.

  13. Lead and cadmium contamination and exposure risk assessment via consumption of vegetables grown in agricultural soils of five-selected regions of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Zahir Ur; Khan, Sardar; Brusseau, Mark L; Shah, Mohammad Tahir

    2017-02-01

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization result in serious contamination of soil with toxic metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), which can lead to deleterious health impacts in the exposed population. This study aimed to investigate Pb and Cd contamination in agricultural soils and vegetables in five different agricultural sites in Pakistan. The metal transfer from soil-to-plant, average daily intake of metals, and health risk index (HRI) were also characterized. The Pb concentrations for all soils were below the maximum allowable limits (MAL 350 mg kg(-1)) set by State Environmental Protection Administration of China (SEPA), for soils in China, while Cd concentrations in the soils were exceeded the MAL (61.7-73.7% and 4.39-34.3%) set by SEPA (0.6 mg kg(-)), and European Union, (1.5 mg kg(-1)) respectively. The mean Pb concentration in edible parts of vegetables ranged from 1.8 to 11 mg kg(-1). The Pb concentrations for leafy vegetables were higher than the fruiting and pulpy vegetables. The Pb concentrations exceeded the MAL (0.3 mg kg(-1)) for leafy vegetables and the 0.1 mg kg(-1) MAL for fruity and rooty/tuber vegetables set by FAO/WHO-CODEX. Likewise, all vegetables except Pisum sativum (0.12 mg kg(-1)) contained Cd concentrations that exceeded the MAL set by SEPA. The HRI values for Pb and Cd were <1 for both adults and children for most of the vegetable species except Luffa acutangula, Solanum lycopersicum, Benincasa hispada, Momordi charantia, Aesculantus malvaceae, Cucumis sativus, Praecitrullus fistulosus, Brassica oleracea, and Colocasia esculanta for children. Based on these results, consumption of these Pb and Cd contaminated vegetables poses a potential health risk to the local consumers.

  14. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  15. Chlorophylls in olive and in olive oil: chemistry and occurrences.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Angela; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Cichelli, Angelo

    2011-08-01

    The chlorophylls are responsible for the characteristic green color of the olive fruits and their products. Virgin olive oil (VOO) is obtained from processing olives only by mechanical and physical means under conditions ensuring that the natural characteristics of the fruit composition are maintained as far as possible. In terms of the total chlorophyll content of oil, the extraction process entails a loss of chlorophyll of up to 80%. Many factors, both agronomical and technological, can affect the presence of green pigments in VOO. The analysis of green pigments in olives and/or oil requires an initial phase of extraction of these compounds from the solid and fluid matrix, followed by the selective separation and subsequent identification of the different components of the chlorophyll fraction. The aim of this review article is to summarize and critically analyze the available information about chlorophylls in VOO.

  16. Diversity and structure of landraces of Agave grown for spirits under traditional agriculture: A comparison with wild populations of A. angustifolia (Agavaceae) and commercial plantations of A. tequilana.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Ponce, Ofelia; Zizumbo-Villarreal, Daniel; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Coello-Coello, Julián; Colunga-Garcíamarín, Patricia

    2009-02-01

    Traditional farming communities frequently maintain high levels of agrobiodiversity, so understanding their agricultural practices is a priority for biodiversity conservation. The cultural origin of agave spirits (mezcals) from west-central Mexico is in the southern part of the state of Jalisco where traditional farmers cultivate more than 20 landraces of Agave angustifolia Haw. in agroecosystems that include in situ management of wild populations. These systems, rooted in a 9000-year-old tradition of using agaves as food in Mesoamerica, are endangered by the expansion of commercial monoculture plantations of the blue agave variety (A. tequilana Weber var. Azul), the only agave certified for sale as tequila, the best-known mezcal. Using intersimple sequence repeats and Bayesian estimators of diversity and structure, we found that A. angustifolia traditional landraces had a genetic diversity (H(BT) = 0.442) similar to its wild populations (H(BT) = 0.428) and a higher genetic structure ((B) = 0.405; (B) =0. 212). In contrast, the genetic diversity in the blue agave commercial system (H(B) = 0.118) was 73% lower. Changes to agave spirits certification laws to allow the conservation of current genetic, ecological and cultural diversity can play a key role in the preservation of the traditional agroecosystems.

  17. Endophytic fungi from selected varieties of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and corn (Zea mays L.) grown in an agricultural area of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Russo, María L; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Vianna, María F; Scorsetti, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous and live within host plants without causing any noticeable symptoms of disease. Little is known about the diversity and function of fungal endophytes in plants, particularly in economically important species. The aim of this study was to determine the identity and diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves, stems and roots of soybean and corn plants and to determine their infection frequencies. Plants were collected in six areas of the provinces of Buenos Aires and Entre Ríos (Argentina) two areas were selected for sampling corn and four for soybean. Leaf, stem and root samples were surface-sterilized, cut into 1cm(2) pieces using a sterile scalpel and aseptically transferred to plates containing potato dextrose agar plus antibiotics. The species were identified using both morphological and molecular data. Fungal endophyte colonization in soybean plants was influenced by tissue type and varieties whereas in corn plants only by tissue type. A greater number of endophytes were isolated from stem tissues than from leaves and root tissues in both species of plants. The most frequently isolated species in all soybean cultivars was Fusarium graminearum and the least isolated one was Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Furthermore, the most frequently isolated species in corn plants was Aspergillus terreus whereas the least isolated one was Aspergillus flavus. These results could be relevant in the search for endophytic fungi isolates that could be of interest in the control of agricultural pests.

  18. Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.

  19. Nutrition Metabolism Plays an Important Role in the Alternate Bearing of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between ”on year” and “off year” leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

  20. Effect of soil type and soil management on soil physical, chemical and biological properties in commercial organic olive orchards in Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, Maria; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas, Juan Antonio; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-05-01

    One of the objectives of organic agriculture is to maintain and improve soil quality, while simultaneously producing an adequate yield. A key element in organic olive production is soil management, which properly implemented can optimize the use of rainfall water enhancing infiltration rates and controlling competition for soil water by weeds. There are different soil management strategies: eg. weed mowing (M), green manure with surface tillage in spring (T), or combination with animal grazing among the trees (G). That variability in soil management combined with the large variability in soil types on which organic olive trees are grown in Southern Spain, difficult the evaluation of the impact of different soil management on soil properties, and yield as well as its interpretation in terms of improvement of soil quality. This communications presents the results and analysis of soil physical, chemical and biological properties on 58 soils in Southern Spain during 2005 and 2006, and analyzed and evaluated in different studies since them. Those 58 soils were sampled in 46 certified commercial organic olive orchards with four soil types as well as 12 undisturbed areas with natural vegetation near the olive orchards. The four soil types considered were Eutric Regosol (RGeu, n= 16), Eutric Cambisol (CMeu, n=16), Calcaric Regosol (RGca, n=13 soils sampled) and Calcic Cambisol (CMcc), and the soil management systems (SMS) include were 10 light tillage (LT), 16 sheep grazing (G), 10 tillage (T), 10 mechanical mowing (M), and 12 undisturbed areas covered by natural vegetation (NV-C and NV-S). Our results indicate that soil management had a significant effect on olive yield as well as on key soil properties. Among these soil properties are physical ones, such as infiltration rate or bulk density, chemical ones, especially organic carbon concentration, and biological ones such as soil microbial respiration and bacterial community composition. Superimpose to that soil

  1. Olive School, Arlington Heights, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Kathy

    1974-01-01

    Article stressed the need for a music teacher in an open school to have an openness to people and ideas. It also described the educational objectives at the Olive School in Arlington Heights, Illinois. (Author/RK)

  2. Effects of irrigation regimes on fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antifungal properties of volatiles from fruits of Koroneiki cultivar grown under Tunisian conditions.

    PubMed

    Brahmi, Faten; Chehab, Hechmi; Flamini, Guido; Dhibi, Madiha; Issaoui, Manel; Mastouri, Maha; Hammami, Mohamed

    2013-11-15

    The olive tree is generally grown under rain-fed conditions. However, since the yield response to irrigation is great, even with low amounts of water, there is increasing interest in irrigated agriculture. The main goal of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of irrigation regimes on olive (Olea europaea L., cv. Koroneiki) obtained from an intensively-managed orchard in a semi-arid area with a Mediterranean climate in Tunisia. Different irrigation treatments 50% ETc, 75% ETc and 100% ETc were applied to the olive orchard. Accordingly, the effects of three irrigation regimes on volatile compounds, fatty acid composition and biological activities of Koroneiki cultivar were studied. The total profile of the volatile constituents of all samples revealed the predominance of 3-ethenylpyridine (from 14.9-19.6%), phenylethyl alcool (from 7.8-19.2%) and benzaldehyde (from 9.0 to 13.8%). During watering level treatments studied, the major fatty acids were oleic, palmitic and linoleic. Antioxidant activity of the fresh fruit volatiles cultivated at a watering level of 100% ETc was higher than that obtained under 50 and 75% Etc. The results of antifungal activity showed that the fruits volatiles of the three irrigation treatments had varying degrees of growth inhibition against the microorganisms tested.

  3. Soil organic carbon pools in olive groves of different age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaccesi, Luisa; De Feudis, Mauro; Nasini, Luigi; Regni, Luca; D'Ascoli, Rosaria; Castaldi, Simona; Proietti, Primo; Agnelli, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, the practices which favor the increase of soil organic carbon in the agroecosystem have been widely studied because of their influence on the reduction of atmospheric CO2 (Lal, 1993; Schlesinger, 2000). The accumulation of the organic carbon into the soil depends to a great extent upon climate and pedological properties (Burke et al., 1989; Miller et al., 1994), although in the agricultural soils the cultivation system also plays a key role. The olive grove might potentially represent a relevant land use to improve C sequestration in soil, but there are few data available to support this hypothesis. In a study site located in central Italy (Deruta, PG), we analyzed the soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in two olive groves of different age (7 and 30 years) and, as control, in a site adjacent to the groves cropped with cereals for at least 30 years. With the aim to isolate and quantify the active, intermediate and passive functional SOC pools in the olive groves and in the control, we used a combined physical and chemical fractionation method (Zimmermann et al., 2007). The main results shown that the total organic carbon content in the Ap horizons was the highest in the 30-years-old olive grove, followed by the 7-years-old olive grove, and then by the control soil. The content of active C, in form of particulate organic matter (POM) and water soluble organic matter (WEOM), was greater in the olive grove compared to the control soil and increase with the age of the grove. About the amount of C in the intermediate and passive pools, no significant differences were found among the olive groves and the control. These preliminary results indicated that the greater total organic C content occurred in the 30-year-old olive grove with respect to the 7-years-old grove and the control, has to be ascribed to the greater content of active organic matter (POM and WEOM), and not to the accumulation in soil of organic C in a more stabilised form.

  4. SNP Discovery by Illumina-Based Transcriptome Sequencing of the Olive and the Genetic Characterization of Turkish Olive Genotypes Revealed by AFLP, SSR and SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Hilal Betul; Cetin, Oznur; Kaya, Hulya; Sahin, Mustafa; Sefer, Filiz; Kahraman, Abdullah; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2013-01-01

    Background The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 46) outcrossing species mainly grown in the Mediterranean area, where it is the most important oil-producing crop. Because of its economic, cultural and ecological importance, various DNA markers have been used in the olive to characterize and elucidate homonyms, synonyms and unknown accessions. However, a comprehensive characterization and a full sequence of its transcriptome are unavailable, leading to the importance of an efficient large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in olive. The objectives of this study were (1) to discover olive SNPs using next-generation sequencing and to identify SNP primers for cultivar identification and (2) to characterize 96 olive genotypes originating from different regions of Turkey. Methodology/Principal Findings Next-generation sequencing technology was used with five distinct olive genotypes and generated cDNA, producing 126,542,413 reads using an Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Following quality and size trimming, the high-quality reads were assembled into 22,052 contigs with an average length of 1,321 bases and 45 singletons. The SNPs were filtered and 2,987 high-quality putative SNP primers were identified. The assembled sequences and singletons were subjected to BLAST similarity searches and annotated with a Gene Ontology identifier. To identify the 96 olive genotypes, these SNP primers were applied to the genotypes in combination with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. Conclusions/Significance This study marks the highest number of SNP markers discovered to date from olive genotypes using transcriptome sequencing. The developed SNP markers will provide a useful source for molecular genetic studies, such as genetic diversity and characterization, high density quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, association mapping and map-based gene cloning in the olive. High levels of

  5. Automatic detection and agronomic characterization of olive groves using high-resolution imagery and LIDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, T.; Rühl, J.; Sciortino, R.; Marra, F. P.; La Scalia, G.

    2014-10-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union grants subsidies for olive production. Areas of intensified olive farming will be of major importance for the increasing demand for oil production of the next decades, and countries with a high ratio of intensively and super-intensively managed olive groves will be more competitive than others, since they are able to reduce production costs. It can be estimated that about 25-40% of the Sicilian oliviculture must be defined as "marginal". Modern olive cultivation systems, which permit the mechanization of pruning and harvest operations, are limited. Agronomists, landscape planners, policy decision-makers and other professionals have a growing need for accurate and cost-effective information on land use in general and agronomic parameters in the particular. The availability of high spatial resolution imagery has enabled researchers to propose analysis tools on agricultural parcel and tree level. In our study, we test the performance of WorldView-2 imagery relative to the detection of olive groves and the delineation of olive tree crowns, using an object-oriented approach of image classification in combined use with LIDAR data. We selected two sites, which differ in their environmental conditions and in their agronomic parameters of olive grove cultivation. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is the low necessary quantity of data input and its automatibility. However, it should be applied in other study areas to test if the good results of accuracy assessment can be confirmed. Data extracted by the proposed methodology can be used as input data for decision-making support systems for olive grove management.

  6. Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash

    PubMed Central

    Mutman, Utkan

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation. PMID:23766671

  7. Effects of enrichment of refined olive oil with phenolic compounds from olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Paiva-Martins, Fatima; Correia, Rui; Félix, Susana; Ferreira, Pedro; Gordon, Michael H

    2007-05-16

    The possibility of preparing olive oil, with the same nutritional value and stability characteristics found in virgin olive oil, by the enrichment of refined olive oil with olive leaf polyphenols was studied. To obtain antioxidant phenols similar to those found in virgin olive oil, these components were extracted from the leaves of several olive cultivars from the Northern region of Portugal, namely, Carrasca, Ripa, Negruche, Cordovil, Verdeal, Madural, and Bical cultivars, under several conditions. The concentration of a leaf extract required for addition to refined olive oil to obtain the same stability as virgin olive oil was determined. The extract from 1 kg of leaves was sufficient to fortify 50-320 L of refined olive oil to a similar stability as a virgin olive oil sample depending on the metal concentration of the oil, cultivar, and time of the year when the leaves were picked.

  8. Differential characteristics of olive pollen from different cultivars: biological and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Alché, J D; Castro, A J; Jiménez-López, J C; Morales, S; Zafra, A; Hamman-Khalifa, A M; Rodríguez-García, M I

    2007-01-01

    The olive tree is grown in many parts of the world. Its germplasm is very broad, with 250 varieties in Spain alone. Variations in the ability of pollen to germinate have been studied in detail and show conspicuous differences between varieties. However, commercial olive pollen from cultivars whose origin is unknown is the material that is commonly used for clinical and biological studies. We aim to assess the putative heterogeneity of olive cultivars with regard to the presence of several pollen allergens and to determine whether these differences have biological and clinical relevance. Previous studies show that most allergens isolated and characterized to date are highly polymorphic. Olive cultivars display wide differences in the expression levels of many allergens and in the number and molecular characteristics of the allergen isoforms expressed. These differences are maintained over the years, and are intrinsic to the genetics of each cultivar. Such broad polymorphism seems to be involved in the physiology of the olive reproductive system, which might include the adaptation of the plant to different environmental conditions, the establishment of the compatibility system, and pollen performance. The differences in allergen composition in cultivars, particularly in the Ole e 1 allergen, are responsible for the important differences in the allergenic potency of the extracts. These findings could have a number of implications for the diagnosis and therapy of olive pollen allergy. We discuss how cultivar differences affect extract quality, diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy and safety, and the development of new vaccines based on the use of recombinant allergens.

  9. Oliver Wendell Holmes 1

    PubMed Central

    Lindskog, Gustaf E.

    1974-01-01

    The life of Oliver Wendell Holmes was selected as the subject for a lecture in the 1974 History of Medicine series at Yale University School of Medicine because, as the Latin subtitle of the essay suggests, he represents a fortunate and uncommon, but by no means unique, synthesis of the practical and aesthetic, of science and the humanities. An attempt has been made by the lecturer, employing frequent, but brief, excerpts from the works of several disinguished biographers as well as Doctor Holmes' own lectures, medical papers, essays and poems to delineate the elite heritage and the events that led this complex person transiently into the sudy of law, the profession in which his older son reached the pinnacle of the U.S. Supreme Court, and finally into medicine where a short period of private practice was followed by more than three decades of distinguished teaching is anatomy. His lifetime (1809-1894) spanned most of the nineteenth century, in the literary hisory of which he played a significant role. His writings reveal a remarkable, and sometimes prophetic, appreciation of the impact that burgeoning science and evolving social pressures and changes would have on the teaching and practice of medicine in the future—our present. PMID:4617425

  10. Recruitment of two Opuntia species invading abandoned olive groves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, Isabel; Vilà, Montserrat

    2002-08-01

    In Europe, many agricultural areas are now abandoned and hence can be invaded by exotic species. The abundance and spatial distribution patterns of two Opuntia species were studied in old olive groves in the Parc Natural del Cap de Creus, Catalonia (Spain). Seedling recruitment (97.3% and 51.5% of juveniles for O. maxima and O. stricta, respectively) was higher than recruitment by cladodes. O. maxima had more seedlings recruited beneath olive trees and beneath Opuntia adults than expected. Most O. stricta seedlings were also located beneath Opuntia adult plants. However, although most seedlings were recruited beneath Opuntia, some (10-30%) were found away from putative parental plants. This may be due to seed dispersal by birds and wild boars. Seeds dispersed by wild boars were not significantly more viable than seeds from intact fruits. Seedlings grow very slowly but have a high survival rate. In conclusion, Opuntia seedling recruitment is very successful and ensures the persistence of these species within old olive groves. Consequently, it prevents restoration from an agricultural land-use back to the native community.

