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Sample records for agriculture rural business

  1. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  2. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  3. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  4. 7 CFR 1940.593 - Rural Business Opportunity Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural Business Opportunity Grants. 1940.593 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.593 Rural Business Opportunity Grants. (a) Amount available...

  5. 7 CFR 1940.589 - Rural Business Enterprise Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural Business Enterprise Grants. 1940.589 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.589 Rural Business Enterprise Grants. (a) Amount available...

  6. 7 CFR 1940.593 - Rural Business Opportunity Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural Business Opportunity Grants. 1940.593 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.593 Rural Business Opportunity Grants. (a) Amount available...

  7. 7 CFR 1940.589 - Rural Business Enterprise Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural Business Enterprise Grants. 1940.589 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.589 Rural Business Enterprise Grants. (a) Amount available...

  8. 75 FR 17121 - Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business--Cooperative Service Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants; Correction AGENCY: Rural Business--Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The...

  9. 77 FR 4885 - Rural Business Investment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ..., the Agency published an Interim Rule for the Rural Business Investment Program (RBIP) (69 FR 32200... to meet the capital requirements. On December 23, 2011 (76 FR 80217), the Agency published an amended... / Wednesday, February 1, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural...

  10. Agricultural Communities: The Interrelationship of Agriculture, Business, Industry, and Government in the Rural Economy. A Symposium (Washington, DC. May 19-20, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    Experts from government, academia, and interest groups met to discuss and explore the impact of changes in agriculture, industry, and government in shaping events in rural agricultural communities. Texts of 15 of the 18 papers are reproduced in the proceedings, along with the letter of submittal, overview, an agenda, and a list of presenters and…

  11. Agricultural Colleges in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Tung

    1975-01-01

    This article describes the educational program developed by one agricultural college in a rural area of China to carry out the revolution in education. Educational theory and practice are linked by involving students in the running of three forms.

  12. Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schake, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

  13. Agricultural Change, Community Change, and Rural Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the collapse of the rural community attendant on the demise of agriculture. Reports results of interviews of dairy farmers and their families in rural New York which suggest that farm problems exacerbate problems of rural poverty. Recommends effective intervention to prevent increasing rural economic poverty and social marginality. (DHP)

  14. Characterising Rural Businesses--Tales from the Paperman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Gary

    2012-01-01

    A case study of a self-termed "rural business" is used to deconstruct the concept of a rural business and shed light on specific features of "operating in a rural area" and "serving a rural population". Alongside "selling a rural product", the paper claims that these make up three parameters for categorising rural businesses. Highlighting these…

  15. Business Incubator Development in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark

    One viable economic development option for rural areas is the creation of business incubators--facilities that aid in the early stages of growth of an enterprise by providing rental space, services, and business assistance. Business incubators promote community development by diversifying the economic base, enhancing the community's image as a…

  16. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Eighteen papers about education, training, and extension in rural areas of the developing world are presented in this 1975 journal published jointly by three United Nations agencies closely concerned with education and rural development: Food and Agriculture Organization; Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; International Labor…

  17. SOLERAS: Rural/agricultural project technical overview

    SciTech Connect

    Huraib, F.S.; Adcock, J.P.; Knect, R.D.

    1987-04-01

    The objective of the Rural and Agricultural Solar Applications Projects is to enhance the quality of rural life in hot, arid climates by providing systems that use renewable or regenerable energy sources for domestic or communal, agricultural, and local industrial applications. These systems must provide domestic services such as hot water, heat for cooking, and electric power for lighting, communications, and refrigeration. In addition, agricultural applications such as water desalination, irrigation pumping, and heat and electricity for crop or food processing and local industrial functions, can become the basis for improving the villagers' standard of living. 29 refs., 82 figs., 23 tabs.

  18. Home-Based Businesses: Implications for the Rural Economy of the South. The Rural South: Preparing for the Challenges of the 21st Century, No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Pamela J.; Muske, Glenn

    In the face of changing agriculture, an aging population, and the outflow of citizens seeking livable wages, rural Southern communities are challenged with how to enhance their economies to insure long-term business viability. Home-based businesses are an effective aspect of rural economic development. They allow flexibility and choice of work…

  19. Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikerd, John

    A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

  20. Rural Knowledge and Information Systems for Non-Agricultural Rural Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    2006-01-01

    As developing countries gradually rely less upon agriculture for rural income, rural economies require new solutions to access knowledge and information systems for rural development. Non-agricultural rural knowledge and information systems can play a significant role in developing and disseminating successful strategies to escape rural poverty.…

  1. 20 CFR 404.1095 - Agricultural trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural trade or business. 404.1095... Income § 404.1095 Agricultural trade or business. (a) An agricultural trade or business is one in which, if the trade or business were carried on entirely by employees, the major portion of the...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1095 - Agricultural trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Agricultural trade or business. 404.1095... Income § 404.1095 Agricultural trade or business. (a) An agricultural trade or business is one in which, if the trade or business were carried on entirely by employees, the major portion of the...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1095 - Agricultural trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Agricultural trade or business. 404.1095... Income § 404.1095 Agricultural trade or business. (a) An agricultural trade or business is one in which, if the trade or business were carried on entirely by employees, the major portion of the...

  4. Rural development, agriculture, and food security.

    PubMed

    Ayres, W S; Mccalla, A F

    1996-12-01

    Within 30 years the world will be supplying food for an additional 2.5 billion people, most of whom will live in developing countries. Developing countries in meeting future challenges will need to implement sound and stable macroeconomic and sector policies. The World Bank is providing analysis, policy dialogue, and financial support in specific countries for opening up agricultural markets globally. Developing countries need to enhance food supplies by encouraging rapid technological change, increasing the efficiency of irrigation, and improving natural resource management. Agricultural and income growth in developing countries is dependent upon transfer of the breakthroughs in agricultural technology to the millions of small farms in the developing world. People currently use about 70% of available fresh water for irrigation, and competition for water resources with urban and industrial users has increased. Agriculture and other sectors must increase the efficiency of water use. Natural resource planning and comprehensive water and natural resource management that rely on a community-based approach have proven successful. Developing countries need to improve access to food by strengthening markets and agribusinesses, providing education and health services to both boys and girls, investing in infrastructure, and fostering broad participation. The major challenge ahead is to ensure food security for the hundreds of millions of families living in poverty. This large and complex task involves increasing agricultural output worldwide, reducing poverty, and improving health and nutrition. Progress has been made in the past 25 years in improving living conditions, but not everyone has benefitted. Almost 75% of the poor live in rural areas without access to land, and 25% are urban poor without jobs. Most of the poor live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank mandate is to reduce poverty and hunger through revitalized rural development.

  5. Empowering Women in Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugbomeh, George M. M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)

  6. Rural Allied Medical Business Occupations (RAMBO). Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gloria

    A partnership was formed to address the crisis that rural health care facilities in rural Nebraska face in attracting and hiring trained health care workers. The Rural Allied Medical Business Occupations (RAMBO) project trained economically disadvantaged individuals in high technology medical fields. Five objectives were outlined in the project:…

  7. Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    2002-01-01

    When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

  8. Agricultural Business and Management Materials for Agricultural Education Programs. Core Agricultural Education Curriculum, Central Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Office of Agricultural Communications and Education.

    This curriculum guide contains 5 teaching units for 44 agricultural business and management cluster problem areas. These problem areas have been selected as suggested areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for secondary students enrolled in an agricultural education program. The five units are as follows: (1) agribusiness operation and…

  9. Small Business Success in Rural Communities: Explaining the Sex Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Sharon R.; Sapp, Stephen G.; Lee, Motoko Y.

    2001-01-01

    Supporting a "structural relational" view of small business success, data from 423 small business owners in Iowa suggest that links between owner characteristics, social relational processes, business structure, and success operate differently depending on urban-rural location and owner sex. Female owners had more professional training than males,…

  10. Policy Perspectives on Social, Agricultural, and Rural Sustainability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimberley, Ronald C.

    1993-01-01

    Introduces three types of agricultural policy dealing with the sustainability of society, the agricultural sector, and rural people and places. Outlines sustainability issues and special interest groups related to each policy type, common ground, and the impact on rural policy of the environment, economic change, physical infrastructure, social…

  11. 7 CFR 4290.100 - Business form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business form. 4290.100 Section 4290.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ)...

  12. 7 CFR 4290.100 - Business form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business form. 4290.100 Section 4290.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ)...

  13. 7 CFR 4290.100 - Business form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business form. 4290.100 Section 4290.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ)...

  14. 7 CFR 4290.100 - Business form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business form. 4290.100 Section 4290.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ)...

  15. 7 CFR 4290.100 - Business form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business form. 4290.100 Section 4290.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ)...

  16. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development. Annual Report 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development.

    This report describes the activities of the Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD), Iowa State University, for the year ending June 30, 1987. During this fiscal year, CARD conducted numerous projects including the following: (1) a policy evaluation on agricultural applications of pesticides and ground water quality for the…

  17. Understanding the Business Case for Telemental Health in Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Lambert, David; Gale, John; Hartley, David; Croll, Zachariah; Hansen, Anush

    2016-07-01

    Telemental health has been promoted to address long-standing access barriers to rural mental health care, including low supply and long travel distances. Examples of rural telemental health programs are common; there is a less clear picture of how widely implemented these programs are, their organization, staffing, and services. There is also a need to understand the business case for these programs and assess whether and how they might realize their promise. To address these gaps, a national study was conducted of rural telemental health programs including an online survey of 53 programs and follow-up interviews with 23 programs. This article describes the current landscape and characteristics of these programs and then examines their business case. Can rural telemental health programs be sustained within current delivery systems and reimbursement structures? This question is explored in four areas: need and demand, infrastructure and workforce, funding and reimbursement, and organizational fit and alignment.

  18. Future Directions in Rural Development Policy. Findings and Recommendations of the National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, J. Norman; Rowley, Thomas D.

    The National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy, established by Congress to provide broad, long-range policy perspectives, examined rural development policy issues and made many field visits to observe rural conditions and rural development projects. The Commission recognized the diversity of rural communities and identified…

  19. Rural Sociology in the South: 1972. Proceedings: Rural Sociology Section, Association of Southern Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voland, Maurice E., Ed.

    The papers presented in this collection are said to represent the major thrusts of research and other scholarly activities of rural sociologists in the South in 1972. Arranged in the order of their presentation at the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Agricultural Workers meetings, these papers discuss such topics as youth, social change in…

  20. 7 CFR 1955.129 - Business brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Business brokers. 1955.129 Section 1955.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... Dispose of Inventory Property § 1955.129 Business brokers. The services of business brokers or...

  1. 7 CFR 1955.129 - Business brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business brokers. 1955.129 Section 1955.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... Dispose of Inventory Property § 1955.129 Business brokers. The services of business brokers or...

  2. 7 CFR 1955.129 - Business brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business brokers. 1955.129 Section 1955.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... Dispose of Inventory Property § 1955.129 Business brokers. The services of business brokers or...

  3. 7 CFR 1955.129 - Business brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business brokers. 1955.129 Section 1955.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... Dispose of Inventory Property § 1955.129 Business brokers. The services of business brokers or...

  4. 7 CFR 1955.129 - Business brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business brokers. 1955.129 Section 1955.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... Dispose of Inventory Property § 1955.129 Business brokers. The services of business brokers or...

  5. 76 FR 80217 - Rural Business Investment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Companies (RBICs) make venture capital investments in rural areas with the objectives of fostering economic... the knowledge, experience, and capability in Community Development Finance or Relevant Venture Capital... (RBIP) (69 FR 32200), a program to promote economic development and the creation of wealth and...

  6. 78 FR 28184 - Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... groups, and rural cooperatives may apply. Approximately $2.6 million is available in reserved and... close of business on the deadline date. Please note that if you are applying for Partnership funds, your... you are applying for Partnership funds, your application must be received prior to the June 30,...

  7. TQM in Rural Education: Managing Schools from a Business Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, William

    1994-01-01

    Outlines the 14 points of Deming's business philosophy of Total Quality Management in terms of rural education, including adoption of a common mission, movement from mass inspection (standardized testing) to individualized assessment, constant system improvement, training for those involved in the process, improved communication, employee rewards…

  8. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  9. 7 CFR 1940.593 - Rural Business Opportunity Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... allocations. See § 1940.552(a). (b) Basic formula criteria, data source, and weight. See § 1940.552(b). (1) The criteria used in the basic formula are: (i) State's percentage of national rural population—50... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Methodology and Formulas for Allocation...

  10. 7 CFR 1940.593 - Rural Business Opportunity Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... allocations. See § 1940.552(a). (b) Basic formula criteria, data source, and weight. See § 1940.552(b). (1) The criteria used in the basic formula are: (i) State's percentage of national rural population—50... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Methodology and Formulas for Allocation...

  11. 7 CFR 1940.593 - Rural Business Opportunity Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... allocations. See § 1940.552(a). (b) Basic formula criteria, data source, and weight. See § 1940.552(b). (1) The criteria used in the basic formula are: (i) State's percentage of national rural population—50... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Methodology and Formulas for Allocation...

  12. Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pant, Laxmi Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new…

  13. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study examines the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition--specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand…

  14. Migration and Its Effects on Agriculture and Rural Development Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Alan R.

    Migration is a major continuing phenomenon associated with national and subnational development. The past, present, and future significance of migration on rural development and agriculture are reviewed in this paper. Data are cited which appear to be at variance with popular beliefs. The complexity of interrelationships between migration…

  15. Ohio Agricultural Business and Production Systems. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Gayl M.; Kershaw, Isaac; Mokma, Arnie

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in agricultural business and production systems. Following an introduction, the Ohio College Tech Prep standards and program, and relevant definitions are described. Next are the technical competency profiles for these…

  16. Policy Directions for U. S. Agriculture; Long-Range Choices in Farming and Rural Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Marion

    A comprehensive view of agriculture is presented in this volume written to aid critical re-examination of long-range agricultural policy. Farm people, rural institutions and services, rural towns, the spatial organization of agriculture, and its capital structure, in addition to the usual subjects of agricultural output, demand, trade, price, and…

  17. Population pressure, intensification of agriculture, and rural-urban migration.

    PubMed

    Salehi-isfahani, D

    1993-04-01

    "In this paper I provide an analytical basis for why labor absorption [in agriculture] may improve with higher population density. My argument is in two parts. First, analysing agriculture in isolation, I use the Boserup insight to show that higher population density is associated with more intensive techniques of land use. Second, using a two-sector model, I show that the rate of labor absorption (defined as the rate of natural population growth minus the rate of rural-urban migration) increases with the intensity of land use." Cross-sectional data for Iran are used to illustrate the model.

  18. Occupational health and the rural worker: agriculture, mining, and logging.

    PubMed

    Pratt, D S

    1990-10-01

    More than 50 million Americans live in rural areas. These rural residents often work for small businesses or in the extraction industries (farming, mining, and logging). Because of the size of the businesses, the mandate of the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) does not cover these workers and they are seldom afforded the same protection as urban workers. This review focuses on the special health problems facing farm workers, farmers, miners, and loggers. Farm workers are often ill and are affected by psychological illness, injuries, parasites, skin diseases, and the dangers of agrichemicals. Farm owners also face the hazards of stress and have very high rates of suicide. In addition, they are often injured on the job and suffer the highest rate of job related fatality of any work group. The complex farm environment presents a continuous threat to the lungs. This danger has worsened with the increased use of confinement buildings for poultry, hogs, and cattle. As farming has changed with increased mechanization, attendant medical problems have arisen. These "illnesses of innovation" are important. Mining and logging also are dangerous occupations with acute and chronic problems including respiratory illness, vascular problems, and malignancy. The decade of the 1990s must be one of increased attention to rural occupational health care and research.

  19. Rural Development and the Regional State: Denying Multifunctional Agriculture in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Terry; Sonnino, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By…

  20. Developmental Research of Off-Farm Agricultural Businesses in Berks County, Pennsylvania. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berks County Schools, Reading, PA.

    Student vocational interest and agricultural business surveys were conducted in Berks County, Pennsylvania to gauge career opportunities in off-farm agricultural occupations. The seven categories of businesses surveyed included agriculture supplies, agriculture mechanics, horticulture mechanics, floriculture, landscaping, turf, and garden center…

  1. Water Reform and the Resilience of Small Business People in Drought-Affected Agricultural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Imogen; Williams, Pam McRae

    2009-01-01

    The impact of drought on rural communities in Australia has been the subject of considerable research. Less well understood are the impacts of drought on rural small businesses and the mechanisms they use to adapt or cope through extended dry periods. In this study, strategies these businesses draw upon to manage this adversity are identified and…

  2. Rural Business, Economic Development, and Employment in New York State: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

    The First Statewide Legislative Symposium on Rural Development assessed New York's rural business, economic development, and employment potential. Growth in the economic potential of communities, favorable quality of life, and geographic accessibility have supported a decade-long influx of new residents to New York's 44 rural counties. The state…

  3. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.405 Rural areas. The business financed with a B&I loan must be located in a rural area. Loans to borrowers with facilities located...

  4. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.405 Rural areas. The business financed with a B&I loan must be located in a rural area. Loans to borrowers with facilities located...

  5. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.405 Rural areas. The business financed with a B&I loan must be located in a rural area. Loans to borrowers with facilities located...

  6. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.405 Rural areas. The business financed with a B&I loan must be located in a rural area. Loans to borrowers with facilities located...

  7. Introduction to Agricultural Business Unit. Student Reference for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. [Volume 19, Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timko, Joseph J.; Birkenholz, Robert J.

    This student reference on agricultural business, designed to accompany the lessons outlined in the 1984 instructor's guide, "Introduction to Agricultural Business," has seven lessons: (1) introduction to agribusiness; (2) careers in agribusiness; (3) agribusiness in the community; (4) the role of the employee in an agribusiness; (5) success and…

  8. Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development: Challenges for Developing Countries in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Crowder, L.; Lindley, W. I.; Bruening, T. H.; Doron, N.

    1998-01-01

    Agricultural education institutions in developing countries must address immediate production needs as well as food security, sustainable agricultural, and rural development needs. This will mean moving to an interdisciplinary, systems approach that incorporates new topics. (Author/JOW)

  9. Beyond Agriculture: New Policies for Rural America. [Proceedings] (Kansas City, Missouri, April 27-28, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, MO. Center for the Study of Rural America.

    In April 2000, over 250 rural leaders from around the nation gathered in Kansas City, Missouri, to discuss rural America's future, its challenges, and policies to meet those challenges. Conference participants agreed that the current pattern of uneven rural growth is likely to persist and that agriculture will remain a key sector in the rural…

  10. Agricultural Change: Consequences for Southern Farms and Rural Communities. Westview Special Studies in Agricultural Science and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Joseph J., Ed.

    The 17 articles in this volume are designed to shed light on what farmers are experiencing during the current farm crisis and why. They also examine what current agricultural change means for rural life and rural communities, and what southern farming may be like in the foreseeable future. The articles represent contemporary research and…

  11. Investigating Community Factors as Predictors of Rural 11th-Grade Agricultural Science Students' Choice of Careers in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Balschweid, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the links between community contexts/factors and rural 11th-grade agricultural science students' choice of careers in agriculture. A logistic regression model was developed and tested to examine the extent to which nine measures of community contexts (i.e., membership in FFA, membership in 4-H, community attachment,…

  12. Agricultural Scholarships for Rural Youth in England and Wales, 1922-58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigott, Daniel A.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the effect of the British educational scholarships created by the 1921 Corn Production Acts (Repeal). Points out that the act enabled sons and daughters of agricultural laborers to attend secondary schools in order to obtain agricultural education. Concludes that the scholarships helped the rural youth, the agricultural economy, and the…

  13. Core II Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units A-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biondo, Ron; And Others

    This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 21 problem areas to be included in a core curriculum for 10th-grade students enrolled in a rural agricultural program. Covered in the four units included in this volume are orientation to agricultural occupations (orientation to vocational agricultural course and developing effective study…

  14. 48 CFR 1852.219-74 - Use of rural area small businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions... following clause: Use of Rural Area Small Business (SEP 1990) (a) Definitions. Rural area means any county... clause, means a concern, including its affiliates, that is independently owned and operated, not...

  15. BUSINESS PROCEDURES. AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY - SALES AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS MODULE, ONE OF A SERIES DEVELOPED TO ASSIST TEACHERS TO TRAIN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY OCCUPATIONS, IS TO DEVELOP ABILITY TO USE COMMON AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS PROCEDURES. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SECTIONS ARE (1) RECORDS IN BUSINESS, (2) SALES TICKETS…

  16. A Comparison of Certain Knowledges in Agriculture Needed by Workers in Farming, in Grain Elevator Businesses, and in Agricultural Equipment Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiscus, Keith Eugene

    Questionnaires to determine the vocational and technical education needed by prospective workers in farming and in grain elevator and agricultural equipment businesses were administered to 20 workers in each of the jobs of (1) farm manager, (2) grain elevator manager, operator, salesman, and deliveryman, and (3) agricultural equipment manager,…

  17. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-06-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study investigates the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition-specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand for farm labor is the primary driver of high fertility. If this argument holds true, the use of modern farm technologies that are designed to carry out labor-intensive farm activities ought to substitute for farm labor and discourage births in farm families. However, little empirical evidence is available on the potential influence of the use of modern farm technologies on the fertility transition. To fill this gap, the panel data examined in this study provides an unusual opportunity to test this long standing, but unexplored, argument. The results demonstrate that the use of modern farm technologies, particularly the use of a tractor and other modern farm implements, reduce subsequent births in farm households. This offers important insight for understanding the fertility transition in Nepal, a setting that is experiencing high population growth and rapidly changing farming practices. PMID:23729867

  18. Rural Alberta Home-Based Businesses: A Profile of Workshop Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capjack, M. Linda; Fetterman, Nelma I.

    1992-01-01

    Of 252 rural Alberta attendees of home-based business workshops, 60 were in business. Of these, 65 percent produced sewing, textile, or food-related products; 73 percent contributed less than 5 percent of family income; 72 percent worked at home because a hobby became profitable; and the majority were married women over 40. (SK)

  19. [Identification of the prior regions for agricultural and rural pollution control in Changshu].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hua-ping; Sun, Qing-fang; Wang, Liang; Zhu, Lin; Feng, Jin-fei; Bian, Xin-min

    2010-04-01

    The characteristics such as wide area, dispersion and randomness of agricultural and rural pollution make it difficult to seize the key to pollution control in rural areas. On the scale of township, using inventory analysis, accounting for emissions and emission intensity of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Changshu, Jiangsu Province, which exists in a total of 4 classes and 6 kinds of agricultural and rural sources such as farmland cultivation (chemical fertilizer application and crop straw abandoned), animal breeding, aquaculture, rural life (domestic sewage and human waste, solid waste), using cluster analysis, identify the prior regions and the prior pollution sources for agricultural and rural pollution control by the sensitivity evaluation, and make agricultural and rural pollution control and management measures more focused. It shows that: in 2007, COD, TN and TP emissions of agricultural and rural pollution sources were 5496.07, 4161.03, and 647.54 t x a(-1), and the emission intensity of COD, TN and TP was 48.84, 36.98, and 5.75 kg x hm(-2). The main pollution source of COD was rural life and aquaculture, and the contribution rate was more than 75%; the main pollution source of TN and TP was agricultural cultivation and aquaculture, and the contribution rate was more than 80%. The sensitivity evaluation identified that the town of Guli and Shajiabang were the prior regions for agricultural and rural pollution control in Changshu; farmland cultivation and aquaculture were the prior pollution sources in the two areas.

  20. Agriculture and the Development Process: Tentative Guidelines for Teaching. Education and Rural Development--1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malassis, L.

    Concerned with the application of science and technology to agriculture, this book is intended to be used as a reference for rural education groups and as a guide for teachers in an attempt to formulate a new approach to teaching rural economics by integrating it into the overall analysis of social and economic development. The book is divided…

  1. Rural and Agricultural Education at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Bulletin, 1916, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foght, H. W.

