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Sample records for agriculture usda forest

  1. Collaboration between the US Forest Service and the USDA Agricultural Research Service on the complementary conservation of crop wild relatives in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two USDA agencies, the Forest Service (USFS) and the Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) are cooperating on the complementary conservation of crop wild relatives (CWR) native to the United States. The USFS manages 193 million acres of National Forest System lands in 43 states and provides suppo...

  2. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, D.R.

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  3. Research careers for microbiologists in the USDA Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) employees microbiologists in a wide variety of diverse positions. This includes work involving animal health, infectious diseases and food safety. Various agencies within the USDA are responsible for monit...

  4. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the SFACs. (b) Local Food and Agriculture Council (LFAC). These councils are composed of... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.18 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...

  5. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the SFACs. (b) Local Food and Agriculture Council (LFAC). These councils are composed of... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.18 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...

  6. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the SFACs. (b) Local Food and Agriculture Council (LFAC). These councils are composed of... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.18 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...

  7. NASA's Agricultural Program: A USDA/Grower Partnership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKellip, Rodney; Thomas, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Ag20/20 is a partnership between USDA, NASA, and four national commodity associations. It is driven by the information needs of U.S. farmers. Ag20/20 is focused on utilization of earth science and remote sensing for decision-making and oriented toward economically viable operational solutions. Its purpose is to accelerate the use of remote sensing and other geospatial technologies on the farm to: 1) Increase the production efficiency of the American farmer; 2) Reduce crop production risks; 3) Improve environmental stewardship tools for agricultural production.

  8. 78 FR 11677 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Apache-Sitgreaves...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ..., Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests, Springerville, AZ, and the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago... Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests and the Field Museum of Natural History... completion of an inventory of human remain under the control of the USDA, Forest Service,...

  9. A Model of Agricultural and Food Research Excellence-USDA/ARS/WRRC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service is the principal in-house research arm of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), responsible for solving agricultural problems of national importance. Included among ARS's 100 locations in the U.S. are regional centers such as the Western Regional Research Cent...

  10. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - USDA BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed during the spring of 1991 which identified areas for waste reduction at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), Beltsville, Maryland. he areas selected for this joint E...

  11. Applications of UAV imagery for agricultural and environmental research at the USDA Southeast Watershed Research Lab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ARS is the USDA's in-house scientific research agency, whose mission is to conduct research to "develop and transfer solutions to agricultural problems of high national priority..." This includes enhancing the natural resource base and the environment, a dimension of particular relevance to the ...

  12. Program review of the USDA Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) has a history that starts in 1932 in Orlando to develop methods to control mosquitoes, including malaria vectors under conditions simulating those of the south Pacific jungles, and other insects affecting man and animals...

  13. Agriculture, forest, and range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the panel for developing a satellite remote-sensing global information system in the next decade are reported. User requirements were identified in five categories: (1) cultivated crops, (2) land resources, (3)water resources, (4)forest management, and (5) range management. The benefits from the applications of satellite data are discussed.

  14. A.C. Hildreth: Initiating USDA agricultural research in Cheyenne

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight months after the October, 1929 Stock Market crash, 36-year-old Aubrey Claire Hildreth resigned his position at the University of Maine Agricultural Station and left the blueberries and cranberries of Orono, Maine, to travel with his family to Cheyenne to assume the duties of Station Superinten...

  15. 76 FR 14647 - Sabine National Forest Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Sabine National Forest Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting, Sabine National Forest Resource Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: In.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Sabine National Forest Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)...

  16. Identifying the future needs for long-term USDA efforts in agricultural animal genomics.

    PubMed

    Green, R D; Qureshi, M A; Long, J A; Burfening, P J; Hamernik, D L

    2007-02-10

    in concert with societal concerns in the areas of natural resource conservation and protection, animal welfare, and food safety, it is clear that publicly supported agricultural research must be focused on enhancing the functionality and well-being of livestock and poultry in environmentally neutral production systems in the future. Realizing the great potential for animal genomics to address these and other issues, a workshop was convened by the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Washington, DC in September of 2004. The workshop was entitled "Charting the Road Map for Long Term USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics". This paper summarizes the proceedings of the workshop and the resulting recommendations. The need for a cohesive, comprehensive long-term plan for all of USDA's research efforts in animal genomics was evident at the workshop, requiring further integration of the efforts of the USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) and the USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) to achieve the greatest return on investment.

  17. 77 FR 51562 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ...The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribe, has determined that the cultural items meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects and repatriation to the Indian tribe stated below may occur if no additional claimants come forward. Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes itself to be......

  18. Comparison of the USGS 2001 NLCD to the 2002 USDA Census of Agriculture for the Upper Midwest United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Wood, E.C.; Janus, A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 2001 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) was compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2002 Census of Agriculture. We compared areal estimates for cropland at the state and county level for 14 States in the Upper Midwest region of the United States. Absolute differences between the NLCD and Census cropland areal estimates at the state level ranged from 1.3% (Minnesota) to 37.0% (Wisconsin). The majority of counties (74.5%) had differences of less than 100 km2. 7.2% of the counties had differences of more than 200 km2. Regions where the largest areal differences occurred were in southern Illinois, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin, and generally occurred in areas with the lowest proportions of cropland (i.e., dominated by forest or grassland). Before using the 2001 NLCD for agricultural applications, such as mapping of specific crop types, users should be aware of the potential for misclassification errors, especially where the proportion of cropland to other land cover types is fairly low.

  19. 76 FR 19952 - Davy Crockett National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Davy Crockett National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting, Davy Crockett National Forest Resource Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: In accordance.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Davy Crockett National Forest Resource Advisory Committee...

  20. 41 CFR 102-75.1080 - What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real property and related personal... the Department of Agriculture (usda) § 102-75.1080 What must the Secretary of Agriculture do...

  1. 41 CFR 102-75.1080 - What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real property and related personal... the Department of Agriculture (usda) § 102-75.1080 What must the Secretary of Agriculture do...

  2. 41 CFR 102-75.1080 - What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real property and related personal... the Department of Agriculture (usda) § 102-75.1080 What must the Secretary of Agriculture do...

  3. 41 CFR 102-75.1080 - What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real property and related personal... the Department of Agriculture (usda) § 102-75.1080 What must the Secretary of Agriculture do...

  4. Agricultural Research: USDA's Outreach to Minority-Serving Institutions Could Improve Grant Competition. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazzaro, Robin M.

    The largest grant program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is the National Research Initiative (NRI). The General Accounting Office (GAO) was asked by Congress to examine the success of minority-serving institutions in competing for NRI research grants and to identify factors that could improve their success in competing for these…

  5. Integrating NASA Satellite Data Into USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board Decision Making Environment To Improve Agricultural Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan; deJeu, Richard; Kempler, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. The goal of the current project is to improve WAOB estimates by integrating NASA satellite precipitation and soil moisture observations into WAOB's decision making environment. Precipitation (Level 3 gridded) is from the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA). Soil moisture (Level 2 swath and Level 3 gridded) is generated by the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) and operationally produced by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GBS DISC). A root zone soil moisture (RZSM) product is also generated, via assimilation of the Level 3 LPRM data by a land surface model (part of a related project). Data services to be available for these products include GeoTIFF, GDS (GrADS Data Server), WMS (Web Map Service), WCS (Web Coverage Service), and NASA Giovanni. Project benchmarking is based on retrospective analyses of WAOB analog year comparisons. The latter are between a given year and historical years with similar weather patterns and estimated crop yields. An analog index (AI) was developed to introduce a more rigorous, statistical approach for identifying analog years. Results thus far show that crop yield estimates derived from TMPA precipitation data are closer to measured yields than are estimates derived from surface-based precipitation measurements. Work is continuing to include LPRM surface soil moisture data and model-assimilated RZSM.

  6. Improving World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates by Integrating NASA Remote Sensing Soil Moisture Data into USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board Decision Making Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W. L.; de Jeu, R. A.; Doraiswamy, P. C.; Kempler, S. J.; Shannon, H. D.

    2009-12-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to expand markets for U.S. agricultural products and support global economic development. The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) supports this goal by developing monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) for the U.S. and major foreign producing countries. Because weather has a significant impact on crop progress, conditions, and production, WAOB prepares frequent agricultural weather assessments, in a GIS-based, Global Agricultural Decision Support Environment (GLADSE). The main objective of this project, thus, is to improve WAOB's estimates by integrating NASA remote sensing soil moisture observations and research results into GLADSE. Soil moisture is a primary data gap at WAOB. Soil moisture data, generated by the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM, developed by NASA GSFC and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) and customized to WAOB's requirements, will be directly integrated into GLADSE, as well as indirectly by first being integrated into USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS)'s Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop model. The LPRM-enhanced EPIC will be validated using three major agricultural regions important to WAOB and then integrated into GLADSE. Project benchmarking will be based on retrospective analyses of WAOB's analog year comparisons. The latter are between a given year and historical years with similar weather patterns. WAOB is the focal point for economic intelligence within the USDA. Thus, improving WAOB's agricultural estimates by integrating NASA satellite observations and model outputs will visibly demonstrate the value of NASA resources and maximize the societal benefits of NASA investments.

  7. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

  8. Theory into practice: implementing ecosystem management objectives in the USDA Forest Service.

    PubMed

    Butler, Kelly F; Koontz, Tomas M

    2005-02-01

    In the United States and around the world, scientists and practitioners have debated the definition and merits of ecosystem management as a new approach to natural resource management. While these debates continue, a growing number of organizations formally have adopted ecosystem management. However, adoption does not necessarily lead to successful implementation, and theories are not always put into practice. In this article, we examine how a leading natural resource agency, the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, has translated ecosystem management theory into concrete policy objectives and how successfully these objectives are perceived to be implemented throughout the national forest system. Through document analysis, interviews, and survey responses from 345 Forest Service managers (district rangers, forest supervisors, and regional foresters), we find that the agency has incorporated numerous ecosystem management components into its objectives. Agency managers perceive that the greatest attainment of such objectives is related to collaborative stewardship and integration of scientific information, areas in which the organization has considerable prior experience. The objectives perceived to be least attained are adaptive management and integration of social and economic information, areas requiring substantial new resources and a knowledge base not traditionally emphasized by natural resource managers. Overall, success in implementing ecosystem management objectives is linked to committed forest managers.

  9. Institutional, Individual, and Socio-Cultural Domains of Partnerships: A Typology of USDA Forest Service Recreation Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seekamp, Erin; Cerveny, Lee K.; McCreary, Allie

    2011-09-01

    Federal land management agencies, such as the USDA Forest Service, have expanded the role of recreation partners reflecting constrained growth in appropriations and broader societal trends towards civic environmental governance. Partnerships with individual volunteers, service groups, commercial outfitters, and other government agencies provide the USDA Forest Service with the resources necessary to complete projects and meet goals under fiscal constraints. Existing partnership typologies typically focus on collaborative or strategic alliances and highlight organizational dimensions (e.g., structure and process) defined by researchers. This paper presents a partner typology constructed from USDA Forest Service partnership practitioners' conceptualizations of 35 common partner types. Multidimensional scaling of data from unconstrained pile sorts identified 3 distinct cultural dimensions of recreation partners—specifically, partnership character, partner impact, and partner motivations—that represent institutional, individual, and socio-cultural cognitive domains. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis provides further insight into the various domains of agency personnel's conceptualizations. While three dimensions with high reliability (RSQ = 0.83) and corresponding hierarchical clusters illustrate commonality between agency personnel's partnership suppositions, this study also reveals variance in personnel's familiarity and affinity for specific partnership types. This real-world perspective on partner types highlights that agency practitioners not only make strategic choices when selecting and cultivating partnerships to accomplish critical task, but also elect to work with partners for the primary purpose of providing public service and fostering land stewardship.

  10. Long-Term Network Experiments and Interdisciplinary Campaigns Conducted by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Cosh, M. H.; Moran, S. M.; Marks, D. G.; Jackson, T. J.; Bosch, D. D.; Rango, A.; Seyfried, M. S.; Scott, R. L.; Prueger, J. H.; Starks, P. J.; Walbridge, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service has led, or been integrally involved in, a myriad of interdisciplinary field campaigns in a wide range of locations both nationally and internationally. Many of the shorter campaigns were anchored over the existing national network of ARS Experimental Watersheds and Rangelands. These long-term outdoor laboratories provided a critical knowledge base for designing the campaigns as well as historical data, hydrologic and meteorological infrastructure coupled with shop, laboratory, and visiting scientist facilities. This strong outdoor laboratory base enabled cost-efficient campaigns informed by historical context, local knowledge, and detailed existing watershed characterization. These long-term experimental facilities have also enabled much longer term lower intensity experiments, observing and building an understanding of both seasonal and inter-annual biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere interactions across a wide range of conditions. A sampling of these experiments include MONSOON'90, SGP97, SGP99, Washita'92, Washita'94, SMEX02-05 and JORNEX series of experiments, SALSA, CLASIC and longer-term efforts over the ARS Little Washita, Walnut Gulch, Little River, Reynolds Creek, and OPE3 Experimental Watersheds. This presentation will review some of the highlights and key findings of these campaigns and long-term efforts including the inclusion of many of the experimental watersheds and ranges in the Long-Term Agro-ecosystems Research (LTAR) network. The LTAR network also contains several locations that are also part of other observational networks including the CZO, LTER, and NEON networks. Lessons learned will also be provided for scientists initiating their participation in large-scale, multi-site interdisciplinary science.

  11. 75 FR 54085 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, Rio Grande National Forest, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice...

  12. 75 FR 64243 - Umatilla National Forest, Walla Walla Ranger District; Oregon Tollgate Fuels Reduction Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Umatilla National Forest, Walla Walla Ranger District; Oregon Tollgate Fuels Reduction Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Forest Service proposes fuels reduction on approximately...

  13. Retrospective Analog Year Analyses Using NASA Satellite Data to Improve USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan

    2011-01-01

    The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted, including maps, charts, and time series of recent weather, climate, and crop observations; numerical output from weather and crop models; and reports from the press, USDA attach s, and foreign governments. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. Because both the amount and timing of precipitation significantly affect crop yields, WAOB often uses precipitation time series to identify growing seasons with similar weather patterns and help estimate crop yields for the current growing season, based on observed yields in analog years. Historically, these analog years are visually identified; however, the qualitative nature of this method sometimes precludes the definitive identification of the best analog year. Thus, one goal of this study is to derive a more rigorous, statistical approach for identifying analog years, based on a modified coefficient of determination, termed the analog index (AI). A second goal is to compare the performance of AI for time series derived from surface-based observations vs. satellite-based measurements (NASA TRMM and other data).

  14. 75 FR 42375 - Kisatchie National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Kisatchie National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... bylaws. (4) Discussion on a project proposal acceptance process. (5) Development of future...

  15. Introduction to the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory Special Rangelands Issue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Labortory (PPRL) in Logan, UT will sponsor an edition of the magazine Rangelands. This paper provides a brief history and overview of the PPRL, mission statement, research objectives by CRIS, and the disciplines involved in the research....

  16. Providing farmers, ranchers, and foresters in California with actionable climate information: opportunities and obstacles for California's USDA Regional Climate Sub Hub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, A. C.; Steenwerth, K. L.; Stine, P.; Chambers, J.; Fischer, C.; Kiger, L.; Hedt, T.; Gonzales, O.; Tse, R.; Tse, A.; Gunasekara, A.; Henly, R.; DeLaRosa, J.; Battany, M.; Pathak, T.; Parker, D.; Schwartz, M.; Tjeerdema, R.; Kalansky, J.; Kehmeier, E.; Xides, A.; Marshall, A.; Jagannathan, K.

    2015-12-01

    California is the #1 agricultural state in the US, with output worth $50 billion in 2014. California produces half the nation's specialty crops (fruits, vegetables, and nuts) and is a leader in beef and dairy production. California also has 10% of the forestland west of the Mississippi, including many economically and ecologically important forest types. The USDA Regional Climate Sub Hub for California was created in 2014 to help land users (farmers, ranchers, and forest land owners) cope with climate variability and change, via two-way linkages with producers of climate information. In its first year and a half, the Sub Hub has formed partnerships with California's many other climate-focused organizations, including state and federal government, universities, and NGOs. The Sub Hub coordinates climate-related work among several USDA agencies (ARS, FS, NRCS, and others), which formerly had no mechanism to do so. The Sub Hub also works with other federal climate programs (such as the DOI's CA Landscape Conservation Cooperative, with which the Sub Hub is engaged in a multi-year assessment to balance conservation and agriculture in the Central Valley). State government agencies, such as the Natural Resources Agency and the Department of Food and Agriculture, are key partners for priority-setting and data-sharing. One of the Sub Hub's crucial synergies is with UC Cooperative Extension, which provides insight into land users' needs and provides an outlet to deliver Sub Hub products on the ground. In response to stakeholder concerns, the Sub Hub's 2015-16 emphasis is the ongoing California drought. The Sub Hub's current stakeholder-focused projects include (1) a climate vulnerability assessment of California rangelands, including detailed maps of likely vegetation change and suggestions for location-specific adaptation options; (2) a comprehensive climate-related update of Cooperative Extension's widely used Forest Stewardship Series for private landowners; (3) a study on

  17. 77 FR 50979 - Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees AGENCY... United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) announces solicitation for nominations to fill vacancies... Agriculture established the Pacific Northwest Provincial Advisory Committees (PACs) to the...

  18. Retrospective Analog Year Analyses Using NASA Satellite Precipitation and Soil Moisture Data to Improve USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan; Mladenova, Iliana; Fang, Fan

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to expand markets for U.S. agricultural products and support global economic development. The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) supports this goal by coordinating monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) for the U.S. and major foreign producing countries. Because weather has a significant impact on crop progress, conditions, and production, WAOB prepares frequent agricultural weather assessments, in a GIS-based, Global Agricultural Decision Support Environment (GLADSE). The main goal of this project, thus, is to improve WAOB's estimates by integrating NASA remote sensing soil moisture observations and research results into GLADSE (See diagram below). Soil moisture is currently a primary data gap at WAOB.

  19. 76 FR 41196 - National Forests in Mississippi, Tombigbee and Holly Springs Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service National Forests in Mississippi, Tombigbee and Holly Springs Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Tombigbee and Holly...

  20. 76 FR 41195 - National Forests In Mississippi, Tombigbee and Holly Springs Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service National Forests In Mississippi, Tombigbee and Holly Springs Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Tombigbee and Holly...

  1. 7 CFR 65.265 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false USDA. 65.265 Section 65.265 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.265 USDA. USDA means the United States Department...

  2. 7 CFR 996.20 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA. 996.20 Section 996.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.20 USDA. USDA means...

  3. 7 CFR 996.20 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA. 996.20 Section 996.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.20 USDA. USDA means...

  4. 7 CFR 65.265 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA. 65.265 Section 65.265 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.265 USDA. USDA means the United States Department...

  5. 7 CFR 60.129 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false USDA. 60.129 Section 60.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections... AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.129 USDA. USDA means the United States Department...

  6. 7 CFR 60.129 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA. 60.129 Section 60.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections... AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.129 USDA. USDA means the United States Department...

  7. 7 CFR 65.265 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA. 65.265 Section 65.265 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.265 USDA. USDA means the United States Department...

  8. 7 CFR 60.129 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA. 60.129 Section 60.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections... AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.129 USDA. USDA means the United States Department...

  9. 7 CFR 65.265 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA. 65.265 Section 65.265 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.265 USDA. USDA means the United States Department...

  10. 7 CFR 996.20 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA. 996.20 Section 996.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.20 USDA. USDA means...

  11. 7 CFR 60.129 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA. 60.129 Section 60.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections... AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.129 USDA. USDA means the United States Department...

  12. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James; Kuper, Phillip; Prados, Donald; Russell, Jeffrey; Ross, Kenton; Gasser, Gerald; Sader, Steven; McKellip, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    This report details one of three experiments performed during FY 2007 for the NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) at Stennis Space Center. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). The intent of the RPC experiment was to assess the degree to which VIIRS data can provide forest disturbance monitoring information as an input to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) as compared to the level of information that can be obtained from MODIS data. The USDA Forest Service (USFS) plans to use MODIS products for generating broad-scaled, regional monitoring products as input to an EWS for forest health threat assessment. NASA SSC is helping the USFS to evaluate and integrate currently available satellite remote sensing technologies and data products for the EWS, including the use of MODIS products for regional monitoring of forest disturbance. Gypsy moth defoliation of the mid-Appalachian highland region was selected as a case study. Gypsy moth is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003; the gypsy moth threatens eastern U.S. hardwood forests, which are also a concern highlighted in the HFRA of 2003. This region was selected for the project because extensive gypsy moth defoliation occurred there over multiple years during the MODIS operational period. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including agricultural efficiency, coastal management, ecological forecasting, disaster management, and carbon management. In this experiment, MODIS data and VIIRS data simulated from MODIS were assessed for their ability to contribute broad, regional geospatial information on gypsy moth defoliation. Landsat and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission

  13. USDA-ARS Highlights and emerging research on agricultural water use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture production accounts for 16% of the $9 trillion gross domestic product, 8% of exports and 17% of employment. Although less than 2% of Americans work on farms, 100% of citizens are users of farm products. Since WWII, the growth of agricultural inputs has remained flat, while productivity h...

  14. An Economic Analysis of USDA Erosion Control Programs: A New Perspective. Agricultural Economic Report No. 560.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Roger, Ed.

    A study analyzed the total (public and private) economic costs and benefits of three U.S. Department of Agriculture erosion control programs. These were the Conservation Technical Assistance Program, Great Plains Conservation Program, and Agricultural Conservation Program. Significant efforts at funding for current programs were directed to…

  15. 41 CFR 102-75.1080 - What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real property and related personal property is not required for the needs of any Federal agency and prior to disposal? 102-75.1080 Section 102-75.1080 Public Contracts and...

  16. Retrospective Analog Year Analyses Using NASA Satellite Data to Improve USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W. L.; Shannon, H. D.

    2011-12-01

    The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted, including maps, charts, and time series of recent weather, climate, and crop observations; numerical output from weather and crop models; and reports from the press, USDA attachés, and foreign governments. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. Because both the amount and timing of precipitation significantly impact crop yields, WAOB often uses precipitation time series to identify growing seasons with similar weather patterns and help estimate crop yields for the current growing season, based on observed yields in analog years. Although, historically, these analog years are identified through visual inspection, the qualitative nature of this methodology sometimes precludes the definitive identification of the best analog year. One goal of this study is to introduce a more rigorous, statistical approach for identifying analog years. This approach is based on a modified coefficient of determination, termed the analog index (AI). The derivation of AI will be described. Another goal of this study is to compare the performance of AI for time series derived from surface-based observations vs. satellite-based measurements (NASA TRMM and other data). Five study areas and six growing seasons of data were analyzed (2003-2007 as potential analog years and 2008 as the target year). Results thus far show that, for all five areas, crop yield estimates derived from satellite-based precipitation data are closer to measured yields than are estimates derived from surface

  17. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  18. USDA Midwest and Northern Forests Regional Climate Hub: Assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Midwest Regional Climate Hub covers the States of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin and represents one of the most extensive and intensive agricultural systems in the world. The Northern Forests Climate Sub Hub shares this footprint and represents people...

  19. The creation and role of the USDA biomass research centers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Five USDA Biomass Research Centers were created to facilitate coordinated research to enhance the establishment of a sustainable feedstock production for bio-based renewable energy in the United States. Scientists and staff of the Agriculture Research Service (ARS) and Forest Service (FS) withi...

  20. 7 CFR 996.21 - USDA laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA laboratory. 996.21 Section 996.21 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.21 USDA laboratory. USDA laboratory means laboratories of the Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural...

  1. 7 CFR 996.21 - USDA laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA laboratory. 996.21 Section 996.21 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.21 USDA laboratory. USDA laboratory means laboratories of the Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural...

  2. 7 CFR 996.21 - USDA laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA laboratory. 996.21 Section 996.21 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.21 USDA laboratory. USDA laboratory means laboratories of the Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural...

  3. 7 CFR 996.21 - USDA laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA laboratory. 996.21 Section 996.21 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.21 USDA laboratory. USDA laboratory means laboratories of the Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural...

  4. 7 CFR 996.21 - USDA laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false USDA laboratory. 996.21 Section 996.21 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.21 USDA laboratory. USDA laboratory means laboratories of the Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural...

  5. A living demonstration of certified organic farming by Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic crop production is the fastest growing portion of U.S. agriculture, increasing a minimum of 20% annually during the last 15 years. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. ...

  6. The Tropical Fruit Research Program of the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical and subtropical fruit crops are of major importance in commercial and subsistence agriculture. The globalization of the economy and the increased demand for healthy and more diverse food products have opened a large market for many of these fruit crops. Despite this fact, increased produc...

  7. 78 FR 38287 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    .... Correction In the Federal Register of June 17, 2013, in FR DOC 2013- 14229 on page 36163 in the second column... Forest Service Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest...

  8. Spatiotemporal patterns of cropland area and net primary production in the central United States estimated from USDA agricultural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Lobell, David B.

    2004-10-01

    The central United States, which is dominated by agriculture, has been selected as the first North American Carbon Program intensive campaign. Data sets that describe spatiotemporal variability in carbon fluxes are needed to support this campaign. Here we report the behavior of county cropland net primary production (NPP) in the first intensive region derived using USDA information together with crop-specific parameters that convert agronomic data into carbon fluxes. Total cropland area in the eight-state region was ~550,000 km2 (40% of total area), with some interannual variability but no temporal trend from 1972 to 2001. Regional production (P) was 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the late 1990s, roughly 64% of the total US crop production. P was highest in the central counties (>1.2 Tg C yr-1). In contrast to area, both NPP (flux per unit area) and P (spatially aggregated flux) increased during the study period (46 and 51%, respectively). Corn was the dominant crop type grown in the region, contributing 58% of the total production, with soybeans second most productive but substantially less (20%) despite similar harvested area. Maximum year-to-year variability in P was high, generally greater than 30% for most counties, though exceeding 80% for some counties.

  9. 77 FR 22755 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... approval of the Board's re-charter package submitted to the Secretary, U.S. Department of Agriculture...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of meetings of the Black Hills National Forest Advisory...

  10. Forest production for tropical America. Agriculture handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, F.H.

    1997-12-01

    This book is concerned primarily with wood production. Without the direct economic returns possible therefrom, the other, less tangible benefits that accrue from forests are in jeopardy in the face of developmental pressures driven by more attractive direct financial incentives. Nevertheless, multiple benefits from forests are inseparable, so the goal should be to make forest productive for all purposes. Forest production, then, as here defined refers to all the values of forests, including those primarily esthetic. The text emphasizes two vital relations. One is that forestry is ecological. Forest managers must be oriented to accept ecological information fundamental to goals and practices. A rift between the two disciplines that exists elsewhere must not intensify in tropical America. Forest production is forestry, not ecology, but intimacy between the two disciplines is mutually vital. The second relation emphasized in the book is that in productive forest management the animal component is as crucial as the plants, The value of animals to forest ecosystems goes far beyond their physical attraction.

  11. 7 CFR 205.311 - USDA Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA Seal. 205.311 Section 205.311 Agriculture... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.311 USDA Seal. (a) The USDA seal described in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section may be used only for raw or...

  12. 7 CFR 205.311 - USDA Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA Seal. 205.311 Section 205.311 Agriculture... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.311 USDA Seal. (a) The USDA seal described in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section may be used only for raw or...

  13. 7 CFR 205.311 - USDA Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA Seal. 205.311 Section 205.311 Agriculture... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.311 USDA Seal. (a) The USDA seal described in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section may be used only for raw or...

  14. 7 CFR 205.311 - USDA Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false USDA Seal. 205.311 Section 205.311 Agriculture... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.311 USDA Seal. (a) The USDA seal described in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section may be used only for raw or...

  15. 75 FR 52716 - Transfer of Land to Forest Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Forest Service Transfer of Land to Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of land.... Department of Agriculture, and on March 16, 2010, the Deputy Chief of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of... Federally owned lands in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico from the Farm Service Agency to the Forest...

  16. 78 FR 76100 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board (Board) will... Committee Act of 1972 (5 U.S.C. App. II), the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of...

  17. 76 FR 68717 - Ashley National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Ashley National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting cancellation. SUMMARY: The Ashley National Forest Resource Advisory Committee was scheduled to meet on November 10, 2011 from 6 to 8 p.m. in the Forest...

  18. 7 CFR 996.20 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.20 USDA. USDA means...

  19. Operational Use of Remote Sensing within USDA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethel, Glenn R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of remote sensing imagery within the USDA is shown. USDA Aerial Photography, Digital Sensors, Hurricane imagery, Remote Sensing Sources, Satellites used by Foreign Agricultural Service, Landsat Acquisitions, and Aerial Acquisitions are also shown.

  20. Developing Poultry Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Melius, C

    2007-12-05

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of poultry diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each poultry type operation within the US. At the present time, the only national database of poultry operations that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data'. The NASS data provides census data at the county level on poultry operations for various operation types (i.e., layers, broilers, turkeys, ducks, geese). However, the number of farms and sizes of farms for the various types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of operation. Furthermore, some data on the number of birds represents the number sold, which does not represent the number of birds present at any given time. In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of birds or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or birds. At the same time, it must account for all the birds, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual poultry operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national poultry facility database with twenty-six facility types (7 egg-laying, 6 broiler, 1 backyard, 3 turkey, and 9 others, representing ducks, geese, ostriches, emus, pigeons, pheasants, quail, game fowl breeders and 'other'). The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to estimate the data that is suppressed

  1. Developing Livestock Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Melius, C; Robertson, A; Hullinger, P

    2006-10-24

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of livestock diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each livestock facility within the US. At the present time, the only national database of livestock facilities that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data.' The NASS data provides facility data at the county level for various livestock types (i.e., beef cows, milk cows, cattle on feed, other cattle, total hogs and pigs, sheep and lambs, milk goats, and angora goats). However, the number and sizes of facilities for the various livestock types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of livestock, and some livestock are of more than one type (e.g., 'other cattle' that are being fed for slaughter are also 'cattle on feed'). In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of animals or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D.'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or animals. At the same time, it must account for all the animals, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual livestock operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national livestock facility database with twenty-eight facility types. The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to estimate the data that is suppressed within the NASS database. The second step converts the NASS livestock types into the operational facility

  2. 7 CFR 930.5 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Department or USDA. 930.5 Section 930.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 930.5 Department or USDA. Department or USDA means the United States Department of Agriculture....

  3. 7 CFR 930.5 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Department or USDA. 930.5 Section 930.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 930.5 Department or USDA. Department or USDA means the United States Department of Agriculture....

  4. 7 CFR 930.5 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Department or USDA. 930.5 Section 930.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Definitions § 930.5 Department or USDA. Department or USDA means the United States Department of Agriculture....

  5. 7 CFR 930.5 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Department or USDA. 930.5 Section 930.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Definitions § 930.5 Department or USDA. Department or USDA means the United States Department of Agriculture....

