Science.gov

Sample records for agriculture rural development

  1. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Eighteen papers about education, training, and extension in rural areas of the developing world are presented in this 1975 journal published jointly by three United Nations agencies closely concerned with education and rural development: Food and Agriculture Organization; Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; International Labor…

  2. Rural development, agriculture, and food security.

    PubMed

    Ayres, W S; Mccalla, A F

    1996-12-01

    Within 30 years the world will be supplying food for an additional 2.5 billion people, most of whom will live in developing countries. Developing countries in meeting future challenges will need to implement sound and stable macroeconomic and sector policies. The World Bank is providing analysis, policy dialogue, and financial support in specific countries for opening up agricultural markets globally. Developing countries need to enhance food supplies by encouraging rapid technological change, increasing the efficiency of irrigation, and improving natural resource management. Agricultural and income growth in developing countries is dependent upon transfer of the breakthroughs in agricultural technology to the millions of small farms in the developing world. People currently use about 70% of available fresh water for irrigation, and competition for water resources with urban and industrial users has increased. Agriculture and other sectors must increase the efficiency of water use. Natural resource planning and comprehensive water and natural resource management that rely on a community-based approach have proven successful. Developing countries need to improve access to food by strengthening markets and agribusinesses, providing education and health services to both boys and girls, investing in infrastructure, and fostering broad participation. The major challenge ahead is to ensure food security for the hundreds of millions of families living in poverty. This large and complex task involves increasing agricultural output worldwide, reducing poverty, and improving health and nutrition. Progress has been made in the past 25 years in improving living conditions, but not everyone has benefitted. Almost 75% of the poor live in rural areas without access to land, and 25% are urban poor without jobs. Most of the poor live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank mandate is to reduce poverty and hunger through revitalized rural development.

  3. Empowering Women in Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugbomeh, George M. M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)

  4. Future Directions in Rural Development Policy. Findings and Recommendations of the National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, J. Norman; Rowley, Thomas D.

    The National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy, established by Congress to provide broad, long-range policy perspectives, examined rural development policy issues and made many field visits to observe rural conditions and rural development projects. The Commission recognized the diversity of rural communities and identified…

  5. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development. Annual Report 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development.

    This report describes the activities of the Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD), Iowa State University, for the year ending June 30, 1987. During this fiscal year, CARD conducted numerous projects including the following: (1) a policy evaluation on agricultural applications of pesticides and ground water quality for the…

  6. Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pant, Laxmi Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new…

  7. Migration and Its Effects on Agriculture and Rural Development Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Alan R.

    Migration is a major continuing phenomenon associated with national and subnational development. The past, present, and future significance of migration on rural development and agriculture are reviewed in this paper. Data are cited which appear to be at variance with popular beliefs. The complexity of interrelationships between migration…

  8. Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development: Challenges for Developing Countries in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Crowder, L.; Lindley, W. I.; Bruening, T. H.; Doron, N.

    1998-01-01

    Agricultural education institutions in developing countries must address immediate production needs as well as food security, sustainable agricultural, and rural development needs. This will mean moving to an interdisciplinary, systems approach that incorporates new topics. (Author/JOW)

  9. Rural Development and the Regional State: Denying Multifunctional Agriculture in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Terry; Sonnino, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By…

  10. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1976. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agricultural…

  11. Agriculture and the Development Process: Tentative Guidelines for Teaching. Education and Rural Development--1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malassis, L.

    Concerned with the application of science and technology to agriculture, this book is intended to be used as a reference for rural education groups and as a guide for teachers in an attempt to formulate a new approach to teaching rural economics by integrating it into the overall analysis of social and economic development. The book is divided…

  12. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1977. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…

  13. Engineering Education for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewumi, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…

  14. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  15. Rural Development Progress: Fourth Annual Report of the Secretary of Agriculture to the Congress, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knebel, John A.

    The fourth annual secretary of agriculture report on rural development progress (prepared in response to a directive from the Rural Development Act of 1972) presents the most recently available status data on employment, income, population, housing, and community services and facilities, discusses examples of federal efforts to improve or expand…

  16. Agricultural Colleges in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Tung

    1975-01-01

    This article describes the educational program developed by one agricultural college in a rural area of China to carry out the revolution in education. Educational theory and practice are linked by involving students in the running of three forms.

  17. Journals Significant to Rural Development Received at the National Agricultural Library. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 48. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, Dorothy A., Comp.

    This directory lists 227 journals in the National Agricultural Library's (NAL) collection that are related to social and economic aspects of rural development. The directory includes both United States and international journals. Each citation includes title, NAL call number, NAL holdings information, the International Standard Serial Number…

  18. Community Change and the Farm Sector: Impacts of Rural Development on Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Molnar, Joseph J.

    Findings from current literature form the basis for this examination of five critical elements of change and development within the local community setting which impact on agriculture: population, employment, land, water, and environment. Renewed rural population growth during the 1970's has reversed small farm trends but placed strains on local…

  19. Rural Development Progress, January 1977-June 1979. Fifth Report of the Secretary of Agriculture to The Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    The fifth annual report of the Secretary of Agriculture on rural development (prepared in response to a directive from the Rural Development Act of 1972) summarizes current rural conditions by presenting the most recently available statistical data on employment, income, population, housing, and community services and facilities and illustrates…

  20. Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1984; and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Rural Development Policy Report. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit, and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 5024.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    Testimonies were heard in reference to the administration's annual rural development policy report and H.R. 5024, the Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1984. The bill provides that the Department of Agriculture shall be known as the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, transfers the administration of certain conservation programs…

  1. Sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and rural development: An analysis of bio-energy systems used by small farms in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Aiming

    Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon not harming natural resources. This dissertation provides an overview of recent Chinese agriculture history, discusses the role of energy in contemporary's China's agriculture and rural development, and introduces a new approach---the integrated agricultural bio-energy (IAB) system---to address the challenge of sustainable agriculture and rural development. IAB is an innovative design and offers a renewable energy solution for improving agricultural productivity, realizing efficient resource management, and enhancing social well-being for rural development. In order to understand how the IAB system can help to achieve sustainable agricultural and rural development in China, a comprehensive evaluation methodology is developed from health, ecological, energy and economic (HE3) perspectives. With data from surveys of 200 small farm households, a detailed study of IAB and conventional agricultural energy (CAE) system applications (in China's Liaoning and Yunnan Province) is conducted. The HE3 impacts of IAB systems in China's rural areas (compared to existing CAE systems) are quantified. The dissertation analyzes the full life-cycle costs and benefits of IAB systems, including their contributions to energy savings, CO2 emissions reduction, agricultural waste reduction, increased rural incomes, better rural health, and improved ecosystem sustainability. The analysis relies upon qualitative and quantitative modeling in order to produce a comprehensive assessment of IAB system impacts. Finally, the dissertation discusses the barriers to greater diffusion of the IAB systems

  2. The Use of an e-Learning System for Agricultural Extension: A Case Study of the Rural Development Administration, Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Duk-Byeong; Cho, Yong-Been; Lee, Minsoo

    2007-01-01

    The study explores the e-learning system of the Computer-Based Agricultural Extension Program (CBAES) and examines the differences in user satisfaction and preferences between the two systems for Agricultural Education and Extension at the Rural Development Administration (RDA) in Korea. It also describes the architecture, services, user…

  3. Rural Knowledge and Information Systems for Non-Agricultural Rural Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    2006-01-01

    As developing countries gradually rely less upon agriculture for rural income, rural economies require new solutions to access knowledge and information systems for rural development. Non-agricultural rural knowledge and information systems can play a significant role in developing and disseminating successful strategies to escape rural poverty.…

  4. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  5. Rural Area Revitalization Act of 1987; and the Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1987. Hearing on H.R. 1800 and H.R. 2026 before the Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit, and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    Testimony of H.R. 1800, the Rural Area Revitalization Act, and H.R. 2026, the Rural Development Reorganization Act focuses on the need for federal attention to rural problems other than agriculture. The Rural Area Revitalization Act authorizes expansion of capital available for lending in rural areas, a grant program of $25 million per year for…

  6. Building Development, Food and Population Issues in the Field of Agriculture with Rural Development in the Arab Countries (16-21 January 1993). Panel discussion (seminar).

    PubMed

    Morcos, M E

    1993-01-01

    The UN Organization for Food and Agriculture bureau held a panel discussion during January 16-21, 1993, to stress the importance of the joint relation between population issues, food, and nutrition in the fields of agriculture and rural development. Policymakers and individuals responsible for activities and programs on population, food, nutrition, and rural development in Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan, Yemen, and Sudan participated in the seminar. The seminar was also attended by academic institutions and participants from the ministries of agriculture and health, the National Population Council, and the committees of the countries involved. Synopses of panel proceedings are presented.

  7. Building Better Rural Places: Federal Programs for Sustainable Agriculture, Forestry, Conservation and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berton, Valerie; Butler, Jennifer

    This guide is written for those seeking help from federal programs to foster innovative enterprises in agriculture and forestry in the United States. The guide describes program resources in value-added and diversified agriculture and forestry, sustainable land management, and community development. Programs are included based upon whether they…

  8. Attention must be paid to the protection of agricultural ecological environment while developing rural commune and brigade-run industries

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yaru

    1983-01-01

    This article proposes that attention must be paid to the protection of agricultural ecology while developing rural commune and brigade-run industries in China. Great amounts of pesticides are applied in the process of agricultural production which destroy the natural ecological balance, lower the quality of agricultural, livestock and aquatic products and contaminate them. When agricultural environment is polluted, different pollutants go through various channels, directly or through the food chain, and may enter the human body. Over 200 electroplating plants of different sizes have been set up in 10 suburban counties of Shanghai, with more than 3 million tons of effluents discharged yearly, and over half of which is discharged into the agricultural environment without any treatment. Commune and brigade-run kilns, small-scale phosphate fertilizer plants and smelteries are operated indiscriminately regardless of farming seasons, discharging great amounts of toxic gas and smoke. Some small-scale fertilizer plants use waste acid containing trichloroethanol (or trichloroacetic acid) from chemical plants, thus contaminating crops and seedlings. It is proposed that rural commune and brigade-run enterprises can lower pollution through the policy of ''first planting, second breeding, third processing and fourth service''.

  9. Joining Rural Development Theory and Rural Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    Karl N. Stauber proposes three goals for rural development policy: helping the rural middle class survive, reducing concentrated rural poverty, and sustaining and improving the quality of the natural environment. In contrast to other visions, he advises policy that focuses on rural places rather than rural economic sectors such as agriculture,…

  10. Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikerd, John

    A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

  11. Rural Development: Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1974. Fifth Annual Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    The key role of the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to help local people make rural America a better place to live and work. The Rural Development (RD) Committee structure, conceived in 1969, consists of national, state, regional, and local committees which aid the USDA. During fiscal year 1974, USDA and the State Extension Services…

  12. THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION TO THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF ETHIOPIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KERBRET, MAKONNEN

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT SITUATION IN ETHIOPIA AND A REVIEW OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN THE WORLD WAS MADE THROUGH INTENSIVE LIBRARY RESEARCH. GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE BASED ON THE REVIEW SUBMITTED TO A JURY OF EXPERTS FOR VERIFICATION. REVISED GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE THEN DEVELOPED FOR GUIDING AND IMPLEMENTING THE…

  13. Agricultural Change, Community Change, and Rural Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the collapse of the rural community attendant on the demise of agriculture. Reports results of interviews of dairy farmers and their families in rural New York which suggest that farm problems exacerbate problems of rural poverty. Recommends effective intervention to prevent increasing rural economic poverty and social marginality. (DHP)

  14. Towards a Better Conceptual Framework for Innovation Processes in Agriculture and Rural Development: From Linear Models to Systemic Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knickel, Karlheinz; Brunori, Gianluca; Rand, Sigrid; Proost, Jet

    2009-01-01

    The role of farming previously dedicated mainly to food production changed with an increasing recognition of the multifunctionality of agriculture and rural areas. It seems obvious to expect that farmers and rural actors adapt themselves to these new conditions, which are innovative and redefine their job. In many regions farmers can increase…

  15. Energy requirements for rural development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    1988-06-01

    This study on the role of energy in the development of rural areas was originally conducted in the spring and summer of 1985. It was intended to serve as a background paper for the preparation of a program plan for the Office of Energy of the United States Agency for International Development. As such it begins with a brief overview of how rural development fits into national development, then offers a comprehensive framework for thinking about rural development in particular and the energy implications of the various components of rural development. Agriculture naturally comes to mind when rural areas are mentioned, but industry is an important component of rural activity as well. Consequently, both agricultural and nonagricultural energy use is discussed. Modernization of rural areas will change household, as well as production, energy use. However, household energy use is a veritable subject in its own right, with a large literature. Consequently, that topic is discussed in less detail than the production energy topics.

  16. Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    2002-01-01

    When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

  17. Education in a Rural Environment. Education and Rural Development -- 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    Assuming that education and rural development must be correlated, this booklet defines the general thrust for rural education programs in developing countries. The 1st of 4 sections briefly describes the various aspects of rural development (emphasis on integration of agriculture, industry, transport, trade, credit, health, education, culture,…

  18. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  19. 7 CFR 22.204 - Rural development committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22.204 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural development...

  20. 7 CFR 22.204 - Rural development committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22.204 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural development...

  1. 7 CFR 22.204 - Rural development committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22.204 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural development...

  2. 7 CFR 22.204 - Rural development committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22.204 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural development...

  3. 7 CFR 22.204 - Rural development committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22.204 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural development...

  4. Agriculture, Rural Development, and the Use of Land. A Series of Papers Compiled by the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate. Committee Print, 93rd Congress, 2nd Session, April 16, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Compiled by the members of the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Rural Development, this series of papers presents varying views on rural land-use issues. The 19 papers are titled as follows: (1) "Planning: Some questions, Answers, and Issues"; (2) "Evolution of Planning Theory and Practice: A Response to Changing Problems and Institutions"; (3) "The…

  5. Knowledge Gaps and Rural Development in Tajikistan: Agricultural Advisory Services as a Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtaltovna, Anastasiya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse knowledge systems and channels of innovation diffusion in Tajikistan. In particular, I look at the formation of agricultural advisory services (AASs) and how these provide a vital source of knowledge and innovation for farmers during the transition process. Methodology: Empirically, this paper draws…

  6. Genetic Technology and Agricultural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, William J.; Blase, Melvin G.

    1971-01-01

    Examines the nature, application, limits and potential of applied genetics in plant breeding as a factor in South Asian agricultural development. Concludes other factors were also present in recent agricultural growth, and indicates some economic implications of continued growth, including problems of employment of displaced rural workers. (AL)

  7. SOLERAS: Rural/agricultural project technical overview

    SciTech Connect

    Huraib, F.S.; Adcock, J.P.; Knect, R.D.

    1987-04-01

    The objective of the Rural and Agricultural Solar Applications Projects is to enhance the quality of rural life in hot, arid climates by providing systems that use renewable or regenerable energy sources for domestic or communal, agricultural, and local industrial applications. These systems must provide domestic services such as hot water, heat for cooking, and electric power for lighting, communications, and refrigeration. In addition, agricultural applications such as water desalination, irrigation pumping, and heat and electricity for crop or food processing and local industrial functions, can become the basis for improving the villagers' standard of living. 29 refs., 82 figs., 23 tabs.

  8. [Environment and rural development].

    PubMed

    Dufumier, M

    1992-01-01

    Management of natural resources and preservation of ecological balance are perceived today as essential elements of rural development. The recently multiplying environmental ministries in developing countries are intended not only to correct the damages resulting from uncontrolled urbanization and industrialization, but to address ecosystemic degradation in the countryside. The aptitude demonstrated by numerous peasant societies for exploiting their environments over the long term while preserving their potential should be recognized and their specific, detailed knowledge incorporated into environmental protection projects. It is a mistake to conclude that peasants do not care about environmental problems; they often lack the resources to take needed action. Active participation of impoverished rural dwellers requires that measures taken do not reduce their incomes or resources in the short term. Rural development projects must assure protection of the environment while taking into account the interests of diverse categories of rural dwellers, such as farmers, herders, or wood cutters. There has been considerable progress in the past 2 decades in understanding the functioning of cultivated and pasture ecosystems and in developing techniques to limit damage to them. A vast effort is now needed to understand the economic, social, and cultural functions of customs and practices of different social groups involved in agricultural development and territorial management in order to prioritize problems and arrive at a consensus of all those affected concerning environmental protection. Social science research is needed into marketing of agricultural products, circulation of cooking fuels, village-town relations, and migration in order to determine the effects of these phenomena on management and conservation of natural resources in rural areas. Experimental research should be directed toward finding practical solutions to problems encountered by rural cultivators

  9. Design and Evaluation of Effective Training Programs for Agricultural and Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Surendra P.; Comer, Sammy

    Vocational and technical training programs for less developed countries offer little in the way of training the intermediate cadres, technicians, and village level workers necessary for modernizing the primary sector on which developing economies depend. Training is vital because it secures cost reduction and maximum use of organization, enables…

  10. 7 CFR 63.11 - Under Secretary for Rural Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Under Secretary for Rural Development. 63.11 Section... for Rural Development. Under Secretary for Rural Development means the Under Secretary for Rural Development of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, or any other officer or employee of the...

  11. 7 CFR 63.11 - Under Secretary for Rural Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Under Secretary for Rural Development. 63.11 Section... for Rural Development. Under Secretary for Rural Development means the Under Secretary for Rural Development of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, or any other officer or employee of the...

  12. 7 CFR 63.11 - Under Secretary for Rural Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Under Secretary for Rural Development. 63.11 Section... for Rural Development. Under Secretary for Rural Development means the Under Secretary for Rural Development of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, or any other officer or employee of the...

  13. 7 CFR 63.11 - Under Secretary for Rural Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Under Secretary for Rural Development. 63.11 Section... for Rural Development. Under Secretary for Rural Development means the Under Secretary for Rural Development of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, or any other officer or employee of the...

  14. Approaches to Rural Development: The Guelph Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, E. Weldon

    Selected concepts and theoretical orientations were identified and applied to the Guelph Rural Development Outreach Project, formed in 1976 to give leadership in the evolvement of a more comprehensive and integrated approach to rural development in Ontario. Huron County (a traditional rural agricultural area), Halton Region (an area characterized…

  15. The Rural World: Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malassis, Louis

    Calling for an international educational policy that would relate all education to the rural world and agriculture, this book is directed toward the developing nations and maintains: all citizens must be made aware of the importance of agriculture in the process of socioeconomic development; rural subjects should be included in education in…

  16. On the Development of Rural Youth in the GDR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sube, Heinz

    Rural youth have been active in the development of the German Democratic Republic's agricultural production program. Although those who reside in rural areas and commute to work in urban areas are also classified as "rural youth," the core of rural youth are those who work in agricultural primary production. Of the 778,639 permanent working…

  17. Rural Development: Part 4, S. 2223--The Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act and Amendment No. 153 (To S. 1483), to Establish the Rural Community Development Bank. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 1st Session, July 23; September 21-24, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of Senate hearings on S. 2223 (the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act) and on Amendment No. 153 (to S. 1483) to establish the rural community development bank are presented in this document. In addition to some 25 miscellaneous documents, statements of representatives from municipal, state, and national organizations are…

  18. A Bibliography on Rural Development in Tanzania. MSU Rural Development Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocher, James E.; Fleisher, Beverly

    Rural development is understood to mean both the increased productivity of agriculture and other rural economic activities and the enhancement of the material well-being of the rural people (who comprise about 90% of Tanzania's 16 million population) through education, improved health, and better nutrition. Seven hundred and sixty-one books,…

  19. Rural Development Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, David W., Ed.; Reid, J. Norman, Ed.

    This book seeks to provide a basis for reexamining rural development policy by presenting comprehensive and current information on the effectiveness of various rural policy approaches. An introduction that defines development terminology and discusses changing policy needs is followed by 13 chapters that represent the best recent research…

  20. Rural Energy Communities Development Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Pomeroy, Earl [D-ND-At Large

    2010-09-29

    11/16/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Biotechnology, Specialty Crops, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. 7 CFR 22.306 - Financing rural development planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and... Department of Housing and Urban Development planning and management assistance program or other...

  2. 7 CFR 22.306 - Financing rural development planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and... Department of Housing and Urban Development planning and management assistance program or other...

  3. 7 CFR 22.306 - Financing rural development planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and... Department of Housing and Urban Development planning and management assistance program or other...

  4. 7 CFR 22.306 - Financing rural development planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and... Department of Housing and Urban Development planning and management assistance program or other...

  5. 7 CFR 22.306 - Financing rural development planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and... Department of Housing and Urban Development planning and management assistance program or other...

  6. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  7. 7 CFR 22.101 - The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). 22.101 Section 22.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION General § 22.101 The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). The Rural Development Act of...

  8. 7 CFR 22.101 - The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). 22.101 Section 22.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION General § 22.101 The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). The Rural Development Act of...

  9. 7 CFR 22.101 - The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). 22.101 Section 22.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION General § 22.101 The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). The Rural Development Act of...

  10. 7 CFR 22.101 - The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). 22.101 Section 22.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION General § 22.101 The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). The Rural Development Act of...

  11. 7 CFR 22.101 - The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). 22.101 Section 22.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION General § 22.101 The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). The Rural Development Act of...

  12. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  13. Policy Perspectives on Social, Agricultural, and Rural Sustainability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimberley, Ronald C.

    1993-01-01

    Introduces three types of agricultural policy dealing with the sustainability of society, the agricultural sector, and rural people and places. Outlines sustainability issues and special interest groups related to each policy type, common ground, and the impact on rural policy of the environment, economic change, physical infrastructure, social…

  14. ANIMATION RURALE: Education for Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Jeanne Marie

    Information gathered via literature review, interview, and personal observation was used to examine the effectiveness of animation rurale programs in Senegal and Niger, French West Africa. Identifiable animation rurale assumptions tested as applicable to Senegal and Niger were: nationwide development programs at the grass roots level can be…

  15. Core II Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units A-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biondo, Ron; And Others

    This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 21 problem areas to be included in a core curriculum for 10th-grade students enrolled in a rural agricultural program. Covered in the four units included in this volume are orientation to agricultural occupations (orientation to vocational agricultural course and developing effective study…

  16. 7 CFR 23.4 - State Rural Development Advisory Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State Rural Development Advisory Council. 23.4 Section... Program § 23.4 State Rural Development Advisory Council. (a) The chief administrative officer of the administratively responsible State Land Grant University will appoint a State Rural Development Advisory...

  17. 7 CFR 23.4 - State Rural Development Advisory Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State Rural Development Advisory Council. 23.4 Section... Program § 23.4 State Rural Development Advisory Council. (a) The chief administrative officer of the administratively responsible State Land Grant University will appoint a State Rural Development Advisory...

  18. 7 CFR 23.4 - State Rural Development Advisory Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State Rural Development Advisory Council. 23.4 Section... Program § 23.4 State Rural Development Advisory Council. (a) The chief administrative officer of the administratively responsible State Land Grant University will appoint a State Rural Development Advisory...

  19. 7 CFR 23.4 - State Rural Development Advisory Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State Rural Development Advisory Council. 23.4 Section... Program § 23.4 State Rural Development Advisory Council. (a) The chief administrative officer of the administratively responsible State Land Grant University will appoint a State Rural Development Advisory...

  20. Progress Report on Rural Development for Fiscal Year 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Rural development progress relative to State-U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) committees is presented via exemplary citation in this 1970 report. Summaries are given for: (1) Status of State-USDA Organization for Rural Development, (2) Functional Relationships of USDA Committees on Rural Development, (3) Activities and Projects Underway, (4)…

  1. Rural energy and development

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the worldwide problem and need for rural electrification to support development. He points out that rural areas will pay high rates to receive such services, but cannot afford the capital cost for conventional services. The author looks at this problem from the point of energy choices, subsides, initial costs, financing, investors, local involvement, and governmental actions. In particular he is concerned with ways to make better use of biofuels, to promote sustainable harvesting, and to encourage development of more modern fuels.

  2. Investigating Community Factors as Predictors of Rural 11th-Grade Agricultural Science Students' Choice of Careers in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Balschweid, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the links between community contexts/factors and rural 11th-grade agricultural science students' choice of careers in agriculture. A logistic regression model was developed and tested to examine the extent to which nine measures of community contexts (i.e., membership in FFA, membership in 4-H, community attachment,…

  3. Rural Development: Steps Towards Realizing the Potential of Telecommunications Technologies. Report to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    As of December 1995, at least 28 federal programs administered by 15 federal agencies provided funds that either were specifically designated for telecommunications projects in rural areas or could be used for that purpose. Interviews with community leaders and rural development experts identified specific actions that must be taken to lay the…

  4. Learning and Innovation in Agriculture and Rural Development: The Use of the Concepts of Boundary Work and Boundary Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisenkopfs, Talis; Kunda, Ilona; šumane, Sandra; Brunori, Gianluca; Klerkx, Laurens; Moschitz, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The paper explores the role of boundary work and boundary objects in enhancing learning and innovation processes in hybrid multi-actor networks for sustainable agriculture (LINSA). Design/Methodology/Approach: Boundary work in LINSA is analysed on the basis of six case studies carried out in SOLINSA project under a common methodology. In…

  5. Rural Development: Part 2, (1) Balanced National Growth Policy; (2) National Rural Development Program; (3) S. 1612, The Rural Community Development Revenue Sharing Act of 1971; (4) Reorganization of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, 92d Congress, 1st Session, April 29; June 16 and 17, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Included in these Senate hearings on rural development are statements from representatives of the following: (1) National League of Cities and the U.S. Conference of Mayors; (2) National Association of Community Development; (3) American Institute of Planners; (4) National Farmers Union; (5) Business International; (6) National Service to Regional…

  6. Rural Elementary Students' Understanding of Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks Related to Meat and Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meischen, Deanna L.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2003-01-01

    Seven fifth-graders developed concept maps depicting their knowledge of meat product development. Despite their rural background, they lacked understanding of agriculture concepts and had mixed knowledge of agricultural literacy benchmarks concerning food products. Their language did not reflect scientific terminology in the benchmarks. (Contains…

  7. Rural Industrialization: Prospects, Problems, Impacts, and Methods. A Series of Papers Compiled by the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, 93d Congress, 2d Session, April 19, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    The 9 papers in this compilation on rural industrial development are titled as follows: (1) "U.S. Employment Shifts Through 1985" (gains, regional losses, relation to per capita income and economic activities, geographic concentration, and national basis of regional projections); (2) "Large Industry in a Rural Area: Demographic, Economic, and…

  8. Rural Development: Part 3, (1) Balanced National Growth Policy; (2) National Rural Development Program; (3) S. 1612, The Rural Community Development Revenue Sharing Act of 1971; (4) Reorganization of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, 92d Congress, 1st Session, May 3, 1971, Sioux City, Iowa; May 4, 1971 Vermillion, ....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of the 1971 Senate hearings on rural development (held in Sioux City, Iowa; Montgomery, Alabama; Vermillion, South Dakota; and Tifton, Georgia) are presented in this document. Derived from many sources representing the varied interests of each host State, representative testimony includes that of: city and state officials; university…

  9. Rural Development: Part 5, (1) Balanced National Growth Policy; (2) National Rural Development Program; (3) S. 1612, The Rural Community Development Revenue Sharing Act of 1971; (4) Reorganization of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 1st Session, September 9, 1971, Stillwater, Okla....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of the 1971 Senate hearings on rural development held in Stillwater, Oklahoma and Lincoln, Nebraska are presented in this document. Derived from many sources representing the varied interests of each host state, representative testimony includes that of: university professors and administrators; State and Federal legislators; chamber…

  10. Contextualising Teaching and Learning in Rural Primary Schools: Using Agricultural Experience. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2. Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peter; Mulhall, Abigail

    This research project examined the potential role of agricultural experiences as a vehicle for meeting the diverse learning needs of rural primary students in developing countries. Volume 1 of the project report represents a literature review that investigated a "new role" for agriculture as a key element for developing rural students' basic…

  11. Communication for Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1984-01-01

    These reflections emerging from the Food and Agriculture Organization's long involvement in communication for development focus on lack of physical communication infrastructures accommodating development work; human dimension; more systematic media use; use of educational radio and portable video recorders; political considerations; and need for…

  12. Learning in Agriculture: Rural Development Agents in France Caught between a Job Identity and a Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albaladejo, Christophe; Couix, Nathalie; Barthe, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an interpretation by researchers of oral and written accounts of ten development agents who have participated in various seminars and discussions since 2001, organized by researchers of INRA and of the University of Toulouse. According to the transcripts of lectures, discussions and articles written by development agents, it seems…

  13. Human Resource Dimensions of Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Ray, Ed.

    The papers in this volume are concerned with rural development, with emphasis on the problems of low-income groups. Stephen McDonald explores economic factors in farm outmigration. Virgil Christian, Jr. and Adamantios Pepelasis discuss the extent and importance of economies of size in agriculture. Thomas Till analyzes the nature and extent of…

  14. Contextualising the Curriculum in Rural Primary Schools: The Role of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peter

    The capacity of agriculture to act as a familiar vehicle for development of young rural learners' literacy, numeracy, and other necessary life skills was examined through a literature review and case studies of the use of primary school agriculture (PSA) as a contextualizing subject in the following countries: Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Cameroon,…

  15. [Agriculture, ecology and development].