    1917-01-01

    This bulletin was prepared to indicate recent progress in rural life and education as disclosed by the educational exhibits at the Panama-Pacific Exposition of 1915. The discussion includes (1) the general phases of progress in rural education, and (2) advancement in its more specific agricultural phases. Little attempt has been made to present…

  2. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1977. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…

  3. Rural Development Progress: Fourth Annual Report of the Secretary of Agriculture to the Congress, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knebel, John A.

    The fourth annual secretary of agriculture report on rural development progress (prepared in response to a directive from the Rural Development Act of 1972) presents the most recently available status data on employment, income, population, housing, and community services and facilities, discusses examples of federal efforts to improve or expand…

  4. Prospects for Rural America as the Nation Matures: An Agricultural Economist's Prognosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breimyer, Harold F.

    1990-01-01

    Examines socioeconomic forces affecting U.S. rural population. Describes signs of nation's maturity, changing national issues, and elements of rural diversity and social stratification. Discusses role of transportation, demise of animal agriculture, industrial and economic changes. Emphasizes conjectural nature of conclusions about society's…

  5. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1976. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agricultural…

  6. Restructuring U.S. Agriculture: Implications for Rural Education and Other Community Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Alan R.

    Restructuring of U.S. agriculture ("neoindustrialization") is having important effects on rural residents, requiring adaptations of supporting institutions such as education. Neoindustrialization involves concentration, specialization, and vertical and horizontal integration of agricultural production and marketing, as well as further reduction of…

  7. Contextualising the Curriculum in Rural Primary Schools: The Role of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peter

    The capacity of agriculture to act as a familiar vehicle for development of young rural learners' literacy, numeracy, and other necessary life skills was examined through a literature review and case studies of the use of primary school agriculture (PSA) as a contextualizing subject in the following countries: Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Cameroon,…

  8. Agriculture, Food Production, and Rural Land Use in Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, William G.; Watson, Nancy H.

    2016-01-01

    ''Agriculture, Food, and Rural Land Use" constitutes a major part of the AP Human Geography course outline. This article explores challenging topics to teach, emerging research trends in agricultural geography, and sample teaching approaches for concretizing abstract topics. It addresses content identified as "essential knowledge"…

  9. Rural Elementary Students' Understanding of Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks Related to Meat and Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meischen, Deanna L.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2003-01-01

    Seven fifth-graders developed concept maps depicting their knowledge of meat product development. Despite their rural background, they lacked understanding of agriculture concepts and had mixed knowledge of agricultural literacy benchmarks concerning food products. Their language did not reflect scientific terminology in the benchmarks. (Contains…

  10. Journals Significant to Rural Development Received at the National Agricultural Library. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 48. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, Dorothy A., Comp.

    This directory lists 227 journals in the National Agricultural Library's (NAL) collection that are related to social and economic aspects of rural development. The directory includes both United States and international journals. Each citation includes title, NAL call number, NAL holdings information, the International Standard Serial Number…

  11. Impact of the Changing Farm Economy on Rural Communities. Evaluation of Interrelationships between Agriculture and the Economy of Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Notie H., Jr.; Jones, Lonnie L.

    A reduction in agricultural activity in a rural farming community will result in reduced activity in almost every sector of the local economy. The result may be measured in loss of employment and income. This report provides a method to estimate such economic impacts with a minimum of data collection and manipulation. Most of the input data…

  12. Engineering Education for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewumi, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…

  13. Farm Business Management, Volume II. Vocational Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Jim

    Designed to provide an advanced core of instruction in teaching farm business management, this curriculum guide for year 2 is intended for use as an adult program of instruction for a three-year period together with Farm Business Management I and III. (Volume I is available separately. See note.) The ten instructional units are presented in a…

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart G of... - Subordination by the Government for Use With Rural Housing Site Loans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subordination by the Government for Use With Rural Housing Site Loans C Exhibit C to Subpart G of Part 1822 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  15. 7 CFR 4290.320 - Contents of comprehensive business plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY... its plans and strategies for how it proposes to make successful Developmental Venture Capital... (including local economic development companies, local lenders, and local investors) in order to...

  16. Entrepreneurship Education and Training Needs of Family Businesses Operating in the Agricultural Sector of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Navjot; Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the entrepreneurship education and training (EET) needs of small family businesses operating in the agricultural sector of the Indian economy. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through a survey of 122 agricultural family firms in the Indian state of…

  17. Methodology for agricultural and rural NPS pollution in a typical county of the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Xiaolan; Ongley, Edwin; Zhao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution has been recently identified by the Chinese government as a major source of aquatic pollution. Methodologies commonly used to make basin-wide or area-wide assessments are problematic and regional distinctions have not been made relative to rainfall and runoff. Using a typical agricultural county in the Hai River basin of the North China Plan we developed methodology to estimate potential load and delivered load for crops (field crops + rice), animal production, rural living and from atmospheric N input. We use scenarios to allow for uncertainty in delivery to estimate the relative roles of different rural forms of pollution. Livestock raising is the major source of NPS pollution. Despite a 75% rural population, rural living contributes almost nothing to surface water pollution. While over-fertilization is typical, nutrient runoff from crops is low. Our results have implications for policies now under development for NPS control in China.

  18. Competition between small business and rural electic and telephone cooperatives in nonutility business. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The study concludes that while the diversification into nonutility activities by the Rural Electric Cooperatives and the Rural Telephone Cooperatives has been expanding, the regulatory activities by the Rural Electrification Administration and the state public utility commissions have been inadequate to guard against cross-subsidization. In fact, there generally exist no data to identify and investigate illegal cross-subsidization activities of cooperatives. Increasing the regulatory functions of state public utility commissions and the REA was recommended.

  19. Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

  20. 76 FR 38604 - Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Mall North, Lincoln, NE 68508, (402) 437-5551/TDD (402) 437-5093. Nevada USDA Rural Development State... may consider awarding these discretionary points to applications that propose to engage in regional economic development activities in the key strategy areas of: (1) Creating or supporting local and...

  1. Creating Opportunities: Good Practice in Small Business Training for Australian Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Lyn; Daws, Leonie; Wood, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    To overcome barriers to participation in small business training faced by rural Australian women, training needs and delivery issues were identified and a good practice matrix was developed with the following components: marketing, content, delivery, support, impact, and innovation. Underlying principles included unique needs, diversity, use of…

  2. Positive Examples and Lessons Learned from Rural Small Business Adoption of E-Commerce Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamie, R. David; Barkley, David L.; Markley, Deborah M.

    2011-01-01

    Rural small businesses struggling against the current of competition from "big box" retailers, weak consumer demand, and on-line shopping options must find strategies that work. Many are finding that adoption of e-commerce strategies is a key to survival, even prosperity. This article highlights the lessons learned from a recent case study…

  3. New Perspectives on the Rural Economy. Hearing on New Perspectives on the Rural Economy before the Subcommittee on Rural Economy and Family Farming of the Committee on Small Business. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Small Business.

    Testimony and prepared statements presented at a hearing before the Senate Subcommittee on Rural Economy and Family Farming focused on the concerns of rural small business. Witnesses included Senators from Montana, Illinois, New York, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa, and nine representatives of business, state government,…

  4. National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Childhood Resources Ag Injury News Clippings Mini-Grants Nurture Newsletter Year in Review Research Areas Filling the ... 2016 Childhood Agricultural Injuries Fact Sheet released Summer Nurture Newsletter published Upcoming Events 18 Oct National FFA ...

  5. Farm Business Management. Volume I. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgens, Jim; Meyers, Leland

    This curriculum guide provides a basic core of instruction for the first year of a three-year adult program in farm business management. It contains 12 units of instruction. Each unit consists of seven basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities, information sheets (content essential for meeting the cognitive objectives),…

  6. Rural Development Progress, January 1977-June 1979. Fifth Report of the Secretary of Agriculture to The Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    The fifth annual report of the Secretary of Agriculture on rural development (prepared in response to a directive from the Rural Development Act of 1972) summarizes current rural conditions by presenting the most recently available statistical data on employment, income, population, housing, and community services and facilities and illustrates…

  7. Agriculture and Rural Life Day: Material for Its Observance. Bulletin, 1913, No. 43. Whole Number 553

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Eugene C.

    1913-01-01

    In several States one day in the fall of the year is set apart as "Agriculture and Rural-Life Day," to be observed in the schools in such ways as to emphasize the importance of agriculture to the nation and to the world of mankind, to call attention to the worth and worthiness of the tillage of the soil, the cultivation of plants, and the breeding…

  8. The outflow of labour from agriculture: a framework for analyzing migration from rural areas.

    PubMed

    Seifelnasr, A

    1983-01-01

    The context and determinants of rural-urban migration in Egypt are examined, with emphasis on the relationship between demographic and agricultural variables. Migration is seen as primarily a family rather than an individual decision. Factors affecting this decision at the village level are considered, including levels and patterns of labor utilization, levels of agricultural technology, and the village environment, defined as including resource availability and contacts with the outside world.

  9. Contextualising Teaching and Learning in Rural Primary Schools: Using Agricultural Experience. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2. Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peter; Mulhall, Abigail

    This research project examined the potential role of agricultural experiences as a vehicle for meeting the diverse learning needs of rural primary students in developing countries. Volume 1 of the project report represents a literature review that investigated a "new role" for agriculture as a key element for developing rural students' basic…

  10. Interdependencies of Agriculture and Rural Communities in the Twenty-First Century: The North Central Region. Conference Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korsching, Peter F., Ed.; Gildner, Judith E., Ed.

    Texts of 12 research papers are presented in this proceedings of a 1985 conference specifically focusing on the interdependence of agriculture and rural communities. Titles of Session I papers providing information on the current situation and trends in agriculture and rural communities are "An Overview of the Nonmetro Economy and the Role of…

  11. Agricultural and recreational impacts of the conservation reserve program in rural North Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Bangsund, Dean A; Hodur, Nancy M; Leistritz, F Larry

    2004-07-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), created in 1985, provides conservation benefits and agricultural supply control through voluntary, long-term retirement of crop land. While the effects of the CRP on the agricultural sector are well understood, the implications of its conservation benefits for rural economies remain largely undocumented. To quantify the effects on rural economies, this study addressed the net economic effects of decreased agricultural activity and increased recreational activity associated with the CRP in six rural areas of North Dakota from 1996 to 2000. Based on the level of economic activity that would have occurred in the absence of the program, net revenues from CRP land if returned to agricultural production in the six study areas were estimated at $50.2 million annually or $37 per acre of land currently enrolled in the CRP. Recreational (hunting) revenues as a result of the CRP in the study areas were estimated at $12.8 million annually or $9.45 per CRP-acre. The net economic effect of the CRP (lost agricultural revenues and gains in recreational expenditures) indicated that several areas of the state are not as economically burdened by the CRP as previous research has suggested. In addition, the net economic effects of the program would appear more favourable if revenues from all CRP-based recreation were included. The degree that recreational revenues offset agricultural losses might be further enhanced by enterprises that capitalize on the economic opportunities associated with expanded recreational activities on CRP lands.

  12. From subsistence farming towards a multifunctional agriculture: sustainability in the Chinese rural reality.

    PubMed

    Prändl-Zika, Veronika

    2008-04-01

    The rural economic situation in China-with a living standard mostly at subsistence level-lags far behind the prosperous development in the cities and coastal areas. To balance this disequilibrium, comprehensive concepts and endeavors are necessary keeping in view all-not just economic-interests and needs that contribute to lively rural identities. In this context the role of agriculture, where still 50% of the Chinese population are working, will be newly defined, and sustainability concepts can help to find a readjusted position within the Chinese economy focusing on environmental health and food safety as main targets of political and other supporting measures. Within the SUCCESS project, a Concept of Sustainable Agriculture was developed and it drafts one conceivable relation between the exposure to natural resources and economy and tries to find new answers to the broad range of rural challenges in China. It is a qualitative model and, therefore, not always fully applicable, but in the concrete situation of villages, it shows possible directions of sustainability-oriented development by considering the typical local potentials. In the Chinese context that means identifying the different functions of agriculture-the well-known and the hidden-to make them explicit for the Chinese public and therewith to give them new significance. The article is based on a 3-years study within the EU-China Project SUCCESS with field research in four Chinese rural communities. It analyzes the agricultural sustainability potential of these selected villages against the background of massive structural changes within the next 20 years in rural China. Starting from the current agricultural reality, based on a qualitative analysis of the actual situation, local potentials and needs towards sustainable production and marketing are identified, and possible functions of the Chinese agriculture are formulated for the future.

  13. Agricultural Production and Business Management: Volume 1 (Crops).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, R. J., Ed.

    The curriculum guide is the first part of a two-year program developed as part of revision of the total agricultural education curriculum in South Carolina. The project was designed to implement the following changes: (1) provide a more comprehensive vocational offering; (2) place a greater emphasis on behavioral objectives; (3) place a greater…

  14. Agricultural Production and Business Management: Volume 2 (Livestock).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, R. J., Ed.

    The curriculum guide is the second part of a two-year program developed as part of a revision of the total agricultural education curriculum in South Carolina. The project was designed to implement the following changes: (1) provide a more comprehensive vocational offering; (2) place a greater emphasis on behavioral objectives; (3) place a greater…

  15. [The role of national rural organization and agricultural extension services in relation to women].

    PubMed

    Martius Von Harder, G

    1985-01-01

    Rural extension services are designed to provide rural dwellers with information needed to further technical or social development and to solve problems. Extension agents should be fully aware of their responsibility for the advice they provide. The number of rural and agricultural development and extension agencies has multiplied greatly in the past 2 decades. Agricultural extension is the principal component of most rural development strategies. Training given to men is usually economic, while that for women is devoted to household and social functioning. Programs for women usually lag general development programs. Training of women is usually not included in agricultural extension programs, especially in countries practicing segregation of the sexes. Agricultural extension programs are generally limited to cultivation techniques and neglect transformation and storage of crops and seed preparation for increased production. Measures that could improve productivity of women's agriculture-related work are expected to be delivered through the intermediacy of their husbands, but the husbands may not appreciate the import of such messages if they are not familiar with their wives' work. Agricultural training should consider all stages of production, should be delivered to the individuals actually performing the tasks, and should be ecologically appropriate. The overall objective of agricultural extension is to increase production, but most programs do not specify who is to use the surplus or to benefit from it. The rural population or the urban population may be the prime beneficiary, or cash crops may be produced for export. Although increased production should benefit the rural population through a better food supply, in reality most extension programs are devoted to cash crops for export and are less than fully successful because of problems of crop distribution and marketing and other shortcomings. Where men and women perform the same agricultural work, it should

  16. Agricultural Chemical Use and White Male Cancer Mortality in Selected Rural Farm Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, C. Shannon; Brace, Kathy D.

    A study of 1,497 nonmetropolitan counties was conducted to test the possible contribution of agricultural chemical use to cancer mortality rates in rural counties. The dependent variables were 20-year age-adjusted mortality rates for 1950 to 1969 for five categories of cancer: genital, urinary, lymphatic, respiratory, and digestive. Because sex…

  17. Community Change and the Farm Sector: Impacts of Rural Development on Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Molnar, Joseph J.

    Findings from current literature form the basis for this examination of five critical elements of change and development within the local community setting which impact on agriculture: population, employment, land, water, and environment. Renewed rural population growth during the 1970's has reversed small farm trends but placed strains on local…

  18. Rural Youths' Participation in Agriculture: Prospects, Challenges and the Implications for Policy in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auta, Sarah Jehu; Abdullahi, Yusuf M.; Nasiru, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing rural youth participation in agriculture, their access to production resources and services and the effects of youths' access to inputs and services on farm productivity and youths' welfare. The study was conducted in three states (each randomly selected from the three agro-ecological zones of northern Nigeria). Two…

  19. A Case Study of Rural Industrialization in Jamestown, North Dakota. Agricultural Economics Report No. 95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Delmer L.; Zink, Maurice J.

    The study's objectives were to: (1) determine the criteria used by industry in the selection of an area as a plant site; (2) measure the interdependence and economic impact that a manufacturing sector has on an agriculturally dominated rural area; and (3) evaluate employees' attitudes toward their new jobs in manufacturing. Jamestown, North Dakota…

  20. Agriculture, Communities, and New Social Movements: East European Ruralities in the Process of Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorlach, Krzysztof; Lostak, Michal; Mooney, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the usefulness of the new social movements (NSMs) paradigm in the changing context of East European post-communist societies and their agricultural systems and rural communities. Starting with statements formulated in Western sociology in the context of Western democratic societies about NSMs as a protest against modernity, the…

  1. Core I Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units D-E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, Jim; And Others

    These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are part of a series of eight designed for use in rural agriculture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on livestock science are understanding the livestock industry, identifying breeds of livestock and poultry, selecting livestock, and feeding livestock.…

  2. Core III Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units A-G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courson, Roger L.; And Others

    This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 12 areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for 11th-grade or third-year students enrolled in rural agricultural programs in Illinois. Each problem area includes some or all of the following components: suggestions to the teacher, teacher guide, competency inventory, information sheet,…

  3. Rural Housing Site Planning in North Carolina. Agricultural Extension Publication 105.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Randolph T., Jr.; And Others

    Addressing the problems of rural housing site selection and development in North Carolina, this guide is designed for cooperative and coordinated use by: technical assistance personnel employed by the Farmers Home Administration; local lending institutions; Health Departments; the Agricultural Extension Service; the Soil Conservation Service; and…

  4. Core II Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units E-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biondo, Ron; And Others

    This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 21 problem areas to be included in a core curriculum for 10th grade students enrolled in a rural agricultural program. Covered in the four units included in this volume are crop science (harvesting farm crops and growing small grains); soil science and conservation of natural resources…

  5. Troubled Pastures, Troubled Pictures: French Agriculture and Contemporary Rural Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervieu, Bertrand; Purseigle, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to those of other industrialized western European countries, France's agricultural community continued to represent the majority of the national population for a long time and only became one of many minority groups at the end of the twentieth century. It then came under the influence of various trends, sometimes conflicting but…

  6. A Bibliography of Agriculture and Rural Life in Yemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanjord, Don Edward

    Intended as a key to current work in agriculture in Yemen, this bibliography cites more than 520 resources produced since 1963 including monographs, journal articles, theses and dissertations, conference papers, case studies, reports, proposals, surveys, bibliographies, and United Nations publications. Foreign language materials in German, French,…

  7. 78 FR 38006 - Inviting Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Inviting Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA... State Office no later than 4:30 p.m. (local time) on the last business day of each month will...

  8. The agricultural approach to rural family planning in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Flavier, J M

    1990-12-01

    Overly technical terminology and excessive use of lectures impede effective communication and teaching of family planning in the philippines. To achieve better results in information dissemination, especially in rural areas, the author provides a simple, effective, and interactive approach. The clearly-defined objective of identifying what family planning is and how it works is achieved through the use of analogies between farming and human sexual development. These analogies are jointly-developed in the field by groups of family planning workers and 8-10 men and women from the community. The farmers begin the group process by educating the family planning workers about their local farming practices. The workers then develop parallels between farming and the desired family planning messages. Once initiated, farmers are encouraged to develop and share their own parallels, by they with plants, farm animals, beliefs, or household articles. Better understanding, acceptance, and continuation rates will result from this voluntary, interactive approach.

  9. Determinants of Youths` Participation in Rural Agriculture in Imo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nnadi, F. N.; Akwiwu, C. D.

    The lack of empirical data on the determinants of youths` participation in rural agriculture necessitated this study that investigated the rate of youths` participation, agricultural activities participated in and the factors that determined their participation in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were generated from 230 youths from the three agricultural zones of the state using questionnaire and interview schedule. These were analyzed with the aid of frequency tables, simple percentage counts and logit regression model at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicated about 84% participation in land clearing, planting, fertilizer application, collection of fodder for livestock etc. The participation was determined by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, household size and youths` dependence status. It was recommended that institutional support services for agriculture should be extended to the youths and intervention strategies for youths` agricultural activities should be guided and guarded by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, family size and youths` dependence status.

  10. Smoke impacts from agricultural burning in a rural Brazilian town.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, T E; Ottmar, R D; Castilla, C

    2001-03-01

    Agricultural and silvicultural biomass burning is practiced in many undeveloped portions of the Amazon basin. In Rond nia, Brazil, such burning is restricted to a brief period in the dry season of August and September to minimize the duration of air quality impacts and to attempt to control escaped fires. During this period, much of the region and the communities within it experience significant exposure to smoke from agricultural and forest fires. In cooperation with Brazilian scientists of the University of Brasilia, the Brazilian Organization for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA), and the Alternative to Slash and Burn Program coordinated by the International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), ambient air quality was measured in Theobroma, a small town in Rond nia, during one week of the open burning period of 1995 to supplement available air quality data and to foster public awareness of the impacts of widespread fires. Personal sampling equipment was used to measure ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO), acrolein, CO, benzene, and respirable PM in outdoor air. The data obtained were compared with established Brazilian and U.S. ambient air quality guidelines. Ambient levels of respirable PM averaged 191 microg/m3, HCHO averaged 12.8 ppb, CO averaged 4.2 ppm, and benzene averaged 3.2 ppb. Almost all acrolein samples were less than the detection limit of 1 ppb. The results showed that the public can be exposed to relatively high levels of pollutants under the prescribed burning smoke management strategy of a two- to three-week prescription burning period, although this is an improvement over past years when burning was unregulated and continued through most of the dry season. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using personal exposure monitoring equipment for low-cost surveys of ambient air quality in polluted regions. PMID:11266107

  11. Smoke impacts from agricultural burning in a rural Brazilian town.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, T E; Ottmar, R D; Castilla, C

    2001-03-01

    Agricultural and silvicultural biomass burning is practiced in many undeveloped portions of the Amazon basin. In Rond nia, Brazil, such burning is restricted to a brief period in the dry season of August and September to minimize the duration of air quality impacts and to attempt to control escaped fires. During this period, much of the region and the communities within it experience significant exposure to smoke from agricultural and forest fires. In cooperation with Brazilian scientists of the University of Brasilia, the Brazilian Organization for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA), and the Alternative to Slash and Burn Program coordinated by the International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), ambient air quality was measured in Theobroma, a small town in Rond nia, during one week of the open burning period of 1995 to supplement available air quality data and to foster public awareness of the impacts of widespread fires. Personal sampling equipment was used to measure ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO), acrolein, CO, benzene, and respirable PM in outdoor air. The data obtained were compared with established Brazilian and U.S. ambient air quality guidelines. Ambient levels of respirable PM averaged 191 microg/m3, HCHO averaged 12.8 ppb, CO averaged 4.2 ppm, and benzene averaged 3.2 ppb. Almost all acrolein samples were less than the detection limit of 1 ppb. The results showed that the public can be exposed to relatively high levels of pollutants under the prescribed burning smoke management strategy of a two- to three-week prescription burning period, although this is an improvement over past years when burning was unregulated and continued through most of the dry season. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using personal exposure monitoring equipment for low-cost surveys of ambient air quality in polluted regions.