  6. 7 CFR 930.5 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department or USDA. 930.5 Section 930.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 930.5 Department or USDA. Department or USDA means the United States Department of Agriculture....

  7. Visions of success and achievement in recreation-related USDA Forest Service NEPA processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Marc J.; Blahna, Dale J.; Cerveny, Lee K.; Mortimer, Michael J.

    2009-07-15

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is incorporated into the planning and decision-making culture of all natural resource agencies in the U.S. Yet, we know little about how the attitudes and internal interactions of interdisciplinary (ID) teams engaged in NEPA processes influence process outcomes. We conducted a web-based survey of 106 ID team leaders involved with environmental analyses (EA) or environmental impact statements (EIS) for projects dealing with recreation and travel management on national forests. We explore how they define success in these processes and identify factors most powerfully associated with perceptions of positive outcomes. The survey revealed a tremendous diversity in definitions of success. Strong correlations between the perceived importance of particular indicators of success and their achievement suggest that pre-conceived notions may often help to shape process outcomes. Regression analyses revealed the following factors as the best predictors of ID team leaders' perception of an 'excellent outcome': achievement of the agency mission, whether compromise had taken place between the interested parties, team satisfaction and harmony, timely process completion, and project implementation. Yet, respondents consistently ranked compromise with interested parties and team member satisfaction among the least important measures of successful NEPA processes. Results suggest that clarifying appropriate measures of success in NEPA processes across the agency could make ID team performance more consistent. The research also suggests that greater attention to ID team interactions, both internally and between teams and interested publics, could result in better outcomes.

  8. Locatable mineral reports for Colorado, South Dakota, and Wyoming provided to the U.S.D.A. Forest Service in fiscal years 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Anna B.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The U.S. Geological Survey is required by Congress (under Public Law 86-509) to provide Locatable Mineral Reports to the U.S.D.A. Forest Service whenever National Forest System lands are sold or exchanged. This volume is a compilation of the reports already provided to the Forest Service by the author in fiscal years 2003-2005 (October 2002 - September 2005). Altogether, the reports describe the geology and locatable mineral resource potential of 74 properties offered in 15 land exchange proposals. Approximately 16,207 acres were evaluated: 9,176 acres in 31 Federal parcels and 7,031 acres in 43 non-Federal parcels. The parcels are located in 13 National Forests and three National Grasslands in three States. Fifteen reports are included in this volume. They are grouped by State, then alphabetically by Forest. Each starts with a cover letter and title page. Geologic descriptions of properties, their mineral potential, and references comprise the main body of each report. Legal descriptions (either verbatim or paraphrased from descriptions supplied by the Forest Service) of the property locations are included as attachments designated Exhibits A and B. Also included as attachments are the report request from the U.S.D.A. Forest Service and any index maps, geologic maps, or other figures or illustrations that are provided for the convenience of the Forest Service minerals examiner. The original page numbers for each individual report are retained, the larger number at the bottom of each page is the pagination for this volume.

  9. 7 CFR 1250.509 - USDA costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false USDA costs. 1250.509 Section 1250.509 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulations General § 1250.509 USDA costs. Pursuant to § 1250.347 of the Order, the Board shall pay...

  10. 7 CFR 1250.509 - USDA costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA costs. 1250.509 Section 1250.509 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulations General § 1250.509 USDA costs. Pursuant to § 1250.347 of the Order, the Board shall pay...

  11. 7 CFR 1250.509 - USDA costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA costs. 1250.509 Section 1250.509 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulations General § 1250.509 USDA costs. Pursuant to § 1250.347 of the Order, the Board shall pay...

  12. 7 CFR 1250.509 - USDA costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA costs. 1250.509 Section 1250.509 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulations General § 1250.509 USDA costs. Pursuant to § 1250.347 of the Order, the Board shall pay...

  13. 7 CFR 1207.508 - USDA costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA costs. 1207.508 Section 1207.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Rules and Regulations General § 1207.508 USDA costs. Pursuant to § 1207.341 of the Plan the Board...

  14. 7 CFR 1207.508 - USDA costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA costs. 1207.508 Section 1207.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Rules and Regulations General § 1207.508 USDA costs. Pursuant to § 1207.341 of the Plan the Board...

  15. 7 CFR 1250.509 - USDA costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA costs. 1250.509 Section 1250.509 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulations General § 1250.509 USDA costs. Pursuant to § 1250.347 of the Order, the Board shall pay...

  16. Agricultural capacity and conservation in high biodiversity forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gorenflo, L J; Brandon, Katrina

    2005-05-01

    Agricultural development is a leading cause of habitat destruction that increasingly threatens global biodiversity. To help understand the likelihood and implications of agricultural expansion in areas of high conservation importance, this article examines agricultural suitability in forested portions of biodiversity hotspots and tropical wilderness areas, regions with especially rich concentrations of species found nowhere else. The study employs geographic information system technology to examine suitability for six crop categories in selected conservation localities worldwide: those portions of regions containing high biodiversity, protected areas (e.g. national parks) within these regions, and 10-km bands around the protected areas that are dominated by forest. Analyses reveal low suitability for most crop categories under both commercial and subsistence scenarios, with a few exceptions. In most cases, adequate planning can enable the coexistence of agriculture and biodiversity without compromising either.

  17. 7 CFR 983.10 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Department or USDA. 983.10 Section 983.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.10 Department or USDA. Department or USDA means the...

  18. 7 CFR 63.3 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Department or USDA. 63.3 Section 63.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.3 Department or USDA. Department or USDA means...

  19. 7 CFR 983.10 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Department or USDA. 983.10 Section 983.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.10 Department or USDA. Department or USDA means the...

  20. 7 CFR 1217.7 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Department or USDA. 1217.7 Section 1217.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.7 Department or USDA. Department or USDA means the...

  1. 7 CFR 63.3 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Department or USDA. 63.3 Section 63.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.3 Department or USDA. Department or USDA means...

  2. 7 CFR 983.10 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Department or USDA. 983.10 Section 983.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.10 Department or USDA. Department or USDA means the...

  3. 7 CFR 63.3 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Department or USDA. 63.3 Section 63.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.3 Department or USDA. Department or USDA means...

  4. 7 CFR 1217.7 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Department or USDA. 1217.7 Section 1217.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.7 Department or USDA. Department or USDA means the...

  5. 7 CFR 1217.7 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Department or USDA. 1217.7 Section 1217.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.7 Department or USDA. Department or USDA means the...

  6. 7 CFR 983.10 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Department or USDA. 983.10 Section 983.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.10 Department or USDA. Department or USDA means the...

  7. 7 CFR 63.3 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Department or USDA. 63.3 Section 63.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.3 Department or USDA. Department or USDA means...

  8. Agricultural and forest resource surveys from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    An overview is presented on the use of spaceborne remote sensors as aid to agriculture and forestry for soil mapping, crop yield predictions, acreage determinations, damage assessment, and numerous other benefits. Some results obtained by ERTS 1 are discussed in terms of the significance of information derived and the potential use of these data for better management of our natural resources.

  9. 7 CFR 996.20 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.20 USDA. USDA means...

  10. Avian nest success in midwestern forests fragmented by agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Friberg, M.A.; Niemi, G.J.; Newton, W.E.

    2004-01-01

    Knutson et al. (2004) report the results of an avian nest success study conducted to investigate how forest-bird nest success varied by nest location and type as well as by landscape context from 1996 to 1998 in an agricultural region of southwestern Minnesota, and southwestern Wisconsin, and northeastern Iowa. The authors found an overall Mayfield adjusted nest success of 48%, 82% for cavity-nesting species, and 42% for cup-nesting species. Common species varied from 23% for American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) to 43% for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens). Nest success was lowest for open-cup nesters, species that reject Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) eggs, species that next near forest edges, and Neotropical migrants. These tendencies were consistent across the years of the study. Assessments of nest success considering surrounding landscape metrics indicated that forest area may not be a strong indicator of nest success in landscapes where all the available forests are fragmented.

  11. Avian nest success in midwestern forests fragmented by agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Niemi, G.J.; Newton, W.E.; Friberg, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We studied how forest-bird nest success varied by landscape context from 1996 to 1998 in an agricultural region of southeastern Minnesota, southwestern Wisconsin, and northeastern Iowa. Nest success was 48% for all nests, 82% for cavity-nesting species, and 42% for cup-nesting species. Mayfield-adjusted nest success for five common species ranged from 23% for the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) to 43% for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens). Nest success was lowest for open-cup nesters, species that reject Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) eggs, species that nest near forest edges, and Neo-tropical migrants. The proportion of forest core area in a 5-km radius around the plot had a weakly negative relationship with daily survival rate of nests for all species pooled and for medium or high canopy nesters, species associated with interior and edge habitats, open-cup nesters, and nests located between 75 and 199 m from an edge. The proportion of forest core area was positively related to daily survival rate only for ground and low nesters. Our findings are in contrast to a number of studies from the eastern United States reporting strong positive associations between forest area and nesting success. Supported models of habitat associations changed with the spatial scale of analysis and included variables not often considered in studies of forest birds, including the proportion of water, shrubs, and grasslands in the landscape. Forest area may not be a strong indicator of nest success in landscapes where all the available forests are fragmented.

  12. Locatable Mineral Reports for Colorado, South Dakota, and Wyoming provided to the USDA Forest Service in Fiscal Years 2006-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Anna B.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is required by Congress (under Public Law 86-509) to provide Locatable Mineral Reports to the USDA Forest Service whenever National Forest System lands are sold or exchanged. This volume is a compilation of the reports already provided to the Forest Service by the author in fiscal years 2006-2009 (October 2006-September 2009). Altogether, the reports describe the geology and locatable mineral resource potential of 57 properties offered in 10 land-exchange proposals. Approximately 41,084 acres were evaluated: 19,068 acres in Federal parcels and 22,016 acres in non-Federal parcels. The parcels are located in eight National Forests and one National Grassland in three States. Locatable Mineral Reports provide a summary of the geology and a subjective appraisal of the mineral resource potential of land parcels considered for exchange. Information in each report is based on a review of published maps and reports, unpublished data in U.S. Geological Survey files, the professional expertise of the writer, and interviews with other knowledgeable geoscientists. No visits were conducted to support the reports included in this volume. The mineral resource information provided is used in making relative comparisons of the potential future mineral value of lands being offered in an exchange and in appraising the value of the land. Future mineral potential value is subjectively expressed in qualitative terms using a three-tier nomenclature of 'high,' 'moderate,' and 'low.' In general, 'high' is applied where mineral deposits are present on the property or adjacent to it or there are other indications that the area has been mineralized. 'Moderate' is applied where mineralization is only suspected or where an area possesses some of the same geologic characteristics that are common to areas around known mineral deposits. A 'low' value is routinely applied to all remaining areas, with the understanding that the information required to prove the absence of

  13. Measuring biodiversity and sustainable management in forests and agricultural landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Nigel; Baldock, David; Nasi, Robert; Stolton, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Most of the world's biodiversity will continue to exist outside protected areas and there are also managed lands within many protected areas. In the assessment of millennium targets, there is therefore a need for indicators to measure biodiversity and suitability of habitats for biodiversity both across the whole landscape/seascape and in specific managed habitats. The two predominant land uses in many inhabited areas are forestry and agriculture and these are examined. Many national-level criteria and indicator systems already exist that attempt to assess biodiversity in forests and the impacts of forest management, but there is generally less experience in measuring these values in agricultural landscapes. Existing systems are reviewed, both for their usefulness in providing indicators and to assess the extent to which they have been applied. This preliminary gap analysis is used in the development of a set of indicators suitable for measuring progress towards the conservation of biodiversity in managed forests and agriculture. The paper concludes with a draft set of indicators for discussion, with suggestions including proportion of land under sustainable management, amount of produce from such land, area of natural or high quality semi-natural land within landscapes under sustainable management and key indicator species. PMID:15814357

  14. Measuring biodiversity and sustainable management in forests and agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Nigel; Baldock, David; Nasi, Robert; Stolton, Sue

    2005-02-28

    Most of the world's biodiversity will continue to exist outside protected areas and there are also managed lands within many protected areas. In the assessment of millennium targets, there is therefore a need for indicators to measure biodiversity and suitability of habitats for biodiversity both across the whole landscape/seascape and in specific managed habitats. The two predominant land uses in many inhabited areas are forestry and agriculture and these are examined. Many national-level criteria and indicator systems already exist that attempt to assess biodiversity in forests and the impacts of forest management, but there is generally less experience in measuring these values in agricultural landscapes. Existing systems are reviewed, both for their usefulness in providing indicators and to assess the extent to which they have been applied. This preliminary gap analysis is used in the development of a set of indicators suitable for measuring progress towards the conservation of biodiversity in managed forests and agriculture. The paper concludes with a draft set of indicators for discussion, with suggestions including proportion of land under sustainable management, amount of produce from such land, area of natural or high quality semi-natural land within landscapes under sustainable management and key indicator species.

  15. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education.

    PubMed

    Parker, Joyce E; Wagner, David J

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency's educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students' critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. PMID:27587851

  16. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Joyce E.; Wagner, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency’s educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students’ critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. PMID:27587851

  17. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education.

    PubMed

    Parker, Joyce E; Wagner, David J

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency's educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students' critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country.

  18. 76 FR 8333 - Public Meeting, Cherokee National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... agency #0;statements of organization and functions are examples of documents #0;appearing in this section...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Public Meeting, Cherokee National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting, Cherokee National Forest...

  19. Nutrition Education: USDA Provides Services through Multiple Programs, but Stronger Linkages among Efforts Are Needed. Report to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, U.S. Senate. GAO-04-528

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, David D.

    2004-01-01

    To help improve nutrition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides nutrition education through five of its programs: Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP); Food Stamp Program (FSP); Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); National School Lunch Program (NLP); and Child and Adult Care…

  20. 7 CFR 3022.10 - Reporting to USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting to USDA. 3022.10 Section 3022.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS CONDUCTING USDA-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.10 Reporting to USDA. Following completion of an investigation into allegations of...

  1. 7 CFR 3022.10 - Reporting to USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reporting to USDA. 3022.10 Section 3022.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS CONDUCTING USDA-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.10 Reporting to USDA. Following completion of an investigation into allegations of...

  2. 7 CFR 3022.10 - Reporting to USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reporting to USDA. 3022.10 Section 3022.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS CONDUCTING USDA-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.10 Reporting to USDA. Following completion of an investigation into allegations of...

  3. 7 CFR 3022.10 - Reporting to USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reporting to USDA. 3022.10 Section 3022.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS CONDUCTING USDA-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.10 Reporting to USDA. Following completion of an investigation into allegations of...

  4. 77 FR 1052 - Solicitation of Nominations for Members of the USDA Grain Inspection Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Solicitation of Nominations for Members of the USDA Grain Inspection Advisory Committee AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Notice to solicit nominees. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture's (USDA)...

  5. 76 FR 86 - Solicitation of Nominations for Members of the USDA Grain Inspection Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Solicitation of Nominations for Members of the USDA Grain Inspection Advisory Committee AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Notice to solicit nominees. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture's (USDA)...

  6. 78 FR 74102 - Solicitation of Nominations for Members of the USDA Grain Inspection Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Solicitation of Nominations for Members of the USDA Grain Inspection Advisory Committee AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Notice to solicit nominees. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture's (USDA)...

  7. The USDA Southern Plains Climate Hub: Regional agricultural management in the context of weather and climate variability and change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Southern Great Plains of the United States, extremes of weather and climate are the norm. Farmers, ranchers, and foresters rely upon timely and authoritative data and information when making management decisions that are weather- and climate-dependent. In response to the needs of these agricu...

  8. 7 CFR 1207.508 - USDA costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false USDA costs. 1207.508 Section 1207.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  9. 7 CFR 1207.508 - USDA costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA costs. 1207.508 Section 1207.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  10. 7 CFR 1207.508 - USDA costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA costs. 1207.508 Section 1207.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  11. Agricultural legacies in forest environments: tree communities, soil properties, and light availability.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Kathryn M; Marks, P L

    2007-03-01

    Temperate deciduous forests across much of Europe and eastern North America reflect legacies of past land use, particularly in the diversity and composition of plant communities. Intense disturbances, such as clearing forests for agriculture, may cause persistent environmental changes that continue to shape vegetation patterns as landscapes recover. We assessed the long-term consequences of agriculture for environmental conditions in central New York forests, including tree community structure and composition, soil physical and chemical properties, and light availability. To isolate the effects of agriculture, we compared 20 adjacent pairs of forests that were never cleared for agriculture (primary forests) and forests that established 85-100 years ago on plowed fields (secondary forests). Tree communities in primary and secondary forests had similar stem density, though secondary forests had 14% greater basal area. Species composition differed dramatically between the two forest types, with primary forests dominated by Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia and secondary forests by Acer rubrum and Pinus strobus. Primary and secondary forests showed no consistent differences in soil physical properties or in the principal gradient of soil fertility associated with soil pH. Within stands, however, soil water content and pH were more variable in primary forests. Secondary forest soils had 15% less organic matter, 16% less total carbon, and 29% less extractable phosphorus in the top 10 cm than adjacent primary stands, though the ranges of the forest types mostly overlapped. Understory light availability in primary and secondary forests was similar. These results suggest that, within 100 years, post-agricultural stands have recovered conditions comparable to less disturbed forests in many attributes, including tree size and number, soil physical properties, soil chemical properties associated with pH, and understory light availability. The principal legacies of

  12. Geospatial Modeling and Disease Insect Vector Management at the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geospatial modeling at the Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) is used assist in the surveillance of insect vectors and in the management of insect transmitted diseases. The most recent Geospatial Modeling/Technology Transfer success involves the prediction of Rift Val...

  13. 76 FR 3015 - Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order; Closure of National Forest System Lands To Protect...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... National Forest System Lands To Protect Privacy of Tribal Activities AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... closure of National Forest System lands to protect the privacy of tribal activities for traditional and....'' FCEA authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to ensure access to National Forest System lands, to...

  14. 76 FR 30902 - Shasta Lake Management Unit, Shasta-Trinity National Forest; California; Green-Horse Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... management prescriptions. This project-level amendment is proposed to enable the Forest Service to achieve...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Shasta Lake Management Unit, Shasta-Trinity National Forest; California; Green-Horse Habitat Restoration and Maintenance Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA....

  15. Comparison of neotropical migrant landbird populations wintering in tropical forest, isolated forest fragments, and agricultural habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Colon, J.A.; Estrada, R.; Sutton, A.; Sutton, R.; Weyer, D.; Hagan, John M.; Johnston, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Neotropical migrant bird populations were sampled at 76 sites in seven countries by using mist nets and point counts during a six-winter study. Populations in major agricultural habitats were compared with those in extensive forest and isolated forest fragments. Certain Neotropical migrants, such as the Northern Parula, American Redstart, and the Black-throated Blue, Magnolia, Black-and-white, and Hooded warblers, were present in arboreal agricultural habitats such as pine, cacao, citrus, and shade coffee plantations in relatively large numbers. Many north temperate zone shrub-nesting species, such as the Gray Catbird, White-eyed Vireo, Tennessee Warbler, Common Yellowthroat, and Indigo Bunting, also used agricultural habitats in winter, as did resident hummingbirds and migrant orioles. Ground-foraging migrants, such as thrushes and Kentucky Warblers, were rarely found in the agricultural habitats sampled. Although many Neotropical migrants use some croplands, this use might be severely limited by overgrazing by cattle, by intensive management (such as removal of ground cover in an orchard), or by heavy use of insecticides, herbicides, or fungicides.

  16. Uav for Geodata Acquisition in Agricultureal and Forestal Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidelstürz, P.; Schrenk, L.; Littmann, W.

    2011-09-01

    of German Armed Forces in Neubiberg/Munich and the well-established precision farming company "Konsultationszentrum Liepen" to develop an applicable UAV for precision farming purposes. Currently Cis GmbH and Technologie Campus Freyung, with intense contact to the „flying robot"- team of DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, collaborate to optimize the existing UAV and to extend the applications from data aquisition for biomass diversity up to detect the water supply situation in agricultural fields, to support pest management systems as much as to check the possibilities to detect bark beetle attacks in european spruce in an early stage of attack (green attack phase) by constructing and integrating further payload modules with different sensors in the existing UAV airframe. Also effective data processing workflows are to be worked out. Actually in the existing UAV autopilotsystem "piccolo" (cloudcaptech) is integrated and also a replaceable payload module is available, carrying a VIS and a NIR camera to calculate maps of NDVI diversity as indicator of biomass diversity. Further modules with a 6 channel multispectral still camera and with a spectrometer are planned. The airframe's wingspan is about 3,45m weighting 4.2 kg, ready to fly. The hand launchable UAV can start from any place in agricultural regions. The wing is configured with flaps, allowing steep approaches and short landings using a „butterfly" brake configuration. In spite of the lightweight configuration the UAV yet proves its worth under windy baltic wether situations by collecting regular sharp images of fields under wind speed up to 15m/s (Beaufort 6 -7). In further projects the development of further payload modules and a user friendly flight planning tool is scheduled considering different payload - and airframe requirements for different precision farming purposes and forest applications. Data processing and workflow will be optimized. Cooperation with further partners to establish UAV systems in agricultural

  17. Rhizoctonia Crown and Root Rot Resistance of Beta Plant Introductions from the USDA, Agricultural Research Service's National Plant Germplasm System, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty wild beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang) plant introduction (PI) accessions from the Beta collection of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System were screened for resistance to Rhizoctonia root and crown rot, at the USDA-ARS Fort Collins, CO Research Farm. The Rhizoctonia sc...

  18. 7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... USDA Farmers Market? 170.14 Section 170.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.14 What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?...

  19. 7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USDA Farmers Market? 170.14 Section 170.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.14 What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?...

  20. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers...

  1. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers...

  2. 7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... USDA Farmers Market? 170.14 Section 170.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.14 What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?...

  3. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers...

  4. 7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USDA Farmers Market? 170.14 Section 170.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.14 What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?...

  5. 7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USDA Farmers Market? 170.14 Section 170.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.14 What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?...

  6. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers...

  7. DEPOSITION VELOCITIES OF SO2 AND O3 OVER AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of field studies that measured the flux and deposition velocity of SO2 and O3 are reported. Three of the studies were over agricultural crops (pasture, corn, and soybean), and two were over forest (a deciduous forest and a mixed coniferous - deciduous forest). In al...

  8. Effective radium concentration in agricultural versus forest topsoils.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Frédéric; Girault, Frédéric; Bouquerel, Hélène; Bollinger, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Effective radium-226 activity concentration (ECRa), the radon-222 source term, was measured in the laboratory with 724 topsoil samples collected over a ∼110 km(2) area located ∼20 km south of Paris, France. More than 2100 radon accumulation experiments were performed, with radon concentration measured using scintillation flasks, leading to relative uncertainties on ECRa varying from 10% for ECRa = 2 Bq⋅kg(-1) to less than 6% for ECRa > 5 Bq⋅kg(-1). Small-scale dispersion, studied at one location with 12 samples, and systematically at 100 locations with three topsoils separated by 1 m, was of the order of 7%, demonstrating that a single soil sample is reasonably representative. Agricultural topsoils (n = 540) had an average (arithmetic) ECRa of 8.09 ± 0.11 Bq⋅kg(-1), and a range from 2.80 ± 0.22 to 19.5 ± 1.1 Bq⋅kg(-1), while forest topsoils (n = 184), with an average of 3.21 ± 0.14 Bq⋅kg(-1) and a range from 0.45 ± 0.12 to 9.09 ± 0.55 Bq⋅kg(-1), showed a clear systematic reduction of ECRa when compared with the closest agricultural soil sample. Large-scale organization of ECRa was impressive for agricultural topsoils, with homogeneous domains of several kilometers size, characterized by smooth variations smaller than 10%. These patches emerged despite heavy human remodeling; they are controlled by the main geographical units, but do not necessarily coincide with them. Valleys were characterized by larger dispersion and less organization. This study illustrates how biosphere and anthroposphere modify the soil distribution inherited from geological processes, an important baseline needed for the study of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the observed depletion of forest topsoils suggests an atmospheric radon signature of deforestation. PMID:27176109

  9. 7 CFR 996.22 - USDA-approved laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA-approved laboratory. 996.22 Section 996.22... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.22 USDA-approved laboratory. USDA-approved laboratory means laboratories approved by the Science and Technology...

  10. 7 CFR 996.22 - USDA-approved laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA-approved laboratory. 996.22 Section 996.22... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.22 USDA-approved laboratory. USDA-approved laboratory means laboratories approved by the Science and Technology...

  11. 7 CFR 996.22 - USDA-approved laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false USDA-approved laboratory. 996.22 Section 996.22... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.22 USDA-approved laboratory. USDA-approved laboratory means laboratories approved by the Science and Technology...

  12. 7 CFR 996.22 - USDA-approved laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA-approved laboratory. 996.22 Section 996.22... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.22 USDA-approved laboratory. USDA-approved laboratory means laboratories approved by the Science and Technology...

  13. 7 CFR 996.22 - USDA-approved laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA-approved laboratory. 996.22 Section 996.22... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.22 USDA-approved laboratory. USDA-approved laboratory means laboratories approved by the Science and Technology...

  14. 7 CFR 3406.6 - USDA agency cooperator requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA agency cooperator requirement. 3406.6 Section... PROGRAM Program Description § 3406.6 USDA agency cooperator requirement. (a) Each application must provide documentation that at least one USDA agency or office has agreed to cooperate with the applicant institution...

  15. Joint USDA/DOE meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This documents contains the details from the USDA/USDOE meeting on April 11--12, 1994. Topics discussed include: genetic research, environmental research, renewable energy sources, food supply, improved fertilizers, new pesticides, research programs combining the efforts of the two agencies to develop new products for use in the agriculture industry, environmentally safe products, getting more with less money, and various other subjects dealing with how cooperation among these agencies can improve the agriculture industry.

  16. 75 FR 25197 - Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and Fuels Hazard Reduction Project AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare...

  17. 78 FR 69814 - Revision of the Land Management Plan for El Yunque National Forest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... preliminary ``need for change'' and a proposed action for the land management plan revision. DATES: A draft of...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Revision of the Land Management Plan for El Yunque National Forest AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Initiating the development of a land management...

  18. Examining shifts in Carabidae assemblages across a forest-agriculture ecotone.

    PubMed

    Leslie, T W; Biddinger, D J; Rohr, J R; Hulting, A G; Mortensen, D A; Fleischer, S J

    2014-02-01

    Northeastern U.S. farms are often situated adjacent to forestland due to the heterogeneous nature of the landscape. We investigated how forested areas influence Carabidae diversity within nearby crop fields by establishing transects of pitfall traps. Trapping extended across a forest-agriculture ecotone consisting of maize, an intermediate mowed grass margin, and a forest edge. Carabidae diversity was compared among the three habitats, and community and population dynamics were assessed along the transect. We used a principal response curve to examine and visualize community change across a spatial gradient. The highest levels of richness and evenness were observed in the forest community, and carabid assemblages shifted significantly across the ecotone, especially at the forest-grass interface. Despite strong ecotone effects, population distributions showed that some species were found in all three habitats and seemed to thrive at the ecotone. Based on similarity indices, carabid assemblages collected in maize adjacent to forest differed from carabid assemblages in maize not adjacent to forest. We conclude that forest carabid assemblages exhibit high degrees of dissimilarity with those found in agricultural fields and forested areas should thus be retained in agricultural landscapes to increase biodiversity at the landscape scale. However, ecotone species found at forest edges can still noticeably influence carabid community composition within neighboring agricultural fields. Further studies should determine how these shifts in carabid assemblages influence agroecosystem services in relation to ecosystem services observed in fields embedded in an agricultural matrix.

  19. Examining shifts in Carabidae assemblages across a forest-agriculture ecotone.

    PubMed

    Leslie, T W; Biddinger, D J; Rohr, J R; Hulting, A G; Mortensen, D A; Fleischer, S J

    2014-02-01

    Northeastern U.S. farms are often situated adjacent to forestland due to the heterogeneous nature of the landscape. We investigated how forested areas influence Carabidae diversity within nearby crop fields by establishing transects of pitfall traps. Trapping extended across a forest-agriculture ecotone consisting of maize, an intermediate mowed grass margin, and a forest edge. Carabidae diversity was compared among the three habitats, and community and population dynamics were assessed along the transect. We used a principal response curve to examine and visualize community change across a spatial gradient. The highest levels of richness and evenness were observed in the forest community, and carabid assemblages shifted significantly across the ecotone, especially at the forest-grass interface. Despite strong ecotone effects, population distributions showed that some species were found in all three habitats and seemed to thrive at the ecotone. Based on similarity indices, carabid assemblages collected in maize adjacent to forest differed from carabid assemblages in maize not adjacent to forest. We conclude that forest carabid assemblages exhibit high degrees of dissimilarity with those found in agricultural fields and forested areas should thus be retained in agricultural landscapes to increase biodiversity at the landscape scale. However, ecotone species found at forest edges can still noticeably influence carabid community composition within neighboring agricultural fields. Further studies should determine how these shifts in carabid assemblages influence agroecosystem services in relation to ecosystem services observed in fields embedded in an agricultural matrix. PMID:24342103

  20. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  1. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  2. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  3. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  4. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  5. 75 FR 6622 - The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Proposes to Revise Three of Its Privacy Act Systems of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... tape files and disk files are kept in a locked computer room and tape library, which can be accessed by... contractors to protect private information and follow USDA privacy policy. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL:...

  6. 7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...,” 41 CFR 20.3. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...

  7. 7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...,” 41 CFR 20.3. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...

  8. 7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...,” 41 CFR 20.3. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...

  9. 7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...,” 41 CFR 20.3. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...

  10. 75 FR 45656 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siuslaw National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siuslaw National Forest, Waldport, OR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siuslaw National Forest, Waldport, OR. The human remains...

  11. USDA Regional Climate Hubs - Partnering to bring information and tools to managers of working lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R.

    2014-12-01

    In February 2014, USDA announced the location of seven Regional Hubs for Risk Adaptation and Mitigation to Climate Change (Climate Hubs) and three "Sub Hubs". The mission of these Climate Hubs is to develop and deliver science-based region-specific information and technologies to agricultural and natural resource managers that enable climate-smart decision-making and to direct land managers to USDA programs that can assist them in implementing those decisions. This mission is similar to that of Cooperative Extension and the Agricultural Experiment Stations (both of which benefit from USDA funding); therefore it is crucial that we partner with Land Grant Universities in order to achieve this mission. As USDA stands up these Climate Hubs we are working closely with USDA agencies, Land Grant Universities, other federal climate science programs, and other partners to determine how best to provide usable information and tools to farmers, ranchers and forest land managers to enable them to make climate-smart decisions.

  12. Impacts of climate change on Southwestern working lands and water resources: a report from the inaugural year of the USDA Southwest climate hub

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In February 2014 the USDA established seven regional climate hubs to assist farmers, ranchers and foresters in adapting to the effects of climate change. The SW region encompasses six states (including Hawaii) and provides highly diverse agricultural crops including cotton, stone fruit and grapes. ...

