Science.gov

Sample records for agriculture usda natural

  1. Agricultural Air Quality: A USDA Perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural air quality concerns have broadened recently because of the increasing urban-rural interface; greater understanding of the impact of air quality on health, visibility and safety, and coincident regulation increases; and increasing size and density of some farming operations. The USDA h...

  2. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education.

    PubMed

    Parker, Joyce E; Wagner, David J

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency's educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students' critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. PMID:27587851

  3. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Joyce E.; Wagner, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency’s educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students’ critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. PMID:27587851

  4. Research careers for microbiologists in the USDA Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) employees microbiologists in a wide variety of diverse positions. This includes work involving animal health, infectious diseases and food safety. Various agencies within the USDA are responsible for monit...

  5. USDA-Agricultural Research Service Irrigation Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ARS irrigation research program at the Delta Research Center is part of the USDA-ARS Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research Unit at Columbia, Missouri. It began in 2000 with cooperative research between ARS scientists at Columbia and University of Missouri scientists at the Delta Center. Ea...

  6. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  7. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  8. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  9. Applications of UAV imagery for agricultural and environmental research at the USDA Southeast Watershed Research Lab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ARS is the USDA's in-house scientific research agency, whose mission is to conduct research to "develop and transfer solutions to agricultural problems of high national priority..." This includes enhancing the natural resource base and the environment, a dimension of particular relevance to the ...

  10. The USDA agricultural wind energy research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. N.

    Applications of wind power in agriculture were investigated. Building heating projects were conducted using a 15-kW electrical machine to power resistant heaters, and a 4-kW cycloturbine powered a water churn to heat water. The two projects in product storage and processing provided refrigeration for short and long term storage systems. Milk was cooled at a dairy and exhaust heat from the compressor was used to preheat the hot water. In the other project, apples were cooled and stored for six months. The apple storage system incorporated an ice bank for storage during nonwind periods. The two irrigation experiments involved pumping water from a surface reuse system using a vertical axis wind turbine directly coupled to a turbine pump and wind assist pumping from a deep well by combining a wind turbine with a diesel engine. The wind assist concept saved 40% of fuel normally used in pumping the well. Economic analyses of these applications show that most individual loads on a farm are usually too short in duration to make the unit profitable.

  11. NASA's Agricultural Program: A USDA/Grower Partnership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKellip, Rodney; Thomas, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Ag20/20 is a partnership between USDA, NASA, and four national commodity associations. It is driven by the information needs of U.S. farmers. Ag20/20 is focused on utilization of earth science and remote sensing for decision-making and oriented toward economically viable operational solutions. Its purpose is to accelerate the use of remote sensing and other geospatial technologies on the farm to: 1) Increase the production efficiency of the American farmer; 2) Reduce crop production risks; 3) Improve environmental stewardship tools for agricultural production.

  12. Identifying the Future Needs for Long-Term USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Green, R. D.; Qureshi, M. A.; Long, J. A.; Burfening, P.J.; Hamernik, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    in concert with societal concerns in the areas of natural resource conservation and protection, animal welfare, and food safety, it is clear that publicly supported agricultural research must be focused on enhancing the functionality and well-being of livestock and poultry in environmentally neutral production systems in the future. Realizing the great potential for animal genomics to address these and other issues, a workshop was convened by the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Washington, DC in September of 2004. The workshop was entitled “Charting the Road Map for Long Term USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics”. This paper summarizes the proceedings of the workshop and the resulting recommendations. The need for a cohesive, comprehensive long-term plan for all of USDA's research efforts in animal genomics was evident at the workshop, requiring further integration of the efforts of the USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) and the USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) to achieve the greatest return on investment. PMID:17384737

  13. Agriculture and Education, Planting the Seeds of Opportunity. USDA Adopt-a-School Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of the Secretary.

    This guide explains how U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) agencies can join the 20 other USDA agencies that have implemented 18 adopt-a-school partnerships throughout the country. The following are among the topics discussed in the guide's five parts: (1) partnership basics (how adopt-a-school programs benefit both members of the…

  14. INVASIVE SPECIES RESEARCH IN THE USDA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive pests cause huge losses to both agricultural production systems and to the natural environment through displacing native species and decreasing biodiversity. It is now estimated that many thousand exotic insects, weeds and pathogens have been established in the United States and that these...

  15. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - USDA BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed during the spring of 1991 which identified areas for waste reduction at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), Beltsville, Maryland. he areas selected for this joint E...

  16. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: USDA BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed during the spring of 1991 which identified areas for waste reduction at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), Beltsville, Maryland. he areas selected for this joint E...

  17. Program review of the USDA Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) has a history that starts in 1932 in Orlando to develop methods to control mosquitoes, including malaria vectors under conditions simulating those of the south Pacific jungles, and other insects affecting man and animals...

  18. A.C. Hildreth: Initiating USDA agricultural research in Cheyenne

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight months after the October, 1929 Stock Market crash, 36-year-old Aubrey Claire Hildreth resigned his position at the University of Maine Agricultural Station and left the blueberries and cranberries of Orono, Maine, to travel with his family to Cheyenne to assume the duties of Station Superinten...

  19. Retrospective Analog Year Analyses Using NASA Satellite Data to Improve USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan

    2011-01-01

    The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted, including maps, charts, and time series of recent weather, climate, and crop observations; numerical output from weather and crop models; and reports from the press, USDA attach s, and foreign governments. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. Because both the amount and timing of precipitation significantly affect crop yields, WAOB often uses precipitation time series to identify growing seasons with similar weather patterns and help estimate crop yields for the current growing season, based on observed yields in analog years. Historically, these analog years are visually identified; however, the qualitative nature of this method sometimes precludes the definitive identification of the best analog year. Thus, one goal of this study is to derive a more rigorous, statistical approach for identifying analog years, based on a modified coefficient of determination, termed the analog index (AI). A second goal is to compare the performance of AI for time series derived from surface-based observations vs. satellite-based measurements (NASA TRMM and other data).

  20. The South Florida Avocado Breeding Program at USDA-Agricultural Research Service Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (USDA-ARS SHRS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA-ARS SHRS is part of the USDA National Germplasm Repository system and houses collections of tropical and subtropical fruit trees such as mango, lychee, and avocado. In addition to maintaining the germplasm collections, our mission is to also identify genetic diversity in the collections, to ev...

  1. The USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology: Developing new mosquito surveillance and control products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE), U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), conducts specific research directed at reducing or eliminating the harm caused by insects to humans, animals, and crops. CMAVE is an internationally ren...

  2. Certified organic farming research and demonstration project by Oklahoma State University and USDA's Agricultural Research Service at Lane, Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2003, Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service, South Central Agricultural Research Laboratory received organic certification for 8 acres at the Lane Agricultural Center, Lane, OK. The certified organic land was used to develop a cooperative project with a diversity of a...

  3. 41 CFR 102-75.1080 - What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real property and related personal... the Department of Agriculture (usda) § 102-75.1080 What must the Secretary of Agriculture do...

  4. 41 CFR 102-75.1080 - What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real property and related personal... the Department of Agriculture (usda) § 102-75.1080 What must the Secretary of Agriculture do...

  5. 75 FR 6622 - The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Proposes to Revise Three of Its Privacy Act Systems of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Proposes to Revise Three of Its Privacy... Agriculture (USDA) proposes to revise three of its Privacy Act systems of records. DATES: Effective Date:...

  6. 41 CFR 102-75.1080 - What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real property and related personal... the Department of Agriculture (usda) § 102-75.1080 What must the Secretary of Agriculture do...

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.1080 - What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real property and related personal... the Department of Agriculture (usda) § 102-75.1080 What must the Secretary of Agriculture do...

  8. 41 CFR 102-75.1080 - What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What must the Secretary of Agriculture do before determining that USDA-controlled excess real property and related personal... the Department of Agriculture (usda) § 102-75.1080 What must the Secretary of Agriculture do...

  9. Retrospective Analog Year Analyses Using NASA Satellite Data to Improve USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W. L.; Shannon, H. D.

    2011-12-01

    The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted, including maps, charts, and time series of recent weather, climate, and crop observations; numerical output from weather and crop models; and reports from the press, USDA attachés, and foreign governments. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. Because both the amount and timing of precipitation significantly impact crop yields, WAOB often uses precipitation time series to identify growing seasons with similar weather patterns and help estimate crop yields for the current growing season, based on observed yields in analog years. Although, historically, these analog years are identified through visual inspection, the qualitative nature of this methodology sometimes precludes the definitive identification of the best analog year. One goal of this study is to introduce a more rigorous, statistical approach for identifying analog years. This approach is based on a modified coefficient of determination, termed the analog index (AI). The derivation of AI will be described. Another goal of this study is to compare the performance of AI for time series derived from surface-based observations vs. satellite-based measurements (NASA TRMM and other data). Five study areas and six growing seasons of data were analyzed (2003-2007 as potential analog years and 2008 as the target year). Results thus far show that, for all five areas, crop yield estimates derived from satellite-based precipitation data are closer to measured yields than are estimates derived from surface

  10. Integrating NASA Satellite Data Into USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board Decision Making Environment To Improve Agricultural Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan; deJeu, Richard; Kempler, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. The goal of the current project is to improve WAOB estimates by integrating NASA satellite precipitation and soil moisture observations into WAOB's decision making environment. Precipitation (Level 3 gridded) is from the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA). Soil moisture (Level 2 swath and Level 3 gridded) is generated by the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) and operationally produced by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GBS DISC). A root zone soil moisture (RZSM) product is also generated, via assimilation of the Level 3 LPRM data by a land surface model (part of a related project). Data services to be available for these products include GeoTIFF, GDS (GrADS Data Server), WMS (Web Map Service), WCS (Web Coverage Service), and NASA Giovanni. Project benchmarking is based on retrospective analyses of WAOB analog year comparisons. The latter are between a given year and historical years with similar weather patterns and estimated crop yields. An analog index (AI) was developed to introduce a more rigorous, statistical approach for identifying analog years. Results thus far show that crop yield estimates derived from TMPA precipitation data are closer to measured yields than are estimates derived from surface-based precipitation measurements. Work is continuing to include LPRM surface soil moisture data and model-assimilated RZSM.

  11. Improving World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates by Integrating NASA Remote Sensing Soil Moisture Data into USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board Decision Making Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W. L.; de Jeu, R. A.; Doraiswamy, P. C.; Kempler, S. J.; Shannon, H. D.

    2009-12-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to expand markets for U.S. agricultural products and support global economic development. The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) supports this goal by developing monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) for the U.S. and major foreign producing countries. Because weather has a significant impact on crop progress, conditions, and production, WAOB prepares frequent agricultural weather assessments, in a GIS-based, Global Agricultural Decision Support Environment (GLADSE). The main objective of this project, thus, is to improve WAOB's estimates by integrating NASA remote sensing soil moisture observations and research results into GLADSE. Soil moisture is a primary data gap at WAOB. Soil moisture data, generated by the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM, developed by NASA GSFC and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) and customized to WAOB's requirements, will be directly integrated into GLADSE, as well as indirectly by first being integrated into USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS)'s Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop model. The LPRM-enhanced EPIC will be validated using three major agricultural regions important to WAOB and then integrated into GLADSE. Project benchmarking will be based on retrospective analyses of WAOB's analog year comparisons. The latter are between a given year and historical years with similar weather patterns. WAOB is the focal point for economic intelligence within the USDA. Thus, improving WAOB's agricultural estimates by integrating NASA satellite observations and model outputs will visibly demonstrate the value of NASA resources and maximize the societal benefits of NASA investments.