    PubMed

    Dufumier, M

    1993-01-01

    This work is based in part on the papers concerning agriculture, ecology, and development contained in this issue of the Revue Tiers-Monde. It provides an overview of changing international attitudes toward environmental damage, examines 3 specific types of damage affecting developing countries in particular, and discusses the shortcomings of existing environmental projects and the prerequisites for a lasting control over environmental damage. It has become increasingly evident that pollution and environmental damage cannot be the concern exclusively of developed countries. The 1992 UN Conference on the Environment and Development in rio de Janeiro focused most of its attention on problems evident at the planetary level such as the greenhouse effect and extinction of species. Problems resulting from the impact of harmful agricultural practices on developing country ecological environments were noted somewhat in passing. The examples of tropical deforestation, the degradation of savannahs and steppes, and cultivation of new fields on steep mountainsides demonstrate the complexity and gravity of environmental problems in developing countries. The poverty of peasants and their inability to obtain the inputs that would enable them to practice a more stable type of agriculture are important factors in the damage done. A common problem is that immediate production or consumption is favored with little regard for longterm consequences. Certain agricultural practices such as the use of cultivars selected for their high yields under optimal conditions contribute to the progressive disappearance of varieties with special properties such as resistance to disease or insects that may be needed in the future. Excessive use of herbicides, pesticides, or fertilizer may bring problems of pollution and toxicity. Numerous development projects sponsored by donors from the developed countries have been designed to pursue short term objectives with insufficient attention to longterm

  16. Rural Sociology in the South: 1972. Proceedings: Rural Sociology Section, Association of Southern Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voland, Maurice E., Ed.

    The papers presented in this collection are said to represent the major thrusts of research and other scholarly activities of rural sociologists in the South in 1972. Arranged in the order of their presentation at the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Agricultural Workers meetings, these papers discuss such topics as youth, social change in…

  17. 7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel... of Certain Rural Development Programs § 1940.968 Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel... associated with a State rural economic development review panel. (b) Objective. The objective of the...

  18. 7 CFR 2.45 - Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development. 2.45... for Rural Development § 2.45 Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development. Pursuant to § 2.17(a..., the following delegation of authority is made to the Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development,...

  19. 7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel... of Certain Rural Development Programs § 1940.968 Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel... associated with a State rural economic development review panel. (b) Objective. The objective of the...

  20. 7 CFR 2.45 - Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development. 2.45... for Rural Development § 2.45 Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development. Pursuant to § 2.17(a..., the following delegation of authority is made to the Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development,...

  1. 7 CFR 2.45 - Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development. 2.45... for Rural Development § 2.45 Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development. Pursuant to § 2.17(a..., the following delegation of authority is made to the Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development,...

  2. 7 CFR 2.45 - Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development. 2.45... for Rural Development § 2.45 Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development. Pursuant to § 2.17(a..., the following delegation of authority is made to the Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development,...

  3. 7 CFR 1744.203 - Establishing amount of rural development investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing amount of rural development investment. 1744.203 Section 1744.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED...

  4. Rural Development Literature 1976-1977: An Updated Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzzard, Shirley, Comp.

    More than 100 books and articles on rural development published during 1976-77 are annotated in this selective bibliography. Concentrating on social science literature, the bibliography is interdisciplinary in nature, spanning agricultural economics, anthropology, community development, community health, and rural sociology. Types of works…

  5. Recouple: Natural Resource Strategies for Rural Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret G.

    This source book provides guidance and technical assistance material on utilizing forest, agricultural, and scenic and wildlife resources for rural economic development. The document focuses on the uniqueness of existing rural resources for new enterprise opportunities. Natural resource-based economic development strategies are a means to…

  6. Methodology for agricultural and rural NPS pollution in a typical county of the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Xiaolan; Ongley, Edwin; Zhao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution has been recently identified by the Chinese government as a major source of aquatic pollution. Methodologies commonly used to make basin-wide or area-wide assessments are problematic and regional distinctions have not been made relative to rainfall and runoff. Using a typical agricultural county in the Hai River basin of the North China Plan we developed methodology to estimate potential load and delivered load for crops (field crops + rice), animal production, rural living and from atmospheric N input. We use scenarios to allow for uncertainty in delivery to estimate the relative roles of different rural forms of pollution. Livestock raising is the major source of NPS pollution. Despite a 75% rural population, rural living contributes almost nothing to surface water pollution. While over-fertilization is typical, nutrient runoff from crops is low. Our results have implications for policies now under development for NPS control in China.

  7. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study examines the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition--specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand…

  8. Better Country: A Strategy for Rural Development in the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    The report of the 25-member National Advisory Council on Rural Development, appointed by the Secretary of Agriculture, defines rural needs and sets forth strategies for rural development in the 1980's. A review of the decade between 1970 and 1980 discusses rapid economic growth of rural areas, social progress, and changes in public service, and…

  9. Rural Development: An Overview. Prepared by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, for the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schussheim, Morton J., Ed.; And Others

    Written in late fall and early winter of 1978-79, the 12 papers in this collection provide a status report on various aspects of rural America and on governmental policies affecting rural America. The first paper examines terms commonly used in this area of public policy, revealing both the complexity of the issues and some of the contradictions…

  10. USDA Finances Wind for Rural Economic Development (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, C.; Walters, T.

    2005-05-01

    To foster rural economic development and growth, Congress passed the Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program as Section 9006 of the 2002 Farm Bill. This program provides financial assistance to farmers, ranchers, and rural small businesses to purchase renewable energy systems or make energy efficiency improvements. The Rural Business and Cooperative Services of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers this program. This conference poster provides an overview of Section 9006.

  11. An Analysis of Ict Development Strategy Framework in Chinese Rural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Meiying; Warren, Martyn; Lang, Yunwen; Lu, Shaokun; Yang, Linnan

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development strategy in Chinese rural areas is an indispensable part of national development strategies. This paper reviews the ICT framework in agriculture and rural areas launched by the Department of Agriculture in China. It compares the rural ICT policies and strategies between China and the European Union (EU). The ICT development strategy framework is analyzed based on the situation in Chinese rural area and the experiences of the EU. Some lessons and suggestions are provided.

  12. Rural Housing Site Planning in North Carolina. Agricultural Extension Publication 105.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Randolph T., Jr.; And Others

    Addressing the problems of rural housing site selection and development in North Carolina, this guide is designed for cooperative and coordinated use by: technical assistance personnel employed by the Farmers Home Administration; local lending institutions; Health Departments; the Agricultural Extension Service; the Soil Conservation Service; and…

  13. Rural Development: Part 6, S. 1612-A Bill to Establish a Revenue-Sharing Program for Rural Development. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, 92d Congress, 1st Session, September 20, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of the 1971 Senate hearings on S. 1612, a bill to establish a revenue sharing program for rural development, are presented in this document. Testimony presented in these hearings includes that of Federal and State legislators from North Dakota, Minnesota, West Virginia, and Georgia and representatives from the following: Arkansas Game…

  14. Policy Directions for U. S. Agriculture; Long-Range Choices in Farming and Rural Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Marion

    A comprehensive view of agriculture is presented in this volume written to aid critical re-examination of long-range agricultural policy. Farm people, rural institutions and services, rural towns, the spatial organization of agriculture, and its capital structure, in addition to the usual subjects of agricultural output, demand, trade, price, and…

  15. Population pressure, intensification of agriculture, and rural-urban migration.

    PubMed

    Salehi-isfahani, D

    1993-04-01

    "In this paper I provide an analytical basis for why labor absorption [in agriculture] may improve with higher population density. My argument is in two parts. First, analysing agriculture in isolation, I use the Boserup insight to show that higher population density is associated with more intensive techniques of land use. Second, using a two-sector model, I show that the rate of labor absorption (defined as the rate of natural population growth minus the rate of rural-urban migration) increases with the intensity of land use." Cross-sectional data for Iran are used to illustrate the model.

  16. From subsistence farming towards a multifunctional agriculture: sustainability in the Chinese rural reality.

    PubMed

    Prändl-Zika, Veronika

    2008-04-01

    The rural economic situation in China-with a living standard mostly at subsistence level-lags far behind the prosperous development in the cities and coastal areas. To balance this disequilibrium, comprehensive concepts and endeavors are necessary keeping in view all-not just economic-interests and needs that contribute to lively rural identities. In this context the role of agriculture, where still 50% of the Chinese population are working, will be newly defined, and sustainability concepts can help to find a readjusted position within the Chinese economy focusing on environmental health and food safety as main targets of political and other supporting measures. Within the SUCCESS project, a Concept of Sustainable Agriculture was developed and it drafts one conceivable relation between the exposure to natural resources and economy and tries to find new answers to the broad range of rural challenges in China. It is a qualitative model and, therefore, not always fully applicable, but in the concrete situation of villages, it shows possible directions of sustainability-oriented development by considering the typical local potentials. In the Chinese context that means identifying the different functions of agriculture-the well-known and the hidden-to make them explicit for the Chinese public and therewith to give them new significance. The article is based on a 3-years study within the EU-China Project SUCCESS with field research in four Chinese rural communities. It analyzes the agricultural sustainability potential of these selected villages against the background of massive structural changes within the next 20 years in rural China. Starting from the current agricultural reality, based on a qualitative analysis of the actual situation, local potentials and needs towards sustainable production and marketing are identified, and possible functions of the Chinese agriculture are formulated for the future.

  17. Rural Development: What's Coming--What's Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Henry

    1978-01-01

    The speech, delivered 1 June 1978 at the Western Roundup Regional Conference on Rural Home Services (University of Montana, Missoula), indicates that rural America has suffered from neglect, disorganization, and the lack of a federal rural development policy. (B R)

  18. Leadership, Education and Agricultural Development Programs in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dale W.

    1968-01-01

    The lack of qualified leadership to direct, plan, and do research in agricultural agencies is an important restraint on rural development in countries like Colombia. An increase in the number of students attending institutions for agricultural education has been often viewed as the solution to this problem. It is argued here that an increase in…

  19. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  20. [The role of national rural organization and agricultural extension services in relation to women].

    PubMed

    Martius Von Harder, G

    1985-01-01

    Rural extension services are designed to provide rural dwellers with information needed to further technical or social development and to solve problems. Extension agents should be fully aware of their responsibility for the advice they provide. The number of rural and agricultural development and extension agencies has multiplied greatly in the past 2 decades. Agricultural extension is the principal component of most rural development strategies. Training given to men is usually economic, while that for women is devoted to household and social functioning. Programs for women usually lag general development programs. Training of women is usually not included in agricultural extension programs, especially in countries practicing segregation of the sexes. Agricultural extension programs are generally limited to cultivation techniques and neglect transformation and storage of crops and seed preparation for increased production. Measures that could improve productivity of women's agriculture-related work are expected to be delivered through the intermediacy of their husbands, but the husbands may not appreciate the import of such messages if they are not familiar with their wives' work. Agricultural training should consider all stages of production, should be delivered to the individuals actually performing the tasks, and should be ecologically appropriate. The overall objective of agricultural extension is to increase production, but most programs do not specify who is to use the surplus or to benefit from it. The rural population or the urban population may be the prime beneficiary, or cash crops may be produced for export. Although increased production should benefit the rural population through a better food supply, in reality most extension programs are devoted to cash crops for export and are less than fully successful because of problems of crop distribution and marketing and other shortcomings. Where men and women perform the same agricultural work, it should

  1. 7 CFR 1744.208 - Rural development investments before November 28, 1990.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural development investments before November 28... GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.208 Rural development investments before... by RUS as a condition to approving a rural development investment before November 28, 1990,...

  2. 7 CFR 1767.14 - Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform system of accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform... ELECTRIC BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1767.14 Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform... interpretations of the Rural Development USoA, in writing, to the AA-PARA, for consideration and...

  3. 7 CFR 1735.9 - USDA Rural Development State Director notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA Rural Development State Director notification....9 USDA Rural Development State Director notification. Applicants shall complete a notification form which will be a public document that the RUS provides to USDA Rural Development State Directors...

  4. 7 CFR 1951.218 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... Servicing of Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.218 Use of Rural Development... the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act, as amended; and (3) Satisfies such...

  5. 7 CFR 1767.14 - Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform system of accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform... ELECTRIC BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1767.14 Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform... interpretations of the Rural Development USoA, in writing, to the AA-PARA, for consideration and...

  6. 7 CFR 1767.14 - Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform system of accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform... ELECTRIC BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1767.14 Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform... interpretations of the Rural Development USoA, in writing, to the AA-PARA, for consideration and...

  7. 7 CFR 1744.208 - Rural development investments before November 28, 1990.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural development investments before November 28... GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.208 Rural development investments before... by RUS as a condition to approving a rural development investment before November 28, 1990,...

  8. 7 CFR 1951.218 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... Servicing of Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.218 Use of Rural Development... the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act, as amended; and (3) Satisfies such...

  9. 7 CFR 1782.23 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... § 1782.23 Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes. (a) If, after making a loan or a...(d) of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (Pub. L. 87-128), as amended; and...

  10. 7 CFR 1951.218 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... Servicing of Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.218 Use of Rural Development... the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act, as amended; and (3) Satisfies such...

  11. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.15 Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding. An Intermediary may receive REDL funds only... Recipient to finance financially viable economic development or job creation Projects in a Rural Area....

  12. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.15 Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding. An Intermediary may receive REDL funds only... Recipient to finance financially viable economic development or job creation Projects in a Rural Area....

  13. 7 CFR 1782.23 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... § 1782.23 Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes. (a) If, after making a loan or a...(d) of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (Pub. L. 87-128), as amended; and...

  14. 7 CFR 1744.204 - Rural development investments that do not meet the ratio requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rural development investments that do not meet the... GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.204 Rural development investments that do... consider, on a case-by-case basis, requests for approval of rural development investments not...

  15. 7 CFR 1951.218 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... Servicing of Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.218 Use of Rural Development... the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act, as amended; and (3) Satisfies such...

  16. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.15 Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding. An Intermediary may receive REDL funds only... Recipient to finance financially viable economic development or job creation Projects in a Rural Area....

  17. 7 CFR 1744.203 - Establishing amount of rural development investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishing amount of rural development investment... INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.203 Establishing amount of rural development investment. For purposes of determining whether a rural development investment is within the limits of...

  18. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.15 Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding. An Intermediary may receive REDL funds only... Recipient to finance financially viable economic development or job creation Projects in a Rural Area....

  19. 7 CFR 1717.858 - Lien subordination for rural development investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lien subordination for rural development investments... Lien subordination for rural development investments. (a) Policy. RUS encourages borrowers to consider... financial risks and the revenues and costs of the rural development enterprise from those of the...

  20. 7 CFR 1744.208 - Rural development investments before November 28, 1990.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural development investments before November 28... GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.208 Rural development investments before... by RUS as a condition to approving a rural development investment before November 28, 1990,...

  1. 7 CFR 1782.23 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... § 1782.23 Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes. (a) If, after making a loan or a...(d) of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (Pub. L. 87-128), as amended; and...

  2. 7 CFR 1744.204 - Rural development investments that do not meet the ratio requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural development investments that do not meet the... GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.204 Rural development investments that do... consider, on a case-by-case basis, requests for approval of rural development investments not...

  3. 7 CFR 1744.204 - Rural development investments that do not meet the ratio requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural development investments that do not meet the... GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.204 Rural development investments that do... consider, on a case-by-case basis, requests for approval of rural development investments not...

  4. 7 CFR 1717.858 - Lien subordination for rural development investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lien subordination for rural development investments... Lien subordination for rural development investments. (a) Policy. RUS encourages borrowers to consider... financial risks and the revenues and costs of the rural development enterprise from those of the...

  5. 7 CFR 1744.204 - Rural development investments that do not meet the ratio requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural development investments that do not meet the... GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.204 Rural development investments that do... consider, on a case-by-case basis, requests for approval of rural development investments not...

  6. 7 CFR 1744.208 - Rural development investments before November 28, 1990.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural development investments before November 28... GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.208 Rural development investments before... by RUS as a condition to approving a rural development investment before November 28, 1990,...

  7. 7 CFR 1744.203 - Establishing amount of rural development investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishing amount of rural development investment... INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.203 Establishing amount of rural development investment. For purposes of determining whether a rural development investment is within the limits of...

  8. 7 CFR 1717.858 - Lien subordination for rural development investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lien subordination for rural development investments... Lien subordination for rural development investments. (a) Policy. RUS encourages borrowers to consider... financial risks and the revenues and costs of the rural development enterprise from those of the...

  9. 7 CFR 1782.23 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... § 1782.23 Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes. (a) If, after making a loan or a...(d) of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (Pub. L. 87-128), as amended; and...

  10. 7 CFR 1767.14 - Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform system of accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform... ELECTRIC BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1767.14 Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform... interpretations of the Rural Development USoA, in writing, to the AA-PARA, for consideration and...

  11. 7 CFR 1951.218 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... Servicing of Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.218 Use of Rural Development... the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act, as amended; and (3) Satisfies such...

  12. 7 CFR 1782.23 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... § 1782.23 Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes. (a) If, after making a loan or a...(d) of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (Pub. L. 87-128), as amended; and...

  13. 7 CFR 1767.14 - Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform system of accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform... ELECTRIC BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1767.14 Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform... interpretations of the Rural Development USoA, in writing, to the AA-PARA, for consideration and...

  14. 7 CFR 1717.858 - Lien subordination for rural development investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lien subordination for rural development investments... Lien subordination for rural development investments. (a) Policy. RUS encourages borrowers to consider... financial risks and the revenues and costs of the rural development enterprise from those of the...

  15. 7 CFR 1744.203 - Establishing amount of rural development investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishing amount of rural development investment... INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.203 Establishing amount of rural development investment. For purposes of determining whether a rural development investment is within the limits of...

  16. 7 CFR 1744.208 - Rural development investments before November 28, 1990.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rural development investments before November 28... GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.208 Rural development investments before... by RUS as a condition to approving a rural development investment before November 28, 1990,...

  17. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.15 Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding. An Intermediary may receive REDL funds only... Recipient to finance financially viable economic development or job creation Projects in a Rural Area....

  18. 7 CFR 1744.204 - Rural development investments that do not meet the ratio requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: (1) A description of the rural development project and the type of investment to be made, such as a... borrower is committed to provide to the rural development project including investments that may be... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural development investments that do not meet...

  19. Rural Development Research at Land-Grant Institutions in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

    Based on information derived from research resumes of the Cooperative State Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), this inventory of rural development research in the Southern States is part of the Southern Rural Development Center's effort to establish a base of knowledge on rural development and to point to gaps in…

  20. Communication and Integrated Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Center on Instructional Technology Report, 1976

    1976-01-01

    In discussing communication planning and integrated rural development, Philip H. Coombs, Manzoor Ahmed, and Pratima Kale of the International Council for Educational Development stress that communication planning must deal with problems in behavioral and not just technical terms. Communication planners must be able to work with experts from other…

  1. Leadership development for rural health.

    PubMed

    Size, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Leadership is the capacity to help transform a vision of the future into reality. Individuals who can and will exercise leadership are like a river's current--a part past where we now stand, a part yet to come. We have an ongoing need to remember and to look toward the next "generation." A key responsibility of those here now, is to mentor and to create structures for mentoring, in order to maximize the flow and effectiveness of tomorrow's leaders. When recruiting organizational leaders, the recruitment and interview process must seek individuals who in addition to technical competence, also have demonstrated leadership in their prior work and activities. To exercise effective leadership, we must work to know who we are, how we relate to others, and the environment around us. "Servant leadership" is a perspective held by many throughout the rural health community and offers a key set attributes of leadership useful to rural health. To implement the Institute of Medicine's recommendations in Through Collaboration: the Future of Rural Health, we must develop leaders skilled in collaboration, both internal to their organization and across organizations. The National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services had it right when they said to the Secretary and to the rest of us, "the best way to honor Jim is to consciously work to help develop the next generation of rural health leaders." There are, of course, a multitude of leadership institutes, programs, and courses throughout America; this is not a call for yet another separate entity. But it is a call to each of us in rural health to assure that we are deliberate in how we identify "emerging leaders from and for rural communities and provide them with the training and resources to play a lead role in ensuring access to quality healthcare in their states and communities." Let's get started.

  2. Rural poverty and development in West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Peacock, F

    1981-07-01

    Rural poverty in West Malaysia during the 1957-1970 period is examined. The period covered was 1 of a high rate of growth combined with an increasing inequality of income and worsening poverty. During the 1955-1970 period, a large amount of development funds, manpower, and expertise was directed towards a reduction of West Malaysia's rural poverty. Despite these efforts, rural poverty increased. Over the period under review, the share of income going to the richest 20% of the population increased from 50% to 56%; the share going to the middle 20% of the population remained constant at 20%; the poorest 60% of the population saw their share of income decline from 30% to 24%. The poorest 40% of the population received only 11.6% of income in 1970. They were predominantly rural, with this sector accounting for 87% of all poverty. The 3 development plans of this period set high aggregate growth rates as the primary targets and emphasized productivity and income in the rural sector. Rural development has not been sold short; the total funding figure of $2,209.46 million represents 40% of all development spending between 1956 and 1970. The money funded 3 broad areas of rural development: replanting of smallholder rubber with high-yielding clones; increasing rice production; and opening new land. The strategy has been to concentrate upon raising the yields from existing farmland and expanding into new areas of settlement. The problem of dealing with poverty in West Malaysia was made worse by the rapid rate of population increase. The population increase of 1,657,000 was absorbed into the traditional smallholder sector, very largely in exisitng areas of settlement. Over the same period, the modern sector of agriculture, the rubber estates, reduced their labor force by 30,000 as they moved into the cultivation of oil palm, a crop requiring less labor. Some of the additional agricultural workers were placed on new land under government land-development and resettlement

  3. [Organic agriculture and sustainable development].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Wang, Gang

    2004-12-01

    Basing on the research and practice of organic agriculture at home and abroad, this paper discussed the objectives of developing green food and the principles that must be persisted in the practice in China. In the light of the arguments concerning with sustainable agriculture, we also discussed the significance of "alternative agriculture" in theory and practice. Compared with conventional high-intensity agriculture, the production approaches of organic alternatives can improve soil fertility and have fewer detrimental effects on the environment. It is unclear whether conventional agriculture can be sustained because of the shortcomings presented in this paper, and it has taken scientists approximately one century to research and practice organic farming as a representative of alternative agriculture. The development of green food in China has only gone through more than ten years, and there would be some practical and theoretical effects on the development of China's green food if we exploit an environment-friendly production pattern of organic agriculture which majors in keeping human health and maintaining sustainable agriculture.

  4. Strategies of Rural Development in Asia--A Discussion. Summary of Discussion, Research Studies and Country Statements Presented to the Seminar on Approaches to Rural Development in Asia (Malaysia, May-June, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inayatullah, C., Ed.

    A 10-day seminar for senior government officials concerned with making rural development policies in selected Asian countries focused on programs adopted by various Asian governments to tackle rural development problems. To compare various approaches, seven indicators of rural development were used: agricultural productivity; rural employment;…

  5. Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

  6. Bioenergy systems report: The AID (Agency for International Development) approach. Using agricultural and forestry wastes for the production of energy in support of rural development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The Biomass Energy Systems and Technology project (BEST) seeks to integrate natural resources, private sector expertise, and financial support in order to convert biomass into marketable energy products at existing agro-processing facilities. This report documents BEST's approach to biomass promotion and includes sections on: the rationale for the project's commodity focus (sugar cane, rice, and wood); the relevant U.S. biomass experience with rice, cane, and wood residues, etc., which BEST draws upon; A.I.D.'s experience in the field application of rice, wood, and cane residue bioenergy systems; economic analyses of biomass systems (using examples from Indonesia and Costa Rica); research initiatives to develop off-season fuels for sugar mills, advanced biomass conversion systems, and energy efficiency in sugar factories; and the environmental aspects of biomass (including its ability to be used without increasing global warming).

  7. 7 CFR 1744.203 - Establishing amount of rural development investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... investment shall be the total amount of funds committed to the rural development project as of the date of... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishing amount of rural development investment... INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.203 Establishing amount of rural...

  8. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  9. Reflections on conducting evaluations for rural development interventions in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Laura Pan; Liu, Lin

    2014-12-01

    An appropriate evaluation methodology is critical in collecting valid data in complex development intervention contexts. This paper explores this issue by putting forward an appropriate evaluation methodology for development interventions in rural China. It draws on the experience of an impact evaluation of a sustainable agricultural biodiversity management project conducted in Hainan, China in 2010. The authors propose that evaluation be culturally responsive and the evaluation design be rooted in the particular cultural context where an evaluation is conducted. The appropriate use of the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) approach and methods helps generate data that are relevant and meaningful for evaluation purposes in rural China.

  10. Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

  11. AR, HEA and AAS in Rural Development Projects--Benchmarking towards the Best Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermarck, Harri

    In most countries, agricultural research (AR), institutions of higher education in agriculture (HEA), and agricultural advisory services (AAS) function as separate agencies. So far, in most countries, AR, HEA, and AAS have not had a common vision for rural development. In Finland, domination of agricultural production in Finland has led to a lack…

  12. Beyond Agriculture: New Policies for Rural America. [Proceedings] (Kansas City, Missouri, April 27-28, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, MO. Center for the Study of Rural America.

    In April 2000, over 250 rural leaders from around the nation gathered in Kansas City, Missouri, to discuss rural America's future, its challenges, and policies to meet those challenges. Conference participants agreed that the current pattern of uneven rural growth is likely to persist and that agriculture will remain a key sector in the rural…

  13. Agricultural Change: Consequences for Southern Farms and Rural Communities. Westview Special Studies in Agricultural Science and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Joseph J., Ed.

    The 17 articles in this volume are designed to shed light on what farmers are experiencing during the current farm crisis and why. They also examine what current agricultural change means for rural life and rural communities, and what southern farming may be like in the foreseeable future. The articles represent contemporary research and…

  14. The new political economy of food and agricultural development.

    PubMed

    Mellor, J W; Adams Rh

    1986-11-01

    This paper emphasizes the benefits of an agricultural strategy of development in developing countries. It begins by analyzing the close links between food and employment in the development process. In an underdeveloped country, food production is minimal, but demand is as well because of the small population growth. After development begins, income rises and food demand outstrips production. Only at later stages of development can food production meet demand. The middle stage of development describes most developing countries, which have averaged annual growth rates of 3% per capita in 1966-80. The growth in food demand must be met through technological advance in agriculture: high-yield seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation, which, for example, helped India increase cereal yields 29% between 1954-55 and 1964-65. The rate of growth in cropped areas has declined between 1961-1980, making increased yields more necessary. Growth in employment and income leads to higher food demand, which leads to higher prices and labor costs and a tendency towards capital-intensive agriculture. As the rural sector becomes wealthier, there is also more opportunity for non-agricultural rural workers, creating still more demand. In the final development stage, agricultural products can generate foreign exchange. In Asia, the priority is to ensure efficient outcomes of capital allocations, while in Africa, technology must be instituted. Public investment has been shown to be essential to rapid development in Japan, Taiwan, and the Punjab of India. The absence of this investment in Africa, partly because of an overemphasis on urban sector investment, is largely responsible for the backward state of African agriculture. Often rural areas are overtaxed, agricultural experts are lacking, and there is a growing presence of urban bureaucrats. Both experts in the donor community and farmers themselves must become more vocal in demanding investment in the agricultural sector.