  12. Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1984; and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Rural Development Policy Report. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit, and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 5024.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    Testimonies were heard in reference to the administration's annual rural development policy report and H.R. 5024, the Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1984. The bill provides that the Department of Agriculture shall be known as the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, transfers the administration of certain conservation programs…

  13. Agriculture and Related Businesses. Revised Summary Report: Technical Employment in Northeast Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William E.; And Others

    The document is one of five summary reports, all part of a Pre-Technical Curriculum Planning Project for secondary students who aspire to technical employment or post secondary technical education. This report represents the results of an assessment of the northeast Florida area's technical occupations in agriculture and related businesses. A…

  14. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological

  15. Knowledge and beliefs regarding agricultural pesticides in rural Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Roger; Andino, Karla; Bustamante, Mario; Hernandez, Beatriz; Rodas, Luis

    1996-03-01

    Throughout Central America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural School support a Safe Pesticide Use program. In 1993, a study of results was carried out among farmers and housewives in eastern Guatemala. Aspects of the methodology included: (1) participation of extension workers in all aspects of the study; (2) small, region-focused samples (eight cells, 30 interviews per cell); (3) comparison to control groups of untrained farmers and housewives; (4) a traditional questionnaire for studying acquisition of specific knowledge; and (5) a flexible instrument for building a cognitive map of knowledge and beliefs regarding pesticides. The cognitive map is a step toward applying modern psychocultural scaling, an approach already well developed for medicine and public health, to environmental problems. Positive results detected include progress at learning the meaning of colors on containers that denote toxicity and where to store pesticides. Pesticide application problems detected were mention by farmers of highly toxic, restricted pesticides as appropriate for most pest problems and of insecticides as the correct solution to fungus problems, and the widespread belief that correct pesticide dosage depends on number of pests seen rather than on land or foliage surface. Health-related problems detected were admission by a vast majority of housewives that they apply highly toxic pesticides to combat children's head-lice; low awareness that pesticides cause health problems more serious than nausea, dizziness, and headaches; and a common belief that lemonade and coffee are effective medicines for pesticide poisoning.

  16. Assessment of rural ground-water contamination by agricultural chemicals in sensitive areas of Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, J.L.; Kittleson, K.M.

    1988-04-01

    The vulnerability of drinking-water supplies to agricultural contamination in three Michigan counties is discussed. The results of nitrate and atrazine analysis of drinking water from 38 wells in those 3 counties is described. Widespread nitrate contamination was demonstrated in agricultural areas with vulnerable aquifers. In addition, atrazine, a widely used herbicide was found in 11 of the 38 wells samples, with concentrations and patterns not conforming to findings in other mid-western states. The need for a comprehensive inventory of the ground-water quality in rural areas of Michigan is emphasized in the report, which describes results from the first year of a 2-year study.

  17. [Agricultural production responsibility system and the work of family planning in the rural area].

    PubMed

    Zhu, M

    1982-09-29

    With the establishment of the agricultural production responsibility system, the entire agricultural management and economic system has undergone great changes, and family planning in rural areas has met with many difficulties. Because of this responsibility system, households with more manpower seem to become wealthy more rapidly than others. An existing belief among the rural population is that more children will provide a larger labor force and thus more income. Birth control and family planning are therefore becoming more difficult. In order to change existing beliefs, a comprehensive ideological education for peasants is needed so that they may understand the question of birth control from the viewpoints of national interests. Economic rewards and administrative restrictions may be used as necessary birth control measures. Agricultural production and family planning can be managed well if there is close contact and cooperation between the cadres and the masses. Extra care and benefits should be given to women of childbearing age who undergo birth control operations and agree to a single child in each household. Welfare programs for the masses, such as kindergartens and nursing homes must be established in order to reduce their worries. In addition, efforts are needed to study the new situation and solve new problems. The goal of controlling the rural population growth should be achiefed through practical work and experience.

  18. Sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and rural development: An analysis of bio-energy systems used by small farms in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Aiming

    Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon not harming natural resources. This dissertation provides an overview of recent Chinese agriculture history, discusses the role of energy in contemporary's China's agriculture and rural development, and introduces a new approach---the integrated agricultural bio-energy (IAB) system---to address the challenge of sustainable agriculture and rural development. IAB is an innovative design and offers a renewable energy solution for improving agricultural productivity, realizing efficient resource management, and enhancing social well-being for rural development. In order to understand how the IAB system can help to achieve sustainable agricultural and rural development in China, a comprehensive evaluation methodology is developed from health, ecological, energy and economic (HE3) perspectives. With data from surveys of 200 small farm households, a detailed study of IAB and conventional agricultural energy (CAE) system applications (in China's Liaoning and Yunnan Province) is conducted. The HE3 impacts of IAB systems in China's rural areas (compared to existing CAE systems) are quantified. The dissertation analyzes the full life-cycle costs and benefits of IAB systems, including their contributions to energy savings, CO2 emissions reduction, agricultural waste reduction, increased rural incomes, better rural health, and improved ecosystem sustainability. The analysis relies upon qualitative and quantitative modeling in order to produce a comprehensive assessment of IAB system impacts. Finally, the dissertation discusses the barriers to greater diffusion of the IAB systems

  19. Towards a Better Conceptual Framework for Innovation Processes in Agriculture and Rural Development: From Linear Models to Systemic Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knickel, Karlheinz; Brunori, Gianluca; Rand, Sigrid; Proost, Jet

    2009-01-01

    The role of farming previously dedicated mainly to food production changed with an increasing recognition of the multifunctionality of agriculture and rural areas. It seems obvious to expect that farmers and rural actors adapt themselves to these new conditions, which are innovative and redefine their job. In many regions farmers can increase…

  20. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children in rural Panama: role of subsistence agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity. PMID:27000494

  1. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA. PMID:26392092

  2. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  3. The Use of an e-Learning System for Agricultural Extension: A Case Study of the Rural Development Administration, Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Duk-Byeong; Cho, Yong-Been; Lee, Minsoo

    2007-01-01

    The study explores the e-learning system of the Computer-Based Agricultural Extension Program (CBAES) and examines the differences in user satisfaction and preferences between the two systems for Agricultural Education and Extension at the Rural Development Administration (RDA) in Korea. It also describes the architecture, services, user…

  4. Organochlorine pesticide residues in blood samples of agriculture and sheep wool workers in Bangalore (rural), India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, V; Ravichandran, B; Rajmohan, H R

    2012-04-01

    To describe exposure level of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) among workers occupationally engaged in agriculture and sheep wool associated jobs, the present study was carried out in rural neighborhood of Bangalore city, India. Thirty participants were interviewed and obtained informed consent before blood sample collection. The maximum concentrations of OCP were detected in blood samples of agriculture workers than sheep wool workers. Among the metabolites of HCH and DDT, lindane (γ-HCH) and p,p'-DDE were the most contributed to the total OCP. There were no differences in pesticide residues found between sex and work groups. It was observed that about 30% of samples exceeded the tolerance limits of 10 μg/L prescribed for HCH under the prevention of food adulteration act. Therefore, the present study recommends continuous monitoring with larger sample size.

  5. Entrepreneurial Human Capital Accumulation and the Growth of Rural Businesses: A Four-Country Survey in Mountainous and Lagging Areas of the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuras, Dimitris; Meccheri, Nicolas; Moreira, Manuel Belo; Rosell, Jordi; Stathopoulou, Sophia

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the processes of entrepreneurial human capital accumulation and its impact on rural business growth. Data are derived from four surveys on rural businesses in mountainous and less favoured areas in Southern Europe. Formal pathways of entrepreneurial human capital accumulation refer to education and training, while informal…

  6. Revitalizing the Rural Economy for Families and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    Home to 65 million people, rural America is no longer insulated from national and international events. Once dependent entirely upon agriculture and natural resource industries, today rural America relies upon manufacturing and service industries. Jobs and other income opportunities in rural America must respond to global business cycles and…

  7. Rural Area Revitalization Act of 1987; and the Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1987. Hearing on H.R. 1800 and H.R. 2026 before the Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit, and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    Testimony of H.R. 1800, the Rural Area Revitalization Act, and H.R. 2026, the Rural Development Reorganization Act focuses on the need for federal attention to rural problems other than agriculture. The Rural Area Revitalization Act authorizes expansion of capital available for lending in rural areas, a grant program of $25 million per year for…

  8. [The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization].

    PubMed

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Marinho, Alice Maria Correia Pequeno; Rocha, Mayara Melo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Vicente; Braga, Lara de Queiroz Viana; Teixeira, Maiana Maia

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

  9. Wastewater retreatment and reuse system for agricultural irrigation in rural villages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minyoung; Lee, Hyejin; Kim, Minkyeong; Kang, Donghyeon; Kim, Dongeok; Kim, YoungJin; Lee, Sangbong

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes and continuous population growth increase water demands that will not be met by traditional water resources, like surface and ground water. To handle increased water demand, treated municipal wastewater is offered to farmers for agricultural irrigation. This study aimed to enhance the effluent quality from worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages, retreat effluent to meet water quality criteria for irrigation, and assess any health-related and environmental impacts from using retreated wastewater irrigation on crops and in soil. We developed the compact wastewater retreatment and reuse system (WRRS), equipped with filters, ultraviolet light, and bubble elements. A pilot greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate lettuce growth patterns and quantify the heavy metal concentration and pathogenic microorganisms on lettuce and in soil after irrigating with tap water, treated wastewater, and WRRS retreated wastewater. The purification performance of each WRRS component was also assessed. The study findings revealed that existing worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages could meet the water quality criteria for treated effluent and also reuse retreated wastewater for crop growth and other miscellaneous agricultural purposes. PMID:25521131

  10. Wastewater retreatment and reuse system for agricultural irrigation in rural villages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minyoung; Lee, Hyejin; Kim, Minkyeong; Kang, Donghyeon; Kim, Dongeok; Kim, YoungJin; Lee, Sangbong

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes and continuous population growth increase water demands that will not be met by traditional water resources, like surface and ground water. To handle increased water demand, treated municipal wastewater is offered to farmers for agricultural irrigation. This study aimed to enhance the effluent quality from worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages, retreat effluent to meet water quality criteria for irrigation, and assess any health-related and environmental impacts from using retreated wastewater irrigation on crops and in soil. We developed the compact wastewater retreatment and reuse system (WRRS), equipped with filters, ultraviolet light, and bubble elements. A pilot greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate lettuce growth patterns and quantify the heavy metal concentration and pathogenic microorganisms on lettuce and in soil after irrigating with tap water, treated wastewater, and WRRS retreated wastewater. The purification performance of each WRRS component was also assessed. The study findings revealed that existing worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages could meet the water quality criteria for treated effluent and also reuse retreated wastewater for crop growth and other miscellaneous agricultural purposes.

  11. 7 CFR 1940.588 - Business and Industry Guaranteed and Direct Loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Business and Industry Guaranteed and Direct Loans. 1940.588 Section 1940.588 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.588 Business and Industry Guaranteed and Direct Loans....

  12. 7 CFR 1940.588 - Business and Industry Guaranteed and Direct Loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business and Industry Guaranteed and Direct Loans. 1940.588 Section 1940.588 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.588 Business and Industry Guaranteed and Direct Loans....

  13. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., DE Florida Gainesville, FL Georgia Athens, GA Hawaii Hilo, HI Idaho Boise, ID Illinois Champaign,...

  14. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., DE Florida Gainesville, FL Georgia Athens, GA Hawaii Hilo, HI Idaho Boise, ID Illinois Champaign,...

  15. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., DE Florida Gainesville, FL Georgia Athens, GA Hawaii Hilo, HI Idaho Boise, ID Illinois Champaign,...

  16. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., DE Florida Gainesville, FL Georgia Athens, GA Hawaii Hilo, HI Idaho Boise, ID Illinois Champaign,...

  17. 1975 Rural Manpower Report [North Dakota].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Employment Security Bureau, Bismarck. Employment Service Div.

    One of the North Dakota Employment Security Bureau's objectives is to provide equality of services in all programs administered by the Bureau to rural area residents throughout the State. This includes services to agriculture, business, government, and workers in meeting their employment and manpower needs. The Supervisor of Rural Manpower…

  18. 1974 Rural Manpower Report. [North Dakota].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Employment Security Bureau, Bismarck. Employment Service Div.

    The North Dakota Employment Security Bureau provides equality of services in all programs administered by the Bureau to rural area residents throughout the State. It also provides services to agriculture, business, government, and workers in meeting their employment and manpower needs. The Supervisor of Rural Manpower Services provides supervision…

  19. Toward an "Efficient and Contented" Agriculture: The Goals of Rural Education Reform, 1900-1920.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danbom, David B.

    Rural education reform manifest in the U.S. "Country Life Movement" of the early 1900's centered on the doctrine of economic efficiency. Rural education reformers believed that high food prices were due to the inefficiency of farmers and the general discontent of rural peoples exemplified by the rural to urban migration. The rural education system…

  20. USDA Finances Wind for Rural Economic Development (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, C.; Walters, T.

    2005-05-01

    To foster rural economic development and growth, Congress passed the Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program as Section 9006 of the 2002 Farm Bill. This program provides financial assistance to farmers, ranchers, and rural small businesses to purchase renewable energy systems or make energy efficiency improvements. The Rural Business and Cooperative Services of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers this program. This conference poster provides an overview of Section 9006.

  1. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  2. Assessing the impact of pluriactivity on sustainable agriculture. A case study in rural areas of Beotia in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giourga, Christina; Loumou, Angeliki

    2006-06-01

    Pluriactivity of farms, or part-time farming, is a common feature of agriculture in all countries regardless of their socioeconomic system and level of development. Currently, pluriactivity is related to the values of sustainable agriculture. The objective of this study is to delineate those specific characteristics of pluriactive farms that contribute to sustainable agriculture. In rural areas of Boetia in Greece, a socioeconomic survey was carried out on 114 farms to determine the types of farming applied. The results demonstrate that pluriactivity is a stable component of the agricultural structure in the rural areas of Boetia. It is widespread in plains, but its presence is more important in mountainous and semimountainous areas. The choice of young farmers is to opt for pluriactivity. Farm size does not differ between pluriactive and full-time farms. Pluriactive and full- time farms use the same level of input and get the same output for the same type of crop. However, pluriactive farmers under the same land-productive conditions are oriented toward a more extensive farming system, managing their land with crops that need less inputs. Considering these findings, it can be claimed that pluriactivity can contribute to diminishing the demand on natural resources in favored (level and irrigated) areas, to continue agricultural production in unfavorable (mountainous and semimountainous) areas, and to help the sustenance of the rural population.

  3. Neighborhood perceptions and health-related outcomes among Latinos with diabetes from a rural agricultural community.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Gerardo; Morales, Leo S; Nuñez de Jaimes, Fatima; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Isiordia, Marilu; Noguera, Christine; Mangione, Carol M

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about how neighborhood perceptions are related to diabetes outcomes among Latinos living in rural agricultural communities. Our objective was to examine the association between perceived neighborhood problems and diabetes outcomes. This is a cross-sectional survey study with medical record reviews of a random sample of 250 adult Latinos with type 2 diabetes. The predictor was a rating of patient ratings of neighborhood problems (crime, trash and litter, lighting at night, and access to exercise facilities, transportation, and supermarkets). The primary outcomes were the control of three intermediate outcomes [LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) < 100 mg/dl, AlC < 9.0 %, and blood pressure (BP) < 140/80 mmHg], and body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m(2). Secondary outcomes were participation in self-care activities (physical activity, healthy eating, medication adherence, foot checks, and glucose checks). We used regression analysis and adjusted for age, gender, education, income, years with diabetes, insulin use, depressive symptoms, and co-morbidities. Forty-eight percent of patients perceived at least one neighborhood problem and out of the six problem areas, crime was most commonly perceived as a problem. Perception of neighborhood problems was independently associated with not having a BP < 140/80 [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.45; 95 % CI 0.22, 0.92], and BMI < 30 (AOR = 0.43; 95 % CI 0.24, 0.77), after controlling for covariates. Receipt of recommended processes of care was not associated with perception of neighborhood. Perception of neighborhood problems among low-income rural Latinos with diabetes was independently associated with a higher BMI and BP.

  4. Climate change and Australian agriculture: a review of the threats facing rural communities and the health policy landscape.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Elizabeth G; Bell, Erica; King, Debra; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2011-03-01

    Population health is a function of social and environmental health determinants. Climate change is predicted to bring significant alterations to ecological systems on which human health and livelihoods depend; the air, water, plant, and animal health. Agricultural systems are intrinsically linked with environmental conditions, which are already under threat in much of southern Australian because of rising heat and protracted drying. The direct impact of increasing heat waves on human physiology and survival has recently been well studied. More diffusely, increasing drought periods may challenge the viability of agriculture in some regions, and hence those communities that depend on primary production. A worst case scenario may herald the collapse of some communities. Human health impacts arising from such transition would be profound. This article summarizes existing rural health challenges and presents the current evidence plus future predictions of climate change impacts on Australian agriculture to argue the need for significant augmentation of public health and existing health policy frameworks. The article concludes by suggesting that adaptation to climate change requires planning for worst case scenario outcomes to avert catastrophic impacts on rural communities. This will involve national policy planning as much as regional-level leadership for rapid development of adaptive strategies in agriculture and other key areas of rural communities.

  5. Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume II: Federal Farm Policies--Their Effects on Low-Income Farmers and Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

    Agriculture and farming are the economic context for rural education. This is the second of two volumes of papers describing the impact of national agricultural policy on the poor. The nine articles in this volume (shot-titled below) analyze federal policy from the standpoint of the low-income farmer: (1) "Agricultural Price Supports," prepared by…

  6. Annual Report 1988: New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

    In New York, as in many states, "rural" is not synonymous with "agricultural." The Commission on Rural Resources (CRR) supports preservation of agrarian New York State, but also seeks to assist rural citizens with many other challenges: in education, transportation, forestry development, housing, health care, viable business ventures, and building…

  7. 7 CFR 1951.218 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... Servicing of Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.218 Use of Rural Development... the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act, as amended; and (3) Satisfies such...

  8. 7 CFR 1951.218 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... Servicing of Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.218 Use of Rural Development... the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act, as amended; and (3) Satisfies such...

  9. 7 CFR 1951.218 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... Servicing of Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.218 Use of Rural Development... the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act, as amended; and (3) Satisfies such...

  10. 7 CFR 1951.218 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... Servicing of Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.218 Use of Rural Development... the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act, as amended; and (3) Satisfies such...

  11. 7 CFR 1951.218 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... Servicing of Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.218 Use of Rural Development... the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act, as amended; and (3) Satisfies such...

  12. 34 CFR 426.7 - What activities does the Secretary fund under the Agriculture Action Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Centers? The Secretary supports model Agriculture Action Centers that provide improved access to... rural economic downturns; (2) Who are dislocated from farming; and (3) Who are dislocated from agriculturally related businesses and industries that are adversely affected by farm and rural economic...

  13. Potential assessment of establishing a renewable energy plant in a rural agricultural area.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Chien; Kao, Nien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Jar

    2012-06-01

    An evaluation of the green energy potential generated from biogas and solar power, using agricultural manure waste and a photovoltaic (PV) system, was conducted in a large geographical area of a rural county with low population density and low pollution. The studied area, Shoufeng Township in Hualien County, is located in eastern Taiwan, where a large amount of manure waste is generated from pig farms that are scattered throughout the county. The objective of the study is to assess the possibility of establishing an integrated manure waste treatment plant by using the generated biogas incorporated with the PV system to produce renewable energy and then feed it back to the incorporated farms. A filed investigation, geographic information system (GIS) application, empirical equations development, and RETScreen modeling were conducted in the study. The results indicate that Shoufeng Township has the highest priority in setting up an integrated treatment and renewable energy plant by using GIS mapping within a 10-km radius of the transportation range. Two scenarios were plotted in assessing the renewable energy plant and the estimated electricity generation, plus the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction was evaluated. Under the current governmental green energy scheme and from a long-term perspective, the assessment shows great potential in establishing the plant, especially in reducing environmental pollution problems, waste treatment, and developing suitable renewable energy.

  14. Potential for the use of photovoltaic systems in agricultural production and rural sector of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Neyeloff, S.

    1983-12-01

    A field study was conducted in Colombia, South America, to determine the possible market for PV power systems in rural areas. It was found that a sizeable market exists in the areas of coffee processing, beef cattle watering, domestic uses, rural telephones and rural health stations.

  15. Rural Poverty in Wisconsin Counties. College of Agricultural & Life Sciences Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saupe, William E.; Belknap, John W.

    To describe rural poverty in Wisconsin in a manner useful to educators, policymakers, clergy, and businesspersons, census statistics, primarily from 1980, were used to look separately at rural nonfarm, farm, and urban families and persons. Other census data provided comparability. As measured in 1980, 6% of urban and rural nonfarm families had…

  16. Attention must be paid to the protection of agricultural ecological environment while developing rural commune and brigade-run industries

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yaru

    1983-01-01

    This article proposes that attention must be paid to the protection of agricultural ecology while developing rural commune and brigade-run industries in China. Great amounts of pesticides are applied in the process of agricultural production which destroy the natural ecological balance, lower the quality of agricultural, livestock and aquatic products and contaminate them. When agricultural environment is polluted, different pollutants go through various channels, directly or through the food chain, and may enter the human body. Over 200 electroplating plants of different sizes have been set up in 10 suburban counties of Shanghai, with more than 3 million tons of effluents discharged yearly, and over half of which is discharged into the agricultural environment without any treatment. Commune and brigade-run kilns, small-scale phosphate fertilizer plants and smelteries are operated indiscriminately regardless of farming seasons, discharging great amounts of toxic gas and smoke. Some small-scale fertilizer plants use waste acid containing trichloroethanol (or trichloroacetic acid) from chemical plants, thus contaminating crops and seedlings. It is proposed that rural commune and brigade-run enterprises can lower pollution through the policy of ''first planting, second breeding, third processing and fourth service''.

  17. 77 FR 39675 - Applications for Licensing as a Non-Leveraged Rural Business Investment Company Under the Rural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... wealth and job opportunities in rural areas and among individuals living in those areas through venture capital investments by for-profit RBICs. The purpose of this Notice is to license qualified RBICs as non... or collectively, hold 10 percent or more of the applicant's total capital. IV. Application...

  18. Rural Development: Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1974. Fifth Annual Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    The key role of the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to help local people make rural America a better place to live and work. The Rural Development (RD) Committee structure, conceived in 1969, consists of national, state, regional, and local committees which aid the USDA. During fiscal year 1974, USDA and the State Extension Services…

  19. 1973 Rural Manpower Report. [North Dakota]. ES-225F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Employment Security Bureau, Bismarck. Employment Service Div.

    The Rural Manpower Service's objective is to provide the State's rural people "equity of access" to all programs administered by the North Dakota Employment Security Bureau. It provides services to agriculture, business, government, and workers in meeting their employment and manpower needs. Functional supervision and direction to the program are…

  20. The Future of Smalltown and Rural America: The Impact on Small Business. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Small Business Problems in Smaller Towns and Urban Areas of the Select Committee on Small Business, House of Representatives, Ninety-Second Congress, Second Session Pursuant to H. Res. 5 and 19, May 2, 3, and 4, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Small Business.

    Printed for use by the Select Committee on Small Business (House of Representatives), these hearings present the testimony of 23 individuals on "The Future of Smalltown and Rural America: The Impact on Small Business" held before the Subcommittee on Small Business Problems in Smaller Towns and Urban Areas (May 2-4, 1972). These hearings present…

  1. Development of a nurse case management service: a proposed business plan for rural hospitals.

    PubMed

    Adams, Marsha Howell; Crow, Carolyn S

    2005-01-01

    The nurse case management service (NCMS) for rural hospitals is an entrepreneurial endeavor designed to provide rural patients with quality, cost-effective healthcare. This article describes the development of an NCMS. A detailed marketing and financial plan, a review of industry trends, and the legal structure and risks associated with the development of the venture are presented. The financial plan projects a minimum savings of 223,200 dollars for rural institutions annually. To improve quality and reduce cost for rural hospitals, the authors recommend implementation of an NCMS.

  2. 76 FR 3605 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications (NOSA) for Inviting Rural Business Enterprise Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... operates rural transportation assistance programming in multiple States. There is not a requirement to use... status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information,...