  13. 77 FR 39506 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Tongass National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... a skull. The skull was later seized as a part of a criminal investigation on January 2, 1990. The... the skull to Seattle, WA, for a time and eventually sent it to the resident in Hydaburg. The USDA Forest Service took possession of the skull, and it was stored at the Craig Ranger District where...

  14. 76 FR 29721 - Lost River and Challis-Yankee Fork Ranger Districts, Salmon-Challis National Forest; ID; Lost...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Lost River and Challis-Yankee Fork Ranger Districts, Salmon- Challis National Forest; ID; Lost River/Lemhi Grazing Allotments Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA....

  15. Forest Technician. 2+2 Articulated Curriculum in Agricultural Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Walter

    This 2+2 articulated curriculum for the occupation of forest technician includes the following: program results and benefits; job description--forest technician; curriculum objective; duty and task listings for forest technician; recommended secondary and postsecondary course options flowchart; recommended student prerequisites; basic outlines for…

  16. 7 CFR 3.79 - Review of USDA records related to the debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review of USDA records related to the debt. 3.79....79 Review of USDA records related to the debt. (a) Notification by employee. An employee who intends to inspect or copy USDA records related to the debt must send a letter to USDA stating his or...

  17. 7 CFR 3.79 - Review of USDA records related to the debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review of USDA records related to the debt. 3.79....79 Review of USDA records related to the debt. (a) Notification by employee. An employee who intends to inspect or copy USDA records related to the debt must send a letter to USDA stating his or...

  18. 7 CFR 3.79 - Review of USDA records related to the debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review of USDA records related to the debt. 3.79....79 Review of USDA records related to the debt. (a) Notification by employee. An employee who intends to inspect or copy USDA records related to the debt must send a letter to USDA stating his or...

  19. 7 CFR 3.79 - Review of USDA records related to the debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of USDA records related to the debt. 3.79....79 Review of USDA records related to the debt. (a) Notification by employee. An employee who intends to inspect or copy USDA records related to the debt must send a letter to USDA stating his or...

  20. 7 CFR 3.79 - Review of USDA records related to the debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review of USDA records related to the debt. 3.79....79 Review of USDA records related to the debt. (a) Notification by employee. An employee who intends to inspect or copy USDA records related to the debt must send a letter to USDA stating his or...

  1. Emissions from Combustion of Open Area Sources: Prescribed Forest and Agricultural Burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from wildfires and prescribed forest and agricultural burns generate a variety of emissions that can cause adverse health effects for humans, contribute to climate change, and decrease visibility. Only limited pollutant data are available for these sources, particularly...

  2. Global pattern of soil carbon losses due to the conversion of forests to agricultural land

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaorong; Shao, Mingan; Gale, William; Li, Linhai

    2014-01-01

    Several reviews have analyzed the factors that affect the change in soil organic C (SOC) when forest is converted to agricultural land; however, the effects of forest type and cultivation stage on these changes have generally been overlooked. We collated observations from 453 paired or chronosequential sites where forests have been converted to agricultural land and then assessed the effects of forest type, cultivation stage, climate factors, and soil properties on the change in the SOC stock and the SOC turnover rate constant (k). The percent decrease in SOC stocks and the turnover rate constants both varied significantly according to forest type and cultivation stage. The largest decrease in SOC stocks was observed in temperate regions (52% decrease), followed by tropical regions (41% decrease) and boreal regions (31% decrease). Climate and soil factors affected the decrease in SOC stocks. The SOC turnover rate constant after the conversion of forests to agricultural land increased with the mean annual precipitation and temperature. To our knowledge, this is the first time that original forest type was considered when evaluating changes in SOC after being converted to agricultural land. The differences between forest types should be considered when calculating global changes in SOC stocks. PMID:24513580

  3. 7 CFR 15f.2 - Who may use these procedures for processing their discrimination complaint with USDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... discrimination complaint with USDA? 15f.2 Section 15f.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture... USDA? A person may use these procedures if he or she filed a nonemployment related discrimination complaint with USDA prior to July 1, 1997, that alleged discrimination by USDA at any time during the...

  4. 7 CFR 15f.2 - Who may use these procedures for processing their discrimination complaint with USDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... discrimination complaint with USDA? 15f.2 Section 15f.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture... USDA? A person may use these procedures if he or she filed a nonemployment related discrimination complaint with USDA prior to July 1, 1997, that alleged discrimination by USDA at any time during the...

  5. 7 CFR 15f.2 - Who may use these procedures for processing their discrimination complaint with USDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... discrimination complaint with USDA? 15f.2 Section 15f.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture... USDA? A person may use these procedures if he or she filed a nonemployment related discrimination complaint with USDA prior to July 1, 1997, that alleged discrimination by USDA at any time during the...

  6. 7 CFR 15f.2 - Who may use these procedures for processing their discrimination complaint with USDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... discrimination complaint with USDA? 15f.2 Section 15f.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture... USDA? A person may use these procedures if he or she filed a nonemployment related discrimination complaint with USDA prior to July 1, 1997, that alleged discrimination by USDA at any time during the...

  7. 7 CFR 15f.2 - Who may use these procedures for processing their discrimination complaint with USDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... discrimination complaint with USDA? 15f.2 Section 15f.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture... USDA? A person may use these procedures if he or she filed a nonemployment related discrimination complaint with USDA prior to July 1, 1997, that alleged discrimination by USDA at any time during the...

  8. 7 CFR 3406.6 - USDA agency cooperator requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false USDA agency cooperator requirement. 3406.6 Section... AND AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3406.6 USDA agency cooperator requirement. (a) Each application must provide documentation that at least one...

  9. 7 CFR 3406.6 - USDA agency cooperator requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA agency cooperator requirement. 3406.6 Section... AND AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3406.6 USDA agency cooperator requirement. (a) Each application must provide documentation that at least one...

  10. 7 CFR 3406.6 - USDA agency cooperator requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA agency cooperator requirement. 3406.6 Section... AND AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3406.6 USDA agency cooperator requirement. (a) Each application must provide documentation that at least one...

  11. 7 CFR 3406.6 - USDA agency cooperator requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA agency cooperator requirement. 3406.6 Section... AND AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3406.6 USDA agency cooperator requirement. (a) Each application must provide documentation that at least one...

  12. Global forest cover mapping for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization forest resources assessment 2000 program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Z.; Waller, E.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries periodically produce national reports on the status and changes of forest resources, using statistical surveys and spatial mapping of remotely sensed data. At the global level, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has conducted a Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) program every 10 yr since 1980, producing statistics and analysis that give a global synopsis of forest resources in the world. For the year 2000 of the FRA program (FRA2000), a global forest cover map was produced to provide spatial context to the extensive survey. The forest cover map, produced at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC), has five classes: closed forest, open or fragmented forest, other wooded land, other land cover, and water. The first two forested classes at the global scale were delineated using combinations of temporal compositing, modified mixture analysis, geographic stratification, and other classification techniques. The remaining three FAO classes were derived primarily from the USGS global land cover characteristics database (Loveland et al. 1999). Validated on the basis of existing reference data sets, the map is estimated to be 77% accurate for the first four classes (no reference data were available for water), and 86% accurate for the forest and nonforest classification. The final map will be published as an insert to the FAO FRA2000 report.

  13. Geochemical investigations and interim recommendations for priority abandoned mine sites on U.S.D.A. Forest Service lands, Mineral Creek watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Field observations, sampling of mine dumps and mine drainage waters, and laboratory studies of dump materials have been made at mining areas deemed to be on public lands administered by the USDA Forest Service in the Mineral Creek watershed. Results of chemical analyses of dump materials, leachates of those materials, and of surface waters draining mines or dumps provide indications of where acid is generated or consumed, and what metals are mobilized below mines or dumps. Information on 25 sites is reviewed and reclamation priorities are ranked into four classes (high, medium, low priority, or no work required). The western side of the upper Animas watershed (the Mineral Creek watershed) has a history of mining and prospecting for about 130 years. The intensity of miningrelated disturbance is higher than in most parts of the San Juan Mountains region, but actually is much less than the eastern half of the watershed (US BLM lands) and none of the mines moved millions of tons of rock and ore as in some of the eastern mines. The majority of the roughly one thousand mining sites on the USFS lands are very small (less than 100 tons or 70 cubic yards of dump material), are more than 2 miles from a major stream, or are so inaccessible as to prohibit reclamation. Twenty five sites have been considered by others to have significant size and potential for significant environmental degradation. These most significant mining areas were evaluated by multiple criteria, including tendency to generate acid or liberate toxic metals, observed acidic pH or dead vegetation (?kill zones?) below dumps or adits, potential mobility of metals, and likelihood of transport into streams of the watershed. In the author?s opinion, no single measurable parameter, such as metal concentration, is reliable for ranking significance or feasibility of reclamation. Rather, subjective estimates are required to evaluate combinations of, or interactions among, several parameters. The most subjective

  14. An update on USDA swine gene banking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP) collects, preserves, evaluates and utilizes germplasm (semen, eggs, embryos, DNA) from all of the agricultural species in the US in order to create a secure collection. The material can be released for any of a number...

  15. 7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.4 Section 170.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who...

  16. 7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.4 Section 170.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who...

  17. 7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.4 Section 170.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who...

  18. 7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.4 Section 170.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who...

  19. 7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? Yes. A producer-only market is one that does not...

  20. 7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? Yes. A producer-only market is one that does not...

  1. 7 CFR 3022.4 - USDA Panel to determine appropriateness of research misconduct policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA Panel to determine appropriateness of research...) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS CONDUCTING USDA-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.4 USDA Panel to determine appropriateness...

  2. 7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no fees charged...

  3. 7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no fees charged...

  4. 7 CFR 3022.6 - Notification of USDA of allegations of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of USDA of allegations of research... OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS CONDUCTING USDA-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.6 Notification of USDA of allegations of...

  5. 7 CFR 3022.6 - Notification of USDA of allegations of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification of USDA of allegations of research... OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS CONDUCTING USDA-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.6 Notification of USDA of allegations of...

  6. 7 CFR 3022.6 - Notification of USDA of allegations of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of USDA of allegations of research... OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS CONDUCTING USDA-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.6 Notification of USDA of allegations of...

  7. 7 CFR 170.3 - What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.3 What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market? Products that may be sold at the market include, but...

  8. 7 CFR 170.3 - What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.3 What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market? Products that may be sold at the market include, but...

  9. 7 CFR 170.3 - What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.3 What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market? Products that may be sold at the market include, but...

  10. 7 CFR 170.3 - What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.3 What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market? Products that may be sold at the market include, but...

  11. 7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? Yes. A producer-only market is one that does not...

  12. 7 CFR 3022.6 - Notification of USDA of allegations of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification of USDA of allegations of research... OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS CONDUCTING USDA-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.6 Notification of USDA of allegations of...

  13. 7 CFR 3022.4 - USDA Panel to determine appropriateness of research misconduct policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA Panel to determine appropriateness of research...) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS CONDUCTING USDA-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.4 USDA Panel to determine appropriateness...

  14. 7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no fees charged...

  15. 7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no fees charged...

  16. 7 CFR 170.3 - What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.3 What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market? Products that may be sold at the market include, but...

  17. 7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no fees charged...

  18. Responses of soil fungi to logging and oil palm agriculture in Southeast Asian tropical forests.

    PubMed

    McGuire, K L; D'Angelo, H; Brearley, F Q; Gedallovich, S M; Babar, N; Yang, N; Gillikin, C M; Gradoville, R; Bateman, C; Turner, B L; Mansor, P; Leff, J W; Fierer, N

    2015-05-01

    Human land use alters soil microbial composition and function in a variety of systems, although few comparable studies have been done in tropical forests and tropical agricultural production areas. Logging and the expansion of oil palm agriculture are two of the most significant drivers of tropical deforestation, and the latter is most prevalent in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to compare soil fungal communities from three sites in Malaysia that represent three of the most dominant land-use types in the Southeast Asia tropics: a primary forest, a regenerating forest that had been selectively logged 50 years previously, and a 25-year-old oil palm plantation. Soil cores were collected from three replicate plots at each site, and fungal communities were sequenced using the Illumina platform. Extracellular enzyme assays were assessed as a proxy for soil microbial function. We found that fungal communities were distinct across all sites, although fungal composition in the regenerating forest was more similar to the primary forest than either forest community was to the oil palm site. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are important associates of the dominant Dipterocarpaceae tree family in this region, were compositionally distinct across forests, but were nearly absent from oil palm soils. Extracellular enzyme assays indicated that the soil ecosystem in oil palm plantations experienced altered nutrient cycling dynamics, but there were few differences between regenerating and primary forest soils. Together, these results show that logging and the replacement of primary forest with oil palm plantations alter fungal community and function, although forests regenerating from logging had more similarities with primary forests in terms of fungal composition and nutrient cycling potential. Since oil palm agriculture is currently the mostly rapidly expanding equatorial crop and logging is pervasive across tropical ecosystems, these findings may have broad applicability.

  19. Structure and composition of altered riparian forests in an agricultural Amazonian landscape.

    PubMed

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Brando, Paulo; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; do Nascimento, Sebastiâo Aviz

    2015-09-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation influence the microclimate, vegetation structure, and composition of remaining patches of tropical forest. In the southern Amazon, at the frontier of cropland expansion, forests are converted and fragmented in a pattern that leaves standing riparian forests whose dimensions are mandated by the Brazilian National Forest Code. These altered riparian forests share many characteristics of well-studied upland forest fragments, but differ because they remain connected to larger areas of forest downstream, and because they may experience wetter soil conditions because reduction of forest cover in the surrounding watershed raises groundwater levels and increases stream runoff. We compared forest regeneration, structure, composition, and diversity in four areas of intact riparian forest and four areas each of narrow, medium, and wide altered riparian forests that have been surrounded by agriculture since the early 1980s. We found that seedling abundance was reduced by as much as 64% and sapling abundance was reduced by as much as 67% in altered compared to intact riparian forests. The most pronounced differences between altered and intact forest occurred near forest edges and within the narrowest sections of altered riparian forests. Woody plant species composition differed and diversity was reduced in altered forests compared to intact riparian forests. However, despite being fragmented for several decades, large woody plant biomass and carbon storage, the number of live or dead large woody plants, mortality rates, and the size distribution of woody plants did not differ significantly between altered and intact riparian forests. Thus, even in these relatively narrow forests with high edge: area ratios, we saw no evidence of the increases in mortality and declines in biomass that have been found in other tropical forest fragment studies. However, because of the changes in both species community and reduced regeneration, it is unclear how long

  20. Structure and composition of altered riparian forests in an agricultural Amazonian landscape.

    PubMed

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Brando, Paulo; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; do Nascimento, Sebastiâo Aviz

    2015-09-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation influence the microclimate, vegetation structure, and composition of remaining patches of tropical forest. In the southern Amazon, at the frontier of cropland expansion, forests are converted and fragmented in a pattern that leaves standing riparian forests whose dimensions are mandated by the Brazilian National Forest Code. These altered riparian forests share many characteristics of well-studied upland forest fragments, but differ because they remain connected to larger areas of forest downstream, and because they may experience wetter soil conditions because reduction of forest cover in the surrounding watershed raises groundwater levels and increases stream runoff. We compared forest regeneration, structure, composition, and diversity in four areas of intact riparian forest and four areas each of narrow, medium, and wide altered riparian forests that have been surrounded by agriculture since the early 1980s. We found that seedling abundance was reduced by as much as 64% and sapling abundance was reduced by as much as 67% in altered compared to intact riparian forests. The most pronounced differences between altered and intact forest occurred near forest edges and within the narrowest sections of altered riparian forests. Woody plant species composition differed and diversity was reduced in altered forests compared to intact riparian forests. However, despite being fragmented for several decades, large woody plant biomass and carbon storage, the number of live or dead large woody plants, mortality rates, and the size distribution of woody plants did not differ significantly between altered and intact riparian forests. Thus, even in these relatively narrow forests with high edge: area ratios, we saw no evidence of the increases in mortality and declines in biomass that have been found in other tropical forest fragment studies. However, because of the changes in both species community and reduced regeneration, it is unclear how long

  1. 7 CFR 983.10 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department or USDA. 983.10 Section 983.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  2. Impacts of Forest and Agricultural Land Use on Stream Dissolved Organic Carbon During Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, N. H.; Shin, Y.; Jeon, Y. J.; Lee, E. J.; Eom, J. S.; Kim, B.

    2015-12-01

    Although many studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of land use on concentrations and compositions of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in streams and rivers, the relationships are still not clear. To elucidate the impacts of forest and agricultural land use on stream DOC during storm events, we investigated concentrations, optical properties, δ13C, and Δ 14C of DOC in forest and agriculture dominated headwater streams in South Korea. Stream DOC concentrations were the highest in a forested subwatershed, and a significant positive correlation was observed between stream DOC concentrations and the proportion of forested area in watersheds, which was strengthened by increased rain intensity. Four PARAFAC components were extracted including terrestrial humic substances, terrestrial fulvic acids, microbial organic matter, and protein-like organic matter, all of which showed a positive correlation with stream DOC concentration although relative proportion of components were dependent on land use. While DOC in a forest stream was mostly composed of terrestrially derived and 14C-enriched, DOC in an agricultural stream included aged DOC up to ~1,000 years old. Although the impacts of hydrological changes due to irrigation, fertilizer use, and selected crop species were not examined, the results of this study suggest that agricultural land use can be a source of aged terrestrial DOC to streams during summer monsoon storms, potentially changing the balance of the regional carbon cycle.

  3. Comparing erosion rates in burnt forests and agricultural fields for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    A large part of northwestern Iberia is nowadays covered by commercial forest plantations of eucalypts and maritime pines, which have partly replaced traditional agricultural land-uses. The humid Mediterranean climate, with mild wet winters and warm dry summers, creates favorable conditions for the occurrence of frequent and recurrent forest fires. Erosion rates in recently burnt areas have been the subject of numerous studies; however, there is still a lack of information on their relevance when compared with agricultural erosion rates, impairing a comprehensive assessment of the role of forests for soil protection. This study focuses on Macieira de Alcoba, head-water catchment in the Caramulo Mountain Range, north-central Portugal, with a mixture of agricultural fields (mostly a rotation between winter pastures and summer cereals) on the lower slopes and forest plantations (mostly eucalypts) on the upper slopes. Agricultural erosion in this catchment has been monitored since 2010; a forest fire in 2011 presented an opportunity to compare post-fire and agricultural erosion rates at nearby sites with comparable soil and climatic conditions. Erosion rates were monitored between 2010 and 2013 by repeated surveys of visible erosion features and, in particular, by mapping and measuring rills and gullies after important rainfall events. During the 2011/2012 hydrological year, erosion rates in the burnt forest were two orders of magnitude above those in agricultural fields, amounting to 17.6 and. 0.1 Mg ha-1, respectively. Rills were widespread in the burnt area, while in the agricultural area they were limited to a small number of fields with higher slope; these particular fields experienced an erosion rate of 2.3 Mg ha-1, still one order of magnitude lower than at the burnt forest site. The timing of the erosion features was also quite distinct for the burnt area and the agricultural fields. During the first nine months after the fire, rill formation was not observed in

  4. The impact of tropical forest logging and oil palm agriculture on the soil microbiome.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Binu M; Edwards, David P; Mendes, Lucas William; Kim, Mincheol; Dong, Ke; Kim, Hyoki; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    Selective logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture are rapidly altering tropical forests. However, functional responses of the soil microbiome to these land-use changes are poorly understood. Using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we compared composition and functional attributes of soil biota between unlogged, once-logged and twice-logged rainforest, and areas converted to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo. Although there was no significant effect of logging history, we found a significant difference between the taxonomic and functional composition of both primary and logged forests and oil palm. Oil palm had greater abundances of genes associated with DNA, RNA, protein metabolism and other core metabolic functions, but conversely, lower abundance of genes associated with secondary metabolism and cell-cell interactions, indicating less importance of antagonism or mutualism in the more oligotrophic oil palm environment. Overall, these results show a striking difference in taxonomic composition and functional gene diversity of soil microorganisms between oil palm and forest, but no significant difference between primary forest and forest areas with differing logging history. This reinforces the view that logged forest retains most features and functions of the original soil community. However, networks based on strong correlations between taxonomy and functions showed that network complexity is unexpectedly increased due to both logging and oil palm agriculture, which suggests a pervasive effect of both land-use changes on the interaction of soil microbes.

  5. The impact of tropical forest logging and oil palm agriculture on the soil microbiome.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Binu M; Edwards, David P; Mendes, Lucas William; Kim, Mincheol; Dong, Ke; Kim, Hyoki; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    Selective logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture are rapidly altering tropical forests. However, functional responses of the soil microbiome to these land-use changes are poorly understood. Using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we compared composition and functional attributes of soil biota between unlogged, once-logged and twice-logged rainforest, and areas converted to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo. Although there was no significant effect of logging history, we found a significant difference between the taxonomic and functional composition of both primary and logged forests and oil palm. Oil palm had greater abundances of genes associated with DNA, RNA, protein metabolism and other core metabolic functions, but conversely, lower abundance of genes associated with secondary metabolism and cell-cell interactions, indicating less importance of antagonism or mutualism in the more oligotrophic oil palm environment. Overall, these results show a striking difference in taxonomic composition and functional gene diversity of soil microorganisms between oil palm and forest, but no significant difference between primary forest and forest areas with differing logging history. This reinforces the view that logged forest retains most features and functions of the original soil community. However, networks based on strong correlations between taxonomy and functions showed that network complexity is unexpectedly increased due to both logging and oil palm agriculture, which suggests a pervasive effect of both land-use changes on the interaction of soil microbes. PMID:26994316

  6. Effects of atmospheric pollutants on forests, wetlands, and agricultural ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Meema, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book reports on the knowledge of the sensitivities and responses of forests, wetlands and crops to airborne pollutants. Pollutants examined include: acidic depositions, heavy metal particulates, sulphur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, acid fogs, and mixtures of these. Various types of ecosystem stresses and physiological mechanisms pertinent to acid deposition are also discussed. Related subjects, such as the effects of ethylene on vegetation, the physiology of drought in trees, the ability of soils to generate acidity naturally, the role of Sphagnum moss in natural peatland acidity, the use of lichens as indicators of changing air quality, and the magnitude of natural emissions of reduced sulphur gases from tropical rainforests and temperate deciduous forests, are covered.

  7. Contribution of agricultural and forest fires in Ukraine to impact of Eurasian burnings on Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibtsev, S.; Goldammer, J. G.; Gilitukha, D.

    2012-04-01

    Burning potentially can occur on major part of lands of Ukraine (total 57.93 million ha) and, first of all, on agricultural ones - that occupy 71% of total area of the country. Forests occupy 17.6% of the area of country, where from 2 to 4 thousands fires happens annually. Good wildfire statistics, as well as proper fire management system only for part of forest lands of Ukraine - 68% is established, in particularly, for forests that managed by State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine. While other 2 million ha of forests that managed by other Ministries are out of regular fire management action, detection and protection. There are no reliable detection and accounting of wildfires, outdated or absent fire engines, lack of fire crews and facilities on most part of agricultural, grass, abandoned lands, pastures. During emergency wildfires situation in Ukraine in August 2010 only full mobilization of forest personal together with forces of internal affairs (police) for patrolling of wildfire situation nationwide allows to avoid catastrophic scenario in spite of general low preparedness and unsatisfactory technical provision of fire management on agricultural lands. That year in forest lands totally 3065 cases of fires were registered with total area burned 8916 ha (fire season 2010) and 3145 cases of wildfires on agricultural lands (August 2010). There are no reliable statistics and effective fire management system on grass and agricultural lands in Ukraine even agricultural fires burned much larger area of lands then forest fires and produce significant amount of black carbon both during spring and summer fire events. Results of analysis of wildfire cases in Ukraine at 1x1 km spatial resolution for the period 2006-2008 based on active detection of thermals anomaly by MODIS shows that annually, during the period nearly 20,000 cases of wildfires were detected. In extreme years like 2008, amount of fires doubled. Wildfires in Ukraine make important input in total

  8. 7 CFR 15f.5 - How do I request that USDA consider my complaint under these procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How do I request that USDA consider my complaint under... UNDER SECTION 741 I Filed a Complaint With USDA Prior to July 1, 1997, How Do I Request That USDA Consider My Complaint Using These Procedures? § 15f.5 How do I request that USDA consider my...

  9. 7 CFR 15f.5 - How do I request that USDA consider my complaint under these procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How do I request that USDA consider my complaint under... UNDER SECTION 741 I Filed a Complaint With USDA Prior to July 1, 1997, How Do I Request That USDA Consider My Complaint Using These Procedures? § 15f.5 How do I request that USDA consider my...

  10. 7 CFR 170.12 - What are the selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the USDA Farmers Market? 170.12 Section 170.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.12 What are the selection criteria for participation in the USDA.... Participants should commit to supporting the USDA food gleaning/food recovery initiative. This...

  11. 7 CFR 170.11 - How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.11 Section 170.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.11 How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? USDA reviews all applications and selects participants based primarily on the...

  12. 7 CFR 15f.5 - How do I request that USDA consider my complaint under these procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How do I request that USDA consider my complaint under... UNDER SECTION 741 I Filed a Complaint With USDA Prior to July 1, 1997, How Do I Request That USDA Consider My Complaint Using These Procedures? § 15f.5 How do I request that USDA consider my...

  13. 7 CFR 170.11 - How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.11 Section 170.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.11 How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? USDA reviews all applications and selects participants based primarily on the...

  14. 7 CFR 170.12 - What are the selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the USDA Farmers Market? 170.12 Section 170.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.12 What are the selection criteria for participation in the USDA.... Participants should commit to supporting the USDA food gleaning/food recovery initiative. This...

  15. 7 CFR 15f.5 - How do I request that USDA consider my complaint under these procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How do I request that USDA consider my complaint under... UNDER SECTION 741 I Filed a Complaint With USDA Prior to July 1, 1997, How Do I Request That USDA Consider My Complaint Using These Procedures? § 15f.5 How do I request that USDA consider my...

  16. 7 CFR 15f.5 - How do I request that USDA consider my complaint under these procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do I request that USDA consider my complaint under... UNDER SECTION 741 I Filed a Complaint With USDA Prior to July 1, 1997, How Do I Request That USDA Consider My Complaint Using These Procedures? § 15f.5 How do I request that USDA consider my...

  17. USDA Nutrient Data Set for Retail Veal Cuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL), in collaboration with Colorado State University, conducted a research study designed to update and expand the data on veal cuts in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). This research has been necess...

  18. 7 CFR 4280.107 - USDA Departmental Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Program General General § 4280.107 USDA Departmental Regulations. All projects funded under this subpart are subject to the provisions of the Departmental regulations (7 CFR subtitle A), as applicable. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA Departmental Regulations. 4280.107 Section...

  19. 7 CFR 4280.107 - USDA Departmental Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Program General General § 4280.107 USDA Departmental Regulations. All projects funded under this subpart are subject to the provisions of the Departmental regulations (7 CFR subtitle A), as applicable. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA Departmental Regulations. 4280.107 Section...

  20. 7 CFR 4280.107 - USDA Departmental Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Program General General § 4280.107 USDA Departmental Regulations. All projects funded under this subpart are subject to the provisions of the Departmental regulations (7 CFR subtitle A), as applicable. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA Departmental Regulations. 4280.107 Section...

  1. 48 CFR 432.770 - USDA specific funding limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false USDA specific funding limitations. 432.770 Section 432.770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 432.770 USDA specific funding limitations....

  2. 48 CFR 432.770 - USDA specific funding limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false USDA specific funding limitations. 432.770 Section 432.770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 432.770 USDA specific funding limitations....

  3. 7 CFR 15f.3 - If I want to use these procedures to have USDA consider my complaint, how long will it take for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false If I want to use these procedures to have USDA consider my complaint, how long will it take for USDA to make a decision? 15f.3 Section 15f.3 Agriculture... USDA consider my complaint, how long will it take for USDA to make a decision? To the maximum...

  4. 7 CFR 15f.3 - If I want to use these procedures to have USDA consider my complaint, how long will it take for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false If I want to use these procedures to have USDA consider my complaint, how long will it take for USDA to make a decision? 15f.3 Section 15f.3 Agriculture... USDA consider my complaint, how long will it take for USDA to make a decision? To the maximum...

  5. 7 CFR 15f.3 - If I want to use these procedures to have USDA consider my complaint, how long will it take for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false If I want to use these procedures to have USDA consider my complaint, how long will it take for USDA to make a decision? 15f.3 Section 15f.3 Agriculture... USDA consider my complaint, how long will it take for USDA to make a decision? To the maximum...

  6. 7 CFR 15f.3 - If I want to use these procedures to have USDA consider my complaint, how long will it take for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false If I want to use these procedures to have USDA consider my complaint, how long will it take for USDA to make a decision? 15f.3 Section 15f.3 Agriculture... USDA consider my complaint, how long will it take for USDA to make a decision? To the maximum...

  7. 7 CFR 15f.3 - If I want to use these procedures to have USDA consider my complaint, how long will it take for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false If I want to use these procedures to have USDA consider my complaint, how long will it take for USDA to make a decision? 15f.3 Section 15f.3 Agriculture... USDA consider my complaint, how long will it take for USDA to make a decision? To the maximum...

  8. FOREST ECOSYSTEM CARBON AND NITROGEN ACCUMULATION DURING THE FIRST CENTURY AFTER AGRICULTURAL ABANDONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests of the northeastern U.S. are expected to serve as a substantial sink for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as they recover from extensive clearing and agriculture. However, questions remain concerning the rate, distribution and duration of this potential sink. We used a chron...

  9. Sediment dynamics in restored riparian forest with different widths and agricultural surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stucchi Boschi, Raquel; Simões da Silva, Laura; Ribeiro Rodrigues, Ricardo; Cooper, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The riparian forests are essential to maintaining the quality of water resources, aquifer recharge and biodiversity. Due to the ecological services provided by riparian forests, these areas are considered by the law as Permanent Preservation Areas, being mandatory maintenance and restoration. However, the obligation of restoration and the extent of the Permanent Preservation Areas as defined by the Brazilian Forest Code, based on water body width, elucidates the lack of accurate scientific data on the influence of the size of the riparian forest in maintaining their ecological functions, particularly regarding the retention of sediments. Studies that evaluate the ideal width of riparian forests to guarantee their ecological functions are scarce and not conclusive, especially when we consider newly restored forests, located in agricultural areas. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of erosion and sedimentation in restored riparian forests with different widths situated in agricultural areas. The two study areas are located in a Semideciduous Tropical Forest inserted in sugarcane landscapes of São Paulo state, Brazil. The installed plots had 60 and 100 m in length and the riparian forest has a width of 15, 30 and 50 m. The characteristics of the sediments inside the plots were evaluated by detailed morphological and micromorphological studies as well as physical characterization. The dynamics of deposition and the amount of deposited sediments have been assessed with graded metal stakes partially buried inside the plots. The intensity, frequency and distribution of rainfall, as well as the occurrence of extreme events, have been evaluated by data collected from rain gauges installed in the areas. We expect that smaller widths are not able to retain sediments originated from the adjacent sugarcane areas. We also believe that extreme events are responsible for generating most of the sediments. The results will be important to support the discussion about an

  10. Improved agriculture and forest management in Africa through the AGRICAB project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bydekerke, L.; Tote, C.; Jacobs, T.; Gilliams, S.