  15. Education for Rural Development towards New Policy Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchoarena, David, Ed.; Gasperini, Lavinia, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    An international joint study by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and UNESCO's International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) was conducted on education and rural development to review the status of the topic from the standpoint of public policies and the conceptual frameworks on which they are based and…

  16. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological

  17. Biomass Power for Rural Development

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-01

    The U.S. Departments of Energy and Agriculture work together to advance the development of electricity generation systems that use biomass instead of fossil fuels. The national benefits include lower sulfur emissions (which contribute to acid rain), reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and less dependence on fossil fuels.

  18. The W. K. Kellogg Foundation and Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gary W.

    The W. K. Kellogg Foundation, since its inception in 1930, has assisted programs in health, education, and agriculture. The programs in agriculture are usually concerned with rural society and the quality of rural life rather than technical agriculture. The agricultural programs are international and range from domestication of the musk ox to…

  19. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children in rural Panama: role of subsistence agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity. PMID:27000494

  20. Integrated rural development programs: a skeptical perspective.

    PubMed

    Ruttan, V W

    1975-11-01

    In examining integrated rural development programs the question that arises is why is it possible to identify several relatively successful small-scale or pilot rural development projects yet so difficult to find examples of successful rural development programs. 3 bodies of literature offer some insight into the morphology of rural development projects, programs, and processes: the urban-industrial impact hypothesis; the theory of induced technical change; and the new models of institutional change that deal with institution building and the economics of bureaucratic behavior. The urban-industrial impact hypothesis helps in the clarification of the relationships between the development of rural areas and the development of the total society of which rural areas are a part. It is useful in understanding the spatial dimensions of rural development where rural development efforts are likely to be most successful. Formulation of the hypothesis generated a series of empirical studies designed to test its validity. The effect of these studies has been the development of a rural development model in which the rural community is linked to the urban-industrial economy through a series of market relationships. Both the urban economy's rate of growth and the efficiency of the intersector product and factor markets place significant constraints on the possibilities of rural area development. It is not possible to isolate development processes in the contemporary rural community in a developing society from development processes in the larger society. The induced technical change theory provides a guide as to what must be done to gain access to efficient sources of economic growth, the new resources and incomes that are necessary to sustain rural development. Design of a successful rural development strategy involves a combination of technical and institutional change. The ability of rural areas to respond to the opportunities for economic growth generated by local urban

  1. Rural Libraries and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of rural public libraries in the information age. Characteristics of rural communities that library planners should consider are conservatism, the lack of professionally trained librarians, library trustee involvement, the need for marketing, and gender balance. Suggestions for recreating rural libraries and providing…

  2. Liquid biofuels as a development tool in Latin American agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    McCombs, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a policy analysis to explore a distinct interpretation of issues in the vital inter-sector relationship of energy and agriculture. Bioenergy to power a sustainable agriculture, and beyond, is seen as a viable possibility in response to often-contradictory goals of both sectors. The greatest critical energy needs in agriculture have been long identified as fertilizer and fuels. The paper examines large and small scales of liquid biofuel production and the potential of Latin America small farms not only to contribute to fuel and fertilizer supply but to participate more broadly in rural economic development.

  3. Agricultural Scholarships for Rural Youth in England and Wales, 1922-58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigott, Daniel A.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the effect of the British educational scholarships created by the 1921 Corn Production Acts (Repeal). Points out that the act enabled sons and daughters of agricultural laborers to attend secondary schools in order to obtain agricultural education. Concludes that the scholarships helped the rural youth, the agricultural economy, and the…

  4. Mining resettlement and rural development in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khalid, H N

    1992-07-01

    The Malaysian government has employed 3 kinds of resettlement schemes: 1) resettlement of farmers under modern agricultural and land development programs to grow cash crops; 2) resettlement of rural population in well-guarded locations to isolate them from communist insurgents; and 3) resettlement and compensation of population displaced thorough resource exploitation such as construction of dams and mining. The Kinta Valley resettlement is examined in the example of 3 villages where tin mining encroached on their agricultural land. 98 households were included in the sample from Batu Bertudung, Tekka, and Jelutung that had been settled in the 1940s. The villagers were eventually evacuated and sustained technological, pecuniary, and psychological losses. The economic loses involved property, land, and crops, and social losses comprised social networks, neighborhood, and stability. 81.7% of the villagers who were left landless successfully insisted on complete relocation of their villagers in new villages in claims to the respective tin mining companies through their newly formed village action committees in the mid-1960s. The compensation consisted of 1) group compensation by planned resettlement, 2) cash payment, and 3) replacement of the former plot with another piece of land. Social needs were not included in the calculation and the compensation received reflected roughly their economic worth at the time. The villagers of Tekka and Jelutung had their houses rebuilt which were comparable to their old homes using new materials and stronger foundations. Those from Batu Bertudung were resettled in another village, and were compensated in cash to rebuild their homes themselves. Basic amenities were insufficient: new wells had to be dug, the public standpipe was overused, and only dirt roads were constructed. The government provided most basic amenities 5-6 years later under the rural development program.

  5. The agricultural approach to rural family planning in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Flavier, J M

    1990-12-01

    Overly technical terminology and excessive use of lectures impede effective communication and teaching of family planning in the philippines. To achieve better results in information dissemination, especially in rural areas, the author provides a simple, effective, and interactive approach. The clearly-defined objective of identifying what family planning is and how it works is achieved through the use of analogies between farming and human sexual development. These analogies are jointly-developed in the field by groups of family planning workers and 8-10 men and women from the community. The farmers begin the group process by educating the family planning workers about their local farming practices. The workers then develop parallels between farming and the desired family planning messages. Once initiated, farmers are encouraged to develop and share their own parallels, by they with plants, farm animals, beliefs, or household articles. Better understanding, acceptance, and continuation rates will result from this voluntary, interactive approach.

  6. Rural People and Rural Economic Development. IIEP Seminar Paper: 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, M. J.

    Assuming development is a process that involves the generation, diffusion, and realization of new opportunities, this paper discusses the following: (1) The Development Process: Facts and Issues (re: visible unemployment; rural to urban migration; the dualism of labor markets in the less developed countries; population growth; and the…

  7. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-06-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study investigates the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition-specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand for farm labor is the primary driver of high fertility. If this argument holds true, the use of modern farm technologies that are designed to carry out labor-intensive farm activities ought to substitute for farm labor and discourage births in farm families. However, little empirical evidence is available on the potential influence of the use of modern farm technologies on the fertility transition. To fill this gap, the panel data examined in this study provides an unusual opportunity to test this long standing, but unexplored, argument. The results demonstrate that the use of modern farm technologies, particularly the use of a tractor and other modern farm implements, reduce subsequent births in farm households. This offers important insight for understanding the fertility transition in Nepal, a setting that is experiencing high population growth and rapidly changing farming practices. PMID:23729867

  8. Agricultural biotechnology in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dookun, A

    2001-01-01

    After a slow start many developing countries are now investing in agricultural biotechnology. Although these countries face several constraints, efforts are being made to promote biotechnology that requires high investment with long term returns. A number of donor agencies are providing incentives to stimulate biotechnology in the developing countries. There is however a major debate towards the development of biotechnology, especially genetically modified organisms, in the developing countries and there is a need for them to address biosafety issues and proper monitoring systems. The concern of intellectual property rights is a major issue in the developing countries in order to have access to the technologies that are often owned by multinational corporations in the industrialized countries.

  9. Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang

    Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

  10. [Identification of the prior regions for agricultural and rural pollution control in Changshu].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hua-ping; Sun, Qing-fang; Wang, Liang; Zhu, Lin; Feng, Jin-fei; Bian, Xin-min

    2010-04-01

    The characteristics such as wide area, dispersion and randomness of agricultural and rural pollution make it difficult to seize the key to pollution control in rural areas. On the scale of township, using inventory analysis, accounting for emissions and emission intensity of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Changshu, Jiangsu Province, which exists in a total of 4 classes and 6 kinds of agricultural and rural sources such as farmland cultivation (chemical fertilizer application and crop straw abandoned), animal breeding, aquaculture, rural life (domestic sewage and human waste, solid waste), using cluster analysis, identify the prior regions and the prior pollution sources for agricultural and rural pollution control by the sensitivity evaluation, and make agricultural and rural pollution control and management measures more focused. It shows that: in 2007, COD, TN and TP emissions of agricultural and rural pollution sources were 5496.07, 4161.03, and 647.54 t x a(-1), and the emission intensity of COD, TN and TP was 48.84, 36.98, and 5.75 kg x hm(-2). The main pollution source of COD was rural life and aquaculture, and the contribution rate was more than 75%; the main pollution source of TN and TP was agricultural cultivation and aquaculture, and the contribution rate was more than 80%. The sensitivity evaluation identified that the town of Guli and Shajiabang were the prior regions for agricultural and rural pollution control in Changshu; farmland cultivation and aquaculture were the prior pollution sources in the two areas.

  11. Rural Women's Vocational Training for National Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Lily

    Although women are a crucial element in national rural development, their role continues to be neglected in plans and programs for change--especially in Third World countries. In addition to the burden faced by rural people generally in developing countries, women carry a double burden because of their low social status, high illiteracy rate, lack…

  12. Information Network on Rural Development (INRD), Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanasundra, Leelangi

    1994-01-01

    Discusses information networking in Bangladesh and describes the formation of the Information Network on Rural Development (INRD) which was initiated by the Center on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP). Organization, membership, activities, participation, and finance are examined. (four references) (LRW)

  13. Rural and Agricultural Education at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Bulletin, 1916, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foght, H. W.

    1917-01-01

    This bulletin was prepared to indicate recent progress in rural life and education as disclosed by the educational exhibits at the Panama-Pacific Exposition of 1915. The discussion includes (1) the general phases of progress in rural education, and (2) advancement in its more specific agricultural phases. Little attempt has been made to present…

  14. Prospects for Rural America as the Nation Matures: An Agricultural Economist's Prognosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breimyer, Harold F.

    1990-01-01

    Examines socioeconomic forces affecting U.S. rural population. Describes signs of nation's maturity, changing national issues, and elements of rural diversity and social stratification. Discusses role of transportation, demise of animal agriculture, industrial and economic changes. Emphasizes conjectural nature of conclusions about society's…

  15. Quality of Rural Economic Development Data. Testimony to the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation, Joint Economic Committee, Ninety-Ninth Congress (June 13, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulver, Glen C.

    Although the private sector has the primary role for job generation in the U.S. market economy, local community leaders can play a significant part in creating a growth-stimulating economic environment. A comprehensive economic development strategy appropriate to a community's specific goals and conditions requires careful analysis of the…

  16. Impact of Mining Development on an Isolated Rural Community: The Case of Cuba, New Mexico. New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 301.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, Berry; Eastman, Clyde

    When it commenced operation in 1971, the Nacimiento Copper Mine provided 135 new jobs. This was about half of the 278 new permanent jobs created in Cuba, New Mexico, from 1970 to 1974. Concurrent and independent development of the Checkerboard Health Clinic and expansion of the school system accounted for most of the remaining new employment.…

  17. 7 CFR 23.4 - State Rural Development Advisory Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... administratively responsible State Land Grant University will appoint a State Rural Development Advisory Council... research and extension plan which would impact directly on rural development activities being developed...

  18. 7 CFR 2.45 - Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Community Development. 2.45 Section 2.45 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF... Community Development. Pursuant to § 2.17(a), subject to reservations in § 2.17(b), and subject to policy... Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development, to be exercised only during the absence...

  19. 90 Years of Rural Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Wayne D.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses history of United States government programs to ameliorate rural living and economic conditions. Contrasts early successful efforts to improve physical characteristics--road, electricity--with recent lack of success in dealing with intractable problems--unemployment, persistent poverty. Chart of rural development actions outlines rural…

  20. Connecting Rural School Improvement and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benefits2, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This is the first of a series of issue papers that discuss ways in which rural communities and schools can work together to guarantee their students the best education possible. By working together, rural schools and communities can not only improve education, but revitalize the entire community. The Southwest Educational Development Laboratory is…

  1. Developing a Rural Teacher Education Curriculum Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Simone; Kline, Jodie

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the development of a new website (www.rrrtec.net.au) specifically designed to better equip teacher educators to prepare graduates to teach in rural and regional communities. The two year study (2009-2011) that informed the website's creation included three data sources: A literature review of research into rural teacher…

  2. Faculty Development in Rural Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes results from a national study of community college faculty development programs. Findings highlight how the challenges faced by rural colleges differ from those at urban institutions, which often have dedicated faculty development centers.

  3. Some reflections on education for rural development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muyeed, 1Abdul

    1982-06-01

    The article stresses the significance of anti-poverty oriented rural development for developing countries and the need to identify the educational implications of such a strategy. Some of the assumptions derived from contemporary experience in development, and in particular rural development, which are vital for understanding and formulating the role of education, are presented and analysed. The indicators used in the measurement of anti-poverty rural development bring clarity to the concept of interlinking development and education in concrete terms. Some features of education for rural development are discussed and the significance of four areas of educational activities underscored, namely, primary education, functional literacy, human resources development and education related to the world of work. The article is concluded by stressing the need for establishing firm linkages between educational and developmental infrastructures with special emphasis on nonformal education and its flexibility of approach.

  4. Ten Decades of Rural Development: Lessons from India. MSU Rural Development Paper No. 1, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Akhter Hameed

    One hundred years of rural development in India is surveyed, tracing the impact of colonial administration up to and including the decades of independence--an administration built on elitism, centralism, and paternalism. Four major rural problems of famine, abuses of land tenure, peasant indebtedness, and rural disaffection and how political…

  5. Restructuring U.S. Agriculture: Implications for Rural Education and Other Community Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Alan R.

    Restructuring of U.S. agriculture ("neoindustrialization") is having important effects on rural residents, requiring adaptations of supporting institutions such as education. Neoindustrialization involves concentration, specialization, and vertical and horizontal integration of agricultural production and marketing, as well as further reduction of…

  6. Agriculture, Food Production, and Rural Land Use in Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, William G.; Watson, Nancy H.

    2016-01-01

    ''Agriculture, Food, and Rural Land Use" constitutes a major part of the AP Human Geography course outline. This article explores challenging topics to teach, emerging research trends in agricultural geography, and sample teaching approaches for concretizing abstract topics. It addresses content identified as "essential knowledge"…

  7. Impact of the Changing Farm Economy on Rural Communities. Evaluation of Interrelationships between Agriculture and the Economy of Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Notie H., Jr.; Jones, Lonnie L.

    A reduction in agricultural activity in a rural farming community will result in reduced activity in almost every sector of the local economy. The result may be measured in loss of employment and income. This report provides a method to estimate such economic impacts with a minimum of data collection and manipulation. Most of the input data…

  8. A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…

  9. The Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development: 1999 Annual Report. NERCRD Publication #75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development, University Park, PA.

    The Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development is funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and private foundations, and invests in research and education to help rural communities meet the challenges of today's global society through a multidisciplinary network of university research and extension faculty, policy makers, and rural…

  10. 78 FR 38006 - Inviting Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Inviting Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA... State Office no later than 4:30 p.m. (local time) on the last business day of each month will...

  11. Assessing the impact of pluriactivity on sustainable agriculture. A case study in rural areas of Beotia in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giourga, Christina; Loumou, Angeliki

    2006-06-01

    Pluriactivity of farms, or part-time farming, is a common feature of agriculture in all countries regardless of their socioeconomic system and level of development. Currently, pluriactivity is related to the values of sustainable agriculture. The objective of this study is to delineate those specific characteristics of pluriactive farms that contribute to sustainable agriculture. In rural areas of Boetia in Greece, a socioeconomic survey was carried out on 114 farms to determine the types of farming applied. The results demonstrate that pluriactivity is a stable component of the agricultural structure in the rural areas of Boetia. It is widespread in plains, but its presence is more important in mountainous and semimountainous areas. The choice of young farmers is to opt for pluriactivity. Farm size does not differ between pluriactive and full-time farms. Pluriactive and full- time farms use the same level of input and get the same output for the same type of crop. However, pluriactive farmers under the same land-productive conditions are oriented toward a more extensive farming system, managing their land with crops that need less inputs. Considering these findings, it can be claimed that pluriactivity can contribute to diminishing the demand on natural resources in favored (level and irrigated) areas, to continue agricultural production in unfavorable (mountainous and semimountainous) areas, and to help the sustenance of the rural population.

  12. Wastewater retreatment and reuse system for agricultural irrigation in rural villages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minyoung; Lee, Hyejin; Kim, Minkyeong; Kang, Donghyeon; Kim, Dongeok; Kim, YoungJin; Lee, Sangbong

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes and continuous population growth increase water demands that will not be met by traditional water resources, like surface and ground water. To handle increased water demand, treated municipal wastewater is offered to farmers for agricultural irrigation. This study aimed to enhance the effluent quality from worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages, retreat effluent to meet water quality criteria for irrigation, and assess any health-related and environmental impacts from using retreated wastewater irrigation on crops and in soil. We developed the compact wastewater retreatment and reuse system (WRRS), equipped with filters, ultraviolet light, and bubble elements. A pilot greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate lettuce growth patterns and quantify the heavy metal concentration and pathogenic microorganisms on lettuce and in soil after irrigating with tap water, treated wastewater, and WRRS retreated wastewater. The purification performance of each WRRS component was also assessed. The study findings revealed that existing worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages could meet the water quality criteria for treated effluent and also reuse retreated wastewater for crop growth and other miscellaneous agricultural purposes. PMID:25521131

  13. Wastewater retreatment and reuse system for agricultural irrigation in rural villages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minyoung; Lee, Hyejin; Kim, Minkyeong; Kang, Donghyeon; Kim, Dongeok; Kim, YoungJin; Lee, Sangbong

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes and continuous population growth increase water demands that will not be met by traditional water resources, like surface and ground water. To handle increased water demand, treated municipal wastewater is offered to farmers for agricultural irrigation. This study aimed to enhance the effluent quality from worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages, retreat effluent to meet water quality criteria for irrigation, and assess any health-related and environmental impacts from using retreated wastewater irrigation on crops and in soil. We developed the compact wastewater retreatment and reuse system (WRRS), equipped with filters, ultraviolet light, and bubble elements. A pilot greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate lettuce growth patterns and quantify the heavy metal concentration and pathogenic microorganisms on lettuce and in soil after irrigating with tap water, treated wastewater, and WRRS retreated wastewater. The purification performance of each WRRS component was also assessed. The study findings revealed that existing worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages could meet the water quality criteria for treated effluent and also reuse retreated wastewater for crop growth and other miscellaneous agricultural purposes.

  14. Application of the Rural Development Index to Analysis of Rural Regions in Poland and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalek, Jerzy; Zarnekow, Nana

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to construct a multi-dimensional (composite) index measuring the overall level of rural development and quality of life in individual rural regions of a given EU country. In the Rural Development Index (RDI) the rural development domains are represented by hundreds of partial socio-economic, environmental,…

  15. Integrated waste management for rural development in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shehata, S M; El Shimi, S A; Elkattan, M H; Ali, B E; El-Housseini, M; El Sayad, S A; Mahmoud, M S; Zaki, A M; Hamdi, Y A; El-Nawawy, A S

    2004-01-01

    Rural areas generate a large amount of plant and animal residues that can be recycled and utilized instead of relocation and/or burning. This will lead to increasing the benefits from agricultural sector in rural communities and ensuring a better environment. To increase the economic output and environmental benefits of recycling agricultural residues, integrated system should be considered, e.g., energy--compost-recycled water system; composting--co-composting system; food-feed compost system, ensilage of crop residues. The present work was a pilot study for optimizing integrated systems for bioconversion agricultural residues completed by establishing a Training Center for Recycling Agricultural Residues (TCRAR) thereby ensuring the dissemination of the technical, environmental, and socioeconomic aspects to farmers, live stock producers, extensions service staff, and private sector. Three integrated subsystems for bioconversion of agricultural residues were developed. They were based on (i) energy--manure-recycled water system, (ii) composting and co-composting system, and (iii) food-feed/compost system. PMID:15027818

  16. Role of rural electrification in development. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Cecelski, E.; Glatt, S.

    1982-01-01

    The high capital costs of rural-electrification suggest that the assumption that the benefits experienced in developed countries can be duplicated in developing countries is questionable. This review of major issues involved in rural electrification examines the equity side of the socio-economic impacts of major projects in India and Colombia to see if cheap electricity can, with careful planning, become a stimulus for potential entrepreneurs. While the analysis identifies the need for systematic studies to establish the connection between rural electrification and development, the evidence does show that consumption is lower in rural areas both in the amount of electricity used and the percentage of people using it. Direct benefits occur in the productive sector, although the importance of availability and reliability over cost challenges the value of subsidies. Price does appear to be a major factor for small farmers in addition to credit availability and marketing. 45 references, 26 tables. (DCK)

  17. An Analysis of North Carolina's Rural Health Problems as Perceived by County Rural Development Panels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Vance E., Comp.

    A State Task Force on Rural Health was formed (January 1973) by the State Rural Development Committee to identify and analyze major rural health problems in North Carolina and to recommend alleviation strategies. The Task Force submitted open-ended questionnaires to members of the County Rural Development Panels to secure their perceptions of…

  18. Beyond the Conventional Wisdom: Rural Development As If Australia's Rural People Really Mattered. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Jonathan; Sher, Katrina Rowe

    This paper proposes a framework for developing a national rural development policy in Australia. Some common relevant misconceptions are that rural Australia and rural Australians are peripheral to the national economy and the nation's future, that farmers and farming communities are the alpha and omega of rural Australia, and that whatever is…

  19. Education for Rural Development: Embedding Rural Dimensions in Initial Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masinire, Alfred; Maringe, Felix; Nkambule, Thabisile

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, rural education and development are issues of social justice, especially in places that were previously established as homelands. This article presents some of the tensions that are inherent in the conceptions of rurality, rural education and the possibility of sustainable rural education and development. We propose the notion of…

  20. "Electric Power for Rural Growth: How Electricity Affects Rural Life in Developing Countries," by Douglas F. Barnes. [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodwick, Dora G.; McIntosh, William A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a book assessing the effects of central grid rural electrification on the social and economic development of 192 communities in India and Colombia. The study examines the impact on agricultural productivity (through increased irrigation), the quality of life of women and children, business activities, and regional inequities. (SV)

  1. 78 FR 17418 - Rural Health Information Technology Network Development Grant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Rural Health Information Technology Network... award under the Rural Health Information Technology Network Development Grant (RHITND) to Grace... relinquishing its fiduciary responsibilities for the Rural Health Information Technology Network...

  2. Climate change and Australian agriculture: a review of the threats facing rural communities and the health policy landscape.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Elizabeth G; Bell, Erica; King, Debra; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2011-03-01

    Population health is a function of social and environmental health determinants. Climate change is predicted to bring significant alterations to ecological systems on which human health and livelihoods depend; the air, water, plant, and animal health. Agricultural systems are intrinsically linked with environmental conditions, which are already under threat in much of southern Australian because of rising heat and protracted drying. The direct impact of increasing heat waves on human physiology and survival has recently been well studied. More diffusely, increasing drought periods may challenge the viability of agriculture in some regions, and hence those communities that depend on primary production. A worst case scenario may herald the collapse of some communities. Human health impacts arising from such transition would be profound. This article summarizes existing rural health challenges and presents the current evidence plus future predictions of climate change impacts on Australian agriculture to argue the need for significant augmentation of public health and existing health policy frameworks. The article concludes by suggesting that adaptation to climate change requires planning for worst case scenario outcomes to avert catastrophic impacts on rural communities. This will involve national policy planning as much as regional-level leadership for rapid development of adaptive strategies in agriculture and other key areas of rural communities.

  3. Rural community development in China and the industrial shift of the rural population: summary of an international symposium.

    PubMed

    Shao, X

    1991-01-01

    As a summary of an international symposium on rural community development in China, commentary on China's rural reform, the industrial development of the rural population, and urbanization of the rural population and rural population control is provided. The successful reform that has occurred since the Party's 3rd Plenary session of the 11th Central Committee has been the implementation of the household joint production contract responsibility system. Farmers are enthusiastic about their right to land management. Recent focus on the declines and fluctuations in agricultural output has raised many questions. Suggestions have been made to raise agricultural prices and increase investment. Public ownership should remain with household management. The security of longterm ownership of land by individuals is not available, hence individuals are unwilling to make longterm investment. Another opinion was that the stagnation in production was temporary and a course of development; the cause was population pressure. Suggested future development after reforms should involve development of the village social structure. Communities already have a stable social system of blood ties and an administrative system organized by the party, government, and the economy. Communities with these characteristics could invest in the large-scale farming equipment which smaller households cannot afford, and take responsibility for land allocation and management and financial transactions. The role of the community would be a difficult one in balancing income distribution and expanding community benefits. The 2nd major influence on rural development has been growth in rural nonindustrial production in the small town enterprise. The urban policies of household registration and employment limit growth to rural enterprises which may use backward production technology and produce second-rate products. Eventually, rural industry will become both complementary and supplementary to the national

  4. Knowledge and beliefs regarding agricultural pesticides in rural Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Roger; Andino, Karla; Bustamante, Mario; Hernandez, Beatriz; Rodas, Luis

    1996-03-01

    Throughout Central America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural School support a Safe Pesticide Use program. In 1993, a study of results was carried out among farmers and housewives in eastern Guatemala. Aspects of the methodology included: (1) participation of extension workers in all aspects of the study; (2) small, region-focused samples (eight cells, 30 interviews per cell); (3) comparison to control groups of untrained farmers and housewives; (4) a traditional questionnaire for studying acquisition of specific knowledge; and (5) a flexible instrument for building a cognitive map of knowledge and beliefs regarding pesticides. The cognitive map is a step toward applying modern psychocultural scaling, an approach already well developed for medicine and public health, to environmental problems. Positive results detected include progress at learning the meaning of colors on containers that denote toxicity and where to store pesticides. Pesticide application problems detected were mention by farmers of highly toxic, restricted pesticides as appropriate for most pest problems and of insecticides as the correct solution to fungus problems, and the widespread belief that correct pesticide dosage depends on number of pests seen rather than on land or foliage surface. Health-related problems detected were admission by a vast majority of housewives that they apply highly toxic pesticides to combat children's head-lice; low awareness that pesticides cause health problems more serious than nausea, dizziness, and headaches; and a common belief that lemonade and coffee are effective medicines for pesticide poisoning.

  5. Investigating Rural Teachers' Professional Development, Instructional Knowledge, and Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Todd A.; Nugent, Gwen C.; Chumney, Frances L.; Ihlo, Tanya; Shapiro, Edward S.; Guard, Kirra; Koziol, Natalie; Bovaird, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Teachers Speak was a national survey study designed to investigate the characteristics of rural elementary school teachers' existing professional development; differences in professional development practices between rural and non-rural settings; and the potential influence of professional development characteristics on rural teachers' knowledge,…

  6. Toward a More Holistic Evaluation Approach for Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyoshi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The discussion on and development of a holistic evaluation approach for rural development will be indispensable to improving and enriching the lives of rural people. This approach can be developed by considering the conceptualization of community policy structure in rural areas, the localization of policy structure in the rural community, and the…

  7. National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Childhood Resources Ag Injury News Clippings Mini-Grants Nurture Newsletter Year in Review Research Areas Filling the ... 2016 Childhood Agricultural Injuries Fact Sheet released Summer Nurture Newsletter published Upcoming Events 18 Oct National FFA ...

  8. Development Dialogue. Towards a Theory of Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Wahidul; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The study attempts to redefine the objectives of Asian development in terms of rapid social change and the redistribution of political power to the rural masses via collectivism. Part I, "The Perspective", describes the largely "anti" rural development experiences of four Asian countries (India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, China) in the past quarter…

  9. Economic Development Capacity amongst Small Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines indigenous capacity for local community development. Examines new economic development initiatives by communities, nature of relationships between local and larger economies, and how relationships affect local capacity for new economic activities. Discusses benefits of spatial framework in rural development and planning. (TES)

  10. Agriculture and Rural Life Day: Material for Its Observance. Bulletin, 1913, No. 43. Whole Number 553

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Eugene C.