  3. Survey and Risk Assessment of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Exposure to Neonicotinoid Pesticides in Urban, Rural, and Agricultural Settings.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, T J; Culbert, E M; Felsot, A S; Hebert, V R; Sheppard, W S

    2016-04-01

    A comparative assessment of apiaries in urban, rural, and agricultural areas was undertaken in 2013 and 2014 to examine potential honey bee colony exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides from pollen foraging. Apiaries ranged in size from one to hundreds of honey bee colonies, and included those operated by commercial, sideline (semicommercial), and hobbyist beekeepers. Residues in and on wax and beebread (stored pollen in the hive) were evaluated for the nitro-substituted neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and its olefin metabolite and the active ingredients clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran. Beebread and comb wax collected from hives in agricultural landscapes were more likely to have detectable residues of thiamethoxam and clothianidin than that collected from hives in rural or urban areas (∼50% of samples vs. <10%). The maximum neonicotinoid residue detected in either wax or beebread was 3.9 ppb imidacloprid. A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted on the residues recovered from beebread in apiaries located in commercial, urban, and rural landscapes. The calculated risk quotient based on a dietary no observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) suggested low potential for negative effects on bee behavior or colony health. PMID:26791816

  4. Survey and Risk Assessment of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Exposure to Neonicotinoid Pesticides in Urban, Rural, and Agricultural Settings.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, T J; Culbert, E M; Felsot, A S; Hebert, V R; Sheppard, W S

    2016-04-01

    A comparative assessment of apiaries in urban, rural, and agricultural areas was undertaken in 2013 and 2014 to examine potential honey bee colony exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides from pollen foraging. Apiaries ranged in size from one to hundreds of honey bee colonies, and included those operated by commercial, sideline (semicommercial), and hobbyist beekeepers. Residues in and on wax and beebread (stored pollen in the hive) were evaluated for the nitro-substituted neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and its olefin metabolite and the active ingredients clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran. Beebread and comb wax collected from hives in agricultural landscapes were more likely to have detectable residues of thiamethoxam and clothianidin than that collected from hives in rural or urban areas (∼50% of samples vs. <10%). The maximum neonicotinoid residue detected in either wax or beebread was 3.9 ppb imidacloprid. A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted on the residues recovered from beebread in apiaries located in commercial, urban, and rural landscapes. The calculated risk quotient based on a dietary no observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) suggested low potential for negative effects on bee behavior or colony health.

  5. Rural Land Use in the Monongahela River Basin. [Agricultural Experiment Station] Bulletin 641.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akintola, Jacob; And Others

    In order to determine rural land use in the Monongahela River Basin, 11,528 landowners, controlling 40 percent of 10 contiguous counties in north-central West Virginia and constituting 19 percent of the rural population, were surveyed. Data derived from 892 questionnaire responses were analyzed in terms of past, present, and future land use; land…

  6. Strategies for Balanced Rural-Urban Growth. Agricultural Information Bulletin No. 392.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Clark

    Summarizing an Economic Research Service (ERS) publication, this guide to a balanced rural-urban growth describes the results of a computer based ERS model which examined seven strategies to improve rural economic development. Based on 1960-70 trends, the model is described as asking how much would be required of each of the following strategies…

  7. Impacts of Hispanic Population Growth on Rural Wages. Agricultural Economic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    Although earnings generally increased in rural areas in the 1990s, Hispanic population growth led to lower wages for at least one segment of the rural population--workers with a high school degree (skilled workers), particularly men in this skill group. Using data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Current Population Survey, this report…

  8. Delivery of Rural Community Services: Some Implications and Problems. Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 635.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Garrey E.; And Others

    Summarizing research conducted under the Western Regional Research Project on the delivery of rural community services, this report presents explications of the following generalizations which have been supported by research: (1) Many rural service institutions need reorganization and renewal, (2) Regionalization increases organizations' ability…

  9. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... oversight and leadership on major program functions. Major program functions include: Single Family and Multi-Family Housing loans and grants, Community Facility, Water and Waste Disposal, Business...

  10. Barriers to Successful Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs in Semi-Rural and Urban High School Agricultural Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, David C.; Lucero, Dan

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with educators and students examined the value of and identified barriers to effective use of supervised agricultural experiences (SAE) in a Los Angeles high school and a semirural Colorado high school. Both programs overcame diverse challenges to develop valuable experiential learning through SAEs. Recommendations provide strategies…

  11. Building Development, Food and Population Issues in the Field of Agriculture with Rural Development in the Arab Countries (16-21 January 1993). Panel discussion (seminar).

    PubMed

    Morcos, M E

    1993-01-01

    The UN Organization for Food and Agriculture bureau held a panel discussion during January 16-21, 1993, to stress the importance of the joint relation between population issues, food, and nutrition in the fields of agriculture and rural development. Policymakers and individuals responsible for activities and programs on population, food, nutrition, and rural development in Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan, Yemen, and Sudan participated in the seminar. The seminar was also attended by academic institutions and participants from the ministries of agriculture and health, the National Population Council, and the committees of the countries involved. Synopses of panel proceedings are presented.

  12. 77 FR 4986 - Inviting Rural Business Enterprise Grant Program Applications for Grants To Provide Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ...-1753. Washington USDA Rural Development State Office, 1835 Black Lake Boulevard SW., Suite B, Olympia... (English) or (800) 877-8339 (TTD) or (866) 377-8642 (English Federal-relay) or (800) 845-6136...

  13. Comparison of the Prevalences and Diversities of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes in an Urban and a Rural Agricultural Watershed.

    PubMed

    Stea, Emma C; Purdue, Laura M; Jamieson, Rob C; Yost, Chris K; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2015-06-01

    Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were cultured from 72 and 35% of rural and urban water samples, respectively, with 24% of the positive samples containing two or three different Listeria spp. The L. innocua (56%) and L. welshimeri (43%) groups were predominant in the rural and urban watersheds, respectively. Analysis by the TaqMan assay showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of L. monocytogenes of 62% versus 17% by the culture-based method. Both methods revealed higher prevalences in the rural watershed and during the fall and winter seasons. Elevated Escherichia coli (≥ 100 CFU/100 ml) levels were not associated with the pathogen regardless of the detection method. Isolation of Listeria spp. were associated with 70 times higher odds of isolating L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 70; P < 0.001). Serogroup IIa was predominant (67.7%) among the 285 L. monocytogenes isolates, followed by IVb (16.1%), IIb (15.8%), and IIc (0.4%). L. monocytogenes was detected in cow feces and raw sewage but not in septic tank samples. Pulsotyping of representative water (n = 54) and local human (n = 19) isolates suggested genetic similarities among some environmental and human L. monocytogenes isolates. In conclusion, temperate surface waters contain a diverse Listeria species population and could be a potential reservoir for L. monocytogenes, especially in rural agricultural watersheds. PMID:25819965

  14. Comparison of the Prevalences and Diversities of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes in an Urban and a Rural Agricultural Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Stea, Emma C.; Purdue, Laura M.; Jamieson, Rob C.; Yost, Chris K.

    2015-01-01

    Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were cultured from 72 and 35% of rural and urban water samples, respectively, with 24% of the positive samples containing two or three different Listeria spp. The L. innocua (56%) and L. welshimeri (43%) groups were predominant in the rural and urban watersheds, respectively. Analysis by the TaqMan assay showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of L. monocytogenes of 62% versus 17% by the culture-based method. Both methods revealed higher prevalences in the rural watershed and during the fall and winter seasons. Elevated Escherichia coli (≥100 CFU/100 ml) levels were not associated with the pathogen regardless of the detection method. Isolation of Listeria spp. were associated with 70 times higher odds of isolating L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 70; P < 0.001). Serogroup IIa was predominant (67.7%) among the 285 L. monocytogenes isolates, followed by IVb (16.1%), IIb (15.8%), and IIc (0.4%). L. monocytogenes was detected in cow feces and raw sewage but not in septic tank samples. Pulsotyping of representative water (n = 54) and local human (n = 19) isolates suggested genetic similarities among some environmental and human L. monocytogenes isolates. In conclusion, temperate surface waters contain a diverse Listeria species population and could be a potential reservoir for L. monocytogenes, especially in rural agricultural watersheds. PMID:25819965

  15. Comparison of the Prevalences and Diversities of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes in an Urban and a Rural Agricultural Watershed.

    PubMed

    Stea, Emma C; Purdue, Laura M; Jamieson, Rob C; Yost, Chris K; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2015-06-01

    Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were cultured from 72 and 35% of rural and urban water samples, respectively, with 24% of the positive samples containing two or three different Listeria spp. The L. innocua (56%) and L. welshimeri (43%) groups were predominant in the rural and urban watersheds, respectively. Analysis by the TaqMan assay showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of L. monocytogenes of 62% versus 17% by the culture-based method. Both methods revealed higher prevalences in the rural watershed and during the fall and winter seasons. Elevated Escherichia coli (≥ 100 CFU/100 ml) levels were not associated with the pathogen regardless of the detection method. Isolation of Listeria spp. were associated with 70 times higher odds of isolating L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 70; P < 0.001). Serogroup IIa was predominant (67.7%) among the 285 L. monocytogenes isolates, followed by IVb (16.1%), IIb (15.8%), and IIc (0.4%). L. monocytogenes was detected in cow feces and raw sewage but not in septic tank samples. Pulsotyping of representative water (n = 54) and local human (n = 19) isolates suggested genetic similarities among some environmental and human L. monocytogenes isolates. In conclusion, temperate surface waters contain a diverse Listeria species population and could be a potential reservoir for L. monocytogenes, especially in rural agricultural watersheds.

  16. 75 FR 33501 - Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... the development and ongoing success of rural microenterprises. This document corrects the Office of... Rural Business-Cooperative Service 7 CFR Part 4280 Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule; correction. SUMMARY: The...

  17. Knowledgeables' Opinions of Changes in Agriculture and Business in Twenty-six Counties, 1960-1972, S-79 Regional Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steelman, Virginia Purtle

    The paper examined the opinions of black and white knowledgeables in 26 counties of Alabama, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Tennessee pertaining to changes in agriculture and business from 1960 to 1972. Respondents were questioned about changes in business, industry, employment opportunities, real income, local businessmen's…

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING TRAINING NEEDS AND OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENTS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE WITHIN THE BATON ROUGE AGRI-BUSINESS COMPLEX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MORRISON, RICHARD G.

    DATA WERE SECURED BY PERSONAL INTERVIEW FROM 152 FARM-BASED BUSINESSES TO DEVELOP TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES FOR MAKING A SURVEY OF NONFARM AGRICULTURAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE BATON ROUGE METROPOLITAN AREA. SEVEN MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL FAMILIES WERE IDENTIFIED IN THE AGRI-BUSINESS COMPLEX. A TOTAL OF 2,811 EMPLOYEES WAS CATEGORIZED INTO NINE LEVELS OF…

  19. Exposure of farm workers to electromagnetic radiation from cellular network radio base stations situated on rural agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Pascuzzi, Simone; Santoro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field (EMF) levels generated by mobile telephone radio base stations (RBS) situated on rural-agricultural lands were assessed in order to evaluate the exposure of farm workers in the surrounding area. The expected EMF at various distances from a mobile telephone RBS was calculated using an ad hoc numerical forecast model. Subsequently, the electric fields around some RBS on agricultural lands were measured, in order to obtain a good approximation of the effective conditions at the investigated sites. The viability of this study was tested according to the Italian Regulations concerning general and occupational public exposure to time-varying EMFs. The calculated E-field values were obtained with the RBS working constantly at full power, but during the in situ measurements the actual power emitted by RBS antennas was lower than the maximum level, and the E-field values actually registered were much lower than the calculated values.

  20. Developing Programs of Supervised Agricultural Experience. Developing an SAE Program Using the Missouri Agricultural Record Book for Secondary Students. Analyzing the SAE Program Using the Missouri Farm Business Record Book. Instructor's Guide. Volume 21, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admire, Myron

    This curriculum guide to the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program contains four units of insturctor's materials as follows: Unit 1: Developing an SAE Program; Unit 2: Using the Missouri Agricultural Record Book for Secondary Students; Unit 3: Analyzing the SAE Program; and Unit 4: Using the Missouri Farm Business Record Book. The…

  1. Household food security is associated with agricultural livelihoods and diet quality in a marginalized community of rural Bedouins in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Hala; Barbour, Jessica M; Nord, Mark; Zurayk, Rami; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2013-10-01

    In the context of recent increases in international food prices, it is hypothesized that in rural communities retaining food production practices is important for protection against food insecurity at both the household and community levels, as well as for protection against the development of poor nutritional outcomes. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study of household food security and nutritional status was carried out in a rural community of settled Bedouins in Lebanon comprising 84 households with 474 individuals; this tribe's recent history of settlement in 2 locations that differ by access to land and food production practices provides the context for this study. Food insecurity was found to be highly prevalent (49%) in this Bedouin community and was negatively associated with household food production (P < 0.05) and the consumption of fruits, chicken, meat, and fish (P < 0.05) and positively associated with consumption of cereal products (P < 0.01). This study shows that in small rural communities in a transitional country, sustaining food production may protect from food insecurity. Agricultural livelihood support programs that promote continued involvement in food production at the household and community level, in conjunction with other income-generating activities, may build resilience against food insecurity and improve dietary diversity. PMID:23946340

  2. Household food security is associated with agricultural livelihoods and diet quality in a marginalized community of rural Bedouins in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Hala; Barbour, Jessica M; Nord, Mark; Zurayk, Rami; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2013-10-01

    In the context of recent increases in international food prices, it is hypothesized that in rural communities retaining food production practices is important for protection against food insecurity at both the household and community levels, as well as for protection against the development of poor nutritional outcomes. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study of household food security and nutritional status was carried out in a rural community of settled Bedouins in Lebanon comprising 84 households with 474 individuals; this tribe's recent history of settlement in 2 locations that differ by access to land and food production practices provides the context for this study. Food insecurity was found to be highly prevalent (49%) in this Bedouin community and was negatively associated with household food production (P < 0.05) and the consumption of fruits, chicken, meat, and fish (P < 0.05) and positively associated with consumption of cereal products (P < 0.01). This study shows that in small rural communities in a transitional country, sustaining food production may protect from food insecurity. Agricultural livelihood support programs that promote continued involvement in food production at the household and community level, in conjunction with other income-generating activities, may build resilience against food insecurity and improve dietary diversity.

  3. Agriculture and rural out-migration in Central Asia, 1960-91.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, A

    1995-01-01

    "This article seeks to analyse agrarian structure and policy in the Soviet period and discuss their effect on migration from rural to urban areas. In the case of [Soviet] Central Asia, neither the various steps to bring down labour intensity in the farm sector, nor the falling standard of living in rural areas, could bring about migration from rural to urban areas. This was because in traditional societies economic mechanisms are not effective unless they are complemented by appropriate social and cultural policies. All policies were oriented towards the state's goal of vertical integration of regions with the central economy. In Central Asia in particular this policy resulted in serious distortions in the social and economic spheres."

  4. Building Better Rural Places: Federal Programs for Sustainable Agriculture, Forestry, Conservation and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berton, Valerie; Butler, Jennifer

    This guide is written for those seeking help from federal programs to foster innovative enterprises in agriculture and forestry in the United States. The guide describes program resources in value-added and diversified agriculture and forestry, sustainable land management, and community development. Programs are included based upon whether they…

  5. Agricultural Safety and Health: A Resource Guide. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 40. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joy, Comp.

    This guide lists resource materials that address agricultural occupational injuries and diseases and their prevention. Many of the entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agricultural Library and include journal articles, books, government reports, training materials, and audiovisual materials. The first section…

  6. EXTENSION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES, A MANUAL FOR AGRICULTURAL AND HOME EXTENSION WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAVILE, A.H.

    A PRACTICAL GUIDE IS PROVIDED FOR TRAINERS OF ADVISORY AND EXTENSION WORKERS AND LOCAL LEADERS IN AGRICULTURE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING NATIONS. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, COMMUNITY SURVEY PROCEDURES, ELEMENTS OF PROGRAM PLANNING, AND PURPOSES AND METHODS OF PROGRAM EVALUATION ARE DESCRIBED. THEN FOLLOW TWO CHAPTERS…

  7. Horse-Related Injuries among Agricultural Household Members: Regional Rural Injury Study II (RRIS-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkal, Sibel; Gerberich, Susan G.; Ryan, Andrew D.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Renier, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence, associated consequences, and potential risk factors for horse-related injuries among youth and adults residing in Midwestern agricultural households. Methods: Demographic, injury, and exposure data were collected for 1999 and 2001 among randomly selected agricultural households within a 5-state region. A causal…

  8. Bushfires Are "Men's Business": The Importance of Gender and Rural Hegemonic Masculinity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Meagan; Fairbrother, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a critical review of the international literature on gender, disaster and rural masculinities. Empirical reference is made to bushfires in Australia, offering new evidence from the State of Victoria. Bushfires loom large in the Australian imagination and there is an increasing amount of research now being conducted in relation to…

  9. Beyond the "Rural Myth": The Business Side of Western Canadian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Allan G.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the conflict between elevator and railway operators and the grain farmers of western Canada was not so one-sided as typically presented in high school textbooks. Concludes that the 'courts' of Canadian history have promoted a 'rural myth' of the grain growers associations, the cooperative spirit of the 'Wheat Pools,' and the political…

  10. Social Science Research Serving Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Mary, Ed.

    This collection of articles provides an overview of some of the recent social science research projects performed by state agricultural experiment stations. The examples highlight social science's contribution to problem-solving in rural business, industry, farming, communities, government, education, and families. The following programs are…

  11. Enclosure Then and Now: Rural Schools and Communities in the Wake of Market-Driven Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Rochon, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    The following is an historically-based analysis of a new phenomenon affecting rural schools and communities: animal confinement operations. A contrast is made between "enclosure" as it unfolded in England a few centuries ago and the way animal concentration units constitute a second, "modern" form of enclosure today. In both instances, as this…

  12. Math Infusion in Agricultural Education and Career and Technical Education in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    The increased pressure for gains in academic performance in mathematics and science are not going to dissipate, and rural schools must find a way to meet these challenges. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Carl D. Perkins Federal Vocational and Technical Education Act legislations have also put pressure on career and technical education…

  13. The Great Plains Agricultural Frontier and What Lay Ahead for Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Advocates a greater emphasis upon rural history through the study of the farming frontier. Suggests methods for introducing this topic to students. Criticizes Turner's thesis for not recognizing the extent of homesteading after 1890 and for concentrating only on agrarian settlement in the Midwest. (KO)

  14. Malaria knowledge and agricultural practices that promote mosquito breeding in two rural farming communities in Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Agricultural practices such as the use of irrigation during rice cultivation, the use of ponds for fish farming and the storage of water in tanks for livestock provide suitable breeding grounds for anthropophylic mosquitoes. The most common anthropophylic mosquito in Nigeria which causes much of the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria is the anopheles mosquito. Farmers are therefore at high risk of malaria - a disease which seriously impacts on agricultural productivity. Unfortunately information relating to agricultural practices and farmers' behavioural antecedent factors that could assist malaria programmers plan and implement interventions to reduce risk of infections among farmers is scanty. Farmers' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which favour the breeding of mosquitoes in Fashola and Soku, two rural farming communities in Oyo State were therefore assessed in two rural farming communities in Oyo State. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study involved the collection of data through the use of eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and the interview of 403 randomly selected farmers using semi-structured questionnaires. These sets of information were supplemented with observations of agricultural practices made in 40 randomly selected farms. The FGD data were recorded on audio-tapes, transcribed and subjected to content analysis while the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Most respondents in the two communities had low level of knowledge of malaria causation as only 12.4% stated that mosquito bite could transmit the disease. Less than half (46.7%) correctly mentioned the signs and symptoms of malaria as high body temperature, body pains, headache, body weakness and cold/fever. The reported main methods for preventing mosquito bites in the farming communities included removal of heaps of cassava tuber peelings (62.3%), bush burning/clearing (54.6%) and clearing of

  15. Rural Development: Part 2, (1) Balanced National Growth Policy; (2) National Rural Development Program; (3) S. 1612, The Rural Community Development Revenue Sharing Act of 1971; (4) Reorganization of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, 92d Congress, 1st Session, April 29; June 16 and 17, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Included in these Senate hearings on rural development are statements from representatives of the following: (1) National League of Cities and the U.S. Conference of Mayors; (2) National Association of Community Development; (3) American Institute of Planners; (4) National Farmers Union; (5) Business International; (6) National Service to Regional…

  16. Women's NutriBusiness Cooperatives in Kenya: An Integrated Strategy for Sustaining Rural Livelihoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maretzki, Audrey N.

    2007-01-01

    With funding provided by the Center for Higher Education of the United States Agency for International Development, The Pennsylvania State University and Tuskegee University collaborated with the University of Nairobi in establishing women's NutriBusiness Cooperatives in the Rift Valley and Central Provinces of Kenya. Between 1992 and 1999, the…

  17. Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2015

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Aderholt, Robert B. [R-AL-4

    2014-06-04

    06/11/2014 Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union rises leaving H.R. 4800 as unfinished business. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.83, which became Public Law 113-235 on 12/16/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Characterization of VOCs Across Pennsylvania: Assessing Emissions from Rural, Forested, Agricultural and Natural Gas Drilling-Impacted Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grannas, A. M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ramos-Garcés, F.; Wang, D. K.; Martins, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin are important to troposphere chemistry, particularly the formation of photochemical smog and secondary organic aerosol. There is concern that increased natural gas exploration may lead to increased emissions of certain VOCs during well development and due to fugitive emissions from operational well sites and pipelines. For a six-day period in June 2012, a variety of VOCs were measured using canister sampling from a mobile measurement platform. Transects from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania were studied, with samples obtained in rural, forested, urban, farm-impacted and gas well-impacted sites. As expected, biogenic VOCs and isoprene oxidation products were enhanced in forested regions, while anthropogenic non-methane hydrocarbons were enhanced in urban areas. BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) was enhanced in urban areas, but the concentrations of BTEX measured near developing and existing natural gas sites were similar to rural and forested sites. Halogenated hydrocarbons and Freon compounds were consistent at all site locations. We will discuss the specific concentrations and signatures of these compounds and assess the potential impact of agricultural activities and gas well development on the observed VOC concentrations and variability.

  19. Resource use among rural agricultural households near protected areas in Vietnam: the social costs of conservation and implications for enforcement.

    PubMed

    McElwee, Pamela D

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been 'invisible' due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit.

  20. Presence of arsenic in agricultural products from arsenic-endemic areas and strategies to reduce arsenic intake in rural villages.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Signes-Pastor, Antonio J; Vázquez-Araújo, Laura; Burló, Francisco; Sengupta, Bhaskar

    2009-05-01

    About 100 million rural people in Asia are exposed to arsenic (As)-polluted drinking water and agricultural products. Total and inorganic arsenic (t-As and i-As) intake mainly depend on the quality of drinking and cooking waters, and amounts of seafood and rice consumed. The main problems occur in countries with poor water quality where the population depends on rice for their diet, and their t-As and i-As intake is high as a result of growing and cooking rice in contaminated water. Workable solutions to remove As from water and breeding rice cultivars with low As accumulation are being sought. In the meantime, simple recommendations for processing and cooking foods will help to reduce As intake. For instance, cooking using high volumes of As-free water may be a cheap way of reducing As exposure in rural populations. It is necessary to consider the effects of cooking and processing on t-As and i-As to obtain a realistic view of the risks associated with intake of As in As-endemic areas. PMID:19382147

  1. Presence of arsenic in agricultural products from arsenic-endemic areas and strategies to reduce arsenic intake in rural villages.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Signes-Pastor, Antonio J; Vázquez-Araújo, Laura; Burló, Francisco; Sengupta, Bhaskar

    2009-05-01

    About 100 million rural people in Asia are exposed to arsenic (As)-polluted drinking water and agricultural products. Total and inorganic arsenic (t-As and i-As) intake mainly depend on the quality of drinking and cooking waters, and amounts of seafood and rice consumed. The main problems occur in countries with poor water quality where the population depends on rice for their diet, and their t-As and i-As intake is high as a result of growing and cooking rice in contaminated water. Workable solutions to remove As from water and breeding rice cultivars with low As accumulation are being sought. In the meantime, simple recommendations for processing and cooking foods will help to reduce As intake. For instance, cooking using high volumes of As-free water may be a cheap way of reducing As exposure in rural populations. It is necessary to consider the effects of cooking and processing on t-As and i-As to obtain a realistic view of the risks associated with intake of As in As-endemic areas.