    2012-04-01

    Agriculture and forestry are key economic sectors in many African countries. A sound management of these resources, in order to ensure stable food supply, is key for development. In many countries in Africa both forest and agricultural resources are under stress due to, among others, a growing population, land reforms, climate variability and change. Sound information is required to efficiently manage these resources. Remote sensing contributes significantly to these information needs and for this reason more and more institutes and agencies integrate this technology into their daily work. In this context, there is a growing need for enhancing remote sensing capacity in Africa and for this reason the European Commission launched the AGRICAB Project, funded by the FP7 Programme. The main focus of AGRICAB 'A Framework for enhancing earth observation capacity for agriculture and forest management in Africa as a contribution to GEOSS', is to link European and African research capacity in the use of earth observation technology for agriculture and forestry. The project consortium consists of 17 partners located in 12 different countries (5 in Europe, 10 in Africa and 1 in South America) and has three main components. Firstly, AGRICAB aims to ensure satellite data access, partly through GEONETCast. Secondly, AGRICAB will enhance research capacity through partnerships between African and European institutes in the following thematic areas (a) yield forecasting, (b) early warning and agricultural mapping of food crops, (c) agricultural statistics, (d) livestock and rangeland monitoring, and (e) forest and forest fire monitoring. Thirdly, a significant part is dedicated to training and building awareness concerning the advantage and benefits of the use of remote sensing in forest and agricultural management. AGRICAB intends to allow African partners: (i) to get exposed to state-of-the art techniques and models for agricultural and forest monitoring, (ii) to discover these

  11. USDA-EPA Collaborative Ammonia Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2014, a work group was formed between USDA and EPA to facilitate information exchange on ammonia emissions from agriculture, air quality impacts and emission mitigation options and to identify opportunities for collaboration. This document provides background on the work grou...

  12. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  13. USDA/ARS Organic Production Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For much of its history, USDA/ARS had little to do with research on organic agriculture, however research in organic systems has made considerable gains at the agency over the past decade. In the 1980's and 1990's, as the organic food industry was taking off, ARS researchers who wanted to serve orga...

  14. USDA Southwest climate hub for climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Southwest (SW) Climate Hub was created in February 2014 to develop risk adaptation and mitigation strategies for coping with climate change effects on agricultural productivity. There are seven regional hubs across the country with three subsidiary hubs. The SW Climate Hub Region is made up...

  15. Forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize: Implications for migrant land birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruce, J.P.; Dowell, B.A.; Robbins, C.S.; Sader, S.A.; Doyle, Jamie K.; Schelhas, John

    1993-01-01

    Central America offers a suite of neotropical habitats vital to overwintering migrant land birds. The recent decline of many forest dwelling avian migrants is believed to be related in part to neotropical deforestation and land use change. However, spatio-temporal trends in neotropical habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use are largely unknown. Such information is needed to assess the impact of agriculture conversion on migrant land birds. In response, the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Maine began a cooperative study in 1988 which applies remote sensing and field surveys to determine current habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use. Study sites include areas in Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala and southern Mexico. Visual assessment of Landsat TM imagery indicates southern Belize forests are fragmented by various agricultural systems. Shifting agriculture is predominant in some areas, while permanent agriculture (citrus and mixed animal crops) is the primary system in others. This poster focuses on efforts to monitor forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize using remote sensing, field surveys and GIS techniques. Procedures and avian migrant use of habitat are summarized.

  16. Comparison of the gaseous and particulate matter emissions from the combustion of agricultural and forest biomasses.

    PubMed

    Brassard, Patrick; Palacios, Joahnn H; Godbout, Stéphane; Bussières, Denis; Lagacé, Robert; Larouche, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from the combustion of agricultural (switchgrass, fast-growing willow and the dried solid fraction of pig manure) and forest (wood mixture of Black Spruce and Jack Pine) biomasses in a small-scale unit (17.58kW). Concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, NO2, NH3, N2O, SO2, HCl, and H2O were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and converted into emission rates. Opacity was also evaluated and particulates were sampled. Results showed significantly higher emissions of SO2, NO2 and PM with the combustion of agricultural biomass compared to the forest biomass. However, further studies should be carried out so regulations can be adapted in order to permit the combustion of agricultural biomass in small-scale combustion units.

  17. 7 CFR 1735.9 - USDA Rural Development State Director notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA Rural Development State Director notification....9 USDA Rural Development State Director notification. Applicants shall complete a notification form which will be a public document that the RUS provides to USDA Rural Development State Directors...

  18. 7 CFR 58.122 - Approved plants under USDA inspection and grading service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Purpose § 58.122 Approved plants under USDA inspection and grading service. (a... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved plants under USDA inspection and...

  19. 7 CFR 900.40 - Written testimony and USDA data request requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Written testimony and USDA data request requirements... and Nut Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.40 Written testimony and USDA data request... testimony, if prepared as an exhibit, and any other exhibits available to USDA before testimony is given...

  20. 7 CFR 900.26 - Requesting USDA data for use at an amendatory hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requesting USDA data for use at an amendatory hearing... Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.26 Requesting USDA data for use at an amendatory hearing. Requests for preparation of USDA data to be used at a Federal milk marketing agreement or order...

  1. 7 CFR 900.26 - Requesting USDA data for use at an amendatory hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requesting USDA data for use at an amendatory hearing... Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.26 Requesting USDA data for use at an amendatory hearing. Requests for preparation of USDA data to be used at a Federal milk marketing agreement or order...

  2. 7 CFR 900.40 - Written testimony and USDA data request requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Written testimony and USDA data request requirements... and Nut Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.40 Written testimony and USDA data request... testimony, if prepared as an exhibit, and any other exhibits available to USDA before testimony is given...

  3. 7 CFR 58.122 - Approved plants under USDA inspection and grading service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approved plants under USDA inspection and grading... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Purpose § 58.122 Approved plants under USDA inspection and grading service....

  4. 7 CFR 4290.509 - Employment of USDA or SBA officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Employment of USDA or SBA officials. 4290.509 Section... (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a RBIC General Requirements § 4290.509 Employment of USDA... of SBA or USDA within one year before such date; and (2) In that capacity, occupied a position...

  5. 7 CFR 658.7 - USDA assistance with Federal agencies' reviews of policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA assistance with Federal agencies' reviews of... PROTECTION POLICY ACT § 658.7 USDA assistance with Federal agencies' reviews of policies and procedures. (a... the purpose and policy of the Act. (c) USDA will provide certain assistance to other Federal...

  6. 7 CFR 658.7 - USDA assistance with Federal agencies' reviews of policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA assistance with Federal agencies' reviews of... PROTECTION POLICY ACT § 658.7 USDA assistance with Federal agencies' reviews of policies and procedures. (a... the purpose and policy of the Act. (c) USDA will provide certain assistance to other Federal...

  7. 7 CFR 900.40 - Written testimony and USDA data request requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Written testimony and USDA data request requirements... and Nut Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.40 Written testimony and USDA data request... testimony, if prepared as an exhibit, and any other exhibits available to USDA before testimony is given...

  8. 7 CFR 58.122 - Approved plants under USDA inspection and grading service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approved plants under USDA inspection and grading... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Purpose § 58.122 Approved plants under USDA inspection and grading service....

  9. 7 CFR 58.122 - Approved plants under USDA inspection and grading service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approved plants under USDA inspection and grading... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Purpose § 58.122 Approved plants under USDA inspection and grading service....

  10. 7 CFR 658.7 - USDA assistance with Federal agencies' reviews of policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA assistance with Federal agencies' reviews of... PROTECTION POLICY ACT § 658.7 USDA assistance with Federal agencies' reviews of policies and procedures. (a... the purpose and policy of the Act. (c) USDA will provide certain assistance to other Federal...

  11. 7 CFR 58.122 - Approved plants under USDA inspection and grading service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approved plants under USDA inspection and grading... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Purpose § 58.122 Approved plants under USDA inspection and grading service....

  12. 7 CFR 900.26 - Requesting USDA data for use at an amendatory hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requesting USDA data for use at an amendatory hearing... Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.26 Requesting USDA data for use at an amendatory hearing. Requests for preparation of USDA data to be used at a Federal milk marketing agreement or order...

  13. 7 CFR 4290.509 - Employment of USDA or SBA officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Employment of USDA or SBA officials. 4290.509 Section... (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a RBIC General Requirements § 4290.509 Employment of USDA... of SBA or USDA within one year before such date; and (2) In that capacity, occupied a position...

  14. 7 CFR 900.26 - Requesting USDA data for use at an amendatory hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requesting USDA data for use at an amendatory hearing... Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.26 Requesting USDA data for use at an amendatory hearing. Requests for preparation of USDA data to be used at a Federal milk marketing agreement or order...

  15. 7 CFR 900.40 - Written testimony and USDA data request requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written testimony and USDA data request requirements... and Nut Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.40 Written testimony and USDA data request... testimony, if prepared as an exhibit, and any other exhibits available to USDA before testimony is given...

  16. 7 CFR 900.40 - Written testimony and USDA data request requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Written testimony and USDA data request requirements... and Nut Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.40 Written testimony and USDA data request... testimony, if prepared as an exhibit, and any other exhibits available to USDA before testimony is given...

  17. 7 CFR 900.26 - Requesting USDA data for use at an amendatory hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requesting USDA data for use at an amendatory hearing... Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.26 Requesting USDA data for use at an amendatory hearing. Requests for preparation of USDA data to be used at a Federal milk marketing agreement or order...

  18. Climate Change for Agriculture, Forest Cover and 3d Urban Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, M.; Bassir, D.

    2014-11-01

    This research demonstrates the important role of the remote sensing in finding out the different parameters behind the agricultural crop change, forest cover and urban 3D models. Standalone software is developed to view and analysis the different factors effecting the change in crop productions. Open-source libraries from the Open Source Geospatial Foundation have been used for the development of the shape-file viewer. Software can be used to get the attribute information, scale, zoom in/out and pan the shapefiles. Environmental changes due to pollution and population that are increasing the urbanisation and decreasing the forest cover on the earth. Satellite imagery such as Landsat 5(1984) to Landsat TRIS/8 (2014), Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) and NDVI are used to analyse the different parameters that are effecting the agricultural crop production change and forest change. It is advisable for the development of good quality of NDVI and forest cover maps to use data collected from the same processing methods for the complete region. Management practices have been developed from the analysed data for the betterment of the crop and saving the forest cover

  19. 7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS... for all items being sold. (e) Clean-up. Participants are responsible for cleaning all trash and...

  20. 7 CFR 1.215 - Subpoenas duces tecum for USDA records in judicial or administrative proceedings in which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subpoenas duces tecum for USDA records in judicial or... the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Appearance of USDA Employees as Witnesses in Judicial or Administrative Proceedings § 1.215 Subpoenas duces tecum for USDA records in judicial...

  1. 7 CFR 1.215 - Subpoenas duces tecum for USDA records in judicial or administrative proceedings in which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subpoenas duces tecum for USDA records in judicial or... the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Appearance of USDA Employees as Witnesses in Judicial or Administrative Proceedings § 1.215 Subpoenas duces tecum for USDA records in judicial...

  2. 7 CFR 1.215 - Subpoenas duces tecum for USDA records in judicial or administrative proceedings in which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subpoenas duces tecum for USDA records in judicial or... the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Appearance of USDA Employees as Witnesses in Judicial or Administrative Proceedings § 1.215 Subpoenas duces tecum for USDA records in judicial...

  3. 7 CFR 1.215 - Subpoenas duces tecum for USDA records in judicial or administrative proceedings in which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subpoenas duces tecum for USDA records in judicial or... the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Appearance of USDA Employees as Witnesses in Judicial or Administrative Proceedings § 1.215 Subpoenas duces tecum for USDA records in judicial...

  4. 7 CFR 1.215 - Subpoenas duces tecum for USDA records in judicial or administrative proceedings in which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subpoenas duces tecum for USDA records in judicial or... the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Appearance of USDA Employees as Witnesses in Judicial or Administrative Proceedings § 1.215 Subpoenas duces tecum for USDA records in judicial...

  5. Factors affecting songbird nest survival in riparian forests in a midwestern agricultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peak, R.G.; Thompson, F. R.; Shaffer, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting nest success of songbirds in riparian forest and buffers in northeastern Missouri. We used an information-theoretic approach to determine support for hypotheses concerning effects of nest-site, habitat-patch, edge, and temporal factors on nest success of songbirds in three narrow (55-95 m) and three wide (400-530 m) riparian forests with adjacent grassland-shrub buffer strips and in three narrow and three wide riparian forests without adjacent grassland-shrub buffer strips. We predicted that temporal effects would have the most support and that habitat-patch and edge effects would have little support, because nest predation would be great across all sites in the highly fragmented, predominantly agricultural landscape. Interval nest success was 0.404, 0.227, 0.070, and 0.186, respectively, for Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and forest interior species pooled (Acadian Flycatcher [Empidonax virescens], Wood Thrush [Hylocichla mustelina], Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapillus], and Kentucky Warbler [Oporornis formosus]). The effect of nest stage on nest success had the most support; daily nest success for Gray Catbird and Indigo Bunting were lowest in the laying stage. We found strong support for greater nest success of Gray Catbird in riparian forests with adjacent buffer strips than in riparian forests without adjacent buffer strips. Patch width also occurred in the most-supported model for Gray Catbird, but with very limited support. The null model received the most support for Northern Cardinal. Riparian forests provided breeding habitat for area-sensitive forest species and grassland-shrub nesting species. Buffer strips provided additional breeding habitat for grassland-shrub nesting species. Interval nest success for Indigo Bunting and area-sensitive forest species pooled, however, fell well below the level that is likely necessary to balance juvenile

  6. Factors affecting songbird nest survival in riparian forests in a Midwestern agricultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peak, R.G.; Thompson, F. R.; Shaffer, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting nest success of songbirds in riparian forest and buffers in northeastern Missouri. We used an information-theoretic approach to determine support for hypotheses concerning effects of nest-site, habitat-patch, edge, and temporal factors on nest success of songbirds in three narrow (55DS95 m) and three wide (400DS530 m) riparian forests with adjacent grasslandDSshrub buffer strips and in three narrow and three wide riparian forests without adjacent grasslandDSshrub buffer strips. We predicted that temporal effects would have the most support and that habitat-patch and edge effects would have little support, because nest predation would be great across all sites in the highly fragmented, predominantly agricultural landscape. Interval nest success was 0.404, 0.227, 0.070, and 0.186, respectively, for Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and forest interior species pooled (Acadian Flycatcher [Empidonax virescens], Wood Thrush [Hylocichla mustelina], Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapillus], and Kentucky Warbler [Oporornis formosus]). The effect of nest stage on nest success had the most support; daily nest success for Gray Catbird and Indigo Bunting were lowest in the laying stage. We found strong support for greater nest success of Gray Catbird in riparian forests with adjacent buffer strips than in riparian forests without adjacent buffer strips. Patch width also occurred in the most supported model for Gray Catbird, but with very limited support. The null model received the most support for Northern Cardinal. Riparian forests provided breeding habitat for areas sensitive forest species and grassland-shrub nesting species. Buffer strips provided additional breeding habitat for grassland-shrub nesting species. Interval nest success for Indigo Bunting and area-sensitive forest species pooled, however, fell well below the level that is likely necessary to balance

  7. US Department of Agriculture forest service eastern region strategic telecommunication plan: 1994-2003

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, W.R.; Haakinson, E.J.

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the development of a telecommunication strategy for 1994-2003 for the Eastern Region of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. The Institute for Telecommunicaiton Sciences (ITS) identified telecommunication needs, assessed the existing telecommunication systems of the 15 National Forests in the Region, assessed internal and external factors that impact telecommunication planning, and assessed telecommunication technologies. Based on the foregoing, ITS developed a telecommunication strategy intended to ensure that Eastern Region telecommunication systems and services support the mission of the organization in a reliable and cost-effective manner.

  8. 7 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 799 - Organization Chart FSA-USDA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Organization Chart FSA-USDA 1 Appendix 1 to Part 799 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...-USDA EC19SE91.000...

  9. 7 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 799 - Organization Chart FSA-USDA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Organization Chart FSA-USDA 1 Appendix 1 to Part 799 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...-USDA EC19SE91.000...

  10. 7 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 799 - Organization Chart FSA-USDA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Organization Chart FSA-USDA 1 Appendix 1 to Part 799 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...-USDA EC19SE91.000...

  11. 7 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 799 - Organization Chart FSA-USDA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Organization Chart FSA-USDA 1 Appendix 1 to Part 799 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...-USDA EC19SE91.000...

  12. 78 FR 73819 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...-18, 2013 meeting of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee due to the Government partial shutdown... INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Program Coordinator; by phone...

  13. Application of sewage sludge to non-agricultural ecosystems: Impacts of nitrogen on forests

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, R.A.; Tharp, M.L.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Sample, B.E.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Daniel, F.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 directed EPA to establish standards for use and disposal of sewage sludge (biosolids). This report is part of a larger study evaluating nutrient and contaminant impacts associated with the land application of biosolids in non-agricultural ecosystems. Ecological risk assessments rarely focus on nutrients as stressors. The nutrient components of municipal sewage sludge may impact tree community composition, growth and production, habitat and forage quality for wildlife, and nutrient cycling. The focus here is on three forest ecosystems: northwestern Douglas-fir forest (Pack Forest, WA), southeastern loblolly pine plantation (Athens, GA), and eastern deciduous forest (Hubbard Brook, NH). A model called LINKAGES has been developed at ORNL to examine the relationships between nitrogen cycling and long-term forest stand dynamics, limited by climate and soil water status. Plant-available nitrogen from biosolids is added in several application scenarios and compared to the no-amendment case. All changes are noted, even if they may be viewed as benefits rather than risks. Model outputs include: above-ground biomass, individual species biomass, net above-ground production, leaf litter, evapotranspiration, available nitrogen, and dead trunks. The changes in plant community composition and production are dependent on the rate, frequency, and duration of sludge application and on the age of the stand at the time of application. Model outputs are compared to empirical studies of forests where biosolids have been applied.

  14. Utilizing intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity to bolster agricultural and forest productivity under climate change.

    PubMed

    Aspinwall, Michael J; Loik, Michael E; Resco de Dios, Victor; Tjoelker, Mark G; Payton, Paxton R; Tissue, David T

    2015-09-01

    Climate change threatens the ability of agriculture and forestry to meet growing global demands for food, fibre and wood products. Information gathered from genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E), which demonstrate intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity (the ability of a genotype to alter its phenotype in response to environmental change), may prove important for bolstering agricultural and forest productivity under climate change. Nonetheless, very few studies have explicitly quantified genotype plasticity-productivity relationships in agriculture or forestry. Here, we conceptualize the importance of intraspecific variation in agricultural and forest species plasticity, and discuss the physiological and genetic factors contributing to intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity. Our discussion highlights the need for an integrated understanding of the mechanisms of G × E, more extensive assessments of genotypic responses to climate change under field conditions, and explicit testing of genotype plasticity-productivity relationships. Ultimately, further investigation of intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity in agriculture and forestry may prove important for identifying genotypes capable of increasing or sustaining productivity under more extreme climatic conditions.

  15. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service 1996 annual report wetlands research related to the Pen Branch restoration effort on the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Kolka, R.K.; Trettin, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service and their collaborators (SRTC, SREL, and several universities) in wetlands monitoring and research on the Savannah River Site. This report describes the rationales, methods, and results (when available) of these studies and summarizes and integrates the available information through 1996.

  16. Taxonomical and functional microbial responses to agriculture management of Amazon forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramae, Eiko; Navarrete, Acácio; Mendes, Lucas; de Hollander, Mattias; van Veen, Johannes; Tsai, Siu

    2013-04-01

    Land-use change is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity worldwide, and one of the most devastating changes in the use of land, especially in the tropics, is the conversion of forest to crop lands. Southeast Amazon region is considered the largest agricultural frontier in the world, where native forests are converted into soybean crop fields, a fact that highlights the social and economic importance of this system to Brazil. This study firstly, focused on the impact of land-use changes and agriculture management of Amazon forest soils on the size and composition of the acidobacterial community. Taxon-specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene were applied to study the acidobacterial community in bulk soil samples from croplands, adjacent native forests and rhizosphere of soybean. Based on qPCR measurements, Acidobacteria accounted for 23%, 18% and 14% of the total bacterial signal in forest soils, cropland soils and soybean rhizosphere samples, respectively. From the sequences of Bacteria domain, the phylum Acidobacteria represented 28%, 16% and 17% of the sequences from forest soils, cropland soils and soybean rhizosphere samples, respectively. Acidobacteria subgroups 2-8, 10, 11, 13, 17, 18, 22 and 25 were detected with subgroup 1 as dominant among them. Subgroups 4, 6 and 7 were significantly higher in cropland soils than in forest soils, which subgroups respond to decrease of soil Aluminium. Subgroups 6 and 7 respond to high content of soil Ca, Mg, Zn, P, Fe, Mn and B. The results showed differential response of the Acidobacteria subgroups to abiotic soil factors, and indicated acidobacterial subgroups as potential early-warning bio-indicators of agricultural soil management effects in the Amazon area. Secondly, using 454 pyrosequencing, we investigated the metabolic diversity of microbial communities colonizing the rhizosphere and the bulk soil associated to soybean. The rhizosphere presented an overrepresentation of

  17. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper data for mapping forest, agricultural and soil resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degloria, S.; Benson, A.; Dummer, K.; Fakhoury, E.

    1985-01-01

    Color composite TM film products which include TM5, TM4, and a visible band (TM1, TM2, or TM3) are superior to composites which exclude TM4 for discriminating most forest and agricultural cover types and estimating area proportions for inventory and sampling purposes. Clustering a subset of TM data results in a spectral class map which groups diverse forest cover types into spectrally and ecologically similar areas suitable for use as a stratification base in traditional forest inventory practices. Analysis of simulated Thematic Mapper data indicate that the location and number of TM spectral bands are suitable for detecting differences in major soil properties and characterizing soil spectral curve form and magnitude.

  18. Application of ERTS-1 data to analysis of agricultural crops and forests in Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safir, G. R.; Myers, W. L.; Malila, W. A.; Morgenstern, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The results reported are based on analysis of ERTS Frame 1033-15580 collected over southwestern Lower Michigan on August 25, 1972. Major agricultural crops such as corn and soybeans were approaching maturity at this data and forest canopies were dense. Extensive ground truth information was gathered by detailed field study of test strips. This detailed information was supplemented over larger areas by interpretation of RB-57 and C-47 photography and MSS imagery. Recognition processing of ERTS-1 MSS data was carried out on a digital computer. Fields and forest stands were selected as training sets and test areas. Aerial imagery was essential for locating the positions of these selected areas on ERTS digital tapes. The recognition process was successful for each type of vegetation which had a dense green canopy such as forests, corn, and soybeans. Bare soil was also recognizable as a category.

  19. Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, H. K.; Ruesch, A. S.; Achard, F.; Clayton, M. K.; Holmgren, P.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Global demand for agricultural products such as food, feed, and fuel is now a major driver of cropland and pasture expansion across much of the developing world. Whether these new agricultural lands replace forests, degraded forests, or grasslands greatly influences the environmental consequences of expansion. Although the general pattern is known, there still is no definitive quantification of these land-cover changes. Here we analyze the rich, pan-tropical database of classified Landsat scenes created by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations to examine pathways of agricultural expansion across the major tropical forest regions in the 1980s and 1990s and use this information to highlight the future land conversions that probably will be needed to meet mounting demand for agricultural products. Across the tropics, we find that between 1980 and 2000 more than 55% of new agricultural land came at the expense of intact forests, and another 28% came from disturbed forests. This study underscores the potential consequences of unabated agricultural expansion for forest conservation and carbon emissions. PMID:20807750

  20. Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, H K; Ruesch, A S; Achard, F; Clayton, M K; Holmgren, P; Ramankutty, N; Foley, J A

    2010-09-21

    Global demand for agricultural products such as food, feed, and fuel is now a major driver of cropland and pasture expansion across much of the developing world. Whether these new agricultural lands replace forests, degraded forests, or grasslands greatly influences the environmental consequences of expansion. Although the general pattern is known, there still is no definitive quantification of these land-cover changes. Here we analyze the rich, pan-tropical database of classified Landsat scenes created by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations to examine pathways of agricultural expansion across the major tropical forest regions in the 1980s and 1990s and use this information to highlight the future land conversions that probably will be needed to meet mounting demand for agricultural products. Across the tropics, we find that between 1980 and 2000 more than 55% of new agricultural land came at the expense of intact forests, and another 28% came from disturbed forests. This study underscores the potential consequences of unabated agricultural expansion for forest conservation and carbon emissions. PMID:20807750

  1. Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, H K; Ruesch, A S; Achard, F; Clayton, M K; Holmgren, P; Ramankutty, N; Foley, J A

    2010-09-21

    Global demand for agricultural products such as food, feed, and fuel is now a major driver of cropland and pasture expansion across much of the developing world. Whether these new agricultural lands replace forests, degraded forests, or grasslands greatly influences the environmental consequences of expansion. Although the general pattern is known, there still is no definitive quantification of these land-cover changes. Here we analyze the rich, pan-tropical database of classified Landsat scenes created by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations to examine pathways of agricultural expansion across the major tropical forest regions in the 1980s and 1990s and use this information to highlight the future land conversions that probably will be needed to meet mounting demand for agricultural products. Across the tropics, we find that between 1980 and 2000 more than 55% of new agricultural land came at the expense of intact forests, and another 28% came from disturbed forests. This study underscores the potential consequences of unabated agricultural expansion for forest conservation and carbon emissions.

  2. The Role Of Management Of The Field-Forest Boundary In Poland's Process Of Agricultural Restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woch, Franciszek; Borek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work described here has been to point to the relationships between the field-forest boundary and crop productivity as regards the present agrarian land-use structure in Poland, and to provide new opportunities for arranging the agrarian process and the spatial planning of the rural landscape in the context of the sustainable shaping of the field-forest boundary. Impacts of forests and woodlands on crop productivity have been assessed using available data from relevant Polish literature. An assessment of the plot-distribution pattern characterising farms in Poland was made on the basis of reference data from the Agency for the Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture. Finally, the possibility of afforestation of agricultural land has been evaluated within the existing legal framework, and on the basis of available data, with attention paid to the need to include organization of the field-forest boundary within the comprehensive management and planning of rural areas, and to preserve woody elements in patchy landscapes. This all creates an opportunity to test innovative approaches to integrated land use which combines the creation of public goods and local products based on participatory learning processes that bring in local stakeholders and decision-makers.

  3. Frugivorous bats maintain functional habitat connectivity in agricultural landscapes but rely strongly on natural forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Ripperger, Simon P; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Mayer, Frieder; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae), a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats.

  4. Frugivorous Bats Maintain Functional Habitat Connectivity in Agricultural Landscapes but Rely Strongly on Natural Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Ripperger, Simon P.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Mayer, Frieder; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae), a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats. PMID:25830222

  5. Consuming the forest in an environment of crisis: nature tourism, forest conservation and neoliberal agriculture in south India.

    PubMed

    Münster, Daniel; Münster, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    This article engages ethnographically with the neoliberalization of nature in the spheres of tourism, conservation and agriculture. Drawing on a case study of Wayanad district, Kerala, the article explores a number of themes. First, it shows how a boom in domestic nature tourism is currently transforming Wayanad into a landscape for tourist consumption. Second, it examines how tourism in Wayanad articulates with projects of neoliberalizing forest and wildlife conservation and with their contestations by subaltern groups. Third, it argues that the contemporary commodification of nature in tourism and conservation is intimately related to earlier processes of commodifying nature in agrarian capitalism. Since independence, forest land has been violently appropriated for intensive cash-cropping. Capitalist agrarian change has transformed land into a (fictitious) commodity and produced a fragile and contested frontier of agriculture and wildlife. When agrarian capitalism reached its ecological limits and entered a crisis of accumulation, farming became increasingly speculative, exploring new modes of accumulation in out-of-state ginger cultivation. In this scenario nature and wildlife tourism emerges as a new prospect for accumulation in a post-agrarian economy. The neoliberalization of nature in Wayanad, the authors argue, is a process driven less by new modes of regulation than by the agrarian crisis and new modes of speculative farming.

  6. Mitigation of agricultural emissions in the tropics: comparing forest land-sparing options at the national level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, S.; Herold, M.; Rufino, M. C.; Neumann, K.; Kooistra, L.; Verchot, L.

    2015-08-01

    Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation are of global concern, but forest land-sparing interventions such as agricultural intensification and utilization of available non-forest land offer opportunities for mitigation. In many tropical countries, where agriculture is the major driver of deforestation, interventions in the agriculture sector could reduce deforestation emissions as well as reduce emissions in the agriculture sector. Our study uses a novel approach to quantify agriculture-driven deforestation and associated emissions in the tropics between 2000 and 2010. Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation in the tropics (97 countries) are 4.3 GtCO2e yr-1. We investigate the national potential to mitigate these emissions through forest land-sparing interventions, which can potentially be implemented under REDD+. We consider intensification and utilization of available non-forested land as forest land-sparing opportunities since they avoid the expansion of agriculture into forested land. In addition, we assess the potential to reduce agricultural emissions on existing agriculture land. The use of a systematic framework demonstrates the selection of mitigation interventions by considering sequentially the level of emissions, mitigation potential of various interventions, enabling environment and associated risks to livelihoods at the national level. Our results show that considering only countries with high emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation, with potential for forest-sparing interventions and a good enabling environment (e.g. effective governance or engagement in REDD+), there is a potential to mitigate 1.3 GtCO2e yr-1 (20 countries of 78 with sufficient data). For countries where we identify agricultural emissions as a priority for mitigation, up to 1 GtCO2e yr-1 could be reduced from the agriculture sector including livestock. Risks to livelihoods from implementing interventions based on national level data call for detailed

  7. Climate change, agriculture and water resources in the Southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In February 2014 the USDA established regional climate hubs across the United States to assist farmers, ranchers and foresters in adapting to the effects of climate change. The Southwest (SW) region encompasses six states which provide highly diverse agricultural crops including cotton, stone fruit ...

  8. 75 FR 44808 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, Flagstaff, AZ, and Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ AGENCY: National Park...

  9. Mitigation of agriculture emissions in the tropics: comparing forest land-sparing options at the national level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, S.; Herold, M.; Rufino, M. C.; Neumann, K.; Kooistra, L.; Verchot, L.