    1913-01-01

    In several States one day in the fall of the year is set apart as "Agriculture and Rural-Life Day," to be observed in the schools in such ways as to emphasize the importance of agriculture to the nation and to the world of mankind, to call attention to the worth and worthiness of the tillage of the soil, the cultivation of plants, and the breeding…

  11. The outflow of labour from agriculture: a framework for analyzing migration from rural areas.

    PubMed

    Seifelnasr, A

    1983-01-01

    The context and determinants of rural-urban migration in Egypt are examined, with emphasis on the relationship between demographic and agricultural variables. Migration is seen as primarily a family rather than an individual decision. Factors affecting this decision at the village level are considered, including levels and patterns of labor utilization, levels of agricultural technology, and the village environment, defined as including resource availability and contacts with the outside world.

  12. Wind Energy for Rural Economic Development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-08-01

    The wind industry contributes to the economies of 46 states, and the outlook for regional economic growth from wind energy is heartening. Wind energy projects provide new jobs, a new source of revenue to farmers and ranchers, and an increased local tax base for rural communities. And wind energy is homegrown energy that helps secure our energy future during uncertain times while reducing pollution emissions and preserving our precious water resources. In fact, achieving the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative during the next 20 years will create$60 billion in capital investment in rural America, provide$1.2 billion in new income for farmers and rural landowners, and create 80,000 new jobs. Wind energy is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, and rural communities are poised to reap the benefits. This brochure provides rural stakeholders with information about wind energy projects and rural economic development, including case studies an d resources for those interested in bringing wind energy to their communities.

  13. Occupational health and the rural worker: agriculture, mining, and logging.

    PubMed

    Pratt, D S

    1990-10-01

    More than 50 million Americans live in rural areas. These rural residents often work for small businesses or in the extraction industries (farming, mining, and logging). Because of the size of the businesses, the mandate of the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) does not cover these workers and they are seldom afforded the same protection as urban workers. This review focuses on the special health problems facing farm workers, farmers, miners, and loggers. Farm workers are often ill and are affected by psychological illness, injuries, parasites, skin diseases, and the dangers of agrichemicals. Farm owners also face the hazards of stress and have very high rates of suicide. In addition, they are often injured on the job and suffer the highest rate of job related fatality of any work group. The complex farm environment presents a continuous threat to the lungs. This danger has worsened with the increased use of confinement buildings for poultry, hogs, and cattle. As farming has changed with increased mechanization, attendant medical problems have arisen. These "illnesses of innovation" are important. Mining and logging also are dangerous occupations with acute and chronic problems including respiratory illness, vascular problems, and malignancy. The decade of the 1990s must be one of increased attention to rural occupational health care and research.

  14. Interdependencies of Agriculture and Rural Communities in the Twenty-First Century: The North Central Region. Conference Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korsching, Peter F., Ed.; Gildner, Judith E., Ed.

    Texts of 12 research papers are presented in this proceedings of a 1985 conference specifically focusing on the interdependence of agriculture and rural communities. Titles of Session I papers providing information on the current situation and trends in agriculture and rural communities are "An Overview of the Nonmetro Economy and the Role of…

  15. Agricultural and recreational impacts of the conservation reserve program in rural North Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Bangsund, Dean A; Hodur, Nancy M; Leistritz, F Larry

    2004-07-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), created in 1985, provides conservation benefits and agricultural supply control through voluntary, long-term retirement of crop land. While the effects of the CRP on the agricultural sector are well understood, the implications of its conservation benefits for rural economies remain largely undocumented. To quantify the effects on rural economies, this study addressed the net economic effects of decreased agricultural activity and increased recreational activity associated with the CRP in six rural areas of North Dakota from 1996 to 2000. Based on the level of economic activity that would have occurred in the absence of the program, net revenues from CRP land if returned to agricultural production in the six study areas were estimated at $50.2 million annually or $37 per acre of land currently enrolled in the CRP. Recreational (hunting) revenues as a result of the CRP in the study areas were estimated at $12.8 million annually or $9.45 per CRP-acre. The net economic effect of the CRP (lost agricultural revenues and gains in recreational expenditures) indicated that several areas of the state are not as economically burdened by the CRP as previous research has suggested. In addition, the net economic effects of the program would appear more favourable if revenues from all CRP-based recreation were included. The degree that recreational revenues offset agricultural losses might be further enhanced by enterprises that capitalize on the economic opportunities associated with expanded recreational activities on CRP lands.

  16. The study of the developing model of the rural timeshare tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhe; Tang, Beibei

    2011-10-01

    At present, the booming rural tourism, as a new tourism developing approach of the formation of the penetration and integration of the primary and tertiary industry, the agriculture and tourism, has played an increasingly important role in solving the "three rural" issue, speeding up the development of the new rural socialist, therefore the rural tourism products have got more concerning, gradually move closer from the sub-products of the tourism to the main product of the domestic tourism market. So the rural tourism innovating management and service model, upgrading the industry, meeting the fashion, feature, personalization and information needs of current people's rural leisure tourism, have very great theoretical significance and application values.

  17. Paraprofessionals in Rural Development. Concept Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colle, Royal D.; And Others

    To establish a better knowledge base concerning the role of developing nation paraprofessionals in facilitating rural poor access to public services and in order to identify problems that arise in developing these patterns of service, an extensive literature search and compilation and analysis of over 50 health projects and 30 agricultural…

  18. The Wisconsin Rural Development Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Palmer E.; Jones, Eleanor

    Nineteen Wisconsin counties were the site of the four-year Rural Development Demonstration Project, one of five such projects in the nation. Among the project's objectives were to accelerate sound economic, social, cultural and environmental development and to provide alternatives for living in non-metropolitan areas while providing greater…

  19. Business Incubator Development in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark

    One viable economic development option for rural areas is the creation of business incubators--facilities that aid in the early stages of growth of an enterprise by providing rental space, services, and business assistance. Business incubators promote community development by diversifying the economic base, enhancing the community's image as a…

  20. Agricultural Chemical Use and White Male Cancer Mortality in Selected Rural Farm Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, C. Shannon; Brace, Kathy D.

    A study of 1,497 nonmetropolitan counties was conducted to test the possible contribution of agricultural chemical use to cancer mortality rates in rural counties. The dependent variables were 20-year age-adjusted mortality rates for 1950 to 1969 for five categories of cancer: genital, urinary, lymphatic, respiratory, and digestive. Because sex…

  1. Rural Youths' Participation in Agriculture: Prospects, Challenges and the Implications for Policy in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auta, Sarah Jehu; Abdullahi, Yusuf M.; Nasiru, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing rural youth participation in agriculture, their access to production resources and services and the effects of youths' access to inputs and services on farm productivity and youths' welfare. The study was conducted in three states (each randomly selected from the three agro-ecological zones of northern Nigeria). Two…

  2. A Case Study of Rural Industrialization in Jamestown, North Dakota. Agricultural Economics Report No. 95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Delmer L.; Zink, Maurice J.

    The study's objectives were to: (1) determine the criteria used by industry in the selection of an area as a plant site; (2) measure the interdependence and economic impact that a manufacturing sector has on an agriculturally dominated rural area; and (3) evaluate employees' attitudes toward their new jobs in manufacturing. Jamestown, North Dakota…

  3. Agriculture, Communities, and New Social Movements: East European Ruralities in the Process of Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorlach, Krzysztof; Lostak, Michal; Mooney, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the usefulness of the new social movements (NSMs) paradigm in the changing context of East European post-communist societies and their agricultural systems and rural communities. Starting with statements formulated in Western sociology in the context of Western democratic societies about NSMs as a protest against modernity, the…

  4. Core I Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units D-E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, Jim; And Others

    These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are part of a series of eight designed for use in rural agriculture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on livestock science are understanding the livestock industry, identifying breeds of livestock and poultry, selecting livestock, and feeding livestock.…

  5. Core III Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units A-G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courson, Roger L.; And Others

    This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 12 areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for 11th-grade or third-year students enrolled in rural agricultural programs in Illinois. Each problem area includes some or all of the following components: suggestions to the teacher, teacher guide, competency inventory, information sheet,…

  6. Core II Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units E-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biondo, Ron; And Others

    This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 21 problem areas to be included in a core curriculum for 10th grade students enrolled in a rural agricultural program. Covered in the four units included in this volume are crop science (harvesting farm crops and growing small grains); soil science and conservation of natural resources…

  7. A Review and Critique of Rural Development Research in the Land-Grant System Since 1970--with Focus upon the South. SRDC Series 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Voth, Donald E.

    An overview of rural development research in the United States Department of Agriculture's land grant environment focuses on southern 1862 and 1890 institutions. Although important to agricultural experiment stations, rural development research has received limited funding. A heterogeneous research program including human resources development,…

  8. Troubled Pastures, Troubled Pictures: French Agriculture and Contemporary Rural Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervieu, Bertrand; Purseigle, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to those of other industrialized western European countries, France's agricultural community continued to represent the majority of the national population for a long time and only became one of many minority groups at the end of the twentieth century. It then came under the influence of various trends, sometimes conflicting but…

  9. A Bibliography of Agriculture and Rural Life in Yemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanjord, Don Edward

    Intended as a key to current work in agriculture in Yemen, this bibliography cites more than 520 resources produced since 1963 including monographs, journal articles, theses and dissertations, conference papers, case studies, reports, proposals, surveys, bibliographies, and United Nations publications. Foreign language materials in German, French,…

  10. Biomass power for rural development

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, P.

    2000-06-02

    Biomass is a proven option for electricity generation. A diverse range of biopower producers includes electric utilities, independent power producers, and the pulp and paper industry. To help expand opportunities for biomass power production, the U.S. Department of Energy established the Biopower Program and is sponsoring efforts to increase the productivity of dedicated energy crops. The Program aims to double biomass conversion efficiencies, thus reducing biomass power generation costs. These efforts will promote industrial and agricultural growth, improve the environment, create jobs, increase U.S. energy security, and provide new export markets.

  11. Vocational Training and Rural Development in Algeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boumaza, S.; Gara, A.

    1973-01-01

    Better organization of the agricultural sector, expansion of production capabilities, increased employment, satisfaction of the country's needs, and improved productivity are the guidelines considered in the planning and development of the agricultural vocational training system in Algeria. Charts illustrate and clarify the organization of this…

  12. Promoting small towns for rural development: a view from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bajracharya, B N

    1995-06-01

    Two small villages in Nepal are the subjects of case studies that illustrate the role of small towns in provision of services, employment, and market operations. Some general findings are that small towns act as service centers for distribution of basic essential goods such as food grains, salt, kerosene, and fabric for hill and mountain areas. The role of small towns as market centers and in the provision of employment is limited. In resource-poor areas small towns are less diversified. Towns with agricultural surpluses are more developed. Small hill towns satisfy consumption rather than production needs. The growth of rural areas and towns in rural areas in Nepal is dependent on arable land and levels of production in hill areas. Limited land and low levels of production have an adverse impact. Movement of people, goods, and services is limited by difficult terrain and lack of access to good roads. Variability in access to off-farm jobs and services available in small towns varies with ethnicity and place of residence. The best development strategy for small towns in Nepal is market-oriented territorial development, which retains surpluses in the local area and integrates markets in the larger economy. The strategy would decentralize planning into small territorial units that include both small towns and groups of villages, provide institutional support for the rural poor, expand off-farm employment, and include investment in region-serving functions. Subsistence agriculture needs to include diversification of high value cash crops based on local comparative advantage suitable for hill climate and terrain. Small farmers must produce both cash and subsistence crops. Government should provide market space and paved areas, weighing facilities, and overnight storage facilities. Products would be processed at the village level. Subdistricts must be established according to spatial and social linkages between villages and the service center and coordinated at the

  13. The Carter Administration: Small Community and Rural Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jimmy

    The Carter Administration is adopting a Small Community and Rural Development Policy because: (1) rural America's human and natural resources are a mainstay of the nation's economy and way of life; (2) many rural areas are in the midst of significant economic and demographic change; (3) rural people and communities have greater unmet basic human…

  14. Digital Development in Rural Areas: Potentials and Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malecki, Edward J.

    2003-01-01

    Data on rural-urban differences in access to telecommunications technology suggest that the U.S. "digital divide" is diminishing. However, major shortcomings in telecommunications infrastructure persist in rural America, and more serious barriers to rural development are related to human capital shortages. These may be resolved in some rural areas…

  15. Rural Development Research at Land-Grant Institutions in the South. SRDC Series Publication No. 2 (Revised), January 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

    Based on information derived from research resumes of the Cooperative State Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), this revised inventory (current as of January 1977) of rural development research at land grant institutions in the Southern States is part of the Southern Rural Development Center's effort to establish a base…

  16. Rural Studies: Leadership Development Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert V.

    Rural school and human service administrators' professional development needs can be categorized as technical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal in nature. Vermont surveys have indicated that the technical skills most needed are in the areas of public relations, career education, teacher effectiveness training, community involvement, administrative…

  17. Television Broadcasting for Rural Development in Niger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hukill, Mark A.

    Communications policy and planning were investigated through the Republic of Niger's television service, Tele-Sahel, a state-owned autonomous service with a mandate to provide programs for rural development. In order to understand the context within which Tele-Sahel operates, the following topics related to television broadcasting in Niger were…

  18. Determinants of Youths` Participation in Rural Agriculture in Imo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nnadi, F. N.; Akwiwu, C. D.

    The lack of empirical data on the determinants of youths` participation in rural agriculture necessitated this study that investigated the rate of youths` participation, agricultural activities participated in and the factors that determined their participation in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were generated from 230 youths from the three agricultural zones of the state using questionnaire and interview schedule. These were analyzed with the aid of frequency tables, simple percentage counts and logit regression model at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicated about 84% participation in land clearing, planting, fertilizer application, collection of fodder for livestock etc. The participation was determined by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, household size and youths` dependence status. It was recommended that institutional support services for agriculture should be extended to the youths and intervention strategies for youths` agricultural activities should be guided and guarded by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, family size and youths` dependence status.

  19. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., DE Florida Gainesville, FL Georgia Athens, GA Hawaii Hilo, HI Idaho Boise, ID Illinois Champaign,...

  20. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., DE Florida Gainesville, FL Georgia Athens, GA Hawaii Hilo, HI Idaho Boise, ID Illinois Champaign,...

  1. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., DE Florida Gainesville, FL Georgia Athens, GA Hawaii Hilo, HI Idaho Boise, ID Illinois Champaign,...

  2. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., DE Florida Gainesville, FL Georgia Athens, GA Hawaii Hilo, HI Idaho Boise, ID Illinois Champaign,...

  3. What Is Rural?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Nutrition Marketing and Trade Natural Resources and Environment Plants and Crops Research and Technology Rural Development Visual Arts and Agricultural History Publications Alternative Farming ...

  4. Supplement to Task Force Report on Rural Development Research in the Northeast for the Next Five Years--A Framework. Publication 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Clifford R., Comp.; Glock, Sandra, Comp.

    Prepared by the Task Force on Rural Development Research (appointed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture), this analytical directory gives primary emphasis to 133 Rural Development 1 (RD1) research projects which were "active" projects between January 1 and June 30, 1973 in 13 Northeastern state agricultural experiment stations and the 2…

  5. The Restructuring of Local Government in Rural Regions: A Rural Development Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, D.J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Rural development is a multidimensional phenomenon. The political dimension, relating as it does to power, resources, accountability, priorities and choice, is a pivotal aspect of rural development. Local government is often the centrepiece of rural political systems. Interventions to reconfigure local government are therefore quintessentially…

  6. Rural development in Brazil: are we practising feminism or gender?

    PubMed

    Sardenberg, C; Costa, A A; Passos, E

    1999-11-01

    Drawing on the experience of a state-sponsored rural development project, referred to as the Eagle River project, this article considers feminism and gender issues in rural Brazil, where agriculture is one of the livelihood strategies of poor men and women. Section 1 offers an overview of the project and the project area. Section 2 describes the lives of women in the Eagle River region where traditional values on division of labor, domestic roles of women, and gender hierarchies are still predominant. Section 3 highlights the objective of the project and activities designed to achieve its aim. Three main areas of work are being focused: community development, production development, and provision of rural credit. The project structure and decision-making powers are discussed in section 4. Sections 5 and 6 describe experiences in the project during its first 18 months and the challenges of incorporating gender into the project. Section 7 focuses on the development of the gender program. Section 8 outlines lessons learned out of the project outcome and the final section contains concluding messages.

  7. Rural development in Brazil: are we practising feminism or gender?

    PubMed

    Sardenberg, C; Costa, A A; Passos, E

    1999-11-01

    Drawing on the experience of a state-sponsored rural development project, referred to as the Eagle River project, this article considers feminism and gender issues in rural Brazil, where agriculture is one of the livelihood strategies of poor men and women. Section 1 offers an overview of the project and the project area. Section 2 describes the lives of women in the Eagle River region where traditional values on division of labor, domestic roles of women, and gender hierarchies are still predominant. Section 3 highlights the objective of the project and activities designed to achieve its aim. Three main areas of work are being focused: community development, production development, and provision of rural credit. The project structure and decision-making powers are discussed in section 4. Sections 5 and 6 describe experiences in the project during its first 18 months and the challenges of incorporating gender into the project. Section 7 focuses on the development of the gender program. Section 8 outlines lessons learned out of the project outcome and the final section contains concluding messages. PMID:12349477

  8. Sustainable Rural Energy Development in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ghandour, A.

    2005-01-01

    Under the Luz Para Todos ('Lights for All') Program, the Government of Brazil (GOB) seeks to provide basic electricity services to all its citizens by 2008. An estimated 2.5 million rural households (over 12 million Brazilians) currently lack electric service, with approximately 80% of them located in rural areas. Since many of these households are too geographically isolated to be connected to the national grid, they will receive distributed energy systems, and the government hopes to maximize the use of local renewable resources to service them. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with the GOB and a variety of local partners to identify and implement sustainable off-grid solutions to meet Brazil's rural energy needs. Focused in the Amazon region, these collaborative activities are, on one hand, using field-based activities to build local technical capacity and design replicable models for rural energy development, while on the other hand helping to develop the institutional structures that will be necessary to sustain distributed renewable energy development on a large-scale in Brazil.

  9. Smoke impacts from agricultural burning in a rural Brazilian town.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, T E; Ottmar, R D; Castilla, C

    2001-03-01

    Agricultural and silvicultural biomass burning is practiced in many undeveloped portions of the Amazon basin. In Rond nia, Brazil, such burning is restricted to a brief period in the dry season of August and September to minimize the duration of air quality impacts and to attempt to control escaped fires. During this period, much of the region and the communities within it experience significant exposure to smoke from agricultural and forest fires. In cooperation with Brazilian scientists of the University of Brasilia, the Brazilian Organization for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA), and the Alternative to Slash and Burn Program coordinated by the International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), ambient air quality was measured in Theobroma, a small town in Rond nia, during one week of the open burning period of 1995 to supplement available air quality data and to foster public awareness of the impacts of widespread fires. Personal sampling equipment was used to measure ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO), acrolein, CO, benzene, and respirable PM in outdoor air. The data obtained were compared with established Brazilian and U.S. ambient air quality guidelines. Ambient levels of respirable PM averaged 191 microg/m3, HCHO averaged 12.8 ppb, CO averaged 4.2 ppm, and benzene averaged 3.2 ppb. Almost all acrolein samples were less than the detection limit of 1 ppb. The results showed that the public can be exposed to relatively high levels of pollutants under the prescribed burning smoke management strategy of a two- to three-week prescription burning period, although this is an improvement over past years when burning was unregulated and continued through most of the dry season. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using personal exposure monitoring equipment for low-cost surveys of ambient air quality in polluted regions. PMID:11266107

  10. Smoke impacts from agricultural burning in a rural Brazilian town.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, T E; Ottmar, R D; Castilla, C

    2001-03-01

    Agricultural and silvicultural biomass burning is practiced in many undeveloped portions of the Amazon basin. In Rond nia, Brazil, such burning is restricted to a brief period in the dry season of August and September to minimize the duration of air quality impacts and to attempt to control escaped fires. During this period, much of the region and the communities within it experience significant exposure to smoke from agricultural and forest fires. In cooperation with Brazilian scientists of the University of Brasilia, the Brazilian Organization for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA), and the Alternative to Slash and Burn Program coordinated by the International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), ambient air quality was measured in Theobroma, a small town in Rond nia, during one week of the open burning period of 1995 to supplement available air quality data and to foster public awareness of the impacts of widespread fires. Personal sampling equipment was used to measure ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO), acrolein, CO, benzene, and respirable PM in outdoor air. The data obtained were compared with established Brazilian and U.S. ambient air quality guidelines. Ambient levels of respirable PM averaged 191 microg/m3, HCHO averaged 12.8 ppb, CO averaged 4.2 ppm, and benzene averaged 3.2 ppb. Almost all acrolein samples were less than the detection limit of 1 ppb. The results showed that the public can be exposed to relatively high levels of pollutants under the prescribed burning smoke management strategy of a two- to three-week prescription burning period, although this is an improvement over past years when burning was unregulated and continued through most of the dry season. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using personal exposure monitoring equipment for low-cost surveys of ambient air quality in polluted regions.

  11. Training Home Economists for Rural Development. Report of a Global Study on the Development of Criteria for Establishing Training Institutions for Home Economics Staff in Rural Development. FAO Economic and Social Development Paper 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.

    In 1973 a global study aimed toward the development of criteria for establishing institutions for training home economists for rural development programs was initiated by the Home Economics and Social Programmes Services of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N. As a first step, a survey was developed on the variety of roles appropriate…

  12. Strategies for Balanced Rural-Urban Growth. Agricultural Information Bulletin No. 392.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Clark

    Summarizing an Economic Research Service (ERS) publication, this guide to a balanced rural-urban growth describes the results of a computer based ERS model which examined seven strategies to improve rural economic development. Based on 1960-70 trends, the model is described as asking how much would be required of each of the following strategies…

  13. 77 FR 62243 - Rural Health Network Development Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... development activities to ensure the sustainability and viability of a rural health network in order to serve... sustainability. The current grantee, ARcare, was originally awarded the Rural Health Network Development...

  14. Rural development update for South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  15. Application of geoinformation techniques in sustainable development of marginal rural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leszczynska, G.

    2009-04-01

    The basic objective of the studies is to create a geographic information system that would assure integration of activities aimed at protecting biological diversity with sustainable development of marginal rural areas through defining the conditions for development of tourism and recreation in the identified areas. The choice of that solution is a consequence of the fact that numerous phenomena and processes presented in maps are linked to functional relations or they can be viewed as functions of space, time and attributes. The paper presents the system development stage aimed at elaborating the template for the system serving solution of the above-presented problem. In case of this issue the geographic information system will be developed to support development of marginal rural areas through selection of appropriate forms of tourism for the endangered areas including indication of locations for development of appropriate tourist infrastructure. Selection of the appropriate form of tourism will depend on natural, tourist and infrastructure values present in a given area and conditioned by the need to present the biodiversity component present in those areas together with elements of traditional agricultural landscape. The most important problem is to reconcile two seemingly contradictory aims: 1. Preventing social and economic marginalization of the restructured rural areas. 2. Preserving biological diversity in the restructured areas.Agriculture influences many aspects of the natural environment such as water resources, biodiversity and status of natural habitats, status of soils, landscape and, in a wider context, the climate. Project implementation will involve application of technologies allowing analysis of the systems for managing marginal rural areas as spatial models based on geographic information systems. Modelling of marginal rural areas management using the GIS technologies will involve creating spatial models of actual objects. On the basis of data

  16. Implications of Land Policy and Rural Development in Botswana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milazi, Dominic

    1988-01-01

    Examines land tenure alteration in relation to rural development programs in Botswana. Development efforts have had a class differentiated effect, aiding the relatively well-off cattle owners, but ignoring the small crop producers. A rural development strategy that benefits all rural groups must contain measures specifically tailored to each. (DHP)

  17. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF THE SHUNDE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM UNDER CHINA'S SMALL CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of small cities has been adopted as the main strategy to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of agricultural systems ...

  18. Social and Economic Trends in Rural America. The White House Rural Development Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deavers, Kenneth L.; Brown, David L.

    Emphasizing developmental problems caused by the rapid population and employment growth in rural America during the 1970's, this document describes social, economic, and governmental trends in rural America and suggests some federal policy choices that might be made in support of rural development. Problem areas and policy suggestions are…

  19. RURAL RECREATION ENTERPRISES FOR PROFIT, AN AID TO RURAL AREAS DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    MANY RURAL AREAS OF THE U.S. POSSESS ENOUGH SPACE AND NATURAL ATTRACTIONS TO SERVE AS A BASIS FOR ESTABLISHING EITHER PART OR FULL-TIME RECREATIONAL ENTERPRISES. MOST OUTDOOR LEISURE ACTIVITIES CENTER AROUND WATER, HUNTING AND FISHING, ADMIRING SCENERY, AND ENJOYING THE NATURAL RURAL LANDSCAPE. THUS THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL RECREATION RESOURCES IS…

  20. Rural Governments: Raising Revenues and Feeling the Pressure. Rural Development Research Report. No. 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Richard J.

    Some local governments in nonmetro areas--especially those in the rural West and in very rural areas--experienced high levels of fiscal stress in the mid-seventies that were associated with high and rising local taxes. These local governments may be forced to cut back their rural development activities in the eighties. Fiscal pressures on local…

  1. 76 FR 38352 - Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010, Public Law 111-80 (October 16, 2009) and the Department of Defense and full-year continuing... Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010 (Pub. L....

  2. EU Rural Development Policy in the New Member States: Promoting Multifunctionality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramniceanu, Irina; Ackrill, Robert

    2007-01-01

    European Union (EU) enlargement has seen 10 new member states (NMS) adopt the full range of EU policies. Within this, the rural development arm of the Common Agricultural Policy offers particular points of interest. Member states chose from an extensive list of policy measures developed within the EU15 and intended, in particular, to…

  3. Rural Development in Northern Ireland: Policy Formulation in a Peripheral Region of the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Michael R.; Greer, John V.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews local, national, and European Community influences on the formation of "integrated" rural development policy in Northern Ireland. Suggests three key issues on the policy formation agenda: agricultural versus more diversified programs as the basis of development, implementation problems, and education and training needs. Contains 43…

  4. Agricultural Communities: The Interrelationship of Agriculture, Business, Industry, and Government in the Rural Economy. A Symposium (Washington, DC. May 19-20, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    Experts from government, academia, and interest groups met to discuss and explore the impact of changes in agriculture, industry, and government in shaping events in rural agricultural communities. Texts of 15 of the 18 papers are reproduced in the proceedings, along with the letter of submittal, overview, an agenda, and a list of presenters and…

  5. Assessment of rural ground-water contamination by agricultural chemicals in sensitive areas of Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, J.L.; Kittleson, K.M.

    1988-04-01

    The vulnerability of drinking-water supplies to agricultural contamination in three Michigan counties is discussed. The results of nitrate and atrazine analysis of drinking water from 38 wells in those 3 counties is described. Widespread nitrate contamination was demonstrated in agricultural areas with vulnerable aquifers. In addition, atrazine, a widely used herbicide was found in 11 of the 38 wells samples, with concentrations and patterns not conforming to findings in other mid-western states. The need for a comprehensive inventory of the ground-water quality in rural areas of Michigan is emphasized in the report, which describes results from the first year of a 2-year study.

  6. Potential assessment of establishing a renewable energy plant in a rural agricultural area.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Chien; Kao, Nien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Jar

    2012-06-01

    An evaluation of the green energy potential generated from biogas and solar power, using agricultural manure waste and a photovoltaic (PV) system, was conducted in a large geographical area of a rural county with low population density and low pollution. The studied area, Shoufeng Township in Hualien County, is located in eastern Taiwan, where a large amount of manure waste is generated from pig farms that are scattered throughout the county. The objective of the study is to assess the possibility of establishing an integrated manure waste treatment plant by using the generated biogas incorporated with the PV system to produce renewable energy and then feed it back to the incorporated farms. A filed investigation, geographic information system (GIS) application, empirical equations development, and RETScreen modeling were conducted in the study. The results indicate that Shoufeng Township has the highest priority in setting up an integrated treatment and renewable energy plant by using GIS mapping within a 10-km radius of the transportation range. Two scenarios were plotted in assessing the renewable energy plant and the estimated electricity generation, plus the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction was evaluated. Under the current governmental green energy scheme and from a long-term perspective, the assessment shows great potential in establishing the plant, especially in reducing environmental pollution problems, waste treatment, and developing suitable renewable energy.