  2. 77 FR 55755 - Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... structure. The last time SBA conducted a comprehensive review of all size standards was during the late... Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). NAICS 11, Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, includes 46... and industry structure since the last comprehensive size standards review, SBA recognizes that...

  3. Agricultural Business Sales and Marketing. Instructor's Guide. Volume 16, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    This curriculum guide, intended for junior and senior students of vocational agriculture, contains nine units designed to develop competencies needed in agribusiness. Each unit contains 3 to 11 lessons on topics that include the nature of agribusiness, human relations in agribusiness, verbal and written communication, selling and salesmanship,…

  4. Knowledge Gaps and Rural Development in Tajikistan: Agricultural Advisory Services as a Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtaltovna, Anastasiya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse knowledge systems and channels of innovation diffusion in Tajikistan. In particular, I look at the formation of agricultural advisory services (AASs) and how these provide a vital source of knowledge and innovation for farmers during the transition process. Methodology: Empirically, this paper draws…

  5. Parents' Perception towards Inclusion of Agriculture in School Curriculum in Rural India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, Amit; Ali, Jabir

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims at analysing the influence of demographics factors on inclusion of agriculture in school curriculum. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study was conducted in five villages of Rewari district in Haryana using a Mixed Methods Research Approach. After a qualitative discussion with the parents in groups, a personal interview…

  6. How Agricultural Science Trumps Rural Community in the Discourse of Selected U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Marged; Howley, Aimee; Eppley, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Using narrative from 6 high school American history textbooks published between 1956 and 2009, this study investigated changes in how textbook authors presented the topics of agricultural science, farming, and community. Although some critical discourse analyses have examined textbooks' treatment of different population groups (e.g., African…

  7. THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION TO THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF ETHIOPIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KERBRET, MAKONNEN

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT SITUATION IN ETHIOPIA AND A REVIEW OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN THE WORLD WAS MADE THROUGH INTENSIVE LIBRARY RESEARCH. GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE BASED ON THE REVIEW SUBMITTED TO A JURY OF EXPERTS FOR VERIFICATION. REVISED GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE THEN DEVELOPED FOR GUIDING AND IMPLEMENTING THE…

  8. Epidemiology of health and safety risks in agriculture and related industries. Practical applications for rural physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Zejda, J E; McDuffie, H H; Dosman, J A

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies document that work in the agricultural sector is associated with many occupational health hazards. Exposure to organic dusts and airborne microorganisms and their toxins may lead to respiratory disorders. The burden of exposure-related chronic bronchitis, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic-dust toxic syndrome, and chronic airflow limitation can be diminished by appropriate preventive measures. The contribution of exposures to agricultural chemicals to cancers and neurodegenerative disorders is being investigated. Some studies document that farmers and those in related industries are at higher risk for the development of cancer of the stomach, soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Chronic encephalopathy and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases are being studied in relation to agricultural chemicals. The possible carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity of pesticides emphasize the need to promote the safe use of chemicals. Another area for health promotion programs is disabling injuries and traumatic deaths. Farm accidents are important because of their frequent occurrence among young people and disturbing fatality rates. Other health issues of concern in these industries include skin diseases, hearing loss, and stress. PMID:8470386

  9. Integrated services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scipioni, A.; Tagliaferri, F.

    2009-04-01

    Objective of the document is to define lines of development and distribution of the services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fire. The services will be a valid support on hand of the Regional and National Administrations involved in the agricultural-forest-rural activities (Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, National Forest Police, ecc..), through the employment of the SIAN "National Agricultural Informative System", that is the integrated national information system for the entire agriculture, forestry and fisheries Administration. The services proposals would be distributed through the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) of the SIAN: the GIS database is a single nation-wide digital graphic database consisting of: - Ortophotos: Aerial images of approz. 45 km2 each with ground resolution of 50 cm; - Cadastral maps: Land maps; - Thematic layers: Land use and crops identification The GIS services can take full advantage of the benefits of SIAN architectural model designed for best integration and interoperability with other Central and Local P.A. bodies whose main items are: - Integration of information from different sources; - Maintainance of the internal coeherence of any integrated information; - Flexibility with respect to technical or organizational changes The "innovative "services described below could be useful to support the development of institutional tasks of public Agencies and Administrations (es. Regions or Civil Protection agencies) according to than previewed from the D.Lgs. 173/98. Services of support to the management of the phenomenon of wildland fires The activities outlined in below figure, don't have a linear and defined temporal sequence, but a dynamic and time integration. It guarantees not only the integrated use of the various information, but also the value of every product, for level of accuracy, coherence and timeliness of the information. Description of four main

  10. The Economic Evolution of Rural America. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation of the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (May 22, June 13, June 19, July 1, 1985). Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    Part 2 of this congressional hearing contains the testimony and prepared statements of 31 witnesses on the topics of rural community resources, the rural labor force, rural finance, and rural education to assist the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation in identifying the problems and potential of America's rural economy. With emphasis on…

  11. Co-production of bioethanol and probiotic yeast biomass from agricultural feedstock: application of the rural biorefinery concept.

    PubMed

    Hull, Claire M; Loveridge, E Joel; Donnison, Iain S; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Microbial biotechnology and biotransformations promise to diversify the scope of the biorefinery approach for the production of high-value products and biofuels from industrial, rural and municipal waste feedstocks. In addition to bio-based chemicals and metabolites, microbial biomass itself constitutes an obvious but overlooked by-product of existing biofermentation systems which warrants fuller attention. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders and marketed as a human health supplement. Despite its relatedness to S. cerevisiae that is employed widely in biotechnology, food and biofuel industries, the alternative applications of S. boulardii are not well studied. Using a biorefinery approach, we compared the bioethanol and biomass yields attainable from agriculturally-sourced grass juice using probiotic S. boulardii (strain MYA-769) and a commercial S. cerevisiae brewing strain (Turbo yeast). Maximum product yields for MYA-769 (39.18 [±2.42] mg ethanol mL(-1) and 4.96 [±0.15] g dry weight L(-1)) compared closely to those of Turbo (37.43 [±1.99] mg mL(-1) and 4.78 [±0.10] g L(-1), respectively). Co-production, marketing and/or on-site utilisation of probiotic yeast biomass as a direct-fed microbial to improve livestock health represents a novel and viable prospect for rural biorefineries. Given emergent evidence to suggest that dietary yeast supplementations might also mitigate ruminant enteric methane emissions, the administration of probiotic yeast biomass could also offer an economically feasible way of reducing atmospheric CH4.

  12. Agricultural growth and "trickle-down" reconsidered: evidence from rural India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S D

    1997-08-01

    This examination of the "green revolution" in India considers the totality of State-guided development strategies on the lives of ordinary people through an analysis of data collected during field work in 1990-91, 1993-94, and 1995 in a typical north Indian village. The first part of the report situates the "green revolution" strategy in its larger political-economic context, reviewing the circumstances under which it was launched, the nature of the implementation process, and macrolevel trends. After this introduction, the paper presents the village case study with a description of the physical attributes of the village, its social composition, and patterns of land tenure. This highlights the fact that the larger land-owing interests have been the primary beneficiaries of the "green revolution." Wealthy land-owners have been able to diversify their income sources through the purchase of threshing machinery for their own use and for rental to others, the construction of storage facilities where grain can be withheld until top prices are offered in the market, the processing of sugar cane, and dairy farming. Farmers owning less than 1.5 hectares of irrigated land, however lack the resource base to invest in new agricultural technologies. They either go in debt (with little hope of ever producing enough to eliminate the need for borrowing) to purchase the higher-yielding seeds, fertilizers, and chemical pesticides required by the new methods or they retreat into subsistence farming and hire themselves out as labor. This strategy is seldom resorted to, however, because of the pressures of meeting minimal subsistence needs in a cash economy. The top-down strategies that accompanied agricultural modernization have led to a deterioration in the standard of living of the poor. In addition, the "green revolution" is environmentally unsustainable and, ultimately, will have tragic ramifications for India.

  13. Rural Sociology in the South: 1980. Proceedings of the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Association of Agricultural Scientists (Hot Springs, Arkansas, February 3-6, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Wolfgang, Ed.

    A total of 47 papers representing the broad research and extension interests related to rural areas are included in this volume. The 13 sessions are entitled Rural Structure and Process, Industrialization, Migration, Health and Alcohol, Quality of Life, Occupations and Work, Applied Sociology, Education, Network Analysis, Poverty, Status…

  14. Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies in Rural Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  15. Farmers' perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate. PMID:18810526

  16. Farmers' perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  17. Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Devendra, C.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil

  18. Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.

    PubMed

    Devendra, C

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil

  19. Biofuels-Strengthening links between agriculture and military

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. agricultural producers and military planners share a strong commitment to the commercial-scale development of ready-to-use biofuels that can be sustainably produced using plant-based materials harvested from farms, forests, and other rural lands. Researchers in private business, government, and...

  20. Using Business Intelligence to Analyze and Share Health System Infrastructure Data in a Rural Health Authority

    PubMed Central

    Urquhart, Bonnie; Berg, Emery; Dhanoa, Ramandeep

    2014-01-01

    Background Health care organizations gather large volumes of data, which has been traditionally stored in legacy formats making it difficult to analyze or use effectively. Though recent government-funded initiatives have improved the situation, the quality of most existing data is poor, suffers from inconsistencies, and lacks integrity. Generating reports from such data is generally not considered feasible due to extensive labor, lack of reliability, and time constraints. Advanced data analytics is one way of extracting useful information from such data. Objective The intent of this study was to propose how Business Intelligence (BI) techniques can be applied to health system infrastructure data in order to make this information more accessible and comprehensible for a broader group of people. Methods An integration process was developed to cleanse and integrate data from disparate sources into a data warehouse. An Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) cube was then built to allow slicing along multiple dimensions determined by various key performance indicators (KPIs), representing population and patient profiles, case mix groups, and healthy community indicators. The use of mapping tools, customized shape files, and embedded objects further augment the navigation. Finally, Web forms provide a mechanism for remote uploading of data and transparent processing of the cube. For privileged information, access controls were implemented. Results Data visualization has eliminated tedious analysis through legacy reports and provided a mechanism for optimally aligning resources with needs. Stakeholders are able to visualize KPIs on a main dashboard, slice-and-dice data, generate ad hoc reports, and quickly find the desired information. In addition, comparison, availability, and service level reports can also be generated on demand. All reports can be drilled down for navigation at a finer granularity. Conclusions We have demonstrated how BI techniques and tools can be used

  1. Rural Community Psychology and the Farm Foreclosure Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, David S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses socio-psychological effect of farm foreclosures and decline of agriculturally-related businesses in the midwest/plains states. Suggests that models for understanding human response to natural disasters are applicable to this crisis. Challenges the myth that rural people and communities bond together under stress and offers suggestions to…

  2. "Electric Power for Rural Growth: How Electricity Affects Rural Life in Developing Countries," by Douglas F. Barnes. [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodwick, Dora G.; McIntosh, William A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a book assessing the effects of central grid rural electrification on the social and economic development of 192 communities in India and Colombia. The study examines the impact on agricultural productivity (through increased irrigation), the quality of life of women and children, business activities, and regional inequities. (SV)

  3. Economic Openness and the Marginalization of Small Family Farmers: Aligning Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Rural Adolescents in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh

    Economic liberalization and the rise of global competition have increased the importance of agricultural, technical, and business skills for small farmers in Brazil. However, many rural farmers are unable to attend agricultural technical schools due to low educational attainment. The first section of this paper discusses the impact that…

  4. Emerging Issues in the Rural Economy of the South. Proceedings of a Regional Workshop (Birmingham, Alabama, January 13-14, 1986). SRDC Series No. 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.

    The papers in this monograph represent the collective comments of speakers at a January 1986 conference addressing emerging issues in the rural economy of the South. The opening paper suggests that prospects for rural southern economic development are tied to new business development, new agricultural products, automated traditional manufacturing,…

  5. Environmental and occupational health risks among agricultural workers living in a rural community near petroleum refinery and motorway in Skopje region.

    PubMed

    Karadžinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sašo; Mijakoski, Dragan; Risteska-Kuc, Snežana; Milkovska, Snežana

    2010-12-01

    To assess health risks in agricultural workers associated with environmental exposure to pollutants released from a petroleum refinery and from traffic, we performed a cross-sectional study that included 119 randomly selected subjects divided in two groups. Group 1 included 60 agricultural workers living in a rural community near the petroleum refinery and a motorway overpass, whereas Group 2 consisted of 59 agricultural workers performing similar activities and living in a rural community with no exposure to industrial and traffic pollutants. Risk assessment included a questionnaire, blood pressure measurement, spirometry, laboratory tests, and toxicological analysis. The groups showed a similar prevalence of health problems, with exception of muscle pain in the extremities, headache, and fatigue, which were significantly more common in Group 1. Diastolic blood pressure was higher in Group 1, but not significantly (p=0.057). The same is true for blood carbon monoxide. Significantly higher in Group 1 were blood haemoglobin (p=0.001) and blood lead (p<0.001). Serum cholinesterase activity was similar in both groups. Our findings indicate the need of regular medical exams, ambient monitoring and environmental impact assessment in agricultural population in order to detect individuals at risk and to institute adequate preventive measures.

  6. Agriculture, Rural Development, and the Use of Land. A Series of Papers Compiled by the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate. Committee Print, 93rd Congress, 2nd Session, April 16, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Compiled by the members of the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Rural Development, this series of papers presents varying views on rural land-use issues. The 19 papers are titled as follows: (1) "Planning: Some questions, Answers, and Issues"; (2) "Evolution of Planning Theory and Practice: A Response to Changing Problems and Institutions"; (3) "The…

  7. What Is Rural? Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  8. Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.

    2008-01-01

    Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

  9. Joining Rural Development Theory and Rural Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    Karl N. Stauber proposes three goals for rural development policy: helping the rural middle class survive, reducing concentrated rural poverty, and sustaining and improving the quality of the natural environment. In contrast to other visions, he advises policy that focuses on rural places rather than rural economic sectors such as agriculture,…

  10. What Is Rural?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Nutrition Marketing and Trade Natural Resources and Environment Plants and Crops Research and Technology Rural Development Visual Arts and Agricultural History Publications Alternative Farming ...

  11. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes “rural”. A rural area may consist of any area that lies...

  12. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes “rural”. A rural area may consist of any area that lies...

  13. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes “rural”. A rural area may consist of any area that lies...

  14. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes “rural”. A rural area may consist of any area that lies...

  15. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes “rural”. A rural area may consist of any area that lies...

  16. The Internet & Regional Australia: How Rural Communities Can Address the Impact of the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Rosie

    In the last decade, a technological revolution has touched all aspects of business and society in Australia, the Western world, and to a lesser extent, the developing world. This revolution has occurred against a backdrop of long-term fundamental changes in rural Australian communities. The decline in traditional agriculture's terms of trade and…

  17. Bringing Home the Bacon? The Myth of the Role of Corporate Hog Farming in Rural Revitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia Butler

    As rural communities decline due to job losses in agriculture and other industries, they often aggressively court new industries. In such circumstances, a community should question what a proposed new industry will require in terms of infrastructure; the effects of the new labor force on schools, businesses, and housing; the impact on the…

  18. Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

    A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

  19. Rural Industrialization in the Ozarks: Case Study of a New Shirt Plant at Gassville, Arkansas. Agricultural Economic Report No. 123.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordon, Max F.

    To determine the short term effects of a large apparel plant on the economy of a relatively isolated, highly rural Ozark area (8 counties), characterized by low income and few employment opportunities, this study compared 1959 data on the study area and the state of Arkansas with similar post plant data (1960-1963). Data were compared on income…

  20. The Disruption of Subsistence Agricultural Systems in Rural Yucatan, Mexico may have Contributed to the Coexistence of Stunting in Children with Adult Overweight and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Gurri, Francisco D

    2015-12-01

    This paper attempts to link last century's disruption of local agricultural systems to today's presence of childhood under nutrition and adult overweight and obesity in the Yucatan Peninsula. It first compares Height for Age (H/A), Weight for Age (W/A) and Body Mass Index (BMI) of children from three rural populations in Yucatan and Campeche, Mexico whose subsistence strategy had been altered to different degrees since 1970. It then compares BMI in adults, in the same regions, born before and after the alteration of their environment in the 1970's. Children in the least disrupted zone were taller and had lower BMI than children in the other two, but were not heavier than children from the richest disrupted zone. Children in the poorest disrupted zone were shorter and lighter than the rest. BMI in adult men was higher in the two most disrupted zones only in those cohorts that grew up after the traditional agricultural regime was altered. It is concluded that disruptions of staple-based subsistence agriculture promoted a stockier phenotype in children and a tendency to accumulate body fat. Persistence of these conditions in the twenty first century has favored the coexistence of stunting during childhood with adults who easily become overweight.

  1. The Disruption of Subsistence Agricultural Systems in Rural Yucatan, Mexico may have Contributed to the Coexistence of Stunting in Children with Adult Overweight and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Gurri, Francisco D

    2015-12-01

    This paper attempts to link last century's disruption of local agricultural systems to today's presence of childhood under nutrition and adult overweight and obesity in the Yucatan Peninsula. It first compares Height for Age (H/A), Weight for Age (W/A) and Body Mass Index (BMI) of children from three rural populations in Yucatan and Campeche, Mexico whose subsistence strategy had been altered to different degrees since 1970. It then compares BMI in adults, in the same regions, born before and after the alteration of their environment in the 1970's. Children in the least disrupted zone were taller and had lower BMI than children in the other two, but were not heavier than children from the richest disrupted zone. Children in the poorest disrupted zone were shorter and lighter than the rest. BMI in adult men was higher in the two most disrupted zones only in those cohorts that grew up after the traditional agricultural regime was altered. It is concluded that disruptions of staple-based subsistence agriculture promoted a stockier phenotype in children and a tendency to accumulate body fat. Persistence of these conditions in the twenty first century has favored the coexistence of stunting during childhood with adults who easily become overweight. PMID:26987151

  2. Gender Disparities and Socio-Economic Factors on Learning Achievements in Agricultural Science in Rural and Urban Secondary Schools of Ogbomoso North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…

  3. 7 CFR Appendix K to Subpart E of... - Regulations for Loan Guarantees for Disaster Assistance For Rural Business Enterprises

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... agricultural products (crops, animals, birds, and marine life, either for fibers or food for human consumption), and disposal or marketing thereof, the raising, housing, feeding (including commercial custom feedlots... production of ornamental plants and trees and other nursery products such as bulbs, florists' greens,...

  4. Relationships between Rural Inhabitants and Their Landscapes in Areas of Intensive Agricultural Use: A Case Study in Quebec (Canada)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Julie; Domon, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the relationships between local populations and the landscape is crucial for reintroducing the multifunctional character of landscapes in areas of intensive agricultural use. This study proposes to identify and compare the relationships that local populations, both farmers and non-farmers, maintain with their landscapes in…

  5. Notice on Organizing College Graduates to Help in Education, Agriculture, Medical Service, and Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Three Assistances and One Alleviation Plan issued in 2006 is an expansion of the Western China Program issued in 2003. Voluntary services in agricultural, educational, and medical areas by college graduates are organized through the implementation of this policy. The plan aims to recruit 20,000 graduates per year and has provided more detailed…

  6. Learning and Innovation in Agriculture and Rural Development: The Use of the Concepts of Boundary Work and Boundary Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisenkopfs, Talis; Kunda, Ilona; šumane, Sandra; Brunori, Gianluca; Klerkx, Laurens; Moschitz, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The paper explores the role of boundary work and boundary objects in enhancing learning and innovation processes in hybrid multi-actor networks for sustainable agriculture (LINSA). Design/Methodology/Approach: Boundary work in LINSA is analysed on the basis of six case studies carried out in SOLINSA project under a common methodology. In…

  7. Rural School Communities in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Jack

    Visits to nine of the smallest rural elementary schools in Colorado were conducted to gain insights into types of communities served by the schools. No one definition of "rural" covered all nine communities, so they were classified into six types: predominantly agricultural, rural industrial, stable recreational, ranching/railraod, rural commuter,…

  8. 7 CFR 1940.560 - Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Housing and Urban Development. The percentage representing each criterion is multiplied by the...

  9. 7 CFR 1940.560 - Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Housing and Urban Development. The percentage representing each criterion is multiplied by the...

  10. 7 CFR 1940.560 - Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Housing and Urban Development. The percentage representing each criterion is multiplied by the...

  11. 7 CFR 1940.560 - Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Housing and Urban Development. The percentage representing each criterion is multiplied by the...

  12. 7 CFR 1940.560 - Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Housing and Urban Development. The percentage representing each criterion is multiplied by the...

  13. Ash storms: impacts of wind-remobilised volcanic ash on rural communities and agriculture following the 1991 Hudson eruption, southern Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T. M.; Cole, J. W.; Stewart, C.; Cronin, S. J.; Johnston, D. M.

    2011-04-01

    Tephra fall from the August 1991 eruption of Volcán Hudson affected some 100,000 km2 of Patagonia and was almost immediately reworked by strong winds, creating billowing clouds of remobilised ash, or `ash storms'. The immediate impacts on agriculture and rural communities were severe, but were then greatly exacerbated by continuing ash storms. This paper describes the findings of a 3-week study tour of the diverse environments of southern Patagonia affected by ash storms, with an emphasis on determining the impacts of repeated ash storms on agriculture and local practices that were developed in an attempt to mitigate these impacts. Ash storms produce similar effects to initial tephra eruptions, prolonged for considerable periods. These have included the burial of farmland under dune deposits, abrasion of vegetation and contamination of feed supplies with fine ash. These impacts can then cause problems for grazing animals such as starvation, severe tooth abrasion, gastrointestinal problems, corneal abrasion and blindness, and exhaustion if sheep fleeces become laden with ash. In addition, ash storms have led to exacerbated soil erosion, human health impacts, increased cleanup requirements, sedimentation in irrigation canals, and disruption of aviation and land transport. Ash deposits were naturally stabilised most rapidly in areas with high rainfall (>1,500 mm/year) through compaction and enhanced vegetation growth. Stabilisation was slowest in windy, semi-arid regions. Destruction of vegetation and suppression of regrowth by heavy tephra fall (>100 mm) hindered the stabilisation of deposits for years, and reduced the surface friction which increased wind erosivity. Stabilisation of tephra deposits was improved by intensive tillage, use of windbreaks and where there was dense and taller vegetative cover. Long-term drought and the impracticality of mixing ash deposits with soil by tillage on large farms was a barrier to stabilising deposits and, in turn

  14. Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang

    Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

  15. Business Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Citation Jet, developed by Cessna Aircraft Company, Wichita, KS, is the first business jet to employ Langley Research Center's natural laminar flow (NLF) technology. NLF reduces drag and therefore saves fuel by using only the shape of the wing to keep the airflow smooth, or laminar. This reduces friction between the air and wing, and therefore, reduces drag. NASA's Central Industrial Applications Center, Rural Enterprises, Inc., Durant, OK, its Kansas affiliate, and Wichita State University assisted in the technology transfer.

  16. Louisiana Annual Rural Manpower Report. ES-225, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Employment Security, Baton Rouge

    The Rural Manpower Service Section of the Louisiana Department of Employment Security provided recruitment, placement, and other Employment Service programs to the agricultural and rural non-agricultural populations. Goals of the Rural Manpower Service were to: serve the agricultural workers and rural population in accordance with existing Federal…

  17. 7 CFR 22.204 - Rural development committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22.204 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural development...

  18. 7 CFR 22.204 - Rural development committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22.204 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural development...

  19. 7 CFR 22.204 - Rural development committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22.204 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural development...

  20. 7 CFR 22.204 - Rural development committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22.204 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural development...

  1. 7 CFR 22.204 - Rural development committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22.204 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural development...