  12. Collaboration between the US Forest Service and the USDA Agricultural Research Service on the complementary conservation of crop wild relatives in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two USDA agencies, the Forest Service (USFS) and the Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) are cooperating on the complementary conservation of crop wild relatives (CWR) native to the United States. The USFS manages 193 million acres of National Forest System lands in 43 states and provides suppo...

  13. Long-Term Network Experiments and Interdisciplinary Campaigns Conducted by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Cosh, M. H.; Moran, S. M.; Marks, D. G.; Jackson, T. J.; Bosch, D. D.; Rango, A.; Seyfried, M. S.; Scott, R. L.; Prueger, J. H.; Starks, P. J.; Walbridge, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service has led, or been integrally involved in, a myriad of interdisciplinary field campaigns in a wide range of locations both nationally and internationally. Many of the shorter campaigns were anchored over the existing national network of ARS Experimental Watersheds and Rangelands. These long-term outdoor laboratories provided a critical knowledge base for designing the campaigns as well as historical data, hydrologic and meteorological infrastructure coupled with shop, laboratory, and visiting scientist facilities. This strong outdoor laboratory base enabled cost-efficient campaigns informed by historical context, local knowledge, and detailed existing watershed characterization. These long-term experimental facilities have also enabled much longer term lower intensity experiments, observing and building an understanding of both seasonal and inter-annual biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere interactions across a wide range of conditions. A sampling of these experiments include MONSOON'90, SGP97, SGP99, Washita'92, Washita'94, SMEX02-05 and JORNEX series of experiments, SALSA, CLASIC and longer-term efforts over the ARS Little Washita, Walnut Gulch, Little River, Reynolds Creek, and OPE3 Experimental Watersheds. This presentation will review some of the highlights and key findings of these campaigns and long-term efforts including the inclusion of many of the experimental watersheds and ranges in the Long-Term Agro-ecosystems Research (LTAR) network. The LTAR network also contains several locations that are also part of other observational networks including the CZO, LTER, and NEON networks. Lessons learned will also be provided for scientists initiating their participation in large-scale, multi-site interdisciplinary science.

  14. Introduction to the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory Special Rangelands Issue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Labortory (PPRL) in Logan, UT will sponsor an edition of the magazine Rangelands. This paper provides a brief history and overview of the PPRL, mission statement, research objectives by CRIS, and the disciplines involved in the research....

  15. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM...

  16. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM...

  17. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM...

  18. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM...

  19. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM...

  20. Retrospective Analog Year Analyses Using NASA Satellite Precipitation and Soil Moisture Data to Improve USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan; Mladenova, Iliana; Fang, Fan

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to expand markets for U.S. agricultural products and support global economic development. The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) supports this goal by coordinating monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) for the U.S. and major foreign producing countries. Because weather has a significant impact on crop progress, conditions, and production, WAOB prepares frequent agricultural weather assessments, in a GIS-based, Global Agricultural Decision Support Environment (GLADSE). The main goal of this project, thus, is to improve WAOB's estimates by integrating NASA remote sensing soil moisture observations and research results into GLADSE (See diagram below). Soil moisture is currently a primary data gap at WAOB.

  1. Prebiotic carbohydrate-related research within the USDA Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is interested in the development of prebiotic carbohydrates for a number of reasons. Many of the novel carbohydrates used or proposed for use as prebiotics are made from agricultural commodities such as milk, cornstarch, sugar,...

  2. EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WEED SCIENTISTS IN THE USDA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the agency that conducts in-house research within the United States Department of Agriculture. ARS conducts a broad research portfolio covering over 1200 projects at over 100 locations across the country. Weed science research is conducted on a range of t...

  3. USDA-ARS Highlights and emerging research on agricultural water use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture production accounts for 16% of the $9 trillion gross domestic product, 8% of exports and 17% of employment. Although less than 2% of Americans work on farms, 100% of citizens are users of farm products. Since WWII, the growth of agricultural inputs has remained flat, while productivity h...

  4. An Economic Analysis of USDA Erosion Control Programs: A New Perspective. Agricultural Economic Report No. 560.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Roger, Ed.

    A study analyzed the total (public and private) economic costs and benefits of three U.S. Department of Agriculture erosion control programs. These were the Conservation Technical Assistance Program, Great Plains Conservation Program, and Agricultural Conservation Program. Significant efforts at funding for current programs were directed to…

  5. Comparison of the USGS 2001 NLCD to the 2002 USDA Census of Agriculture for the Upper Midwest United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Wood, E.C.; Janus, A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 2001 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) was compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2002 Census of Agriculture. We compared areal estimates for cropland at the state and county level for 14 States in the Upper Midwest region of the United States. Absolute differences between the NLCD and Census cropland areal estimates at the state level ranged from 1.3% (Minnesota) to 37.0% (Wisconsin). The majority of counties (74.5%) had differences of less than 100 km2. 7.2% of the counties had differences of more than 200 km2. Regions where the largest areal differences occurred were in southern Illinois, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin, and generally occurred in areas with the lowest proportions of cropland (i.e., dominated by forest or grassland). Before using the 2001 NLCD for agricultural applications, such as mapping of specific crop types, users should be aware of the potential for misclassification errors, especially where the proportion of cropland to other land cover types is fairly low.

  6. A Hard Look at USDA's Rural Development Programs. The Report of the Rural Revitalization Task Force to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture Graduate School, Washington, DC.

    This report addresses current economic conditions in rural America and offers recommendations about the role the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) can play in providing rural development. The Task Force identifies issues for rural policy in the 1990's focusing on economic development. Current rural programs are described and…

  7. Ploidy of USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) world pear germplasm collection determined by flow cytometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Living germplasm collections representing world diversity of pear (Pyrus L.) are maintained by the U.S. Department of Agriculture at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Flow cytometry was performed on young leaf tissue from 1,284 genebank accessions to assess p...

  8. The Tropical Fruit Research Program of the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical and subtropical fruit crops are of major importance in commercial and subsistence agriculture. The globalization of the economy and the increased demand for healthy and more diverse food products have opened a large market for many of these fruit crops. Despite this fact, increased produc...

  9. A living demonstration of certified organic farming by Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic crop production is the fastest growing portion of U.S. agriculture, increasing a minimum of 20% annually during the last 15 years. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. ...

  10. Model development for evaluating USDA Conservation practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For many years the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), through the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), has administered conservation programs to protect million of acres of land from degradation and to enforce environmental quality. The impact, effectiveness, and efficiency of...

  11. 7 CFR 996.22 - USDA-approved laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... laboratory. USDA-approved laboratory means laboratories approved by the Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA, that chemically analyze peanuts for aflatoxin content. Quality...

  12. 77 FR 1913 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Meeting..., Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, Post Office Box 2890, Washington, DC...

  13. USDA-ARS support of the USDA small watershed program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Hydraulic Engineering Research Unit (HERU) has had a rich history supporting the USDA Small Watershed Program. The Small Watershed Program was established by the passage of legislation that allowed the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service to provide financial and technical suppo...

  14. 7 CFR 996.21 - USDA laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA laboratory. 996.21 Section 996.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... laboratory. USDA laboratory means laboratories of the Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural...

  15. 7 CFR 996.21 - USDA laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA laboratory. 996.21 Section 996.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... laboratory. USDA laboratory means laboratories of the Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural...

  16. 7 CFR 996.21 - USDA laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA laboratory. 996.21 Section 996.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... laboratory. USDA laboratory means laboratories of the Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural...

  17. 7 CFR 996.21 - USDA laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA laboratory. 996.21 Section 996.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... laboratory. USDA laboratory means laboratories of the Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural...

  18. 7 CFR 996.21 - USDA laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... laboratory. USDA laboratory means laboratories of the Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural Marketing... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false USDA laboratory. 996.21 Section 996.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...

  19. 7 CFR 205.311 - USDA Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false USDA Seal. 205.311 Section 205.311 Agriculture... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.311 USDA Seal. (a) The USDA seal described in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section may be used only for raw or...

  20. 7 CFR 205.311 - USDA Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA Seal. 205.311 Section 205.311 Agriculture... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.311 USDA Seal. (a) The USDA seal described in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section may be used only for raw or...

  1. 7 CFR 205.311 - USDA Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA Seal. 205.311 Section 205.311 Agriculture... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.311 USDA Seal. (a) The USDA seal described in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section may be used only for raw or...

  2. 7 CFR 205.311 - USDA Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA Seal. 205.311 Section 205.311 Agriculture... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.311 USDA Seal. (a) The USDA seal described in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section may be used only for raw or...

  3. 7 CFR 205.311 - USDA Seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA Seal. 205.311 Section 205.311 Agriculture... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.311 USDA Seal. (a) The USDA seal described in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section may be used only for raw or...

  4. Developing Poultry Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Melius, C

    2007-12-05

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of poultry diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each poultry type operation within the US. At the present time, the only national database of poultry operations that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data'. The NASS data provides census data at the county level on poultry operations for various operation types (i.e., layers, broilers, turkeys, ducks, geese). However, the number of farms and sizes of farms for the various types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of operation. Furthermore, some data on the number of birds represents the number sold, which does not represent the number of birds present at any given time. In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of birds or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or birds. At the same time, it must account for all the birds, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual poultry operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national poultry facility database with twenty-six facility types (7 egg-laying, 6 broiler, 1 backyard, 3 turkey, and 9 others, representing ducks, geese, ostriches, emus, pigeons, pheasants, quail, game fowl breeders and 'other'). The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to estimate the data that is suppressed

  5. Developing Livestock Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Melius, C; Robertson, A; Hullinger, P

    2006-10-24

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of livestock diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each livestock facility within the US. At the present time, the only national database of livestock facilities that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data.' The NASS data provides facility data at the county level for various livestock types (i.e., beef cows, milk cows, cattle on feed, other cattle, total hogs and pigs, sheep and lambs, milk goats, and angora goats). However, the number and sizes of facilities for the various livestock types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of livestock, and some livestock are of more than one type (e.g., 'other cattle' that are being fed for slaughter are also 'cattle on feed'). In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of animals or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D.'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or animals. At the same time, it must account for all the animals, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual livestock operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national livestock facility database with twenty-eight facility types. The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to estimate the data that is suppressed within the NASS database. The second step converts the NASS livestock types into the operational facility

  6. Operational Use of Remote Sensing within USDA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethel, Glenn R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of remote sensing imagery within the USDA is shown. USDA Aerial Photography, Digital Sensors, Hurricane imagery, Remote Sensing Sources, Satellites used by Foreign Agricultural Service, Landsat Acquisitions, and Aerial Acquisitions are also shown.

  7. Fast pyrolysis and bio-oil production from energy crops being developed within USDA's Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US DOE-USDA biomass initiative vision is counting on lignocellulosic conversion to boost the quantities of biofuels currently produced from starches in order to achieve much needed energy security. However, with the current challenges in the lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol via the sugar te...

  8. 7 CFR 1250.509 - USDA costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA costs. 1250.509 Section 1250.509 Agriculture... Regulations General § 1250.509 USDA costs. Pursuant to § 1250.347 of the Order, the Board shall pay those administrative costs incurred by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for the conduct of its duties under the...

  9. 7 CFR 1207.508 - USDA costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA costs. 1207.508 Section 1207.508 Agriculture... Rules and Regulations General § 1207.508 USDA costs. Pursuant to § 1207.341 of the Plan the Board shall pay those administrative costs incurred by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for the conduct of...