  11. Mediterranean savanna system: understanding and modeling of olive orchard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilli, Lorenzo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays most of the studies on C and N exchange were focused on forest ecosystems and crop systems, while only few studies have been focused on so called "savanna systems". They are long-term agro-ecosystems (fruit trees, grapevines and olive trees, etc.) usually characterized by two different layers (ground vegetation and trees). Generally, there is a lack of knowledge about these systems due to their intrinsic structural complexity (different eco-physiological characteristics so as agricultural practices). However, given their long-term carbon storage capacity, these systems can play a fundamental role in terms of global C cycle. Among all of them, the role that olive trees can play in C sequestration should not be neglected, especially in Mediterranean areas where they typify the rural landscape and are widely cultivated (Loumou and Giourga, 2003). It is therefore fundamental modelling the C-fluxes exchanges coming from these systems through a tool able to well reproduce these dynamics in one of the most exposed areas to the risk of climate change (IPCC, 2007). In this work, 2 years of Net CO2 Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) measures from eddy covariance were used to test the biogeochemistry model DayCent. The study was conducted in a rain-fed olive orchard situated in Follonica, South Tuscany, Italy (42 ° 55'N, 10 ° 45'E), in an agricultural area near the coast. The instrumentation for flux measurement was placed 1.9 m above the canopy top (6.5 m from the ground) so that the footprint area, expressed as the area containing 90% of the observed flux, was almost entirely contained within the olive orchard limits (Brilli et al., in press). Ancillary slow sensors have included soil temperature profiles, global radiation, air temperature and humidity, rain gauge. Fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, momentum and CO2 as well as ancillary data were derived at half-hourly time resolution. Specific soil (texture, current and historical land use and vegetation cover) and

  12. Effect of olive ripening degree on the oxidative stability and organoleptic properties of cv. Nostrana di Brisighella extra virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Rotondi, Annalisa; Bendini, Alessandra; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Mari, Matteo; Lercker, Giovanni; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2004-06-02

    The evaluation of the influence of olive ripening degree on the stability of extra virgin olive oils by the determination of the oxidative stability index, the DPPH(*) radical test, and the quali-quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds, as well as the study of the variation of their sensory profiles, plays a key role in the assessment of the overall olive oil quality. Olives of the cv. Nostrana di Brisighella grown in the north-central Italian region of Emilia-Romagna were picked at four different stages of ripeness and immediately processed in an experimental mill. The polar extracts of oil samples were submitted to spectrophotometric analysis of total phenols and o-diphenols and to liquid chromatographic determination of their quali-quantitative profile (HPLC-DAD/MSD). To attain a complete description of oil samples, fatty acid composition, ultraviolet indices (K(232), K(270), and deltaK), free acidity degree, and peroxide value were also determined according to the European Union methods stated in Regulation 2568/91 (1, Off. J. Eur. Communities 1991, L248, 1-82). Sensory quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and triangular tests were performed to establish the influence of olive ripening degree on the resulting oil's organoleptic properties. The evolution of the analytical parameters studied shows that the ripeness stage of Nostrana di Brisighella olives that yields the best oil corresponds to a Jaén index value between 2.5 and 3.5. Oils produced from olives harvested within this time frame present a superior sensory profile accompanied by the highest possible chemical and nutritional properties.

  13. Net carbon flux in organic and conventional olive production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeid Mohamad, Ramez; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Bitar, Lina Al; Roma, Rocco; Moretti, Michele; Chami, Ziad Al

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural systems are considered as one of the most relevant sources of atmospheric carbon. However, agriculture has the potentiality to mitigate carbon dioxide mainly through soil carbon sequestration. Some agricultural practices, particularly fertilization and soil management, can play a dual role in the agricultural systems regarding the carbon cycle contributing to the emissions and to the sequestration process in the soil. Good soil and input managements affect positively Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) changes and consequently the carbon cycle. The present study aimed at comparing the carbon footprint of organic and conventional olive systems and to link it to the efficiency of both systems on carbon sequestration by calculating the net carbon flux. Data were collected at farm level through a specific and detailed questionnaire based on one hectare as a functional unit and a system boundary limited to olive production. Using LCA databases particularly ecoinvent one, IPCC GWP 100a impact assessment method was used to calculate carbon emissions from agricultural practices of both systems. Soil organic carbon has been measured, at 0-30 cm depth, based on soil analyses done at the IAMB laboratory and based on reference value of SOC, the annual change of SOC has been calculated. Substracting sequestrated carbon in the soil from the emitted on resulted in net carbon flux calculation. Results showed higher environmental impact of the organic system on Global Warming Potential (1.07 t CO2 eq. yr-1) comparing to 0.76 t CO2 eq. yr-1 in the conventional system due to the higher GHG emissions caused by manure fertilizers compared to the use of synthetic foliar fertilizers in the conventional system. However, manure was the main reason behind the higher SOC content and sequestration in the organic system. As a resultant, the organic system showed higher net carbon flux (-1.7 t C ha-1 yr-1 than -0.52 t C ha-1 yr-1 in the conventional system reflecting higher efficiency as a

  14. Oliver Sacks in Mendeleev's Garden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, James L.

    2003-08-01

    After returning to New York, Oliver Sacks sent to us a preprint of Uncle Tungsten, which we had the pleasure of perusing for a whole year before publication. After the events of September 11, 2001, my wife and I anxiously awaited word that he was all right. We were relieved—and honored—when in early December we received an autographed copy of Uncle Tungsten (3). We will always treasure Oliver Sacks’s book, his remarkable story of chemistry, and our friendship with him.

  15. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  16. 7 CFR 932.31 - Failure to nominate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.31 Failure to nominate. If nominations for...

  17. 7 CFR 932.27 - Selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.27 Selection. Selection of members of the...

  18. 7 CFR 932.31 - Failure to nominate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.31 Failure to nominate. If nominations for...

  19. 7 CFR 932.27 - Selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.27 Selection. Selection of members of the...

  20. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  1. 7 CFR 932.27 - Selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.27 Selection. Selection of members of the...

  2. 7 CFR 932.31 - Failure to nominate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.31 Failure to nominate. If nominations for...

  3. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  4. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  5. 7 CFR 932.31 - Failure to nominate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.31 Failure to nominate. If nominations for...

  6. 7 CFR 932.27 - Selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.27 Selection. Selection of members of the...

  7. 7 CFR 932.31 - Failure to nominate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.31 Failure to nominate. If nominations for...

  8. 7 CFR 932.27 - Selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.27 Selection. Selection of members of the...

  9. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  10. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  11. Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics.

    PubMed

    Cicerale, Sara; Conlan, Xavier A; Sinclair, Andrew J; Keast, Russell S J

    2009-03-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Most recent interest has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have shown that olive oil phenolics have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, and antimicrobial activity. Presumably, regular dietary consumption of virgin olive oil containing phenolic compounds manifests in health benefits associated with a Mediterranean diet. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the physiological effects of olive oil phenolics. Moreover, a number of factors have the ability to affect phenolic concentrations in virgin olive oil, so it is of great importance to understand these factors in order to preserve the essential health promoting benefits of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  12. Chemometric analysis for the evaluation of phenolic patterns in olive leaves from six cultivars at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Roldán, Cristina; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2015-02-18

    Leaves from six important olive cultivars grown under the same agronomic conditions were collected at four different times from June to December and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-TOF-MS). Twenty-eight phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. No qualitative differences were detected among leaves. However, for all cultivars, total concentrations of phenolic compounds decreased from June to August, then increased from October on, and reached higher levels again in December. Principal component analysis provided a clear separation of the phenolic content in leaves for different sampling times and cultivars. Hence, the availability of phenolic compounds depends on both the season and the cultivar. June and December seem to be good times to collect leaves as a source of phenolic compounds. December coincides with the harvest period of olives in the Andalusian region. Thus, in December olive leaves could be valorized efficiently as olive byproducts.

  13. Quality and chemical profiles of monovarietal north Moroccan olive oils from "Picholine Marocaine" cultivar: registration database development and geographical discrimination.

    PubMed

    Bajoub, Aadil; Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Ajal, El Amine; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Ouazzani, Noureddine

    2015-07-15

    Current knowledge of the quality and composition of Moroccan olive oil is still incomplete and no consistent database compiling its properties is available. This study was carried out to achieve a comprehensive characterisation of north Moroccan olive oils. Thus, 279 olive samples of "Picholine Marocaine" cultivar grown in 7 Moroccan regions were collected, and oils extracted over two consecutive crop seasons (2011 and 2012) and analysed (considering physicochemical quality parameters and purity criteria). Results indicated that all the studied samples showed values fulfilling the established limits set by the International Olive Council (IOC) standards, with the exception of 32 samples that had a linolenic acid content higher than 1%, which is the maximum value fixed by the IOC regulation. Furthermore, the usefulness of the evaluated parameters for tracing the geographical origin of the studied samples was tested by using canonical discriminant analysis. A good rate of correct classification and prediction was achieved.

  14. An Interview with Oliver Sacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Dale; Palo, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Presents an interview with Oliver Sachs. Discusses his approach to writing, including the physical pen-and-ink approach as opposed to using a word processor; his use of journals; his motivation for writing; his approach to revision; and his view of himself as a writer. (NH)

  15. Virgin Olive Oil and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure (BP) along with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on human health has been studied for many years. These studies have proven a link between unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle with the onset of hypertension, which is a hallmark of CV and cerebrovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet, declared by the UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage since 2013, is rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits and virgin olive oil. Thanks to its many beneficial effects, including those with regard to lowering BP, the Mediterranean diet may help people from modern countries to achieve a lower occurrence of CV disease. Data from human and animal studies have shown that the consumption of virgin olive oil shares most of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil is the only edible fat that can be consumed as a natural fruit product with no additives or preservatives, and contains a unique constellation of bioactive entities, namely oleic acid and minor constituents. In this review, we summarize what is known about the effects of virgin olive oil on hypertension.

  16. "Oliver Twist": A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashion, Carol; Fischer, Diana

    This teacher's guide for public television's 3-part adaptation of Charles Dickens's "Oliver Twist" provides information that will help enrich students' viewing of the series, whether or not they read the novel. The guide includes a wide range of discussion and activity ideas; there is also a series Web site and a list of Web resources.…

  17. Climate change impacts on agriculture in Apulia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, Piero; Congedi, Letizia; Reale, Marco; Scarascia, Luca; Tanzarella, Annalisa

    2013-04-01

    This study describes the evolution of climate from recent past to the next decades in Apulia, a region in Southern Italy, and estimates its future impacts on its main agricultural products. The analysis is based on instrumental data, on an ensemble of climate projections and on a linear regression model linking typical Mediterranean products (wheat, olive oil and wine) to seasonal values of temperature and precipitation. In the past decades, wheat, olive oil and wine production records (the three main agricultural products in Apulia) show large inter-annual variabilityand an important fraction of it is explained by past climate variability. Regional Climate Model simulations show a large acceleration of the warming rate and a decrease of precipitation in the period 2001-2050. Results (considering no adaptation of crops) suggest that climate evolution in the first half of the 21st century would decrease wine production, have a small effect on wheat and increase olive oil production.

  18. Risk Assessment of Repetitive Movements in Olive Growing: Analysis of Annual Exposure Level Assessment Models with the OCRA Checklist.

    PubMed

    Proto, A R; Zimbalatti, G

    2015-10-01

    In Italy, one of the main agricultural crops is represented by the cultivation of olive trees. Olive cultivation characterizes the Italian agricultural landscape and national agricultural economics. Italy is the world's second largest producer of olive oil. Because olive cultivation requires the largest labor force in southern Italy, the aim of this research was to assess the risk of biomechanical overload of the workers' upper limbs. The objective, therefore, was to determine the level of risk that workers are exposed to in each phase of the production process. In Calabria, the second most important region in Italy for both the production of olive oil and cultivated area, there are 113,907 olive farms (83% of all farms) and 250,000 workers. To evaluate the risk of repetitive movements, all of the work tasks performed by workers on 100 farms in Calabria were analyzed. A total of 430 workers were interviewed over the four-year research period. To evaluate the level of exposure to repetitive movements, the OCRA (occupational repetitive actions) checklist was adopted. This checklist was the primary analytical tool during the preliminary risk assessment and in a given working situation. The analysis suggested by the OCRA checklist starts with pre-assigned scores (increasing in value with intensification of risk) for each of four main risk factors and additional factors. Between 2010 and 2013, surveys were conducted using the OCRA checklist with the aim of verifying musculoskeletal risks. The results obtained from the study of 430 workers allowed us to identify the level of exposure to risk. This analysis was conducted in the workplace to examine in detail the repetitive movements performed by the workers. The research was divided into two phases: first to provide preliminary information on the different tasks performed in olive growing, and second to assign a percentage to each task of the total hours worked in a year. Based on the results, this method could well

  19. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....44 Section 30.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND... tobacco. (d) Type 95. Foreign-grown dark air-cured. (e) Type 96. Foreign-grown fire-cured. (f) Type...

  20. 78 FR 28120 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim rule as final rule. SUMMARY: The... locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of tomatoes grown in Florida....

  1. Quality characteristics and antioxidant properties of Turkish monovarietal olive oils regarding stages of olive ripening.

    PubMed

    Köseoğlu, Oya; Sevim, Didar; Kadiroğlu, Pınar

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to discriminate the extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) based on quality characteristics, chemical composition and antioxidant activity according to ripening stages of olives. Two different olive varieties (Memecik and Gemlik) were obtained at different stages of ripening based on skin color (green, purple and black). Quality properties of olive oils; free fatty acidity, peroxide value, K232 and K270, purity properties; fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and antioxidant compounds like total phenol, carotenoid and chlorophyll content and antioxidant activity (oxidative stability, ABTS radical scavenging activity) analyses were performed. Higher amount of oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids were observed in olive oils. Oleic acid amount of olive oils decreased, linoleic acid increased with ripening. The most abundant TAG of olive oils were ECN 48, OOO, SLO+POO, ECN 46 and LOO/PLO. Olive oils were clearly classified by principal component analysis based on fatty acid and TAG composition.

  2. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  5. Paternity analysis of the olive variety "Istrska belica" and identification of pollen donors by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Baruca Arbeiter, Alenka; Jakše, Jernej; Bandelj, Dunja

    2014-01-01

    The leading olive variety in Slovenia is "Istrska belica" (Olea europaea L.), which currently represents 70% of all olive trees in productive orchards. Paternity analysis based on microsatellite markers was used for genotyping and identification of the potential pollen donors of "Istrska belica" and for assessing the proportion of self-fertilization in monovarietal olive orchards in the Slovene Istria. Seven microsatellite loci were used for genotyping thirty-one olive embryos from "Istrska belica" trees and for all potential pollen donor varieties, which are grown in the region and could participate as pollinators. Genotyping results and allele identification were performed using the FaMoz software. The most probable pollen donor was assigned to 39% of all analyzed embryos. Among all analyzed embryos no single case of self-fertilization was confirmed. According to the present results, the variety "Istrska belica" was in all cases fertilized by foreign pollen. The results will contribute to defining the new guidelines for farmers regarding the proper management and growing practice in monovarietal olive groves.

  6. 76 FR 46651 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 923 Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA....

  7. 77 FR 72245 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Processed Pear Committee (Committee) established under the Oregon-Washington pear marketing order....

  8. Ethanol in Olive Fruit. Changes during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Gabriel; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio; Sanchez-Ortiz, Araceli

    2015-06-10

    Ethanol is one of the precursors of ethyl esters, the virgin olive oil quality parameter for the "extra" category recently adopted by the European Union and International Olive Oil Council. Although ethyl ester content has great importance for virgin olive oil classification, the origin of ethanol is not clear. A possible source of ethanol may be the olive fruit itself while it remains on the tree. Variation of fruit ethanol content during ripening was studied for three different olive cultivars: 'Picual', 'Hojiblanca', and 'Arbequina'. Ethanol was measured in fruit homogenates by HS-SPME-GC-FID. The ethanol content varied between 0.56 and 58 mg/kg. 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the highest ethanol concentration. For all of the cultivars, ethanol content of fruit increased during the ripening process, although a clear cultivar-dependent effect was observed because 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the most significant raise. Therefore, results indicated that ethanol can be accumulated during fruit maturation on the olive tree.

  9. [The quality of fat: olive oil].

    PubMed

    Tur Marí, Josep A

    2004-06-01

    Olive oil is one of the most characteristic Mediterranean Diet foods, also being a key contributor to the healthy aspects attributed to this dietary pattern. Since 4000 BC, olive oil has been obtained in the Mediterranean area, but now it is exceeding its natural borders, and currently the use of olive oil is a worldwide synonym of health and gastronomic quality. Olive oil has important effects on the body, and has protective effects against several pathologies, i.e. cardiovascular diseases, and various cancers, as well as to diminish the age-related cognitive decline. These effects are due to the olive oil richness in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant substances. Olive oil has been and is the food that define one of the most oldest methods of cooking: frying.

  10. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California table olives, USA: Invasion, distribution, and management implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was discovered in California in late 1998. Thereafter, intensive research was conducted to develop pest control methods in table olives. The life history of olive fruit fly was elucidated, and the distribution and abundance of the adults determined through ...

  11. Susceptibility of Olive Fruit in Relation to Olive Fruit Fly Development and Ovipositional Period in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), females oviposited their first and last eggs in olive fruit, Olea europaea L., when females were 6 and 90 d-old, respectively. The highest mean numbers of eggs per day in 10 olive fruit (55) were oviposited by 28 d-old females, and peak egg production occ...