  2. Extension and Home-Based Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loker, Suzanne; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Building Home Businesses in Rural Communities" (Loker et al.); "Home-Based Business...A Means to Economic Growth in Rural Areas" (Bastow-Shoop et al.); "Business Not As Usual" (Millar, Mallilo); and "Economic Options for Farm Families" (Williams). (SK)

  3. Heavy metal exposure, in combination with physical activity and aging, is related with oxidative stress in Japanese women from a rural agricultural community.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoyi; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Mise, Nathan; Ikegami, Akihiko; Mizuno, Atsuko; Sakamoto, Takako; Ogawa, Masanori; Machida, Munehito; Kayama, Fujio

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between oxidative stress and heavy metal exposure (lead [Pb] and cadmium [Cd]), as well as co-factors such as physical activity and age, in Japanese women. This study was conducted with female subjects from a rural agricultural community in Japan. Subjects were asked to complete lifestyle-related questionnaires and undergo a group health examination. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and other demographic information were collected. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations. Urine samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography and flameless atomic absorption spectrometry; blood samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Age, physical activity, and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations were included in structural equation modeling analysis. Two latent factors for heavy metal exposure and physical activity were produced to predict the total influence of the variables. The final model was good: CMIN/DF = 0.775, CFI = 1.000, GFI = 0.975, AGFI = 0.954, RMSEA = 0.000. 8-OHdG levels were positively associated with heavy metal exposure, physical activity, and age (standard β of path analysis: 0.33, 0.38, and 0.20, respectively). Therefore, oxidative stress is associated with both, environmental and lifestyle factors, in combination with aging.

  4. Heavy metal exposure, in combination with physical activity and aging, is related with oxidative stress in Japanese women from a rural agricultural community.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoyi; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Mise, Nathan; Ikegami, Akihiko; Mizuno, Atsuko; Sakamoto, Takako; Ogawa, Masanori; Machida, Munehito; Kayama, Fujio

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between oxidative stress and heavy metal exposure (lead [Pb] and cadmium [Cd]), as well as co-factors such as physical activity and age, in Japanese women. This study was conducted with female subjects from a rural agricultural community in Japan. Subjects were asked to complete lifestyle-related questionnaires and undergo a group health examination. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and other demographic information were collected. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations. Urine samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography and flameless atomic absorption spectrometry; blood samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Age, physical activity, and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations were included in structural equation modeling analysis. Two latent factors for heavy metal exposure and physical activity were produced to predict the total influence of the variables. The final model was good: CMIN/DF = 0.775, CFI = 1.000, GFI = 0.975, AGFI = 0.954, RMSEA = 0.000. 8-OHdG levels were positively associated with heavy metal exposure, physical activity, and age (standard β of path analysis: 0.33, 0.38, and 0.20, respectively). Therefore, oxidative stress is associated with both, environmental and lifestyle factors, in combination with aging. PMID:27386333

  5. Water flowing north of the border: export agriculture and water politics in a rural community in Baja California.

    PubMed

    Zlolniski, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Favored by neoliberal agrarian policies, the production of fresh crops for international markets has become a common strategy for economic development in Mexico and other Latin American countries. But as some scholars have argued, the global fresh produce industry in developing countries in which fresh crops are produced for consumer markets in affluent nations implies “virtual water flows,” the transfer of high volumes of water embedded in these crops across international borders. This article examines the local effects of the production of fresh produce in the San Quintín Valley in northwestern Mexico for markets in the United States. Although export agriculture has fostered economic growth and employment opportunities for indigenous farm laborers, it has also led to the overexploitation of underground finite water resources, and an alarming decline of the quantity and quality of water available for residents’ domestic use. I discuss how neoliberal water policies have further contributed to water inequalities along class and ethnic lines, the hardships settlers endure to secure access to water for their basic needs, and the political protests and social tensions water scarcity has triggered in the region. Although the production of fresh crops for international markets is promoted by organizations such as the World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank as a model for economic development, I argue that it often produces water insecurity for the poorest, threatening the UN goal of ensuring access to clean water as a universal human right.

  6. Building Human Resources for Rural Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, E. J.; And Others

    The institutions and practices of agricultural extension in Australia are changing to meet the changing needs of rural people and communities. Issues and challenges facing rural people include the declining relative economic importance of agriculture; the declining agricultural workforce; and the shift in agriculture from a purely production…

  7. Rural Incubator Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.

    This profile summarizes the responses of 20 managers of rural business incubators, reporting on their operations, entry and exit policies, facility promotion, service arrangements and economic development outcomes. Incubators assist small businesses in the early stages of growth by providing them with rental space, shared services, management and…

  8. Rural Broadband Initiative Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Owens, William L. [D-NY-23

    2011-03-15

    03/22/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Education in a Rural Environment. Education and Rural Development -- 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    Assuming that education and rural development must be correlated, this booklet defines the general thrust for rural education programs in developing countries. The 1st of 4 sections briefly describes the various aspects of rural development (emphasis on integration of agriculture, industry, transport, trade, credit, health, education, culture,…

  10. Rural Revitalization through Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Charles

    In recent years, service programs targeted for Georgia's rural communities have decreased proportionately in relation to those intended for the state's rapidly expanding population centers. At the same time, erosion of traditional manufacturing industries and an adverse agricultural economy have decreased the ability of rural communities to…

  11. Agricultural Education: Value Adding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This issue develops the theme of "Agricultural Education--Value Adding." The concept value adding has been a staple in the world of agricultural business for describing adding value to a commodity that would profit the producer and the local community. Agricultural education should add value to individuals and society to justify agricultural…

  12. Agricultural Extension. A Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunder, Addison, H.

    The basic philosophy of agricultural extension was established in the more highly developed countries over the past century. Newly formed nations, the rural population of which formerly maintained a subsistence agriculture with limited industry, found it essential to establish a better-balanced economy. This led to a variety of rural services and…

  13. Public Services in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Kenneth D.

    The paper examines issues in the delivery of public services in rural areas. The importance of access to urban areas in identifying differences in rural delivery problems is emphasized. It is no longer accurate to equate "rural" with agriculture and farming, drawing a distinction between those who have easy access to an urban area and those who…

  14. 1997 Australian Rural Education Award.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Rural Australia, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Nominees for the 1997 Australia Rural Education Award included a program that allowed rural students to follow a young man sailing around the world; a music, dance, and drama competition for rural students; a music camp; a bandicoot conservation project; an agricultural education program; and student documentation of the history of a local rural…

  15. Improving Opportunities in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Henry L.

    Problems in rural communities stem from the steady downtrend of employment in agriculture, forestry, and mining, while gains in non-farm industries have not been sufficient to offset this decline and provide jobs for a growing rural labor force. There is an increasing deficit of talent in rural areas due to urban migration. The overall strategy to…

  16. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas.

  17. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas. PMID:25792416

  18. When Communities Collapse: Implications for Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1987-01-01

    The decline of agriculture in the 1920s and 1930s was compounded by the subsequent collapse of the rural social community, leaving the rural poor without a community and thus exacerbating and prolonging their poverty. Present restructuring of agriculture in the United States may have a similar impact on rural communities. (JHZ)

  19. 7 CFR 1710.407 - Business plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business plan. 1710.407 Section 1710.407 Agriculture... Conservation Loan Program § 1710.407 Business plan. An Eligible EE Program must have a business plan for implementing the program. The business plan is expected to have a global perspective on the borrower's...

  20. Rural Industrialization: Prospects, Problems, Impacts, and Methods. A Series of Papers Compiled by the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, 93d Congress, 2d Session, April 19, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    The 9 papers in this compilation on rural industrial development are titled as follows: (1) "U.S. Employment Shifts Through 1985" (gains, regional losses, relation to per capita income and economic activities, geographic concentration, and national basis of regional projections); (2) "Large Industry in a Rural Area: Demographic, Economic, and…

  1. Rural Development: An Overview. Prepared by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, for the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schussheim, Morton J., Ed.; And Others

    Written in late fall and early winter of 1978-79, the 12 papers in this collection provide a status report on various aspects of rural America and on governmental policies affecting rural America. The first paper examines terms commonly used in this area of public policy, revealing both the complexity of the issues and some of the contradictions…

  2. Rural Development: Steps Towards Realizing the Potential of Telecommunications Technologies. Report to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    As of December 1995, at least 28 federal programs administered by 15 federal agencies provided funds that either were specifically designated for telecommunications projects in rural areas or could be used for that purpose. Interviews with community leaders and rural development experts identified specific actions that must be taken to lay the…

  3. Gender, Class and Rurality: Australian Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lia; Pini, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The interrelationship between gender and class in rural spaces has received little attention. While rural scholars have focused on the implications for class from processes of gentrification and agricultural and rural restructuring, these analyses have remained largely ungendered. Similarly, feminist rural studies have rarely explored subjectivity…

  4. Rural Development: Part 4, S. 2223--The Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act and Amendment No. 153 (To S. 1483), to Establish the Rural Community Development Bank. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 1st Session, July 23; September 21-24, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of Senate hearings on S. 2223 (the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act) and on Amendment No. 153 (to S. 1483) to establish the rural community development bank are presented in this document. In addition to some 25 miscellaneous documents, statements of representatives from municipal, state, and national organizations are…

  5. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. Methods We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007). Results Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with < US $25,000 due to governmental resource-sharing. The network operated at break-even profit, leaving little room to lower medicine prices and mark-ups. Medicine mark-ups needed for sustainability were greater than originally envisioned by network administration. In 2005, 55%, 35%, and 10% of the network's top 50 products revealed mark-ups of < 50%, 50-99% and > 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of < 50% and 50-99%, respectively; while 35% of products revealed mark-ups > 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using

  6. 7 CFR 63.11 - Under Secretary for Rural Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Under Secretary for Rural Development. 63.11 Section... for Rural Development. Under Secretary for Rural Development means the Under Secretary for Rural Development of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, or any other officer or employee of the...

  7. 7 CFR 63.11 - Under Secretary for Rural Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Under Secretary for Rural Development. 63.11 Section... for Rural Development. Under Secretary for Rural Development means the Under Secretary for Rural Development of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, or any other officer or employee of the...

  8. 7 CFR 63.11 - Under Secretary for Rural Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Under Secretary for Rural Development. 63.11 Section... for Rural Development. Under Secretary for Rural Development means the Under Secretary for Rural Development of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, or any other officer or employee of the...

  9. 7 CFR 63.11 - Under Secretary for Rural Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Under Secretary for Rural Development. 63.11 Section... for Rural Development. Under Secretary for Rural Development means the Under Secretary for Rural Development of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, or any other officer or employee of the...

  10. 7 CFR 3555.209 - Rural Energy Plus loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rural Energy Plus loans. 3555.209 Section 3555.209... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL HOUSING PROGRAM (Eff. 9-1-14) Underwriting the Property § 3555.209 Rural Energy Plus loans. Loans guaranteed under Rural Energy Plus provisions are for the purchase of...

  11. On the Development of Rural Youth in the GDR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sube, Heinz

    Rural youth have been active in the development of the German Democratic Republic's agricultural production program. Although those who reside in rural areas and commute to work in urban areas are also classified as "rural youth," the core of rural youth are those who work in agricultural primary production. Of the 778,639 permanent working…

  12. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... providing grants to remedy the dire sanitation conditions in rural Alaskan villages using funds specifically... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section 1780.49 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES...

  13. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... providing grants to remedy the dire sanitation conditions in rural Alaskan villages using funds specifically... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section 1780.49 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES...

  14. Knowledge Base and Content of Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert A.; Peterson, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    Agricultural education encompasses basic sciences and business management principles. Critical curriculum components are (1) technical agriculture (basic principles, functions, and technical specialties of agriculture); (2) experiential learning; and (3) human development. (SK)

  15. MANPOWER NEEDS AND EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WORKERS NEEDING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL IN AGRICULTURE. TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN AND FOR RURAL AREAS, REPORT NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WARMBROD, J. ROBERT

    THREE TYPES OF FIRMS IN A 14-COUNTY AREA WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF WORKERS WITH AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES REQUIRED IN THE OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS AND TO COMPARE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN FARM AND OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS. OF 77,868 WORKERS IN 384 FIRMS IN AREAS OF LESS THAN 25,000 POPULATION, 18 PERCENT WERE IN…

  16. Energy requirements for rural development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    1988-06-01

    This study on the role of energy in the development of rural areas was originally conducted in the spring and summer of 1985. It was intended to serve as a background paper for the preparation of a program plan for the Office of Energy of the United States Agency for International Development. As such it begins with a brief overview of how rural development fits into national development, then offers a comprehensive framework for thinking about rural development in particular and the energy implications of the various components of rural development. Agriculture naturally comes to mind when rural areas are mentioned, but industry is an important component of rural activity as well. Consequently, both agricultural and nonagricultural energy use is discussed. Modernization of rural areas will change household, as well as production, energy use. However, household energy use is a veritable subject in its own right, with a large literature. Consequently, that topic is discussed in less detail than the production energy topics.

  17. "Serious Business": Teaching Entrepreneurship Skills to Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    2002-01-01

    In Appalachian Alabama, AlabamaREAL helps individuals, schools, and rural communities grow through hands-on entrepreneurship education. School-based businesses teach students to recognize business opportunities; encourage participatory learning; and meet the needs of small, rural communities. The Appalachian Regional Commission provides schools…

  18. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 6 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The General Aviation Propulsion Program (GAP). AGATE and GAP are providing industry partners with technologies leading to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) in the early 21st century. These investments support the national general aviation 'roadmap' goal to 'enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times highway speeds to virtually all of the nation's suburban, rural and remote communities.' Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  19. Rural Community and Rural Resilience: What Is Important to Farmers in Keeping Their Country Towns Alive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Phil; Walmsley, Jim; Argent, Neil; Baum, Scott; Bourke, Lisa; Martin, John; Pritchard, Bill; Sorensen, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have highlighted the phenomenon of rural decline in parts of the developed world, summarised as a loss in agricultural employment leading to a decline in the number and size of rural settlements. This study of small towns in part of Australia's inland rural "heartland" employs the concepts of interactional rural community of place and…

  20. 7 CFR 22.101 - The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). 22.101 Section 22.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION General § 22.101 The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). The Rural Development Act of...

  1. 7 CFR 22.101 - The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). 22.101 Section 22.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION General § 22.101 The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). The Rural Development Act of...

  2. 7 CFR 22.101 - The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). 22.101 Section 22.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION General § 22.101 The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). The Rural Development Act of...

  3. 7 CFR 22.101 - The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). 22.101 Section 22.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION General § 22.101 The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). The Rural Development Act of...

  4. 7 CFR 22.101 - The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). 22.101 Section 22.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION General § 22.101 The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). The Rural Development Act of...

  5. Going Digital in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malecki, Edward J.

    This paper examines the extent to which rural America is digital--has access to the Internet and to newer technologies such as wireless broadband--and discusses rural supply and demand for "going digital." Supply aspects include issues of both infrastructure and public policy. Demand aspects include entrepreneurs (business users) and others with…

  6. Rural Public Transportation: An Instructional Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to rural public transportation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, sociology, and technology. Rural public transportation involves systems in rural and small urban areas with populations under 50,000…

  7. Prairie Town: Rural Life and Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Jacqueline

    2001-01-01

    Twenty interviews with school personnel, parents, business owners, and town officials in a rural western Minnesota town revealed an emerging new "rural literacy." This new way of "reading the world" reflected a belief that neoliberal school policies did not serve all residents well, and that rural values and traditions should not be compromised by…

  8. OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOWLER, LLOYD

    AGRIBUSINESS IS DEFINED AS THE SUM TOTAL OF ALL OPERATIONS INVOLVED IN THE MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF FARM SUPPLIES, PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ON THE FARM, AND THE STORAGE, PROCESSING, AND DISTRIBUTION OF FARM COMMODITIES AND ITEMS MADE FROM THEM. WITHIN THESE THREE AREAS ARE SEEN MANY JOB OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL AND URBAN YOUTH HAVING COLLEGE…

  9. Bradford's Law and the Literature of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawani, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of separate data on the literature of tropical and subtropical agriculture, and the world literature of agricultural economics and rural socilogy, in relation to Bradford's law. (8 references) (Author/SJ)

  10. Paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Pingali, Prabhu; Webb, Patrick

    2012-07-31

    This special feature calls for forward thinking around paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth. Such convergence aims for a richer integration of smallholder farmers into national and global agricultural and food systems, health systems, value chains, and markets. The articles identify analytical innovation, where disciplines intersect, and cross-sectoral action where single, linear, and siloed approaches have traditionally dominated. The issues addressed are framed by three main themes: (i) lessons related to agricultural and food market growth since the 1960s; (ii) experiences related to the integration of smallholder agriculture into national and global business agendas; and (iii) insights into convergence-building institutional design and policy, including a review of complexity science methods that can inform such processes. In this introductory article, we first discuss the perspectives generated for more impactful policy and action when these three themes converge. We then push thematic boundaries to elaborate a roadmap for a broader, solution-oriented, and transdisciplinary approach to science, policies, and actions. As the global urban population crosses the 50% mark, both smallholder and nonsmallholder agriculture are keys in forging rural-urban links, where both farm and nonfarm activities contribute to sustainable nutrition security. The roadmaps would harness the power of business to reduce hunger and poverty for millions of families, contribute to a better alignment between human biology and modern lifestyles, and stem the spread of noncommunicable chronic diseases.

  11. Paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Pingali, Prabhu; Webb, Patrick

    2012-07-31

    This special feature calls for forward thinking around paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth. Such convergence aims for a richer integration of smallholder farmers into national and global agricultural and food systems, health systems, value chains, and markets. The articles identify analytical innovation, where disciplines intersect, and cross-sectoral action where single, linear, and siloed approaches have traditionally dominated. The issues addressed are framed by three main themes: (i) lessons related to agricultural and food market growth since the 1960s; (ii) experiences related to the integration of smallholder agriculture into national and global business agendas; and (iii) insights into convergence-building institutional design and policy, including a review of complexity science methods that can inform such processes. In this introductory article, we first discuss the perspectives generated for more impactful policy and action when these three themes converge. We then push thematic boundaries to elaborate a roadmap for a broader, solution-oriented, and transdisciplinary approach to science, policies, and actions. As the global urban population crosses the 50% mark, both smallholder and nonsmallholder agriculture are keys in forging rural-urban links, where both farm and nonfarm activities contribute to sustainable nutrition security. The roadmaps would harness the power of business to reduce hunger and poverty for millions of families, contribute to a better alignment between human biology and modern lifestyles, and stem the spread of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:22826252

  12. The W. K. Kellogg Foundation and Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gary W.

    The W. K. Kellogg Foundation, since its inception in 1930, has assisted programs in health, education, and agriculture. The programs in agriculture are usually concerned with rural society and the quality of rural life rather than technical agriculture. The agricultural programs are international and range from domestication of the musk ox to…

  13. When Rural Reality Goes Virtual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Dilshad D.

    1998-01-01

    In rural towns where sparse population and few business are barriers, virtual reality may be the only way to bring work-based learning to students. A partnership between a small-town high school, the Ohio Supercomputer Center, and a high-tech business will enable students to explore the workplace using virtual reality. (JOW)

  14. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member business. 1425.14 Section 1425.14 Agriculture... business. (a) At least 50 percent of a crop of an authorized commodity acquired by, or delivered to, a CMA... not be considered in determining the volume of member or nonmember business....

  15. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Member business. 1425.14 Section 1425.14 Agriculture... business. (a) At least 50 percent of a crop of an authorized commodity acquired by, or delivered to, a CMA... not be considered in determining the volume of member or nonmember business....

  16. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Member business. 1425.14 Section 1425.14 Agriculture... business. (a) At least 50 percent of a crop of an authorized commodity acquired by, or delivered to, a CMA... not be considered in determining the volume of member or nonmember business....

  17. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Member business. 1425.14 Section 1425.14 Agriculture... business. (a) At least 50 percent of a crop of an authorized commodity acquired by, or delivered to, a CMA... not be considered in determining the volume of member or nonmember business....

  18. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Member business. 1425.14 Section 1425.14 Agriculture... business. (a) At least 50 percent of a crop of an authorized commodity acquired by, or delivered to, a CMA... not be considered in determining the volume of member or nonmember business....

  19. Emerging Issues in the Delivery of Rural Health Services. Prepared for the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry United States Senate, 98th Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    This document contains a compilation of articles that have been assembled because of their potential for enhancing understanding of rural health care issues and for their unwavering high standards. The articles promote high quality research in an area which is rapidly becoming a legitimate and recognized field of inquiry among scholars. Besides…

  20. Affinal and Consanguineal Kin as a Social Support for the Rural Elderly. Paper of the Journal Series of the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, Raleigh, NC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivett, Vira R.

    Although the support network of elderly individuals has received increased attention recently, most research has focused on the parent child relationship without examining other levels of kin interrelations. To examine the help received by rural-transitional older adults from their consanguineous kin (adult children, grandchildren, siblings,…

  1. A Course of Study for the Preparation of Rural School Teachers: Nature Study, Elementary Agriculture, Sanitary Science, and Applied Chemistry. Bulletin, 1912, No. 1. Whole Number 469

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchler, Fred; Craig, W. J.

    1912-01-01

    The part of the educational system that has received least attention in the immediate past is the rural school. Much good work has been and is now being done in the reorganization of courses of study, in training teachers, in planning for material equipment, and all the various details that help make an efficient school system. While these efforts…

  2. Expediting Agriculture Through Science Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Fincher, Stephen Lee [R-TN-8

    2011-05-26

    06/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Theme: Agricultural Educators in Non-School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannebach, Alfred J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four theme articles illustrate other settings for agriculture teachers besides public schools, including agriculture lobbying, children's home, preschool, exporting business, utilities industry, and youth group. (SK)

  4. The Changing Rural Scene: The Rural Setting--General.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Edward O.

    In 1920, farm people comprised 61% of the rural population; in 1950, however, 60% of the rural population was composed of non-farm people. This change is attributed to increased agricultural efficiency and to expansion of industry and military services. From 1960 to 1966 the net out-migration averaged 804,000 persons per year from farm to city.…

  5. Rural Development: Part 3, (1) Balanced National Growth Policy; (2) National Rural Development Program; (3) S. 1612, The Rural Community Development Revenue Sharing Act of 1971; (4) Reorganization of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, 92d Congress, 1st Session, May 3, 1971, Sioux City, Iowa; May 4, 1971 Vermillion, ....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of the 1971 Senate hearings on rural development (held in Sioux City, Iowa; Montgomery, Alabama; Vermillion, South Dakota; and Tifton, Georgia) are presented in this document. Derived from many sources representing the varied interests of each host State, representative testimony includes that of: city and state officials; university…

  6. Rural Development: Part 5, (1) Balanced National Growth Policy; (2) National Rural Development Program; (3) S. 1612, The Rural Community Development Revenue Sharing Act of 1971; (4) Reorganization of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 1st Session, September 9, 1971, Stillwater, Okla....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of the 1971 Senate hearings on rural development held in Stillwater, Oklahoma and Lincoln, Nebraska are presented in this document. Derived from many sources representing the varied interests of each host state, representative testimony includes that of: university professors and administrators; State and Federal legislators; chamber…

  7. Rural Enterprises, Incorporated report of significant activities and accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The ongoing activities of Rural Enterprises, Inc. are presented. The function of Rural Enterprises is to bring innovation from its rudimentary conceptual stages to useful and productive ends by means of cooperation with government, business, and educational institutions.