    2015-04-01

    Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation are of global concern, but forest land-sparing interventions such as agricultural intensification and utilization of available land offer opportunities for mitigation. In many tropical countries, where agriculture is the major driver of deforestation, interventions in the agriculture sector can reduce deforestation emissions as well as reducing emissions in the agriculture sector. Our study uses a novel approach to quantify agriculture-driven deforestation and associated emissions in the tropics. Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation in the tropics between 2000 and 2010 are 4.3 Gt CO2 eq yr-1 (97 countries). We investigate the national potential to mitigate these emissions through forest land-sparing interventions, which can potentially be implemented under REDD+. We consider intensification, and utilization of available non-forested land as forest land-sparing opportunities since they avoid the expansion of agriculture into forested land. In addition, we assess the potential to reduce agriculture emissions on existing agriculture land, interventions that fall under climate-smart agriculture (CSA). The use of a systematic framework demonstrates the selection of mitigation interventions by considering sequentially the level of emissions, mitigation potential of various interventions, enabling environment and associated risks to livelihoods at the national level. Our results show that considering only countries with high emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation, where there is a potential for forest-sparing interventions, and where there is a good enabling environment (e.g. effective governance or engagement in REDD+), the potential to mitigate is 1.3 Gt CO2 eq yr-1 (20 countries of 78 with sufficient data). For countries where we identify agriculture emissions as priority for mitigation, up to 1 Gt CO2 eq yr-1 could be reduced from the agriculture sector including livestock. Risks to livelihoods from

  10. 78 FR 57128 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... assistance delivery systems, forest inventory and analysis, markets, climate change adaptation, forest... meetings are subject to change or cancellation. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the USDA...

  11. 78 FR 44519 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... express mail or overnight courier service: Maya Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Cooperative Forestry Staff.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee...

  12. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operated spectral camera system for forest and agriculture applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Heikki; Pellikka, Ismo; Pesonen, Liisa; Tuominen, Sakari; Heikkilä, Jan; Holmlund, Christer; Mäkynen, Jussi; Ojala, Kai; Antila, Tapani

    2011-11-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) based hyperspectral imager compatible with the light weight UAV platforms. The concept of the hyperspectral imager has been published in the SPIE Proc. 7474 and 7668. In forest and agriculture applications the recording of multispectral images at a few wavelength bands is in most cases adequate. The possibility to calculate a digital elevation model of the forest area and crop fields provides means to estimate the biomass and perform forest inventory. The full UAS multispectral imaging system will consist of a high resolution false color imager and a FPI based hyperspectral imager which can be used at resolutions from VGA (480 x 640 pixels) up to 5 Mpix at wavelength range 500 - 900 nm at user selectable spectral resolutions in the range 10...40 nm @ FWHM. The resolution is determined by the order at which the Fabry- Perot interferometer is used. The overlap between successive images of the false color camera is 70...80% which makes it possible to calculate the digital elevation model of the target area. The field of view of the false color camera is typically 80 degrees and the ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 5 cm. The field of view of the hyperspectral imager is presently is 26 x 36 degrees and ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 3.5 cm. The UAS system has been tried in summer 2011 in Southern Finland for the forest and agricultural areas. During the first test campaigns the false color camera and hyperspectral imager were flown over the target areas at separate flights. The design and calibration of the hyperspectral imager will be shortly explained. The test flight campaigns on forest and crop fields and their preliminary results are also presented in this paper.

  13. Pyrosequencing Reveals Changes in Soil Bacterial Communities after Conversion of Yungas Forests to Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Montecchia, Marcela S.; Tosi, Micaela; Soria, Marcelo A.; Vogrig, Jimena A.; Sydorenko, Oksana; Correa, Olga S.

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Andean Yungas in Northwest Argentina constitute one of the main biodiversity hotspots in the world. Considerable changes in land use have taken place in this ecoregion, predominantly related to forest conversion to croplands, inducing losses in above-ground biodiversity and with potential impact on soil microbial communities. In this study, we used high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene to assess whether land-use change and time under agriculture affect the composition and diversity of soil bacterial communities. We selected two areas dedicated to sugarcane and soybean production, comprising both short- and long-term agricultural sites, and used the adjacent native forest soils as a reference. Land-use change altered the composition of bacterial communities, with differences between productive areas despite the similarities between both forests. At the phylum level, only Verrucomicrobia and Firmicutes changed in abundance after deforestation for sugarcane and soybean cropping, respectively. In cultivated soils, Verrucomicrobia decreased sharply (~80%), while Firmicutes were more abundant. Despite the fact that local diversity was increased in sugarcane systems and was not altered by soybean cropping, phylogenetic beta diversity declined along both chronosequences, evidencing a homogenization of soil bacterial communities over time. In spite of the detected alteration in composition and diversity, we found a core microbiome resistant to the disturbances caused by the conversion of forests to cultivated lands and few or none exclusive OTUs for each land-use type. The overall changes in the relative abundance of copiotrophic and oligotrophic taxa may have an impact in soil ecosystem functionality. However, communities with many taxa in common may also share many functional attributes, allowing to maintain at least some soil ecosystem services after forest conversion to croplands. PMID:25793893

  14. Pyrosequencing reveals changes in soil bacterial communities after conversion of Yungas forests to agriculture.

    PubMed

    Montecchia, Marcela S; Tosi, Micaela; Soria, Marcelo A; Vogrig, Jimena A; Sydorenko, Oksana; Correa, Olga S

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Andean Yungas in Northwest Argentina constitute one of the main biodiversity hotspots in the world. Considerable changes in land use have taken place in this ecoregion, predominantly related to forest conversion to croplands, inducing losses in above-ground biodiversity and with potential impact on soil microbial communities. In this study, we used high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene to assess whether land-use change and time under agriculture affect the composition and diversity of soil bacterial communities. We selected two areas dedicated to sugarcane and soybean production, comprising both short- and long-term agricultural sites, and used the adjacent native forest soils as a reference. Land-use change altered the composition of bacterial communities, with differences between productive areas despite the similarities between both forests. At the phylum level, only Verrucomicrobia and Firmicutes changed in abundance after deforestation for sugarcane and soybean cropping, respectively. In cultivated soils, Verrucomicrobia decreased sharply (~80%), while Firmicutes were more abundant. Despite the fact that local diversity was increased in sugarcane systems and was not altered by soybean cropping, phylogenetic beta diversity declined along both chronosequences, evidencing a homogenization of soil bacterial communities over time. In spite of the detected alteration in composition and diversity, we found a core microbiome resistant to the disturbances caused by the conversion of forests to cultivated lands and few or none exclusive OTUs for each land-use type. The overall changes in the relative abundance of copiotrophic and oligotrophic taxa may have an impact in soil ecosystem functionality. However, communities with many taxa in common may also share many functional attributes, allowing to maintain at least some soil ecosystem services after forest conversion to croplands.

  15. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 84-281-1607, Federal Grain Inspection Service-USDA (US Department of Agriculture), New Orleans, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhe, R.L.

    1985-07-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for phosphine, malathion, carbon-disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, and grain dust at field offices of the Federal Grain Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, New Orleans, Louisiana in October and November, 1984. The evaluation was requested by the inspection service to investigate fumigant exposures at grain sampling and inspection stations in the New Orleans area. Noise monitoring was also performed. The author concludes that a health hazard due to fumigants, grain dust, or noise does not exist at the stations. Recommendations include developing a registry of grain handlers and inspectors and establishing procedures for obtaining information on incoming grain shipments that have been fumigated.

  16. Nitrate in shallow groundwater in typical agricultural and forest ecosystems in China, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Xu, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaomin; Dong, Wenyi; Ballantine, Deborah

    2013-05-01

    The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) concentrations from shallow groundwater wells situated in 29 of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network field stations, representing typical agro- and forest ecosystems, were assessed using monitoring data collected between 2004 and 2010. Results from this assessment permit a national scale assessment of nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater, and allow linkages between nitrate concentrations in groundwater and broad land use categories to be made. Results indicated that most of the NO3(-)-N concentrations in groundwater from the agro- and forest ecosystems were below the Class 3 drinking water standard stated in the Chinese National Standard: Quality Standard for Ground Water (< or = 20 mg/L). Over the study period, the average NO3(-)-N concentrations were significantly higher in agro-ecosystems (4.1 +/- 0.33 mg/L) than in forest ecosystems (0.5 +/- 0.04 mg/L). NO3(-)-N concentrations were relatively higher (> 10 mg N /L) in 10 of the 43 wells sampled in the agricultural ecosystems. These elevated concentrations occurred mainly in the Ansai, Yucheng, Linze, Fukang, Akesu, and Cele field sites, which were located in arid and semi-arid areas where irrigation rates are high. We suggest that improvements in N fertilizer application and irrigation management practices in the arid and semi-arid agricultural ecosystems of China are the key to managing groundwater nitrate concentrations. PMID:24218832

  17. Nitrate in shallow groundwater in typical agricultural and forest ecosystems in China, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Xu, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaomin; Dong, Wenyi; Ballantine, Deborah

    2013-05-01

    The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) concentrations from shallow groundwater wells situated in 29 of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network field stations, representing typical agro- and forest ecosystems, were assessed using monitoring data collected between 2004 and 2010. Results from this assessment permit a national scale assessment of nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater, and allow linkages between nitrate concentrations in groundwater and broad land use categories to be made. Results indicated that most of the NO3(-)-N concentrations in groundwater from the agro- and forest ecosystems were below the Class 3 drinking water standard stated in the Chinese National Standard: Quality Standard for Ground Water (< or = 20 mg/L). Over the study period, the average NO3(-)-N concentrations were significantly higher in agro-ecosystems (4.1 +/- 0.33 mg/L) than in forest ecosystems (0.5 +/- 0.04 mg/L). NO3(-)-N concentrations were relatively higher (> 10 mg N /L) in 10 of the 43 wells sampled in the agricultural ecosystems. These elevated concentrations occurred mainly in the Ansai, Yucheng, Linze, Fukang, Akesu, and Cele field sites, which were located in arid and semi-arid areas where irrigation rates are high. We suggest that improvements in N fertilizer application and irrigation management practices in the arid and semi-arid agricultural ecosystems of China are the key to managing groundwater nitrate concentrations.

  18. Monitoring roadside ditches for antibiotic resistant E. coli in forest and agricultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrer, S.; Archibald, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    There is growing concern over the threat of antibiotic resistant bacteria and how they travel through natural environments. This study was developed to: (1) measure the quantities of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli present in stormwater collected from roadside ditches, (2) examine the spatial and temporal distribution of antibiotic resistance and (3) explore the difference in antibiotic resistance between different land uses. Autosamplers were used to collect composite samples of stormwater flowing in roadside ditches located near manure fertilized fields or forested areas. Samples were filtered using standard membrane filtration methods and grown with and without antibiotics on EC medium containing MUG. Three antibiotics commonly used to treat infection in humans and dairy cows were used to measure antibiotic resistance: penicillin, ampicillin and tetracycline. Though antibiotic resistance was found at forested and farm sites, preliminary data suggest higher counts of antibiotic resistant E. coli near agricultural areas.

  19. Comparison of organic matter composition in agricultural versus forest affected headwaters with special emphasis on organic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Marlen; Graeber, Daniel; Zak, Dominik; Zwirnmann, Elke; Gelbrecht, Joerg; Pusch, Martin T

    2015-02-17

    Agricultural management practices promote organic matter (OM) turnover and thus alter both the processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils and presumably also the export of DOM to headwater streams, which intimately connect the terrestrial with the aquatic environment. Size-exclusion chromatography, in combination with absorbance and emission matrix fluorometry, was applied to assess how agricultural land use alters the amount and composition of DOM, as well as dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) forms in headwater streams, including temporal variations, in a temperate region of NE Germany. By comparing six agriculturally and six forest-impacted headwater streams, we demonstrated that agriculture promotes increased DOC and DON concentrations, entailing an even more pronounced effect on DON. The major part of DOC and DON in agricultural and forest reference streams is exported in the form of humic-like material with high molecular weight, which indicates terrestrial, i.e., allochthonous sources. As an obvious difference in agricultural streams, the contribution of DOC and particularly DON occurring in the form of nonhumic high-molecular-weight, presumably proteinous material is clearly elevated. Altogether, DOM in agricultural headwaters is mainly complex-soil-derived and aromatic material with a low C:N ratio, which is more microbial processed than its counterpart from forest reference catchments. Our results emphasize the importance of agricultural land use on DOM loss from soils and identify agricultural soils as important DOC and particularly DON sources to headwater streams. PMID:25594834

  20. USDA Research in Support of Deployed Military Troops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Department of Agriculture has a long history of collaborating with the US military to conduct research in support of war efforts. The predecessor laboratory of the current USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) located in Gainesville, Florida has a history...

  1. Agricultural intensification exacerbates spillover effects on soil biogeochemistry in adjacent forest remnants.

    PubMed

    Didham, Raphael K; Barker, Gary M; Bartlam, Scott; Deakin, Elizabeth L; Denmead, Lisa H; Fisk, Louise M; Peters, Jennifer M R; Tylianakis, Jason M; Wright, Hannah R; Schipper, Louis A

    2015-01-01

    Land-use intensification is a central element in proposed strategies to address global food security. One rationale for accepting the negative consequences of land-use intensification for farmland biodiversity is that it could 'spare' further expansion of agriculture into remaining natural habitats. However, in many regions of the world the only natural habitats that can be spared are fragments within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Therefore, land-sparing arguments hinge on land-use intensification having low spillover effects into adjacent protected areas, otherwise net conservation gains will diminish with increasing intensification. We test, for the first time, whether the degree of spillover from farmland into adjacent natural habitats scales in magnitude with increasing land-use intensity. We identified a continuous land-use intensity gradient across pastoral farming systems in New Zealand (based on 13 components of farmer input and soil biogeochemistry variables), and measured cumulative off-site spillover effects of fertilisers and livestock on soil biogeochemistry in 21 adjacent forest remnants. Ten of 11 measured soil properties differed significantly between remnants and intact-forest reference sites, for both fenced and unfenced remnants, at both edge and interior. For seven variables, the magnitude of effects scaled significantly with magnitude of surrounding land-use intensity, through complex interactions with fencing and edge effects. In particular, total C, total N, δ15N, total P and heavy-metal contaminants of phosphate fertilizers (Cd and U) increased significantly within remnants in response to increasing land-use intensity, and these effects were exacerbated in unfenced relative to fenced remnants. This suggests movement of livestock into surrounding natural habitats is a significant component of agricultural spillover, but pervasive changes in soil biogeochemistry still occur through nutrient spillover channels alone, even in fenced

  2. Agricultural Intensification Exacerbates Spillover Effects on Soil Biogeochemistry in Adjacent Forest Remnants

    PubMed Central

    Didham, Raphael K.; Barker, Gary M.; Bartlam, Scott; Deakin, Elizabeth L.; Denmead, Lisa H.; Fisk, Louise M.; Peters, Jennifer M. R.; Tylianakis, Jason M.; Wright, Hannah R.; Schipper, Louis A.

    2015-01-01

    Land-use intensification is a central element in proposed strategies to address global food security. One rationale for accepting the negative consequences of land-use intensification for farmland biodiversity is that it could ‘spare’ further expansion of agriculture into remaining natural habitats. However, in many regions of the world the only natural habitats that can be spared are fragments within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Therefore, land-sparing arguments hinge on land-use intensification having low spillover effects into adjacent protected areas, otherwise net conservation gains will diminish with increasing intensification. We test, for the first time, whether the degree of spillover from farmland into adjacent natural habitats scales in magnitude with increasing land-use intensity. We identified a continuous land-use intensity gradient across pastoral farming systems in New Zealand (based on 13 components of farmer input and soil biogeochemistry variables), and measured cumulative off-site spillover effects of fertilisers and livestock on soil biogeochemistry in 21 adjacent forest remnants. Ten of 11 measured soil properties differed significantly between remnants and intact-forest reference sites, for both fenced and unfenced remnants, at both edge and interior. For seven variables, the magnitude of effects scaled significantly with magnitude of surrounding land-use intensity, through complex interactions with fencing and edge effects. In particular, total C, total N, δ15N, total P and heavy-metal contaminants of phosphate fertilizers (Cd and U) increased significantly within remnants in response to increasing land-use intensity, and these effects were exacerbated in unfenced relative to fenced remnants. This suggests movement of livestock into surrounding natural habitats is a significant component of agricultural spillover, but pervasive changes in soil biogeochemistry still occur through nutrient spillover channels alone, even in fenced

  3. 7 CFR 170.12 - What are the selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the USDA Farmers Market? 170.12 Section 170.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.12 What are the selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? The selection criteria are designed to ensure a consistently high level of quality...

  4. 77 FR 40565 - Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Forest Service Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Administrative Meetings for the Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees. SUMMARY... up under the Northwest Forest Plan. The PIECs facilitate the successful implementation of the...

  5. 76 FR 28949 - Kisatchie National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Forest Service Kisatchie National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Kisatchie National Forest Resource Advisory Committee will meet in... held at the Kisatchie National Forest Supervisor's Office, 2500 Shreveport Hwy, Pineville, LA....

  6. 77 FR 51753 - Daniel Boone National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Forest Service Daniel Boone National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Daniel Boone National Forest Resource Advisory Committee (RAC... public may inspect comments received at Daniel Boone National Forest, 1700 Bypass Road,...

  7. 76 FR 61666 - Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Forest Service Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program... members. However, persons who wish to bring Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program matters...

  8. 75 FR 38456 - Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Forest Service Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program..., persons who wish to bring Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program matters to the attention...

  9. 76 FR 3605 - Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Forest Service Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program... Forest Landscape Restoration Program matters to the attention of the Committee may file...

  10. Colour space influence for vegetation image classification application to Caribbean forest and agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadi, M.; Grandchamp, E.

    2008-10-01

    This paper deals with a comparison of different colour space in order to improve high resolution images classification. The background of this study is the measure of the agriculture impact on the environment in islander context. Biodiversity is particularly sensitive and relevant in such areas and the follow-up of the forest front is a way to ensure its preservation. Very high resolution satellite images are used such as QuickBird and IKONOS scenes. In order to segment the images into forest and agriculture areas, we characterize both ground covers with colour and texture features. A classical unsupervised classifier is then used to obtain labelled areas. As features are computed on coloured images, we can wonder if the colour space choice is relevant. This study has been made considering more than fourteen colour spaces (RGB, YUV, Lab, YIQ, YCrCs, XYZ, CMY, LMS, HSL, KLT, IHS, I1I2I3, HSV, HSI, etc.) and shows the visual and quantitative superiority of IHS on all others. For conciseness reasons, results only show RGB, I1I2I3 and IHS colour spaces.

  11. 7 CFR 3.45 - USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata... Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Administrative Offset § 3.45 USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor participates. (a) A USDA payment...

  12. 7 CFR 3.45 - USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata... Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Administrative Offset § 3.45 USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor participates. (a) A USDA payment...

  13. 7 CFR 3.45 - USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata... Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Administrative Offset § 3.45 USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor participates. (a) A USDA payment...

  14. 7 CFR 3.45 - USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata... Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Administrative Offset § 3.45 USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor participates. (a) A USDA payment...

  15. Forest and grassland cover types reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Carlyle, Cameron N; Lim, Sang-Sun; Bork, Edward W; Chang, Scott X

    2016-11-15

    Western Canada's prairie region is extensively cultivated for agricultural production, which is a large source of greenhouse gas emissions. Agroforestry systems are common land uses across Canada, which integrate trees into the agricultural landscape and could play a substantial role in sequestering carbon and mitigating increases in atmospheric GHG concentrations. We measured soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and the global warming potential of microbe-mediated net greenhouse gas emissions (GWPm) in forest and herbland (areas without trees) soils of three agroforestry systems (hedgerow, shelterbelt and silvopasture) over two growing seasons (May through September in 2013 and 2014). We measured greenhouse gas fluxes and environmental conditions at 36 agroforestry sites (12 sites for each system) located along a south-north oriented soil/climate gradient of increasing moisture availability in central Alberta, Canada. The temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 emissions was greater in herbland (4.4) than in forest (3.1), but was not different among agroforestry systems. Over the two seasons, forest soils had 3.4% greater CO2 emission, 36% higher CH4 uptake, and 66% lower N2O emission than adjacent herbland soils. Combining the CO2 equivalents of soil CH4 and N2O fluxes with the CO2 emitted via heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, forest soils had a smaller GWPm than herbland soils (68 and 89kgCO2ha(-1), respectively). While emissions of total CO2 were silvopasture>hedgerow>shelterbelt, soils under silvopasture had 5% lower heterotrophic respiration, 15% greater CH4 uptake, and 44% lower N2O emission as compared with the other two agroforestry systems. Overall, the GWPm of greenhouse gas emissions was greater in hedgerow (88) and shelterbelt (85) than in the silvopasture system (76kgCO2ha(-1)). High GWPm in the hedgerow and shelterbelt systems reflects the greater contribution from the monoculture annual crops within these systems. Opportunities exist for reducing soil

  16. Forest and grassland cover types reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Carlyle, Cameron N; Lim, Sang-Sun; Bork, Edward W; Chang, Scott X

    2016-11-15

    Western Canada's prairie region is extensively cultivated for agricultural production, which is a large source of greenhouse gas emissions. Agroforestry systems are common land uses across Canada, which integrate trees into the agricultural landscape and could play a substantial role in sequestering carbon and mitigating increases in atmospheric GHG concentrations. We measured soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and the global warming potential of microbe-mediated net greenhouse gas emissions (GWPm) in forest and herbland (areas without trees) soils of three agroforestry systems (hedgerow, shelterbelt and silvopasture) over two growing seasons (May through September in 2013 and 2014). We measured greenhouse gas fluxes and environmental conditions at 36 agroforestry sites (12 sites for each system) located along a south-north oriented soil/climate gradient of increasing moisture availability in central Alberta, Canada. The temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 emissions was greater in herbland (4.4) than in forest (3.1), but was not different among agroforestry systems. Over the two seasons, forest soils had 3.4% greater CO2 emission, 36% higher CH4 uptake, and 66% lower N2O emission than adjacent herbland soils. Combining the CO2 equivalents of soil CH4 and N2O fluxes with the CO2 emitted via heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, forest soils had a smaller GWPm than herbland soils (68 and 89kgCO2ha(-1), respectively). While emissions of total CO2 were silvopasture>hedgerow>shelterbelt, soils under silvopasture had 5% lower heterotrophic respiration, 15% greater CH4 uptake, and 44% lower N2O emission as compared with the other two agroforestry systems. Overall, the GWPm of greenhouse gas emissions was greater in hedgerow (88) and shelterbelt (85) than in the silvopasture system (76kgCO2ha(-1)). High GWPm in the hedgerow and shelterbelt systems reflects the greater contribution from the monoculture annual crops within these systems. Opportunities exist for reducing soil

  17. Population dynamics of neotropical migratory birds using agriculture-forest mosaics in Campeche, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.H.; Berlanga, M.; Dawson, D.; Wood, P.; Sauer, J.; Robbins, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    In many areas of the tropics, forests are being converted to agriculture and other uses at a rapid rate. Previous research has documented that forest-breeding migratory birds are distributed across a wide variety of habitat types during midwinter. However, to evaluate the relative importance of different habitat types to wintering birds, we need to examine habitat-specific estimates of survival. During the winter of 1992-1993, mist nets, observations of individually marked birds and point counts were used to sample bird populations in a pasture-forest mosaic in southern Mexico. Sampling was conducted four times throughout the winter on a total of six grids. Twenty nets were run for two days in each grid. A total of 129 species were captured and 3,585 individuals banded. Neotropical migrants made up 31% of the species captured and 47% of the individuals banded. The banding data were used to estimate species richness for permanent and winter residents in different habitats and at different time periods. Capture-recapture models were used to estimate overwintering survival for selected species.

  18. Five challenges to reconcile agricultural land use and forest ecosystem services in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, L R; Papworth, S K; Reed, J; Symes, W S; Ickowitz, A; Clements, T; Peh, K S-H; Sunderland, T

    2016-10-01

    Southeast Asia possesses the highest rates of tropical deforestation globally and exceptional levels of species richness and endemism. Many countries in the region are also recognized for their food insecurity and poverty, making the reconciliation of agricultural production and forest conservation a particular priority. This reconciliation requires recognition of the trade-offs between competing land-use values and the subsequent incorporation of this information into policy making. To date, such reconciliation has been relatively unsuccessful across much of Southeast Asia. We propose an ecosystem services (ES) value-internalization framework that identifies the key challenges to such reconciliation. These challenges include lack of accessible ES valuation techniques; limited knowledge of the links between forests, food security, and human well-being; weak demand and political will for the integration of ES in economic activities and environmental regulation; a disconnect between decision makers and ES valuation; and lack of transparent discussion platforms where stakeholders can work toward consensus on negotiated land-use management decisions. Key research priorities to overcome these challenges are developing easy-to-use ES valuation techniques; quantifying links between forests and well-being that go beyond economic values; understanding factors that prevent the incorporation of ES into markets, regulations, and environmental certification schemes; understanding how to integrate ES valuation into policy making processes, and determining how to reduce corruption and power plays in land-use planning processes.

  19. Five challenges to reconcile agricultural land use and forest ecosystem services in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, L R; Papworth, S K; Reed, J; Symes, W S; Ickowitz, A; Clements, T; Peh, K S-H; Sunderland, T

    2016-10-01

    Southeast Asia possesses the highest rates of tropical deforestation globally and exceptional levels of species richness and endemism. Many countries in the region are also recognized for their food insecurity and poverty, making the reconciliation of agricultural production and forest conservation a particular priority. This reconciliation requires recognition of the trade-offs between competing land-use values and the subsequent incorporation of this information into policy making. To date, such reconciliation has been relatively unsuccessful across much of Southeast Asia. We propose an ecosystem services (ES) value-internalization framework that identifies the key challenges to such reconciliation. These challenges include lack of accessible ES valuation techniques; limited knowledge of the links between forests, food security, and human well-being; weak demand and political will for the integration of ES in economic activities and environmental regulation; a disconnect between decision makers and ES valuation; and lack of transparent discussion platforms where stakeholders can work toward consensus on negotiated land-use management decisions. Key research priorities to overcome these challenges are developing easy-to-use ES valuation techniques; quantifying links between forests and well-being that go beyond economic values; understanding factors that prevent the incorporation of ES into markets, regulations, and environmental certification schemes; understanding how to integrate ES valuation into policy making processes, and determining how to reduce corruption and power plays in land-use planning processes. PMID:27341652

  20. Conservation value of a native forest fragment in a region of extensive agriculture.

    PubMed

    Chiarello

    2000-05-01

    A survey of mammals and birds was carried out in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of 150 ha located in a zone of intensive agriculture in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil. Line transect sampling was used to census mammals and birds during six days, totalling 27.8 km of trails and 27.8 hours of observation. Twenty mammal species were confirmed in the area (except bats and small mammals), including rare or endangered species, such as the mountain lion (Puma concolor), the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). The brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the black-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) were found frequently, suggesting high population density in the fragment. Regarding the avifauna, 49 bird species were recorded, most of them typical of open areas or forest edges. Some confirmed species, however, are becoming increasingly rare in the region, as for example the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) and the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco). The results demonstrate that forest fragment of this size are refuges for native fauna in a region dominated almost exclusively by sugar-cane plantations. Besides faunal aspects, the conservation of these fragments is of great importance for the establishment of studies related to species preservation in the long term, including reintroduction and translocation projects, as well as studies related to genetic health of isolated populations.

  1. Integrating different knowledge sources and disciplines for practical applications in Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Gema; Castillo, Carlos; Taguas, Encarnación

    2013-04-01

    One of the aims of 'The Bologna Process' is to promote among the students the acquisition of practical, social and creative skills to face real-life situations and to solve the difficulties they might find during their professional life. It involves an important change in the educational system, from a traditional approach focused on teaching, towards a new one that encourages learning. Under this context, University teaching implies the design of activities addressed to the dissemination of "know-how" to solve different problems associated with two technical disciplines: Forest and Agricultural Engineering. This study presents a preliminary experience where a group of information and communication technologies (ICT) such as, audiovisual resources (videos, reports and photo gallery), virtual visits to blogs and interactive activities have been used to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the environmental and sociocultural components of the landscape in order to facilitate the decision-making process in the engineering project context . With these tools, the students must study and characterize all these aspects in order to justify the chosen solutions and the project design. This approach was followed in the analysis of the limiting factors of practical cases in projects about forestation, landscape restoration and hydrological planning. This communication shows how this methodology has been applied in Forest and Agricultural Engineering and the students' experience with these innovative tools. The use of ICTs involved a friendly framework that stimulated students' interest and made subjects more attractive, since it allowed to assess the complex relationships between landscape, history and economy. Furthermore, this type of activities promotes the interdisciplinary training and the acquisition of creative and autonomous skills which are not included in many cases into the main objectives of the subjects.

  2. Forest Conversion, Agricultural Transitions and the Influence of Multi-scale Market Factors in Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.

  3. 7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 170.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who...

  4. Evaluating the relative impact of climate and economic changes on forest and agricultural ecosystem services in mountain regions.

    PubMed

    Briner, Simon; Elkin, Ché; Huber, Robert

    2013-11-15

    Provisioning of ecosystem services (ES) in mountainous regions is predicted to be influenced by i) the direct biophysical impacts of climate change, ii) climate mediated land use change, and iii) socioeconomic driven changes in land use. The relative importance and the spatial distribution of these factors on forest and agricultural derived ES, however, is unclear, making the implementation of ES management schemes difficult. Using an integrated economic-ecological modeling framework, we evaluated the impact of these driving forces on the provision of forest and agricultural ES in a mountain region of southern Switzerland. Results imply that forest ES will be strongly influenced by the direct impact of climate change, but that changes in land use will have a comparatively small impact. The simulation of direct impacts of climate change affects forest ES at all elevations, while land use changes can only be found at high elevations. In contrast, changes to agricultural ES were found to be primarily due to shifts in economic conditions that alter land use and land management. The direct influence of climate change on agriculture is only predicted to be substantial at high elevations, while socioeconomic driven shifts in land use are projected to affect agricultural ES at all elevations. Our simulation results suggest that policy schemes designed to mitigate the negative impact of climate change on forests should focus on suitable adaptive management plans, accelerating adaptation processes for currently forested areas. To maintain provision of agricultural ES policy needs to focus on economic conditions rather than on supporting adaptation to new climate. PMID:23995509

  5. Evaluating the relative impact of climate and economic changes on forest and agricultural ecosystem services in mountain regions.