  12. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  13. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  14. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  15. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  16. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  17. Spatial and temporal variability of grass cover in two olive grove catchments on contrasting soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Laura; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gimeno, Enrique; Gómez, José A.

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean climate conditions -characterized by the concentration of the precipitation in the seasons of autumn and spring, the low temperatures in winter and extremely warm and dry summers- determine that ground cover by adventitious (or cover crop) vegetation shows significant seasonal and annual variability. In addition, its spatial variability associates also, partially, to water availability among the landscape. This is especially relevant in olive orchards, an agricultural system under high erosion risk in the region where the establishment of herbaceous cover has proved to improve soil protection reducing erosion risk, as well as the improvement of soil properties (Gómez et al., 2009). All these benefits are based on small scale studies where full ground cover by the cover crop is relatively easy to obtain. However, few information is available about the actual ground cover achieved at farm scale, although preliminary observations suggests that this might be extremely variable (Gómez and Giráldez, 2009). This study presents the preliminary results evaluating the spatial and temporal evolution of ground cover by adventitious vegetation (the preferred option by farmers to achieve a cover crop) in two commercial olive farms during 2 hydrological years (2011-2012). The study was conducted in two farms located in the province of Cordoba, Southern Spain. Both were olive orchards grown under deficit irrigation systems and present a gauge station where rainfall, runoff and sediment loads have been measured from the year 2005. The soil management in "La Conchuela" farm was based in the use of herbicide in the line of olive trees to keep the bare soil all year round, and the application of selective herbicide in the lane between the olive trees to promote the grown of graminaceae grasses . In addition, the grass is mechanically killed in June. In the another farm, "Arroyo Blanco", the grass spontaneous cover is allowed until mid-spring in which is also

  18. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  19. Primary domestication and early uses of the emblematic olive tree: palaeobotanical, historical and molecular evidence from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Boiy, Tom; Terral, Jean-Frédéric; Khadari, Bouchaïb; Besnard, Guillaume

    2012-11-01

    Our knowledge of the origins of olive tree domestication in the Middle East and on the processes governing its extension and persistence in different vegetation types from prehistory through antiquity to modern times derives from diverse sources, spanning the biological sciences to the humanities. Nonetheless, it lacks a robust overview that may lead to floating interpretations. This is especially true in the Middle East, considered as the cradle of agriculture, and where the evolutionary history of this emblematic tree is intertwined with that of civilizations. Olive fruit, oil and wood have been, since Prehistoric times, characteristic products of the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea. In the domestic economy of these countries, the olive tree gradually became a traditional tree crop since the first oil extraction, through the emergence of regional commerce that accompanied the rise and fall of early Near-Middle Eastern urbanism, until the development of modern trade, with an oil production estimated at circa 3000000 tons per year. The rising importance of the olive tree in human life has turned the tree into an endless source of fascination in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean, a symbol and a sacred tree, widely cited in the Bibles, the Koran, and in ancient literature. Here we argue that advances in radiocarbon chronology, palaeobotany, genetics, and archaeology-history have profoundly refined the history of olive trees in the Middle East. This review shows that the heartland of primary olive domestication must be enlarged to the Levant and not only focus on the Jordan Valley. The domestication of the olive tree is a long and ongoing process, linked to the early production of oil and the development of the olive trade. We also suggest that the olive tree became a particular icon, a sacred tree, during the Biblical period in the Levant.

  20. Saturated hydrocarbon content in olive fruits and crude olive pomace oils.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Coca, Raquel B; Pérez-Camino, María Del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2016-01-01

    Olive fruits contain an n-alkane series of saturated hydrocarbons mainly in the pulp. Lower amounts of a complex mixture of paraffins, unresolved by gas chromatography (UCM--unresolved complex mixture), have been found in cuticle, stone (woody shell and seed), olive leaves, and talc used as an aid to olive oil extraction. The amounts of both kinds of hydrocarbons are related to the olive cultivar and are transferred to oils in a proportion depending on the oil-obtaining process (centrifugation or solvent extraction). In olive oil obtained by centrifugation, only n-alkanes were detected. However, in olive oil extracted by second centrifugation, small amounts of UCM paraffins were detected together with the n-alkanes. Olive pomace oils showed a very variable content of both types of hydrocarbons according to the different obtaining process, such as double centrifugation, solvent extraction or centrifugation followed by solvent extraction. 'White mineral oil' used in oil extraction machinery is the source of the high concentrations of UCM paraffins found in some olive and olive pomace oils. In the case of second centrifugation olive oil, a maximum limit of 50 mg kg(-1) of UCM is suggested, whereas in the case of crude olive pomace oil, it amounts to 250 mg kg(-1) plus an additional minimum of 1.0 for the n-alkanes/UCM ratio.

  1. Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

    The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

  2. Long Term Amendment with Fresh and Composted Solid Olive Mill Waste on Olive Grove Affects Carbon Sequestration by Prunings, Fruits, and Soil

    PubMed Central

    Regni, Luca; Nasini, Luigi; Ilarioni, Luana; Brunori, Antonio; Massaccesi, Luisa; Agnelli, Alberto; Proietti, Primo

    2017-01-01

    The soil amendment with organic wastes represents a way to increase the soil fertility and the organic carbon (C) stored in the agro-ecosystems. Among the organic waste materials produced by agricultural and industrial activities, olive mill wastes derived from the olive oil extraction process may represent a suitable soil amendment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of fresh (SOMW) or composted mixture of SOMW and shredded olive tree prunings (C-SOMW+P) on the vegetative and productive activities of olive trees, on the C stored in the tree non-permanent structures (prunings and fruits) and in the soil. The plots treated with SOMW or C-SOMW+P showed higher vegetative and productive activities than the untreated plots, and this was attributed to the higher total N and availability of P and K supplied by the amendments. Consequently, treatments increased the C sequestered in the tree non-permanent structures than in the control trees. However, no significant different effect between SOMW and C-SOMW+P treatments was found for the C stored in prunings and fruits, whereas it was evident a stronger influence of C-SOMW+P than SOMW on soil C sequestration. Indeed, about 50% the C supplied by the treatment with C-SOMW+P was sequestered in the olive grove system, with more than 90% of the sequestered C stored into the soil. The low amount of C sequestered in the soil following the addition of SOMW was attributed to its richness of moisture and easily degradable compounds that triggered the mineralization processes controlled by the soil microbial community. Although the 8 years of amendment produced a higher fruit yields than the control, no difference occurred between the characteristics and the oil content of the olive fruits. Only the total phenol content for the oil obtained from the SOMW-treated plots was significantly higher. The other considered fruit characteristics did not show significant differences. PMID:28119719

  3. Optimization of the Aqueous Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Leaves.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Chloe D; Vuong, Quan V; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Roach, Paul D; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2014-10-23

    Olive leaves are an agricultural waste of the olive-oil industry representing up to 10% of the dry weight arriving at olive mills. Disposal of this waste adds additional expense to farmers. Olive leaves have been shown to have a high concentration of phenolic compounds. In an attempt to utilize this waste product for phenolic compounds, we optimized their extraction using water-a "green" extraction solvent that has not yet been investigated for this purpose. Experiments were carried out according to a Box Behnken design, and the best possible combination of temperature, extraction time and sample-to-solvent ratio for the extraction of phenolic compounds with a high antioxidant activity was obtained using RSM; the optimal conditions for the highest yield of phenolic compounds was 90 °C for 70 min at a sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:100 g/mL; however, at 1:60 g/mL, we retained 80% of the total phenolic compounds and maximized antioxidant capacity. Therefore the sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:60 was chosen as optimal and used for further validation. The validation test fell inside the confidence range indicated by the RSM output; hence, the statistical model was trusted. The proposed method is inexpensive, easily up-scaled to industry and shows potential as an additional source of income for olive growers.

  4. Optimization of the Aqueous Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Chloe D.; Vuong, Quan V.; Stathopoulos, Costas E.; Roach, Paul D.; Scarlett, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Olive leaves are an agricultural waste of the olive-oil industry representing up to 10% of the dry weight arriving at olive mills. Disposal of this waste adds additional expense to farmers. Olive leaves have been shown to have a high concentration of phenolic compounds. In an attempt to utilize this waste product for phenolic compounds, we optimized their extraction using water—a “green” extraction solvent that has not yet been investigated for this purpose. Experiments were carried out according to a Box Behnken design, and the best possible combination of temperature, extraction time and sample-to-solvent ratio for the extraction of phenolic compounds with a high antioxidant activity was obtained using RSM; the optimal conditions for the highest yield of phenolic compounds was 90 °C for 70 min at a sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:100 g/mL; however, at 1:60 g/mL, we retained 80% of the total phenolic compounds and maximized antioxidant capacity. Therefore the sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:60 was chosen as optimal and used for further validation. The validation test fell inside the confidence range indicated by the RSM output; hence, the statistical model was trusted. The proposed method is inexpensive, easily up-scaled to industry and shows potential as an additional source of income for olive growers. PMID:26785235

  5. Olive Banks (1923-2006): An Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, June

    2008-01-01

    This Appreciation of Olive Banks (1923-2006) draws upon her memoir published in Women's History Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1999, pp. 401-410, and upon the author's recollections of and correspondence with her. Born into a solidly working-class family, Olive Banks overcame the disadvantages of her social class background and gender to become an…

  6. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  7. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  8. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  9. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  10. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  11. Triacylglycerols Composition and Volatile Compounds of Virgin Olive Oil from Chemlali Cultivar: Comparison among Different Planting Densities

    PubMed Central

    Guerfel, Mokhtar; Ben Mansour, Mohamed; Ouni, Youssef; Guido, Flamini; Boujnah, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2012-01-01

    The present study focused on the comparison the chemical composition of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali) grown in four planting densities (156, 100, 69, and 51 trees ha−1). Despite the variability in the triacylglycerols and volatile compounds composition, the quality indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, and spectrophotometric indices K232 and K270) all of the virgin olive oils samples studied met the commercial standards. Decanal was the major constituent, accounting for about 30% of the whole volatiles. Moreover, the chemical composition of the volatile fraction of the oil from fruits of trees grown at the planting density of 156, 100, and 51 trees ha−1 was also characterised by the preeminence of 1-hexanol, while oils from fruits of trees grown at the planting density of 69 trees ha−1 had higher content of (E)-2-hexenal (20.3%). Our results confirm that planting density is a crucial parameter that may influence the quality of olive oils. PMID:22629139

  12. 78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This...

  13. 76 FR 50703 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY:...

  14. 78 FR 77327 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment...

  15. 78 FR 45898 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY:...

  16. The activity of healthy olive microbiota during virgin olive oil extraction influences oil chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Vichi, Stefania; Romero, Agustí; Tous, Joan; Caixach, Josep

    2011-05-11

    The activity of olive microbiota during the oil extraction process could be a critical point for virgin olive oil quality. With the aim to evaluate the role of microbiological activity during the virgin olive oil extraction process, just before oil extraction freshly collected healthy olive fruits were immersed in contaminated water from an olive mill washing tank. The oils extracted were then compared with control samples from the same batch of hand-picked olives. The presence of lactic and enteric bacteria, fungi and Pseudomonas on the surface of olives was proved to be much higher in washed than in control olives, with increments in cfu/g between 2 and 3 orders of magnitude. The biogenesis of volatile compounds and the extraction of olive polyphenols and pigments were significantly influenced by the microbiological profile of olives even without any previous storage. In most cases the effect of olive microbiota on oil characteristics was greater than the effect exerted by malaxation time and temperature. Oils from microbiologically contaminated olives showed lower amounts of C5 volatiles and higher levels of C6 volatiles from the lipoxygenase pathway and some fermentation products. On the other hand, a decrease of chlorophylls, pheophytins, xanthophylls and the ratio chlorophyll/pheophytin was observed in these oils. Likewise, the microbiological activity during oil extraction led to significantly lower amounts of polyphenols, in particular of oleuropein derivatives. These differences in olive oil chemical composition were reflected in oil sensory characteristics by the decrease of the green and bitter attributes and by the modification of the oil color chromatic ordinates.

  17. Molecular studies in olive (Olea europaea L.): overview on DNA markers applications and recent advances in genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Bracci, T; Busconi, M; Fogher, C; Sebastiani, L

    2011-04-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the oldest agricultural tree crops worldwide and is an important source of oil with beneficial properties for human health. This emblematic tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin, which has conserved a very wide germplasm estimated in more than 1,200 cultivars, is a diploid species (2n = 2x = 46) that is present in two forms, namely wild (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) and cultivated (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea). In spite of its economic and nutritional importance, there are few data about the genetic of olive if compared with other fruit crops. Available molecular data are especially related to the application of molecular markers to the analysis of genetic variability in Olea europaea complex and to develop efficient molecular tools for the olive oil origin traceability. With regard to genomic research, in the last years efforts are made for the identification of expressed sequence tag, with particular interest in those sequences expressed during fruit development and in pollen allergens. Very recently the sequencing of chloroplast genome provided new information on the olive nucleotide sequence, opening the olive genomic era. In this article, we provide an overview of the most relevant results in olive molecular studies. A particular attention was given to DNA markers and their application that constitute the most part of published researches. The first important results in genome analysis were reported.

  18. 78 FR 46823 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order 920 and Referendum Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 920 Kiwifruit Grown in California; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order 920 and Referendum Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... Marketing Order No. 920 (order), which regulates the handling of kiwifruit grown in California, and...

  19. The historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Uylaşer, Vildan; Yildiz, Gökçen

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is widely cultivated for the production of both oil and table olives and very significant because of its economic value. Olive and olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. Beside of their economical contribution to national economy, these are an important food in terms of their nutritional value. Olive and olive oil may have a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and certain cancers because of their high levels of monosaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. In addition, olives (Olea europaea L.) and olive oils provide a rich source of natural antioxidants. These make them both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. The aim of this paper is to define the historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

  20. Effect of the co-occurring olive oil and thyme extracts on the phenolic bioaccessibility and bioavailability assessed by in vitro digestion and cell models.

    PubMed

    Rubió, Laura; Macià, Alba; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat; Blay, M Teresa; Ardévol, Anna; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2014-04-15

    Olive oils flavoured with edible herbs have grown in popularity because of their added value and potential health benefits. However, the combined presence of different phytochemicals from olive oil and herbs requires study of their possible interactions during intestinal transport and metabolism. The aim of this study was firstly to evaluate the effect on bioaccessibility of the co-occurring bioactive compounds from olive oil and thyme through an in vitro digestion model of three extracts: olive extract (OE), thyme extract (TE) and a combination of both (OTE). The bioaccessible fractions were exposed to Caco-2 and HepG-2 cell models, as well as to a co-culture of both of these. Results indicated that the bioaccessibility of hydroxytyrosol was enhanced when OTE was digested. After Caco-2 cells exposure, no significant differences were observed in hydroxytyrosol transport, whereas the main flavonoids from thyme seemed to undergo an enhanced basolateral permeation when both phenolic sources where exposed.

  1. Potential of LC-MS phenolic profiling combined with multivariate analysis as an approach for the determination of the geographical origin of north Moroccan virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Bajoub, Aadil; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Ajal, El Amine; Ouazzani, Noureddine; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of two different platforms (LC-ESI-TOF MS and LC-ESI-IT MS) as powerful tools for the characterisation and subsequent quantification of the phenolic compounds present in north Moroccan virgin olive oils was assessed in this study. 156 olives samples of "Picholine Marocaine" cultivar grown in 7 Moroccan regions were collected and olive oils extracted. The phenolic profiles of these olive oils were studied using a resolutive chromatographic method coupled to ESI-TOF MS (for initial characterisation purposes) and coupled to ESI-IT MS (for further identification and quantification). 25 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were identified and quantified. Secoiridoids were the most abundant phenols in all the samples, followed by phenolic alcohols, lignans and flavonoids, respectively. For testing the ability of phenolic profiles for tracing the geographical origin of the investigated oils, multivariate analysis tools were used, getting a good rate of correct classification and prediction by using a cross validation procedure.

  2. [Oliver Sacks and literary neurology].

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Elena; Banos, Josep E

    2014-03-16

    Introduccion. La literatura medica de divulgacion intenta poner al alcance del publico general temas medicos en un lenguaje desprovisto, en lo posible, de jerga medica para hacerlo mas inteligible. En el ambito de la neurologia, su complejidad hace dificil que los relatos de esta especialidad sean faciles de comprender para el publico sin formacion medica. Objetivo. El presente articulo revisa la obra de Oliver Sacks en el ambito de la neurologia dirigida al publico general; se presentan las principales caracteristicas y las situaciones clinicas que describe. Desarrollo. Se incluyen unas notas biograficas sobre Oliver Sacks y se analizan los 11 libros publicados a lo largo de los ultimos 40 años. Para cada uno de ellos, se realiza una contextualizacion historica y se comentan los aspectos mas destacados que justifican el interes de su lectura. En la mayoria de los casos, se explica la genesis de la obra, asi como sus caracteristicas mas relevantes. Conclusiones. La obra de Sacks contiene un amplio abanico de situaciones clinicas de gran interes que se explican, generalmente, con un lenguaje accesible para el publico general. A los neurologos les permite, ademas, una vision holistica de diversas situaciones clinicas con una discusion de sus componentes biograficos, historicos y evolutivos.