  7. Rural to Urban Migration Is an Unforeseen Impact of Development Intervention in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Mhairi A.; Gurmu, Eshetu

    2012-01-01

    Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15–30 years) over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n = 1912 from 1280 rural households). Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities), are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and transitions to

  8. Rural to urban migration is an unforeseen impact of development intervention in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Gurmu, Eshetu

    2012-01-01

    Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15-30 years) over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n = 1912 from 1280 rural households). Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities), are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and transitions to low

  9. Rural to urban migration is an unforeseen impact of development intervention in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Gurmu, Eshetu

    2012-01-01

    Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15-30 years) over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n = 1912 from 1280 rural households). Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities), are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and transitions to low

  10. [Agricultural production responsibility system and the work of family planning in the rural area].

    PubMed

    Zhu, M

    1982-09-29

    With the establishment of the agricultural production responsibility system, the entire agricultural management and economic system has undergone great changes, and family planning in rural areas has met with many difficulties. Because of this responsibility system, households with more manpower seem to become wealthy more rapidly than others. An existing belief among the rural population is that more children will provide a larger labor force and thus more income. Birth control and family planning are therefore becoming more difficult. In order to change existing beliefs, a comprehensive ideological education for peasants is needed so that they may understand the question of birth control from the viewpoints of national interests. Economic rewards and administrative restrictions may be used as necessary birth control measures. Agricultural production and family planning can be managed well if there is close contact and cooperation between the cadres and the masses. Extra care and benefits should be given to women of childbearing age who undergo birth control operations and agree to a single child in each household. Welfare programs for the masses, such as kindergartens and nursing homes must be established in order to reduce their worries. In addition, efforts are needed to study the new situation and solve new problems. The goal of controlling the rural population growth should be achiefed through practical work and experience.

  11. The Developing and Strengthening of Rural Workers' Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodsdon, D.

    1977-01-01

    Provisions for rural workers' education programs and for their developing rural organizations are outlined from symposia of the International Labour Office (ILO). Photographs from several IL O meetings are included. (MF)

  12. Rural Community Colleges and Economic Development: Leaders' Perspectives on Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Kevin; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2004-01-01

    Rural communities often lag behind urban and suburban areas in economic development. Community colleges often contribute to economic development projects in rural areas, but they often seek collaboration with other community partners. This research study was conducted to better understand rural community college presidents' perceptions of the…

  13. Women, population and development: rural women's passage to empowerment.

    PubMed

    Villareal, F L

    1995-12-01

    This article describes the Women's Population and Development (WPD) program among rural women in 35 poor counties in 10 provinces in China in 1988. The provinces included Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Guizhou, Hubei, and Anhui, which are mostly located in the arid northwest or pastoral northeast China. The study area is inclined to have harsh agro-ecological conditions and environmental degradation. Women's income ranges from RMB 350 to 650 Yuan. About 35% were literate. 40-50% of the rural agricultural labor force and about 60% of all farm labor were women. Out migration of men was increasing. This WPD program was supported by the Ministry of Foreign Technical and Economic Cooperation, the UNFPA, and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. The program aim is to use alternative family planning strategies, alleviate poverty, and improve rural women's status. Initial discussions revealed different goals among rural women and county leaders. Women wanted direct access and control over resources. County leaders desired increased productivity among a selected number of small scale enterprises. The project stipulated that 80% of funding was to be allocated as credit for rural women, that a revolving fund would give women direct access and control of resources, and that women would be recognized for their dual roles. Partnerships were formed between women's voluntary groups and project management. Prospective members of women's self-help groups received a 60-70 hour workshop. This workshop helped to identity the root causes of low status and feasible approaches to improving the status and to developed program activities. Counties were gradually included during 1990-93. This program evaluation pertains to analysis of 1994-95 data among 1300 respondents at four points in time. Impact indicators include 18 measures. The most important measure is that women gained control over their own lives and a partnership with husbands. The program

  14. Women, population and development: rural women's passage to empowerment.

    PubMed

    Villareal, F L

    1995-12-01

    This article describes the Women's Population and Development (WPD) program among rural women in 35 poor counties in 10 provinces in China in 1988. The provinces included Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Guizhou, Hubei, and Anhui, which are mostly located in the arid northwest or pastoral northeast China. The study area is inclined to have harsh agro-ecological conditions and environmental degradation. Women's income ranges from RMB 350 to 650 Yuan. About 35% were literate. 40-50% of the rural agricultural labor force and about 60% of all farm labor were women. Out migration of men was increasing. This WPD program was supported by the Ministry of Foreign Technical and Economic Cooperation, the UNFPA, and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. The program aim is to use alternative family planning strategies, alleviate poverty, and improve rural women's status. Initial discussions revealed different goals among rural women and county leaders. Women wanted direct access and control over resources. County leaders desired increased productivity among a selected number of small scale enterprises. The project stipulated that 80% of funding was to be allocated as credit for rural women, that a revolving fund would give women direct access and control of resources, and that women would be recognized for their dual roles. Partnerships were formed between women's voluntary groups and project management. Prospective members of women's self-help groups received a 60-70 hour workshop. This workshop helped to identity the root causes of low status and feasible approaches to improving the status and to developed program activities. Counties were gradually included during 1990-93. This program evaluation pertains to analysis of 1994-95 data among 1300 respondents at four points in time. Impact indicators include 18 measures. The most important measure is that women gained control over their own lives and a partnership with husbands. The program

  15. Climate change and agriculture in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Antle, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    Most analysts agree that the poorest countries` agricultures are likely to be the most vulnerable to-and least capable of adapting to-climate change or other environmental disruptions. Research has only recently begun to assess what the likely impacts of climate change on developing countries` agricultures may be, how these agricultures might adapt to climate change, and how policies might be designed to facilitate adaptation. This paper begins with a discussion of what researchers currently believe the impacts of climate change could be on developing country agriculture, principally tropical agriculture. Climate changes are expected to occur from thirty to more than one hundred years in the future. These time horizons mean that predictions of the key factors determining impacts and adaptation-population, income, institutions, and technology-are probably as uncertain as predictions of climate change itself. Rates of productivity growth and technological adaptation will be critical to future food supplies, with or without climate change. Continuation of the trend of the past forty years could make so abundant that climate change effects would be inconsequential, but lower rates of growth could result in population growth outstripping food supplies. The second section of this paper addresses the critical issue of predicting the long-term trend in productivity by building on the substantial knowledge we have about the economic factors determining agricultural innovation and adaptation. Considering the time horizons and uncertainties involved in climate change, the wise policy strategy is to pursue investments that are economically justified, whether or not climate change occurs. A better understanding of managed ecosystems would improve our understanding of agricultural sustainability as well as climate change impacts and adaptation. The third section of this paper outlines an economic approach to modeling managed ecosystems. 21 refs.

  16. The urban-rural dimension in national economic development.

    PubMed

    Egan, M L; Bendick M

    1986-01-01

    Urban growth should be evaluated less as good or bad in itself than in terms of whether it promotes the efficient and equitable performance of vital economic functions within a nation. Much urban growth in developing nations both reflects national growth and promotes it. Cities are sources of economic growth, which is their dominant characteristic. There is a strong tendency for large cities and their surrounding core regions to be the most active, rapidly growing areas of developing nations. Certain economic functions tend to be found only in cities and tend to cluster into certain cities because it is economically efficient. 3 mechanisms which make cities economically efficient are 1) internal economies of scale, 2) localization economies, and 3) agglomeration economies. Urban areas can provide support functions for rural areas and, in turn, their growth depends on the support of an agricultural base. Urban areas also provide alternative employment and income opportunities for the rural surplus population. There are 4 prominent questions often raised about possible negative effects of urbanization on national growth and development. One question is urban growth and urban bias, which the authors argue is overemphasized. Another question is diseconomies of scale in large cities; this, the authors suggest, is not a matter of size as much as operating efficiently. Third is urbanization and regional dualism, which the authors argue can be maintained through a strategy of changing a nation's mix and location of urban activity. Fourth is the question of cities and rural outmigration. The authors argue that although most people who leave rural areas are younger, more motivated, and better educated than those left behind, their departures are economically favorable. Getting economic activity located correctly along an urban-rural spectrum is important to the growth of developing countries. 6 rules that illustrate how to do this are 1) be guided by local circumstances, not

  17. Training for Agriculture: Annual Review of Selected Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    The topics covered by review articles are: Training for Rural Development (with special reference to Chile); Field Training--Theory into Practice (for women extension workers in Malaysia); A New Look is Needed for Extension (Latin America); 4-D Rural Youth Clubs in Dahomey; Sociological Aspects of Rural Training; Population Education in the…

  18. Agriculture and Community Development Interface. Joint Meeting of the Southern Region State Leaders for Agriculture and Natural Resources and Community Resource Development Proceedings (October 8-11, 1989, Williamsburg, Virginia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Paul D., Ed.; Campbell, Raymond, Ed.

    This document is a summary of remarks presented at a joint meeting of Agriculture and Natural Resources and Community Resource Development state leaders in 1989. The focus of the meeting was economic viability, rural extension and education, water quality, waste management, biotechnology, low-input sustainable agriculture (LISA), and rural…

  19. Agricultural Sciences Information Network Development Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interuniversity Communications Council, Bethesda, MD.

    This report is the last in a series of papers prepared by EDUCOM (the Interuniversity Communications Council) whose aim was to develop a long-range plan for strengthening information communication and exchange among the libraries of the land-grant institutions and the National Agricultural Library (NAL). The role of EDUCOM was to substantiate the…

  20. The Agricultural Development Council. A History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Russell; Locke, Virginia O.

    This history of the Agriculture Development Council (ADC) consists of eight chapters and four appendices. Chapter 1 traces the early years of the ADC, from its inception in 1953 to 1957, the year of the retirement of the council's first director, J. Lossing Buck. The chapter covers the role of John D. Rockefeller, III, the incorporation of the…

  1. Initial Development and Validation of the Rural Competency Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pusateri, Cassandra Gail

    2013-01-01

    Rurality is a term that can be used to describe rural residency and the cultural characteristics of rural individuals and areas. The counseling profession has increased its attention to culture with the development of the multicultural counseling competencies (Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992) and assessments designed to measure competency…

  2. The Reversal in Migration Patterns -- Some Rural Development Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploch, Louis A.

    The reversal in migration patterns in the 1970's resulting in a net population flow from metropolitan (urban) to nonmetropolitan (rural) areas may have a variety of rural development consequences. Sizeable population increase in rural communities which traditionally have experienced net out-migration or very slow increases is evident in Maine…

  3. The Mutual Influence of Education and the Economy: Rural Schools on the Road of Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernogorov, Aleksandr

    2005-01-01

    Almost fifty years ago, in the Cossack town of Grigoropolisskaia, Stavropol Krai, the first student production brigade was formed, a successful model on which to develop similar rural agricultural production schools throughout Russia. The student brigade constitutes a multifaceted school in which youngsters can learn how to work, govern, become…

  4. Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography (Part II: North, South, West). Training & Methods Series, Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Land Tenure Center.

    Compiled in December 1971, this bibliography lists approximately 940 books, journals, periodicals, and unpublished mimeographs dealing with rural development in north, west, and southern Africa. All materials are dated between 1953 and 1971. Entries are listed by country under the following headings: agriculture, economic affairs, social affairs,…

  5. Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography. (Part I: General, Central, East). Training & Methods Series Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; And Others

    Compiled in July, 1971, this bibliography lists approximately 1,950 books, journal articles, and unpublished manuscripts dealing with rural development in Africa generally and in central and east Africa specifically. General entries appear under the following headings: agriculture; economic affairs; bibliography; law; economic and technical…

  6. The Case for the Generalist in Rural Development. Peace Corps Faculty Paper No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodge, George C.

    Veraguas province, Panama, is an example of the need to have generalists, not specialists, deal with the interrelated aspects of rural areas in developing nations. Intricate connections between living standards, agricultural production, market and credit structures, land tenure, the political system, the social structure, education, health,…

  7. Strategies and models for agricultural sustainability in developing Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S

    2008-02-27

    The green revolution of the 1960s and 1970s which resulted in dramatic yield increases in the developing Asian countries is now showing signs of fatigue in productivity gains. Intensive agriculture practiced without adherence to the scientific principles and ecological aspects has led to loss of soil health, and depletion of freshwater resources and agrobiodiversity. With progressive diversion of arable land for non-agricultural purposes, the challenge of feeding the growing population without, at the same time, annexing more forestland and depleting the rest of life is indeed daunting. Further, even with food availability through production/procurement, millions of marginal farming, fishing and landless rural families have very low or no access to food due to lack of income-generating livelihoods. Approximately 200 million rural women, children and men in India alone fall in this category. Under these circumstances, the evergreen revolution (pro-nature, pro-poor, pro-women and pro-employment/livelihood oriented ecoagriculture) under varied terms are proposed for achieving productivity in perpetuity. In the proposed 'biovillage paradigm', eco-friendly agriculture is promoted along with on- and non-farm eco-enterprises based on sustainable management of natural resources. Concurrently, the modern ICT-based village knowledge centres provide time- and locale-specific, demand-driven information needed for evergreen revolution and ecotechnologies. With a system of 'farm and marine production by masses', the twin goals of ecoagriculture and eco-livelihoods are addressed. The principles, strategies and models of these are briefly discussed in this paper.

  8. Dialogue with Asia's Rural Man - Number 2. A Report of the 1976 CENDHRRA Integral Rural Development Workshops (Korea, June 6-13, 1976 and Indonesia, November 7-14, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledesma, Antonio L.; Yap-Ledesma, Angelita

    Two 1976 workshops (Seoul, Korea--June 6-13; Tugu, Bogor, Indonesia--November 7-14) in the Integral Rural Development series had as their objectives to: study the role of training in and value of an integrated rural development approach; exchange experiences on the impact of new agricultural technology upon institutions and people at the village…

  9. Rural Economic Development: What Makes Rural Communities Grow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Lorna; Kusmin, Lorin

    This report identifies local factors that foster rural economic growth. A review of the literature revealed potential indicators of county economic growth, and those indicators were then tested against data for nonmetro counties during the 1980s using multiple regression analysis. The principal variables examined included demographic and labor…

  10. Forgotten Places: Uneven Development in Rural America. Rural America Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyson, Thomas A., Ed.; Falk, William W., Ed.

    This book examines predominantly rural regions of the United States that lag behind the rest of the country in income, employment, access to services, and measures of education and health. Case studies of nine regions examine historical background; current economic and social conditions (including demography, educational attainment, and…

  11. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA. PMID:26392092

  12. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  13. Commodification of Rural Places: A Narrative of Social Fields, Rural Development, and Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floysand, Arnt; Jakobsen, Stig-Erik

    2007-01-01

    One of the most significant recent elements of restructuring in rural areas is the transition from an economy based on agricultural production to an economy based on the countryside as a form of commodity. In this transition process, different narratives or images of an area are produced to promote villages and other places in the countryside as…

  14. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level. PMID:26936476

  15. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level.

  16. Rural health network development: public policy issues and state initiatives.

    PubMed

    Casey, M M; Wellever, A; Moscovice, I

    1997-02-01

    Rural health networks are a potential way for rural health care systems to improve access to care, reduce costs, and enhance quality of care. Networks provide a means for rural providers to contract with managed care organizations, develop their own managed care entities, share resources, and structure practice opportunities to support recruitment and retention of rural physicians and other health care professionals. The results of early network development initiatives indicate a need for state officials and others interested in encouraging network development to agree on common rural health network definitions, to identify clearly the goals of network development programs, and to document and analyze program outcomes. Future network development efforts need to be much more comprehensive if they are to have a significant impact on rural health care. This article analyzes public policy issues related to integrated rural health network development, discusses current efforts to encourage network development in rural areas, and suggests actions that states may take if they desire to support rural health network development. These actions include adopting a formal rural health network definition, providing networks with alternatives to certain regulatory requirements, and providing incentives such as matching grants, loans, or technical assistance. Without public sector support for networks, managed care options may continue to be unavailable in many less densely populated rural areas of the country, and locally controlled rural health networks are unlikely to develop as an alternative to the dominant pattern of managed care expansion by large urban entities. Implementation of Medicare reform legislation could provide significant incentives for the development of rural health networks, depending on the reimbursement provisions, financial solvency standards, and antitrust exemptions for provider-sponsored networks in the final legislation and federal regulations. PMID

  17. Household food security is associated with agricultural livelihoods and diet quality in a marginalized community of rural Bedouins in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Hala; Barbour, Jessica M; Nord, Mark; Zurayk, Rami; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2013-10-01

    In the context of recent increases in international food prices, it is hypothesized that in rural communities retaining food production practices is important for protection against food insecurity at both the household and community levels, as well as for protection against the development of poor nutritional outcomes. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study of household food security and nutritional status was carried out in a rural community of settled Bedouins in Lebanon comprising 84 households with 474 individuals; this tribe's recent history of settlement in 2 locations that differ by access to land and food production practices provides the context for this study. Food insecurity was found to be highly prevalent (49%) in this Bedouin community and was negatively associated with household food production (P < 0.05) and the consumption of fruits, chicken, meat, and fish (P < 0.05) and positively associated with consumption of cereal products (P < 0.01). This study shows that in small rural communities in a transitional country, sustaining food production may protect from food insecurity. Agricultural livelihood support programs that promote continued involvement in food production at the household and community level, in conjunction with other income-generating activities, may build resilience against food insecurity and improve dietary diversity. PMID:23946340

  18. Household food security is associated with agricultural livelihoods and diet quality in a marginalized community of rural Bedouins in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Hala; Barbour, Jessica M; Nord, Mark; Zurayk, Rami; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2013-10-01

    In the context of recent increases in international food prices, it is hypothesized that in rural communities retaining food production practices is important for protection against food insecurity at both the household and community levels, as well as for protection against the development of poor nutritional outcomes. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study of household food security and nutritional status was carried out in a rural community of settled Bedouins in Lebanon comprising 84 households with 474 individuals; this tribe's recent history of settlement in 2 locations that differ by access to land and food production practices provides the context for this study. Food insecurity was found to be highly prevalent (49%) in this Bedouin community and was negatively associated with household food production (P < 0.05) and the consumption of fruits, chicken, meat, and fish (P < 0.05) and positively associated with consumption of cereal products (P < 0.01). This study shows that in small rural communities in a transitional country, sustaining food production may protect from food insecurity. Agricultural livelihood support programs that promote continued involvement in food production at the household and community level, in conjunction with other income-generating activities, may build resilience against food insecurity and improve dietary diversity.

  19. EXTENSION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES, A MANUAL FOR AGRICULTURAL AND HOME EXTENSION WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAVILE, A.H.

    A PRACTICAL GUIDE IS PROVIDED FOR TRAINERS OF ADVISORY AND EXTENSION WORKERS AND LOCAL LEADERS IN AGRICULTURE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING NATIONS. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, COMMUNITY SURVEY PROCEDURES, ELEMENTS OF PROGRAM PLANNING, AND PURPOSES AND METHODS OF PROGRAM EVALUATION ARE DESCRIBED. THEN FOLLOW TWO CHAPTERS…

  20. Organochlorine pesticide residues in blood samples of agriculture and sheep wool workers in Bangalore (rural), India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, V; Ravichandran, B; Rajmohan, H R

    2012-04-01

    To describe exposure level of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) among workers occupationally engaged in agriculture and sheep wool associated jobs, the present study was carried out in rural neighborhood of Bangalore city, India. Thirty participants were interviewed and obtained informed consent before blood sample collection. The maximum concentrations of OCP were detected in blood samples of agriculture workers than sheep wool workers. Among the metabolites of HCH and DDT, lindane (γ-HCH) and p,p'-DDE were the most contributed to the total OCP. There were no differences in pesticide residues found between sex and work groups. It was observed that about 30% of samples exceeded the tolerance limits of 10 μg/L prescribed for HCH under the prevention of food adulteration act. Therefore, the present study recommends continuous monitoring with larger sample size.

  1. Rural Development: Seventh Annual Report of the President to the Congress on Government Services to Rural America. 95th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.

    Analyzing 1975 Federal Outlays for 275 programs in terms of rural development and government services, this 7th annual report to the Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 (e) of the Agricultural Act of 1970 includes tabular and narrative data pertaining to: metropolitan and nonmetropolitan distribution; regional distribution (census regions);…

  2. The Development of a National Agricultural Extension Policy in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, M.; Sarkar, A. A.

    1996-01-01

    The background of agriculture in Bangladesh and the process of developing a national agricultural extension policy focused on sustainable development are described. The policy explicates the meaning of agricultural extension, use of agricultural knowledge and information systems, and 11 core principles. (SK)

  3. Barriers to Successful Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs in Semi-Rural and Urban High School Agricultural Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, David C.; Lucero, Dan

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with educators and students examined the value of and identified barriers to effective use of supervised agricultural experiences (SAE) in a Los Angeles high school and a semirural Colorado high school. Both programs overcame diverse challenges to develop valuable experiential learning through SAEs. Recommendations provide strategies…

  4. Rural Development and the Campus: The Emergence of Multidisciplinary Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Spotlight, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Focusing upon the emergence of multidisciplinary action on southern campuses involved in rural development activities, this newsletter traces the southern rural development efforts from their inception to present times and offers projections regarding the future. Specifically, this document presents information on: the development of the land…

  5. Development of Rural Libraries in the Solomon Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John

    1992-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in extending library services into provincial centers and rural areas in the Solomon Islands. Topics addressed include background on library development in the Solomon Islands, the establishment of the National Library Service, links to government policy, rural library history and development, provincial libraries,…

  6. Towards a Participatory Strategy for Integrated Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowdermilk, Max; Laitos, W. Robert

    1981-01-01

    Details essential elements of any rural development program, describes a seven-stage project development strategy which has proved successful in water management projects in Pakistan and Egypt, delineates the key concepts in each of the seven stages, and recommends integration of the client system into rural development programs. (Author)

  7. New Challenges for Rural Economic Development. Working Paper No. 400.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Edward J.; And Others

    Eleven papers on rural economic development cover challenges and opportunities; employment trends affecting nonmetropolitan areas; status of nonmetropolitan women and minorities; case studies of Vermont, North Carolina, Wisconsin, and California; western urban and regional development; economic development in small cities; and rural policy…

  8. Rural Government--Poor Counties, 1962-87. Rural Development Research Report Number 88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Richard J.; Jansen, Anicca C.

    During the 1960s, many rural local governments were believed to provide inadequate government services, which hindered rural development. Rapid growth in government spending has reduced the incidence of government poverty from 78 percent of nonmetropolitan counties in 1962 to only 7 percent in 1987. Those counties still government-poor in 1987…

  9. [The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization].

    PubMed

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Marinho, Alice Maria Correia Pequeno; Rocha, Mayara Melo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Vicente; Braga, Lara de Queiroz Viana; Teixeira, Maiana Maia

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

  10. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... oversight and leadership on major program functions. Major program functions include: Single Family and Multi-Family Housing loans and grants, Community Facility, Water and Waste Disposal, Business...

  11. Career Development, Supervised Agricultural Experience, and FFA. The Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannebach, Alfred J.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was developed to help teachers and administrators in Connecticut Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers to update and upgrade their vocational agriculture curriculum in the areas of career development, supervised agricultural experience (SAE), and Future Farmers of America (FFA). The curriculum incorporates the competencies…

  12. Characterization of VOCs Across Pennsylvania: Assessing Emissions from Rural, Forested, Agricultural and Natural Gas Drilling-Impacted Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grannas, A. M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ramos-Garcés, F.; Wang, D. K.; Martins, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin are important to troposphere chemistry, particularly the formation of photochemical smog and secondary organic aerosol. There is concern that increased natural gas exploration may lead to increased emissions of certain VOCs during well development and due to fugitive emissions from operational well sites and pipelines. For a six-day period in June 2012, a variety of VOCs were measured using canister sampling from a mobile measurement platform. Transects from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania were studied, with samples obtained in rural, forested, urban, farm-impacted and gas well-impacted sites. As expected, biogenic VOCs and isoprene oxidation products were enhanced in forested regions, while anthropogenic non-methane hydrocarbons were enhanced in urban areas. BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) was enhanced in urban areas, but the concentrations of BTEX measured near developing and existing natural gas sites were similar to rural and forested sites. Halogenated hydrocarbons and Freon compounds were consistent at all site locations. We will discuss the specific concentrations and signatures of these compounds and assess the potential impact of agricultural activities and gas well development on the observed VOC concentrations and variability.

  13. Proceedings: Annual Conference of Council of United States Universities for Rural Development in India, and Campus Operations Committee (3rd, Columbus, Ohio, July 19-21, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of United States Universities for Rural Development in India, Manhattan, KS.

    The Third Annual Conference of United States Universities for Rural Development in India (CUSURDI) was attended by representatives of American and Indian universities cooperating with Indian and American governmental agencies for rural and agricultural development in India. The table of contents lists 21 entries, which include such topics as (1)…

  14. Southern Rural Development Center Annual Progress Report, FY 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.

    Twenty major activities in fiscal year (FY) 1984 fulfilled the Southern Rural Development Center's (SRDC) obligation to focus specifically on the rural problems of the region and to support the community development efforts of 29 land-grant universities in 13 southern states, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. During FY84 SRDC had an active role…

  15. Canadian Council on Rural Development, First Report and Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council on Rural Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Canadian Council on Rural Development, established in December of 1965 as an advisory body to the Minister of Forestry and Rural Development, was created (1) to provide a means for exploration of new dimensions and concepts; (2) to stimulate public discussion on basic policy issues and problems; (3) to prepare and disseminate improved…

  16. Delivering Online Professional Development in Mathematics to Rural Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Jo; Rearden, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Rural school districts struggle to attract, retain, and support highly qualified mathematics teachers. A series of four online professional development courses in the form of integrated mathematics content and pedagogy courses was designed to meet the professional development needs of rural middle school mathematics teachers. Changes in teachers'…

  17. The Arctic Climate Modeling Program: Professional Development for Rural Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Kathryn Berry

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) offered yearlong science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professional development to teachers in rural Alaska. Teacher training focused on introducing youth to workforce technologies used in Arctic research. Due to challenges in making professional development accessible to rural teachers, ACMP…

  18. Second Home Owners, Locals and Their Perspectives on Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farstad, Maja; Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Dominating strands within the research literature on second homes explain social conflicts between rural hosting and visiting second home populations by describing their differing perspectives on rural development. Such presentations suggest that locals are likely to welcome new developments in order to enhance the economic viability of their…

  19. Economic Development Practices among Small/Rural Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbeck, Tim, Comp.; Falcone, Lisa, Ed.

    In developing this compendium of exemplary economic development practices among small and/or rural two-year colleges, the American Association of Community Colleges Commission on Small/Rural Community Colleges (CSMCC) sent out a call for program descriptions to all community colleges with less than 3,000 full-time employees or that were…

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MODERN CURRICULUM IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HENSEL, JAMES W.

    CURRICULUM PATTERN OPTIONS FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE ARE PRESENTED IN THIS GUIDE. MAJOR PROGRAM OBJECTIVES ARE TO DEVELOP--(1) AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCY FOR PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE, (2) AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCY FOR OFF-FARM OCCUPATIONS, (3) AN UNDERSTANDING OF CAREER OPPORTUNITIES AND REQUIRED TRAINING, (4) THE ABILITY TO ENTER AND ADVANCE IN AN…

  1. Development paths of China's agricultural Pharmaceutical industry under Eco-agriculture background.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinkai; Gong, Liutang; Ji, Xi; Zhang, Jin; Miao, Pei

    2014-07-01

    Using pesticides has double effects. On one hand, it contributes to pests control and regulates the growth of crops; On the other hand, it does harm to the environment. To develop ecological agriculture should not only emphasize the output level of agriculture to pursuit of economic efficiency, but also need to keep the ecological environment protected and focus on the social benefits during the development of the industry. As a large agricultural country in the world, China is vigorously promoting the development of ecological agriculture, which is bound to put forward to developing the pesticide industry and green ecological development requirements to promote the transformation and upgrading of agricultural pharmaceutical industry. This paper discusses the mechanism of pesticide pollution on the ecological environment and analyzes China's agricultural problems in the pharmaceutical industry. Then study on the development of Chinese green pesticides and try to find the proper paths of agricultural pharmaceutical to achieve industrial upgrading.