  8. Public Education in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Jonathan P.; And Others

    Like agriculture, public education in rural America has increasingly moved away from a small community orientation to larger consolidations. The forces of modernization, consolidation, and urbanization challenge the rural community to create a pragmatically viable alternative to the metropolitan way of life, because by adopting urban practices and…

  9. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  10. Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

  11. Rural Sociological Society 1999 Award Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Sociologist, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes Rural Sociological Society 1999 awards: Excellence in Instruction, Jill Belsky, for designing a college program in rural and environmental change, and Lori Cramer, for strengthening interdisciplinary linkages among rural sociology, forestry, and agriculture; Excellence in Extension, Emmett Fiske; Excellence in Research, Sonya Salamon;…

  12. Approaches to Rural Development: The Guelph Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, E. Weldon

    Selected concepts and theoretical orientations were identified and applied to the Guelph Rural Development Outreach Project, formed in 1976 to give leadership in the evolvement of a more comprehensive and integrated approach to rural development in Ontario. Huron County (a traditional rural agricultural area), Halton Region (an area characterized…

  13. 75 FR 33573 - Rural Housing Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service Notice of Acceptance of Proposals for the Section 538 Multi...; Correction AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Rural Housing Service (RHS) published a document in the Federal Register of May 10, 2010, announcing the...

  14. Production, Consumption and Imagination in Rural Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Jonathan; Ritchie, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Transformation of Thailand's rural areas from agricultural production to arenas of consumption of a constructed "rural idyll" is illustrated in cases of a hotel with a "working rice farm," and an elite school. The school (and companion resident "village") created an idealized rural past for rich consumers who wanted a modern education for their…

  15. Rural America in Passage: Statistics for Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilford, Dorothy M., Ed.; And Others

    The Panel on Statistics for Rural Development Policy was established to assess the current quality and availability of data for rural development policy--a more difficult task than might first appear. Until recent decades, rural development was commonly understood to be the development of agriculture. As science and technology transformed U. S.…

  16. The Rural World: Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malassis, Louis

    Calling for an international educational policy that would relate all education to the rural world and agriculture, this book is directed toward the developing nations and maintains: all citizens must be made aware of the importance of agriculture in the process of socioeconomic development; rural subjects should be included in education in…

  17. Northeast Texas Agricultural Literacy Network (A-Lit-NeT: A Rural College Partnership Project). Handbook for Customizing Workplace Literacy to Employer Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, John

    Problems associated with the poor academic and technical preparation of many workers can be addressed through the use of occupational analysis techniques coupled with the development of curricula based on the results of such analyses. This workplace literacy handbook describes five stages in analyzing business literacy needs and developing…

  18. A watershed approach to upgrade rainfed agriculture in water scarce regions through Water System Innovations: an integrated research initiative on water for food and rural livelihoods in balance with ecosystem functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockström, J.; Folke, C.; Gordon, L.; Hatibu, N.; Jewitt, G.; Penning de Vries, F.; Rwehumbiza, F.; Sally, H.; Savenije, H.; Schulze, R.

    The challenge of producing food for a rapidly increasing population in semi-arid agro-ecosystems in Southern Africa is daunting. More food necessarily means more consumptive use of so-called green water flow (vapour flow sustaining crop growth). Every increase in food production upstream in a watershed will impact on water user and using systems downstream. Intensifying agriculture has in the past often been carried out with negative side effects in terms of land and water degradation. Water legislation is increasingly incorporating the requirement to safeguard a water reserve to sustain instream ecology. To address the challenges of increasing food production, improving rural livelihoods, while safeguarding critical ecological functions, a research programme has recently been launched on “Smallholder System Innovations in Integrated Watershed Management” (SSI). The programme takes an integrated approach to agricultural water management, analysing the interactions between the adoption and participatory adaptation of water system innovations (such as water harvesting, drip irrigation, conservation farming, etc.), increased water use in agriculture and water flows to sustain ecological functions that deliver critical ecosystem services to humans. The research is carried out in the Pangani Basin in Tanzania and the Thukela Basin in South Africa. A nested scale approach is adopted, which will enable the analysis of scale interactions between water management at the farm level, and cascading hydrological impacts at watershed and basin scale. This paper describes the integrated research approach of the SSI programme, and indicates areas of potential to upgrade rainfed agriculture in water scarcity-prone agro-ecosystems while securing water for downstream use.

  19. Rural Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Websites & Tools Maps Funding & Opportunities Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  20. Building Up the DE Program in Rural Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Tim

    1976-01-01

    The experiences of a distributive education teacher in the rural areas of Maine are presented. Cooperative programs were conducted by the school and local businesses in order to train seniors in business and retailing. (EC)

  1. Rural Growth Slows Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Mark; And Others

    1987-01-01

    After decade of growth, rural income, population, and overall economic activity have stalled and again lag behind urban trends. Causes include banking and transportation deregulation, international competition, agricultural finance problems. Only nonmetropolitan counties dependent on retirement, government, and trade show continuing income growth…

  2. Sources of Inequities in Rural America: Implications for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Isao; Zone, Martin

    The paper identifies the basic factors affecting rural development and the social consequences of rural policies and structural changes in agriculture; it also suggests research areas relating some of these factors to what is happening in America's rural communities. Data sources such as congressional hearings, rural sociologists' critiques,…

  3. Gender and Rural Employment: A View from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballara, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on women employment in rural areas and its impacts in food security. The presentation includes data on rural women employment and its different labour strategies: temporary work, non agriculture rural employment and permanent rural employment. Poverty alleviation and its impact on families as well as implications in the economic…

  4. Knowledge and Attitudes of French and Israeli 12th Graders in Agricultural or Rural Secondary Schools about Water and Irrigation Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Amos; Jacobi, Daniel; Mazouz, Yossef; Lacroix, Jean-Louis

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge and attitudes of 154 Israeli 12th graders, expected to be very aware of water-related agricultural issues, and of 447 French 12th graders were compared, focusing on possibilities of change of existing situations. Israeli students put much greater emphasis on the role of scientific knowledge and the authorities in water control issues.…

  5. Genetic Technology and Agricultural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, William J.; Blase, Melvin G.

    1971-01-01

    Examines the nature, application, limits and potential of applied genetics in plant breeding as a factor in South Asian agricultural development. Concludes other factors were also present in recent agricultural growth, and indicates some economic implications of continued growth, including problems of employment of displaced rural workers. (AL)

  6. Pattern of use of personal protective equipments and measures during application of pesticides by agricultural workers in a rural area of Ahmednagar district, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Gupta, Mudit Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries for agricultural purposes. Objectives: To find various patterns of hardware use for spraying of insecticides, prevalent storage practice adopted by the user, types of personal protective equipments used for the handling of chemicals; to detect dangerous practices and the extent to which safety norms being followed by the users during the application/treatments, and finally their knowledge concerning the risks of pesticides. Materials and Methods: The agriculture workers who had been involved in pesticide application for agricultural purpose were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: Types, treatment equipment, use of personal protection and safety measures during the application/treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Hundred workers, aged between 21 and 60 years old, were included. Pesticides were mostly applied with manual equipment using Knapsack (70%) and only 5% farmers were using Tractor-mounted sprayer. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 65%). Majority of the workers/applicators used no personal protection measures or used it defectively/partially. Most of the workers/respondents (77%) did not bother for safety and health risks of pesticide exposure. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very poorly and defectively. Almost half of the applicators were not following right direction with respect to wind direction while spraying, thus it increase the risk of exposure. There is a clear need to develop specific training and prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on

  7. 7 CFR 22.306 - Financing rural development planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and... Department of Housing and Urban Development planning and management assistance program or other...

  8. 7 CFR 22.306 - Financing rural development planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and... Department of Housing and Urban Development planning and management assistance program or other...

  9. 7 CFR 22.306 - Financing rural development planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and... Department of Housing and Urban Development planning and management assistance program or other...

  10. 7 CFR 22.306 - Financing rural development planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and... Department of Housing and Urban Development planning and management assistance program or other...

  11. 7 CFR 22.306 - Financing rural development planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and... Department of Housing and Urban Development planning and management assistance program or other...

  12. Rural Policy and the New Regional Economics: Implications for Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, John M.

    This paper discusses gross economic and demographic trends in rural and urban America during the past 30 years, the kinds of competitive advantages enjoyed by urban and rural regions, and insights offered by the new regional economics concerning exploitation of those advantages. The importance of agriculture has declined in rural areas, while that…

  13. A Bibliography on Rural Development in Tanzania. MSU Rural Development Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocher, James E.; Fleisher, Beverly

    Rural development is understood to mean both the increased productivity of agriculture and other rural economic activities and the enhancement of the material well-being of the rural people (who comprise about 90% of Tanzania's 16 million population) through education, improved health, and better nutrition. Seven hundred and sixty-one books,…

  14. The Impact of Rural Industries on the Outcomes of Schooling in Rural America. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.

    The traditional relationships between rural and urban areas and the changes brought on by specialized rural industries discussed. The digest reviews work that has investigated the impact of farming, manufacturing, and mining on education. The effect of agricultural activity on academic achievement, especially via vocational agriculture programs,…

  15. High Technology in Rural Settings. State-of-the-Art Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweeten, Luther

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of high technology in rural-to-urban and urban-to-rural movement and the implications of this technology for agriculture and rural areas. The first section of the paper considers the impact of technology on agriculture in the United States over the past 50 years. Because U.S. agriculture has…

  16. 7 CFR 1700.58 - Assistance to high energy cost rural communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assistance to high energy cost rural communities. 1700.58 Section 1700.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL....58 Assistance to high energy cost rural communities. (a) Administrator: The authority to approve...

  17. Impacts and uses of seasonal and intraseasonal predictions in the business community with an emphasis on the energy and agricultural industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streit, D.; Murnane, R.

    2003-04-01

    Almost any industry can benefit financially from accurate seasonal and intraseasonal predictions by determining threats to profits and taking out derivative insurance. However, the energy and agricultural industries stand to gain from these forecasts in many more ways and are therefore already using them in their decision support systems. Earth Satellite Corporation is one of the leading companies providing seasonal and intraseasonal forecasts to customers in these communities. The end users in both can be broadly divided into producers and traders, each with specific needs and applications. In this presentation, we describe those needs and applications based on our 30 years of experience. The basic difference between traders and producers in both groups is that traders will use a long-range forecast to define their overall trading strategy for a season, while producers will use the forecast more in a tactical sense to either cut their losses or maximize their profits. For example, agricultural producers will change the crops to be planted if they know a dry growing season is expected. In the energy industry, the amount of natural gas or heating oil stored by producers for the upcoming heating season is driven by forecasts. Traders in both industries will apply a more aggressive or cautious approach to the positions they take based on the forecasts. The rest of the presentation will describe other several other applications in retail, transportation, and the housing industry.

  18. Rural Productivity Zones (RPZs) for microenterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    In this paper the authors discuss the concept of rural productivity zones (RPZs) which are defined as a business incubator to foster income-producing opportunities for the rural poor. The essential ingredients of such a program include: electric power; business development assistance; office services; and quality work space. The electric power source must be a good quality system, consisting of a diesel/wind/photovoltaic hybrid type system, providing reliable service, with a local maintenance program and a functional load management program.

  19. 75 FR 3197 - Notice of a Public Meeting on Administration of the Business and Industry Guaranteed Loan Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Notice of a Public Meeting on Administration of the Business and Industry Guaranteed Loan Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public... Development Mission area, will hold a public meeting entitled ``Business and Industry Guaranteed Loan...

  20. Rural Policy in a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Ray

    Past rural policies are reviewed, noting the effects of globalization and information technology. Rural business profits can be maximized by direct cost or value-added competition, but cost competition limits the development of productive capacity and leads to unequal income distribution. In contrast, value-added competition could create steep…

  1. Local Rural Product as a "Relic" Spatial Strategy in Globalised Rural Spaces: Evidence from County Clare (Ireland)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Geoff A.; Whitehead, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Using a case study from County Clare (Ireland), this study critically analyses notions of "local" rural production. It investigates where rural businesses source the different components of their products and how these interrelate with the locality, how local businesses use the notion of "local" in their product branding, and what the…

  2. HELPING RURAL YOUTH CHOOSE CAREERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    THE NUMBER OF FARM OPERATORS, MANAGERS, AND EMPLOYEES IS DECREASING DUE TO AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF FARMS, A DECREASE IN THE NUMBER OF FARMS, A RAPID GROWTH IN TECHNOLOGY AND CONSEQUENT MECHANIZATION OF AGRICULTURE, AND AN INCREASE IN FARMING EFFICIENCY. IN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY ALLIED WITH AGRICULTURE, OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUNG PEOPLE WITH FARM…

  3. Business Clusters: Building on Local Strengths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    2001-01-01

    The Northwest Pennsylvania Industrial Resource Center's "wood cluster initiative" illustrates the benefits of rural business clusters. The initiative is turning a loose grouping of timber and forest-product firms into a competitive system by providing technical assistance, helping businesses plan and conduct job training programs, facilitating…

  4. 7 CFR 1744.203 - Establishing amount of rural development investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing amount of rural development investment. 1744.203 Section 1744.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED...

  5. [Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sherry Freeland, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on rural education focuses on the unique characteristics and problems of rural schools, and discusses how the "top down" and "one size fits all" nature of the last decade of reforms has not taken these into account. To better address the situation of rural and small schools, various strategies are offered that involve distance…

  6. Rural Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jess

    To be scientific, rural sociology must have a distinctive conceptual basis; therefore, defining "rural" has long been a major concern of rural sociologists. Recently faced with similar problems, political economists have revitalized the field of urban sociology by looking beyond the city to the social production of spatial forms under capitalism.…

  7. The Scientific and Technical Service Function of Agricultural Digital Library in Countryside Informatization Development and Construction Under Network Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xichuan

    By analyzing internet popularization in rural China and open questions in rural information service, together with service function of agricultural digital library in rural informatization construction, this article makes a study of how to give full play to agricultural digital library's various advantages, in order to make even greater contributions to our country's rural informatization construction.

  8. 75 FR 30113 - Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... located in a rural area. In addition, the phrase ``business financing'' was replaced with ``business... section, including the date when the Agency will calculate and amortize the microlender's debt after the... proposed rule was published in the Federal Register on October 7, 2009 (74 FR 51713), with a 45-day...

  9. Australian Rural Education Award, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Rural Australia, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Profiles and contact information for 14 candidate programs for the 1999 Australian Rural Education Award. Programs feature tree planting, transportation to boarding school, community development, business awareness, early childhood services, GIS technology, community-based curriculum development, reading resources, environmental service learning,…

  10. Cerescope: Algeria Seeks Better Training in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceres, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Recent changes and developments in Algeria's agricultural education program to meet the future needs for expertise at all levels in the rural sector are described. Training targets established in the national plan are detailed. (BT)

  11. [Rural workers' health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Jessica Pronestino de Lima; Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2015-08-01

    Workers' health is a central theme in public health surveys, but the specificity of work activities should be considered. This study aimed to analyze the health of rural workers in Brazil that perform both agricultural and non-agricultural work, based on self-rated health and self-reported diseases. The Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 2008) was used, incorporating information from the complex sampling plan. Agricultural workers 18 years or older were selected, stratified according to those with and without non-agricultural work. Logistic regression was performed for self-rated health, and odds ratios were calculated for self-reported diseases. Exclusive agricultural work decreased the odds of reporting good health and increased the odds of reporting back pain, high blood pressure, and arthritis/rheumatism. Exclusive agricultural workers reported more diseases and worse living conditions. Self-rated health was generally better in workers with non-agricultural occupations. PMID:26375648

  12. Rural Energy Communities Development Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Pomeroy, Earl [D-ND-At Large

    2010-09-29

    11/16/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Biotechnology, Specialty Crops, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Tipping Points towards Regional Forest or Urban Transition in Stressed Rural Areas: An Agent-based Modelling Application of Socio-Economic Shifts in Rural Vermont US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Y.; Turnbull, S.; Zia, A.

    2015-12-01

    In rural areas where farming competes with urban development and environmental amenities, urban and forest transitions occur simultaneously at different locales with different rates due to the underlying socio-economic shifts. Here we develop an interactive land use transition agent-based model (ILUTABM) in which farmers' land use decisions are made contingent on expansion and location choices of urban businesses and urban residences, as well as farmers' perceived ecosystem services produced by their land holdings. The ILUTABM simulates heterogeneity in land use decisions at parcel levels by differentiating decision making processes for agricultural and urban landowners. Landowners are simulated to make land-use transition decisions as bounded rational agents that maximize their partial expected utility functions under different underlying socio-economic conditions given the category of a landowner and the spatial characteristics of the landowner's landholdings. The ILUTABM is parameterized by spatial data sets such as National Land Cover Database (NLCD), zoning, parcels, property prices, US census, farmers surveys, building/facility characteristics, soil, slope and elevation. We then apply the ILUTABM to the rural Vermont landscape, located in the Northeast Arm District of Lake Champlain and the downstream sub-watersheds of Missisquoi River, to generate phase transitions of rural land towards urban land near peri-urban areas and towards forest land near financially stressed farmlands during 2001-2051. Possible tipping point trajectories of rural land towards regional forest or urban transition are simulated under three socio-economic scenarios: business as usual (ILUTABM calibrated to 2011 NLCD), increased incentives for conservation easements, and increased incentives for attracting urban residences and businesses.

  14. Rural Development: Part 6, S. 1612-A Bill to Establish a Revenue-Sharing Program for Rural Development. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, 92d Congress, 1st Session, September 20, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of the 1971 Senate hearings on S. 1612, a bill to establish a revenue sharing program for rural development, are presented in this document. Testimony presented in these hearings includes that of Federal and State legislators from North Dakota, Minnesota, West Virginia, and Georgia and representatives from the following: Arkansas Game…

  15. An Attitudinal Survey of Pennsylvania's Rural Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    Telephone surveys of 844 residents in 42 rural Pennsylvania counties established baseline data on rural opinions about 14 public policy issues. Concerning government spending, respondents felt that too little was spent on job creation, aging issues, child care, education, health services, and farming and agriculture; funding was about right for…

  16. Rural Social Work - Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Ken

    Because life styles, values, social institutions, and "survival activities" differ in undeveloped rural areas from those in industrial societies, the techniques and approaches used by rural social workers must be adjusted to meet the needs of the population being dealt with. In forager and agricultural societies, social workers and other human…

  17. Occupational Training Opportunities for Rural Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Charles H.

    Concerned with the teaching of vocational agriculture and other vocational education in the rural south, this paper is directed toward an examination of occupational education programs as they relate to population served and to local labor markets. Findings of 2 studies of occupational training opportunities for rural youth in North Carolina are…

  18. Agricultural Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

    The duties and tasks found in these task lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs for agricultural occupations. The agricultural occupations are divided into three clusters. The clusters and occupations are: agricultural business and management cluster…

  19. 7 CFR 2.47 - Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, Rural Utilities Service. 2.47 Section 2.47 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Under Secretary for...

  20. Rural-Urban Differences in Environmental Concern: A Closer Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenburg, William R.; McGinn, Barbara

    This paper presents survey results from rural areas having significant levels of employment both in agriculture and in extraction industries (coal mining). Although a review of the literature suggests that rural residents may express lower levels of environmental concern than urban residents, one study proposed that rural residents in farm-related…

  1. Louisiana Annual Rural Manpower Report. MA 5-79, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Employment Security, Baton Rouge

    The Rural Manpower Service Section of the Louisiana State Department of Employment Security, responsible for providing services to agricultural and rural nonagricultural populations, implemented the Secretary of Labor's 13-Point Program. Providing manpower services to migrants, rural residents, and employers was emphasized. During 1973, 105.8…

  2. 7 CFR 23.4 - State Rural Development Advisory Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State Rural Development Advisory Council. 23.4 Section... Program § 23.4 State Rural Development Advisory Council. (a) The chief administrative officer of the administratively responsible State Land Grant University will appoint a State Rural Development Advisory...

  3. 7 CFR 23.4 - State Rural Development Advisory Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State Rural Development Advisory Council. 23.4 Section... Program § 23.4 State Rural Development Advisory Council. (a) The chief administrative officer of the administratively responsible State Land Grant University will appoint a State Rural Development Advisory...

  4. 7 CFR 23.4 - State Rural Development Advisory Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State Rural Development Advisory Council. 23.4 Section... Program § 23.4 State Rural Development Advisory Council. (a) The chief administrative officer of the administratively responsible State Land Grant University will appoint a State Rural Development Advisory...

  5. 7 CFR 23.4 - State Rural Development Advisory Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State Rural Development Advisory Council. 23.4 Section... Program § 23.4 State Rural Development Advisory Council. (a) The chief administrative officer of the administratively responsible State Land Grant University will appoint a State Rural Development Advisory...

  6. Making Room for Place-Based Knowledge in Rural Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamah, Devora; MacTavish, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    For many rural schools the view outside the classroom window is one of scenic fields, pasture lands, or forests nestled at the base of mountains. Despite the proximity of rural schools to both agricultural land and the natural world, what little connection to place that may have existed in rural schools' curricula has been disappearing as schools…

  7. Progress Report on Rural Development for Fiscal Year 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Rural development progress relative to State-U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) committees is presented via exemplary citation in this 1970 report. Summaries are given for: (1) Status of State-USDA Organization for Rural Development, (2) Functional Relationships of USDA Committees on Rural Development, (3) Activities and Projects Underway, (4)…

  8. 77 FR 60430 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... gives notice of a teleconference meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC... agriculture and rural communities. The purpose of this teleconference is to discuss specific topics...

  9. 77 FR 41185 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... teleconference meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is a policy... programs that affect and engage agriculture and rural communities. DATES: The Farm, Ranch, and...

  10. 76 FR 11243 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of a meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is a policy... environmental policies and programs that affect and engage agriculture and rural communities. A copy of...

  11. 76 FR 59396 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of a meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is a policy... environmental policies and programs that affect and engage agriculture and rural communities. A copy of...

  12. 78 FR 41795 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee Teleconference AGENCY: Environmental Protection..., and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is a policy-oriented committee that provides policy... policies that are of importance to agriculture and rural communities. Purpose of Meeting: The purpose...

  13. 77 FR 75152 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of a teleconference meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is... programs that affect and engage agriculture and rural communities. DATES: The Farm, Ranch, and...

  14. 76 FR 33280 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of a meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is a policy... environmental policies and programs that affect and engage agriculture and rural communities. A copy of...

  15. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Rural or Native Alaskan village. A rural or Native Alaskan community which meets the definition of a... waterborne communicable disease have been documented; or (ii) No community-wide water and sewer system exists... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49...

  16. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Rural or Native Alaskan village. A rural or Native Alaskan community which meets the definition of a... waterborne communicable disease have been documented; or (ii) No community-wide water and sewer system exists... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section...

  17. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Rural or Native Alaskan village. A rural or Native Alaskan community which meets the definition of a... waterborne communicable disease have been documented; or (ii) No community-wide water and sewer system exists... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49...

  18. The Rural Advanced Industrial Society: Social and Economic Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Ted K.

    The decline of rural areas caused by agricultural mechanization may now have run its course with the rise of post- or advanced-industrialism which is offering a new set of opportunities and problems for the development of many rural areas. Instead of the pastoral subsistence farm of the past, rural America is becoming primarily non-agricultural…

  19. Integrating and Institutionalizing Lessons Learned: Reorganizing Agricultural Research and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goletti, Francesco; Pinners, Elise; Purcell, Timothy; Smith, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    The majority of the population of Vietnam lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Consistent growth of the agriculture sector over the past two decades has contributed to a remarkable reduction in the poverty rate and the virtual elimination of hunger in the rural areas of Vietnam. In order to continue the growth…

  20. Listenership of Radio Agricultural Broadcasts in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmanuel, Adekoya Adegbenga; Olabode, Badiru Idris

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural broadcasts on radio play a major role in agricultural extension and rural development in Nigeria due to the low ratio of extension agents in relation to the farming population. The broadcasts have been on air for some time and therefore there is a need to investigate their acceptance among the rural dwellers in Southwestern Nigeria.…

  1. Fishy Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Mike

    1988-01-01

    The IRS argues that income from alumni associations group life and medical insurance policies is business profit, not tax-exempt contributions to its member associations. The unrelated business income tax (UBIT) is described. (MLW)

  2. Specialists and the Future of Rural Life in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirokalova, G. S.; Deriabina, O. N.