  3. Olives and Bone: A Green Osteoporosis Prevention Option.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-07-26

    Skeletal degeneration due to aging, also known as osteoporosis, is a major health problem worldwide. Certain dietary components confer protection to our skeletal system against osteoporosis. Consumption of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols has been shown to improve bone health. This review aims to summarize the current evidence from cellular, animal and human studies on the skeletal protective effects of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols. Animal studies showed that supplementation of olives, olive oil or olive polyphenols could improve skeletal health assessed via bone mineral density, bone biomechanical strength and bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats, especially those with inflammation. The beneficial effects of olive oil and olive polyphenols could be attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. However, variations in the bone protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects between studies were noted. Cellular studies demonstrated that olive polyphenols enhanced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, differentiation of osteoblasts and decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. However, the exact molecular pathways for its bone health promoting effects are yet to be clearly elucidated. Human studies revealed that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decline in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover markers. As a conclusion, olives, olive oil and its polyphenols are potential dietary interventions to prevent osteoporosis among the elderly.

  4. Olives and Bone: A Green Osteoporosis Prevention Option

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal degeneration due to aging, also known as osteoporosis, is a major health problem worldwide. Certain dietary components confer protection to our skeletal system against osteoporosis. Consumption of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols has been shown to improve bone health. This review aims to summarize the current evidence from cellular, animal and human studies on the skeletal protective effects of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols. Animal studies showed that supplementation of olives, olive oil or olive polyphenols could improve skeletal health assessed via bone mineral density, bone biomechanical strength and bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats, especially those with inflammation. The beneficial effects of olive oil and olive polyphenols could be attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. However, variations in the bone protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects between studies were noted. Cellular studies demonstrated that olive polyphenols enhanced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, differentiation of osteoblasts and decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. However, the exact molecular pathways for its bone health promoting effects are yet to be clearly elucidated. Human studies revealed that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decline in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover markers. As a conclusion, olives, olive oil and its polyphenols are potential dietary interventions to prevent osteoporosis among the elderly. PMID:27472350

  5. Sterolic composition of Chétoui virgin olive oil: Influence of geographical origin.

    PubMed

    Temime, Sonia Ben; Manai, Hedia; Methenni, Kaouther; Baccouri, Bechir; Abaza, Leila; Daoud, Douja; Casas, Jacinto Sánchez; Bueno, Emilio Osorio; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2008-09-15

    The sterol profile of Tunisian virgin olive oils produced from Chétoui cultivar, the second main variety cultivated in the north of the country, grown under different environmental conditions, was established by gas chromatography using a flame ionisation detector. More than ten compounds were identified and characterised. As expected for virgin olive oil, the main sterols found in all Chétoui olive oils were β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. Cholesterol, 24-methylenecholesterol, clerosterol, campestanol, sitostanol, Δ7-stigmastenol, Δ5,24-stigmastadienol, and Δ7-avenasterol were also found in all samples, but in lower amounts. Most of these compounds are significantly affected by the geographical origin. The majority of the Chétoui virgin olive oils analysed respected EC Regulation No. 2568, and in all cases total sterol amounts were higher than the minimum limit set by legislation, ranging from 1017 to 1522mg/kg. Two triterpenic dialcohols (erythrodiol and uvaol), were also detected besides the sterolic components. Their content was below the upper legal limit of 4% in all analysed samples, with a range from 1.2% to 3.2%. These results suggest that, besides the genetic factor, environmental conditions influence the sterolic fraction.

  6. Biological properties of olive oil phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Francesco; Galli, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Olive oil is the principal source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, for example, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar taste and for its high stability. Evidence is accumulating to demonstrate that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants, both in vitro and in vivo; also, they exert other potent biological activities that could partially account for the observed healthful effects of the Mediterranean diet.

  7. Oleuropein in Olive and its Pharmacological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-01-01

    Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect. PMID:21179340

  8. Oleuropein in olive and its pharmacological effects.

    PubMed

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-01-01

    Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect.

  9. Screening and comparing tocopherols in the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Seker, Murat; Gül, Muhammet Kemal; Ipek, Meryem; Toplu, Celil; Kaleci, Nilüfer

    2008-09-01

    Rapeseed and virgin olive oils are a good source of tocopherols. Tocopherols are the most important compounds having antioxidant activity in both crops. Little is known about the tocopherol contents of rapeseed and olive oil grown in Turkey. The aims of this research were to investigate some new rapeseed varieties and olive genotypes grown in northwest Turkey and to compare the tocopherol fractions and contents of both crops. For rapeseed, the data were collected in two growing seasons (2004-2005, 2005-2006) from a field experiment with 19 new rapeseed varieties. For olives, virgin olive oils produced from 21 different varieties were examined in the 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 growing seasons. The separation and identification of tocopherols and the analysis of their contents were successfully achieved using the high-performance liquid chromatographic method. According to the obtained results, gamma-tocopherol (44.200-118.900 mg/kg) was the major fraction of total tocopherol, followed by alpha-tocopherol (19.300-68.500 mg/kg) and delta-tocopherol (0.00-2.600 mg/kg) for rapeseeds. Regarding olive varieties, the alpha-tocopherol content changed between 52.000 and 194.750 mg/kg, followed by gamma-tocopherol ranging from 0.00 to 39.750 mg/kg. The total tocopherol content ranged between 83.900 and 173.800 mg/kg for rapeseed and between 52.100 and 213.075 mg/kg for olives. This study revealed that an important variability exists for tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed and olive varieties.

  10. Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Henry; Berg, Christian; Landa, Blanca B.; Auerbach, Anna; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus, and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in “Eastern” and “Western” areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant–microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated. PMID:25784898

  11. Development of a telemetry and yield-mapping system of olive harvester.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Ruiz, Francisco J; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Blanco-Roldán, Gregorio L; Gil-Ribes, Jesús A; Agüera, Juan

    2015-02-10

    Sensors, communication systems and geo-reference units are required to achieve an optimized management of agricultural inputs with respect to the economic and environmental aspects of olive groves. In this study, three commercial olive harvesters were tracked during two harvesting seasons in Spain and Chile using remote and autonomous equipment that was developed to determine their time efficiency and effective based on canopy shaking for fruit detachment. These harvesters work in intensive/high-density (HD) and super-high-density (SHD) olive orchards. A GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) device was installed to track these harvesters. The GNSS receiver did not affect the driver's work schedule. Time elements methodology was adapted to the remote data acquisition system. The effective field capacity and field efficiency were investigated. In addition, the field shape, row length, angle between headland alley and row, and row alley width were measured to determinate the optimum orchard design parameters value. The SHD olive harvester showed significant lower effective field capacity values when alley width was less than 4 m. In addition, a yield monitor was developed and installed on a traditional olive harvester to obtain a yield map from the harvested area. The hedge straddle harvester stood out for its highly effective field capacity; nevertheless, a higher field efficiency was provided by a non-integral lateral canopy shaker. All of the measured orchard parameters have influenced machinery yields, whether effective field capacity or field efficiency. A saving of 40% in effective field capacity was achieved with a reduction from 4 m or higher to 3.5 m in alley width for SHD olive harvester. A yield map was plotted using data that were acquired by a yield monitor, reflecting the yield gradient in spite of the larger differences between tree yields.

  12. Development of a Telemetry and Yield-Mapping System of Olive Harvester

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Ruiz, Francisco J.; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Blanco-Roldán, Gregorio L.; Gil-Ribes, Jesús A.; Agüera, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Sensors, communication systems and geo-reference units are required to achieve an optimized management of agricultural inputs with respect to the economic and environmental aspects of olive groves. In this study, three commercial olive harvesters were tracked during two harvesting seasons in Spain and Chile using remote and autonomous equipment that was developed to determine their time efficiency and effective based on canopy shaking for fruit detachment. These harvesters work in intensive/high-density (HD) and super-high-density (SHD) olive orchards. A GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) device was installed to track these harvesters. The GNSS receiver did not affect the driver’s work schedule. Time elements methodology was adapted to the remote data acquisition system. The effective field capacity and field efficiency were investigated. In addition, the field shape, row length, angle between headland alley and row, and row alley width were measured to determinate the optimum orchard design parameters value. The SHD olive harvester showed significant lower effective field capacity values when alley width was less than 4 m. In addition, a yield monitor was developed and installed on a traditional olive harvester to obtain a yield map from the harvested area. The hedge straddle harvester stood out for its highly effective field capacity; nevertheless, a higher field efficiency was provided by a non-integral lateral canopy shaker. All of the measured orchard parameters have influenced machinery yields, whether effective field capacity or field efficiency. A saving of 40% in effective field capacity was achieved with a reduction from 4 m or higher to 3.5 m in alley width for SHD olive harvester. A yield map was plotted using data that were acquired by a yield monitor, reflecting the yield gradient in spite of the larger differences between tree yields. PMID:25675283

  13. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    PubMed

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations.

  14. Are biodiversity indices of spontaneous grass covers in olive orchards good indicators of soil degradation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguas, E. V.; Arroyo, C.; Lora, A.; Guzmán, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Gómez, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous grass covers are an inexpensive soil erosion control measure in olive orchards. Olive farmers allow grass to grow on sloping terrain to comply with the basic environmental standards derived from the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). However, to date there are very few studies assessing the environmental quality and extent of such covers. In this study, we described and compared the biodiversity indicators associated to herbaceous vegetation in two contrasting olive orchards in order to evaluate its relevance and quality. In addition, biodiversity patterns and their relationships with environmental factors such as soil type and properties, precipitation, topography and soil management were analyzed. Different grass cover biodiversity indices were evaluated in two olive orchard catchments under conventional tillage and no tillage with grass cover, during 3 hydrological years (2011-2013). Seasonal samples of vegetal material and pictures in a permanent grid (4 samples ha-1) were taken to characterize the temporal variations of the number of species, frequency, diversity and transformed Shannon's and Pielou's indices. Sorensen's index obtained in the two olive orchard catchments showed notable differences in composition, probably linked with the different site conditions. The catchment with the best site conditions (deeper soil and higher precipitation), with average annual soil losses over 10 t ha-1 and a more intense management, presented the highest biodiversity indices. In absolute terms, the diversity indices were reasonably high in both catchments, despite the fact that agricultural activity usually severely limits the landscape and the variety of species. Finally, a significantly higher content of organic matter in the first 10 cm of soil was found in the catchment with the worst site conditions, average annual soil losses of 2 t ha-1 and the least intense management. Therefore, the biodiversity indicators associated to weeds were not found to be

  15. Antioxidant activity of olive polyphenols in humans: a review.

    PubMed

    Raederstorff, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    In vitro and animal studies show that polyphenols from olives have potent antioxidant activities; 50 % of the phenolic compounds contained in olives and virgin olive oil are hydroxytyrosol and derivatives thereof. Hydroxytyrosol is the major olive polyphenol consumed and well absorbed in humans. It is considered to have the highest antioxidant potency compared to the other olive polyphenols. Review of the human intervention studies showed that olive polyphenols decreased the levels of oxidized-LDL in plasma and positively affected several biomarkers of oxidative damage. The antioxidant effects of olive polyphenols on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation are observed after a dietary intake of about 10 mg per day. The overall evidence from in vitro assays, and animal and human studies support the antioxidant effect of olive polyphenols. However, further larger human studies are needed to clarify the effect of olive polyphenols on markers of oxidative stress, particularly DNA damage and plasma isoprostane levels.

  16. Towards an Optimized Method of Olive Tree Crown Volume Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Fuentes, Antonio; Llorens, Jordi; Gamarra-Diezma, Juan L.; Gil-Ribes, Jesús A.; Gil, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Accurate crown characterization of large isolated olive trees is vital for adjusting spray doses in three-dimensional crop agriculture. Among the many methodologies available, laser sensors have proved to be the most reliable and accurate. However, their operation is time consuming and requires specialist knowledge and so a simpler crown characterization method is required. To this end, three methods were evaluated and compared with LiDAR measurements to determine their accuracy: Vertical Crown Projected Area method (VCPA), Ellipsoid Volume method (VE) and Tree Silhouette Volume method (VTS). Trials were performed in three different kinds of olive tree plantations: intensive, adapted one-trunked traditional and traditional. In total, 55 trees were characterized. Results show that all three methods are appropriate to estimate the crown volume, reaching high coefficients of determination: R2 = 0.783, 0.843 and 0.824 for VCPA, VE and VTS, respectively. However, discrepancies arise when evaluating tree plantations separately, especially for traditional trees. Here, correlations between LiDAR volume and other parameters showed that the Mean Vector calculated for VCPA method showed the highest correlation for traditional trees, thus its use in traditional plantations is highly recommended. PMID:25658396

  17. The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependant. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199

  18. Olive oil biophenols and women's health.

    PubMed

    Fistonić, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistonić, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections.

  19. Attaining Excellence in the 80's. Research in Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the Annual National Agricultural Education Research Meeting (14th, Las Vegas, Nevada, December 4, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannebach, Alfred J., Comp.

    Among the 36 research papers and critiques are "A Comparison of 1972 and 1980 Secondary Agricultural Education Students" (Navaratnam, Oliver); "A Day Late and a Dollar Short" (Moore); "Assessment of Preservice Preparation by Recent Graduates of Agricultural Education Programs" (Yahya, Burnett); "Characteristics and Activities of Vocational…

  20. Relation of acidity and sensory quality with sterol content of olive oil from stored fruit.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, F; Varona, I; Albi, M A

    2000-04-01

    Composition of the sterol fraction, fatty acid, acidity, and the sensorial evaluation of virgin olive oils were studied in two eastern Spanish varieties grown and processed under the same conditions. Fruits were stored at 5 degrees C and ambient temperature for different times. During fruit storage, there was no significant variation (P = 0.05) in fatty acid composition. However, the sterol composition of the oil varied markedly (in particular, there was an increase in stigmasterol), acidity increased, and there was a very significant decrease in sensorial quality. The stigmasterol content presented a high correlation with the acidity and sensory evaluation (P < 10(-)(6)). The total sterol content increased gradually with olive storage time. Oils with stigmasterol greater than campesterol are graded to a low level (lampant). It is of interest that sensorial quality is revealed by stigmasterol content, a fact unknown until now.

  1. Influence of Edaphic, Climatic, and Agronomic Factors on the Composition and Abundance of Nitrifying Microorganisms in the Rhizosphere of Commercial Olive Crops

    PubMed Central

    Caliz, Joan; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Metsis, Madis; Landa, Blanca B.; Casamayor, Emilio O.

    2015-01-01

    The microbial ecology of the nitrogen cycle in agricultural soils is an issue of major interest. We hypothesized a major effect by farm management systems (mineral versus organic fertilizers) and a minor influence of soil texture and plant variety on the composition and abundance of microbial nitrifiers. We explored changes in composition (16S rRNA gene) of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), bacteria (AOB), and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), and in abundance of AOA and AOB (qPCR of amoA genes) in the rhizosphere of 96 olive orchards differing in climatic conditions, agricultural practices, soil properties, and olive variety. Majority of archaea were 1.1b thaumarchaeota (soil crenarchaeotic group, SCG) closely related to the AOA genus Nitrososphaera. Most AOB (97%) were identical to Nitrosospira tenuis and most NOB (76%) were closely related to Nitrospira sp. Common factors shaping nitrifiers assemblage composition were pH, soil texture, and olive variety. AOB abundance was positively correlated with altitude, pH, and clay content, whereas AOA abundances showed significant relationships with organic nitrogen content and exchangeable K. The abundances of AOA differed significantly among soil textures and olive varieties, and those of AOB among soil management systems and olive varieties. Overall, we observed minor effects by orchard management system, soil cover crop practices, plantation age, or soil organic matter content, and major influence of soil texture, pH, and olive tree variety. PMID:25950678

  2. Fungal diversity associated to the olive moth, Prays Oleae bernard: a survey for potential entomopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ivo; Pereira, José A; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Bento, Albino; Baptista, Paula

    2012-05-01

    Olive production is one of the main agricultural activities in Portugal. In the region of Trás-os-Montes, this crop has been considerably affected by Prays oleae. In order to evaluate the diversity of fungi on Prays oleae population of Trás-os-Montes olive orchards, larvae and pupae of the three annual generations (phyllophagous, antophagous and carpophagous) were collected and evaluated for fungal growth on their surface. From the 3,828 larvae and pupae, a high percentage of individuals exhibited growth of a fungal agent (40.6%), particularly those from the phyllophagous generation. From all the moth generations, a total of 43 species from 24 genera were identified, but the diversity and abundance of fungal species differed between the three generations. Higher diversity was found in the carpophagous generation, followed by the antophagous and phyllophagous generations. The presence of fungi displaying entomopathogenic features was highest in the phyllophagous larvae and pupae, with Beauveria bassiana as the most abundant taxa. The first report of Beauveria bassiana presence on Prays oleae could open new strategies for the biocontrol of this major pest in olive groves since the use of an already adapted species increases the guarantee of success of a biocontrol approach. The identification of antagonistic fungi able to control agents that cause major olive diseases, such as Verticillium dahliae, will benefit future biological control approaches for limiting this increasingly spreading pathogen.