    PubMed

    Briner, Simon; Elkin, Ché; Huber, Robert

    2013-11-15

    Provisioning of ecosystem services (ES) in mountainous regions is predicted to be influenced by i) the direct biophysical impacts of climate change, ii) climate mediated land use change, and iii) socioeconomic driven changes in land use. The relative importance and the spatial distribution of these factors on forest and agricultural derived ES, however, is unclear, making the implementation of ES management schemes difficult. Using an integrated economic-ecological modeling framework, we evaluated the impact of these driving forces on the provision of forest and agricultural ES in a mountain region of southern Switzerland. Results imply that forest ES will be strongly influenced by the direct impact of climate change, but that changes in land use will have a comparatively small impact. The simulation of direct impacts of climate change affects forest ES at all elevations, while land use changes can only be found at high elevations. In contrast, changes to agricultural ES were found to be primarily due to shifts in economic conditions that alter land use and land management. The direct influence of climate change on agriculture is only predicted to be substantial at high elevations, while socioeconomic driven shifts in land use are projected to affect agricultural ES at all elevations. Our simulation results suggest that policy schemes designed to mitigate the negative impact of climate change on forests should focus on suitable adaptive management plans, accelerating adaptation processes for currently forested areas. To maintain provision of agricultural ES policy needs to focus on economic conditions rather than on supporting adaptation to new climate.

  6. Multimodeling Framework for Predicting Water Quality in Fragmented Agriculture-Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, J. B.; Guber, A.; Porter, W. F.; Williams, D.; Tamrakar, S.; Dechen Quinn, A.

    2012-12-01

    Both livestock and wildlife are major contributors of nonpoint pollution of surface water bodies. The interactions among them can substantially increase the chance of contamination especially in fragmented agriculture-forest landscapes, where wildlife (e.g. white tailed deer) can transmit diseases between remote farms. Unfortunately, models currently available for predicting fate and transport of microorganisms in these ecosystems do not account for such interactions. The objectives of this study are to develop and test a multimodeling framework that assesses the risk of microbial contamination of surface water caused by wildlife-livestock interactions in fragmented agriculture-forest ecosystems. The framework consists of a modified Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), KINematic Runoff and EROSion model (KINEROS2) with the add-on module STWIR (Microorganism Transport with Infiltration and Runoff), RAMAS GIS, SIR compartmental model and Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment model (QMRA). The watershed-scale model SWAT simulates plant biomass growth, wash-off of microorganisms from foliage and soil, overland and in-stream microbial transport, microbial growth, and die-off in foliage and soil. RAMAS GIS model predicts the most probable habitat and subsequent population of white-tailed deer based on land use and crop biomass. KINEROS-STWIR simulates overland transport of microorganisms released from soil, surface applied manure, and fecal deposits during runoff events at high temporal and special resolutions. KINEROS-STWIR and RAMAS GIS provide input for an SIR compartmental model which simulates disease transmission within and between deer groups. This information is used in SWAT model to account for transmission and deposition of pathogens by white tailed deer in stream water, foliage and soil. The QMRA approach extends to microorganisms inactivated in forage and water consumed by deer. Probabilities of deer infections and numbers of infected animals are computed

  7. Institutional Discrimination in Agricultural Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, William C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examines history of discrimination within U.S. agricultural programs, specifically in U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Compares USDA employment and grant allocations for Blacks and Whites since Civil Rights Act of 1964. Cites other examples of institutional discrimination in federal agriculture programs. Calls for development of policy…

  8. Climate programs update: USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PROGRAM OVERVIEW: The overarching goal of the USDA SW Climate Hub is to assist farmers, ranchers and foresters in addressing the effects of climate change including prolonged drought, increased insect outbreaks and severe wildfires. In the first year of operations, the SW Climate Hub (est. Februa...

  9. PHOTOCOPY OF STANDARD USDA/USFS PLAN FOR 13' X 13' STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PHOTOCOPY OF STANDARD USDA/USFS PLAN FOR 13' X 13' STEEL LOOKOUT HOUSE (CAB); ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS, MISC. DETAILS; DATED 1961 - North Mountain Lookout, Stanislaus National Forest, Groveland, Tuolumne County, CA

  10. Soil micronutrients at the plot scale under agricultural and forest soil uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Días, Rosane; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; dos Santos Batista Bonini, Carolina; Marasca, Indiamara; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Land use practices affect soil properties and nutrient supply. Very limited data are available on the heavy metal extractability in northwest Spain. The aim of this study is to analyze long-term effects of land use on the supply, variability and spatial distribution of soil nutrients, which was undertaken by comparison of a forest and a cultivated stand, rich in organic matter content. The study was carried out in an acid, rich in organic matter soil developed over sediments at the province of Lugo, northwestern of Spain. Adjacent plots with were marked on regular square grids with 2-m spacing. Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were extracted both by Mehlich-3 and DTPA solutions and determined by ICP-MS. General soil chemical and physical properties were routinely analyzed. In arable land microelement concentration ranges were as follows: Fe (100 and 135 mg/Kg), Mn (7.6 and 21.5 mg/Kg), Zn (0.6 and 3.7 mg/Kg), Cu (0.2 and 0.7 mg/Kg). In forest land, these ranges were: Fe (62 and 309 mg/Kg), Mn (0.2 and 2.1 mg/Kg), Zn (0.2 and 2.9 mg/Kg), Cu (0.1 and 0.2 mg/Kg), Microelement concentrations extracted both with DTPA and Mehlich-3 were higher in the cultivated than in the forest stand, being Fe-DTPA the exception. Coefficients of variation were higher for the microelement content of the soil under forest. Principal component analysis was performed to evaluate associations between extractable microelements and general physico-chemical properties. At the study scale, nutrient management is the main factor affecting the agricultural site, whereas soil-plant interactions are probably driving the higher variation within the forest site. Patterns of spatial variability of the study nutrients at the small plot scale were assessed by geostatistical techniques. Results are discussed in the frame of organic matter decline with conventional tillage and sustainable land use.

  11. NMR characterization and sorption behavior of agricultural and forest soil humic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengliang; Berns, Anne E.; Séquaris, Jean-Marie; Klumpp, Erwin

    2010-05-01

    Humic substances are the predominant components of the organic matter in the terrestrial system, which are not only important for the physicochemical properties of soil but are also dominant factors for controlling the environmental behaviors and fates of some organic contaminants, such as hydrophobic compounds. Nonylphenol [4-(1-ethyl-1, 3 dimethylpentyl) phenol] (NP), a ubiquitous hydrophobic pollutant, has recently focused the attention owing to its endocrine disruptors property. Sorption behavior of NP on humic substances, which were isolated from agricultural and forest soils, was investigated by using the dialysis technique at room temperature. 14C-labeled NP was used to quantify the partitioning behavior. Humic substances were characterized by 13C Cross-Polarization/Magic-Angle-Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP/MAS NMR). The results showed that the partition parameters of NP on various humic acids were slightly different. Relationships between partition coefficients and the functional groups of humic substances identified by CP/MAS NMR were analyzed.

  12. 78 FR 44092 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Solicitation for membership. SUMMARY: The notice announced the USDA's request for membership on the National Agricultural...

  13. Ecosystem N distribution and δ15N during a century of forest regrowth after agricultural abandonment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Compton, J.E.; Hooker, T.D.; Perakis, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios of terrestrial ecosystem nitrogen (N) pools reflect internal processes and input–output balances. Disturbance generally increases N cycling and loss, yet few studies have examined ecosystem δ15N over a disturbance-recovery sequence. We used a chronosequence approach to examine N distribution and δ15N during forest regrowth after agricultural abandonment. Site ages ranged from 10 to 115 years, with similar soils, climate, land-use history, and overstory vegetation (white pine Pinus strobus). Foliar N and δ15N decreased as stands aged, consistent with a progressive tightening of the N cycle during forest regrowth on agricultural lands. Over time, foliar δ15N became more negative, indicating increased fractionation along the mineralization–mycorrhizal–plant uptake pathway. Total ecosystem N was constant across the chronosequence, but substantial internal N redistribution occurred from the mineral soil to plants and litter over 115 years (>25% of ecosystem N or 1,610 kg ha−1). Temporal trends in soil δ15N generally reflected a redistribution of depleted N from the mineral soil to the developing O horizon. Although plants and soil δ15N are coupled over millennial time scales of ecosystem development, our observed divergence between plants and soil suggests that they can be uncoupled during the disturbance-regrowth sequence. The approximate 2‰ decrease in ecosystem δ15N over the century scale suggests significant incorporation of atmospheric N, which was not detected by traditional ecosystem N accounting. Consideration of temporal trends and disturbance legacies can improve our understanding of the influence of broader factors such as climate or N deposition on ecosystem N balances and δ15N.

  14. Spatially explicit scenario analysis for reconciling agricultural expansion, forest protection, and carbon conservation in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Lian Pin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2010-01-01

    Palm oil is the world's most important vegetable oil in terms of production quantity. Indonesia, the world's largest palm-oil producer, plans to double its production by 2020, with unclear implications for the other national priorities of food (rice) production, forest and biodiversity protection, and carbon conservation. We modeled the outcomes of alternative development scenarios and show that every single-priority scenario had substantial tradeoffs associated with other priorities. The exception was a hybrid approach wherein expansion targeted degraded and agricultural lands that are most productive for oil palm, least suitable for food cultivation, and contain the lowest carbon stocks. This approach avoided any loss in forest or biodiversity and substantially ameliorated the impacts of oil-palm expansion on carbon stocks (limiting net loss to 191.6 million tons) and annual food production capacity (loss of 1.9 million tons). Our results suggest that the environmental and land-use tradeoffs associated with oil-palm expansion can be largely avoided through the implementation of a properly planned and spatially explicit development strategy. PMID:20511535

  15. Priming effect in agricultural and forest soils depending on glucose level and N addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splettstoesser, Thomas; Kumar, Amit; Sun, Yue

    2015-04-01

    Growing plants continuously release easily available organic compounds into the rhizosphere. By their interactions with soil microbial biomass (MB) these compounds result in changes of organic matter turnover rates. The understanding of this priming effect (PE) is important for the estimation of climate change impacts on different land use systems. In order to investigate the PE, we conducted a soil incubation experiment under laboratory conditions with two loamy soils: one under cropland and the second under a deciduous forest near Göttingen. 13C and 14C Glucose were added in four levels reaching from 10% to 300% of MB-C. Furthermore two nitrogen levels were established in order to investigate the effects of fertilization on PE. During the whole experiment CO2 release was monitored by trapping in a NaOH solution. Nitrogen mineralization rate, activity of enzymes, and composition of MB were analyzed at the start, after one day, after one week and at the end of the experiment. The results on priming effects induced in agricultural and forest soils depending on N and glucose levels will be presented.

  16. USDA perspective on environmental enrichment for animals.

    PubMed

    Kulpa-Eddy, Jodie A; Taylor, Sylvia; Adams, Kristina M

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a brief historical background of the events and circumstances that led to the 1985 Animal Welfare Act (AWA) amendments. It describes the development of the regulations promulgated by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1991 as a result of these amendments, the reasoning given for the proposals, and the revisions that were made during the process. Information is included on USDA implementation of the regulations regarding exercise for dogs and environmental enhancement for nonhuman primates. Also mentioned briefly are the requirements for socialization of marine mammals and space requirements for certain other regulated warm-blooded species. These requirements apply to animal dealers (breeders and brokers), exhibitors, commercial transporters, and research facilities. The standards for exercise and environmental enhancement were different from any others previously contained in the AWA regulations, and required more research and understanding of species-specific needs by the regulated community. Finally, this article describes some of the initiatives being undertaken by the research community and USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS)-Animal Care to provide the necessary education and guidance indicated by the violation history data.

  17. 75 FR 70026 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... funerary objects in the possession and control of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service... funerary objects were removed from Klickitat County, WA. This notice is published as part of the National... control of the Native American human remains and associated funerary objects. The National Park Service...

  18. BOREAL FOREST CARBON STOCKS AND WOOD SUPPLY: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE RESPONSES TO CHANGING CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE AND SPECIES AVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper assesses the role in boreal forest growth played by environment. It examines past changes in climate coupled with glaciation, and future changes in climate coupled with agricultural land use and tree species availability. The objective was to define and evaluate potenti...

  19. Forest Fire Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Fire Logistics Airborne Mapping Equipment (FLAME) system, mounted in a twin-engine and airplane operated by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is an airborne instrument for detecting and pinpointing forest fires that might escape ground detection. The FLAME equipment rack includes the operator interface, a video monitor, the system's control panel and film output. FLAME's fire detection sensor is an infrared line scanner system that identifies fire boundaries. Sensor's information is correlated with the aircraft's position and altitude at the time the infrared imagery is acquired to fix the fire's location on a map. System can be sent to a fire locale anywhere in the U.S. at the request of a regional forester. USFS felt a need for a more advanced system to deliver timely fire information to fire management personnel in the decade of the 1990s. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) conducted a study, jointly sponsored by NASA and USDA, on what advanced technologies might be employed to produce an end-to-end thermal infrared fire detection and mapping system. That led to initiation of the Firefly system, currently in development at JPL and targeted for operational service beginning in 1992. Firefly will employ satellite-reference position fixing and provide performance superior to FLAME.

  20. An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper data for the classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Anderson, J. E.; Brannon, D. P.; Hill, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) data for the delineation and classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers was conducted. A study area in Poinsett County, Arkansas was used to evaluate a classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data in comparison with a classification of TM data for the same area. Data over Reelfoot Lake in northwestern Tennessee were utilized to evaluate the TM for delineating forested wetland species. A classification of the study area was assessed for accuracy in discriminating five forested wetland categories. Finally, the TM data were used to identify urban features within a small city. A computer generated classification of Union City, Tennessee was analyzed for accuracy in delineating urban land covers. An evaluation of digitally enhanced TM data using principal components analysis to facilitate photointerpretation of urban features was also performed.

  1. Development of novel repellents using structure-activity modeling of compounds in the USDA archival database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has developed repellents and insecticides for the U.S. military since 1942. Repellency and toxicity data for over 30,000 compounds are contained within the USDA archive. Repellency data from subsets of similarly structured compounds were used to dev...

  2. 7 CFR 15f.25 - Will USDA pay my attorneys fees if I win?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 1, subpart J. The ALJ must follow those rules, and not these Section 741 Complaint... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Will USDA pay my attorneys fees if I win? 15f.25... Request a Hearing, What Will Happen? How Will the Hearing Be Conducted? § 15f.25 Will USDA pay...

  3. 7 CFR 15f.25 - Will USDA pay my attorneys fees if I win?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 1, subpart J. The ALJ must follow those rules, and not these Section 741 Complaint... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Will USDA pay my attorneys fees if I win? 15f.25... Request a Hearing, What Will Happen? How Will the Hearing Be Conducted? § 15f.25 Will USDA pay...

  4. 7 CFR 4290.509 - Employment of USDA or SBA officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment of USDA or SBA officials. 4290.509 Section... (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a RBIC General Requirements § 4290.509 Employment of USDA... professional services, any person who: (1) Served as an officer, attorney, agent, or employee of SBA or...

  5. 7 CFR 4290.509 - Employment of USDA or SBA officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment of USDA or SBA officials. 4290.509 Section... (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a RBIC General Requirements § 4290.509 Employment of USDA... professional services, any person who: (1) Served as an officer, attorney, agent, or employee of SBA or...

  6. 7 CFR 15f.25 - Will USDA pay my attorneys fees if I win?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 1, subpart J. The ALJ must follow those rules, and not these Section 741 Complaint... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Will USDA pay my attorneys fees if I win? 15f.25... Request a Hearing, What Will Happen? How Will the Hearing Be Conducted? § 15f.25 Will USDA pay...

  7. 7 CFR 15f.25 - Will USDA pay my attorneys fees if I win?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 1, subpart J. The ALJ must follow those rules, and not these Section 741 Complaint... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Will USDA pay my attorneys fees if I win? 15f.25... Request a Hearing, What Will Happen? How Will the Hearing Be Conducted? § 15f.25 Will USDA pay...

  8. 7 CFR 15f.25 - Will USDA pay my attorneys fees if I win?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 1, subpart J. The ALJ must follow those rules, and not these Section 741 Complaint... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will USDA pay my attorneys fees if I win? 15f.25... Request a Hearing, What Will Happen? How Will the Hearing Be Conducted? § 15f.25 Will USDA pay...

  9. USDA-ARS extension activities in medical, veterinary and urban entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), National Program 104 conducts research on veterinary, medical, and urban entomology. The goal of this program is to develop more effective methods of preventing or suppressing insects, ticks, and mites that affect animal and human well-being....

  10. Harvesting Greatness: With Support from the USDA, Rural Colleges Are Expanding Campuses and Helping Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Partnerships between the USDA and rural colleges are one approach that allows individual students and regional economies to fulfill their potential. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has made a decision to be involved with rural community colleges, which has really made a difference on what is happening on campus. Through a dizzying array…

  11. 7 CFR 1450.5 - Performance based on advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Performance based on advice or action of USDA. 1450.5 Section 1450.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  12. 7 CFR 1450.5 - Performance based on advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance based on advice or action of USDA. 1450.5 Section 1450.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  13. 7 CFR 1450.5 - Performance based on advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance based on advice or action of USDA. 1450.5 Section 1450.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  14. 7 CFR 1450.5 - Performance based on advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance based on advice or action of USDA. 1450.5 Section 1450.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  15. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  16. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  17. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  18. 76 FR 9740 - Kisatchie National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Forest Service Kisatchie National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Kisatchie National Forest Resource Advisory Committee will meet in... Parkway, Natchitoches, LA. Written comments should be sent to Holly Morgan, Kisatchie National...

  19. USDA Forest Service mobile satellite communications applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, John R.

    1990-01-01

    The airborne IR signal processing system being developed will require the use of mobile satellite communications to achieve its full capability and improvement in delivery timeliness of processed IR data to the Fire Staff. There are numerous other beneficial uses, both during wildland fire management operations or in daily routine tasks, which will also benefit from the availability of reliable communications from remote areas.

  20. What's New in USDA's Food Distribution Program for Schools? School Programs USDA Foods Update. Volume 14, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an update on all the new products and projects that U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) has been working on, in its effort to help schools meet the nutritional needs of the students and to help in the President's challenge to End Childhood Hunger by 2015. This issue includes: (1) Back to…

  1. 75 FR 34973 - New Mexico Collaborative Forest Restoration Program Technical Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Forest Service New Mexico Collaborative Forest Restoration Program Technical Advisory Panel AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The New Mexico Collaborative Forest Restoration... restoration grant proposals submitted in response to the Collaborative Forest Restoration Program Request...

  2. 76 FR 22076 - Bussel 484, Idaho Panhandle National Forests, Idaho, Shoshone County

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... of wildife, the Idaho Panhandle National Forests' fire management direction, recently designated... Forest Service Bussel 484, Idaho Panhandle National Forests, Idaho, Shoshone County AGENCY: Forest...: The USDA Forest Service will prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS) for...

  3. 7 CFR 3.45 - USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata... of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor participates. (a) A USDA payment authorizing..., may offset: (1) A debtor's pro rata share of USDA payments due any entity in which the...

  4. 41 CFR 102-75.1085 - When using a delegation of real property disposal authority under this subpart, is USDA required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of real property disposal authority under this subpart, is USDA required to report excess property to... DISPOSAL Delegations Delegation to the Department of Agriculture (usda) § 102-75.1085 When using a delegation of real property disposal authority under this subpart, is USDA required to report excess...

  5. 41 CFR 102-75.1085 - When using a delegation of real property disposal authority under this subpart, is USDA required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of real property disposal authority under this subpart, is USDA required to report excess property to... DISPOSAL Delegations Delegation to the Department of Agriculture (usda) § 102-75.1085 When using a delegation of real property disposal authority under this subpart, is USDA required to report excess...

  6. 41 CFR 102-75.1085 - When using a delegation of real property disposal authority under this subpart, is USDA required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of real property disposal authority under this subpart, is USDA required to report excess property to... DISPOSAL Delegations Delegation to the Department of Agriculture (usda) § 102-75.1085 When using a delegation of real property disposal authority under this subpart, is USDA required to report excess...

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.1085 - When using a delegation of real property disposal authority under this subpart, is USDA required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of real property disposal authority under this subpart, is USDA required to report excess property to... DISPOSAL Delegations Delegation to the Department of Agriculture (usda) § 102-75.1085 When using a delegation of real property disposal authority under this subpart, is USDA required to report excess...

  8. 41 CFR 102-75.1085 - When using a delegation of real property disposal authority under this subpart, is USDA required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of real property disposal authority under this subpart, is USDA required to report excess property to... DISPOSAL Delegations Delegation to the Department of Agriculture (usda) § 102-75.1085 When using a delegation of real property disposal authority under this subpart, is USDA required to report excess...

  9. Intergeneric hybrids in Rosaceae subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae) at USDA genebank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service maintains clonal germplasm collections representing world diversity of Pyrus, Cydonia and Mespilus at its National Clonal Germplasm Repository in Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Smaller collections of Amelanchier, Aronia, Crataegus, Sorbus and other genera in Rosaceae ...

  10. Multi- and hyperspectral UAV imaging system for forest and agriculture applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkynen, Jussi; Saari, Heikki; Holmlund, Christer; Mannila, Rami; Antila, Tapani

    2012-06-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) based hyperspectral imager compatible with light weight UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) platforms (SPIE Proc. 74741, 8186B2). The FPI based hyperspectral imager was used in a UAV imaging campaign for forest and agriculture tests during the summer 2011 (SPIE Proc. 81743). During these tests high spatial resolution Color-Infrared (CIR) images and hyperspectral images were recorded on separate flights. The spectral bands of the CIR camera were 500 - 580 nm for the green band, 580 - 700 nm for the red band and 700 - 1000 nm for the near infrared band. For the summer 2012 flight campaign a new hyperspectral imager is currently being developed. A custom made CIR camera will also be used. The system which includes both the high spatial resolution Color-Infrared camera and a light weight hyperspectral imager can provide all necessary data with just one UAV flight over the target area. The new UAV imaging system contains a 4 Megapixel CIR camera which is used for the generation of the digital surface models and CIR mosaics. The hyperspectral data can be recorded in the wavelength range 500 - 900 nm at a resolution of 10 - 30 nm at FWHM. The resolution can be selected from approximate values of 10, 15, 20 or 30 nm at FWHM.

  11. Energy from California agriculture and forest resources: current and future potential and constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    More than 0.3 Quad of energy in the form of liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels can be produced from California forests and farms without altering significantly the supply of food, feed or fiber. The costs of biomass to fuels via direct combustion and gasification conversion systems is now lower than the petroleum or natural gas-derived fuels that they would replace. Yields of 10 tons dry matter per acre per year would be expected from all irrigated agricultural regions if the most productive crops such as corn, sorghum, sugar beets, certain forages and tree crops are grown. Double cropping, e.g., winter grain followed by corn or sorghum in the summer, may increase yields above 10 tons dry matter per year. As much as 4 tons per acre should be available as residues from corn or sorghum for energy conversion systems. With selected crop acreage and utilization schemes up to 5 billion gallons of fermentation ethanol can be produced annually from high starch and sugar crops. With little change in current crop production and utilization over 1 billion gallons of ethanol and methanol can be produced by conversion of current collectable crop, forestry and urban residues.

  12. Soil type as factor controlling the effects of forest transformation to agricultural use in soil aggregation and related properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrenková, Katarína; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Dlapa, Pavel; Arcenegui, Victoria

    2014-05-01

    The stability of aggregates has an important role in soil functioning and its behavior to avoid erosion and degradation, the ability to transfer liquids and gases, which are important features for crop production and ecosystem health (Tisdall and Oades, 1982). It's also a property that is highly influenced by land use and management (Angers et al., 1993). The stability of aggregates provides key information about the capacity of soil functions that defines the soil quality. This study has aimed to identify the long-term effects of forest transformation on agricultural use on soil structure and related properties. For the research was chosen seven localities in the Alicante Province (E Spain) with different soil types in all cases to compare how the land use changes can affect as a function of soil type and characteristics. In every site, samples were collected from agricultural land use (dry crops with tillage management), and in forest areas close to them with similar soil type that are used as references. On the samples, selected physical and chemical properties were analyzed such as Soil aggregate stability (AS), Organic matter (OM), Mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates and Water repellency (WR). As expected, in all cases the AS was significant lower in agricultural sites than in forest. But in some cases the differences were much higher than in others. In forest sites the AS varied between 46 to 82% while in agricultural sites ranged between 14 to 45%. The results showed strong positive correlation of AS with OM. The lowest initial values of AS were found in wettable sandy soils. The agricultural land use lead to relative decrease in AS by 39 to 79% compared to forest soils, indicating that some soils are much more vulnerable to land use than others. These differences can be explained mainly because intrinsic soil properties, such as OM content, texture, and WR. Particularly, the decrease in OM content and absence of WR are responsible for the decrease in

  13. Online evaluation of a commercial video image analysis system (Computer Vision System) to predict beef carcass red meat yield and for augmenting the assignment of USDA yield grades. United States Department of Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Cannell, R C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Wise, J W; Chapman, P L; Scanga, J A; Smith, G C

    2002-05-01

    Objective quantification of differences in wholesale cut yields of beef carcasses at plant chain speeds is important for the application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of a commercial video image analysis system, the Computer Vision System (CVS) to 1) predict commercially fabricated beef subprimal yield and 2) augment USDA yield grading, in order to improve accuracy of grade assessment. The CVS was evaluated as a fully installed production system, operating on a full-time basis at chain speeds. Steer and heifer carcasses (n = 296) were evaluated using CVS, as well as by USDA expert and online graders, before the fabrication of carcasses into industry-standard subprimal cuts. Expert yield grade (YG), online YG, CVS estimated carcass yield, and CVS measured ribeye area in conjunction with expert grader estimates of the remaining YG factors (adjusted fat thickness, percentage of kidney-pelvic-heart fat, hot carcass weight) accounted for 67, 39, 64, and 65% of the observed variation in fabricated yields of closely trimmed subprimals. The dual component CVS predicted wholesale cut yields more accurately than current online yield grading, and, in an augmentation system, CVS ribeye measurement replaced estimated ribeye area in determination of USDA yield grade, and the accuracy of cutability prediction was improved, under packing plant conditions and speeds, to a level close to that of expert graders applying grades at a comfortable rate of speed offline.

  14. 7 CFR 15f.24 - When and in what form will a final determination be made on my complaint by USDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When and in what form will a final determination be made on my complaint by USDA? 15f.24 Section 15f.24 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture...? § 15f.24 When and in what form will a final determination be made on my complaint by USDA? (a) The...

  15. 7 CFR 15f.24 - When and in what form will a final determination be made on my complaint by USDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When and in what form will a final determination be made on my complaint by USDA? 15f.24 Section 15f.24 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture...? § 15f.24 When and in what form will a final determination be made on my complaint by USDA? (a) The...

  16. 7 CFR 15f.24 - When and in what form will a final determination be made on my complaint by USDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When and in what form will a final determination be made on my complaint by USDA? 15f.24 Section 15f.24 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture...? § 15f.24 When and in what form will a final determination be made on my complaint by USDA? (a) The...

  17. 7 CFR 15f.24 - When and in what form will a final determination be made on my complaint by USDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false When and in what form will a final determination be made on my complaint by USDA? 15f.24 Section 15f.24 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture...? § 15f.24 When and in what form will a final determination be made on my complaint by USDA? (a) The...

  18. 7 CFR 15f.24 - When and in what form will a final determination be made on my complaint by USDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false When and in what form will a final determination be made on my complaint by USDA? 15f.24 Section 15f.24 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture...? § 15f.24 When and in what form will a final determination be made on my complaint by USDA? (a) The...

  19. USDA-ARS update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato research at the Red River Valley Agricultural Research Center is conducted by the Sugarbeet & Potato Research Unit at two locations: the Northern Crop Science Laboratory in Fargo, ND and the Potato Research Worksite located in East Grand Forks, MN. Research in Fargo is laboratory oriented an...

  20. Comparison of Hydrologic Dynamics in Forested and Agricultural Sub-watersheds of a Large Mixed-use Prairie Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, H.; Ali, G.

    2013-12-01

    The natural history of the Prairies includes the large-scale human modification of landscape biology and hydrology from first settlement to present. Forested land has been and continues to be lost and runoff is increasingly artificially drained in this intensively managed region. The impact of such modifications on hydrological dynamics has yet to be understood in such a way that measurable landscape alterations (i.e., area of forest loss, hydraulic capacity of artificial surface drains) can be linked to quantifiable alterations in event storm hydrographs or hydrological regimes. Here we focused on a large mixed-used watershed to compare the hydrological dynamics of forested sub-watersheds to those of neighboring deforested agricultural sub-watersheds within a similar geologic and pedologic setting. The chosen study site, the Catfish Creek watershed (CCW), drains a 600 km2 area located approximately 90 km north-east of Winnipeg (Manitoba, Canada) and has been extensively impacted by human activities including the continued clearing of forested land for cultivation. It is characterized as a low-relief, agro-forested watershed (~45% forest, ~40% crops, ~10% swamp, ~5% other). Surface runoff is managed in part by a network of artificial drains in both the forested and cultivated portions of this watershed. The lower CCW is naturally-vegetated by parkland forest and swamp. The eastern edge of the upper watershed is also forested and of greater relative relief; while to the west the landscape is dominated by intensive, large-scale agricultural operations on a near level landscape. Detailed topographic information was collected in 1 m LiDAR survey of the area. Through the spring of 2013, CCW was instrumented with thirteen water level recorders (15-minute frequency) and five weather stations (1-minute frequency) to monitor the precipitation-runoff dynamics from spring thaw to winter freeze-up. Water level gauging stations, 12 located in-stream and 1 located in swampland

  1. Sulphate leaching from diffuse agricultural and forest sources in a large central European catchment during 1900-2010.

    PubMed

    Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Porcal, Petr; Posch, Maximilian

    2014-02-01

    Using dynamic, mass budget, and empirical models, we quantified sulphate-sulphur (SO4-S) leaching from soils in a large central European catchment (upper Vltava river, Czech Republic) over a 110-year period (1900-2010). SO4-S inputs to soils with synthetic fertilisers and atmospheric deposition increased in the 1950s-1980s, then rapidly decreased (~80%), and remained low since the middle 1990s. The proportion of drained agricultural land rapidly increased from 4 to 43% between the 1950s and 1990s; then the draining ability of the system slowly decreased due to its ageing. Sulphate concentrations in the Vltava exhibited similar trends as the external SO4-S inputs, suggesting that they could be explained by changes in atmospheric and fertiliser S inputs. The available data and modelling, however, showed that (i) internal SO4-S sources (mineralization of soil organic S in the drained agricultural land), (ii) a hysteresis in SO4-S leaching from forest soils (a net S retention at the high S inputs and then a net release at the lowered inputs), and (iii) hydrology must be taken into account. An empirical model was then employed, based on parameters representing hydrology (discharge), external SO4-S sources (inputs by synthetic fertilisers and atmospheric deposition), and internal SO4-S sources (mineralization related to soil drainage). The model explained 84% of the observed variability in annual SO4-S concentrations in the Vltava river during 1900-2010 and showed that forest soils were a net sink (105 kg ha(-1)) while agricultural land was a net source (55 kg ha(-1)) of SO4-S during 1960-2010. In the late 1980s, forest soils changed from a sink to a source of S, and the present release of SO4-S accumulated in forest soils thus delays recovery of surface waters from acidification, while S losses from agricultural soils increase the risk of future S deficiency in S-demanding crops.