  10. 7 CFR 65.265 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA. 65.265 Section 65.265 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  11. 7 CFR 65.265 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA. 65.265 Section 65.265 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  12. 7 CFR 65.265 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false USDA. 65.265 Section 65.265 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  13. 7 CFR 65.265 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false USDA. 65.265 Section 65.265 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  14. 7 CFR 65.265 - USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA. 65.265 Section 65.265 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  15. Nutrition Education: USDA Provides Services through Multiple Programs, but Stronger Linkages among Efforts Are Needed. Report to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, U.S. Senate. GAO-04-528

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, David D.

    2004-01-01

    To help improve nutrition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides nutrition education through five of its programs: Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP); Food Stamp Program (FSP); Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); National School Lunch Program (NLP); and Child and Adult Care…

  16. 7 CFR 1207.508 - USDA costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA costs. 1207.508 Section 1207.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  17. 7 CFR 1207.508 - USDA costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA costs. 1207.508 Section 1207.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  18. 7 CFR 1207.508 - USDA costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false USDA costs. 1207.508 Section 1207.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  19. 7 CFR 1207.508 - USDA costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA costs. 1207.508 Section 1207.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  20. Geospatial Modeling and Disease Insect Vector Management at the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geospatial modeling at the Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) is used assist in the surveillance of insect vectors and in the management of insect transmitted diseases. The most recent Geospatial Modeling/Technology Transfer success involves the prediction of Rift Val...

  1. 7 CFR 996.22 - USDA-approved laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.22 USDA-approved..., Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA, that chemically analyze peanuts for aflatoxin content. Quality...

  2. The History of the USDA Nematology Laboratory and the USDA Nematode Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beginning of the Nematology program within the United States Department of Agriculture began 101 years ago, when Nathan Augustus Cobb, the Father of North American Nematology, was hired by the USDA. The present Nematology Laboratory within the USDA Agricultural Research Service is the direct des...

  3. 7 CFR 996.22 - USDA-approved laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA-approved laboratory. 996.22 Section 996.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... laboratory. USDA-approved laboratory means laboratories approved by the Science and Technology...

  4. 7 CFR 996.22 - USDA-approved laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false USDA-approved laboratory. 996.22 Section 996.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... laboratory. USDA-approved laboratory means laboratories approved by the Science and Technology...

  5. 7 CFR 996.22 - USDA-approved laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false USDA-approved laboratory. 996.22 Section 996.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... laboratory. USDA-approved laboratory means laboratories approved by the Science and Technology...

  6. Rhizoctonia Crown and Root Rot Resistance of Beta Plant Introductions from the USDA, Agricultural Research Service's National Plant Germplasm System, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty wild beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang) plant introduction (PI) accessions from the Beta collection of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System were screened for resistance to Rhizoctonia root and crown rot, at the USDA-ARS Fort Collins, CO Research Farm. The Rhizoctonia sc...

  7. Estimating conservation needs for rangelands using USDA National Resources Inventory Assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has used resource inventories for over 65 years to assess the Nation’s natural resources on non-Federal lands. Since 1995, an interagency group composed of the NRCS, Agricultural Research Service, and Geological Survey have worked together to de...

  8. Variability in the Vitamin D Content of 2% Milk from a Nationwide United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the vitamin D content of retail 2% milk. Milk contains little natural vitamin D but is usually supplemented with vitamin D3 for retail sale in the United States. The fortification target is 400 IU per quart (25% DV per 8 oz serving or 42 IU/100g)...

  9. Microsatellite Fingerprinting of the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) Germplasm Collection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important cash crop in many tropical countries. Cacao accessions must be propagated vegetatively to conserve genetic integrity due to its allogamous nature and its seed recalcitrance. Therefore, cacao germplasm is usually maintained as living trees in field collect...

  10. Microsatellite fingerprinting of the cacao (Theobroma cacao) germplasm collection at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Reserarch Station.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important cash crop in many tropical countries. Because of its outcrossing nature, cacao accessions must be propagated vegetatively to conserve their genetic integrity. Therefore, cacao germplasm is usually maintained as living trees in collections in tropical regio...

  11. Resolving Conflicts between Agriculture and the Natural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tanentzap, Andrew J.; Lamb, Anthony; Walker, Susan; Farmer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture dominates the planet. Yet it has many environmental costs that are unsustainable, especially as global food demand rises. Here, we evaluate ways in which different parts of the world are succeeding in their attempts to resolve conflict between agriculture and wild nature. We envision that coordinated global action in conserving land most sensitive to agricultural activities and policies that internalise the environmental costs of agriculture are needed to deliver a more sustainable future. PMID:26351851

  12. 7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...,” 41 CFR 20.3. ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...

  13. 7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...,” 41 CFR 20.3. ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...

  14. 7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...,” 41 CFR 20.3. ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...

  15. 7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...,” 41 CFR 20.3. ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...

  16. 7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...,” 41 CFR 20.3. ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...

  17. Joint USDA/DOE meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This documents contains the details from the USDA/USDOE meeting on April 11--12, 1994. Topics discussed include: genetic research, environmental research, renewable energy sources, food supply, improved fertilizers, new pesticides, research programs combining the efforts of the two agencies to develop new products for use in the agriculture industry, environmentally safe products, getting more with less money, and various other subjects dealing with how cooperation among these agencies can improve the agriculture industry.

  18. Adaptation to climate variability: The role of the USDA Southern Plains Climate Hub

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Plains USDA Climate Hub was established in 2014 in El Reno, Oklahoma to develop and deliver science-based, information and technologies to agricultural and natural resource land managers that enable climate-informed decision-making, and to provide access to assistance to implement those...

  19. 7 CFR 3022.6 - Notification of USDA of allegations of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the misconduct; (2) The source or sources of funding for the research project or research projects... should be included in any formal allegation: (1) The name of the research projects involved, the nature... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of USDA of allegations of...

  20. 7 CFR 3022.6 - Notification of USDA of allegations of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the misconduct; (2) The source or sources of funding for the research project or research projects... should be included in any formal allegation: (1) The name of the research projects involved, the nature... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of USDA of allegations of...

  1. 7 CFR 3022.6 - Notification of USDA of allegations of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the misconduct; (2) The source or sources of funding for the research project or research projects... should be included in any formal allegation: (1) The name of the research projects involved, the nature... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification of USDA of allegations of...

  2. Critical Thinking for Natural Resource, Agricultural, and Environmental Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Courtney; Burbach, Mark E.; Matkin, Gina S.; Flores, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Future decision makers in natural resource fields will be required to make judgments on issues that lack clear solutions and with information complicated by ethical challenges. Therefore, natural resource, environmental, and agricultural professionals must possess the ability to think critically about the consequences of policy, economic systems,…

  3. Climate change impacts utilizing regional models for agriculture, hydrology and natural ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, M.; Asrar, G. R.; El-Askary, H. M.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Medvigy, D.; Prasad, A. K.; Smith, E.; Stack, D. H.; Tremback, C.; Walko, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change impacts the entire Earth but with crucial and often catastrophic impacts at local and regional levels. Extreme phenomena such as fires, dust storms, droughts and other natural hazards present immediate risks and challenges. Such phenomena will become more extreme as climate change and anthropogenic activities accelerate in the future. We describe a major project funded by NIFA (Grant # 2011-67004-30224), under the joint NSF-DOE-USDA Earth System Models (EaSM) program, to investigate the impacts of climate variability and change on the agricultural and natural (i.e. rangeland) ecosystems in the Southwest USA using a combination of historical and present observations together with climate, and ecosystem models, both in hind-cast and forecast modes. The applicability of the methodology to other regions is relevant (for similar geographic regions as well as other parts of the world with different agriculture and ecosystems) and should advance the state of knowledge for regional impacts of climate change. A combination of multi-model global climate projections from the decadal predictability simulations, to downscale dynamically these projections using three regional climate models, combined with remote sensing MODIS and other data, in order to obtain high-resolution climate data that can be used with hydrological and ecosystem models for impacts analysis, is described in this presentation. Such analysis is needed to assess the future risks and potential impacts of projected changes on these natural and managed ecosystems. The results from our analysis can be used by scientists to assist extended communities to determine agricultural coping strategies, and is, therefore, of interest to wide communities of stakeholders. In future work we will be including surface hydrologic modeling and water resources, extend modeling to higher resolutions and include significantly more crops and geographical regions with different weather and climate conditions

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF USDA'S DATABASES FOR BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for developing and maintaining composition databases for foods and supplements. Recent hypotheses concerning the possible roles of new bioactive dietary compounds in managing...

  5. An update on USDA swine gene banking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP) collects, preserves, evaluates and utilizes germplasm (semen, eggs, embryos, DNA) from all of the agricultural species in the US in order to create a secure collection. The material can be released for any of a number...

  6. 7 CFR 170.3 - What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.3 What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market? Products that may be sold at the market include, but...

  7. 7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no fees charged...

  8. 7 CFR 170.3 - What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.3 What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market? Products that may be sold at the market include, but...

  9. 7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no fees charged...

  10. 7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no fees charged...

  11. 7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no fees charged...

  12. 7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? Yes. A producer-only market is one that does not...

  13. 7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? Yes. A producer-only market is one that does not...

  14. 7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? Yes. A producer-only market is one that does not...

  15. 7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? Yes. A producer-only market is one that does not...

  16. 7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? Yes. A producer-only market is one that does not...

  17. 7 CFR 930.5 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Department or USDA. 930.5 Section 930.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  18. 7 CFR 930.5 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department or USDA. 930.5 Section 930.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  19. 7 CFR 930.5 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Department or USDA. 930.5 Section 930.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  20. 7 CFR 983.10 - Department or USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department or USDA. 983.10 Section 983.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  1. Control of Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution by Natural Wetland Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...

  2. Agriculture/Natural Resources Environmental Technician Task List. Occupational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    This publication contains a worker task list and supplementary information for occupations in the agriculture and natural resources cluster of occupations. The task list were generated through the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process and/or by analysis by a panel of experts. Tasks are listed in 10 categories: (1) performing investigative…

  3. Landuse and agricultural management practice web-service (LAMPS) for agroecosystem modeling and conservation planning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroecosystem models and conservation planning tools require spatially and temporally explicit input data about agricultural management operations. The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service is developing a Land Management and Operation Database (LMOD) which contains potential model input, howe...

  4. USDA Regional Climate Hubs - Partnering to bring information and tools to managers of working lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R.

    2014-12-01

    In February 2014, USDA announced the location of seven Regional Hubs for Risk Adaptation and Mitigation to Climate Change (Climate Hubs) and three "Sub Hubs". The mission of these Climate Hubs is to develop and deliver science-based region-specific information and technologies to agricultural and natural resource managers that enable climate-smart decision-making and to direct land managers to USDA programs that can assist them in implementing those decisions. This mission is similar to that of Cooperative Extension and the Agricultural Experiment Stations (both of which benefit from USDA funding); therefore it is crucial that we partner with Land Grant Universities in order to achieve this mission. As USDA stands up these Climate Hubs we are working closely with USDA agencies, Land Grant Universities, other federal climate science programs, and other partners to determine how best to provide usable information and tools to farmers, ranchers and forest land managers to enable them to make climate-smart decisions.

  5. 78 FR 69365 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). ACTION... Program Office update D. Update on agricultural air quality regulatory issues at EPA E. AAQTF...