  3. Effects of Irrigation with Treated Wastewater on Root and Fruit Mineral Elements of Chemlali Olive Cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Bedbabis, Saida; Ben Rouina, Béchir; Boukhris, Makki

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-year-old “Chemlali” olive trees trained to vase and rainfed were investigated in either “on” (2004) or “off” (2003) year. A randomized block design with three blocks and three treatments was used and each experimental plot consisted of nine olive trees. Three treatments were applied: (1) rainfed conditions (RF, used as control treatment); (2) irrigation with well water (WW); and (3) irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW). Irrigation with TWW led to a significant increase of root N, P, Ca, Zn, Mn, Na, and Cl concentrations, in particular in the on-year. Data showed significant differences, between the two years, for the concentration of the mineral elements in the roots, with general lower values in the on-year, probably as a consequence of nutrients movement upward in the tree. Fruit N, P, K, Zn, Mn, and Cl contents were significantly higher in TWW irrigated trees with respect to both RF and WW trees, whereas similar values for Ca, Mg, Na, and Cl contents were measured for WW and TWW irrigated trees. The irrigation with TWW allowed to reuse problematic waters and to save nutrients inputs in the olive orchard thus moving towards a more sustainable management of olive orchards in countries where water is the major limiting factor for agriculture. PMID:25013873

  4. OLIVER: an online library of images for veterinary education and research.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Paul; Shaw, Tim; Burn, Daniel; Miller, Nick

    2007-01-01

    As part of a strategic move by the University of Sydney toward increased flexibility in learning, the Faculty of Veterinary Science undertook a number of developments involving Web-based teaching and assessment. OLIVER underpins them by providing a rich, durable repository for learning objects. To integrate Web-based learning, case studies, and didactic presentations for veterinary and animal science students, we established an online library of images and other learning objects for use by academics in the Faculties of Veterinary Science and Agriculture. The objectives of OLIVER were to maximize the use of the faculty's teaching resources by providing a stable archiving facility for graphic images and other multimedia learning objects that allows flexible and precise searching, integrating indexing standards, thesauri, pull-down lists of preferred terms, and linking of objects within cases. OLIVER offers a portable and expandable Web-based shell that facilitates ongoing storage of learning objects in a range of media. Learning objects can be downloaded in common, standardized formats so that they can be easily imported for use in a range of applications, including Microsoft PowerPoint, WebCT, and Microsoft Word. OLIVER now contains more than 9,000 images relating to many facets of veterinary science; these are annotated and supported by search engines that allow rapid access to both images and relevant information. The Web site is easily updated and adapted as required.

  5. 75 FR 43042 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Temporary Change to the Handling Regulations and Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... handlers while allowing the industry the opportunity to explore alternative marketing strategies. DATES... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Temporary Change to the Handling Regulations and Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA....

  6. 78 FR 62963 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Suspension of Handling Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... industry, given the evolving marketing conditions and future industry outlook. Thus, continuing to regulate... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 922 Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Suspension of Handling Regulations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule...

  7. New isobaric lignans from Refined Olive Oils as quality markers for Virgin Olive Oils.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Lorenzo; Innocenti, Marzia; Melani, Fabrizio; Migliorini, Marzia; Conte, Lanfranco; Mulinacci, Nadia

    2017-03-15

    Herein we describe the influence of olive oil refining processes on the lignan profile. The detection of new isobaric lignans is suggested to reveal frauds in commercial extra-Virgin Olive Oils. We analyzed five commercial olive oils by HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS to evaluate their lignan content and detected, for the first time, some isobaric forms of natural (+)-pinoresinol and (+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol. Then we analyzed partially and fully-refined oils from Italy, Tunisia and Spain. The isobaric forms occur only during the bleaching step of the refining process and remain unaltered after the final deodorizing step. Molecular dynamic simulation helped to identify the most probable chemical structures corresponding to these new isobars with data in agreement with the chromatographic findings. The total lignan amounts in commercial olive oils was close to 2mg/L. Detection of these new lignans can be used as marker of undeclared refining procedures in commercial extra-virgin and/or Virgin Olive Oils.

  8. Factors influencing phenolic compounds in table olives (Olea europaea).

    PubMed

    Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson

    2012-07-25

    The Mediterranean diet appears to be associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases. Olive products (mainly olive oil and table olives) are important components of the Mediterranean diet. Olives contain a range of phenolic compounds; these natural antioxidants may contribute to the prevention of these chronic conditions. Consequently, the consumption of table olives and olive oil continues to increase worldwide by health-conscious consumers. There are numerous factors that can affect the phenolics in table olives including the cultivar, degree of ripening, and, importantly, the methods used for curing and processing table olives. The predominant phenolic compound found in fresh olive is the bitter secoiridoid oleuropein. Table olive processing decreases levels of oleuropein with concomitant increases in the hydrolysis products hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. Many of the health benefits reported for olives are thought to be associated with the levels of hydroxytyrosol. Herein the pre- and post-harvest factors influencing the phenolics in olives, debittering methods, and health benefits of phenolics in table olives are reviewed.

  9. Antioxidant activity of olive wine, a byproduct of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qian; He, Gang; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Yibing; Shen, Yuanfu; Gou, Xiaojun

    2016-10-01

    Context Although olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a good source of bioactive phenolic compounds, disposing OMWW is a serious environmental challenge. Production of wine via fermenting OMWW may be a promising alternative to deal with OMWW. However, whether or not olive wine from OMWW still reserves its original bioactivities remains unclear. Objective This study examines antioxidant activity of olive wine fermented from OMWW. Materials and methods Hydroxytyrosol in olive oil was determined by HPLC. Total flavonoid, total polyphenol and in vitro antioxidant activities were measured by spectrophotometry. Aged mice were intragastricly administered 7, 14 and 28 mL/kg olive wine consecutively for 30 d. Afterward, levels of malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl, reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed in mouse plasma and liver. Results Contents of hydroxytyrosol, total flavonoid and total polyphenol in olive wine were 0.14 ± 0.01, 0.29 ± 0.06 and 0.43 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of olive wine to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals was 2.5% and 3.2% (v/v), respectively. Compared with the solvent control group, olive wine with a dose of 28 mL/kg remarkably lowered mouse MDA concentration in liver, and reduced protein carbonyl level in plasma (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, olive wine at doses of 7 and 28 mL/kg notably enhanced SOD activity in both mouse plasma and liver (p < 0.05). The beneficial effect on liver was superior to that of γ-tocopherol. Conclusion The study demonstrated that olive wine from OMWW has potential for treating oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  10. Pesticide interactions with soils affected by olive oil mill wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keren, Yonatan; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Soil pesticide sorption is well known to affect the fate of pesticides, their bioavailability and the potential to contaminate air and water. Soil - pesticide interactions may be strongly influenced by soil organic matter (SOM) and organic matter (OM)-rich soil amendments. One special OM source in soils is related to olive oil production residues that may include both solid and liquid wastes. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil production is considered as an important field in the agricultural sector. Due to the significant rise in olive oil production, the amount of wastes is growing respectively. Olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) is the liquid byproduct in the so-called "three phase" technological process. Features of OMWW include the high content of fatty aliphatic components and polyphenols and their often-considered toxicity. One way of OMWW disposal is the land spreading, e.g., in olive orchards. The land application of OMWW (either controlled or not) is supposed to affect the multiple soil properties, including hydrophobicity and the potential of soils to interact with pesticides. Therefore, there is both basic and applied interest in elucidating the interactions between organic compounds and soils affected by OMWW. However, little is known about the impact of OMWW - soil interactions on sorption of organic compounds, and specifically, on sorption of agrochemicals. This paper reports an experimental study of sorption interactions of a series of organic compounds including widely used herbicides such as diuron and simazine, in a range of soils that were affected by OMWW (i) historically or (ii) in the controlled land disposal experiments. It is demonstrated that there is a distinct increase in apparent sorption of organic chemicals in soils affected by OMWW. In selected systems, this increase may be explained by increase in SOM content. However, the SOM quality places a role: the rise in organic compound - soil interactions may both exceed the SOM

  11. The spectrum of olive pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, R; Villalba, M; Monsalve, R I; Batanero, E

    2001-07-01

    Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of seasonal respiratory allergy in Mediterranean countries, where this tree is intensely cultivated. Among the high number of protein allergens detected in this pollen, 8 - Ole e 1 to Ole e 8 - have been isolated and characterized. Ole e 1 is the most frequent sensitizing agent, affecting more than 70% of the patients suffering of olive pollinosis, although others, such as Ole e 4 and Ole e 7, have also been shown to be major allergens. In this context, the prevalence of many olive pollen allergens seems to be dependent on the geographical area where the sensitized patients live. Some of the olive allergens have been revealed as members of known protein families: profilin (Ole e 2), Ca(2+)-binding proteins (Ole e 3 and Ole e 8), superoxide dismutase (Ole e 5) and lipid transfer protein (Ole e 7). No biological function has been demonstrated for Ole e 1, whereas Ole e 4 and Ole e 6 are new proteins without homology to known sequences from databases. cDNAs encoding for Ole e 1, Ole e 3 and Ole e 8 have been overproduced in heterologous systems. The recombinant products were correctly folded and exhibited the functional activities of the natural allergens. In addition to the Oleaceae family, other species, such as Gramineae or Betulaceae, contain pollen allergens structurally or immunologically related to those of the olive tree. This fact allows to detect and evaluate antigenic cross-reactivities involving olive allergens. The aim of this research is the development of new diagnostic tools for olive pollinosis and new approaches to improve the classical immunotherapy.

  12. 76 FR 27919 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Late Payment and Interest Requirements on Past Due...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia... delinquent assessment requirements in effect under the marketing order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is administered...

  13. 7 CFR 982.467 - Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown..., Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative Rules and Regulations § 982.467 Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States....

  14. 7 CFR 982.467 - Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown..., NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative Rules and Regulations § 982.467 Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States....

  15. 7 CFR 982.467 - Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown..., Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative Rules and Regulations § 982.467 Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States....

  16. 7 CFR 982.467 - Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown..., Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative Rules and Regulations § 982.467 Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States....

  17. 7 CFR 982.467 - Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown..., NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative Rules and Regulations § 982.467 Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States....

  18. Study on interaction between root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica and wilt fungus Verticillium dahliae on olive seedlings in greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Saeedizadeh, A; Kheiri, A; Okhovat, M; Hoseininejad, A

    2003-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae has been reported as a limiting factor in cotton, olive, potato and tomato fields from several countries in the world. Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne javanica causes considerable damage to olive groves in olive growing areas. Since the presence of these two pathogens in olive trees and seedlings were confirmed in Golestan Province, this study was proposed to find the mode of their action and interaction with olive seedlings in greenhouse. The non-defoliant strain of the fungus (SS-4) was isolated from olive groves showing symptom in Golestan Province. M. javanica was also recovered from the infested olive seedlings. After species identification, it was reared on tomato seedlings var. Rutgers. The larvae were used as a source of inoculum. Conidia and microsclerotia of V. dahliae were used as a source of inoculum for pathogenesis in this study. Stem cuttings of olive cultivar Zard were transplanted in different sets of pots containing 720 ml. of sterilized loamy soil and sandy soil. Experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Design with 6 treatments and 8 replicates including control, nematode alone, fungus alone, nematode and fungus simultaneously, nematode and fungus concomitantly, fungus two weeks prior to nematode, nematode and fungus concomitantly, nematode two weeks prior to fungus. Pots were inoculated with 1500 larvae of nematodes and 7200 microsclerotia of V. dahliae. Experiment was terminated after 9 months and following parameters were determined i.e. fresh weight of roots, number of galls and females, per root system and discoloration of leaf and root tissues. Presence of nematode prior to fungus caused reduction in colonization of fungus in the roots and the stems and vis presence of fungus prior to nematode caused reduction in number of galls produced by nematode. Sever symptom on aerial parts of plant was observed when both pathogens were inoculated simultaneously. However fresh weight of roots was reduced in all treatments

  19. Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station from north side of San Fernando Road facing southwest - Olive Switching Station, 13355 San Fernando Road, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163557.html Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health? It enhances ... HealthDay News) -- A Mediterranean diet high in virgin olive oil may boost the protective effects of "good" ...

  1. Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties.

  2. Bioactive properties of the main triterpenes found in olives, virgin olive oil, and leaves of Olea europaea.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Quesada, Cristina; López-Biedma, Alicia; Warleta, Fernando; Campos, María; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J

    2013-12-18

    Oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, uvaol, and erythrodiol are the main triterpenes present in olives, olive tree leaves, and virgin olive oil. Their concentration in virgin olive oil depends on the quality of the olive oil and the variety of the olive tree. These triterpenes are described to present different properties, such as antitumoral activity, cardioprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and antioxidant protection. Olive oil triterpenes are a natural source of antioxidants that could be useful compounds for the prevention of multiple diseases related to cell oxidative damage. However, special attention has to be paid to the concentrations used, because higher concentration may lead to cytotoxic or biphasic effects. This work explores all of the bioactive properties so far described for the main triterpenes present in virgin olive oil.

  3. Microbiological activity in stored olive oil.

    PubMed

    Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A

    2002-05-05

    The disappearance of the bitter taste of newly produced olive oil during storage is due to the enzymatic hydrolysis of the bitter-tasting secoiridoid compound known as oleuropein. Current knowledge attributes the enzymatic hydrolysis of the oleuropein to the beta-glucosidase present in the olives. The present study, however, has demonstrated for the first time that oleuropein present in olive oil can be hydrolysed by beta-glucosidase from the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida wickerhamii. The enzymatic analyses carried out directly on the untreated olive oil and on sterilized olive oil inoculated with the above-mentioned yeasts proved the beta-glucosidase activity through the hydrolysis of both the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) and the oleuropein. The absence of lipases in the isolated S. cerevisiae and C. wickerhamii examined lead us to believe that the yeasts contribute in a positive way towards the improvement of the organological quality of the oil without altering the composition of the triglycerides.

  4. Olive by-products in pig fattening.

    PubMed

    Rupić, V; Jerković, I; Bozac, R; Glowattzky, D; Muźic, S; Hrabak, V

    1997-01-01

    The utilisation in pig fattening of diets with various proportions of dried olive cake, i.e., olive by-product resulting from centrifugal separation, was investigated in 60 Swedish Landrace x Large White crossbreds (30 castrates and 30 gilts). The pigs were divided into three equal groups (10 + 10): two experimental groups, fed with a fodder mix containing 50 g/kg and 80 g/kg respectively of dried olive cake, and a control group, fed with the same mix but minus the cake. The experiment last 90 days. For the first 45 days the pigs were given the starter, and for the second 45 days the finisher, mix. Throughout the whole period, pigs in both experimental groups achieved greater average body mass and mass gain than the control animals. Concurrently, castrates in all three groups, became heavier and demonstrated greater mass gain than did the gilts. While supplied respectively with the finisher mix throughout the whole test period, pigs fed mixes with 50 g/kg of dried olive cake demonstrated significantly greater feed consumption than those fed without the cake and than those fed mixes with 80 g/kg of cake. While supplied with the starter mix, pigs fed mixes with 50 g/kg of dried olive cake achieved the lowest feed conversion rate, whereas those supplied with the finisher mix achieved the highest. Throughout the entire period no significant differences were observed in feed conversion rate among pig groups.

  5. [Olive oil, immune system and infection].

    PubMed

    Puertollano, M A; Puertollano, E; Alvarez de Cienfuegos, G; de Pablo Martínez, Manuel Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids contribute to the suppression of immune system functions. For this reason, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been applied in the resolution of inflammatory disorders. Although the inhibition of several immune functions promotes beneficial effects on the human health, this state may lead to a significant reduction of immune protection against infectious microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites). Nevertheless, less attention has been paid to the action of olive oil in immunonutrition. Olive oil, a main constituent of the Mediterranean diet, is capable of modulating several immune functions, but it does not reduce host immune resistance to infectious microorganisms. Based on these criteria, we corroborate that olive oil administration may exert beneficial effects on the human health and especially on immune system, because it contributes to the reduction of typical inflammatory activity observed in patients suffering from autoimmune disorders, but without exacerbating the susceptibility to pathogen agents. The administration of olive oil in lipid emulsions may exert beneficial effects on the health and particularly on the immune system of immunocompromised patients. Therefore, this fact acquires a crucial importance in clinical nutrition. This review contributes to clarify the interaction between the administration of diets containing olive oil and immune system, as well as to determine the effect promoted by this essential component of Mediterranean diet in the immunomodulation against an infectious agent.

  6. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging.

    PubMed

    Fernández del Río, Lucía; Gutiérrez-Casado, Elena; Varela-López, Alfonso; Villalba, José M

    2016-01-29

    Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the "hallmarks of aging", which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid), but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  7. 7 CFR 932.55 - Exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... applicable to processed olives on hand on the effective date of this subpart but only if the identity of such olives is maintained and such olives are not commingled with olives processed after such effective...

  8. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  9. 7 CFR 932.39 - Assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... during a fiscal year, each handler who first handles olives during the current crop year shall pay to the... olives to be used in the production of packaged olives, including olives to be used in canned ripe...

  10. 7 CFR 932.39 - Assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... during a fiscal year, each handler who first handles olives during the current crop year shall pay to the... olives to be used in the production of packaged olives, including olives to be used in canned ripe...

  11. 7 CFR 932.39 - Assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... during a fiscal year, each handler who first handles olives during the current crop year shall pay to the... olives to be used in the production of packaged olives, including olives to be used in canned ripe...

  12. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  13. 7 CFR 932.25 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.25 Establishment and membership. A California Olive... olives nor an officer or employee or director of any producer or handler of olives....

  14. 7 CFR 932.39 - Assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... during a fiscal year, each handler who first handles olives during the current crop year shall pay to the... olives to be used in the production of packaged olives, including olives to be used in canned ripe...

  15. 7 CFR 932.25 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.25 Establishment and membership. A California Olive... olives nor an officer or employee or director of any producer or handler of olives....

  16. 7 CFR 932.25 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.25 Establishment and membership. A California Olive... olives nor an officer or employee or director of any producer or handler of olives....

  17. 7 CFR 932.25 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.25 Establishment and membership. A California Olive... olives nor an officer or employee or director of any producer or handler of olives....

  18. 7 CFR 932.25 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.25 Establishment and membership. A California Olive... olives nor an officer or employee or director of any producer or handler of olives....

  19. 7 CFR 932.55 - Exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... applicable to processed olives on hand on the effective date of this subpart but only if the identity of such olives is maintained and such olives are not commingled with olives processed after such effective...

  20. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  1. 7 CFR 932.39 - Assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... during a fiscal year, each handler who first handles olives during the current crop year shall pay to the... olives to be used in the production of packaged olives, including olives to be used in canned ripe...

  2. 7 CFR 932.55 - Exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... applicable to processed olives on hand on the effective date of this subpart but only if the identity of such olives is maintained and such olives are not commingled with olives processed after such effective...

  3. 7 CFR 932.55 - Exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... applicable to processed olives on hand on the effective date of this subpart but only if the identity of such olives is maintained and such olives are not commingled with olives processed after such effective...