  2. CGE Simulation Analysis on the Labor Transfer, Agricultural Technical Progress, and Economic Development in Chongqing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heng; Ran, Maosheng

    2014-01-01

    The basic structure of a CGE model dividing Mainland China into two parts, including Chongqing and rest regions, is described. Based on this CGE model, both the unilateral impact and collaborative impact of two policies, agricultural technical progress and supporting policies for improving rural labor transfer on the economic development in Chongqing, are simulated and analyzed. The results demonstrate that compared with the sum of each unilateral policy effect, the collaboration of two policies has more effective impact on facilitating the labor transfer, promoting regional economic growth, and improving income and welfare of urban and rural residents. PMID:24892037

  3. Skill Development for Volunteering in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…

  4. Developing the Trust of a Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murty, Susan A.

    1984-01-01

    After discussing theories of attitude change, recommends that mental health workers overcome the negative attitudes of rural communities toward mental health programs by forming positive, personal, affective bonds with rural community members. Presents strategies for establishing and maintaining these bonds in private life, clinical work, and…

  5. 41 CFR 102-83.50 - What is the Rural Development Act of 1972?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Location of Space Rural Areas § 102-83.50 What is the Rural Development Act of 1972? The Rural Development.... The intent of the Rural Development Act is to revitalize and develop rural areas and to help foster a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the...

  6. 41 CFR 102-83.50 - What is the Rural Development Act of 1972?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Location of Space Rural Areas § 102-83.50 What is the Rural Development Act of 1972? The Rural Development.... The intent of the Rural Development Act is to revitalize and develop rural areas and to help foster a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is the...

  7. 41 CFR 102-83.50 - What is the Rural Development Act of 1972?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Location of Space Rural Areas § 102-83.50 What is the Rural Development Act of 1972? The Rural Development.... The intent of the Rural Development Act is to revitalize and develop rural areas and to help foster a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is the...

  8. 41 CFR 102-83.50 - What is the Rural Development Act of 1972?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Location of Space Rural Areas § 102-83.50 What is the Rural Development Act of 1972? The Rural Development.... The intent of the Rural Development Act is to revitalize and develop rural areas and to help foster a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the...

  9. 41 CFR 102-83.50 - What is the Rural Development Act of 1972?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Location of Space Rural Areas § 102-83.50 What is the Rural Development Act of 1972? The Rural Development.... The intent of the Rural Development Act is to revitalize and develop rural areas and to help foster a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is the...

  10. Rural Health and Spiritual Care Development: A Review of Programs across Rural Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lindsay B; Hennequin, Christine; Krikheli, Lillian; O'Brien, Annette; Sanchez, Erin; Marsden, Candace R

    2016-06-01

    Given declining populations in rural areas and diminishing traditional religious support, this research explores whether spiritual care education programs would be beneficial for and appreciated by those working in rural health and/or community organizations. An overview of literature identified three dominant rural health issues affecting the provision of spiritual care in rural areas, namely the disparity between rural and urban areas in terms of resources, the lack of access to services, plus the need for education and training within rural areas. Spiritual Health Victoria Incorporated (Victoria, Australia) sought to address these issues with the implementation of a variety of spiritual education programs within rural areas. Results of an evaluation of these programs are presented specifying participant demographics, reasons why participants attended, their evaluation of the program and any recommendations for future programs. In overall terms, the results indicated that at least 90% of participants favorably rated their attended program as either 'very good' or 'good' and indicated that the main reason for their attendance was to develop their own education and/or practice of spiritual care within their rural context for the benefit of local constituents. Several recommendations are made for future programs.

  11. Sources of Inequities in Rural America: Implications for Rural Community Development and Research. Community Development Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Isao; Zone, Martin

    As part of a series prepared to acquaint small community officials with information on the latest community related research findings at the University of California at Davis, this monograph explicates the way in which tax structure, rural development assumptions, and even rural development policies and subsidies contribute to the inequities found…

  12. Research of Development of Agricultural Knowledge Service in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Tan, Cuiping; Zheng, Huaiguo; Sun, Sufen; Yu, Feng

    With the global development of knowledge economy, the knowledge requirement of farmers is more personalized and solution-oriented, so there is pressing needs to develop agricultural knowledge service. The paper analyzes characteristics of agricultural knowledge service, and summarizes typical cases of agricultural knowledge service development in China.

  13. University Science and Agriculture Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corlett, J. T.; Macfarlane, Ian G.

    1989-01-01

    A study of enrollment and degree rates in science, agriculture, and non-sciences in developing and developed countries suggests patterns are similar, with science and agriculture degrees somewhat higher for some developing nations. Results suggest that emphasis on science and agriculture are less crucial than overall enrollment in producing…

  14. Toward an "Efficient and Contented" Agriculture: The Goals of Rural Education Reform, 1900-1920.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danbom, David B.

    Rural education reform manifest in the U.S. "Country Life Movement" of the early 1900's centered on the doctrine of economic efficiency. Rural education reformers believed that high food prices were due to the inefficiency of farmers and the general discontent of rural peoples exemplified by the rural to urban migration. The rural education system…

  15. 78 FR 38361 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Capacity Building for Community Development and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Capacity Building for Community... organizations with expertise in rural housing and community development to enhance the capacity and ability of local governments, Indian tribes, housing development organizations, rural community...

  16. Information and Communication Technologies and Rural Development. Territorial Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) offer opportunities for renewed development for many rural and remote areas that have long experienced economic decline and outmigration. But there is a risk of a territorial digital divide between urban and rural areas. Investments in telecommunications infrastructure and services tend to be…

  17. A Portfolio of Community College Initiatives in Rural Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret G.

    Community colleges across the United States have initiated programs that are making an impact on the productivity of rural America and its residents. Profiles of 20 community and technical college initiatives in rural economic development are contained in this report intended for use by community and technical college administrators. The programs…

  18. The Guelph Rural Development Outreach Project: A Canadian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, E. Weldon; And Others

    The University of Guelph Rural Development Outreach Project (RDOP) as it was conceived, organized and utilized in rural communities in Ontario is the major focus of this document; the concluding sections describe some of the problems of Outreach implementation and suggest some possible courses for continuing and expanding the project. There is…

  19. Developing At-Risk Referral Procedures for Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jennifer; Bostick, Mary

    1986-01-01

    A screening and referral procedure for rural, at-risk infants was developed by a three-step process that: (1) identified key professionals; (2) educated rural medical personnel regarding benefits and strategies of early intervention; and (3) implemented a screening and referral system with low temporal and monetary costs for hospital personnel.…

  20. Community Support Programs in Rural Areas: Developing Programs without Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, William Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Describes "program without walls" for developing community services in rural areas. Emphasizes importance of creative collaboration and redesign of traditional support programs to offer comprehensive community services tailored to needs of rural families and individuals. Suggests practical applications of "without walls" model. (Author/TES)

  1. Rural Development: The Industrialized Free-Enterprise Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Most of the nations of the world have expressed concern for rural revitalization by providing a greater range of economic opportunities, social amenities, and cultural advantages. This report discussed rural development in the highly industrialized nations of the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Norway,…

  2. Papers of the Rural Community Development Seminar: Focus on Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development.

    A seminar was conducted which provides a foundation upon which research, education, and action programs might be based as a state university brings its programs to focus more fully on the economic and social problems of rural areas. Papers presented covered the following subjects: objectives of community development, trends related to rural areas,…

  3. 78 FR 30848 - Inviting Applications for Rural Cooperative Development Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ..., you must use the Grants.gov Web site at http://www.grants.gov . You may not submit an application... Rural Business--Cooperative Service Inviting Applications for Rural Cooperative Development Grants.... Approximately $6.5 million is available. Applications are limited to one per applicant for a maximum of...

  4. 75 FR 19353 - Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Rural Housing Service Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program AGENCY: Rural... funding is now available for the Rural Development Voucher Program. The notice also sets forth the general..., the Rural Development Voucher will become void, any funding will be cancelled, and the tenant will...

  5. Relationships between population and environment in rural areas of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rudel, T I

    1991-01-01

    Studies that have assessed the impact of population change on the environment in rural areas of selected developing countries are reviewed. The implications are that both developed and developing countries might focus on single aspects of a much larger global problem. Rural areas were selected because the bulk of the world's population lives in rural areas. Population environment interactions are 1st discussed at the global level. Studies on changing import patterns of developing countries are usless in accounting for agricultural policy shifts or other factors that may be unrelated to population growth but may be related to food imports. When the magnitude of food production and population growth is examined, there is a balance established between the two. However, analysis of the spatial distribution of desertification and soil degradation shows greater local level effects. Population/environment relationships are examined in critical ecological zones: tropical deforestation, desertification, land degradation in resource poor zones, and responses to population pressures and resource degradation. The conclusions reached are that better statistics on degradation are needed and that the trends in the human ecology of rural populations have clear implications for government policies on the environment. Agricultural development has been uneven and inequitable such that many peasant populations have suffered a decline in standards of living, particularly in Africa. There has also been an accelerated increase in rates of land degradation in resource poor areas, which are densely populated. The population response has been migration shifts out of resource poor areas to ecologically marginal areas, which has resulted in extensive desertification and deforestation. Expansion of the areas under cultivation has not just increased agricultural production but agriculture and population have invaded ecologically marginal zones in deserts and rain forests. Measurement of the

  6. Peru: The Social Welfare and Rural Development Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figallo, Flavio

    1994-01-01

    In Peru, the Social Compensation Fund uses various strategies for fighting rural poverty: linking social investment to other development strategies, considering poverty indicators in determining project priorities, developing a productive infrastructure, and involving local institutions in solutions. (SK)

  7. Simon: Simulating Problems of Rural Community Development in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. David

    1980-01-01

    Describes a problem-solving instructional unit which utilizes a simulation gaming method to help students in an introductory college-level geography course understand rural community development in a developing nation. (DB)

  8. The Scientific and Technical Service Function of Agricultural Digital Library in Countryside Informatization Development and Construction Under Network Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xichuan

    By analyzing internet popularization in rural China and open questions in rural information service, together with service function of agricultural digital library in rural informatization construction, this article makes a study of how to give full play to agricultural digital library's various advantages, in order to make even greater contributions to our country's rural informatization construction.

  9. Education for Rural Development in Asia: Experiences and Policy Lessons. FAO/UNESCO Seminar (Bangkok, Thailand, November 5-7, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    More than half of the world's population, and more than 70 percent of the world's poor live in rural areas where hunger, illiteracy, and low school achievement are common. Education in rural areas is crucial for achieving sustainable development. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and UNESCO's International Institute…

  10. Developments in Australian Agricultural and Related Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Peter; Rayner, John

    2011-01-01

    While the calm waters metaphor might explain the changes navigated by Australian agricultural education through most of its history, the last 20 or so years have been very turbulent. Now, the new millennium sees agricultural education in both Australia and the Western world facing a different and less certain future. This paper analyses some of…

  11. Migration, development and remittances in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, H

    1992-06-01

    The argument is that remittances to Mexico from migrants in the US contribute to household prosperity and lessen the balance of payments problem. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the incentives and constraints to development and individual economic well-being in rural Mexico. Examination is made of the financial amount of remittances, the use of remittances, the impact on development of remittances, models of migration, and migration historically. The viewpoint is that migration satisfies labor needs in developed countries to the detriment of underdeveloped countries. $2 billion a year are sent by illegal migrants from the US to Mexico. This sum is 4 times the net earning of Mexico's tourist trade. 21.1% of the Mexican population depend in part on money sent from the US. 79% of illegal migrants remitted money to relatives in Jalisco state. 70% of migrant families receive $170/month. In Guadalupe, 73% of families depended on migrant income. In Villa Guerrero, 50% of households depended on migrant income. Migrant income supported 1 out of 5 households in Mexico. Money is usually spent of household subsistence items. Sometimes money is also spent on community religious festivals, marriage ceremonies, and education of children or improved living conditions. Examples are given of money being used for investment in land and livestock. Migration affects community solidarity, and comparative ethic, and the influence on others to migrate. Employment opportunities are not expanded and cottage and community industries are threatened. Land purchases did not result in land improvements. Migration models are deficient. There is a macro/micro dichotomy. The push-and-pull system is not controllable by individual migrants. The migration remittance model is a product of unequal development and a mechanism feeding migration. Mexican migration has occurred since the 1880's; seasonal migration was encouraged. There was coercion to return to Mexico after the

  12. Rural Energy Options Analysis Training Development and Implementation at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, P.

    2005-01-01

    NREL has developed a rural energy options analysis training program for rural energy decision makers that provides knowledge, skills and tools for the evaluation of technologies, including renewables, for rural energy applications. Through the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), NREL has refined materials for the program and developed a module that offers hands-on training in the preparation of data for options analysis using HOMER, NREL's micropower optimization model. NREL has used the materials for training in Brazil, the Maldives, Mexico, and Sri Lanka.

  13. Development and return migration to rural French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, V S

    1990-01-01

    "In this article, a recent trend towards return migration to outer island French Polynesia is examined. Following a discussion of massive rural to urban migration throughout island Oceania, the regional and international factors responsible for reversing population movements in this French Territory are discussed. Finally, the impact of return migration on Tubuai, a rapidly developing outer island, is assessed specifically analyzing the manner in which returnees are reintegrated socially and economically into rural community life. The article concludes that returnees are development-oriented, but that increasing population growth in a context of fundamentally limited rural resources is not an economically viable process in the long term."

  14. Agricultural Education and Training; Annual Review of Selected Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    This annual review of selected developments in agricultural education and training of the United Nations family presents economic and social progress reports of countries dependent upon agriculture. Topics covered are education and training in Africa, deep sea fishing training in Korea, correspondence courses in agriculture, national marketing…

  15. Annual Review of Selected Developments; Agricultural Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    This document is the second in a series designed to describe agricultural education projects and practices which have been successful in promoting agricultural change and improvement in areas of the world where subsistance agriculture predominates. The projects are included here because of their emphasis on development of human resources and…

  16. Progress and needs in agricultural research, development, and applications programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G.; Myers, V. I.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic nature of agriculture requires repetitive resource assessments such as those from remote sensing. Until recently, the use of remote sensing in agriculture has been limited primarily to site specific investigations without large-scale evaluations. Examples of successful applications at various user levels are provided. The stage of development for applying remote sensing to many agricultural problems is assessed, and goals for planning future data characteristics for increased use in agriculture are suggested.

  17. Rural Leaders and Leadership Development in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lee L.; Lindsey, Maria Julietta

    2011-01-01

    Throughout Pennsylvania, rural residents have taken on leadership roles to support and promote their communities and their residents. The challenges these leaders face continue to become more complex, as economic, political, social, cultural and even global forces influence local events. This research was conducted to understand how a sample of…

  18. Mentorship & the Development of Rural Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden-Ballard, Elaine M.; Sinclair, Glenn Wm.

    Drawing on the experience of a 21-year mentoring relationship between two rural school administrators, this paper describes 11 components of an effective working mentorship. These elements are: establishing the relationship, the communications process, setting goals, determining skills, time commitment, broadening the protege's horizons,…

  19. Evaluation of Training Programs for Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indira, A.

    2008-01-01

    An Evaluation of the "Impact Assessment of the Training Programs" of a National Level Training Institution in India was conducted using the Kirkpatrick Method (KP Method). The studied Institution takes up research, provides training, offers consultancy and initiates action in the rural sector of India. The evaluation study used a detailed…

  20. Agricultural Extension. A Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunder, Addison, H.

    The basic philosophy of agricultural extension was established in the more highly developed countries over the past century. Newly formed nations, the rural population of which formerly maintained a subsistence agriculture with limited industry, found it essential to establish a better-balanced economy. This led to a variety of rural services and…

  1. Community Development and Rural Issues. Community Development Briefing Paper No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, David; Henderson, Paul

    Rural poverty and wide-ranging environmental concerns are some of the problems driving a growing public debate on rural issues across the United Kingdom. This briefing paper assesses the contribution that a community development approach can make to these issues. Rural areas have a long history of collective action, from farm families helping each…

  2. Neighborhood perceptions and health-related outcomes among Latinos with diabetes from a rural agricultural community.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Gerardo; Morales, Leo S; Nuñez de Jaimes, Fatima; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Isiordia, Marilu; Noguera, Christine; Mangione, Carol M

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about how neighborhood perceptions are related to diabetes outcomes among Latinos living in rural agricultural communities. Our objective was to examine the association between perceived neighborhood problems and diabetes outcomes. This is a cross-sectional survey study with medical record reviews of a random sample of 250 adult Latinos with type 2 diabetes. The predictor was a rating of patient ratings of neighborhood problems (crime, trash and litter, lighting at night, and access to exercise facilities, transportation, and supermarkets). The primary outcomes were the control of three intermediate outcomes [LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) < 100 mg/dl, AlC < 9.0 %, and blood pressure (BP) < 140/80 mmHg], and body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m(2). Secondary outcomes were participation in self-care activities (physical activity, healthy eating, medication adherence, foot checks, and glucose checks). We used regression analysis and adjusted for age, gender, education, income, years with diabetes, insulin use, depressive symptoms, and co-morbidities. Forty-eight percent of patients perceived at least one neighborhood problem and out of the six problem areas, crime was most commonly perceived as a problem. Perception of neighborhood problems was independently associated with not having a BP < 140/80 [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.45; 95 % CI 0.22, 0.92], and BMI < 30 (AOR = 0.43; 95 % CI 0.24, 0.77), after controlling for covariates. Receipt of recommended processes of care was not associated with perception of neighborhood. Perception of neighborhood problems among low-income rural Latinos with diabetes was independently associated with a higher BMI and BP.

  3. Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume II: Federal Farm Policies--Their Effects on Low-Income Farmers and Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

    Agriculture and farming are the economic context for rural education. This is the second of two volumes of papers describing the impact of national agricultural policy on the poor. The nine articles in this volume (shot-titled below) analyze federal policy from the standpoint of the low-income farmer: (1) "Agricultural Price Supports," prepared by…

  4. Rural Broadband Initiative Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Owens, William L. [D-NY-23

    2011-03-15

    03/22/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Rural America in Passage: Statistics for Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilford, Dorothy M., Ed.; And Others

    The Panel on Statistics for Rural Development Policy was established to assess the current quality and availability of data for rural development policy--a more difficult task than might first appear. Until recent decades, rural development was commonly understood to be the development of agriculture. As science and technology transformed U. S.…

  6. Rural Community and Rural Resilience: What Is Important to Farmers in Keeping Their Country Towns Alive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Phil; Walmsley, Jim; Argent, Neil; Baum, Scott; Bourke, Lisa; Martin, John; Pritchard, Bill; Sorensen, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have highlighted the phenomenon of rural decline in parts of the developed world, summarised as a loss in agricultural employment leading to a decline in the number and size of rural settlements. This study of small towns in part of Australia's inland rural "heartland" employs the concepts of interactional rural community of place and…

  7. Targeting Villages for Rural Development Using Satellite Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Kush R; Chen, George H; Abelson, Brian; Nowocin, Kendall; Sakhrani, Vivek; Xu, Ling; Spatocco, Brian L

    2015-03-01

    Satellite imagery is a form of big data that can be harnessed for many social good applications, especially those focusing on rural areas. In this article, we describe the common problem of selecting sites for and planning rural development activities as informed by remote sensing and satellite image analysis. Effective planning in poor rural areas benefits from information that is not available and is difficult to obtain at any appreciable scale by any means other than algorithms for estimation and inference from remotely sensed images. We discuss two cases in depth: the targeting of unconditional cash transfers to extremely poor villages in sub-Saharan Africa and the siting and planning of solar-powered microgrids in remote villages in India. From these cases, we draw out some common lessons broadly applicable to informed rural development.

  8. Targeting Villages for Rural Development Using Satellite Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Kush R; Chen, George H; Abelson, Brian; Nowocin, Kendall; Sakhrani, Vivek; Xu, Ling; Spatocco, Brian L

    2015-03-01

    Satellite imagery is a form of big data that can be harnessed for many social good applications, especially those focusing on rural areas. In this article, we describe the common problem of selecting sites for and planning rural development activities as informed by remote sensing and satellite image analysis. Effective planning in poor rural areas benefits from information that is not available and is difficult to obtain at any appreciable scale by any means other than algorithms for estimation and inference from remotely sensed images. We discuss two cases in depth: the targeting of unconditional cash transfers to extremely poor villages in sub-Saharan Africa and the siting and planning of solar-powered microgrids in remote villages in India. From these cases, we draw out some common lessons broadly applicable to informed rural development. PMID:27442844

  9. Toward an American Rural Renaissance. The Role of Investment Capital in Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, Lloyd

    This essay examines the role of investment capital in rural development. The development of government capitalism is traced. Outlined next are the premises for private and public investment. Geographic/geopolitical concerns in the formation of investment priorities are described. The need for greater availability of investment capital for small…

  10. Rural Redesign: Delivering Online Professional Development for Rural Teachers of ESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manner, Jane Carol; Rodriguez, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the progress of a project in a teacher education program designed to deliver professional development to rural teachers through an online format addressing ESOL (English for speakers of other languages). Funded by a Professional Development Grant from the OELA (Office of English Language Acquisition) of the United States…

  11. [International migration, agriculture, and development: reflections from some case studies].

    PubMed

    Cuffaro, N

    1993-03-01

    The author examines the relationships among migration, agricultural development, and economic development in the labor-exporting countries of Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Turkey. She finds that "massive migration contributes much more to the growth of the service sector than to agricultural or industrial development in the countries of departure." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

  12. Integrated services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scipioni, A.; Tagliaferri, F.

    2009-04-01

    Objective of the document is to define lines of development and distribution of the services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fire. The services will be a valid support on hand of the Regional and National Administrations involved in the agricultural-forest-rural activities (Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, National Forest Police, ecc..), through the employment of the SIAN "National Agricultural Informative System", that is the integrated national information system for the entire agriculture, forestry and fisheries Administration. The services proposals would be distributed through the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) of the SIAN: the GIS database is a single nation-wide digital graphic database consisting of: - Ortophotos: Aerial images of approz. 45 km2 each with ground resolution of 50 cm; - Cadastral maps: Land maps; - Thematic layers: Land use and crops identification The GIS services can take full advantage of the benefits of SIAN architectural model designed for best integration and interoperability with other Central and Local P.A. bodies whose main items are: - Integration of information from different sources; - Maintainance of the internal coeherence of any integrated information; - Flexibility with respect to technical or organizational changes The "innovative "services described below could be useful to support the development of institutional tasks of public Agencies and Administrations (es. Regions or Civil Protection agencies) according to than previewed from the D.Lgs. 173/98. Services of support to the management of the phenomenon of wildland fires The activities outlined in below figure, don't have a linear and defined temporal sequence, but a dynamic and time integration. It guarantees not only the integrated use of the various information, but also the value of every product, for level of accuracy, coherence and timeliness of the information. Description of four main

  13. Gender Disparities and Socio-Economic Factors on Learning Achievements in Agricultural Science in Rural and Urban Secondary Schools of Ogbomoso North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…

  14. Potential for the use of photovoltaic systems in agricultural production and rural sector of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Neyeloff, S.

    1983-12-01

    A field study was conducted in Colombia, South America, to determine the possible market for PV power systems in rural areas. It was found that a sizeable market exists in the areas of coffee processing, beef cattle watering, domestic uses, rural telephones and rural health stations.

  15. Rural Poverty in Wisconsin Counties. College of Agricultural & Life Sciences Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saupe, William E.; Belknap, John W.

    To describe rural poverty in Wisconsin in a manner useful to educators, policymakers, clergy, and businesspersons, census statistics, primarily from 1980, were used to look separately at rural nonfarm, farm, and urban families and persons. Other census data provided comparability. As measured in 1980, 6% of urban and rural nonfarm families had…

  16. The Development Model Electronic Commerce of Regional Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan

    With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.

  17. Human and ecosystem health: the environment-agriculture connection in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Graber, D R; Jones, W J; Johnson, J A

    1995-01-01

    It is posited that farming methods and activities are both affected by and have an impact on local and global environmental ecosystems. This article discusses regional and global trends that affect the environment and the health and survival of rural agricultural populations. Political, social, and environmental factors that "underlie and generate" medical issues are identified for developing countries with large rural populations dependent upon the land for survival. Although food production appears to have kept pace with population growth in macro statistics, 35% of the population in sub-Saharan Africa, 22% of the Asian population, and 22% of developing market economies were estimated to be malnourished in the mid-1980s. The Green Revolution involved the widespread use of chemicals in agriculture that had adverse environmental impacts. The interrelationships between water resources, erosion, pesticides and fertilizers, deforestation, population pressure, and biodiversity, and farmers are individually addressed. It is argued that a new perspective may be necessary in order to preserve agriculture and other ecosystems and human health. A universal formula for environmentally sensitive and productive agriculture is not possible. However, it is likely that some approaches may involve traditional practices, such as crop rotation and natural pest management, combined with the tools of the Green Revolution (pesticides, fertilizers, and intensive irrigation). An increasing number of people are aware that creative and locally rational farming methods are the best option, and that the costs of chemical-intensive farming in developing countries are too high. National policies that promote cultivation of non-food cash crops and favor the land-wealthy elite have serious consequences for the small farmer and national food availability. The World Bank has the greatest potential to guide agricultural reforms that promote protective practices engendered in local controls over

  18. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.

  19. Environmental alternatives for rural development: the case of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, R E

    2005-05-01

    This article examines various environmental alternatives within the context of forest resource-dependent communities of the State of Oaxaca, Mexico. Two main objectives were to describe particular rural development routes among different Mexican communities, and to explain why certain environmental options for rural development are selected over others. While many communities choose either sustainable or illegal logging options in Oaxaca, some may decide against logging of any kind. Four principal forest-based community categories, according to a government forest classification scheme, are discussed in the context of environmental alternatives for this article. Based on this typology, two "integrated forest management" communities in the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca are described and compared. One community's decision not to log within a shared land arrangement has caused significant tensions in the region. Key findings illustrate the extent to which rural communities can make appropriate environmental decisions and examines their effects on environmental and social sustainability. Increased rural involvement in environmental decision-making is called for, since rural residents are those most likely to appreciate nearby natural resources as a source of sustainable livelihoods. It is expected that this research may be applicable to rural areas of other countries.

  20. Intellectual Investment in Agriculture for Economic and Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In a project of agricultural research, education, and advice for economic growth and development, data was obtained from 14 countries and summarized with implications for action. Chapters in the report discuss: (1) Intellectual Investment and Economic and Social Development, (2) Intellectual Investment in Agriculture, (3) Agronomic Research, (4)…

  1. Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume III. Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, David; And Others

    This training manual, the third volume in a four-volume series of curriculum guides for use in training Peace Corps agricultural development workers, deals with crops. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the crops component of the agricultural development worker training series. Included in the second…

  2. Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume II. Extension Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Peter; And Others

    This training manual, the second volume in a four-volume series of curriculum guides for use in training Peace Corps agricultural development workers, deals with extension skills. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the extension skills component of the agricultural development worker training series.…

  3. Engineering Education Projects for Improving Agriculture in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peikert, F. W.

    Agricultural engineers have been working for a number of years with colleges and universities in many developing countries to improve their agriculture. Much of the activity in university development assistance has been taken over the last 20 years. The greatest portion of the support has come from USAID. Among the common problems facing the…

  4. Mentoring and Professional Development in Rural Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Carter McLean, Marsha; Waajid, Badiyyah; Pittman, Evelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and pilot a small-scale professional development program that incorporated substantial group and one-on-one mentoring aimed at preparing rurally based preschool teacher assistants to earn the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential. Using a framework that emphasized the relational, developmental,…

  5. Warming of the Indian Ocean Threatens Eastern and Southern Africa, but could be Mitigated by Agricultural Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Chris; Dettinger, Michael D.; Brown, Molly E.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Verdin, James P.; Barlow, Mathew; Howell, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high and declining per capita agricultural capacity retards progress towards Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation identify another problematic trend. Main growing season rainfall receipts have diminished by approximately 15% in food insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus late 20th century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling millions of undernourished people as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people. On the other hand, modest increases in per capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability.

  6. 3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Memorandum for the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Energy, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency In the Nation's ongoing efforts to achieve energy independence, biomass and biofuels promise to play a key role by providing the Nation with homegrown sustainable energy options...

  7. 1890 Institutions' Extension Program and Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adell, Jr.