  2. 77 FR 31302 - Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Renewal of the Charter for the Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is seeking renewal of the...

  3. USDA Southwest Regional Hub for Adaptation to and Mitigation of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rango, A.; Elias, E.; Steele, C. M.; Havstad, K.

    2014-12-01

    The USDA Southwest (SW) Climate Hub was created in February 2014 to develop risk adaptation and mitigation strategies for coping with climate change effects on agricultural productivity. There are seven regional hubs across the country with three subsidiary hubs. The SW Climate Hub Region is made up of six states: New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, California and Hawaii (plus the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands). The SW Climate Hub has a subsidiary hub located in Davis, California. The Southwest region has high climatic diversity, with the lowest and highest average annual rainfall in the U.S.(6.0 cm in Death Valley, CA and 1168 cm at Mt. Waialeale, HI). There are major deserts in five of the six states, yet most of the states, with exception of Hawaii, depend upon the melting of mountain snowpacks for their surface water supply. Additionally, many of the agricultural areas of the SW Regional Hub depend upon irrigation water to maintain productivity. Scientific climate information developed by the Hub will be used for climate-smart decision making. To do this, the SW Regional Hub will rely upon existing infrastructure of the Cooperative Extension Service at Land-Grant State Universities. Extension service and USDA-NRCS personnel have existing networks to communicate with stakeholders (farmers, ranchers, and forest landowners) through meetings and workshops which have already started in the six states. Outreach through the development of a weather and climate impact modules designed for seventh grade students and their teachers will foster education of future generations of rural land managers. We will be synthesizing and evaluating existing reports, literature and information on regional climate projections, water resources, and agricultural adaptation strategies related to climate in the Southwest. The results will be organized in a spatial format and provided through the SW Hub website (http://swclimatehub.info) and peer-reviewed articles.

  4. NETL, USDA design coal-stabilized biomass gasification unit

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    Coal, poultry litter, contaminated corn, rice hulls, moldly hay, manure sludge - these are representative materials that could be tested as fuel feedstocks in a hybrid gasification/combustion concept studied in a recent US Department of Energy (DOE) design project. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) collaborated to develop a design concept of a power system that incorporates Hybrid Biomass Gasification. This system would explore the use of a wide range of biomass and agricultural waste products as gasifier feedstocks. The plant, if built, would supply one-third of electrical and steam heating needs at the USDA's Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  5. 7 CFR 4290.504 - Equipment of USDA or SBA officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment of USDA or SBA officials. 4290.504 Section 4290.504 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS... (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a RBIC General Requirements § 4290.504 Equipment of...

  6. 7 CFR 4290.504 - Equipment of USDA or SBA officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment of USDA or SBA officials. 4290.504 Section 4290.504 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS... (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a RBIC General Requirements § 4290.504 Equipment of...

  7. 7 CFR 12.11 - Action based upon advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... make such benefits available to the extent that similar relief would be allowed under 7 CFR part 718. ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Action based upon advice or action of USDA. 12.11 Section 12.11 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND...

  8. 7 CFR 12.11 - Action based upon advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... make such benefits available to the extent that similar relief would be allowed under 7 CFR part 718. ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Action based upon advice or action of USDA. 12.11 Section 12.11 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND...

  9. 7 CFR 12.11 - Action based upon advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... make such benefits available to the extent that similar relief would be allowed under 7 CFR part 718. ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Action based upon advice or action of USDA. 12.11 Section 12.11 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND...

  10. 7 CFR 12.11 - Action based upon advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... make such benefits available to the extent that similar relief would be allowed under 7 CFR part 718. ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Action based upon advice or action of USDA. 12.11 Section 12.11 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND...

  11. 7 CFR 12.11 - Action based upon advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... make such benefits available to the extent that similar relief would be allowed under 7 CFR part 718. ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Action based upon advice or action of USDA. 12.11 Section 12.11 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND...

  12. Agricultural Research Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protection Crop Production and Protection Natural Resources and Sustainable Agricultural Systems Nutrition, Food Safety, and Quality Overseas ... LA, MS, NC, PR, SC) Footer Content ARS Home | USDA.gov | Site Map | Statements and Disclaimers | Plain ...

  13. A comparison of forest and agricultural shallow groundwater chemical status a century after land use change.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Elliott; Hubbart, Jason A; Ikem, Abua

    2015-10-01

    Considering the increasing pace of global land use change and the importance of groundwater quality to humans and aquatic ecosystems, studies are needed that relate land use types to patterns of groundwater chemical composition. Piezometer grids were installed in a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historic agricultural field (Ag) to compare groundwater chemical composition between sites with contrasting land use histories. Groundwater was sampled monthly from June 2011 to June 2013, and analyzed for 50 physiochemical metrics. Statistical tests indicated significant differences (p<0.05) between the study sites for 32 out of 50 parameters. Compared to the Ag site, BHF groundwater was characterized by significantly (p<0.05) lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and higher concentrations of total dissolved solids and inorganic carbon. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of all nitrogen species except nitrate, which was higher in Ag groundwater. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of nutrients such as sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, relative to the Ag site. Ag groundwater was characterized by significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, and titanium. Comparison of shallow groundwater chemical composition with that of nearby receiving water suggests that subsurface concentration patterns are the result of contrasting site hydrology and vegetation. Results detail impacts of surface vegetation alteration on subsurface chemistry and groundwater quality, thereby illustrating land use impacts on the lithosphere and hydrosphere. This study is among the first to comprehensively characterize and compare shallow groundwater chemical composition at sites with contrasting land use histories. PMID:26005752

  14. A comparison of forest and agricultural shallow groundwater chemical status a century after land use change.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Elliott; Hubbart, Jason A; Ikem, Abua

    2015-10-01

    Considering the increasing pace of global land use change and the importance of groundwater quality to humans and aquatic ecosystems, studies are needed that relate land use types to patterns of groundwater chemical composition. Piezometer grids were installed in a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historic agricultural field (Ag) to compare groundwater chemical composition between sites with contrasting land use histories. Groundwater was sampled monthly from June 2011 to June 2013, and analyzed for 50 physiochemical metrics. Statistical tests indicated significant differences (p<0.05) between the study sites for 32 out of 50 parameters. Compared to the Ag site, BHF groundwater was characterized by significantly (p<0.05) lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and higher concentrations of total dissolved solids and inorganic carbon. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of all nitrogen species except nitrate, which was higher in Ag groundwater. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of nutrients such as sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, relative to the Ag site. Ag groundwater was characterized by significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, and titanium. Comparison of shallow groundwater chemical composition with that of nearby receiving water suggests that subsurface concentration patterns are the result of contrasting site hydrology and vegetation. Results detail impacts of surface vegetation alteration on subsurface chemistry and groundwater quality, thereby illustrating land use impacts on the lithosphere and hydrosphere. This study is among the first to comprehensively characterize and compare shallow groundwater chemical composition at sites with contrasting land use histories.

  15. A comparison of the spatial distribution of vadose zone water in forested and agricultural floodplains a century after harvest.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Elliott; Hubbart, Jason A

    2016-01-15

    To improve quantitative understanding of the long-term impact of historic forest removal on floodplain vadose zone water regime, a study was implemented in fall 2010, in the Hinkson Creek Watershed, Missouri, USA. Automated, continuously logging capacitance-frequency probes were installed in a grid-like formation (n=6) and at depths of 15, 30, 50, 75, and 100 cm within a historic agricultural field (Ag) and a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF). Data were logged at thirty minute intervals for the duration of the 2011, 2012, and 2013 hydrologic years. Results showed volumetric water content (VWC) to be significantly different between sites (p<0.01) during the study, with site averages of 33.1 and 32.8% at the Ag and BHF sites, respectively. Semi-variogram analyses indicate the presence of strong (<25%) horizontal and vertical spatial correlation of VWC at the Ag site, and a relatively short-range (25 cm) vertical spatial correlation at the BHF, but only indicate horizontal VWC spatial correlation in the top 30 cm of the BHF profile. Likely mechanisms contributing to patterns of observed differences are contrasting rates and depths of plant water use, and the presence of preferential flow paths in the below ground BHF. Results suggest historic forest removal and cultivation of the Ag site lead to an effective homogenization of the upper soil profile, and facilitated the development of strong VWC spatial dependency. Conversely, higher hydraulic conductivity of the more heterogeneous BHF subsurface likely results in a wetting of the deeper profile (75 cm) during climatically wet periods, and thus a more effective processing of hydrologic inputs. Collective results highlight the greater extent and degree to which forest vegetation impacts subsurface hydrology, relative to grassland/agricultural systems, and point to the value of reestablishing floodplain forests for fresh water routing, water quality, and flood mitigation in mixed-land-use watersheds.

  16. A comparison of the spatial distribution of vadose zone water in forested and agricultural floodplains a century after harvest.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Elliott; Hubbart, Jason A

    2016-01-15

    To improve quantitative understanding of the long-term impact of historic forest removal on floodplain vadose zone water regime, a study was implemented in fall 2010, in the Hinkson Creek Watershed, Missouri, USA. Automated, continuously logging capacitance-frequency probes were installed in a grid-like formation (n=6) and at depths of 15, 30, 50, 75, and 100 cm within a historic agricultural field (Ag) and a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF). Data were logged at thirty minute intervals for the duration of the 2011, 2012, and 2013 hydrologic years. Results showed volumetric water content (VWC) to be significantly different between sites (p<0.01) during the study, with site averages of 33.1 and 32.8% at the Ag and BHF sites, respectively. Semi-variogram analyses indicate the presence of strong (<25%) horizontal and vertical spatial correlation of VWC at the Ag site, and a relatively short-range (25 cm) vertical spatial correlation at the BHF, but only indicate horizontal VWC spatial correlation in the top 30 cm of the BHF profile. Likely mechanisms contributing to patterns of observed differences are contrasting rates and depths of plant water use, and the presence of preferential flow paths in the below ground BHF. Results suggest historic forest removal and cultivation of the Ag site lead to an effective homogenization of the upper soil profile, and facilitated the development of strong VWC spatial dependency. Conversely, higher hydraulic conductivity of the more heterogeneous BHF subsurface likely results in a wetting of the deeper profile (75 cm) during climatically wet periods, and thus a more effective processing of hydrologic inputs. Collective results highlight the greater extent and degree to which forest vegetation impacts subsurface hydrology, relative to grassland/agricultural systems, and point to the value of reestablishing floodplain forests for fresh water routing, water quality, and flood mitigation in mixed-land-use watersheds. PMID:26519576

  17. Effects of lakes and reservoirs on annual river nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export in agricultural and forested landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Steve M.; Robertson, Dale M.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, effects of lakes and reservoirs on river nutrient export have been incorporated into landscape biogeochemical models. Because annual export varies with precipitation, there is a need to examine the biogeochemical role of lakes and reservoirs over time frames that incorporate interannual variability in precipitation. We examined long-term (~20 years) time series of river export (annual mass yield, Y, and flow-weighted mean annual concentration, C) for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total suspended sediment (TSS) from 54 catchments in Wisconsin, USA. Catchments were classified as small agricultural, large agricultural, and forested by use of a cluster analysis, and these varied in lentic coverage (percentage of catchment lake or reservoir water that was connected to river network). Mean annual export and interannual variability (CV) of export (for both Y and C) were higher in agricultural catchments relative to forested catchments for TP, TN, and TSS. In both agricultural and forested settings, mean and maximum annual TN yields were lower in the presence of lakes and reservoirs, suggesting lentic denitrification or N burial. There was also evidence of long-term lentic TP and TSS retention, especially when viewed in terms of maximum annual yield, suggesting sedimentation during high loading years. Lentic catchments had lower interannual variability in export. For TP and TSS, interannual variability in mass yield was often >50% higher than interannual variability in water yield, whereas TN variability more closely followed water (discharge) variability. Our results indicate that long-term mass export through rivers depends on interacting terrestrial, aquatic, and meteorological factors in which the presence of lakes and reservoirs can reduce the magnitude of export, stabilize interannual variability in export, as well as introduce export time lags.

  18. USDA lettuce breeding and genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lettuce industry of California requires continued development of improved, adapted cultivars to meet new disease and insect problems, changes in the market, and changes in growing procedures. The USDA lettuce breeding and genetics project aims to incorporate valuable traits into crisphead, mixed...

  19. 76 FR 74755 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Department of Agriculture (USDA) proposes to amend the Agriculture Acquisition Regulation (the ``AGAR'') to... Violations to the Agriculture Acquisition Regulation (AGAR). The AGAR may be accessed at: http://www.dm.usda.gov/procurement/policy/agar.html . This clause is to be included in all USDA contracts that exceed...

  20. 78 FR 23903 - Forest Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Forest Service Dixie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with Title II of the Act. The meeting is open to the public. The purpose of the meeting is to review proposals for forest projects...

  1. Development of Thermophilic Tailor-Made Enzyme Mixtures for the Bioconversion of Agricultural and Forest Residues

    PubMed Central

    Karnaouri, Anthi; Matsakas, Leonidas; Topakas, Evangelos; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Even though the main components of all lignocellulosic feedstocks include cellulose, hemicellulose, as well as the protective lignin matrix, there are some differences in structure, such as in hardwoods and softwoods, which may influence the degradability of the materials. Under this view, various types of biomass might require a minimal set of enzymes that has to be tailor-made. Partially defined complex mixtures that are currently commercially used are not adapted to efficiently degrade different materials, so novel enzyme mixtures have to be customized. Development of these cocktails requires better knowledge about the specific activities involved, in order to optimize hydrolysis. The role of filamentous fungus Myceliophthora thermophila and its complete enzymatic repertoire for the bioconversion of complex carbohydrates has been widely proven. In this study, four core cellulases (MtCBH7, MtCBH6, MtEG5, and MtEG7), in the presence of other four “accessory” enzymes (mannanase, lytic polyssacharide monooxygenase MtGH61, xylanase, MtFae1a) and β-glucosidase MtBGL3, were tested as a nine-component cocktail against one model substrate (phosphoric acid swollen cellulose) and four hydrothermally pretreated natural substrates (wheat straw as an agricultural waste, birch, and spruce biomass, as forest residues). Synergistic interactions among different enzymes were determined using a suitable design of experiments methodology. The results suggest that for the hydrolysis of the pure substrate (PASC), high proportions of MtEG7 are needed for efficient yields. MtCBH7 and MtEG7 are enzymes of major importance during the hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw, while MtCBH7 plays a crucial role in case of spruce. Cellobiohydrolases MtCBH6 and MtCBH7 act in combination and are key enzymes for the hydrolysis of the hardwood (birch). Optimum combinations were predicted from suitable statistical models which were able to further increase hydrolysis yields, suggesting that

  2. 78 FR 2947 - Manti-La Sal National Forest, Utah; Maverick Point Forest Health Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Forest Service Manti-La Sal National Forest, Utah; Maverick Point Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Forest... environmental impacts of the Maverick Point Forest Health Project. This project is designed to achieve goals...

  3. A review and evaluation of stemflow literature in the hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles of forested and agricultural ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levia, Delphis F.; Frost, Ethan E.

    2003-04-01

    Stemflow is a spatially localized point input of precipitation and solutes at the plant stem and is of hydrological and ecological significance in forested and agricultural ecosystems. The purpose of this review is to: (1) critically evaluate our current understanding of stemflow; (2) identify gaps in our present knowledge of stemflow; and (3) stimulate further research in areas where present knowledge is weak. The review begins by analyzing stemflow drainage and nutrient inputs under diverse vegetal cover. Stemflow inputs are then examined as a function of meteorological conditions, seasonality, interspecific and intraspecific differences among and within species, canopy structure, spatiality, and atmospheric pollutants in urban environments. Stemflow modeling studies are also reviewed and evaluated. Stemflow yield and chemistry are the result of the interaction of the many complex variables listed. By analyzing each separately, it may be possible to isolate their individual affects on stemflow production and chemistry. A comprehensive understanding of each influencing factor would enable the accurate modeling of stemflow water and nutrient inputs into agricultural and forest soils which may result in the optimization of timber and crop harvests. Some areas where present knowledge is particularly weak are: (1) stemflow production and nutrient transfers in northern boreal forests (aspen, birch, conifers) and desert cacti; (2) chemical enrichment of stemflow from live trees charred by forest fires; (3) stemflow yield and nutrient inputs during the winter season; (4) intraspecific variation in stemflow production and chemistry; (5) stemflow chemistry from standing dead trees; (6) influence of canopy structure on stemflow chemistry; (7) understory stemflow generation and nutrient transfer; and (8) stemflow enrichment associated with insect infestations.

  4. 77 FR 43046 - Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Forest Service Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS AGENCY: Forest... Service will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to implement restoration.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to: Center Horse Landscape Restoration Project Leader, USDA Forest...

  5. USDA Finances Wind for Rural Economic Development (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, C.; Walters, T.

    2005-05-01

    To foster rural economic development and growth, Congress passed the Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program as Section 9006 of the 2002 Farm Bill. This program provides financial assistance to farmers, ranchers, and rural small businesses to purchase renewable energy systems or make energy efficiency improvements. The Rural Business and Cooperative Services of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers this program. This conference poster provides an overview of Section 9006.

  6. 7 CFR 15f.28 - When I or someone else has to do something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false When I or someone else has to do something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the ALJ count the days? 15f.28 Section 15f.28 Agriculture Office... something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the ALJ count the days? Unless...

  7. 7 CFR 15f.28 - When I or someone else has to do something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When I or someone else has to do something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the ALJ count the days? 15f.28 Section 15f.28 Agriculture Office... something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the ALJ count the days? Unless...

  8. 7 CFR 15f.28 - When I or someone else has to do something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When I or someone else has to do something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the ALJ count the days? 15f.28 Section 15f.28 Agriculture Office... something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the ALJ count the days? Unless...

  9. 7 CFR 15f.28 - When I or someone else has to do something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When I or someone else has to do something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the ALJ count the days? 15f.28 Section 15f.28 Agriculture Office... something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the ALJ count the days? Unless...

  10. 7 CFR 15f.28 - When I or someone else has to do something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false When I or someone else has to do something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the ALJ count the days? 15f.28 Section 15f.28 Agriculture Office... something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the ALJ count the days? Unless...

  11. Forests on drained agricultural peatland are potentially large sources of greenhouse gases - insights from a full rotation period simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongxing; Jansson, Per-Erik; Svensson, Magnus; Björklund, Jesper; Tarvainen, Lasse; Klemedtsson, Leif; Kasimir, Åsa

    2016-04-01

    The CoupModel was used to simulate a Norway Spruce forest on fertile drained peat over 60 years, from planting in 1951 until 2011, describing abiotic, biotic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2 and N2O). By calibrating the model against tree ring derived biomass data and measured 6 year abiotic data we obtained a "reference" model by which we were able to describe the GHG fluxes and controlling factors over the 60 years. The GHG fluxes are composed of two important quantities, the forest carbon (C) uptake, 405 g C m‑2 yr‑1 and the decomposition of peat soil, 396 g C m‑2 yr‑1. N2O emissions contribute to the GHG emissions by 0.5 g N m‑2 yr‑1, corresponding to 56.8 g C m‑2 yr‑1. The 60-year-old Spruce forest has an accumulated biomass of 164 Mg C ha‑1. However, over this period 208 Mg C ha‑1 GHG has been added to the atmosphere, which means a net addition of GHG emissions. The main losses are from the peat soil and, indirectly, from forest thinning products, which we assume have a short lifetime. Model sensitivity analysis by changing initial soil C, drainage depth and initial soil C/N ratio also confirms that forests on drained agricultural peatland are a GHG source. We conclude that after harvest at an age of 80 years, most of the stored biomass carbon is liable to be released, the system having captured C only temporarily and with a cost of disappeared peat, adding both CO2 and N2O to the atmosphere.

  12. Forests on drained agricultural peatland are potentially large sources of greenhouse gases - insights from a full rotation period simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongxing; Jansson, Per-Erik; Svensson, Magnus; Björklund, Jesper; Tarvainen, Lasse; Klemedtsson, Leif; Kasimir, Åsa

    2016-04-01

    The CoupModel was used to simulate a Norway Spruce forest on fertile drained peat over 60 years, from planting in 1951 until 2011, describing abiotic, biotic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2 and N2O). By calibrating the model against tree ring derived biomass data and measured 6 year abiotic data we obtained a "reference" model by which we were able to describe the GHG fluxes and controlling factors over the 60 years. The GHG fluxes are composed of two important quantities, the forest carbon (C) uptake, 405 g C m-2 yr-1 and the decomposition of peat soil, 396 g C m-2 yr-1. N2O emissions contribute to the GHG emissions by 0.5 g N m-2 yr-1, corresponding to 56.8 g C m-2 yr-1. The 60-year-old Spruce forest has an accumulated biomass of 164 Mg C ha-1. However, over this period 208 Mg C ha-1 GHG has been added to the atmosphere, which means a net addition of GHG emissions. The main losses are from the peat soil and, indirectly, from forest thinning products, which we assume have a short lifetime. Model sensitivity analysis by changing initial soil C, drainage depth and initial soil C/N ratio also confirms that forests on drained agricultural peatland are a GHG source. We conclude that after harvest at an age of 80 years, most of the stored biomass carbon is liable to be released, the system having captured C only temporarily and with a cost of disappeared peat, adding both CO2 and N2O to the atmosphere.

  13. Quantitative analysis of water use of forests in comparison to agricultural fields in Flanders using time series techniques and the water balance model WAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; Veroustraete, F.; Muys, B.; Feyen, J.

    2003-04-01

    It is assumed that evapotranspiration from forests is larger than that from any other vegetation type. In the literature, examples in conflict are found. The objective of this study is to compare the water use terms of forest stands with those of agricultural crops in Flanders by implementing calibrated and validated model parameters for the different vegetations types in the water balance model WAVE (Vanclooster et al., 1994, 1996) for a simulation period with a time horizon of 30 years (1971-2000). The data analysis of the time series of the different water use terms is carried out at two levels: (1) the analysis of each individual time series using autocorrelation detection, trend analysis (Mann-Kendall) and autoregressive models (AR, Durbin-Watson) and; (2) grouping of the time series according to the distinctive factor, being water use of forest stands and agricultural crops. Mixed General Linear Models and Profile Analysis are implemented. The actual vegetation transpiration, the actual soil and interception evaporation of the different tree and crop species are compared as well as the general agricultural crop and forest stand. From this study it can be concluded that different statistical methods suggest that forest in Flanders does consume more water than agricultural crops. The water use terms also differ for the two land-use types considered. Generally only a few trends and autocorrelations are detected, especially in the time series from agricultural crops.

  14. 76 FR 79151 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Committee Meeting will meet in Washington, DC on January 20, 2012... closed to the public. The Forest Resource Committee is authorized under the Food, Conservation,...

  15. 78 FR 73819 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee will meet in Washington, DC, February 6 and 7... (Pub. L. 110-246). Additional information on the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee can be...

  16. A Metagenomic Perspective on Changes to Nutrient-cycling Genes Following Forest-to-agriculture Conversion in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K. M.; Womack, A. M.; Rodrigues, J.; Nüsslein, K.; Bohannan, B. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Forest-to-agriculture conversion has been shown to alter nutrient cycling and the community composition of soil microorganisms. However, few studies have looked simultaneously at how the abundance, composition, and diversity of microbial genes involved in nutrient cycling change with conversion. We used shotgun metagenomic sequencing to analyze soil from primary rainforest and converted cattle pasture sampled at the Fazenda Nova Vida in Rondônia, Brazil. The diversity, richness, and evenness of nutrient cycling genes were significantly higher in the pasture, and the composition of nutrient cycling communities differed significantly between land use types. These results largely mirror taxonomic shifts following Amazon rainforest conversion, which tends to increase diversity, richness, and evenness of soil microbial communities. The abundance of genes related to N cycling and methane flux differed between land use types. Methanotrophy genes decreased in abundance in the pasture, whereas methanogenesis genes were not significantly different between land use types. These changes could underlie the commonly observed shift from methane sink to source following forest-to-agriculture conversion. Multiple genes in the nitrogen cycle also differed with land use, including genes related to N-fixation and ammonification. Metagenomics provides a unique perspective on the consequences of land use change on microbial community structure and function.

  17. Mapping Secondary Forest Succession on Abandoned Agricultural Land in the Polish Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolecka, N.; Kozak, J.; Kaim, D.; Dobosz, M.; Ginzler, Ch.; Psomas, A.

    2016-06-01

    Land abandonment and secondary forest succession have played a significant role in land cover changes and forest cover increase in mountain areas in Europe over the past several decades. Land abandonment can be easily observed in the field over small areas, but it is difficult to map over the large areas, e.g., with remote sensing, due to its subtle and spatially dispersed character. Our previous paper presented how the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and topographic data were used to detect secondary forest succession on abandoned land in one commune located in the Polish Carpathians by means of object-based image analysis (OBIA) and GIS (Kolecka et al., 2015). This paper proposes how the method can be applied to efficiently map secondary forest succession over the entire Polish Carpathians, incorporating spatial sampling strategy supported by various ancillary data. Here we discuss the methods of spatial sampling, its limitations and results in the context of future secondary forest succession modelling.

  18. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...? Potential market participants are recruited by AMS market management through local farm organizations in the... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...

  19. World Saccharum Collection at the USDA Subtropical Research Station, National Germplasm Repository Miami, Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1980, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), established a genebank, the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Miami, Florida. This repository is devoted to conservation of subtropical and tropical fruit, sugarcane and related grasses and ornamen...

  20. 7 CFR 658.7 - USDA assistance with Federal agencies' reviews of policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... policies and procedures. 658.7 Section 658.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... PROTECTION POLICY ACT § 658.7 USDA assistance with Federal agencies' reviews of policies and procedures. (a... current provisions of law, administrative rules and regulations, and policies and procedures applicable...

  1. 7 CFR 658.7 - USDA assistance with Federal agencies' reviews of policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... policies and procedures. 658.7 Section 658.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... PROTECTION POLICY ACT § 658.7 USDA assistance with Federal agencies' reviews of policies and procedures. (a... current provisions of law, administrative rules and regulations, and policies and procedures applicable...

  2. Musa spp. germplasm management: microsatellite fingerprinting of USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS) is responsible for conserving germplasm of a number of important agricultural crop species. A banana (Musa spp.) collection has been established at TARS that is comprised of diploid, triploid and tetraploid accessions of cultivated, ornament...

  3. Assessing the effects of USDA conservation programs on ecosystem services provided by wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is led by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in an effort to quantify the environmental effects of conservation programs and practices on privately owned agricultural landscapes across the United States. CEAP’s approach includes application ...

  4. History and Accomplishments of USDA-ARS Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) in East Lansing, Michigan, formerly known as Regional Poultry Research Laboratory, was dedicated on August 8, 1939. Its establishment was the result of joint efforts by the Agricultural Experiment Stations of the Nor...

  5. USDA 846-1 fractal melon and derived recombinant inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a melon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding line with highly branched, fractal-type architectural growth habit and 81 derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL). The indeterminate, monoecious USDA 846-1 produces 2...

  6. Characterization of VOCs Across Pennsylvania: Assessing Emissions from Rural, Forested, Agricultural and Natural Gas Drilling-Impacted Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grannas, A. M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ramos-Garcés, F.; Wang, D. K.; Martins, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin are important to troposphere chemistry, particularly the formation of photochemical smog and secondary organic aerosol. There is concern that increased natural gas exploration may lead to increased emissions of certain VOCs during well development and due to fugitive emissions from operational well sites and pipelines. For a six-day period in June 2012, a variety of VOCs were measured using canister sampling from a mobile measurement platform. Transects from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania were studied, with samples obtained in rural, forested, urban, farm-impacted and gas well-impacted sites. As expected, biogenic VOCs and isoprene oxidation products were enhanced in forested regions, while anthropogenic non-methane hydrocarbons were enhanced in urban areas. BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) was enhanced in urban areas, but the concentrations of BTEX measured near developing and existing natural gas sites were similar to rural and forested sites. Halogenated hydrocarbons and Freon compounds were consistent at all site locations. We will discuss the specific concentrations and signatures of these compounds and assess the potential impact of agricultural activities and gas well development on the observed VOC concentrations and variability.

  7. Responses of forest cover and agricultural land changes to local and national drivers of land development in the Miombo Woodlands of western Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, M. T.; Mustard, J. F.; Melillo, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Among dry tropical forest ecosystems globally, the Miombo Woodlands of western Tanzania have experienced extensive forest cover changes in the past two decades that remain poorly understood at regional (100s km2) spatial scales. Recent studies have associated large areas of forest loss in the Miombo with agricultural activities, such as increased tobacco cultivation since the 1990s. However, the dynamics of forest regrowth and net changes in forest cover have not been well characterized. Landscape phenology is complex due to high seasonal and inter-annual variability in vegetation productivity, forest structure, smallholder land use practices, and fire dynamics. Improved characterization of forest and agricultural land cover phenology is needed to use remote sensing more effectively for studying land changes in the Miombo. This project assesses patterns of forest loss and regrowth, and analyzes their relationships to climate, landscape biophysical factors, and agricultural policies and activities in Tabora Province in western Tanzania, from 1990-2013. We develop new satellite remote sensing methods for mapping dry tropical forest and non-forest land cover, based on differences in their seasonal phenology patterns in Landsat imagery quantified using spectral mixture analysis (SMA). Using z-score metrics on SMA fraction images, we find that forest regions have significantly lower sums of substrate and non-photosynthetic vegetation pixel fractions than non-forest regions. We validate our algorithm with field data from 2012-2013 and show that it provides reasonable estimates of forest and non-forest land cover in analyses of imagery from single or multiple dates. Our main objectives are to evaluate whether patterns of forest loss and regrowth show spatial relationships with localized land use practices and environmental factors, or if land changes reflect influences of national to global-scale drivers. For local drivers, we examine if areas of forest loss and regrowth

  8. Modeling and spatially distributing forest net primary production at the regional scale.

    PubMed

    Mickler, Robert A; Earnhardt, Todd S; Moore, Jennifer A

    2002-04-01

    Forest, agricultural, rangeland, wetland, and urban landscapes have different rates of carbon sequestration and total carbon sequestration potential under alternative management options. Changes in the proportion and spatial distribution of land use could enhance or degrade that area's ability to sequester carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. As the ecosystems within a landscape change due to natural or anthropogenic processes, they may go from being a carbon sink to a carbon source or vice versa. Satellite image analysis has been tested for timely and accurate measurement of spatially explicit land use change and is well suited for use in inventory and monitoring of terrestrial carbon. The coupling of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data with a physiologically based forest productivity model (PnET-II) and historic climatic data provides an opportunity to enhance field plot-based forest inventory and monitoring methodologies. We use periodic forest inventory data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program to obtain estimates of forest area and type and to generate estimates of carbon storage for evergreen, deciduous, and mixed-forest classes. The area information is used in an accuracy assessment of remotely sensed forest cover at the regional scale. The map display of modeled net primary production (NPP) shows a range of forest carbon storage potentials and their spatial relationship to other landscape features across the southern United States. This methodology addresses the potential for measuring and projecting forest carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere of the southern United States.