  4. 7 CFR 932.55 - Exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... applicable to processed olives on hand on the effective date of this subpart but only if the identity of such olives is maintained and such olives are not commingled with olives processed after such effective...

  5. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  6. 7 CFR 932.16 - Handle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.16 Handle. Handle means to: (a) Size-grade olives, (b) process olives, or (c) use processed olives in the production of packaged olives, within the production area, or (d)...

  7. Isothermal microwave and microwave-convection drying of olive pomace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive pomace is the residue produced when olives are pressed for oil. Valuable polyphenolic compounds can be extracted from olive pomace, but this material is more than 60% water (wet basis) and thus costly to transport and process in its original, wet form. The objective of this study was thus to ...

  8. 77 FR 55468 - Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...: December 14, 2011. d. Applicant: Oliver Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam Hydroelectric Project f. Location: At the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' (Corps) William Bacon Oliver Lock and... environmental analysis at this time. l. The proposed project would utilize the Corps' existing William...

  9. Center Pivot Irrigated Agriculture, Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A view of the Faregh Agricultural Station in the Great Calanscio Sand Sea, Libya (26.5N, 22.0E) about 300 miles southeast of Benghazi. A pattern of water wells have been drilled several miles apart to support a quarter mile center-pivot-swing-arm agricultural irrigation system. The crop grown is alfalfa which is eaten on location by flocks of sheep following the swing arm as it rotates. At maturity, the sheep are flown to market throughout Libya.

  10. 77 FR 21492 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased... increase the assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-12 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0275 to $0.037 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The...

  11. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles

  12. Impact of climate change on water balance components in Mediterranean rainfed olive orchards under tillage or cover crop soil management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Carretero, María Teresa; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Dosio, Alessandro; Gómez, José A.

    2013-04-01

    The rainfed olive orchards in Southern Spain constitute the main socioeconomic system of the Mediterranean Spanish agriculture. These systems have an elevated level of complexity and require the accurate characterization of crop, climate and soil components for a correct management. It is common the inclusion of cover crops (usually winter cereals or natural cover) intercalated between the olive rows in order to reduce water erosion. Saving limited available water requires specific management, mowing or killing these cover crops in early spring. Thus, under the semi-arid conditions in Southern Spain the management of the cover crops in rainfed olive orchards is essential to avoid a severe impact to the olive orchards yield through depletion of soil water. In order to characterize this agricultural system, a complete water balance model has been developed, calibrated and validated for the semi-arid conditions of Southern Spain, called WABOL (Abazi et al., 2013). In this complex and fragile system, the climate change constitutes a huge threat for its sustainability, currently limited by the availability of water resources, and its forecasted reduction for Mediterranean environments in Southern Spain. The objective of this study was to simulate the impact of climate change on the different components of the water balance in these representative double cropping systems: transpiration of the olive orchard and cover crop, runoff, deep percolation and soil water content. Four climatic scenarios from the FP6 European Project ENSEMBLES were first bias corrected for temperatures and precipitation (Dosio and Paruolo, 2011; Dosio et al., 2012) and, subsequently, used as inputs for the WABOL model for five olive orchard fields located in Southern Spain under different conditions of crop, climate, soils and management, in order to consider as much as possible of the variability detected in the Spanish olive orchards. The first results indicate the significant effect of the cover

  13. Antioxidant and other biological activities of phenols from olives and olive oil.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Francesco; Poli, Andrea; Gall, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Olive oil is the principal source of fats in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Phenolic compounds, e.g., hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, in extra-virgin olive oil are responsible for its peculiar pungent taste and for its high stability. Recent findings demonstrate that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, and possess other potent biological activities that could partially account for the observed healthful effects of the Mediterranean diet.

  14. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Carmen; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets), many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments aiming to: (1) validate the induction of these genes, and (2) shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days). Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lipoxygenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e., JERF, bHLH, WRKY), as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mounts a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves). This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the "non-hostile" colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7.

  15. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Carmen; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets), many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments aiming to: (1) validate the induction of these genes, and (2) shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days). Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lipoxygenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e., JERF, bHLH, WRKY), as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mounts a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves). This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the “non-hostile” colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7. PMID:25250017

  16. Combustion Analysis of Different Olive Residues

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Teresa; Esteban, Alberto; Rojas, Sebastián; Montero, Irene; Ruiz, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) techniques and concretely the study of the burning profile provide information that can be used to estimate the behaviour of the combustion of carbonous materials. Commonly, these techniques have been used for the study of carbons, but are also interesting for the analysis of biomass wastes, due to the different species present on the wastes affect directly to its thermal properties. In this work, techniques of thermal analysis have been applied to compare the behaviour of different wastes coming from olive oil mills. From these results, it is remarkable that the Concentrated Olive Mill Waste Water (COMWW) presents more unfavourable conditions for its combustion. PMID:19325766

  17. 75 FR 37288 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 920 Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920 AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule amends Marketing Order No. 920 (order), which regulates the handling of kiwifruit grown in California....

  18. 75 FR 64681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 983 Pistachios Grown in California..., Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio producers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. DATES:...

  19. 78 FR 24331 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Suspension of Handling Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 922 Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Suspension of Handling Regulations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of... requirements prescribed under the marketing order for apricots grown in designated Counties in Washington....

  20. Reviving the Mediterranean Olive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a collaborative investigation by six nongovernment organisations (NGOs) from five European-Mediterranean countries to identify a framework for reversing rural marginalisation in Mediterranean communities through sustainable forms of community-based agricultural development. The project brought together…

  1. Agriculture: Newsroom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  2. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  3. 78 FR 28118 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and Assessment Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and... the marketing order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is administered locally by the Vidalia Onion Committee...

  4. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  5. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  6. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  7. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  8. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  9. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  10. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  11. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  12. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  13. 78 FR 32068 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Revising Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 905 Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida... marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida (order). The Citrus... oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida, hereinafter referred to as the...

  14. 78 FR 14236 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Revising Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 905 Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida... prescribed under the Federal marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in... handling of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida, hereinafter referred to as...

  15. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  16. Hydrolysis of Oleuropein by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Associated with Olive Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Ciafardini, G.; Marsilio, V.; Lanza, B.; Pozzi, N.

    1994-01-01

    Oleuropein (Chemical Abstracts Service registry number 32619-42-4), a bitter-tasting secoiridoid glucoside commonly found in leaves of the olive tree as well as in olives (Olea europaea L.), was found to be hydrolyzed by the β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.2.1) produced by oleuropeinolytic Lactobacillus plantarum-type strains. Three strains, designated B17, B20, and B21, were isolated from the brine of naturally ripe olives not treated with alkali. These strains were rod-shaped forms, grown at a pH 3.5 limit, and tolerated 1% oleuropein and 8% NaCl in the growth medium. The β-glucosidase produced hydrolyzed 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-glucopy-ranoside as well as oleuropein. The presence of 2% glucose in the medium inhibited activity by 40 to 50%, depending on the bacterial strain. Chromatographic analysis of the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the products obtained after 7 days of incubation at 30°C of strain B21 showed all the hydrolysis products of oleuropein, i.e., aglycone, iridoid monoterpen, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (hydroxytyrosol). Oleuropein and its aglycone after 21 days of incubation decreased to trace levels with the simultaneous increase in concentration of β-3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol. Images PMID:16349442

  17. Haemoproteus cyanomitrae sp. nov. (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) from a widespread African songbird, the olive sunbird, Cyanomitra olivacea.

    PubMed

    Iezhova, Tatjana A; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Loiseau, Claire; Smith, Thomas B; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2010-02-01

    Haemoproteus ( Parahaemoproteus ) cyanomitrae n. sp. (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) was found in the olive sunbird, Cyanomitra olivacea (Nectariniidae), in rain forests of tropical Africa. It is described based on the morphology of its blood stages and a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (GenBank accession FJ404696), which can be used for molecular identification and diagnosis of this species. Fully grown gametocytes of new parasite are similar to many other species of haemoproteids of passeriform birds, so are not easily distinguishable from many of them at this stage of their development. Haemoproteus cyanomitrae can be readily distinguished from the majority of described species of avian haemoproteids, primarily due to its growing dumbbell-shaped gametocytes and advanced halteridial gametocytes, both of which do not touch the envelope of infected erythrocytes along their entire margin. Pigment granules are most frequently clamped in 1, or several, groups in gametocytes, with larger group of pigment granules usually located close to one end of the gametocyte; asymmetric position of pigment granules in gametocytes a characteristic feature of this parasite. Illustrations of blood stages of the new species are given, and phylogenetic analysis identifies DNA lineages closely related to this parasite, which is widespread in African rain forests, but has been recorded only in the olive sunbird so far. It is probable that H. cyanomitrae is transmitted throughout the range of the olive sunbird in Africa.

  18. Soil fluoride spiking effects on olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali).

    PubMed

    Zouari, M; Ben Ahmed, C; Fourati, R; Delmail, D; Ben Rouina, B; Labrousse, P; Ben Abdallah, F

    2014-10-01

    A pot experiment under open air conditions was carried out to investigate the uptake, accumulation and toxicity effects of fluoride in olive trees (Olea europaea L.) grown in a soil spiked with inorganic sodium fluoride (NaF). Six different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100mM NaF) of soil spiking were applied through NaF to irrigation water. At the end of the experiment, total fluoride content in soil was 20 and 1770mgFkg(-1) soil in control and 100mM NaF treatments, respectively. The comparative distribution of fluoride partitioning among the different olive tree parts showed that the roots accumulated the most fluoride and olive fruits were minimally affected by soil NaF spiking as they had the lowest fluoride content. In fact, total fluoride concentration varied between 12 and 1070µgFg(-1) in roots, between 9 and 570µgFg(-1) in shoots, between 12 and 290µgFg(-1) in leaves, and between 10 and 29µgFg(-1) in fruits, respectively for control and 100mM NaF treatments. Indeed, the fluoride accumulation pattern showed the following distribution: roots>shoots>leaves>fruits. On the other hand, fluoride toxicity symptoms such as leaf necrosis and leaf drop appeared only in highly spiked soils (60, 80 and 100mM NaF).

  19. Evaluation of imported parasitoid fitness for biocontrol of olive fruit fly in California olives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), was reared on irradiated Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit ...

  20. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Puerto, Daniel Aguilera; Martínez Gila, Diego Manuel; Gámez García, Javier; Gómez Ortega, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco). The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results. PMID:26147729

  1. Effect of amurca on olive oil quality during storage.

    PubMed

    Janakat, Sana; Al-Nabulsi, Anas; Hammad, Fwzieh; Holley, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant activity (AA), lipid peroxidation inhibition (percent) (LPOIP), free fatty acid and peroxide values were measured in olive oil samples over the period of 12 months in comparison with oil samples extracted from amurca (olive oil lees) and olive oil samples taken from the bottom of the canister (near amurca) after 12 months of storage. Olive oil samples taken over the period of 12 months possessed decreasing amounts of TPC, AA and LPOIP, which led to increased peroxide and free fatty acid values. In contrast, oil extracted from amurca and olive oil samples taken from the bottom of the container after 12 months of storage possessed significantly higher TPC, AA, LPOIP and consequently lower free fatty acid and peroxide values. These results show that the presence of naturally occurring amurca (sediment) in stored olive oil stabilizes olive oil quality during storage.

  2. Arabidopsis thaliana as a tool to identify traits involved in Verticillium dahliae biocontrol by the olive root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-González, M. Mercedes; Bakker, Peter A. H. M.; Prieto, Pilar; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The effective management of Verticillium wilts (VW), diseases affecting many crops and caused by some species of the soil-borne fungus Verticillium, is problematic. The use of microbial antagonists to control these pathologies fits modern sustainable agriculture criteria. Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from olive roots with demonstrated ability to control VW of olive caused by the highly virulent, defoliating (D) pathotype of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. However, the study of the PICF7-V. dahliae-olive tripartite interaction poses difficulties because of the inherent characteristics of woody, long-living plants. To overcome these problems we explored the use of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Results obtained in this study showed that: (i) olive D and non-defoliating V. dahliae pathotypes produce differential disease severity in A. thaliana plants; (ii) strain PICF7 is able to colonize and persist in the A. thaliana rhizosphere but is not endophytic in Arabidopsis; and (iii) strain PICF7 controls VW in Arabidopsis. Additionally, as previously observed in olive, neither swimming motility nor siderophore production by PICF7 are required for VW control in A. thaliana, whilst cysteine auxotrophy decreased the effectiveness of PICF7. Moreover, when applied to the roots PICF7 controlled Botrytis cinerea infection in the leaves of Arabidopsis, suggesting that this strain is able to induce systemic resistance. A. thaliana is therefore a suitable alternative to olive bioassays to unravel biocontrol traits involved in biological control of V. dahliae by P. fluorescens PICF7. PMID:25904904

  3. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    PubMed

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/.

  4. The Making of a Special "Oliver!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Lee

    1985-01-01

    How trainable mentally handicapped high school students very successfully adapted Charles Dickens's novel "Oliver Twist" into a musical play is described. The project, which involved the entire school as well as the community, shows that handicapped people are capable of artistic endeavors and growth when given the proper environment. (RM)

  5. Pure Culture Fermentation of Green Olives1

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, J. L.; Borg, A. F.; Kittel, I. D.; Bell, T. A.; Fleming, H. P.

    1966-01-01

    The method previously developed by us for the pure-culture fermentation of brined cucumbers and other vegetables has been applied successfully to Manzanillo variety olives. Field-run grade fruit was processed first by conventional procedures to remove most of the bitterness. Then the relative abilities of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides to become established and produce acid in both heat-shocked (74 C for 3 min) and unheated olives, brined at 4.7 to 5.9% NaCl (w/v basis), were evaluated. The heat-shock treatment not only proved effective in ridding the fruit of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining and inoculation, but also made the olives highly fermentable with respect to growth and acid production by the introduced culture, particularly L. plantarum. Of the four species used as inocula, L. plantarum was by far the most vigorous in fermentation ability. It consistently produced the highest levels of brine acidity (1.0 to 1.2% calculated as lactic acid) and the lowest pH values (3.8 to 3.9) during the fermentation of heat-shocked olives. Also, L. plantarum completely dominated fermentations when used in two-species (with P. cerevisiae) and three-species (with P. cerevisiae and L. brevis) combinations as inocula. In contrast, when L. plantarum was inoculated into the brines of unheated olives it failed to become properly established; the same was true for the other species tested, but even to a more pronounced degree. L. brevis was the only species used that failed to develop in brines of both heat-shocked and unheated olives. Modification of the curing brine by the addition of lactic acid at the outset, either with or without dextrose, led to a much earlier onset of fermentation with accompanying acid development, as compared to treatments with dextrose alone or nonadditive controls. Reasons for the marked improvement of the fermentability of Manzanillo olives

  6. Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Shengqing; Cui, Wenhui; He, Jiujun; Wang, Zhenfu; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capillary injury and reduced damage to organelles and the matrix around the capillaries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax protein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apoptosis. PMID:25206510

  7. Centennial olive trees as a reservoir of genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Concepción M.; Trujillo, Isabel; Barrio, Eladio; Belaj, Angjelina; Barranco, Diego; Rallo, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the oldest trees could be a powerful tool both for germplasm collection and for understanding the earliest origins of clonally propagated fruit crops. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a suitable model to study the origin of cultivars due to its long lifespan, resulting in the existence of both centennial and millennial trees across the Mediterranean Basin. Methods The genetic identity and diversity as well as the phylogenetic relationships among the oldest wild and cultivated olives of southern Spain were evaluated by analysing simple sequence repeat markers. Samples from both the canopy and the roots of each tree were analysed to distinguish which trees were self-rooted and which were grafted. The ancient olives were also put into chronological order to infer the antiquity of traditional olive cultivars. Key Results Only 9·6 % out of 104 a priori cultivated ancient genotypes matched current olive cultivars. The percentage of unidentified genotypes was higher among the oldest olives, which could be because they belong to ancient unknown cultivars or because of possible intra-cultivar variability. Comparing the observed patterns of genetic variation made it possible to distinguish which trees were grafted onto putative wild olives. Conclusions This study of ancient olives has been fruitful both for germplasm collection and for enlarging our knowledge about olive domestication. The findings suggest that grafting pre-existing wild olives with olive cultivars was linked to the beginnings of olive growing. Additionally, the low number of genotypes identified in current cultivars points out that the ancient olives from southern Spain constitute a priceless reservoir of genetic diversity. PMID:21852276

  8. Co-composting of solid and liquid olive mill wastes: management aspects and the horticultural value of the resulting composts.

    PubMed

    Aviani, I; Laor, Y; Medina, Sh; Krassnovsky, A; Raviv, M

    2010-09-01

    Successful co-composting of solid and liquid olive mill wastes (OMW) and obtaining a product of horticultural value may increase the viability of this recycling approach. Two composting cycles were performed, in which olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) were used to form five mixtures, wetted either with fresh water or with olive mill wastewater (OMWW). Up to approximately 0.3m(3) of OMWW could be applied to each m(3) of the raw materials without negatively affecting the chemical, physical and horticultural properties of the resulted composts. A growing media composed of perlite amended with 25-33% OMW-composts showed higher suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis as compared to equivalent perlite:peat moss mixtures. The yields of tomato plants grown in peat moss amended with 20% (v:v) of OMW-composts were not significantly different than plants grown in unamended peat. The viability of co-composting as a treatment approach for OMWW is discussed in the context of management aspects and the horticultural value of the final product.

  9. 7 CFR 932.20 - Part and subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... Olives Grown in California and all rules and regulations, and supplementary orders issued thereunder. The aforesaid Order Regulating the Handling of Olives Grown in California shall be a subpart of such part....

  10. 7 CFR 932.20 - Part and subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... Olives Grown in California and all rules and regulations, and supplementary orders issued thereunder. The aforesaid Order Regulating the Handling of Olives Grown in California shall be a subpart of such part....