  6. Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-04-01

    Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by differences in natural enemy interactions across landscapes, rather than by the effectiveness of individual natural enemy guilds. In a field exclusion experiment, pest control by flying insect enemies increased with landscape complexity. However, so did antagonistic interactions between flying insects and birds, which were neutral in simple landscapes and increasingly negative in complex landscapes. Negative natural enemy interactions thus constrained pest control in complex landscapes. These results show that, by altering natural enemy interactions, landscape complexity can provide ecosystem services as well as disservices. Careful handling of the tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity, and societal concerns is thus crucial and depends on our ability to predict the functional consequences of landscape-scale changes in trophic interactions. PMID:23513216

  7. Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Emily A.; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-01-01

    Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by differences in natural enemy interactions across landscapes, rather than by the effectiveness of individual natural enemy guilds. In a field exclusion experiment, pest control by flying insect enemies increased with landscape complexity. However, so did antagonistic interactions between flying insects and birds, which were neutral in simple landscapes and increasingly negative in complex landscapes. Negative natural enemy interactions thus constrained pest control in complex landscapes. These results show that, by altering natural enemy interactions, landscape complexity can provide ecosystem services as well as disservices. Careful handling of the tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity, and societal concerns is thus crucial and depends on our ability to predict the functional consequences of landscape-scale changes in trophic interactions. PMID:23513216

  8. Sustainability of natural attenuation of nitrate in agricultural aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Christopher T.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Increased concentrations of nitrate in groundwater in agricultural areas, coinciding with increased use of chemical and organic fertilizers, have raised concern because of risks to environmental and human health. At some sites, these problems are mitigated by natural attenuation of nitrate as a result of microbially mediated reactions. Results from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research under the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program show that reactions of dissolved nitrate with solid aquifer minerals and organic carbon help lower nitrate concentrations in groundwater beneath agricultural fields. However, increased fluxes of nitrate cause ongoing depletion of the finite pool of solid reactants. Consumption of the solid reactants diminishes the capacity of the aquifer to remove nitrate, calling into question the long-term sustainability of these natural attenuation processes.

  9. USDA Nutrient Data Set for Retail Veal Cuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL), in collaboration with Colorado State University, conducted a research study designed to update and expand the data on veal cuts in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). This research has been necess...

  10. 48 CFR 432.770 - USDA specific funding limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false USDA specific funding limitations. 432.770 Section 432.770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 432.770 USDA specific funding limitations....

  11. 48 CFR 432.770 - USDA specific funding limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false USDA specific funding limitations. 432.770 Section 432.770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 432.770 USDA specific funding limitations....

  12. 7 CFR 3022.10 - Reporting to USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS CONDUCTING USDA-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.10 Reporting to USDA. Following completion of an investigation into allegations of research misconduct, the institution conducting extramural research must provide to the ARIO a copy of the...

  13. 7 CFR 3022.10 - Reporting to USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS CONDUCTING USDA-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.10 Reporting to USDA. Following completion of an investigation into allegations of research misconduct, the institution conducting extramural research must provide to the ARIO a copy of the...

  14. 7 CFR 3022.10 - Reporting to USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS CONDUCTING USDA-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.10 Reporting to USDA. Following completion of an investigation into allegations of research misconduct, the institution conducting extramural research must provide to the ARIO a copy of the...

  15. 7 CFR 3022.10 - Reporting to USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS CONDUCTING USDA-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.10 Reporting to USDA. Following completion of an investigation into allegations of research misconduct, the institution conducting extramural research must provide to the ARIO a copy of the...

  16. 7 CFR 3406.6 - USDA agency cooperator requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA agency cooperator requirement. 3406.6 Section 3406.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING...

  17. Impact of the agricultural research service watershed assessment studies on the conservation effects assessment project cropland national assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA initiated the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in 2002 to analyze societal and environmental benefits gained from the increased conservation program funding provided in the 2002 Farm Bill. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and...

  18. Challenges in Renewable Natural Resources: A Guide to Alternative Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Robert

    First presented at a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) conference on renewable resources, this material includes information and discussion on critical issues, policies, and future alternatives for natural resources in the United States. (CO)

  19. USDA Southwest climate hub for climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Southwest (SW) Climate Hub was created in February 2014 to develop risk adaptation and mitigation strategies for coping with climate change effects on agricultural productivity. There are seven regional hubs across the country with three subsidiary hubs. The SW Climate Hub Region is made up...

  20. Plant Diseases Impact USDA Clonal Vaccinium Genebank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service maintains a diverse collection of Vaccinium genotypes at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, a temperate fruit and nut genebank in Corvallis, Oregon. Vaccinium species are hosts for two emerging diseases in the U.S. Pacific Northwest that impact the colle...

  1. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  2. Environmentally friendly lubricant development programs at USDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) carries out a wide range of programs to help in the development and commercialization of biobased lubricants. Widespread use of bioproducts will have wide ranging benefits to the environment, the rural economy, and the safety and well being of the A...

  3. USDA/ARS Organic Production Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For much of its history, USDA/ARS had little to do with research on organic agriculture, however research in organic systems has made considerable gains at the agency over the past decade. In the 1980's and 1990's, as the organic food industry was taking off, ARS researchers who wanted to serve orga...

  4. USDA-EPA Collaborative Ammonia Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2014, a work group was formed between USDA and EPA to facilitate information exchange on ammonia emissions from agriculture, air quality impacts and emission mitigation options and to identify opportunities for collaboration. This document provides background on the work grou...

  5. Rapid assessment methods of resilience for natural and agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Torrico, Juan C; Janssens, Marc J J

    2010-12-01

    The resilience, ecological function and quality of both agricultural and natural systems were evaluated in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Rain Forest of Rio de Janeiro through Rapid Assessment Methods. For this goal new indicators were proposed, such as eco-volume, eco-height, bio-volume, volume efficiency, and resilience index. The following agricultural and natural systems have been compared according: (i) vegetables (leaf, fruit and mixed); (ii) citrus; (iii) ecological system; (iv) cattle, (v) silvo-pastoral system, (vi) forest fragment and (vii) forest in regeneration stage (1, 2 and 3 years old). An alternative measure (index) of resilience was proposed by considering the actual bio-volume as a function of the potential eco-volume. The objectives and hypotheses were fulfilled; it is shown that there does exist a high positive correlation between resilience index, biomass, energy efficiency and biodiversity. Cattle and vegetable systems have lowest resilience, whilst ecological and silvo-pastoral systems have greatest resilience. This new approach offers a rapid, though valuable assessment tool for ecological studies, agricultural development and landscape planning, particularly in tropical countries. PMID:21152779

  6. 7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...) Efforts will be made to accommodate all who apply to participate in the market. However, market...

  7. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...? Potential market participants are recruited by AMS market management through local farm organizations in...

  8. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...? Potential market participants are recruited by AMS market management through local farm organizations in...

  9. 7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...) Efforts will be made to accommodate all who apply to participate in the market. However, market...

  10. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...? Potential market participants are recruited by AMS market management through local farm organizations in...

  11. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...? Potential market participants are recruited by AMS market management through local farm organizations in...

  12. 7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...) Efforts will be made to accommodate all who apply to participate in the market. However, market...

  13. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...? Potential market participants are recruited by AMS market management through local farm organizations in...

  14. 7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...) Efforts will be made to accommodate all who apply to participate in the market. However, market...

  15. 77 FR 41165 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY... Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to continue discussions on critical... for Task Force Anaerobic Digester Technologies Odor Management Technologies Committee Updates E....

  16. 77 FR 1052 - Solicitation of Nominations for Members of the USDA Grain Inspection Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Administration, USDA. ACTION: Notice to solicit nominees. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Grain... Vilsack, Secretary, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1400 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20250... the USGSA (7 U.S.C. 87j), as amended, the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) established...

  17. 7 CFR 3.79 - Review of USDA records related to the debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of USDA records related to the debt. 3.79 Section 3.79 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.79 Review of USDA records related to the debt. (a) Notification by employee. An employee who...

  18. 7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.14 Section 170.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... FARMERS MARKET § 170.14 What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?...

  19. Nutrient Attenuation Under Natural Conditions in Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage ditches are common practice in agricultural landscapes with poorly drained soils. Even though high concentrations of nutrients and other agricultural chemicals have been reportedly associated with agricultural drainage ditches, processes affecting nutrient transport in these ditches are not...

  20. The USDA/ARS Raisin Breeding Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA/ARS breeding program is developing: 1) natural dry-on-the-vine raisin grape cultivars; 2) powdery mildew resistant raisin grape cultivars; 3) Pierce’s Disease resistant raisin grape cultivars; and 4) raisin grape cultivars with increased anthocyanins for health benefits. A natural dry-on-t...

  1. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 84-281-1607, Federal Grain Inspection Service-USDA (US Department of Agriculture), New Orleans, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhe, R.L.

    1985-07-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for phosphine, malathion, carbon-disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, and grain dust at field offices of the Federal Grain Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, New Orleans, Louisiana in October and November, 1984. The evaluation was requested by the inspection service to investigate fumigant exposures at grain sampling and inspection stations in the New Orleans area. Noise monitoring was also performed. The author concludes that a health hazard due to fumigants, grain dust, or noise does not exist at the stations. Recommendations include developing a registry of grain handlers and inspectors and establishing procedures for obtaining information on incoming grain shipments that have been fumigated.

  2. LUBRICANT RESEARCH AT USDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of new applications for surplus crops is one of the major objectives of research at USDA. A variety of new applications are being explored for starches, proteins, carbohydrates, and vegetable oils which are major ingredients of surplus crops such as corn, soybean, wheat, barley, etc. A...

  3. Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Strand, Michael R; Snyder, William E

    2010-07-01

    Human activity can degrade ecosystem function by reducing species number (richness) and by skewing the relative abundance of species (evenness). Conservation efforts often focus on restoring or maintaining species number, reflecting the well-known impacts of richness on many ecological processes. In contrast, the ecological effects of disrupted evenness have received far less attention, and developing strategies for restoring evenness remains a conceptual challenge. In farmlands, agricultural pest-management practices often lead to altered food web structure and communities dominated by a few common species, which together contribute to pest outbreaks. Here we show that organic farming methods mitigate this ecological damage by promoting evenness among natural enemies. In field enclosures, very even communities of predator and pathogen biological control agents, typical of organic farms, exerted the strongest pest control and yielded the largest plants. In contrast, pest densities were high and plant biomass was low when enemy evenness was disrupted, as is typical under conventional management. Our results were independent of the numerically dominant predator or pathogen species, and so resulted from evenness itself. Moreover, evenness effects among natural enemy groups were independent and complementary. Our results strengthen the argument that rejuvenation of ecosystem function requires restoration of species evenness, rather than just richness. Organic farming potentially offers a means of returning functional evenness to ecosystems. PMID:20596021

  4. 78 FR 74102 - Solicitation of Nominations for Members of the USDA Grain Inspection Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Administration, USDA. ACTION: Notice to solicit nominees. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Grain.... Henry, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1400 Independence Ave. SW., Mail Stop 3611, Washington, DC 20250... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. USDA’s Food and Nutrient Analysis Program: Update of the USDA Projects and Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than 100 years the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has supported the generation and compilation of food composition data. Today the Agricultural Research Service, USDA develops and maintains the National Nutrient Data Bank, a repository of food composition data which provides the foun...

  6. USDA's Composition Data for Fruits and Vegetables -- Sources, Measurement, and Variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than 100 years the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has supported the generation and compilation of food composition data. Today the Agricultural Research Service, USDA develops and maintains the National Nutrient Data Bank, a repository of food composition data which provides the founda...

  7. USDA Research in Support of Deployed Military Troops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Department of Agriculture has a long history of collaborating with the US military to conduct research in support of war efforts. The predecessor laboratory of the current USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) located in Gainesville, Florida has a history...

  8. Cryopreservation and maintenance of hop material in USDA germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR-Corvallis) is responsible for conservation of the hop (Humulus lupulus L.) genetic resources for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS). The collection includes 675 accessions representing 7 related taxa (species an...