  9. Integrated services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scipioni, A.; Tagliaferri, F.

    2009-04-01

    Objective of the document is to define lines of development and distribution of the services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fire. The services will be a valid support on hand of the Regional and National Administrations involved in the agricultural-forest-rural activities (Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, National Forest Police, ecc..), through the employment of the SIAN "National Agricultural Informative System", that is the integrated national information system for the entire agriculture, forestry and fisheries Administration. The services proposals would be distributed through the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) of the SIAN: the GIS database is a single nation-wide digital graphic database consisting of: - Ortophotos: Aerial images of approz. 45 km2 each with ground resolution of 50 cm; - Cadastral maps: Land maps; - Thematic layers: Land use and crops identification The GIS services can take full advantage of the benefits of SIAN architectural model designed for best integration and interoperability with other Central and Local P.A. bodies whose main items are: - Integration of information from different sources; - Maintainance of the internal coeherence of any integrated information; - Flexibility with respect to technical or organizational changes The "innovative "services described below could be useful to support the development of institutional tasks of public Agencies and Administrations (es. Regions or Civil Protection agencies) according to than previewed from the D.Lgs. 173/98. Services of support to the management of the phenomenon of wildland fires The activities outlined in below figure, don't have a linear and defined temporal sequence, but a dynamic and time integration. It guarantees not only the integrated use of the various information, but also the value of every product, for level of accuracy, coherence and timeliness of the information. Description of four main

  10. [Wildlife damage mitigation in agricultural crops in a Bolivian montane forest].

    PubMed

    Perez, Eddy; Pacheco, Luis F

    2014-12-01

    Wildlife is often blamed for causing damage to human activities, including agricultural practices and the result may be a conflict between human interests and species conservation. A formal assessment of the magnitude of damage is necessary to adequately conduct management practices and an assessment of the efficiency of different management practices is necessary to enable managers to mitigate the conflict with rural people. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural management practices and controlled hunting in reducing damage to subsistence annual crops at the Cotapata National Park and Natural Area of Integrated Management. The design included seven fields with modified agricultural practices, four fields subjected to control hunting, and five fields held as controls. We registered cultivar type, density, frequency of visiting species to the field, crops lost to wildlife, species responsible for damage, and crop biomass. Most frequent species in the fields were Dasyprocta punctata and Dasypus novemcinctus. Hunted plots were visited 1.6 times more frequently than agriculturally managed plots. Crop lost to wildlife averaged 7.28% at agriculturally managed plots, 4.59% in plots subjected to hunting, and 27.61% in control plots. Species mainly responsible for damage were Pecari tajacu, D. punctata, and Sapajus apella. We concluded that both management strategies were effective to reduce damage by >50% as compared to unmanaged crop plots.

  11. Environmental and economic development consequences of forest and agricultural sector policies in Latin America (a synthesis of case studies of Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Bolivia)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.; Gibson, D.

    1994-04-15

    This paper draws heavily on the results of case studies in Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Ecuador to explain how sectoral policies have tilted land use decisions against forestry and in favor of agriculture, and to present estimates of the economic development effects of those decisions. The paper summarizes information on forests and forest industries of the three countries, and it describes the framework within which policies are designed. It presents the effects of sectoral policies on land use and forest management, and then quantifies and discusses economic costs of relevant sectoral policies. Conclusions and recommendations for policy reform are offered.

  12. DOE/USDA joint project to design and manufacture prototype equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, J.G.

    1996-07-01

    Design, assembly, prove-in, and performance testing of prototype equipment for the United States Department of Agriculture`s Subtropical Agriculture Research Laboratory (SARL) were completed by the Department of Energy`s Kansas City Plant. The plant is operated by AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). The prototype equipment was developed as part of the USDA`s efforts to mass produce parasitic wasps for organic control of boll weevils in cotton crops. This development was part of the Production Capability Assurance Program and also part of the Work For Others program. Design and assembly of this prototype equipment led to some new FM&T processes and technologies and exercised many others as described in the text and, at the same time, met the needs of the USDA.

  13. Possible climate warming effects on vegetation, forests, biotic (insect, pathogene) disturbances and agriculture in Central Siberia for 1960- 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.; Lysanova, G. I.; Baranchikov, Y. N.; Kuzmina, N. A.

    2012-04-01

    Regional Siberian studies have already registered climate warming over the last half a century (1960-2010). Our analysis showed that winters are already 2-3°C warmer in the north and 1-2°C warmer in the south by 2010. Summer temperatures increased by 1°C in the north and by 1-2°C in the south. Change in precipitation is more complicated, increasing on average 10% in middle latitudes and decreasing 10-20% in the south, promoting local drying in already dry landscapes. Our goal was to summarize results of research we have done for the last decade in the context of climate warming and its consequences for biosystems in Central Siberia. We modeled climate change effects on vegetation shifts, on forest composition and agriculture change, on the insect Siberian moth (Dendrolimus suprans sibiricus Tschetv) and pathogene (Lophodermium pinastri Chev) ranges in Central Siberia for a century (1960-2050) based on historical climate data and GCM-predicted data. Principal results are: In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over 50% of central Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats; At least half of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture at the end of the century although potential croplands would be limited by the availability of suitable soils agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming Crop production may twofold increase as climate warms during the century; traditional crops (grain, potato

  14. Carrion Beetles Visiting Pig Carcasses during Early Spring in Urban, Forest and Agricultural Biotopes of Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric; Brostaux, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Carrion beetles are important in terrestrial ecosystems, consuming dead mammals and promoting the recycling of organic matter into ecosystems. Most forensic studies are focused on succession of Diptera while neglecting Coleoptera. So far, little information is available on carrion beetles postmortem colonization and decomposition process in temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles are however part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need databases concerning the distribution, ecology and phenology of necrophagous insects, including silphids. Forensic entomology uses pig carcasses to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate entomofaunal succession. However, few studies have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. The work reported here monitored the presence of the carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) on decaying pig carcasses in three selected biotopes (forest, crop field, urban site) at the beginning of spring. Seven species of Silphidae were recorded: Nicrophorus humator (Gleditsch), Nicrophorus vespillo (L.), Nicrophorus vespilloides (Herbst), Necrodes littoralis L., Oiceoptoma thoracica L., Thanatophilus sinuatus (Fabricius), Thanatophilus rugosus (L.). All of these species were caught in the forest biotope, and all but O. thoracica were caught in the agricultural biotope. No silphids were caught in the urban site. PMID:21867439

  15. 17. Photocopy of Sheet 5 of Building Plan R41A, (USDA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of Sheet 5 of Building Plan R4-1A, (USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden. File 7300, 'Buildings'.) FRAMING PLAN, KITCHEN CABINET PLAN AND BATHTUB ARCH PLAN - Buffalo Guard Station, Residence, U.S. Highway 20/191 at Buffalo River, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

  16. 11. Photocopy of Sheet 3 of Building Plan R451, (USDA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of Sheet 3 of Building Plan R4-51, (USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden. File 7300, 'Buildings'.) Construction Details and Floor Framing. - Buffalo Guard Station, Office, U.S. Highway 20/191 at Buffalo River, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

  17. 12. Photocopy of Sheet 5 of Building Plan R453 (USDA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of Sheet 5 of Building Plan R4-53 (USDA, Forest Service Intermountain Region, Ogden. File 7300, 'Buildings'.) PLAN OF KITCHEN CABINETS AND CONSTRUCTION DETAILS - Buffalo Guard Station, Residence, U.S. Highway 20/191 at Buffalo River, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

  18. 9. Photocopy of Sheet 1 of Building Plan R451, (USDA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of Sheet 1 of Building Plan R4-51, (USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden. File 7300, 'Buildings'.) Front, Rear, and Side Elevations and Floor Plan. - Buffalo Guard Station, Office, U.S. Highway 20/191 at Buffalo River, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

  19. 16. Photocopy of Sheet 4 of Building Plan R41A, (USDA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of Sheet 4 of Building Plan R4-1A, (USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden. File 7300, 'Buildings'.) SIDE ELEVATION AND DINING ALCOVE PLAN - Buffalo Guard Station, Residence, U.S. Highway 20/191 at Buffalo River, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

  20. 15. Photocopy of Sheet 1 of Building Plan R41A, (USDA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of Sheet 1 of Building Plan R4-1A, (USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden. File 7300, 'Buildings'.) FRONT ELEVATION AND FLOOR PLAN - Buffalo Guard Station, Residence, U.S. Highway 20/191 at Buffalo River, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

  1. 11. Photocopy of Sheet 4 of Building Plan R453 (USDA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of Sheet 4 of Building Plan R4-53 (USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden. File 7300, 'Buildings'.) SIDE ELEVATION AND FRAMING - Buffalo Guard Station, Residence, U.S. Highway 20/191 at Buffalo River, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

  2. 10. Photocopy of Sheet 2 of Building Plan R451, (USDA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of Sheet 2 of Building Plan R4-51, (USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden. File 7300, 'Buildings'.) Framing and Foundation Plans. - Buffalo Guard Station, Office, U.S. Highway 20/191 at Buffalo River, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

  3. 3. Photocopy of Sheet 1 of Building Plan R495D, (USDA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of Sheet 1 of Building Plan R4-95D, (USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden. File 7300, 'Buildings'.) ELEVATION, FRAMING AND CONSTRUCTION DETAILS - Buffalo Guard Station, Pumphouse, U.S. Highway 20/191 at Buffalo River, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

  4. 5. Photocopy of Sheet 2 of Building Plan R421, (USDA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of Sheet 2 of Building Plan R4-21, (USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden. File 7300, 'Buildings') BACK SIDE ELEVATIONS AND CONSTRUCTION DETAILS - Buffalo Guard Station, Garage, U.S. Highway 20/191 at Buffalo River, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

  5. 6. Photocopy of Sheet 3 of Building Plan R421, (USDA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of Sheet 3 of Building Plan R4-21, (USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden. File 7300, 'Buildings') FRAMING PLAN AND GARAGE DOOR DETAIL - Buffalo Guard Station, Garage, U.S. Highway 20/191 at Buffalo River, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

  6. 10. Photocopy of Sheet 1 of Building Plan R453 (USDA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of Sheet 1 of Building Plan R4-53 (USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden. File 7300, 'Buildings'.) FRONT AND SIDE ELEVATIONS AND FLOOR PLAN - Buffalo Guard Station, Residence, U.S. Highway 20/191 at Buffalo River, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

  7. 4. Photocopy of Sheet 1 of Building Plan R421, (USDA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of Sheet 1 of Building Plan R4-21, (USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden. File 7300, 'Buildings') FRONT AND SIDE ELEVATIONS, FLOOR AND FOUNDATION PLANS. - Buffalo Guard Station, Garage, U.S. Highway 20/191 at Buffalo River, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

  8. Examining soil erosion and nutrient accumulation in forested and agriculture lands of the low mountainous area of Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, A. T.; Gomi, T.; Takahisa, F.; Phung, K. V.

    2011-12-01

    We examined soil erosion and nutrient accumulations in the Xuanmai area located in the low mountainous region of Northern Vietnam, based on field investigations and remote sensing approaches. The study area had been degraded by land-use change from forest to agriculture in the last 20 years. In contrast, around the study area, the Vietnam government promoted reforestation projects. Such changes in land-use conditions, which may or may not be associated with vegetation ground cover conditions, potentially alter soil erosion and nutrient accumulation. We selected 10 dominant land-use types including forested land (e.g., Pinus massoniana and Acacia mangium plantation) agriculture land (e.g., Cassava), and bare land. We established three 1 x 1 m plots in each land-use type in September 2010. Vegetation biomass, litter cover, soil erosion (height of soil pedestal), and soil physical (soil bulk density and particle size distribution) and chemical properties (Total soil carbon, nitrate, and phosphorus) were measured. Height of soil pedestal can be a record of soil erosion by rain splash during rainy periods from April to August (prior to our field study). We also conducted remote sensing analysis using Landsat TM images obtained in 1993, 2000, and 2007 for identifying temporal patterns of land-use types. We found that the intensity of soil erosion depended primary on current vegetation ground cover condition with no regard of land-use. Hence, nutrient accumulation varied among vegetation ground cover and soil erosion. Remote sensing analysis suggested that shrub and bare lands had been altered from forested land more recently. Our finding suggested that variability of soil nutrient conditions can be associated with long-term soil erosion and production processes. Findings of our study are that: (1) current vegetation and litter ground cover affected the amount of surface soil erosion, and (2) legacy of land-use can be more critical for soil nutrient accumulation. Both

  9. Fog in a marginal agricultural area surrounded by montane Andean cloud forest during El Niño climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Santos, G.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate temporal variations of water inputs, rainfall and fog (cloud water), and its contribution to the water balance in a marginal agricultural area of potato surrounded by tropical montane cloud forest in Colombia. Fog in the air boundary layer was estimated using a cylindrical fog collector. Liquid water content of fog events were evaluated before and during natural climate event of El Niño. Our study shows the temporal variation of these two water inputs in both daily and monthly cycles on Boyacá at 2900 m a.s.l. Rainfall was the most frequently observed atmospheric phenomenon, being present on average 62% of the days per year, whereas fog was 45% of the time. Reflected on the lower frequency, annual amount of fog was 11% of precipitation. However during the anomalous dry climate of El Niño, total amount of rainfall was negligible and the few fog events were the only water source for plant growth. Estimated water crop requirements were higher than the water inputs. The survival of the crops was explained by meteorological conditions during dew and fog events. High relative humidity might have eased the plant’s water stress by decreasing transpiration and temperature in leaves and soil, affecting the water balance and the heat exchange between the atmosphere-land interfaces in the marginal agricultural areas during exceptional dry climate.

  10. From Forest Landscape to Agricultural Landscape in the Developing Tropical Country of Malaysia: Pattern, Process, and Their Significance on Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Hezri, Adnan A.

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops—rubber and oil palm plantations—has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900-1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s-1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s-1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country’s “health” and sustainability

  11. From forest landscape to agricultural landscape in the developing tropical country of Malaysia: pattern, process, and their significance on policy.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Hezri, Adnan A

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops--rubber and oil palm plantations--has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900--1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s--1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s--1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country's "health" and sustainability. The

  12. 78 FR 32227 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... 35), this document announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request...

  13. 78 FR 56653 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics Meeting AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the National Agricultural Statistics Service...

  14. 77 FR 6535 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics; Meeting AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the National Agricultural Statistics Service...

  15. 76 FR 40875 - Cedar Gulch Mine, Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest, Josephine County, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ...: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Forest Service will prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS), to examine surface... potential environmental impacts to affected surface resources. The Forest Service, in implementing...

  16. Enhancement and Enlargement of Precision Agriculture and Forest Monitoring Services Thanks to the Sentinel 2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poilve, H.; Duthil, P.; Bicheron, P.; Sigel, G.; Mathian, C.; Lefevre, V.; Nouillas, A.

    2012-04-01

    Sentinel-2 (S-2) data, to be available in early 2014, are eagerly expected by Service Providers, such as Astrium Services, for significantly enhancing their capacity in the provision of geographical information for agriculture and environment applications. Indeed the unequaled coverage, revisit capacity and the spectral capabilities of S-2 will provide the means for more wide-ranging and accurate services in all these domains. This paper presents services that are currently operational, all using biophysical parameters retrieved from the satellite images as intermediate information layers to derive the final products, and the new perspectives that are offered with Sentinel-2.

  17. On the rebound: soil organic carbon stocks can bounce back to near forest levels when agroforests replace agriculture in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hombegowda, H. C.; van Straaten, O.; Köhler, M.; Hölscher, D.

    2015-08-01

    Tropical agroforestry has an enormous potential to sequester carbon while simultaneously producing agricultural yields and tree products. The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestered is however influenced by the type of the agroforestry system established, the soil and climatic conditions and management. In this regional scale study, we utilized a chronosequence approach to investigate how SOC stocks changed when the original forests are converted to agriculture, and then subsequently to four different agroforestry systems (AFSs): homegarden, coffee, coconut and mango. In total we established 224 plots in 56 plot clusters across four climate zones in southern India. Each plot cluster consisted of four plots: a natural forest reference plot, an agriculture reference and two of the same AFS types of two ages (30-60 years and > 60 years). The conversion of forest to agriculture resulted in a large loss the original SOC stock (50-61 %) in the top meter of soil depending on the climate zone. The establishment of homegarden and coffee AFSs on agriculture land caused SOC stocks to rebound to near forest levels, while in mango and coconut AFSs the SOC stock increased only slightly above the agriculture stock. The most important variable regulating SOC stocks and its changes was tree basal area, possibly indicative of organic matter inputs. Furthermore, climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation, and soil variables such as clay fraction and soil pH were likewise all important regulators of SOC and SOC stock changes. Lastly, we found a strong correlation between tree species diversity in homegarden and coffee AFSs and SOC stocks, highlighting possibilities to increase carbon stocks by proper tree species assemblies.

  18. On the rebound: soil organic carbon stocks can bounce back to near forest levels when agroforests replace agriculture in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hombegowda, H. C.; van Straaten, O.; Köhler, M.; Hölscher, D.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical agroforestry has an enormous potential to sequester carbon while simultaneously producing agricultural yields and tree products. The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestered is influenced by the type of the agroforestry system established, the soil and climatic conditions, and management. In this regional-scale study, we utilized a chronosequence approach to investigate how SOC stocks changed when the original forests are converted to agriculture, and then subsequently to four different agroforestry systems (AFSs): home garden, coffee, coconut and mango. In total we established 224 plots in 56 plot clusters across 4 climate zones in southern India. Each plot cluster consisted of four plots: a natural forest reference, an agriculture reference and two of the same AFS types of two ages (30-60 years and > 60 years). The conversion of forest to agriculture resulted in a large loss the original SOC stock (50-61 %) in the top meter of soil depending on the climate zone. The establishment of home garden and coffee AFSs on agriculture land caused SOC stocks to rebound to near forest levels, while in mango and coconut AFSs the SOC stock increased only slightly above the agriculture SOC stock. The most important variable regulating SOC stocks and its changes was tree basal area, possibly indicative of organic matter inputs. Furthermore, climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation, and soil variables such as clay fraction and soil pH were likewise all important regulators of SOC and SOC stock changes. Lastly, we found a strong correlation between tree species diversity in home garden and coffee AFSs and SOC stocks, highlighting possibilities to increase carbon stocks by proper tree species assemblies.

  19. USDA Stakeholder Workshop on Animal Bioinformatics: Summary and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hamernik, Debora L; Adelson, David L

    2003-01-01

    An electronic workshop was conducted on 4 November-13 December 2002 to discuss current issues and needs in animal bioinformatics. The electronic (e-mail listserver) format was chosen to provide a relatively speedy process that is broad in scope, cost-efficient and easily accessible to all participants. Approximately 40 panelists with diverse species and discipline expertise communicated through the panel e-mail listserver. The panel included scientists from academia, industry and government, in the USA, Australia and the UK. A second 'stakeholder' e-mail listserver was used to obtain input from a broad audience with general interests in animal genomics. The objectives of the electronic workshop were: (a) to define priorities for animal genome database development; and (b) to recommend ways in which the USDA could provide leadership in the area of animal genome database development. E-mail messages from panelists and stakeholders are archived at http://genome.cvm.umn.edu/bioinfo/. Priorities defined for animal genome database development included: (a) data repository; (b) tools for genome analysis; (c) annotation; (d) practical application of genomic data; and (e) a biological framework for DNA sequence. A stable source of funding, such as the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), was recommended to support maintenance of data repositories and data curation. Continued support for competitive grants programs within the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES) was recommended for tool development and hypothesis-driven research projects in genome analysis. Additional stakeholder input will be required to continuously refine priorities and maximize the use of limited resources for animal bioinformatics within the USDA. PMID:18629125

  20. Final work plan : investigation of potential contamination at the former USDA facility in Powhattan, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-02-02

    This Work Plan outlines the scope of work to be conducted to investigate the subsurface contaminant conditions at the property formerly leased by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) in Powhattan, Kansas (Figure 1.1). Data obtained during this event will be used to (1) evaluate potential contaminant source areas on the property; (2) determine the vertical and horizontal extent of potential contamination; and (3) provide recommendations for future action, with the ultimate goal of assigning this site No Further Action status. The planned investigation includes groundwater monitoring requested by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), in accordance with Section V of the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the Farm Service Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The work is being performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. A nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities. Argonne issued a Master Work Plan (Argonne 2002) that has been approved by the KDHE. The Master Work Plan describes the general scope of all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas and provides guidance for these investigations. It should be consulted for the complete details of plans for work associated with the former CCC/USDA facility at Powhattan.

  1. Forest health monitoring 1992 annual statistical summary. Project report

    SciTech Connect

    Aalexander, S.A.; Barnard, J.E.

    1994-04-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service (FS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a cooperative national program to monitor the condition of the nation's forests. This multi-agency effort, within EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), is called the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program. In 1992, Detection Monitoring activities were conducted in twelve states: Alabama; Connecticut; Delaware; Georgia; Maine; Maryland; Massachusetts; New Hampshire; New Jersey; Rhode Island; Vermont; and Virginia. Data analysis results for the following indicators are presented; tree species and stand density (mensuration); tree crown condition; tree species diversity; and air pollution bioindicator plants. The cumulative distribution function methods used in the analysis provide a statistical summary of most measurements. Tabular summaries were also prepared in some cases.

  2. Hydrological Consequences of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in the Amazon Agricultural Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, M. T.; Macedo, M.; Silverio, D. V.; Panday, P. K.; Brando, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation in the tropics causes important changes in the energy and water balance because pasturelands and croplands generally have a higher albedo and decreased water demand, evapotranspiration, and atmospheric turbulence compared to the forests they replace. These changes to the water and energy balance work at a variety of time and space scales and the combined influences on regional hydrology are complex. Field observations, satellite data products and a suite of numerical ecosystem models have been used to document and understand changes to the energy and water balances at micro (<1 km2), meso (100s km2) and large (10,000 km2) spatial scales in the southeastern Amazon. The results show that at regional scales deforestation has decreased net radiation and evapotranspiration and increased surface temperature, sensible heat flux, soil moisture, stream flow and stream temperature. These changes result from the increased albedo, reduced leaf area index, altered phenology, decreased root density and depth, and total water demand of the pasture and crops compared to the native vegetation. Global and meso-scale climate model applications indicate that continued deforestation may significantly reduce regional precipitation because of decreases in the net surface radiation, surface roughness, moisture convergence over the basin, and water recycling. Future changes brought about by deforestation may be of a scale to negatively impact ecosystem services such as hydropower generation and crop productivity.

  3. Use of ERTS data for a multidisciplinary analysis of Michigan resources. [forests, agriculture, soils, and landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, A. L.; Myers, W. L.; Safir, G.; Whiteside, E. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The results of this investigation of ratioing simulated ERTS spectral bands and several non-ERTS bands (all collected by an airborne multispectral scanner) indicate that significant terrain information is available from band-ratio images. Ratio images, which are based on the relative spectral changes which occur from one band to another, are useful for enhancing differences and aiding the image interpreter in identifying and mapping the distribution of such terrain elements as seedling crops, all bare soil, organic soil, mineral soil, forest and woodlots, and marsh areas. In addition, the ratio technique may be useful for computer processing to obtain recognition images of large areas at lower costs than with statistical decision rules. The results of this study of ratio processing of aircraft MSS data will be useful for future processing and evaluation of ERTS-1 data for soil and landform studies. Additionally, the results of ratioing spectral bands other than those currently collected by ERTS-1 suggests that some other bands (particularly a thermal band) would be useful in future satellites.

  4. 75 FR 69619 - Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Forest Service Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee ] will meet in Grand.... The purpose of the meeting is to provide background information on national forest projects...

  5. 75 FR 57438 - Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Forest Service Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Grand... purpose of the meeting is to orient the new Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee...

  6. 76 FR 28210 - Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Forest Service Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Walker... the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act....

  7. 77 FR 46375 - Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Forest Service Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Walker... recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act....

  8. 76 FR 16377 - Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Forest Service Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Walker... comments should be sent to Chippewa National Forest RAC, 200 Ash Avenue, NW., Cass Lake, MN 56633....

  9. 75 FR 30771 - Kisatchie National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Forest Service Kisatchie National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Kisatchie National Forest Resource Advisory Committee will meet in..., Kisatchie National Forest, 2500 Shreveport Highway, Pineville, LA 71360. Comments may also be sent via...

  10. 75 FR 64692 - Daniel Boone National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Forest Service Daniel Boone National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Daniel Boone National Forest Resource Advisory Committee will... basement floor. Written comments should be sent to Kimberly Morgan, Daniel Boone National Forest,...

  11. 76 FR 6761 - Daniel Boone National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Forest Service Daniel Boone National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Daniel Boone National Forest Resource Advisory Committee will... comments should be sent to Kimberly Morgan, Daniel Boone National Forest, 1700 Bypass Road, Winchester,...

  12. 76 FR 14898 - Daniel Boone National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Forest Service Daniel Boone National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Daniel Boone National Forest Resource Advisory Committee will... Kimberly Morgan, Daniel Boone National Forest, 1700 Bypass Road, Winchester, KY 40391. Comments may also...

  13. Nitrogen Effects on Organic Dynamics and Soil Communities in Forest and Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandy, S.; Neff, J.; Sinsabaugh, B.; Wickings, K.

    2008-12-01

    Human activities have doubled the global flux of biologically available N to terrestrial ecosystems but the effects of N on soil organic matter dynamics and soil communities remain difficult to predict. We examined soil organic matter chemistry and enzyme kinetics in three soil fractions (>250, 63-250, and <63 μm) following six years of simulated atmospheric N deposition in two forest ecosystems with contrasting litter biochemistry (sugar maple/basswood and black oak/white oak). Ambient and simulated atmospheric N deposition (80 kg nitrate-N/ha/y) were studied in three replicate stands in each ecosystem type. Using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, we found striking, ecosystem-specific effects of N deposition on carbohydrate abundance. Furfural, the dominant pyrolysis product of polysaccharides, was significantly decreased by simulated N deposition in the sugar maple/basswood system (15.87 versus 4.99%) but increased by N in the black oak/white oak system (8.83 versus 24.01%). There were ca. 3-fold increases in the ratio of total lignin derivatives to total polysaccharides in the >250 μm fraction of the sugar maple/basswood system but there were no changes in other size classes or in the black oak/white oak system. We also measured significant increases in the ratio of lignin derivatives to N-bearing compounds in the 63-250 and >250 μm fractions in both ecosystems but not in the <63 μm fraction. We compare these results to a study looking at changes in enzyme activities and soil communities along a N fertilizer gradient in a corn-based cropping system. Our results demonstrate that changes in soil organic matter chemistry resulting from atmospheric N deposition or fertilization are directly linked to variation in enzyme responses to increased N availability across ecosystems and soil size fractions.

  14. Factors controlling phosphorus export from agricultural/forest and residential systems to rivers in eastern China, 1980-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dingjiang; Hu, Minpeng; Wang, Jiahui; Guo, Yi; Dahlgren, Randy A.

    2016-02-01

    This study quantified long-term response of riverine total phosphorus (TP) export to changes in land-use, climate, and net anthropogenic phosphorus inputs to agricultural/forest (NAPIAF) and residential (NAPIR) systems for the upper Jiaojiang watershed in eastern China. Annual NAPIAF rose by 73% in 1980-1999 followed by a 41% decline in 2000-2011, while NAPIR continuously increased by 122% over the 1980-2011 period. Land-use showed a 63% increase in developed land area (D%) and a 91% increase in use of efficient drainage systems on agricultural land area (AD%) over the study period. Although no significant trends were observed in annual river discharge or precipitation, the annual number of storm events rose by 90% along with a 34% increase in the coefficient of variation of daily rainfall. In response to changes of NAPIAF, NAPIR, land-use and precipitation patterns, riverine TP flux increased 16.0-fold over the 32-year record. Phosphorus export via erosion and leaching was the dominant pathway for P delivery to rivers. An empirical model incorporating annual NAPIAF, NAPIR, precipitation, D%, and AD% was developed (R2 = 0.96) for apportioning riverine TP sources and predicting annual riverine TP fluxes. The model estimated that NAPIAF, NAPIR and legacy P sources contributed 19-56%, 16-67% and 13-32% of annual riverine TP flux in 1980-2011, respectively. Compared to reduction of NAPIAF, reduction of NAPIR was predicted to have a greater immediate impact on decreasing riverine TP fluxes. Changes in anthropogenic P input sources (NAPIAF vs. NAPIR), land-use, and precipitation patterns as well as the legacy P source can amplify P export from landscapes to rivers and should be considered in developing P management strategies to reduce riverine P fluxes.

  15. 75 FR 16719 - Information Collection; Forest Landscape Value and Special Place Mapping for National Forest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... from all interested individuals and organizations on the new information collection, Forest Landscape... addressed to Dr. Patrick Reed, National Human Dimensions Program Social Scientist, USDA Forest Service, 3301...: Forest Landscape Value and Special Place Mapping for National Forest Planning. OMB Number: 0596-NEW....

  16. Assessment of USDA-NRCS Rangeland Conservation Programs: Recommendation for an Evidence-based Conservation Platform

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was created in response to a request from the Office of Management and Budget that the U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA – NRCS) document the societal benefits anticipated to accrue from a major increase in...

  17. Adaptation to climate variability: The role of the USDA Southern Plains Climate Hub

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Plains USDA Climate Hub was established in 2014 in El Reno, Oklahoma to develop and deliver science-based, information and technologies to agricultural and natural resource land managers that enable climate-informed decision-making, and to provide access to assistance to implement those...

  18. School Nutrition Directors' Perspectives on Preparing for and Implementing USDA's New School Meal Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Bethany A.; Amin, Sarah A.; Taylor, Jennifer C.; Johnson, Rachel K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) new school meals regulations went into effect in July 2012. The purpose of this research was to explore school nutrition director's (SNDs) perspectives and attitudes about the new regulations and to identify strategies used to prepare for and subsequently implement the regulations.…

  19. The USDA-ARS experimental watershed network-Evolution, lessons learned and moving forward

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service’s Experimental Watershed Network grew from Dust Bowl era efforts of the Soil Conservation Service in the mid 1930’s with the establishment of watersheds in three States; one of which is still in operation. In the mid-50’s five centers with intensively instrumen...

  20. Genomic characterization of a core set of the USDA-NPGS Ethiopian sorghum germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agriculture Research Service National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) preserves the largest sorghum germplasm collection in the world, which includes 7,217 accessions from the center of diversity in Ethiopia. The characterization of this exotic germplasm at a genome-wide scale will improve co...