  11. 7 CFR 932.20 - Part and subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... Olives Grown in California and all rules and regulations, and supplementary orders issued thereunder. The aforesaid Order Regulating the Handling of Olives Grown in California shall be a subpart of such part....

  12. 7 CFR 932.20 - Part and subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... Olives Grown in California and all rules and regulations, and supplementary orders issued thereunder. The aforesaid Order Regulating the Handling of Olives Grown in California shall be a subpart of such part....

  13. 7 CFR 932.20 - Part and subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... Olives Grown in California and all rules and regulations, and supplementary orders issued thereunder. The aforesaid Order Regulating the Handling of Olives Grown in California shall be a subpart of such part....

  14. 77 FR 40250 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity and Revising Exemption Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... the exemption provisions applicable to handler diversion activities prescribed under the...

  15. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    PubMed Central

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism. PMID:28225009

  16. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding.

    PubMed

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-02-22

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism.

  17. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-02-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism.

  18. Land use and biodiversity patterns of the herpetofauna: The role of olive groves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpio, Antonio J.; Oteros, Jose; Tortosa, Francisco S.; Guerrero-Casado, José

    2016-01-01

    The intensification of agriculture has significant environmental consequences. This intensification entails the simplification and homogenisation of the landscape, which leads to strong negative impacts at ecosystem level, including declines in animal biodiversity. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different land uses on reptilian and amphibian biodiversity patterns at a regional scale by analysing a large database on the presence of amphibians and reptiles in Andalusia (southern Spain). GIS techniques and the Ecological-Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) were applied in order to assess whether the habitat was suitable for each reptilian and amphibian species, when the land use variables were excluded. The incongruence between the potential and the observed species richness was then correlated with the main types of land use in Andalusia. Our results showed that irrigated and unirrigated olive groves were associated with a biodiversity deficit of amphibians and reptiles respectively, whereas natural forests and pastures, along with more heterogeneous crops areas, were more suitable. A clustering analysis showed that generalist species were related to olive groves whereas rare and specialist species were related to land uses related to natural vegetation. In summary, our results indicate that large areas covered by olives groves harbour less amphibian and reptilian diversity, thus suggesting that agro-environmental schemes should be carried to promote the species richness in these crops.

  19. Chemical treatment of olive pomace: effect on acid-basic properties and metal biosorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Martín-Lara, M A; Pagnanelli, F; Mainelli, S; Calero, M; Toro, L

    2008-08-15

    In this study, olive pomace, an agricultural waste that is very abundant in Mediterranean area, was modified by two chemical treatments in order to improve its biosorption capacity. Potentiometric titrations and IR analyses were used to characterise untreated olive pomace (OP), olive pomace treated by phosphoric acid (PAOP) and treated by hydrogen peroxide (HPOP). Acid-base properties of all investigated biosorbents were characterised by two main kinds of active sites, whose nature and concentration were determined by a mechanistic model assuming continuous distribution for the proton affinity constants. Titration modelling denoted that all investigated biosorbents (OP, PAOP and HPOP) were characterised by the same kinds of active sites (carboxylic and phenolic), but with different total concentrations with PAOP richer than OP and HPOP. Single metal equilibrium studies in batch reactors were carried out to determine the capacity of these sorbents for copper and cadmium ions at constant pH. Experimental data were analysed and compared using the Langmuir isotherm. The order of maximum uptake capacity of copper and cadmium ions on different biosorbents was PAOP>HPOP>OP. The maximum adsorption capacity of copper and cadmium, was obtained as 0.48 and 0.10 mmol/g, respectively, for PAOP. Metal biosorption tests in presence of Na(+) in solution were also carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment on biomass selectivity. These data showed that PAOP is more selective for cadmium than the other sorbents, while similar selectivity was observed for copper.

  20. Impact of climate change on olive crop flowering at southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabaldón-Leal, Clara; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; de la Rosa, Raúl; León, Lorenzo; Rodríguez, Alfredo; Belaj, Angjelina; Lorite, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Andalusia region (Southern Spain) is the largest olive oil producer in the world with 40% of the total production (1.1millions tons; FAOSTAT, 2013). Predicting flowering dates of olive under future climate conditions has a critical importance as flowering is a critical stage for olive as heat and water stresses during this period have a significant impact on final olive oil yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the olive flowering dates under future climate conditions. Climate data for the future period was obtained from the ENSEMBLES European Project (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/) with a bias correction in temperature and precipitation with regard with the SPAIN02 dataset (Herrera et al., 2012) (ENS-SP). Flowering of ten different olive cultivars were evaluated under current and forced (greenhouse) climate conditions, applying the bias in temperatures comparing the current period (1981-2010) with the future period (2071-2100) to the current conditions in Cordoba (Andalusia, Spain). These observations allowed obtaining a flowering approach which was applied to the whole Andalusia region. The results showed an average advance in flowering dates about 16 days at the end of the 21st century. With these results different areas within Andalusia region were classified based on the vulnerability caused by the lack of chilling hours accumulation (coastal areas) or by high temperatures during flowering (north and northeast regions). This study has been supported by the project RTA2014-00030-00-00 funded by INIA and FEDER 2014-2020 "Programa Operativo de Crecimiento Inteligente" and IFAPA project AGR6126 from Junta de Andalucía, Spain. FAOSTAT (2013) Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations. Available at http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QD/E. Accessed 07 January 2016 Herrera S, Gutiérrez JM, Ancell R, Pons MR, Frías MD, Fernández J. 2012. Development and analysis of a 50-year high-resolution daily gridded precipitation dataset over Spain (Spain02

  1. Phosphorous Nutritional Level, Carbohydrate Reserves and Flower Quality in Olives

    PubMed Central

    Erel, Ran; Yermiyahu, Uri; Yasuor, Hagai; Cohen Chamus, Dan; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    The olive tree is generally characterized by relatively low final fruit set consequential to a significant rate of undeveloped pistils, pistil abortion, and flower and fruitlet abscission. These processes are acknowledged to be governed by competition for resources between the developing vegetative and reproductive organs. To study the role of phosphorus (P) nutritional level on reproductive development, trees were grown under four levels of P for three years in large containers. Phosphorus nutritional level was positively related to rate of reproductive bud break, inflorescence weight, rate of hermaphrodite flowers, pistil weight, fruitlet persistence, fruit set and the consequential total number of fruits. The positive impact of P nutrition on the productivity parameters was not related to carbohydrate reserves or to carbohydrate transport to the developing inflorescence. Phosphorous deficient trees showed significant impairment of assimilation rate, and yet, carbohydrates were accumulated in inflorescences at levels comparable to or higher than trees receiving high P. In contrast to female reproductive organs, pollen viability was consistently higher in P deficient trees, possibly due to the enhanced carbohydrate availability. Overall, the positive effect of P on female reproductive development was found to be independent of the total carbohydrate availability. Hence, P is speculated to have a direct influence on reproductive processes. PMID:27907133

  2. Research in olive oil: challenges for the near future.

    PubMed

    García-González, Diego L; Aparicio, Ramón

    2010-12-22

    Olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, is continually evolving toward a more competitive global market. Being one of the most studied foods across different disciplines, olive oil still needs intensive research activity to face some vulnerabilities and challenges. This perspective describes some of them and shows a vision of research on olive oil for the near future, bringing together those aspects that are more relevant for better understanding and protection of this edible oil. To accomplish the most urgent challenges, some possible strategies are outlined, taking advantage of the latest analytical advances, considering six areas: (i) olive growing; (ii) processing, byproduct, and environmental issues; (iii) virgin olive oil sensory quality; (iv) purity, authentication, and traceability; (v) health and nutrition; (vi) consumers. The coming research, besides achieving those challenges, would increase the understanding of some aspects that are still the subject of debate and controversy among scientists focused on olive oil.

  3. Virgin olive oil: a key food for cardiovascular risk protection.

    PubMed

    Covas, María-Isabel; de la Torre, Rafael; Fitó, Montserrat

    2015-04-01

    Olive oil is considered to be one of the most healthy dietary fats. However, several types of olive oils are present in the market. A key question for the consumer is: What of the olive oils is the best when concerning nutritional purposes? With the data available at present, the answer is: the Virgin Olive Oil (VOO), rich in phenolic compounds. On November 2011, the European Food Safety Authority released a claim concerning the benefits of daily ingestion of olive oil rich in phenolic compounds, such as VOO. In this review, we summarised the key work that has provided the evidence of the benefits of VOO consumption on other types of edible oils, even olive oils. We focused on data from randomised, controlled human studies, which are capable of providing the evidence of Level I that is required for performing nutritional recommendations at population level.

  4. Olives and Olive Oil Are Sources of Electrophilic Fatty Acid Nitroalkenes

    PubMed Central

    Schopfer, Francisco J.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Vitturi, Dario; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso, Juan B.; Radi, Rafael; Freeman, Bruce A.; Rubbo, Homero

    2014-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO) and nitrite (NO2−)-dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA) that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine) in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2− under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA) and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA). The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. PMID:24454759

  5. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils.

  6. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  8. 78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 948 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 AGENCY: Agricultural... membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 (Committee). The Committee...

  9. 77 FR 21841 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... / Thursday, April 12, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 983 Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate...: The Department of Agriculture (USDA) is adopting, as a final rule, without change, an interim...

  10. 76 FR 33967 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... / Friday, June 10, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 953 Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for...

  11. 76 FR 8917 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY:...

  12. 76 FR 48742 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Change in Reporting Requirements and New Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 920 Kiwifruit Grown in California; Change in Reporting Requirements and New Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service,...

  13. Analysis of minor components in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Murkovic, Michael; Lechner, Sonja; Pietzka, Ariane; Bratacos, Michael; Katzogiannos, Evangellos

    2004-10-29

    Virgin olive oil is well known for its high content of phenolic substances that are thought to have health-promoting properties. These substances also contribute to the distinctive taste of the oil. In this study, tyrosol, vanillic acid, luteolin, and apigenin were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In the seven samples analysed, tyrosol, the most abundant, was in the range of 1.4-29 mg/kg, vanillic acid was in the range of 0.67-4.0 mg/kg, luteolin was in the range of 0.22-7.0 mg/kg, and apigenin was in the range of 0.68-1.6 mg/kg. It was also shown that in olive oil, squalene can be analysed by using a refractive index detector. In the samples analysed, squalene occurred in the range of 3.9-9.6 g/l.

  14. Traceability markers to the botanical origin in olive oils.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Cristina; Marina Alegre, María Luisa; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2010-01-13

    This review provides an overview of traceability studies performed to date (April 2009) for olive oils. Special emphasis has been made on the botanical origin because high-quality monovarietal olive oils have been recently introduced on the markets and their quality control requires the development of new and powerful analytical tools as well as new regulations to avoid fraud to consumers. Several parameters with discriminant power have been used for olive oil traceability according to the olive variety used in the production of the oil. They have been considered as traceability markers to the botanical origin and classified, in this work, as compositional and genetical markers.

  15. Cooling treatment of olive paste during the oil processing: Impact on the yield and extra virgin olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Veneziani, G; Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Urbani, S; Selvaggini, R; Di Maio, I; Sordini, B; Servili, M

    2017-04-15

    In recent years, the temperature of processed olives in many olive-growing areas was often close to 30°C, due to the global warming and an early harvesting period. Consequently, the new trends in the extraction process have to include the opportunity to cool the olives or olive paste before processing to obtain high quality EVOO. A tubular thermal exchanger was used for a rapid cooling treatment (CT) of olive paste after crushing. The results did not show a significant difference in the oil yield or any modifications in the legal parameters. The cooling process determined a significant improvement of phenolic compounds in all the three Italian cultivar EVOOs analyzed, whereas the volatile compounds showed a variability largely affected by the genetic origin of the olives with C6 aldehydes that seem to be more stable than C6 alcohols and esters.

  16. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    PubMed

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil.

  17. 76 FR 10555 - Marketing Orders for Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Request for New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Marketing Orders for Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Request for New Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... (44 U.S.C. chapter 35), this notice announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention...

  18. Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

  19. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  20. Mediterranean diet, olive oil and cancer.

    PubMed

    Colomer, Ramón; Menéndez, Javier A

    2006-01-01

    Olive oil is an integral ingredient of the "Mediterranean diet" and accumulating evidence suggests that it may have a potential role in lowering the risk of several types of cancers. The mechanisms by which the cancer-preventing effects of olive oil can be performed, however, are not known. We recently hypothesized that a novel molecular explanation concerning the anti-cancer actions of olive oil may relate to the ability of its monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) oleic acid (OA; 18:1n-9) to specifically regulate cancer-related oncogenes. Supporting our hypothesis, exogenous supplementation of cultured breast cancer cells with physiological concentrations of OA was found to suppress the overexpression of HER2 (Her-2/neu, erbB-2), a well-characterized oncogene playing a key role in the etiology, progression and response to chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in approximately 20% of breast carcinomas. OA treatment was also found to synergistically enhance the efficacy of trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody binding with high affinity to the ectodomain (ECD) of the Her2-coded p185(HER2) oncoprotein. Moreover, OA exposure significantly diminished the proteolytic cleavage of the ECD of HER2 and, consequently, its activation status, a crucial molecular event that determines both the aggressive behavior and the response to trastuzumab of Her2-overexpressing breast carcinomas. Our most recent findings further reveal that OA exposure may suppresses HER2 at the transcriptional level by up-regulating the expression of the Ets protein PEA3 -a DNA-binding protein that specifically blocks HER2 promoter activity- in breast, ovarian and stomach cancer cell lines. This anti-HER2 property of OA offers a previously unrecognized molecular mechanism by which olive oil may regulate the malignant behavior of cancer cells. From a clinical perspective, it could provide an effective means of influencing the outcome of Her-2/neu-overexpressing human carcinomas with poor prognosis

  1. Evaluation of agricultural residues for paper manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaide, L.J.; Baldovin, F.L.; Herranz, J.L.F. )

    1993-03-01

    Five agricultural residues-olive tree fellings, wheat straw, sunflower stalks, vine shoots, and cotton stalks-were evaluated for use as raw materials for paper manufacture. The untreated raw materials and their pulps were tested for hot-water solubles, 1%-NaOH solubles, alcohol-benzene extractables, ash, holocellulose, lignin, [alpha]-cellulose, and pentosans. Handsheets were tested for breaking length, stretch, burst index, and tear index. The results showed wheat straw to be the most promising material. Vine shoots showed the least promise.

  2. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry.

  3. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  4. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  5. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  6. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste.

  7. 76 FR 53842 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 948 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado... prescribed under the Colorado potato marketing order (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado, and is administered locally by the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee...

  8. 75 FR 18428 - Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 956 Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla... the handling of sweet onions grown in the Walla Walla Valley of southeast Washington and northeast Oregon. The marketing order is administered locally by the Walla Walla Sweet Onion Marketing...

  9. 76 FR 49381 - Oranges and Grapefruit Grown in Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 906 Oranges and Grapefruit Grown in Lower... 7/10-bushel carton or equivalent of oranges and grapefruit handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of oranges and grapefruit grown in the Lower...

  10. 78 FR 46494 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York... Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments... prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New...

  11. 76 FR 67317 - Onions Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, OR; Modification of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 958 Onions Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, OR; Modification of Handling Regulations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...-Eastern Oregon onion marketing order. The marketing order regulates the handling of onions grown...

  12. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  13. Isolation of a Bacterial Inhibitor from Green Olives1

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, H. P.; Walter, W. M.; Etchells, J. L.

    1969-01-01

    A compound inhibitory to lactic acid bacteria was isolated from green Manzanillo olives. The inhibitor is a phenolic compound, is devoid of acid-hydrolyzable reducing sugar, and has a bitter taste. Freezing the olives prior to extraction caused chemical changes which greatly increased the level of the inhibitor, whereas heating prior to freezing prevented its formation. Images PMID:16349868

  14. Sustainable technologies for olive mill wastewater management (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California olive oil industry produces more than 600 million gallons of wastewater each year. Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered a highly polluting effluent due to its high organic load and resistance to biological degradation. A current trend in OMWW management is to not only decrease e...

  15. Allergy to olive pollen: a study of four family members.

    PubMed

    Kalogeromitros, D; Armenaka, M; Toumbis-Ioannou, E; Koumandaki, E; Papasteriades, C; Lombardero, M; Katsarou, A

    2001-01-01

    We describe four family members with respiratory and dermatological manifestations of olive pollen allergy. The purpose of this study was 1) to investigate whether these patients' sera react to the same or different olive allergens, and 2) to identify common HLA class II antigens.

  16. VIEW OF WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK AND DAM LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK AND DAM LOOKING NORTHEAST, LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, GULF MOBILE & OHIO RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FRONT OF LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE, NORTHPORT LEFT SIDE, TUSCALOOSA RIGHT SIDE, UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - William Baker Oliver Lock & Dam, Spans Warrior River between Tuscaloosa & Northport, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  17. BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FRUIT FLY IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), monitored with ChamP traps captured the highest numbers of adults in olive trees, Olea europaea, in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Significantly more adults were captured in Pherocon ® AM traps than ChamP tra...

  18. Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-14

    18 Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity Congressional Research Service Summary Industrial hemp is a variety of Cannabis sativa and is of the same...further processing. Under the current U.S. drug policy, all cannabis varieties, including hemp, are considered Schedule I controlled substances under the...illegal to grow without a DEA permit. Currently, cannabis varieties may be legitimately grown for research purposes only. Among the concerns over

  19. 76 FR 37618 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Late Payment and Interest Requirements on Past Due...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Late Payment and... order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is administered locally by the Vidalia Onion Committee (Committee). This...

  20. 75 FR 33736 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York... regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington... amend Marketing Agreement and Order No. 930 (order) regulating the handling of tart cherries grown...