    2012-01-01

    The future of Russian agriculture and rural community depends on the willingness of skilled workers to accept conditions of village life and the demands of agricultural work. Surveys of potential rural specialists indicate that they are concerned about the lack of up-to-date technologies, the difficult working conditions and low prestige of…

  3. Heterogeneity in Rural California and the Example of Shandon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Brian

    This paper summarizes a 22-month ethnographic study of rural Shandon (California), a community that demonstrates the social and demographic changes resulting from agricultural intensification in rural California. Changes in the Shandon area's agricultural production have produced a demographic shift from the homogeneous Anglo-American farming and…

  4. Louisiana Annual Rural Manpower Report. ES-225, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Employment Security, Baton Rouge

    In 1971, Louisiana's Rural Manpower Service provided the agricultural and rural non-agricultural populations with such services as placement services which included promotion and development of training programs with priority to veterans and other special applicant groups; processing clearance orders and foreign labor importation requests;…

  5. Focus on the Future: Options in Developing a New National Rural Policy. Proceedings of Four Regional Rural Development Policy Workshops (Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 19-21, 1988; Syracuse, New York, September 28-30, 1988; Birmingham, Alabama, October 3-5, 1988; and Reno, Nevada, October 11-13, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sue H., Ed.

    Problems in federal rural policy arise in a number of areas: the extreme economic adversity of rural America, failure to acknowledge the higher cost of providing rural services, failure to distinguish between rural programs and agriculture programs, and failure to address specific rural needs. Papers in this collection examine rural development…

  6. Constraints and opportunities for implementing nutrition-specific, agricultural and market-based approaches to improve nutrient intake adequacy among infants and young children in two regions of rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hotz, Christine; Pelto, Gretel; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret; Ferguson, Elaine F; Chege, Peter; Musinguzi, Enock

    2015-12-01

    Several types of interventions can be used to improve nutrient intake adequacy in infant and young child (IYC) diets, including fortified foods, home fortification, nutrition education and behaviour change communication (BCC) in addition to agricultural and market-based strategies. However, the appropriate selection of interventions depends on the social, cultural, physical and economic context of the population. Derived from two rural Kenyan populations, this analysis combined information from: (1) a quantitative analysis to derive a set of food-based recommendations (FBRs) to fill nutrient intake gaps in IYC diets and identify 'problem nutrients' for which intake gaps require solutions beyond currently available foods and dietary patterns, and (2) an ethnographic qualitative analysis to identify contextual factors posing opportunities or constraints to implementing the FBRs, including perceptions of cost, convenience, accessibility and appropriateness of the recommended foods for IYC diets and other social or physical factors that determine accessibility of those foods. Opportunities identified included BCC to increase the acceptability and utilisation of green leafy vegetables (GLV) and small fish and agronomic interventions to increase the productivity of GLV and millet. Value chains for millet, beans, GLV, milk and small fish should be studied for opportunities to increase their accessibility in local markets. Processor-level interventions, such as partially cooked fortified dry porridge mixes or unfortified cereal mixes incorporating millet and beans, may increase the accessibility of foods that provide increased amounts of the problem nutrients. Multi-sectoral actors and community stakeholders should be engaged to assess the feasibility of implementing these locally appropriate strategies.

  7. Constraints and opportunities for implementing nutrition‐specific, agricultural and market‐based approaches to improve nutrient intake adequacy among infants and young children in two regions of rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Pelto, Gretel; Armar‐Klemesu, Margaret; Ferguson, Elaine F.; Chege, Peter; Musinguzi, Enock

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Several types of interventions can be used to improve nutrient intake adequacy in infant and young child (IYC) diets, including fortified foods, home fortification, nutrition education and behaviour change communication (BCC) in addition to agricultural and market‐based strategies. However, the appropriate selection of interventions depends on the social, cultural, physical and economic context of the population. Derived from two rural Kenyan populations, this analysis combined information from: (1) a quantitative analysis to derive a set of food‐based recommendations (FBRs) to fill nutrient intake gaps in IYC diets and identify ‘problem nutrients’ for which intake gaps require solutions beyond currently available foods and dietary patterns, and (2) an ethnographic qualitative analysis to identify contextual factors posing opportunities or constraints to implementing the FBRs, including perceptions of cost, convenience, accessibility and appropriateness of the recommended foods for IYC diets and other social or physical factors that determine accessibility of those foods. Opportunities identified included BCC to increase the acceptability and utilisation of green leafy vegetables (GLV) and small fish and agronomic interventions to increase the productivity of GLV and millet. Value chains for millet, beans, GLV, milk and small fish should be studied for opportunities to increase their accessibility in local markets. Processor‐level interventions, such as partially cooked fortified dry porridge mixes or unfortified cereal mixes incorporating millet and beans, may increase the accessibility of foods that provide increased amounts of the problem nutrients. Multi‐sectoral actors and community stakeholders should be engaged to assess the feasibility of implementing these locally appropriate strategies. PMID:26778801

  8. E-Business: The Business Officer's Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Contends e-business is particularly the domain of college and university business officers, with today's officers facing an unprecedented opportunity to exercise a critical leadership role in the deployment of advanced information technology solutions on campus. Describes relevant issues and advances, and presents ten initiatives that business…

  9. Fresno in Transition: Urban Impacts of Rural Migration. Working Paper No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Bert; Alvarado, Andrew; Palacio, Robert

    This paper examines the social and economic impacts of Mexican immigration on Fresno (California). Since the early 1980s, immigration to California has been dominated by illegal immigrants from rural Mexico seeking agricultural jobs in rural California. This rural migration impacts urban centers in agricultural regions; these impacts lag the…

  10. Rural Education: Past and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Duane M.

    Though current agricultural economic and social conditions are impacting on the scale of educational delivery systems, the way education is financed in rural areas, the range of educational services available, and the willingness and ability of local districts to provide levels of educational services justified by overall societal benefit and…

  11. 76 FR 13797 - Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Solicitation of Applications (NOSA). SUMMARY: This NOSA announces that the Rural Utilities Service (RUS) is accepting applications for fiscal...

  12. Cancer Mortality in Rural Appalachian Kentucky. Appalachian Data Bank Report #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Thomas C.; And Others

    This report compares cancer mortality rates in rural Appalachian Kentucky with rates for rural non-Appalachian Kentucky and the U.S. white population. Rural Appalachian Kentucky differs from the rest of rural Kentucky in having a younger, poorer, less educated population with greater employment in mining as opposed to agriculture, and with less…

  13. 7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel... of Certain Rural Development Programs § 1940.968 Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel... associated with a State rural economic development review panel. (b) Objective. The objective of the...

  14. 7 CFR 2.45 - Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development. 2.45... for Rural Development § 2.45 Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development. Pursuant to § 2.17(a..., the following delegation of authority is made to the Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development,...

  15. 7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel... of Certain Rural Development Programs § 1940.968 Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel... associated with a State rural economic development review panel. (b) Objective. The objective of the...

  16. 7 CFR 2.45 - Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development. 2.45... for Rural Development § 2.45 Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development. Pursuant to § 2.17(a..., the following delegation of authority is made to the Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development,...

  17. 7 CFR 2.45 - Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development. 2.45... for Rural Development § 2.45 Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development. Pursuant to § 2.17(a..., the following delegation of authority is made to the Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development,...

  18. 7 CFR 2.45 - Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development. 2.45... for Rural Development § 2.45 Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development. Pursuant to § 2.17(a..., the following delegation of authority is made to the Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development,...

  19. Better Country: A Strategy for Rural Development in the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    The report of the 25-member National Advisory Council on Rural Development, appointed by the Secretary of Agriculture, defines rural needs and sets forth strategies for rural development in the 1980's. A review of the decade between 1970 and 1980 discusses rapid economic growth of rural areas, social progress, and changes in public service, and…

  20. The Economic Evolution of Rural America. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation of the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (February 11, May 15, 1985). Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    Three days of hearings focused on rural America, in general, and on South Dakota (as the most agrarian of all states), in particular, in an attempt to formulate a blueprint for a national agenda on improving the state of rural America. The first day's sessions addressed the outlook for the South Dakota economy. The second day's sessions considered…

  1. Salary-Trend Studies of Faculty for the Years 1985-86 and 1988-89 in the Following Disciplines/Major Fields: Accounting; Agricultural Production; Anthropology; Architecture and Environmental Design; Area and Ethnic Studies; Audiology and Speech Pathology; Business Administration and Management; Business and Management; Business Economics; Chemistry; Communication Technologies; Communications; Computer and Information Sciences; Curriculum and Instruction; and Dramatic Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.; And Others

    This volume provides comparative data for faculty salaries in public and private colleges, based on an annual survey of over 700 colleges and universities. Data cover the following 15 disciplines: accounting, agribusiness and agricultural production, anthropology, architecture and environmental design, area and ethnic studies, audiology and speech…

  2. 12 CFR 614.4010 - Agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) of this chapter, for the export (including the cost of freight) of agricultural commodities or... purpose of facilitating the international business operations of such cooperatives pursuant to...

  3. Rural Agrobusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treillon, Roland; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…

  4. Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This "special focus" journal issue consists of 13 individual articles on the theme of rural family programs relating to school, health services, church, and other institutions. It includes: (1) "Towards a Rural Family Policy" (Judith K. Chynoweth and Michael D. Campbell); (2) "Montana: Council for Families Collaborates for Prevention (Jean…

  5. Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Andrea; Ragusa, Angela T

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural residents surrounded by agriculture, the link between agriculture and water quality is easy to make and thus informed decisions about water consumption are possible. Urban residents, however, are removed from agricultural activity and indeed drinking water sources. Urban and rural residents were interviewed to identify perceptions of agriculture's impact on drinking water. Rural residents thought agriculture could impact their water quality and, in many cases, actively avoided it, often preferring tank to surface water sources. Urban residents generally did not perceive agriculture to pose health risks to their drinking water. Although there are more agricultural contaminants recognised in the latest Australian Drinking Water Guidelines than previously, we argue this is insufficient to enhance consumer protection. Health authorities may better serve the public by improving their proactivity and providing communities and water utilities with the capacity to effectively monitor and address agricultural runoff.

  6. Rural Policy Formulation in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Richard W.; And Others

    The major participants in the formation of policy and programs for rural areas include agricultural interest groups, nonfarm groups, certain legislators, and--less directly--the media. Policy is developed in many institutional arenas: the local community and state governments, the Department of Agriculture, the White House, and the Congress and…

  7. An Industry Perspective on Changes Needed in Agricultural Education Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Dennis C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In 4 focus groups, 42 agribusiness representatives suggested a need to change the agriculture curriculum to allow an agriculture industry option. They emphasized the development of business skills, communication skills, teamwork, leadership, and analytical thinking. (SK)

  8. Rural Camp School Eco Learn--Outdoor Education in Rural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeds, Pia; Jeronen, Eila; Kurppa, Sirpa; Vieraankivi, Marja-Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor education in rural and agricultural surroundings offers many possibilities for learning and studying different school subjects as well as teaching. This study aims to explore the development of an educational rural camp school, Eco Learn, and to investigate pupils' expectations and experiences and teachers' experiences of carrying out the…

  9. Energy and Rural People and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Housing Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Increasing energy dependency, high energy prices, and depleting energy sources have necessitated review of the nature of U.S. energy--who owns it; how we manage it; how and why we consume it; and what should be done about these patterns. Given the power wielded by the oil companies, the pressure of the national standard of living, and the lack of…

  10. Agriculture as a subject in primary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Herbert

    1985-12-01

    Many countries have included agriculture as a subject in primary school for a number of reasons. The present article briefly presents five rationales for including agriculture and offers three main approaches which seem to emerge from current practice. The main results of the subsequent discussion can be summarized as follows: integrating education with rural development most of the time would mean including agriculture as a subject in primary schools in rural areas and compensating it in core curriculum with some sort of practical subject taught in urban areas. It becomes clear that narrow vocational and extension-support approaches to school agriculture should be avoided in favour of a more general approach which relates agriculture to science. Unless these problems — curricular, technical, and organizational — are tackled, the results of school agriculture and its acceptance by those concerned will remain far behind expectations and possibilities.

  11. Urban Agriculture Programs on the Rise: Agriculture Education Model Can Reach Students Other Classes Leave Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural education begins with hands-on classroom and laboratory instruction. Because agriculture is such a broad topic, schools typically tailor agriculture class offerings to match the interests of the student population, needs of nearby businesses and industry, or topics relevant to their state's standard assessments. Within most…

  12. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  13. Value and cost of children in rural Sudan.

    PubMed

    Saghayroun, A A

    1983-12-01

    In this study the major dimensions of the value and cost of children are explained. It is argued that the nature of the production process in rural Sudan is the essential determinant of family size. This study depends mainly upon statistics gathered through surveys conducted in El Sawagi villages in Kassala province between January and May 1979. Children are needed to help on the family farm, looking after cattle and other animals in rural areas or to join the family in business inside and outside the home, and are thus considered as a cheap source of labor under the rural economy in the Sudan. In El Sawagi villages children are seen not only as a prime source of social security for aging parents but also as a source of income right from their childhood. It is because of the agrarian nature of the Sudan and because the system of agriculture is still mainly primitive and subsistence orientated, that children are valuable assets on the large scheme or family farms. Even though children may contribute little labor when the sum is averaged out over the whole year, their labor may be crucial for the poor, at times of peak labor demand. The favorite number of children for a family in El Sawagi villages is more than 4. The cost of rearing and educating a child has probably not yet entered into their calculations. At present, it is still economically beneficial to poor rural families to have a large number of children, although it is not to Sudan's economic benefit. Other social reasons for having children are discussed as well as the disadvantages of having many children.

  14. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  15. 7 CFR 800.30 - Foreign commerce grain business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign commerce grain business. 800.30 Section 800.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS...

  16. 7 CFR 800.30 - Foreign commerce grain business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foreign commerce grain business. 800.30 Section 800.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS...

  17. 7 CFR 800.30 - Foreign commerce grain business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Foreign commerce grain business. 800.30 Section 800.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS...

  18. 7 CFR 800.30 - Foreign commerce grain business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign commerce grain business. 800.30 Section 800.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS...

  19. 7 CFR 800.30 - Foreign commerce grain business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Foreign commerce grain business. 800.30 Section 800.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS...

  20. Agriculture Education. Subject Matters Volume 3, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2001-01-01

    "Growing in New Directions" describes how education must adapt to agriculture's move from small family farms to business conglomerates. "Keeping Agriculture Alive in the Suburbs" addresses marketing agricultural education to suburban students. "The Advantages of Agriculture Education and FFA" [Future Farmers of America] looks at careers in…

  1. An Analysis of Ict Development Strategy Framework in Chinese Rural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Meiying; Warren, Martyn; Lang, Yunwen; Lu, Shaokun; Yang, Linnan

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development strategy in Chinese rural areas is an indispensable part of national development strategies. This paper reviews the ICT framework in agriculture and rural areas launched by the Department of Agriculture in China. It compares the rural ICT policies and strategies between China and the European Union (EU). The ICT development strategy framework is analyzed based on the situation in Chinese rural area and the experiences of the EU. Some lessons and suggestions are provided.

  2. 76 FR 59383 - Notice of Funds Availability for the Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program for Fiscal Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... development and ongoing success of rural microentrepreneurs and microenterprises (businesses generally with... ensure the development and ongoing success of rural microenterprises. B. Statutory Authority. The RMAP is..., age, disability, and, where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental...

  3. [Environment and rural development].

    PubMed

    Dufumier, M

    1992-01-01

    Management of natural resources and preservation of ecological balance are perceived today as essential elements of rural development. The recently multiplying environmental ministries in developing countries are intended not only to correct the damages resulting from uncontrolled urbanization and industrialization, but to address ecosystemic degradation in the countryside. The aptitude demonstrated by numerous peasant societies for exploiting their environments over the long term while preserving their potential should be recognized and their specific, detailed knowledge incorporated into environmental protection projects. It is a mistake to conclude that peasants do not care about environmental problems; they often lack the resources to take needed action. Active participation of impoverished rural dwellers requires that measures taken do not reduce their incomes or resources in the short term. Rural development projects must assure protection of the environment while taking into account the interests of diverse categories of rural dwellers, such as farmers, herders, or wood cutters. There has been considerable progress in the past 2 decades in understanding the functioning of cultivated and pasture ecosystems and in developing techniques to limit damage to them. A vast effort is now needed to understand the economic, social, and cultural functions of customs and practices of different social groups involved in agricultural development and territorial management in order to prioritize problems and arrive at a consensus of all those affected concerning environmental protection. Social science research is needed into marketing of agricultural products, circulation of cooking fuels, village-town relations, and migration in order to determine the effects of these phenomena on management and conservation of natural resources in rural areas. Experimental research should be directed toward finding practical solutions to problems encountered by rural cultivators

  4. Business Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a business writing course. The course presents the fundamentals of effective business letter writing, focusing on logical organization, word choice, style, tone, and clarity. The course uses students' own examples as well as practice exercises for reinforcement.…

  5. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  6. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  7. Alternative Agricultural Enterprises. Production, Management & Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Linda Kirk; And Others

    These nine cooperative extension bulletins provide basic information on various alternative agricultural enterprises. Discussed in the first eight bulletins are the following topics: business ownership (sole proprietorship, partnership, incorporation, cooperatives); business and the family (goals, qualifications, ways of ensuring family support,…

  8. Viewpoint. Community-Supported Agriculture: Opportunities for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Timothy P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Community Farm of Ann Arbor, Michigan, in the context of critical social, economic, and environmental issues related to agriculture and the rural environment and the emerging movement for community-supported agriculture (CSA) in the United States. Discusses how CSA works, biodynamic agriculture, and opportunities for environmental…

  9. Issues of Rural Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, W. H.; Hammer, R. L.; Hammer, A.

    2001-12-01

    Light pollution is generally considered mostly an urban problem. Common sources of light pollution are poorly designed lighting of streets, parking lots, businesses and advertizing signs and for security. These sources, and the amount of light pollution generated, increase with population density. Nevertheless, light pollution can also be significant in rural areas. Rural light pollution differs from that in urban settings, both in the types of pollution and in the means that must be employed to control it. In the country the offending sources are often isolated lights such as from farm barns, vacation cottages, radio and cell phone towers, and road intersections. A culture of strong property rights and privacy rights affects attempts to control rural light pollution. We describe how some of these issues may be addressed based on the results from an Eagle Scout project carried out in central Michigan.

  10. The South's Rural Community Colleges in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart A.

    2000-01-01

    During the second half of the 20th century, two-year colleges in the rural South were transformed from "junior" appendages of other institutions to community colleges that responded to the needs of local workers and businesses. This paper examines how the South's rural community colleges contribute to economic development today and what challenges…

  11. Breaking down barriers. Information technology and rural health.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jeffrey C

    2002-01-01

    Fifty years ago, the number of beds was the only significant difference between rural and urban hospitals. Health care was a relatively "low tech" business. Hospitals in less-populated areas were able to provide the same services as their big-city counterparts. However, beginning in the 1960s, rapid advances in technology started to put rural hospitals at a disadvantage. PMID:11968984

  12. 78 FR 30848 - Inviting Applications for Rural Cooperative Development Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ..., you must use the Grants.gov Web site at http://www.grants.gov . You may not submit an application... Rural Business--Cooperative Service Inviting Applications for Rural Cooperative Development Grants.... Approximately $6.5 million is available. Applications are limited to one per applicant for a maximum of...

  13. Rural Health Information Hub

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am I Rural? Economic ... toolkits like the Services Integration Toolkit in the Rural Community Health Gateway . Finding Statistics & Data Learn how to ...

  14. The Need for a Dynamic Rural Web Presence. Rural Research Report. Volume 18, Issue 6, Spring 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuytema, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how rural communities with limited financial resources and technical expertise can have a useful Web page along with the ability for community and business leaders to maintain this presence. The tools to be employed are not new to the Web, but they may be considered "cutting edge" when it comes to a rural community's Web…

  15. Study and Analysis on Technology and Development of Information Network of Rural Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiying

    This paper describes the technology and transferring mode of rural power grid’s information network, analyses technology of communication system of electric power grid in rural area, chooses a new develop direction of technique based on the business needs and trend of rural power grids, and gives a route for development.

  16. Plan of Work for Rural Development in North Carolina, July 1, 1975 - June 30, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, George, Jr.; And Others

    Serving primarily as a policy group for local Rural Development Panels, the North Carolina Rural Development Committee's major objective for 1976 is to work with local leaders, private businesses and governmental agencies at all levels in planning and implementing comprehensive rural development programs. Specifically, the Committee's objectives…

  17. Building Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how Washington University (St. Louis, MO) converted odd space into a program allowing students to be shopkeepers for necessary services and the school assuming the role of landlord. Tips for overseeing student businesses are highlighted. (GR)

  18. Strategies of Rural Development in Asia--A Discussion. Summary of Discussion, Research Studies and Country Statements Presented to the Seminar on Approaches to Rural Development in Asia (Malaysia, May-June, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inayatullah, C., Ed.

    A 10-day seminar for senior government officials concerned with making rural development policies in selected Asian countries focused on programs adopted by various Asian governments to tackle rural development problems. To compare various approaches, seven indicators of rural development were used: agricultural productivity; rural employment;…

  19. Why Invest in Rural America--And How? A Critical Public Policy Question for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauber, Karl N.

    Current rural policies at both the federal and state levels do not meet the needs of rural people and communities; they are designed for the past, not the future. Agricultural subsidies absorb most federal resources directed to rural areas, with no evidence of benefits for rural communities. The continuing state-level pursuit of low-wage,…

  20. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  2. TOWN AND COUNTRY BUSINESS PROGRAM. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEYENDECKER, P.J.

    THESE 14 PAMPHLETS CONSTITUTE AN EXTENSION SERVICE PROGRAM OUTLINE FOR TEACHING A BUSINESS PROGRAM APPLICABLE TO RURAL YOUTH. THE CONTENTS INCLUDE BOTH A LEADER'S GUIDE AND AN EXTENSION WORKER'S GUIDE. THE REMAINDER OF THE PROGRAM DELVES INTO MARKETING, WHOLESALING, SALES AND SERVICES, STANDARDS AND GRADES OF PRODUCE, ASSEMBLY AND STORAGE,…

  3. Georgia REAL Enterprises: Rural Entrepreneurship through Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REAL Enterprises, Inc., Athens, GA.

    This document describes REAL Enterprises, an economic education consortium working to assist young people to research, plan, set up, own, and operate economically viable small businesses in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. The program was developed with the following goals: (1) to help rural schools become effective business incubators…

  4. Measuring Demand for Noncredit Entrepreneurship and Small-business Management Education from Virginia's Businesses: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the issues surrounding Virginia's need for training classes in the areas of small business management and entrepreneurship. Finds an apparent lack of communication between businesses and community colleges, particularly in rural areas, where community colleges are virtually the only source of employee training. (NB)

  5. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  6. 7 CFR 1948.54 - Eligible applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development...

  7. 7 CFR 1948.61 - State supplements and guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development...

  8. 7 CFR 1948.64 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area...

  9. 7 CFR 1948.54 - Eligible applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development...

  10. 7 CFR 1948.60 - Delegation and redelegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 1948.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted...

  11. 7 CFR 1948.63 - Historic preservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1948.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted...

  12. 7 CFR § 1951.868-1951.870 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SERVICING AND COLLECTIONS Rural Development Loan Servicing § §...

  13. 7 CFR 1951.861-1951.865 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SERVICING AND COLLECTIONS Rural Development Loan Servicing §§...

  14. 7 CFR 1948.61 - State supplements and guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development...

  15. 7 CFR 1948.63 - Historic preservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1948.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted...

  16. 7 CFR 1948.59 - Ineligible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development...

  17. 7 CFR 1948.64 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area...

  18. 7 CFR 1948.62 - Environmental impact requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1948.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted...

  19. 7 CFR 1951.860 - Interest on loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SERVICING AND COLLECTIONS Rural Development Loan Servicing §...

  20. 7 CFR 1948.59 - Ineligible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development...