  9. Drought and Water Resources Assessment in the Western United States Using Data and Analyses From the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasteris, P. A.; Garen, D. C.

    2001-12-01

    Recent extremes in western snowpacks, from record maximums to record minimums, have raised the awareness of climate variability and its effect on water resources. Water availability from melting snowpacks plays a key role in assessing water supplies and drought and their effects on agriculture, municipalities, hydropower, application of endangered species legislation, and forest management. The Natural Resources Conservation Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture has a 60 year history of measuring western snowpacks and producing water supply forecast products. With the installation of the SNOTEL (SNOwpack TELemetry) network in the early 1980s and wide availability of the Internet, many thousands of users have access to real-time climate information collected by the 660 SNOTEL sites throughout the West. These data are not only used directly by users but also are fundamental to a number of analyses and products, including water supply forecasts, a surface water supply index, and a drought map. This information is critical to managing water resources in the West, especially during drought years.

  10. Renewable Natural Resources/Agriculture Curriculum. Secondary and Postsecondary Articulated Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum is designed to be a handbook for courses in renewable natural resources/agriculture in Alaska. It details the competencies, developed through a survey of renewable natural resources/agriculture employers in Alaska, that such occupations require. The handbook is organized in six sections. Section I introduces the…

  11. 7 CFR 170.3 - What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market? 170.3 Section 170.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER...

  12. 7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 170.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who...

  13. 7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 170.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who...

  14. 7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 170.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who...

  15. 7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 170.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who...

  16. 7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 170.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who...

  17. 7 CFR 170.3 - What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market? 170.3 Section 170.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER...

  18. Institutional Discrimination in Agricultural Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, William C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examines history of discrimination within U.S. agricultural programs, specifically in U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Compares USDA employment and grant allocations for Blacks and Whites since Civil Rights Act of 1964. Cites other examples of institutional discrimination in federal agriculture programs. Calls for development of policy…

  19. Agricultural injuries in Central India: nature, magnitude, and economic impact.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, P S; Gite, L P; Dubey, A K; Kot, L S

    2002-02-01

    A study was carried out in Madhya Pradesh (Central India) to collect data on injury-causing agricultural incidents during the period 1995-1999. The overall incidence rate was 1.25/1000 workers/year. About 9.2% of the incidents were fatal, and most of the fatal incidents were due to tractors and snakebites (42.9% each). About 77.6% of all incidents were due to farm machinery, 11.8% were due to hand tools, and the remaining 10.6% were due to other sources like snakes, wells, etc. Data on 1,911 incidents reported in 10 leading newspapers published during the five-year period (1995-1999) from different regions of the state were also collected and analyzed, which indicated that only major or roadside agricultural incidents were reported in newspapers. Based on the survey data, it was estimated that in the year 2000 there would have been about 17,480 agricultural incidents in Madhya Pradesh, causing death to about 2,050 workers and injuries to about 16,770 workers, including amputations of limbs, burns, cuts, etc. Total monetary loss due to agricultural injuries in the state of Madhya Pradesh has been estimated as US $27 million/year. PMID:12002378

  20. Utilizing Natural Cognitive Tendencies to Enhance Agricultural Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Rhodes, Emily B.; Irani, Tracy A.; Roberts, T. Grady; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel

    2011-01-01

    The influences of cognitive styles have been the focus of research on problems in education for quite some time (Witkin, Moore, Goodenough, & Cox, 1977). In fact, agricultural educators are rapidly increasing the amount of research and education focused on understanding and utilizing cognitive function in an attempt to improve educational…

  1. THE USDA PECAN BREEDING PROGRAM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper outlines how the USDA Pecan Breeding Program is operated to produce superior new cultivars that are given names of Native American peoples, and released for planting in new pecan orchards. The USDA conducts the largest pecan breeding and genetics program in the world. The program is div...

  2. USDA perspective on environmental enrichment for animals.

    PubMed

    Kulpa-Eddy, Jodie A; Taylor, Sylvia; Adams, Kristina M

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a brief historical background of the events and circumstances that led to the 1985 Animal Welfare Act (AWA) amendments. It describes the development of the regulations promulgated by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1991 as a result of these amendments, the reasoning given for the proposals, and the revisions that were made during the process. Information is included on USDA implementation of the regulations regarding exercise for dogs and environmental enhancement for nonhuman primates. Also mentioned briefly are the requirements for socialization of marine mammals and space requirements for certain other regulated warm-blooded species. These requirements apply to animal dealers (breeders and brokers), exhibitors, commercial transporters, and research facilities. The standards for exercise and environmental enhancement were different from any others previously contained in the AWA regulations, and required more research and understanding of species-specific needs by the regulated community. Finally, this article describes some of the initiatives being undertaken by the research community and USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS)-Animal Care to provide the necessary education and guidance indicated by the violation history data. PMID:15775018

  3. 78 FR 11677 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Apache-Sitgreaves...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service... Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests and the Field Museum of Natural...

  4. Information from USDA's Nutrient Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Haytowitz, D B

    1995-07-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture's Nutrient Data Bank contains a wealth of information on the composition of foods. These data are made available to the public through Agriculture Handbook No. 8, Composition of Foods: Raw, Processed, Prepared, its computerized form-the USDA Nutrient Data Base for Standard Reference, and other publications. Food components in Agriculture Handbook No. 8 include proximate components, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, cholesterol, phytosterols, and amino acids. Other tables and data sets containing food components of special interest such as vitamins D and K, selenium, and sugars, are also available. This paper describes how to obtain the data in either printed or electronic form. Information on obtaining the data through the Nutrient Data Bank Bulletin Board or the Internet is also presented. PMID:7616313

  5. Agricultural Machinery 01.0301 for Agribusiness, Natural Resources and Environmental Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, John; And Others

    The document presents unit plans which offer lists of experiences and competencies to be learned in the area of agricultural machinery for agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental occupations. The units include: (1) safety; (2) agricultural service center; (3) component parts--bearings, gears, pulleys, clutches, and others; (4) metal…

  6. Do Cows Belong in Nature? The Cultural Basis of Agriculture in Sweden and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Katarina; Head, Lesley; Stenseke, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Within the now extensive recent literature on cultures of nature, agriculture has received less attention than might have been expected given its threshold role in transforming human relations with the earth and with plants and animals. The concept and practice of agriculture can be understood as central to the emergence and maintenance of the…

  7. Relationship between humanity and plant natural resources – in the context of food and agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture, the domestication, culture, and management of plants and animals, has led to profound social changes in human evolution and development; it can be considered as the basis for civilization. Roughly 12,000 years ago agriculture appeared independently in several parts of the world. A natur...

  8. Harvesting Greatness: With Support from the USDA, Rural Colleges Are Expanding Campuses and Helping Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Partnerships between the USDA and rural colleges are one approach that allows individual students and regional economies to fulfill their potential. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has made a decision to be involved with rural community colleges, which has really made a difference on what is happening on campus. Through a dizzying array…

  9. Development of novel repellents using structure-activity modeling of compounds in the USDA archival database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has developed repellents and insecticides for the U.S. military since 1942. Repellency and toxicity data for over 30,000 compounds are contained within the USDA archive. Repellency data from subsets of similarly structured compounds were used to dev...

  10. USDA-ARS extension activities in medical, veterinary and urban entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), National Program 104 conducts research on veterinary, medical, and urban entomology. The goal of this program is to develop more effective methods of preventing or suppressing insects, ticks, and mites that affect animal and human well-being....

  11. Conservation planning in agricultural landscapes: hotspots of conflict between agriculture and nature

    PubMed Central

    Shackelford, Gorm E; Steward, Peter R; German, Richard N; Sait, Steven M; Benton, Tim G

    2015-01-01

    Aim Conservation conflict takes place where food production imposes a cost on wildlife conservation and vice versa. Where does conservation impose the maximum cost on production, by opposing the intensification and expansion of farmland? Where does conservation confer the maximum benefit on wildlife, by buffering and connecting protected areas with a habitable and permeable matrix of crop and non-crop habitat? Our aim was to map the costs and benefits of conservation versus production and thus to propose a conceptual framework for systematic conservation planning in agricultural landscapes. Location World-wide. Methods To quantify these costs and benefits, we used a geographic information system to sample the cropland of the world and map the proportion of non-crop habitat surrounding the cropland, the number of threatened vertebrates with potential to live in or move through the matrix and the yield gap of the cropland. We defined the potential for different types of conservation conflict in terms of interactions between habitat and yield (potential for expansion, intensification, both or neither). We used spatial scan statistics to find ‘hotspots’ of conservation conflict. Results All of the ‘hottest’ hotspots of conservation conflict were in sub-Saharan Africa, which could have impacts on sustainable intensification in this region. Main conclusions Systematic conservation planning could and should be used to identify hotspots of conservation conflict in agricultural landscapes, at multiple scales. The debate between ‘land sharing’ (extensive agriculture that is wildlife friendly) and ‘land sparing’ (intensive agriculture that is less wildlife friendly but also less extensive) could be resolved if sharing and sparing were used as different types of tool for resolving different types of conservation conflict (buffering and connecting protected areas by maintaining matrix quality, in different types of matrix). Therefore, both sharing and sparing

  12. 7 CFR 1466.11 - Technical services provided by qualified personnel not affiliated with USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Technical services provided by qualified personnel not affiliated with USDA. 1466.11 Section 1466.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY...

  13. 7 CFR 1450.5 - Performance based on advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance based on advice or action of USDA. 1450.5 Section 1450.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  14. 7 CFR 1450.5 - Performance based on advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Performance based on advice or action of USDA. 1450.5 Section 1450.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  15. 7 CFR 1450.5 - Performance based on advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance based on advice or action of USDA. 1450.5 Section 1450.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  16. 7 CFR 1450.5 - Performance based on advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance based on advice or action of USDA. 1450.5 Section 1450.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  17. The creation and role of the USDA biomass research centers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Five USDA Biomass Research Centers were created to facilitate coordinated research to enhance the establishment of a sustainable feedstock production for bio-based renewable energy in the United States. Scientists and staff of the Agriculture Research Service (ARS) and Forest Service (FS) withi...

  18. What's New in USDA's Food Distribution Program for Schools? School Programs USDA Foods Update. Volume 14, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an update on all the new products and projects that U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) has been working on, in its effort to help schools meet the nutritional needs of the students and to help in the President's challenge to End Childhood Hunger by 2015. This issue includes: (1) Back to…

  19. Final corrective action study for the former CCC/USDA facility in Ramona, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2011-04-20

    Past operations at a grain storage facility formerly leased and operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in Ramona, Kansas, resulted in low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater that slightly exceed the regulatory standard in only one location. As requested by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, the CCC/USDA has prepared a Corrective Action Study (CAS) for the facility. The CAS examines corrective actions to address groundwater impacted by the former CCC/USDA facility but not releases caused by other potential groundwater contamination sources in Ramona. Four remedial alternatives were considered in the CAS. The recommended remedial alternative in the CAS consists of Environmental Use Control to prevent the inadvertent use of groundwater as a water supply source, coupled with groundwater monitoring to verify the continued natural improvement in groundwater quality. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) has directed Argonne National Laboratory to prepare a Corrective Action Study (CAS), consistent with guidance from the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2001a), for the CCC/USDA grain storage facility formerly located in Ramona, Kansas. This effort is pursuant to a KDHE (2007a) request. Although carbon tetrachloride levels at the Ramona site are low, they remain above the Kansas Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 {micro}g/L (Kansas 2003, 2004). In its request for the CAS, the KDHE (2007a) stated that, because of these levels, risk is associated with potential future exposure to contaminated groundwater. The KDHE therefore determined that additional measures are warranted to limit future use of the property and/or exposure to contaminated media as part of site closure. The KDHE further requested comparison of at least two corrective

  20. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  1. Intergeneric hybrids in Rosaceae subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae) at USDA genebank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service maintains clonal germplasm collections representing world diversity of Pyrus, Cydonia and Mespilus at its National Clonal Germplasm Repository in Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Smaller collections of Amelanchier, Aronia, Crataegus, Sorbus and other genera in Rosaceae ...