    The extension role of Tuskegee Institute and the 16 black land grant colleges established by the Morrill Act of 1890 has been to diffuse among the non-university citizens of America useful and practical information on agriculture, home economics, and related areas. Tuskegee's extension efforts began in 1880 and flourished under the leadership of…

  8. Detection and assessment of land use dynamics on Tenerife (Canary Islands): the agricultural development between 1986 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günthert, Sebastian; Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    Since Spanish colonial times, the Canary Islands and especially Tenerife have always been used for intensive agriculture. Today almost 1/4 of the total area of Tenerife are agriculturally affected, whereas especially mountainous areas with suitable climate conditions are drastically transformed for agricultural use by building of large terraces. In recent years, political and economical developments lead to a further transformation process, especially inducted by an expansive tourism, which caused concentration- and intensification-tendencies of agricultural land use in lower altitudes as well as agricultural set-aside and rural exodus in the hinterland. The overall aim of the research at hand is to address the agricultural land use dynamics of the past decades, to statistically assess the causal reasons for those changes and to model the future agricultural land use dynamics on Tenerife. Therefore, an object-based classification procedure for recent RapidEye data (2010), Spot 4 (1998) as well as SPOT 1 (1986-88) imagery was developed, followed by a post classification comparison (PCC). Older agricultural fallow land or agricultural set-aside with a higher level of natural succession can hardly be acquired in the used medium satellite imagery. Hence, a second detection technique was generated, which allows an exact identification of the total agriculturally affected area on Tenerife, also containing older agricultural fallow land or agricultural set-aside. The method consists of an automatic texture-oriented detection and area-wide extraction of linear agricultural structures (plough furrows and field boundaries of arable land, utilised and non-utilised agricultural terraces) in current orthophotos of Tenerife. Once the change detection analysis is realised, it is necessary to identify the different driving forces which are responsible for the agricultural land use dynamics. The statistical connections between agricultural land use changes and these driving forces

  9. Renewable Energy Applications for Rural Development in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, J.; Baring-Gould, E. I.; Stroup, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a description of current work to promote and support the developing market for renewable (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) technologies in China. Since the signing of the US/China Protocol for Cooperation in the Fields of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technology Development and Utilization in 1995, NREL has helped to promote RE and EE technologies, specifically rural energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and renewable energy business development, in addition to more general policy and planning support. This paper focuses on NREL's work in support of the $240 million Township Electrification Program, which is providing power to over 1000 rural communities using renewable based energy sources.

  10. Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Devendra, C.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil

  11. Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.

    PubMed

    Devendra, C

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil

  12. Innovative type of Reproduction of Agriculture of the Komi Republic - the Basis of its Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomareva, Anna

    2013-04-01

    , renewal of the production capacity, attracting qualified personnel a field, the development of industrial infrastructure, a significant improvement of social and living conditions in rural areas. This version is based on the innovative development of the agricultural sector. Unfavorable effects of negative factors and conditions stimulate many problems in the agricultural sector of the North. If you save the disparity in prices for agricultural products and inputs, suppling the village, I and III monopoly agribusiness, reducing level of state industry, access to financial markets will be difficult for farmers, there will be a decrease in income of agricultural producers, the degradation of productive capacity, the outflow of cadres from the village, the reduction of potatoes, vegetables, dairy products and beef. In rural areas, to further deterioration of the demographic situation and as a consequence this populated area will decrease. The most acceptable scenario of post-crisis development of agriculture of the North is an optimistic scenario, providing innovative type of reproduction. To implement it, you, first of all, need to overcome the negative effects of a sharp transition to a market sector with the monetarist approaches to form multi-purpose agricultural policy aimed at modernizing agricultural production and improving the welfare of farmers. There is opportunities for the implementation of the optimistic scenario in the Komi Republic.

  13. Urban-Rural Influences in U.S. Environmental and Economic Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Richard H.; McBeth, Mark K.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of approximately 300 U.S. rural development officials indicates that rural-based officials often had a greater appreciation of rural environmental quality of life features than did their urban-based counterparts. Suggests decentralizing rural development policy formation to the communities affected. (SV)

  14. A Multi-Level Policy Research Paradigm: Implications for Rural and Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberts, Paul R.; Sismondo, Sergio

    Effective research on issues of rural development is increasingly important in a time when inequalities among people in rural areas is widening. Criteria of time-cost effectiveness, policy effectiveness for rural development, and contribution to sociology must be balanced by rural social scientists in their research design decisions. When five…

  15. Taking Indigenous Knowledge Seriously in Rural Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awa, Njoku E.

    Arguing that consultative and authoritative frameworks for rural development programs allow those in a superior position to define development priorities and to determine when and to what extent those in subordinate positions can participate, this paper outlines the need for participative-group management of such projects. The paper notes that…

  16. Planning for Interagency Cooperation in Rural Development. CARD Report 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, David L.; Glick, Edward L.

    With a major emphasis on cooperative planning in rural development, three elements of development process were identified: (1) integration of units involved, occurring when several organizations contribute to a larger collective effort; (2) decentralized planning and local initiative, occurring when planning initiative is at the local level; (3)…

  17. The Career Development Needs of Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Chris; Kaszubowski, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the career development needs of 150 fourth-grade students from 2 rural school districts in the Midwestern United States. The Childhood Career Development Scale (CCDS) was administered in 6 classrooms at 2 elementary schools to assess Donald Super's 9 dimensions (information, curiosity, exploration, interests,…

  18. Collaboration in International Rural Development: A Practitioner's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axinn, George H.; Axinn, Nancy W.

    This book aims to provide practical information and insights to practitioners involved in collaborative international development programs. It draws on literature and the authors' many years of field experience to combine theory and practical tools as a guide to action in the field. The introduction defines concepts in rural development, outlines…

  19. Disasters and development in agricultural input markets: bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch.

    PubMed

    Mainville, Denise Y

    2003-06-01

    The bulk of developing countries' populations and poor depend on agriculture for food and income. While rural economies and people are generally the most severely affected by natural disasters, little is known about how disasters and subsequent relief activities affect agricultural markets with differing levels of development. The article addresses this gap, drawing evidence from bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch. Case studies are used to address hypotheses about a disaster's effects on supply and demand in seed markets, farmers' responses and the performance of relief interventions in markets showing differing levels of development. The results show the importance of tailoring relief interventions to the markets that they will affect and to the specific effects of a disaster; the potential to use local and emerging seed distribution channels in a relief intervention; and opportunities for relief activities to strengthen community seed systems.

  20. Epidemiology of health and safety risks in agriculture and related industries. Practical applications for rural physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Zejda, J E; McDuffie, H H; Dosman, J A

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies document that work in the agricultural sector is associated with many occupational health hazards. Exposure to organic dusts and airborne microorganisms and their toxins may lead to respiratory disorders. The burden of exposure-related chronic bronchitis, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic-dust toxic syndrome, and chronic airflow limitation can be diminished by appropriate preventive measures. The contribution of exposures to agricultural chemicals to cancers and neurodegenerative disorders is being investigated. Some studies document that farmers and those in related industries are at higher risk for the development of cancer of the stomach, soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Chronic encephalopathy and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases are being studied in relation to agricultural chemicals. The possible carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity of pesticides emphasize the need to promote the safe use of chemicals. Another area for health promotion programs is disabling injuries and traumatic deaths. Farm accidents are important because of their frequent occurrence among young people and disturbing fatality rates. Other health issues of concern in these industries include skin diseases, hearing loss, and stress. PMID:8470386

  1. Rural brewing, exclusion, and development policy-making.

    PubMed

    Mccall, M

    1996-10-01

    This article highlights the economic role of women in the brewing industry in rural and periurban areas of sub-Saharan African countries. Local beer drinking is a form of social exchange and a reward for time-intensive work. Modern beer brewing in rural areas is a family operation. Beer is produced for subsistence and for sale. Locally brewed beer has a lower alcohol content than commercial brews. The author refers to Pradervand's (1990) study of local brewing in five east and west African countries. Pradervand found that men spent an estimated CFAF 18 billion per year on local brews compared to the value of total national exports of CFAF 21 billion per year in 1996. The male Kitui in rural Kenya were found to spend 60% of their weekly income on beer. Women dominate brewing in eastern and southern Africa. Rural beers are grain based (maize, millet, or sorghum), but may also be made from bananas, bamboo, sugar cane, or coconut. An estimated 25% of women in a village survey in Tanzania reported that beer was brewed one to four times a month. Another survey in the 1980s found that 73% of women brewed beer at some time. Beer brewing is a very significant economic activity for rural women. It provides higher levels of income and employment. Urban brewing by women has a negative image that rural women's beer brewing does not have. Grain for brewing comes from family farms or markets. Women's clubs are used as income generation groups for loans and as support groups. Women's beer brewing is not supported by development interventions or recognized by UN agencies. There are resource implications due to an estimated 5%-30% of annual wood consumption used for beer brewing. If women's role in beer brewing is ignored, male-dominated commercial interests will further marginalize rural women.

  2. Economic development: poverty solution for the rural South

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, V.M. Jr.; Rungeling, B.

    1980-10-01

    The 1970 census showed the South to have 41.3% of the US rural population and 44% of the poor with only 31% of the population. Economic development in the rural South has been limited by a lack of financial and physical capital and by a tradition of discriminatory and conservative institutional practices that restrict development. An experimental Federal program of low-interest loans recognized these problems in the Area Redevelopment Act (ARA) of 1961, later replaced by the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 and the Rural Development Act of 1972. Each of these assumed an infrastructure for job creation and failed to provide for human resource development. The search for an acceptable policy alternative to this approach may find an answer in community and development corporations (CDCs), which transcend political boundaries and allow local people to own and control the businesses they organize or attract, but which are bound by the local financial capability. The authors feel that, until policies recognize the need to have a national balance of urban and rural life, Federal intervention should be confined to a supportive role. 23 references. (DCK)

  3. Development and application of modern agricultural biotechnology in Botswana: the potentials, opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Batlang, Utlwang; Tsurupe, Gorata; Segwagwe, Amogelang; Obopile, Motshwari

    2014-07-01

    In Botswana, approximately 40% of the population live in rural areas and derive most of their livelihood from agriculture by keeping livestock and practising arable farming. Due to the nature of their farming practises livestock and crops are exposed to diseases and environmental stresses. These challenges offer opportunities for application of biotechnology to develop adaptable materials to the country's environment. On the other hand, the perceived risk of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has dimmed the promise of the technology for its application in agriculture. This calls for a holistic approach to the application of biotechnology to address issues of biosafety of GMOs. We have therefore assessed the potentials, challenges and opportunities to apply biotechnology with specific emphasis on agriculture, taking cognisance of requirement for its research, development and application in research and teaching institutions. In order to achieve this, resource availability, infrastructure, human and laboratory requirements were analyzed. The analysis revealed that the country has the capacity to carry out research in biotechnology in the development and production of genetically modified crops for food and fodder crops. These will include gene discovery, genetic transformation and development of systems to comply with the world regulatory framework on biosafety. In view of the challenges facing the country in agriculture, first generation biotech crops could be released for production. Novel GM products for development may include disease diagnosis kits, animal disease vaccines, and nutrient use efficiency, drought, and pest and disease resistant food and fodder crops. PMID:25437237

  4. Development and application of modern agricultural biotechnology in Botswana: The potentials, opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Batlang, Utlwang; Tsurupe, Gorata; Segwagwe, Amogelang; Obopile, Motshwari

    2014-01-01

    In Botswana, approximately 40% of the population live in rural areas and derive most of their livelihood from agriculture by keeping livestock and practising arable farming. Due to the nature of their farming practises livestock and crops are exposed to diseases and environmental stresses. These challenges offer opportunities for application of biotechnology to develop adaptable materials to the country's environment. On the other hand, the perceived risk of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has dimmed the promise of the technology for its application in agriculture. This calls for a holistic approach to the application of biotechnology to address issues of biosafety of GMOs. We have therefore assessed the potentials, challenges and opportunities to apply biotechnology with specific emphasis on agriculture, taking cognisance of requirement for its research, development and application in research and teaching institutions. In order to achieve this, resource availability, infrastructure, human and laboratory requirements were analyzed. The analysis revealed that the country has the capacity to carry out research in biotechnology in the development and production of genetically modified crops for food and fodder crops. These will include gene discovery, genetic transformation and development of systems to comply with the world regulatory framework on biosafety. In view of the challenges facing the country in agriculture, first generation biotech crops could be released for production. Novel GM products for development may include disease diagnosis kits, animal disease vaccines, and nutrient use efficiency, drought, and pest and disease resistant food and fodder crops. PMID:25437237

  5. Development and application of modern agricultural biotechnology in Botswana: the potentials, opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Batlang, Utlwang; Tsurupe, Gorata; Segwagwe, Amogelang; Obopile, Motshwari

    2014-07-01

    In Botswana, approximately 40% of the population live in rural areas and derive most of their livelihood from agriculture by keeping livestock and practising arable farming. Due to the nature of their farming practises livestock and crops are exposed to diseases and environmental stresses. These challenges offer opportunities for application of biotechnology to develop adaptable materials to the country's environment. On the other hand, the perceived risk of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has dimmed the promise of the technology for its application in agriculture. This calls for a holistic approach to the application of biotechnology to address issues of biosafety of GMOs. We have therefore assessed the potentials, challenges and opportunities to apply biotechnology with specific emphasis on agriculture, taking cognisance of requirement for its research, development and application in research and teaching institutions. In order to achieve this, resource availability, infrastructure, human and laboratory requirements were analyzed. The analysis revealed that the country has the capacity to carry out research in biotechnology in the development and production of genetically modified crops for food and fodder crops. These will include gene discovery, genetic transformation and development of systems to comply with the world regulatory framework on biosafety. In view of the challenges facing the country in agriculture, first generation biotech crops could be released for production. Novel GM products for development may include disease diagnosis kits, animal disease vaccines, and nutrient use efficiency, drought, and pest and disease resistant food and fodder crops.

  6. Survey and Risk Assessment of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Exposure to Neonicotinoid Pesticides in Urban, Rural, and Agricultural Settings.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, T J; Culbert, E M; Felsot, A S; Hebert, V R; Sheppard, W S

    2016-04-01

    A comparative assessment of apiaries in urban, rural, and agricultural areas was undertaken in 2013 and 2014 to examine potential honey bee colony exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides from pollen foraging. Apiaries ranged in size from one to hundreds of honey bee colonies, and included those operated by commercial, sideline (semicommercial), and hobbyist beekeepers. Residues in and on wax and beebread (stored pollen in the hive) were evaluated for the nitro-substituted neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and its olefin metabolite and the active ingredients clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran. Beebread and comb wax collected from hives in agricultural landscapes were more likely to have detectable residues of thiamethoxam and clothianidin than that collected from hives in rural or urban areas (∼50% of samples vs. <10%). The maximum neonicotinoid residue detected in either wax or beebread was 3.9 ppb imidacloprid. A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted on the residues recovered from beebread in apiaries located in commercial, urban, and rural landscapes. The calculated risk quotient based on a dietary no observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) suggested low potential for negative effects on bee behavior or colony health. PMID:26791816

  7. Survey and Risk Assessment of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Exposure to Neonicotinoid Pesticides in Urban, Rural, and Agricultural Settings.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, T J; Culbert, E M; Felsot, A S; Hebert, V R; Sheppard, W S

    2016-04-01

    A comparative assessment of apiaries in urban, rural, and agricultural areas was undertaken in 2013 and 2014 to examine potential honey bee colony exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides from pollen foraging. Apiaries ranged in size from one to hundreds of honey bee colonies, and included those operated by commercial, sideline (semicommercial), and hobbyist beekeepers. Residues in and on wax and beebread (stored pollen in the hive) were evaluated for the nitro-substituted neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and its olefin metabolite and the active ingredients clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran. Beebread and comb wax collected from hives in agricultural landscapes were more likely to have detectable residues of thiamethoxam and clothianidin than that collected from hives in rural or urban areas (∼50% of samples vs. <10%). The maximum neonicotinoid residue detected in either wax or beebread was 3.9 ppb imidacloprid. A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted on the residues recovered from beebread in apiaries located in commercial, urban, and rural landscapes. The calculated risk quotient based on a dietary no observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) suggested low potential for negative effects on bee behavior or colony health.

  8. Rural Land Use in the Monongahela River Basin. [Agricultural Experiment Station] Bulletin 641.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akintola, Jacob; And Others

    In order to determine rural land use in the Monongahela River Basin, 11,528 landowners, controlling 40 percent of 10 contiguous counties in north-central West Virginia and constituting 19 percent of the rural population, were surveyed. Data derived from 892 questionnaire responses were analyzed in terms of past, present, and future land use; land…

  9. Impacts of Hispanic Population Growth on Rural Wages. Agricultural Economic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    Although earnings generally increased in rural areas in the 1990s, Hispanic population growth led to lower wages for at least one segment of the rural population--workers with a high school degree (skilled workers), particularly men in this skill group. Using data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Current Population Survey, this report…

  10. Delivery of Rural Community Services: Some Implications and Problems. Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 635.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Garrey E.; And Others

    Summarizing research conducted under the Western Regional Research Project on the delivery of rural community services, this report presents explications of the following generalizations which have been supported by research: (1) Many rural service institutions need reorganization and renewal, (2) Regionalization increases organizations' ability…

  11. The Diverse Social and Economic Structure of Nonmetropolitan America. Rural Development Research Report No. 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Lloyd D.; And Others

    Effective rural development planning depends on facts and analysis based, not on rural averages, but on the diverse social and economic structure of rural America. Programs tailored to particular types of rural economies may be more effective than generalized programs. Because of their unique characteristics, government policies and economic…

  12. Reclaiming Community, Reckoning with Change: Rural Development in the Global Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Mello, Michal

    This report discusses trends affecting the future of rural development in Kentucky and describes strategies for leveraging more positive outcomes for rural communities. In addition to the enduring legacies of rural poverty, inadequate infrastructure, low educational attainment, and joblessness, contemporary rural Kentucky is also characterized by…

  13. The changing rural environment and the relationship between health services and rural development.

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, S M

    1989-01-01

    Author summarizes today's changing rural America and the challenges that health services researchers and policymakers face in relating the rural environment to the problems and possibilities of rural health services delivery. PMID:2917874

  14. Sources of Inequities in Rural America: Implications for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Isao; Zone, Martin

    The paper identifies the basic factors affecting rural development and the social consequences of rural policies and structural changes in agriculture; it also suggests research areas relating some of these factors to what is happening in America's rural communities. Data sources such as congressional hearings, rural sociologists' critiques,…

  15. Improving numeracy education in rural schools: a professional development approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goos, Merrilyn; Dole, Shelley; Geiger, Vince

    2011-06-01

    In Australia, concerns about the quality of mathematics education that students experience are particularly salient in rural schools. These schools typically report great difficulty in attracting and retaining qualified teachers of mathematics. Teachers in non-metropolitan locations may also experience professional isolation if they have limited access to professional development opportunities. This article reports on a year-long research and development project that provided such opportunities to teachers in ten rural and metropolitan schools in South Australia. Its purpose was to help the teachers plan and implement numeracy strategies across the school curriculum. The project was informed by a new model of numeracy whose elements comprise mathematical knowledge, dispositions, tools, contexts, and a critical orientation to the use of mathematics. To investigate the effectiveness of the numeracy model and the professional development approach, data were collected via lesson observations, teacher and student interviews, and written tasks that tracked changes over time in teachers' understanding of numeracy. Most teachers began the project with a concern for improving students' mathematical knowledge or dispositions, but then gradually incorporated other elements of the model into their planning and practice. A case study of an early career teacher in a rural school illustrates one developmental trajectory through the elements of the model. Teachers identified time, openness, collegiality, and accountability as features of the professional development approach that contributed to its effectiveness. Implications for sustainability and scaling up are discussed, especially with reference to supporting teachers in rural schools.

  16. Maternal Conjugal Multiplicity and Child Development in Rural Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreher, Melanie; Hudgins, Rebekah

    2010-01-01

    Using field-based observations and standardized measures of the home environment and child development, the authors followed 59 rural Jamaican women and their offspring from birth to age 5. The findings suggest that conjugal multiplicity, a female reproductive pattern characterized by multiple unions, maternal unmarried status, and absent father,…

  17. Developing Leaders: The Role of Competencies in Rural Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2013-01-01

    Pending retirements underscore the need to develop community college campus leaders. Rural community colleges will be particularly hard-hit by changes in leadership as they represent the majority of 2-year colleges and face unique challenges given their location. To help address the anticipated leadership transition, the American Association of…

  18. Productivity Indicators for the Rural Poor in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Meeting the Millennium Development Goals will necessarily require a heavy focus on rural areas, where most of the world's poor are to be found. More specifically, policy will need to raise the productivity of this group, which includes farmers, wage labourers and those suffering from disease and malnutrition. Yet, at present, no index exists which…

  19. Regional Foods and Rural Development: The Role of Product Qualification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tregear, Angela; Arfini, Filippo; Belletti, Giovanni; Marescotti, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Qualification schemes have become popular tools for supporting regional foods, yet little is understood about the impacts they have on the rural development contribution of such foods. Qualification processes may stimulate new networks and community actions, but they may also be incompatible with strategies of extended territorial development…

  20. Culturally Responsive Professional Development for Inclusive Education in Rural Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanks, Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world (World Bank, 2014). Yet, our experiences working with rural schools suggest that the Malawi education system may be far ahead of many developed nations, including the United States, in terms of their practical and philosophical commitment to inclusive education for all children, including…

  1. Directory of Rural Development Researchers in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.

    Designed to help researchers pinpoint other professionals whose work might relate to their own, this publication includes the names, addresses, and areas of research of nearly 200 persons involved with research related to the needs of rural development in the Southern region. The researchers listed are from the following states: Alabama, Arkansas,…

  2. Slovene Rural Development: Five Study Reports with Appendix Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buila, Theodore

    Information concerning Slovene rural development was presented in the form of 5 study reports from which statistical notation was deleted for readability. The purpose of these reports was to provide an accurate opinion reading concerning extension program dimensions and target audiences, and to provide information for agronoms (extension agents…

  3. 77 FR 33709 - Inviting Applications for Rural Cooperative Development Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ...) 287-1753 Virgin Islands (see Florida) Washington USDA Rural Development State Office, 1835 Black Lake...., Stop 9410, Washington, DC 20250- 9410, or call toll-free at (866) 632-9992 (English) or (800) 877-8339 (TDD) or (866) 377-8642 (English Federal-relay) or (800) 845-6136 (Spanish Federal-relay). USDA is...

  4. A Perspective of Career Education Program Development in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    The Career Awareness Program (CAP) not only showed how improved school-community relations impact on quality instruction and student growth, but also resulted in identification of variables which affect curriculum change and program development in small, rural schools; these variables were administrative philosophies, community attitudes and…

  5. Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alazraque-Cherni, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This article establishes the benefits of applying renewable energy and analyzes the main difficulties that have stood in the way of more widely successful renewable energy for rural areas in the developing world and discusses why outcomes from these technologies fall short. Although there is substantial recognition of technological, economic,…

  6. The Yellow Pages for Rural Development in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino, Ricardo, Comp.

    Designed to inform the public of rural development programs and services in the State of New Mexico, this directory presents over 100 program summaries, providing mailing addresses and telephone numbers and naming the agency, the specific program thrust, the Officer in Charge, and other contacts. Both an alphabetical and functional index are…

  7. The Evolution of Knowledge Networks: An Example for Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fesenmaier, Julie; Contractor, Noshir

    2001-01-01

    Groupware was used to survey rural development practitioners and policymakers about professional relationships, skills, and expertise. The software created an inventory of the social and knowledge capital of this community of interest but was not enough to sustain ongoing, active participation. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)

  8. The Conceptual Model of Sustainable Development of the Rural Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belyaeva, Galina I.; Ermoshkina, Ekaterina N.; Sukhinina, Veronika V.; Starikova, Lyudmila D.; Pecherskaya, Evelina P.

    2016-01-01

    On the one hand, the relevance of the studied issue is determined by growing lag of rural territorial units in socioeconomic development, and one the other by their significance in such important aspects of the country, as ensuring food supply security, preservation of the available land, production, ecological, demographic and human potential.…

  9. Rural Community Development: What Sort of Social Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Describes the role of the rural community development worker in achieving social change by encouraging participatory decision making. Presents results of a participatory research study in which the author, as a community worker, empowers a village with a failed water supply to seek change where they had previously experienced resistance by…

  10. From plantation agriculture to oil storage: economic development and social transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines two separate concepts of development. At the macrolevel, development is viewed as an advance in the organization of production and the extension of capitalist relations of production. At the community level, it is viewed as a process leading to qualitative change in a people's say of life. Focusing on a rural coastal valley and bay ecosystem in St. Lucia, a Windward Island in the Lesser Antilles, this research distinguished three separate stages in this ecosystem's economic development and examines the consequences of these economic transitions on a single rural village and group of fisherman living within it. The economic stages described begin with the terminal era of sugar cane cultivation, followed by the rationalization of commercial agriculture under translational control and the introduction of bananas, and concludes with the breaking up of the valley plantation and the introduction of a petroleum transshipment terminal. Each of these enterprises defined the valley's resources differently and each had a distinct organization of production. The relationship between hillside households and these enterprises varied accordingly. Households went from being an essential part of the productive process to being marginalized by it. Fishermen also became excluded from this environment. For these rural St. Lucians, large-scale economic development has not lead to qualitative improvement in their lives.

  11. "Balancing Technological and Human Resources Development: A New Priority for Rural America."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blobaum, Roger

    While the adoption of new mechanical and biological-chemical technology has brought revolutionary changes in agricultural production, these changes have also contributed to a decline in employment in many rural industries. There are, however, a number of new technologies, likely to impact on rural areas in the 1980s and beyond, that should level…

  12. Education Policy and Rural Development: A Perspective from the Southern Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulkey, David

    The problem of rural education, specifically in the south, is not a single problem, but a set of related problems. This paper summarizes the historical perspective of education's importance in the rural South and the attitudes of the general populace. Illiteracy, dropout rates, and the need to retrain workers losing jobs in agriculture and…

  13. Comparison of the Prevalences and Diversities of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes in an Urban and a Rural Agricultural Watershed.

    PubMed

    Stea, Emma C; Purdue, Laura M; Jamieson, Rob C; Yost, Chris K; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2015-06-01

    Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were cultured from 72 and 35% of rural and urban water samples, respectively, with 24% of the positive samples containing two or three different Listeria spp. The L. innocua (56%) and L. welshimeri (43%) groups were predominant in the rural and urban watersheds, respectively. Analysis by the TaqMan assay showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of L. monocytogenes of 62% versus 17% by the culture-based method. Both methods revealed higher prevalences in the rural watershed and during the fall and winter seasons. Elevated Escherichia coli (≥ 100 CFU/100 ml) levels were not associated with the pathogen regardless of the detection method. Isolation of Listeria spp. were associated with 70 times higher odds of isolating L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 70; P < 0.001). Serogroup IIa was predominant (67.7%) among the 285 L. monocytogenes isolates, followed by IVb (16.1%), IIb (15.8%), and IIc (0.4%). L. monocytogenes was detected in cow feces and raw sewage but not in septic tank samples. Pulsotyping of representative water (n = 54) and local human (n = 19) isolates suggested genetic similarities among some environmental and human L. monocytogenes isolates. In conclusion, temperate surface waters contain a diverse Listeria species population and could be a potential reservoir for L. monocytogenes, especially in rural agricultural watersheds. PMID:25819965

  14. Comparison of the Prevalences and Diversities of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes in an Urban and a Rural Agricultural Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Stea, Emma C.; Purdue, Laura M.; Jamieson, Rob C.; Yost, Chris K.