  1. Intensive olive orchards on sloping land: good water and pest management are essential.

    PubMed

    Metzidakis, I; Martinez-Vilela, A; Castro Nieto, G; Basso, B

    2008-11-01

    There is intensive cultivation of olives on sloping land in Jaen-Granada (Spain), Basilicata (Italy) and Western Crete (Greece). The intensive olive groves here are characterised by a tree density of about 250treesha(-1), yearly fertilisation and pruning, several chemical sprays for pest control, soil tillage once to thrice per year and irrigation up to 2700m3ha(-1)yr(-1). Intensive management results in high yields of 3600-6500kgha(-1) but also higher labour costs of 1154-1590euroha(-1)yr(-1), varying per area. The major environmental concerns in this system are related to chemical residues in the fruit, the extinction of useful insects, the depletion of groundwater resources, the pollution of soil and water and the erosion of soil. This paper describes the impact of intensive orchard management on natural resources and gives recommendations for soil and water conservation, reduction of chemicals use and biodiversity enhancement. The specific recommendations for the relevant stakeholders--farmers, technicians, agricultural services and policy makers--are based on the experimental evaluation of different agricultural practices and a socio-economic analysis of local and global production and markets.

  2. OLIVERO: the project analysing the future of olive production systems on sloping land in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Stroosnijder, Leo; Mansinho, Maria Inês; Palese, Assunta Maria

    2008-11-01

    From 2003 to 2006, a consortium of six European partners analysed the future of olive production systems on sloping land in the Mediterranean basin. Olive production on such land dates back to pre-Roman times, but the production systems (known by the acronym SMOPS, for "Sloping and Mountainous Olive Production Systems"), are under threat. Many are unsustainable environmentally (erosion hazard), socially (exodus of young people) or economically (high labour costs). The OLIVERO research project was possible thanks to a grant of euro1.5 million from the European Union, which gives out euro2.5 billion in subsidies annually for olive production. An extended survey conducted by the project in five sites in Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece revealed the diversity and multifunctionality of SMOPS. Four main systems were identified as important for the future: traditional, organic, semi-intensive and intensive. The conceptual framework of OLIVERO involved six phases, ranging from the initial survey up to policy recommendations. In all phases there was intensive contact with stakeholders and institutions. End-users were identified at three levels: local, intermediate and regional, and national/international. This paper presents the highlights of the physical analysis of land and water resources, crop and land management, and economics and policies. Scenario studies gave insight into the possible future: some SMOPS will be gradually abandoned or transformed into nature conservation areas, others will exploit drip irrigation and follow the intensification patterns of agriculture in the valleys, and a third group will continue to be managed more extensively, perhaps augmenting their income with other activities (possibly off-farm) or turning to organic production systems. At the five international OLIVERO meetings held from 2003 to 2006, knowledge, experience and ideas on the future of olive production systems were intensively exchanged. A network was established for ongoing and

  3. Effect of preprocessing olive storage conditions on virgin olive oil quality and composition.

    PubMed

    Inarejos-García, Antonio M; Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Desamparados Salvador, M; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2010-04-28

    The quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) is intimately related to the characteristics and composition of the olive fruit at the moment of its milling. In this study, the determination of suitable olive storage conditions and feasibility of using this preprocessing operation to modulate the sensory taste of VOO are reported. Several olive batches were stored in different conditions (from monolayer up to 60 cm thickness, at 20 and 10 degrees C) for a period of up to three weeks, and the quality and composition of minor constituents, mainly phenols and volatiles, in the corresponding VOO were monitored. Cornicabra cultivar VOO obtained from drupes stored for 5 or 8 days at 20 or 10 degrees C, respectively, retained the "extra virgin" category, according to chemical quality indices, since only small increases in free acidity and peroxide values were observed, and the bitter index of this monovarietal oil was reduced by 30-40%. Storage under monolayer conditions at 10 degrees C for up to two weeks is also feasible because "off-odor" development was delayed, a 50% reduction in bitterness was obtained, and the overall good quality of the final product was preserved.

  4. Influence of Picual olive ripening on virgin olive oil alteration and stability during potato frying.

    PubMed

    Olivero-David, Raul; Mena, Carmen; Pérez-Jimenez, M Angeles; Sastre, Blanca; Bastida, Sara; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2014-12-03

    Ripening modifies oil attributes and composition. However, the influence of olive ripening on virgin olive oil (VOO) thermal oxidative stability on food-frying has not been studied yet. Oils from Picual olives of low (VOO1), medium (VOO2), and high (VOO3) ripeness were obtained, and their thermal oxidative stability during 40 potato-fryings was tested. Unused VOO1 showed higher antioxidant content and oxidative stability than VOO2 and VOO3. Polar compounds (PC), oligomers, and altered fatty acid methyl esters (polar-FAME) increased, whereas linoleic acid, polyphenols, and tocopherols decreased in the three VOOs through frying. The alteration was lower in VOO1, followed by VOO2 (0.105, 0.117, and 0.042 g/100 g oil less of PC, oligomers and polar-FAME per frying, respectively, in VOO1 than in VOO3). In conclusion, VOO obtained from low-ripeness Picual olives should be preferred when frying fresh-potatoes due to its higher thermal and oxidative stability, permitting a higher number of potato-frying uses.

  5. 7 CFR 932.10 - Lot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.10 Lot. Lot means the total net weight of natural condition olives of any...

  6. 7 CFR 932.36 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.36 Procedure. Decisions of the committee shall be...

  7. 7 CFR 932.14 - Process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.14 Process. Process means to change olives in any way from their...

  8. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  9. 7 CFR 932.10 - Lot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.10 Lot. Lot means the total net weight of natural condition olives of any...

  10. 7 CFR 932.34 - Powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.34 Powers. The committee shall have the following powers:...

  11. 7 CFR 932.61 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reports and Records § 932.61 Records. Each handler shall maintain such records of olives...

  12. 7 CFR 932.37 - Compensation and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.37 Compensation and expenses. The members of...

  13. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  14. 7 CFR 932.13 - Size-grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.13 Size-grade. Size-grade means to classify olives, or to cause...

  15. 7 CFR 932.22 - Sublot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.22 Sublot. Sublot means a quantity of olives resulting from the separation...

  16. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  17. 7 CFR 932.61 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reports and Records § 932.61 Records. Each handler shall maintain such records of olives...

  18. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  19. 7 CFR 932.13 - Size-grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.13 Size-grade. Size-grade means to classify olives, or to cause...

  20. 7 CFR 932.230 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and... established for California olives. Editorial Note: After January 1, 1979, “Budget of Expenses and Rate...

  1. 7 CFR 932.60 - Reports of acquisitions, sales, uses, shipments and creditable brand advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reports and Records § 932.60... file such reports of his acquisitions, sales, uses, and shipments of olives, as may be requested by...

  2. 7 CFR 932.26 - Term of office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.26 Term of office. The term of office of members...

  3. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  4. 7 CFR 932.230 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and... established for California olives. Editorial Note: After January 1, 1979, “Budget of Expenses and Rate...

  5. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  6. 7 CFR 932.12 - Size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.12 Size. Size means the number of whole olives contained in a pound and may...

  7. 7 CFR 932.33 - Vacancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.33 Vacancies. To fill any vacancy occasioned by...

  8. 7 CFR 932.13 - Size-grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.13 Size-grade. Size-grade means to classify olives, or to cause...

  9. 7 CFR 932.36 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.36 Procedure. Decisions of the committee shall be...

  10. 7 CFR 932.12 - Size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.12 Size. Size means the number of whole olives contained in a pound and may...

  11. 7 CFR 932.34 - Powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.34 Powers. The committee shall have the following powers:...

  12. 7 CFR 932.60 - Reports of acquisitions, sales, uses, shipments and creditable brand advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reports and Records § 932.60... file such reports of his acquisitions, sales, uses, and shipments of olives, as may be requested by...

  13. 7 CFR 932.14 - Process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.14 Process. Process means to change olives in any way from their...

  14. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  15. 7 CFR 932.13 - Size-grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.13 Size-grade. Size-grade means to classify olives, or to cause...

  16. 7 CFR 932.10 - Lot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.10 Lot. Lot means the total net weight of natural condition olives of any...

  17. 7 CFR 932.22 - Sublot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.22 Sublot. Sublot means a quantity of olives resulting from the separation...

  18. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  19. 7 CFR 932.60 - Reports of acquisitions, sales, uses, shipments and creditable brand advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reports and Records § 932.60... file such reports of his acquisitions, sales, uses, and shipments of olives, as may be requested by...

  20. 7 CFR 932.14 - Process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.14 Process. Process means to change olives in any way from their...

  1. 7 CFR 932.34 - Powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.34 Powers. The committee shall have the following powers:...

  2. 7 CFR 932.30 - Alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.30 Alternates. An alternate for a member of...

  3. 7 CFR 932.33 - Vacancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.33 Vacancies. To fill any vacancy occasioned by...

  4. 7 CFR 932.61 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reports and Records § 932.61 Records. Each handler shall maintain such records of olives...

  5. 7 CFR 932.33 - Vacancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.33 Vacancies. To fill any vacancy occasioned by...

  6. 7 CFR 932.230 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and... established for California olives. Editorial Note: After January 1, 1979, “Budget of Expenses and Rate...

  7. 7 CFR 932.60 - Reports of acquisitions, sales, uses, shipments and creditable brand advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reports and Records § 932.60... file such reports of his acquisitions, sales, uses, and shipments of olives, as may be requested by...

  8. 7 CFR 932.12 - Size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.12 Size. Size means the number of whole olives contained in a pound and may...

  9. 7 CFR 932.230 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and... established for California olives. Editorial Note: After January 1, 1979, “Budget of Expenses and Rate...

  10. 7 CFR 932.36 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.36 Procedure. Decisions of the committee shall be...

  11. 7 CFR 932.34 - Powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.34 Powers. The committee shall have the following powers:...

  12. 7 CFR 932.26 - Term of office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.26 Term of office. The term of office of members...

  13. 7 CFR 932.33 - Vacancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.33 Vacancies. To fill any vacancy occasioned by...

  14. 7 CFR 932.26 - Term of office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.26 Term of office. The term of office of members...

  15. 7 CFR 932.10 - Lot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.10 Lot. Lot means the total net weight of natural condition olives of any...

  16. 7 CFR 932.37 - Compensation and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.37 Compensation and expenses. The members of...

  17. 7 CFR 932.60 - Reports of acquisitions, sales, uses, shipments and creditable brand advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reports and Records § 932.60... file such reports of his acquisitions, sales, uses, and shipments of olives, as may be requested by...

  18. 7 CFR 932.36 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.36 Procedure. Decisions of the committee shall be...

  19. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  20. 7 CFR 932.12 - Size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.12 Size. Size means the number of whole olives contained in a pound and may...

  1. 7 CFR 932.61 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reports and Records § 932.61 Records. Each handler shall maintain such records of olives...

  2. 7 CFR 932.37 - Compensation and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.37 Compensation and expenses. The members of...

  3. 7 CFR 932.33 - Vacancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.33 Vacancies. To fill any vacancy occasioned by...

  4. 7 CFR 932.36 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.36 Procedure. Decisions of the committee shall be...

  5. 7 CFR 932.12 - Size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.12 Size. Size means the number of whole olives contained in a pound and may...

  6. 7 CFR 932.34 - Powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.34 Powers. The committee shall have the following powers:...

  7. 7 CFR 932.230 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and... established for California olives. Editorial Note: After January 1, 1979, “Budget of Expenses and Rate...

  8. 7 CFR 932.22 - Sublot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.22 Sublot. Sublot means a quantity of olives resulting from the separation...

  9. 7 CFR 932.61 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reports and Records § 932.61 Records. Each handler shall maintain such records of olives...

  10. 7 CFR 932.37 - Compensation and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.37 Compensation and expenses. The members of...

  11. 7 CFR 932.37 - Compensation and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.37 Compensation and expenses. The members of...

  12. 7 CFR 932.13 - Size-grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.13 Size-grade. Size-grade means to classify olives, or to cause...

  13. 7 CFR 932.26 - Term of office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.26 Term of office. The term of office of members...

  14. 7 CFR 932.22 - Sublot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.22 Sublot. Sublot means a quantity of olives resulting from the separation...

  15. 7 CFR 932.14 - Process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.14 Process. Process means to change olives in any way from their...

  16. 7 CFR 932.14 - Process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.14 Process. Process means to change olives in any way from their...

  17. 7 CFR 932.22 - Sublot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.22 Sublot. Sublot means a quantity of olives resulting from the separation...

  18. 7 CFR 932.10 - Lot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.10 Lot. Lot means the total net weight of natural condition olives of any...

  19. 7 CFR 932.26 - Term of office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.26 Term of office. The term of office of members...

  20. Graphic Grown Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  1. Response of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and conditions in California olive orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europae...

  2. Characterization of Libyan olive, olea europaea L., cultivars using morpholigical data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) consumption and production are important socially and economically in Libya. Olive cultivars that are adapted to local conditions produce olives that have high quality and quantities of oil. Many of the important Libyan olive cultivars were included in this research. One goa...

  3. Quantitative assessment of different phenolic compounds in Texas olive oils versus foreign oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texas Olive Ranch is the first one to produce olive oil and has the sole product in the Texas market place; several growers are now starting to cultivate olive at various sites in Texas. The quality of olive oil produced and pressed in Texas has never been explored. This study was conducted to inv...

  4. 7 CFR 932.24 - Noncanning use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.24 Noncanning use. Noncanning use means the use of olives other than in the production of canned ripe olives, and is the authorized outlet for undersize olives and...

  5. 7 CFR 932.52 - Outgoing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 932.52 Outgoing regulations. (a) Minimum standards for packaged olives. No handler shall use processed olives in the production of packaged olives or ship such packaged...

  6. 7 CFR 932.24 - Noncanning use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.24 Noncanning use. Noncanning use means the use of olives other than in the production of canned ripe olives, and is the authorized outlet for undersize olives and...

  7. 7 CFR 932.52 - Outgoing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 932.52 Outgoing regulations. (a) Minimum standards for packaged olives. No handler shall use processed olives in the production of packaged olives or ship such packaged...

  8. 7 CFR 932.51 - Incoming regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... olives. (1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, no handler shall process any lot of natural condition olives for use in the production of packaged olives which has not first been: (i) Weighed...

  9. 7 CFR 932.51 - Incoming regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... olives. (1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, no handler shall process any lot of natural condition olives for use in the production of packaged olives which has not first been: (i) Weighed...

  10. 7 CFR 932.51 - Incoming regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... olives. (1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, no handler shall process any lot of natural condition olives for use in the production of packaged olives which has not first been: (i) Weighed...

  11. 7 CFR 932.52 - Outgoing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 932.52 Outgoing regulations. (a) Minimum standards for packaged olives. No handler shall use processed olives in the production of packaged olives or ship such packaged...

  12. 7 CFR 932.24 - Noncanning use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.24 Noncanning use. Noncanning use means the use of olives other than in the production of canned ripe olives, and is the authorized outlet for undersize olives and...

  13. 7 CFR 932.52 - Outgoing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 932.52 Outgoing regulations. (a) Minimum standards for packaged olives. No handler shall use processed olives in the production of packaged olives or ship such packaged...

  14. 7 CFR 932.24 - Noncanning use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.24 Noncanning use. Noncanning use means the use of olives other than in the production of canned ripe olives, and is the authorized outlet for undersize olives and...

  15. 7 CFR 932.52 - Outgoing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 932.52 Outgoing regulations. (a) Minimum standards for packaged olives. No handler shall use processed olives in the production of packaged olives or ship such packaged...

  16. 7 CFR 932.51 - Incoming regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... olives. (1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, no handler shall process any lot of natural condition olives for use in the production of packaged olives which has not first been: (i) Weighed...

  17. 7 CFR 932.51 - Incoming regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... olives. (1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, no handler shall process any lot of natural condition olives for use in the production of packaged olives which has not first been: (i) Weighed...

  18. 7 CFR 932.24 - Noncanning use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.24 Noncanning use. Noncanning use means the use of olives other than in the production of canned ripe olives, and is the authorized outlet for undersize olives and...

  19. Torrefaction of agricultural by-products: Effects of temperature and time on energy yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural by-products, such as apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells, were torrefied at different temperatures and times. Torrefaction of biomass involves heating in an inert atmosphere to remove volatile components for improved grindability and increased ene...

  20. High summer temperatures affect the survival and reproduction of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Nadel, Hannah

    2009-10-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an invasive pest in California. Identifying environmental constraints that affect the geographic distribution and abundance of any invasive insect pest is fundamental to its effective management. California's Central Valley, where most commercial olives are grown, is extremely hot during the summer, with maximum daily temperatures consistently >35.0 degrees C. This study examined the effects of two diurnal temperature regimens (low 18.3 degrees C, high 35.0 or 37.8 degrees C) reflecting summer conditions in the valley, and one control temperature regimen (low 18.3 degrees C, high 23.9 degrees C) on the fly's survival and reproductive success in the laboratory. The temperature regimen of 18.3-35.0 degrees C resulted in delayed egg maturation and reduced production of mature eggs compared with the control temperature regimen. Egg maturation was possible at the higher temperature regimen when females were provided with water and food, and egg-laying occurred during the cold phase of the temperature cycle. Access to olive fruit and oviposition itself further promoted egg maturation. Under exposure to the 18.3-35.0 degrees C temperature regimen, approximately 50% of eggs died, and the remainder that hatched died as first instars. No egg hatch occurred at the temperature treatment of 18.3-37.8 degrees C. We confirmed these laboratory results through field cage studies with adult B. oleae, conducted in the summer of 2007 and 2008. Under ambient summer temperatures, adult B. oleae survived for 1-2 wk, and females readily laid eggs when provided water and food. No offspring developed in midsummer of 2007, and <2% of the offspring developed to adults in summer 2008 trials. These results suggest that high summer temperatures limit the fly's abundance in California's Central Valley.