  2. 7 CFR 3.45 - USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata... of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor participates. (a) A USDA payment authorizing..., may offset: (1) A debtor's pro rata share of USDA payments due any entity in which the...

  3. 7 CFR 3.45 - USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata... of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor participates. (a) A USDA payment authorizing..., may offset: (1) A debtor's pro rata share of USDA payments due any entity in which the...

  4. AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION (AGNPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution (AGNPS) model addresses concerns related to the potential impacts of point and nonpoint source pollution on surface and groundwater quality (Young et al., 1989). It was designed to quantit...

  5. Online evaluation of a commercial video image analysis system (Computer Vision System) to predict beef carcass red meat yield and for augmenting the assignment of USDA yield grades. United States Department of Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Cannell, R C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Wise, J W; Chapman, P L; Scanga, J A; Smith, G C

    2002-05-01

    Objective quantification of differences in wholesale cut yields of beef carcasses at plant chain speeds is important for the application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of a commercial video image analysis system, the Computer Vision System (CVS) to 1) predict commercially fabricated beef subprimal yield and 2) augment USDA yield grading, in order to improve accuracy of grade assessment. The CVS was evaluated as a fully installed production system, operating on a full-time basis at chain speeds. Steer and heifer carcasses (n = 296) were evaluated using CVS, as well as by USDA expert and online graders, before the fabrication of carcasses into industry-standard subprimal cuts. Expert yield grade (YG), online YG, CVS estimated carcass yield, and CVS measured ribeye area in conjunction with expert grader estimates of the remaining YG factors (adjusted fat thickness, percentage of kidney-pelvic-heart fat, hot carcass weight) accounted for 67, 39, 64, and 65% of the observed variation in fabricated yields of closely trimmed subprimals. The dual component CVS predicted wholesale cut yields more accurately than current online yield grading, and, in an augmentation system, CVS ribeye measurement replaced estimated ribeye area in determination of USDA yield grade, and the accuracy of cutability prediction was improved, under packing plant conditions and speeds, to a level close to that of expert graders applying grades at a comfortable rate of speed offline. PMID:12019606

  6. 77 FR 31302 - Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Renewal of the Charter for the Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is seeking renewal of the...

  7. Department of Agriculture

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities Trade Travel and Recreation USDA for Kids Programs and ... and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency News Releases ...

  8. USDA-ARS update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato research at the Red River Valley Agricultural Research Center is conducted by the Sugarbeet & Potato Research Unit at two locations: the Northern Crop Science Laboratory in Fargo, ND and the Potato Research Worksite located in East Grand Forks, MN. Research in Fargo is laboratory oriented an...

  9. Effects of agricultural intensification on ability of natural enemies to control aphids

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zi-Hua; Hui, Cang; He, Da-Han; Li, Bai-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural intensification through increasing fertilization input and cropland expansion has caused rapid loss of semi-natural habitats and the subsequent loss of natural enemies of agricultural pests. It is however extremely difficult to disentangle the effects of agricultural intensification on arthropod communities at multiple spatial scales. Based on a two-year study of seventeen 1500 m-radius sites, we analyzed the relative importance of nitrogen input and cropland expansion on cereal aphids and their natural enemies. Both the input of nitrogen fertilizer and cropland expansion benefited cereal aphids more than primary parasitoids and leaf-dwelling predators, while suppressing ground-dwelling predators, leading to an disturbance of the interspecific relationship. The responses of natural enemies to cropland expansion were asymmetric and species-specific, with an increase of primary parasitism but a decline of predator/pest ratio with the increasing nitrogen input. As such, agricultural intensification (increasing nitrogen fertilizer and cropland expansion) can destabilize the interspecific relationship and lead to biodiversity loss. To this end, sustainable pest management needs to balance the benefit and cost of agricultural intensification and restore biocontrol service through proliferating the role of natural enemies at multiple scales. PMID:25620737

  10. Funding opportunities for veterinary medicine with USDA competitive programs.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Brad

    2005-01-01

    Dramatic changes are underway in how public higher education and professional training are funded. The shift from a public to a beneficiary funding model is driving increases in tuition for students, the collection of user fees, and fee-for-service activities and has focused increased attention on the need for funding support from federal grants and contracts. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) was the first federal agency to support university-based research and education. While the funding provided by the USDA is now only a fraction of what is available through other federal sources, the USDA remains an important source of funding dedicated specifically to farm-animal-related research and the training of the next generation of veterinary scientists and educators. PMID:16261490

  11. Determination of repellent efficacy of natural compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1942, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has performed repellent testing, initially for the U.S. military. In recent years, there has been a collaborative effort to evaluate a number of natural extracts and compounds for their repellent efficacy. Plant-produced compounds are u...

  12. NETL, USDA design coal-stabilized biomass gasification unit

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    Coal, poultry litter, contaminated corn, rice hulls, moldly hay, manure sludge - these are representative materials that could be tested as fuel feedstocks in a hybrid gasification/combustion concept studied in a recent US Department of Energy (DOE) design project. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) collaborated to develop a design concept of a power system that incorporates Hybrid Biomass Gasification. This system would explore the use of a wide range of biomass and agricultural waste products as gasifier feedstocks. The plant, if built, would supply one-third of electrical and steam heating needs at the USDA's Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  13. USDA-AnnAGNPS Model Capabilities and Applications for Watershed Conservation Planning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutant Loading (AnnAGNPS) model has been developed as a planning tool used in the evaluation of watershed responses to agricultural management practices. Since the first release of the continuous, daily time step, w...

  14. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced an... of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250-1021; or by telephone (202) 720-2916; or by fax to (202)...

  15. PRESENT AND FUTURE OF FERMENTATION BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AT USDA-ARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has undertaken a wide variety of research projects dealing with the development of bio-based food and non-food products from waste and underutilized agricultural residues and processes for their utilization. The Na...

  16. 7 CFR 12.11 - Action based upon advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... make such benefits available to the extent that similar relief would be allowed under 7 CFR part 718. ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Action based upon advice or action of USDA. 12.11 Section 12.11 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND...

  17. 7 CFR 12.11 - Action based upon advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... make such benefits available to the extent that similar relief would be allowed under 7 CFR part 718. ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Action based upon advice or action of USDA. 12.11 Section 12.11 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND...

  18. 7 CFR 12.11 - Action based upon advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... make such benefits available to the extent that similar relief would be allowed under 7 CFR part 718. ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Action based upon advice or action of USDA. 12.11 Section 12.11 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND...

  19. 7 CFR 12.11 - Action based upon advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... make such benefits available to the extent that similar relief would be allowed under 7 CFR part 718. ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Action based upon advice or action of USDA. 12.11 Section 12.11 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND...

  20. 7 CFR 12.11 - Action based upon advice or action of USDA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... make such benefits available to the extent that similar relief would be allowed under 7 CFR part 718. ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Action based upon advice or action of USDA. 12.11 Section 12.11 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND...

  1. 7 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 799 - Organization Chart FSA-USDA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organization Chart FSA-USDA 1 Appendix 1 to Part 799 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 799, App. 1 Appendix 1 to Part 799—Organization Chart...

  2. 7 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 799 - Organization Chart FSA-USDA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Organization Chart FSA-USDA 1 Appendix 1 to Part 799 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 799, App. 1 Appendix 1 to Part 799—Organization Chart...

  3. 7 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 799 - Organization Chart FSA-USDA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Organization Chart FSA-USDA 1 Appendix 1 to Part 799 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 799, App. 1 Appendix 1 to Part 799—Organization Chart...

  4. 7 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 799 - Organization Chart FSA-USDA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Organization Chart FSA-USDA 1 Appendix 1 to Part 799 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 799, App. 1 Appendix 1 to Part 799—Organization Chart...

  5. 7 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 799 - Organization Chart FSA-USDA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Organization Chart FSA-USDA 1 Appendix 1 to Part 799 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 799, App. 1 Appendix 1 to Part 799—Organization Chart...

  6. USDA for Kids

    MedlinePlus

      Topics Animal Health Biotechnology Climate Solutions Conservation Disaster and Emergency Preparedness Employee Services Energy Environment and Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and Nutrition ...

  7. Darwinian agriculture: when can humans find solutions beyond the reach of natural selection?

    PubMed

    Denison, R Ford; Kiers, E Toby; West, Stuart A

    2003-06-01

    Progress in genetic improvement of crop yield potential has slowed since 1985. Simultaneously, more sustainable management of agricultural ecosystems is needed. A better understanding of natural selection can help solve both problems. We illustrate this point with two specific examples. First, the genetic legacy of crop plants has been refined by millions of years of natural selection, often driven by competition among plants. We therefore suggest that most simple, tradeoff-free options to increase competitiveness (e.g., increased gene expression, or minor modifications of existing plant genes) have already been tested by natural selection. Further genetic improvement of crop yield potential over the next decade will mainly involve tradeoffs, either between fitness in past versus present environments, or between individual competitiveness and the collective performance of plant communities. Eventually, we may develop the ability to predict the consequences of genetic alterations so radical that they have not yet been tested by natural selection. Second, natural selection acts mainly at the level of genes, individuals, and family groups, rather than ecosystems as a whole. Consequently, there is no reason to expect the structure of natural ecosystems (diversity, spatial, or temporal patterns) to be a reliable blueprint for agricultural ecosystems. Natural ecosystems are nonetheless an important source of information that could be used to improve agriculture. PMID:12825416

  8. The alignment of agricultural and nature conservation policies in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ian; Hauck, Jennifer; Bonn, Aletta

    2015-08-01

    Europe is a region of relatively high population density and productive agriculture subject to substantial government intervention under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Many habitats and species of high conservation interest have been created by the maintenance of agricultural practices over long periods. These practices are often no longer profitable, and nature conservation initiatives require government support to cover the cost for them to be continued. The CAP has been reformed both to reduce production of agricultural commodities at costs in excess of world prices and to establish incentives for landholders to adopt voluntary conservation measures. A separate nature conservation policy has established an extensive series of protected sites (Natura 2000) that has, as yet, failed to halt the loss of biodiversity. Additional broader scale approaches have been advocated for conservation in the wider landscape matrix, including the alignment of agricultural and nature conservation policies, which remains a challenge. Possibilities for alignment include further shifting of funds from general support for farmers toward targeted payments for biodiversity goals at larger scales and adoption of an ecosystem approach. The European response to the competing demands for land resources may offer lessons globally as demands on rural land increase. PMID:25998969

  9. Science Education in Two-Year Colleges: Agriculture and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckwith, Miriam M.

    Agricultural and natural resources education in two-year colleges is examined as revealed by a study of science education that involved: (1) a review of the literature, (2) an examination of 175 college catalogs and class schedules from colleges nationwide, and (3) a survey of 1,275 science teachers. Part I of the study report discusses…

  10. Revising and Updating the Natural Resources and Aquaculture Components of the Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Frederick W.