    2015-01-01

    Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were cultured from 72 and 35% of rural and urban water samples, respectively, with 24% of the positive samples containing two or three different Listeria spp. The L. innocua (56%) and L. welshimeri (43%) groups were predominant in the rural and urban watersheds, respectively. Analysis by the TaqMan assay showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of L. monocytogenes of 62% versus 17% by the culture-based method. Both methods revealed higher prevalences in the rural watershed and during the fall and winter seasons. Elevated Escherichia coli (≥100 CFU/100 ml) levels were not associated with the pathogen regardless of the detection method. Isolation of Listeria spp. were associated with 70 times higher odds of isolating L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 70; P < 0.001). Serogroup IIa was predominant (67.7%) among the 285 L. monocytogenes isolates, followed by IVb (16.1%), IIb (15.8%), and IIc (0.4%). L. monocytogenes was detected in cow feces and raw sewage but not in septic tank samples. Pulsotyping of representative water (n = 54) and local human (n = 19) isolates suggested genetic similarities among some environmental and human L. monocytogenes isolates. In conclusion, temperate surface waters contain a diverse Listeria species population and could be a potential reservoir for L. monocytogenes, especially in rural agricultural watersheds. PMID:25819965

  15. Comparison of the Prevalences and Diversities of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes in an Urban and a Rural Agricultural Watershed.

    PubMed

    Stea, Emma C; Purdue, Laura M; Jamieson, Rob C; Yost, Chris K; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2015-06-01

    Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were cultured from 72 and 35% of rural and urban water samples, respectively, with 24% of the positive samples containing two or three different Listeria spp. The L. innocua (56%) and L. welshimeri (43%) groups were predominant in the rural and urban watersheds, respectively. Analysis by the TaqMan assay showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of L. monocytogenes of 62% versus 17% by the culture-based method. Both methods revealed higher prevalences in the rural watershed and during the fall and winter seasons. Elevated Escherichia coli (≥ 100 CFU/100 ml) levels were not associated with the pathogen regardless of the detection method. Isolation of Listeria spp. were associated with 70 times higher odds of isolating L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 70; P < 0.001). Serogroup IIa was predominant (67.7%) among the 285 L. monocytogenes isolates, followed by IVb (16.1%), IIb (15.8%), and IIc (0.4%). L. monocytogenes was detected in cow feces and raw sewage but not in septic tank samples. Pulsotyping of representative water (n = 54) and local human (n = 19) isolates suggested genetic similarities among some environmental and human L. monocytogenes isolates. In conclusion, temperate surface waters contain a diverse Listeria species population and could be a potential reservoir for L. monocytogenes, especially in rural agricultural watersheds.

  16. Undergraduate Rural Medical Education Program Development: Focus Group Consultation with the NRHA Rural Medical Educators Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Laura H.; Wheat, John R.; Leeper, James D.; Florence, Joseph A.; Boulger, James G.; Hunsaker, Matt L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Over a decade ago, leaders in rural medical education established the Rural Medical Educators (RME) Group, an interest group within the National Rural Health Association, to support faculty in rural medical education programs. This group has convened an annual RME conclave since 2006. In 2008, this conclave convened 15 national leaders in…

  17. Solar-Based Rural Electrification and Micro-Enterprise Development in Latin America: A Gender Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.

    2000-11-16

    Worldwide, an estimated 1.5 to 2 billion people do not have access to electricity, including 100 million in the Latin America region. Depending on the country, 30 to 90% of this unelectrified Latin American population lives in rural areas where geographic remoteness and low energy consumption patterns may preclude the extension of the conventional electricity grid. Women are heavily impacted by the energy scarcity given their role as primary energy procurers and users for the household, agricultural and small industrial subsectors in developing countries. As a result, women spend disproportionately more time engaged in energy-related activities like carrying water and searching for cooking fuel. This paper describes the use of decentralized renewable energy systems as one approach to meet the energy needs of rural areas in Latin America. It outlines the advantages of a decentralized energy paradigm to achieve international development goals, especially as they relate to women. The paper studies Enersol Associates, Inc.'s Solar-Based Rural Electrification model as an example of a decentralized energy program which has merged energy and development needs through the local involvement of energy entrepreneurs, non-governmental organizations and community members.

  18. Agricultural development and emigration: rhetoric and reality.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G; Amon, R; Martin, P L

    1986-01-01

    "The untested premise of trade liberalizing U.S. development programs such as the Caribbean Basin Initiative is that commodity trade can substitute for international labor migration. Analysis of U.S. tomato producing regions in Sinaloa, Mexico and Florida suggests that the effect of trade liberalization on international labor migration is uncertain." The emphasis is on how such development projects might affect the flow of illegal migrants to the United States.

  19. La Communicacion en la educacion de Adultos y el Desarrollo Rural (Adult Literacy and Rural Development). Cuadernos del CREFAL 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vejarano, Gilberto M.; And Others

    This booklet presents the ideas that came out of the Regional Meeting for Adult Literacy and Rural Development. The meeting took place in September 1981 at the Regional Center for Adult Education and Functional Literacy for Latin America (CREFAL) in Mexico. Basically, a discussion of adult literacy in the rural areas of Latin America is presented.…

  20. Expediting Agriculture Through Science Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Fincher, Stephen Lee [R-TN-8

    2011-05-26

    06/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Exposure of farm workers to electromagnetic radiation from cellular network radio base stations situated on rural agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Pascuzzi, Simone; Santoro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field (EMF) levels generated by mobile telephone radio base stations (RBS) situated on rural-agricultural lands were assessed in order to evaluate the exposure of farm workers in the surrounding area. The expected EMF at various distances from a mobile telephone RBS was calculated using an ad hoc numerical forecast model. Subsequently, the electric fields around some RBS on agricultural lands were measured, in order to obtain a good approximation of the effective conditions at the investigated sites. The viability of this study was tested according to the Italian Regulations concerning general and occupational public exposure to time-varying EMFs. The calculated E-field values were obtained with the RBS working constantly at full power, but during the in situ measurements the actual power emitted by RBS antennas was lower than the maximum level, and the E-field values actually registered were much lower than the calculated values.

  2. Considering Professional Identity to Enhance Agriculture Teacher Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulders, Catherine W.; Myers, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    The professional identity secondary agriculture teachers display can affect their receptiveness and interest in different professional development events, yet is often overlooked when designing professional development because it is not included in the consensus of proven methods of professional development design and delivery (Desimone, 2009).…

  3. Rural Development Research: A Foundation for Policy. Contributions in Economics and Economic History, Number 170.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Thomas D., Ed.; And Others

    This book addresses the need for research information that can be used as a foundation for rural development policy. Part I deals with the four components of rural development: education (human capital), entrepreneurship, physical infrastructure, and social infrastructure. Part II examines analytic methods of measuring rural development efforts,…

  4. Charting New Paths: Rural Development in the South. 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State.

    The Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) seeks to strengthen the capacity of the region's 29 land-grant institutions to address critical, contemporary rural development issues impacting the well-being of people and communities in the rural South. Work force development, education, leadership training, food security, civic engagement, urban…

  5. Rural Development in the United States: Connecting Theory, Practice, and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, William A.; Baehler, Karen J.

    This book synthesizes and analyzes much of the theoretical and practical literature on rural economic development and related issues from the past two decades with the aim of initiating construction of a new model for U.S. rural development policy. Part I emphasizes the national and global context within which U.S. rural development must take…

  6. Plan of Work for Rural Development in North Carolina, July 1, 1975 - June 30, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, George, Jr.; And Others

    Serving primarily as a policy group for local Rural Development Panels, the North Carolina Rural Development Committee's major objective for 1976 is to work with local leaders, private businesses and governmental agencies at all levels in planning and implementing comprehensive rural development programs. Specifically, the Committee's objectives…

  7. Education and Rural Development Planning. Report of a Regional Seminar (Bangkok, December 8-16, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The report of a regional seminar on rural development planning specifies as its objectives: to study the problems of rural development planning, and to elucidate training requirements for managers of rural development projects, with particular reference to the links between education and productive work and employment. The first chapter gives…

  8. A random spatial sampling method in a rural developing nation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonrandom sampling of populations in developing nations has limitations and can inaccurately estimate health phenomena, especially among hard-to-reach populations such as rural residents. However, random sampling of rural populations in developing nations can be challenged by incomplete enumeration of the base population. Methods We describe a stratified random sampling method using geographical information system (GIS) software and global positioning system (GPS) technology for application in a health survey in a rural region of Guatemala, as well as a qualitative study of the enumeration process. Results This method offers an alternative sampling technique that could reduce opportunities for bias in household selection compared to cluster methods. However, its use is subject to issues surrounding survey preparation, technological limitations and in-the-field household selection. Application of this method in remote areas will raise challenges surrounding the boundary delineation process, use and translation of satellite imagery between GIS and GPS, and household selection at each survey point in varying field conditions. This method favors household selection in denser urban areas and in new residential developments. Conclusions Random spatial sampling methodology can be used to survey a random sample of population in a remote region of a developing nation. Although this method should be further validated and compared with more established methods to determine its utility in social survey applications, it shows promise for use in developing nations with resource-challenged environments where detailed geographic and human census data are less available. PMID:24716473

  9. [Government policies and actions in Burundi in the area of rural development].

    PubMed

    Mworoha, E

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses policies and actions designed by the government of Burundi to assure food self-sufficiency and to improve living conditions in rural areas. Burundi has had a long history of food self-sufficiency due to good soils, adequate rainfall, and hard work by the rural population. In the past 3 decades, however, the food supply has been threatened by various factors including soil erosion and rapid population increase. The government has undertaken a reforestation program which covered 51,050 hectares in the past 7 years with plans to cover 20% of the national territory by the year 2000. Work has also been done to contain rivers within their courses and to popularize antierosion techniques such as terracing and proper use of pastures. Partly because the population is growing at a rate of 2.7% per year, the average plot available per household is estimated at only 1.3 hectare, rendering efforts to improve productivity imperative. The high cost of chemical fertilizers has forced reliance on compost, and some 6 million compost heaps are now in existence. Agropastoral integration projects are seeking to improve yields through better combinations of livestock and land use. Research to improve the seed supply has already resulted in improved strains of rice, maize, wheat, kidney beans, manioc, sweet potatoes, cotton, tea and coffee. Regional seed production centers are planned to facilitate distribution and adaptation of seeds to each ecological zone. Research is underway to identify appropriate new crops and to extend the ranges of existing crops. To encourage participation of the rural population in agricultural improvement efforts, the government is financing schools and institutions which will train local level agricultural promoters and extension agents. Local governments at all levels, regional development societies, cooperatives and other structures are also being organized to assist farmers. In order to restructure and modernize the rural

  10. [Government policies and actions in Burundi in the area of rural development].

    PubMed

    Mworoha, E

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses policies and actions designed by the government of Burundi to assure food self-sufficiency and to improve living conditions in rural areas. Burundi has had a long history of food self-sufficiency due to good soils, adequate rainfall, and hard work by the rural population. In the past 3 decades, however, the food supply has been threatened by various factors including soil erosion and rapid population increase. The government has undertaken a reforestation program which covered 51,050 hectares in the past 7 years with plans to cover 20% of the national territory by the year 2000. Work has also been done to contain rivers within their courses and to popularize antierosion techniques such as terracing and proper use of pastures. Partly because the population is growing at a rate of 2.7% per year, the average plot available per household is estimated at only 1.3 hectare, rendering efforts to improve productivity imperative. The high cost of chemical fertilizers has forced reliance on compost, and some 6 million compost heaps are now in existence. Agropastoral integration projects are seeking to improve yields through better combinations of livestock and land use. Research to improve the seed supply has already resulted in improved strains of rice, maize, wheat, kidney beans, manioc, sweet potatoes, cotton, tea and coffee. Regional seed production centers are planned to facilitate distribution and adaptation of seeds to each ecological zone. Research is underway to identify appropriate new crops and to extend the ranges of existing crops. To encourage participation of the rural population in agricultural improvement efforts, the government is financing schools and institutions which will train local level agricultural promoters and extension agents. Local governments at all levels, regional development societies, cooperatives and other structures are also being organized to assist farmers. In order to restructure and modernize the rural

  11. Focus on the Future: Options in Developing a New National Rural Policy. Proceedings of Four Regional Rural Development Policy Workshops (Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 19-21, 1988; Syracuse, New York, September 28-30, 1988; Birmingham, Alabama, October 3-5, 1988; and Reno, Nevada, October 11-13, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sue H., Ed.

    Problems in federal rural policy arise in a number of areas: the extreme economic adversity of rural America, failure to acknowledge the higher cost of providing rural services, failure to distinguish between rural programs and agriculture programs, and failure to address specific rural needs. Papers in this collection examine rural development…

  12. Agricultural growth and "trickle-down" reconsidered: evidence from rural India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S D

    1997-08-01

    This examination of the "green revolution" in India considers the totality of State-guided development strategies on the lives of ordinary people through an analysis of data collected during field work in 1990-91, 1993-94, and 1995 in a typical north Indian village. The first part of the report situates the "green revolution" strategy in its larger political-economic context, reviewing the circumstances under which it was launched, the nature of the implementation process, and macrolevel trends. After this introduction, the paper presents the village case study with a description of the physical attributes of the village, its social composition, and patterns of land tenure. This highlights the fact that the larger land-owing interests have been the primary beneficiaries of the "green revolution." Wealthy land-owners have been able to diversify their income sources through the purchase of threshing machinery for their own use and for rental to others, the construction of storage facilities where grain can be withheld until top prices are offered in the market, the processing of sugar cane, and dairy farming. Farmers owning less than 1.5 hectares of irrigated land, however lack the resource base to invest in new agricultural technologies. They either go in debt (with little hope of ever producing enough to eliminate the need for borrowing) to purchase the higher-yielding seeds, fertilizers, and chemical pesticides required by the new methods or they retreat into subsistence farming and hire themselves out as labor. This strategy is seldom resorted to, however, because of the pressures of meeting minimal subsistence needs in a cash economy. The top-down strategies that accompanied agricultural modernization have led to a deterioration in the standard of living of the poor. In addition, the "green revolution" is environmentally unsustainable and, ultimately, will have tragic ramifications for India.

  13. Agriculture and rural out-migration in Central Asia, 1960-91.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, A

    1995-01-01

    "This article seeks to analyse agrarian structure and policy in the Soviet period and discuss their effect on migration from rural to urban areas. In the case of [Soviet] Central Asia, neither the various steps to bring down labour intensity in the farm sector, nor the falling standard of living in rural areas, could bring about migration from rural to urban areas. This was because in traditional societies economic mechanisms are not effective unless they are complemented by appropriate social and cultural policies. All policies were oriented towards the state's goal of vertical integration of regions with the central economy. In Central Asia in particular this policy resulted in serious distortions in the social and economic spheres."

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS
    Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2
    1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA.
    2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA.

    A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

  15. A Proposed Educational Program for Agricultural Development in Iraq.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsamarrae, Hatam Ali

    The general purpose of this study was to develop an educational program for agricultural development in Iraq, and to identify the best method for its implementation. The proposed program was based primarily upon relevant factors identified through data collection from the following sources: official records, current literature, and the writer's…

  16. Agricultural Safety and Health: A Resource Guide. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 40. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joy, Comp.

    This guide lists resource materials that address agricultural occupational injuries and diseases and their prevention. Many of the entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agricultural Library and include journal articles, books, government reports, training materials, and audiovisual materials. The first section…

  17. Horse-Related Injuries among Agricultural Household Members: Regional Rural Injury Study II (RRIS-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkal, Sibel; Gerberich, Susan G.; Ryan, Andrew D.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Renier, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence, associated consequences, and potential risk factors for horse-related injuries among youth and adults residing in Midwestern agricultural households. Methods: Demographic, injury, and exposure data were collected for 1999 and 2001 among randomly selected agricultural households within a 5-state region. A causal…

  18. Rural Business, Economic Development, and Employment in New York State: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

    The First Statewide Legislative Symposium on Rural Development assessed New York's rural business, economic development, and employment potential. Growth in the economic potential of communities, favorable quality of life, and geographic accessibility have supported a decade-long influx of new residents to New York's 44 rural counties. The state…

  19. Study and Analysis on Technology and Development of Information Network of Rural Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiying

    This paper describes the technology and transferring mode of rural power grid’s information network, analyses technology of communication system of electric power grid in rural area, chooses a new develop direction of technique based on the business needs and trend of rural power grids, and gives a route for development.

  20. Educational Planning Methodology for the Integrated Development of Rural Areas. Reports Studies... S.83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A summary of educational planning methodologies tested in Argentina, Guatemala, Brazil, Ecuador, and Bolivia, the document offers opinions and proposals about integrated rural development. Integrated rural development is seen as a social, economic, political, and cultural process in rural areas, designed to improve living conditions. Chapters…

  1. Partnership for Self-Reliant Change: Institute for Integrated Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancey, John

    1994-01-01

    The Institute for Integrated Rural Development in the Maharashtra State of India seeks to break the cycle of poverty through sustainable rural development. It works closely with rural women on health and nutrition education and in other community partnerships based on horizontal structures. (SK)

  2. Working in rural areas – the experiences of Umthombo Youth Development Foundation graduates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruiting and retaining healthcare professionals (HCPs) for rural areas is challenging throughout the world. Although rural origin HCPs have been identified as being the most likely to work in rural areas, only a small number of rural-origin South African scholars are trained as HCPs each year and many do not return to work in rural areas. Aim The aim of this article was to present the experiences of rural-origin HCPs who returned to work in a rural area after graduation. Setting Umthombo Youth Development Foundation has been running an innovating rurally-based scholarship scheme since 1999. By December 2013, 184 students supported by the scheme had graduated and all had returned to work in a rural area for a period of time. Methods This was a qualitative study using a life history methodology to explore the educational experience of six rural-origin HCPs working in rural areas. Results The four themes that emerged from the data were: (1) contribution to service delivery; (2) professional development (3) the challenges and frustrations of working in rural hospitals; and (4) the impact of working as an HCP. Conclusion Rural-origin HCPs are willing to return and work in rural areas. However, context and content factors need to be addressed if a work-back scholarship scheme is to be a long-term strategy for the recruitment and retention of HCPs. PMID:26245423

  3. Farmers' contribution to landscape services in the Netherlands under different rural development scenarios.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Catherine; Sonneveld, Marthijn P W; Stoorvogel, Jetse J

    2012-11-30

    Landscape services represent the benefits human populations derive, directly or indirectly, from (agro-)ecosystem functions at the landscape scale. Many of these services are the result of farmers' decision making to allocate resources to other activities than food production and therefore are the result of farm the adoption of on-farm rural activities. With changing agricultural and rural policies, the future provision of landscape services to fulfill societal demands is not guaranteed. This study aims at mapping the spatial distribution of the adoption of on-farm rural activities under different explorative scenarios. For a Dutch landscape, storylines at the landscape scale were developed by combining global storylines, resulting from the Global Environmental Outlook, with local storylines resulting from key informant interviews. Subsequently these storylines were translated into quantitative scenarios that were implemented into a simulation procedure based on spatially explicit econometric models of farmer's decision making. Results show that further market liberalization leads to a decrease of landscape services in the study area. In our study, only increased cooperation between government, farmers and citizens appears to result in a general increase of all landscape services across the entire landscape.

  4. Enclosure Then and Now: Rural Schools and Communities in the Wake of Market-Driven Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Rochon, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    The following is an historically-based analysis of a new phenomenon affecting rural schools and communities: animal confinement operations. A contrast is made between "enclosure" as it unfolded in England a few centuries ago and the way animal concentration units constitute a second, "modern" form of enclosure today. In both instances, as this…

  5. Math Infusion in Agricultural Education and Career and Technical Education in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    The increased pressure for gains in academic performance in mathematics and science are not going to dissipate, and rural schools must find a way to meet these challenges. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Carl D. Perkins Federal Vocational and Technical Education Act legislations have also put pressure on career and technical education…

  6. The Great Plains Agricultural Frontier and What Lay Ahead for Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Advocates a greater emphasis upon rural history through the study of the farming frontier. Suggests methods for introducing this topic to students. Criticizes Turner's thesis for not recognizing the extent of homesteading after 1890 and for concentrating only on agrarian settlement in the Midwest. (KO)

  7. Development of Literacy Follow-up Materials on Agricultural Vocational Training (Horticulture and Animal Raising) for Adults in Rural Areas. Final Report. Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (11th, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 22-December 3, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This final report contains the proceedings and other materials from a workshop to provide training experience in literacy follow-up materials development to participants from UNESCO member states in the Asia and Pacific region. Focus is on practical agricultural training for adults. The proceedings discuss the objectives of the workshop and…

  8. Malaria knowledge and agricultural practices that promote mosquito breeding in two rural farming communities in Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Agricultural practices such as the use of irrigation during rice cultivation, the use of ponds for fish farming and the storage of water in tanks for livestock provide suitable breeding grounds for anthropophylic mosquitoes. The most common anthropophylic mosquito in Nigeria which causes much of the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria is the anopheles mosquito. Farmers are therefore at high risk of malaria - a disease which seriously impacts on agricultural productivity. Unfortunately information relating to agricultural practices and farmers' behavioural antecedent factors that could assist malaria programmers plan and implement interventions to reduce risk of infections among farmers is scanty. Farmers' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which favour the breeding of mosquitoes in Fashola and Soku, two rural farming communities in Oyo State were therefore assessed in two rural farming communities in Oyo State. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study involved the collection of data through the use of eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and the interview of 403 randomly selected farmers using semi-structured questionnaires. These sets of information were supplemented with observations of agricultural practices made in 40 randomly selected farms. The FGD data were recorded on audio-tapes, transcribed and subjected to content analysis while the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Most respondents in the two communities had low level of knowledge of malaria causation as only 12.4% stated that mosquito bite could transmit the disease. Less than half (46.7%) correctly mentioned the signs and symptoms of malaria as high body temperature, body pains, headache, body weakness and cold/fever. The reported main methods for preventing mosquito bites in the farming communities included removal of heaps of cassava tuber peelings (62.3%), bush burning/clearing (54.6%) and clearing of

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A GUIDE ON RECORD KEEPING AND ANALYSIS IN THE VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE RECORD BOOK FOR PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUNCAN, A. O.

    A GUIDE FOR AGRICULTURAL TEACHERS AND STUDENTS WAS DEVELOPED TO BE HELPFUL TO STUDENTS AS A TEXTBOOK AND TO TEACHERS IN THEIR USE OF THE NATIONAL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE RECORD BOOK FOR PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE IN INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS ON RECORD KEEPING AND ANALYSIS. UNIFORM AND ACCURATE RECORDS ARE EXPECTED TO PROMOTE ACCURACY IN REPORTING THE…

  10. The impact of telecommunication on rural areas in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, P. A. M.; Kwaks, A. M. J.; Bruza, I. V.; Dijk, J.

    1987-12-01

    The economic and social impact of telecommunication in developing countries was studied. The economic impact not only depends on the direct returns of the investment, like tariffs, through the improved communication facilities, other sectors can indirectly profit from the investments too. Especially, in areas with a very low telephone density, the indirect returns of a telecommunication investment are enormous. Technical possibilities for building up transmission links in a rural network include coaxial cables, glass fibers, radio transmission, and satellite communication. In thinly populated rural areas, satellite communication with a single channel per carrier (SCPC) system is a good solution. With a SCPC system few groundstations can be used. These stations are easy to maintain, and use little power. As soon as a satellite channel and two groundstations are operational, transmission is possible, so a SCPC system can be implemented quickly.

  11. Dynamic impacts of socio-economic development in rural Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Several development policies and programs have been enacted to improve the economic vitality, social well-being, and quality of life in rural communities. Predominant among these is the attempt by many rural communities to attract or expand industry to promote economic growth. The main objective of this study is to develop a dynamic interactive model that accommodates the projection of socio economic growth and the impact of additional employment from a new plant in a rural community. The economic account contains projections of business activities, income and employment by sector. A local input-output model is constructed by using the location quotient technique. The Leontief dynamic input-output framework is used to project the output levels by economic sector while considering capital replacement and expansion requirements as well as current consumption. The demographic account uses an age-sex cohort survival method to project population. The annual local labor force is estimated by labor participation rates for each age and sex cohort, and is used to determine the migration activities required to match employment requirements. The public service account is projected by the average standards method, and includes age-specific usage coefficients for local areas. The projections encompass education, medical, housing, criminal justice, fire protection, water supply, water treatment, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and transportation requirements.

  12. Rural Development: Problems and Advantages of Rural Locations for Industrial Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, C. E.; And Others

    The problems and advantages of locating industry in a rural setting were discussed in this conference report. The 10 individual speeches covered: changes in employment and the labor force; problems and advantages of rural locations, rural labor, and site selection; the importance of involving the Black community; the nature of the food processing…

  13. Developing Earth Observations Requirements for Global Agricultural Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Vermote, E.; Justice, C. O.

    2013-12-01

    Recognizing the dynamic nature of agricultural cultivation both within and between years and across the globe, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is developing an agricultural monitoring (GEO-GLAM) system with the goal of enhancing the availability and use of satellite and in situ Earth observations (EO) for the generation of timely and accurate information on national, regional, and global food supply. One of the key components of the GEO-GLAM system is the coordination of satellite observations so as to ensure sufficient and appropriate data volume and quality for agricultural monitoring. Therefore, it is essential that we develop EO requirements which articulate in a spatially explicit way where, when, how frequently, and at what spatial resolution satellite imagery must be acquired to meet the needs of a variety of agricultural monitoring applications. Accordingly, best-available cropland location information ('where?') in conjunction with ten years of MODIS surface reflectance data have been used to characterize the timing and duration of the agricultural growing season ('when?') in the form of agricultural growing season calendars (GSCs) for all major agricultural areas of the Earth. With respect to temporal resolution, we must first identify the frequency with which we require imagery inputs for monitoring applications such as crop condition, crop type, crop yield estimation, and planted and harvested area estimation. Members of the GEO Agriculture Monitoring Community of Practice - a group of international scientists - have combined their knowledge and expertise to articulate these general requirements. Second, we must determine how cloud cover impacts the ability of optical sensing systems to meet these established temporal resolution requirements. To this end, MODIS Terra (morning; 2000-2011) and Aqua (afternoon; 2002-2011) observations have been analyzed to derive probabilities of a cloud free clear view at different times of day throughout the

  14. Rural Community Colleges Developing Perceptions of Self-Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael T.; Tuttle, Courtney C.

    2006-01-01

    Rural America, in direct competition with growing suburban and urban America, has struggled to maintain a high quality of life. Rural out-migration levels are high, as are poverty and illiteracy rates. Rural community colleges have worked to defend and expand opportunities in rural settings, yet face their own challenges tied to resources,…

  15. An Agenda for Research and Development on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.

    Addressing the need for research on rural schools, the Federal Interagency Committee on Education (FICE), Subcommittee on Rural Education, identified six priority topics representing the most compelling concerns of rural education. This pamphlet serves as a stimulus for researchers to study rural education issues and share their findings with the…

  16. Workshop on energy and agriculture in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    A report of a workshop which was convened to review existing issues and to advise the US Agency for International Development of promising opportunities to help solve energy-related problems involving agriculture in developing countries is presented. Reports of the two working groups are included. One group considered energy in agricultural production, including: germ plasma, the mechanization of agricultural production (including and not including germ plasma), fertilizer and biological nitrogen fixation, pest control and water for crop production. The second group examined energy in the post-harvest system, covering: transportation, post-harvest food systems, energy and food consumption systems, and reforestation. Recommendations and conclusions are presented which involve most of these topics. 237 references.

  17. Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, C.; Dettinger, M.D.; Michaelsen, J.C.; Verdin, J.P.; Brown, M.E.; Barlow, M.; Hoell, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by ???15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling 'millions of undernourished people' as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  18. Agricultural development in the context of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, N. D.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change and continued intensification of agriculture are two "mega-trends" that will impact agricultural systems in the coming decades. While often these two trends are analyzed in isolation, recent work describes how climate change has historically offset some crop yield gains that would have otherwise occurred. Here we spatially analyze how these interactions between climate change and agricultural development may continue to 2025. We highlight areas that will be hit hardest by climate change and require aggressive management changes, as well as areas where large productivity increases are likely given current trends. To carry out our analysis we rely on a recently developed climate analog model to produce projections of climate-induced yield changes, projections of business-as-usual crop yield trends utilizing time-series data from ~13,500 agricultural census units, and published estimates of possible crop yield increases from aggressive intervention to close yield gaps. We find that a rich picture of agriculture in 2025 emerges when analyzing these multiple critical drivers. In many regions, existing yield trends or more aggressive management interventions (closing yield gaps) can overcome negative impacts from climate change. Thus, intensification can provide a buffer from near-term climate impacts, but it is unclear how long society may be able to rely on this buffering capacity.

  19. Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies in Rural Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  20. Farmers' perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate. PMID:18810526