    Materials, including curriculum units, are provided for the natural resources and aquaculture components of the vocational agriculture curriculum. Aquaculture is a new component, added because of increased recognition of the opportunities offered by Connecticut's rich shoreline resources. A brochure and flyer on the aquaculture program follow a…

  11. USDA lettuce breeding and genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lettuce industry of California requires continued development of improved, adapted cultivars to meet new disease and insect problems, changes in the market, and changes in growing procedures. The USDA lettuce breeding and genetics project aims to incorporate valuable traits into crisphead, mixed...

  12. USDA-ARS Quartlerly News

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This quarterly article is an update of research going on at The USDA-ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory in Poplarville, MS to be published in the Louisiana Nursery and Landscape Associations (LANLA) quarterly newsletter. This is one of three publications that I am sending out to the ...

  13. Pollinator Interactions with Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) across Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Misha; Kremen, Claire; Roderick, George K.

    2014-01-01

    Pollinator-plant relationships are found to be particularly vulnerable to land use change. Yet despite extensive research in agricultural and natural systems, less attention has focused on these interactions in neighboring urban areas and its impact on pollination services. We investigated pollinator-plant interactions in a peri-urban landscape on the outskirts of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, where urban, agricultural, and natural land use types interface. We made standardized observations of floral visitation and measured seed set of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), a common grassland invasive, to test the hypotheses that increasing urbanization decreases 1) rates of bee visitation, 2) viable seed set, and 3) the efficiency of pollination (relationship between bee visitation and seed set). We unexpectedly found that bee visitation was highest in urban and agricultural land use contexts, but in contrast, seed set rates in these human-altered landscapes were lower than in natural sites. An explanation for the discrepancy between floral visitation and seed set is that higher plant diversity in urban and agricultural areas, as a result of more introduced species, decreases pollinator efficiency. If these patterns are consistent across other plant species, the novel plant communities created in these managed landscapes and the generalist bee species that are favored by human-altered environments will reduce pollination services. PMID:24466050

  14. Soil Respiration in Different Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems in an Arid Region

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Liming; Zhao, Xuechun; Jiang, Lianhe; Wang, Yongji; Luo, Liangguo; Zheng, Yuanrun; Chen, Xi; Rimmington, Glyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The variation of different ecosystems on the terrestrial carbon balance is predicted to be large. We investigated a typical arid region with widespread saline/alkaline soils, and evaluated soil respiration of different agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil respiration for five ecosystems together with soil temperature, soil moisture, soil pH, soil electric conductivity and soil organic carbon content were investigated in the field. Comparing with the natural ecosystems, the mean seasonal soil respiration rates of the agricultural ecosystems were 96%–386% higher and agricultural ecosystems exhibited lower CO2 absorption by the saline/alkaline soil. Soil temperature and moisture together explained 48%, 86%, 84%, 54% and 54% of the seasonal variations of soil respiration in the five ecosystems, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between soil respiration and soil electrical conductivity, but a weak correlation between soil respiration and soil pH or soil organic carbon content. Our results showed that soil CO2 emissions were significantly different among different agricultural and natural ecosystems, although we caution that this was an observational, not manipulative, study. Temperature at the soil surface and electric conductivity were the main driving factors of soil respiration across the five ecosystems. Care should be taken when converting native vegetation into cropland from the point of view of greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:23082234

  15. Fields of dreams: Agriculture, economy and nature in Midwest United States biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillon, Sean Thomas

    This work explores the social and ecological dimensions of recent biofuel production increases in the United States (US), focusing on the case of Iowa. Biofuels are proposed to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change, improve US energy security, and support rural economies. Little research has examined how increased US Midwestern biofuels production will change social and ecological outcomes at farm and regional levels or interact with broader governance processes at the nexus of agriculture, energy and environment. These broad questions guide my research: (1) How does biofuel production reconfigure agricultural practice and landscapes in Iowa? (2) What are the costs, benefits and risks of increased biofuels production as seen by farmers and rural residents, and how do these factors influence farmer decisions about agriculture and conservation practice? (3) How and with what effects are biofuels initiatives constituted as a form of environmental governance through scientific knowledge and practice and political economic dynamics? To address these questions, this research integrates both qualitative and quantitative methods, drawing on a political ecological approach complemented by agroecological analysis and theoretical insights from geographical analyses of nature-society relations. Quantitative analysis focuses on changing land use patterns in agriculture and conservation practice in Iowa. Qualitative methods include extensive interviews, participant observation, and policy and document analyses. Fieldwork focused on Northeastern Iowa to understand regional changes in agricultural and conservation practice, the renegotiated position of farmers in agriculture and biofuel production, and biofuel industry development. I find that biofuel production presents significant social and ecological challenges for rural places of production. Longstanding, unequal political economic relations in industrialized agriculture limit rural economic benefits

  16. USDA Finances Wind for Rural Economic Development (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, C.; Walters, T.

    2005-05-01

    To foster rural economic development and growth, Congress passed the Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program as Section 9006 of the 2002 Farm Bill. This program provides financial assistance to farmers, ranchers, and rural small businesses to purchase renewable energy systems or make energy efficiency improvements. The Rural Business and Cooperative Services of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers this program. This conference poster provides an overview of Section 9006.

  17. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, D.R.

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  18. The USDA/ARS Table Grape Breeding Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA/ARS table grape breeding program is developing: 1) a series of seedless table grape cultivars with naturally large berries, early to late maturity, and red, white or black fruit; 2) powdery mildew resistant table grape cultivars; and 3) Pierce’s Disease resistant table grape cultivars. Fif...

  19. Introductory Soil Science Exercises Using USDA Web Soil Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Christopher J.; Mikhailova, Elena; McWhorter, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    The USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Web Soil Survey is a valuable teaching tool for soil science education. By incorporating the Web Soil Survey into an undergraduate-level course, students are able to use the most detailed digital soil survey information without the steep learning curve associated with geographic information…

  20. Novel USDA Mosquito Control Techniques for the US Military

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel techniques that we developed at the USDA to protect deployed military troops from the threat of vector-borne diseases are described. Some of the methods developed included (1) novel military personal protection methods, (2) barrier treatments of artificial materials and natural vegetation, and...

  1. 7 CFR 15f.28 - When I or someone else has to do something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When I or someone else has to do something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the ALJ count the days? 15f.28 Section 15f.28 Agriculture Office... something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the ALJ count the days? Unless...

  2. 7 CFR 15f.28 - When I or someone else has to do something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When I or someone else has to do something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the ALJ count the days? 15f.28 Section 15f.28 Agriculture Office... something within a certain number of days, how will USDA or the ALJ count the days? Unless...

  3. Regional estimates of ecological services derived from U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faulkner, Stephen P.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Waddle, Hardin; Keeland, Bobby D.; Walls, Susan C.; James, Dale; Moorman, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The degree to which these conservation practices can restore ecosystem functions and services is not well known. This project was initiated to quantify existing ecological services derived from USDA conservation practices in the MAV as part of the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Project, Wetlands Component (CEAP-Wetlands). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the USDA Farm Service Agency, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Ducks Unlimited, collected data on soils, vegetation, nitrogen cycling, migratory birds, and amphibians from 88 different sites between 2006 and 2008. Results from restored WRP sites were compared to baseline data from active agricultural cropland (AG) to evaluate changes in ecosystem services.

  4. UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES FOR STUDENTS IN AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES, PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    REPORTED ARE THE PROCEEDINGS OF A 1966 CONFERENCE WHICH DEALT WITH UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS FOR STUDENTS IN AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES. THE 167 EDUCATORS (MOSTLY DEANS AND DIRECTORS OF RESIDENT INSTRUCTION) WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE CONFERENCE REPRESENTED AGRICULTURE, RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES, THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, AND…

  5. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A; Booij, C.J.H; Tscharntke, T

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control because non-crop habitats provide requisites for a broad spectrum of natural enemies, and the exchange of natural enemies between crop and non-crop habitats is likely to be diminished in landscapes dominated by arable cropland. In this review, we test the hypothesis that natural pest control is enhanced in complex patchy landscapes with a high proportion of non-crop habitats as compared to simple large-scale landscapes with little associated non-crop habitat. In 74% and 45% of the studies reviewed, respectively, natural enemy populations were higher and pest pressure lower in complex landscapes versus simple landscapes. Landscape-driven pest suppression may result in lower crop injury, although this has rarely been documented. Enhanced natural enemy activity was associated with herbaceous habitats in 80% of the cases (e.g. fallows, field margins), and somewhat less often with wooded habitats (71%) and landscape patchiness (70%). The similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. We conclude that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function. PMID:16790403

  6. Agricultural land use change in the Northeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Census of Agriculture (http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/) provides county-level estimates of farm numbers, land use area and livestock and crop production every five years. In 2007, only eight of the 299 counties that make up the twelve Northeastern states had no agricultural land use. About 20...

  7. Frugivorous Bats Maintain Functional Habitat Connectivity in Agricultural Landscapes but Rely Strongly on Natural Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Ripperger, Simon P.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Mayer, Frieder; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae), a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats. PMID:25830222

  8. Frugivorous bats maintain functional habitat connectivity in agricultural landscapes but rely strongly on natural forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Ripperger, Simon P; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Mayer, Frieder; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae), a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats. PMID:25830222

  9. Assimilation of AMSR-E Soil Moisture into the USDA Global Crop Production Decision Support System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The monitoring of global food supplies performed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Division (PECAD) is essential for early warning of food shortages, and providing greater economic security within the agriculture sector. Monthly crop yield and for...

  10. World Saccharum Collection at the USDA Subtropical Research Station, National Germplasm Repository Miami, Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1980, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), established a genebank, the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Miami, Florida. This repository is devoted to conservation of subtropical and tropical fruit, sugarcane and related grasses and ornamen...

  11. The USDA Quince and Pear Genebank in Oregon, A World Source of Fire Blight Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), has operated a genebank for temperate fruit and nut crops in Corvallis, Oregon since 1981. This facility, the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR), is devoted to conservation of many Rosaceous species that are pot...

  12. Sambucus genetic resources at the U.S.D.A. National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR-Corvallis) preserves the genetic diversity of elderberry (Sambucus L.). This genebank preserves representatives of seven of the nine major world Sambucus species and 50 cultivar...

  13. USDA 846-1 fractal melon and derived recombinant inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a melon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding line with highly branched, fractal-type architectural growth habit and 81 derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL). The indeterminate, monoecious USDA 846-1 produces 2...

  14. History and Accomplishments of USDA-ARS Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) in East Lansing, Michigan, formerly known as Regional Poultry Research Laboratory, was dedicated on August 8, 1939. Its establishment was the result of joint efforts by the Agricultural Experiment Stations of the Nor...

  15. Musa spp. germplasm management: microsatellite fingerprinting of USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS) is responsible for conserving germplasm of a number of important agricultural crop species. A banana (Musa spp.) collection has been established at TARS that is comprised of diploid, triploid and tetraploid accessions of cultivated, ornament...

  16. Assessing the effects of USDA conservation programs on ecosystem services provided by wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is led by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in an effort to quantify the environmental effects of conservation programs and practices on privately owned agricultural landscapes across the United States. CEAP’s approach includes application ...

  17. SSR Fingerprinting Panel Verifies Identities of Clones in Backup Hazelnut Collection of USDA Genebank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service maintains a genebank representing world hazelnut (Corylus L.) diversity. More than 670 clones are preserved as self-rooted trees in a two-hectare field planting in Corvallis, Oregon, with a single tree per accession. In 1996 an...

  18. Non-stationarity of "Nature's Limit" - Implications for Agriculture in Semi-arid Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozer, C.; Kiem, A.; Verdon-Kidd, D.

    2014-12-01

    "Rain follows the plow" was a theory that encouraged agricultural settlement in dryland areas in both the United States of America and Australia during the mid-1800s. Supporters of the theory believed that humans could master nature and alter the climate through cultivation of the soil. An opponent of this theory was George W. Goyder, who used vegetation in South Australia as an indicator to mark out the extent of the area's severe 1865 drought, effectively establishing "nature's limit" to reliable agriculture in South Australia. This limit became known as Goyder's Line and demarked the boundary between land suitable for agricultural pursuits (i.e. cropping) to the south and land only suitable for grazing in the State's arid north. Current cropping areas however extend north beyond this line, suggesting that either a) the line is not well defined, b) cropping is occurring on land considered 'non-viable' according to Goyder's Line or c) the line distinguishing where cropping is and is not viable varies on interannual to multidecadal timescales. In this study, the 220 mm growing season (April to October) rainfall isohyet is used as a proxy for Goyder's Line in order to assess its temporal and spatial variability. Using indices of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, Indian Ocean variability, Southern Annular Mode and the Subtropical Ridge, it is shown that climate state significantly influences the location of the 220 mm growing season rainfall isohyet. This implies that the boundary between viable and non-viable cropping areas (i.e. Goyder's Line or "nature's limit") is non-stationary. These results also indicate the key influences on South Australia's climate and have important implications globally for agricultural practices operating in or bordering semi-arid environments.

  19. Technical assessment of synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from agriculture residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guohui; Feng, Fei; Xiao, Jun; Shen, Laihong

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents thermodynamic evaluations of the agriculture residual-to-SNG process by thermochemical conversion, which mainly consists of the interconnected fluidized beds, hot gas cleaning, fluidized bed methanation reactor and Selexol absorption unit. The process was modeled using Aspen Plus software. The process performances, i.e., CH4 content in SNG, higher heating value and yield of SNG, exergy efficiencies with and without heat recovery, unit power consumption, were evaluated firstly. The results indicate that when the other parameters remain unchanged, the steam-to-biomass ratio at carbon boundary point is the optimal value for the process. Improving the preheating temperatures of air and gasifying agent is beneficial for the SNG yield and exergy efficiencies. Due to the effects of CO2 removal efficiency, there are two optimization objectives for the SNG production process: (I) to maximize CH4 content in SNG, or (II) to maximize SNG yield. Further, the comparison among different feedstocks indicates that the decreasing order of SNG yield is: corn stalk > wheat straw > rice straw. The evaluation on the potential of agriculture-based SNG shows that the potential annual production of agriculture residual-based SNG could be between 555×108 ˜ 611×108 m3 with utilization of 100% of the available unexplored resources. The agriculture residual-based SNG could play a significant role on solving the big shortfall of China's natural gas supply in future.

  20. DOE/USDA joint project to design and manufacture prototype equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, J.G.

    1996-07-01

    Design, assembly, prove-in, and performance testing of prototype equipment for the United States Department of Agriculture`s Subtropical Agriculture Research Laboratory (SARL) were completed by the Department of Energy`s Kansas City Plant. The plant is operated by AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). The prototype equipment was developed as part of the USDA`s efforts to mass produce parasitic wasps for organic control of boll weevils in cotton crops. This development was part of the Production Capability Assurance Program and also part of the Work For Others program. Design and assembly of this prototype equipment led to some new FM&T processes and technologies and exercised many others as described in the text and, at the same time, met the needs of the USDA.

  1. Assessing habitat quality for a migratory songbird wintering in natural and agricultural habitats.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew D; Sherry, Thomas W; Holmes, Richard T; Marra, Peter P

    2006-10-01

    As tropical forests are cleared, a greater proportion of migratory songbirds are forced to winter in agricultural and disturbed habitats, which, if poorer in quality than natural forests, could contribute to population declines. We compared demographic indicators of habitat quality for a focal species, the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), wintering in Jamaican citrus orchards and shade coffee plantations with those in four natural habitats: mangrove, coastal scrub, coastal palm, and dry limestone forests. Demographic measures of habitat quality included density, age and sex ratio, apparent survival, and changes in body mass. Measures of habitat quality for redstarts in citrus and coffee habitats were generally intermediate between the highest (mangrove) and lowest (dry limestone) measurements from natural habitats. The decline in mean body mass over the winter period was a strong predictor of annual survival rate among habitats, and we suggest that measures of body condition coupled with survival data provide the best measures of habitat quality for nonbreeding songbirds. Density, which is far easier to estimate, was correlated with these more labor-intensive measures, particularly in the late winter when food is likely most limiting. Thus, local density may be useful as an approximation of habitat quality for wintering migrant warblers. Our findings bolster those of previous studies based on bird abundance that suggest arboreal agricultural habitats in the tropics can be useful for the conservation of generalist, insectivorous birds, including many migratory passerines such as redstarts. PMID:17002761

  2. Applied Climate Education and Training for Agricultural and Natural Resource Management in India, Indonesia, Zimbabwe and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, D. A.; Clewett, J. F.; Selvaraju, R.; Birch, C.

    2006-01-01

    In parts of the world, including many developing countries, climate variability impacts negatively on agricultural production and natural resource management. Workshops in applied climatology were held in Australia, India, Indonesia and Zimbabwe between 1999 and 2002 to provide farmers and agricultural and meteorological staff a better…

  3. Theme--Achieving 2020. Goal 3: All Students Are Conversationally Literate in Agriculture, Food, Fiber, and Natural Resource Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Cary, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Nine theme articles focus on the need for students to be conversationally literate about agriculture, food, fiber, and natural resources systems. Discusses the definition of conversational literacy, the human and institutional resources needed, and exemplary models for promoting literacy. (JOW)

  4. 77 FR 4984 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Institute of Food and Agriculture Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA....

  5. 75 FR 34972 - Notice of Invitation for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Agriculture Statistics AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), USDA. ACTION: Solicitation of Nominations for Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics Membership. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  6. 77 FR 40323 - Notice of Invitation for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Agriculture Statistics AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), USDA. ACTION: Solicitation of Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics. SUMMARY: In accordance with the...

  7. 78 FR 32227 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... 35), this document announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request...

  8. 77 FR 6535 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics; Meeting AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the National Agricultural Statistics Service...

  9. 78 FR 56653 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics Meeting AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the National Agricultural Statistics Service...

  10. The change of nature and the nature of change in agricultural landscapes: Hydrologic regime shifts modulate ecological transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Takbiri, Zeinab; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Schwenk, Jon

    2015-08-01

    Hydrology in many agricultural landscapes around the world is changing in unprecedented ways due to the development of extensive surface and subsurface drainage systems that optimize productivity. This plumbing of the landscape alters water pathways, timings, and storage, creating new regimes of hydrologic response and driving a chain of environmental changes in sediment dynamics, nutrient cycling, and river ecology. In this work, we nonparametrically quantify the nature of hydrologic change in the Minnesota River Basin, an intensively managed agricultural landscape, and study how this change might modulate ecological transitions. During the growing season when climate effects are shown to be minimal, daily streamflow hydrographs exhibit sharper rising limbs and stronger dependence on the previous-day precipitation. We also find a changed storage-discharge relationship and show that the artificial landscape connectivity has most drastically affected the rainfall-runoff relationship at intermediate quantiles. Considering the whole year, we show that the combined climate and land use change effects reduce the inherent nonlinearity in the dynamics of daily streamflow, perhaps reflecting a more linearized engineered hydrologic system. Using a simplified dynamic interaction model that couples hydrology to river ecology, we demonstrate how the observed hydrologic change and/or the discharge-driven sediment generation dynamics may have modulated a regime shift in river ecology, namely extirpation of native mussel populations. We posit that such nonparametric analyses and reduced complexity modeling can provide more insight than highly parameterized models and can guide development of vulnerability assessments and integrated watershed management frameworks.

  11. Introduction to USDA VetNet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA VetNet was established in 2003 and was modeled after PulseNet USA, the national molecular subtyping network for food borne disease surveillance. The objectives of USDA VetNet are to use pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to subtype zoonotic pathogens submitted to the animal arm of the Nat...

  12. Using U-series Isotopes To Determine Sources Of Pedogenic Carbonates: Comparison Of Natural And Agricultural Soils In The Semi-arid Southern New Mexico And Western Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyachoti, S. K.; Ma, L.; Borrok, D. M.; Jin, L.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Pedogenic carbonates commonly precipitate from infiltrating soil water in arid and semi-arid lands and are observed in soils of southern New Mexico and western Texas. These carbonates could form an impermeable layer in the soil horizons impairing water infiltration, thus affecting crop growth and yield. It is important to determine the source of C and Ca in these carbonates and to understand conditions favoring their formation, kinetics and precipitation rates. In this study, major elements and U-series isotopes in bulk calcic soils, and weak acid leachates and residues were measured from one irrigated alfalfa site in the Hueco basin near El Paso, TX and one natural shrubland site on the USDA Jornada experimental range in southern NM. The combined geochemical and isotopic results allow us to determine the formation ages of the carbonates; investigate the mobility of U, Th, and major elements in these soils; and infer for the effects of irrigation on carbonate formation in agricultural soils. Our results show distinctive U and Th isotope systems in the two soil profiles analyzed. For example, (234U/238U) ratios in the Jornada bulk soils decrease from ~1.01 to 0.96 towards the surface, consistent with a preferential loss of 234U over 238U during chemical weathering. At the Jornada site, (238U/232Th) ratios decrease while (230Th/238U) increase towards the surface, consistent with a general depletion of U and the immobility of Th in the natural soils. By contrast at the Alfalfa site, (234U/238U) ratios of bulk soils increase from ~ 0.97 to 1.02 towards the surface, suggesting an additional source of external uranium, most likely the irrigation water from Rio Grande which has a (234U/238U) ratio of ~ 1.5 near El Paso. The (238U/232Th) and (230Th/238U) ratios also imply leaching of U from shallower soils but precipitation in greater depths at Alfalfa site; suggests that partial dissolution and re-precipitation of younger carbonates occur. Calculated carbonate ages from U

  13. Agricultural area impacts within a natural area: Cades cove, a case history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratton, Susan Power; Mathews, Raymond C.; White, Peter S.

    1980-09-01

    Agricultural management in Cades Cove, an historic district in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, has affected natural resources both within the district and in the adjoining natural areas. Aquatic impacts of haying and cattle grazing included increases in water temperatures, turbidity, nutrient loading, and bacterial counts and decreases in benthic macroinvertebrate density and fish biomass. Wildlife populations, including groundhogs, wild turkeys, and white-tailed deer, have increased in the open fields and around the periphery of the historic district. Intensive deer foraging has removed deciduous seedlings and saplings from woodlots, lowering species diversity and favoring coniferous reproduction. Cades Cove has limestone habitats unique in the park, and both deer browse and cattle grazing may have disturbed populations of rare plant species. Effects on water quality are detectable at a campground 15 stream km from the agricultural area, and the effects of deer foraging extend about 1 km beyond the open fields. Since “historic landscape” preservation is presently a goal of the park, managing for open vistas in Cades Cove will require some sort of continuing disturbance. Conversion of cattle pastures to hayfields would reduce aquatic impacts but the deer herd might increase as a result of reduced competition for forage. Retarding old field succession would increase populations of native plant species dependent on sunlight, but would require government-funded mowing. Other options are discussed. Completely eliminating the effects of the historic district on adjoining areas may be impossible, at least under present economic constraints.

  14. Mobile laboratory measurements of atmospheric emissions from agriculture, oil, and natural gas activities in northeastern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilerman, S. J.; Peischl, J.; Neuman, J. A.; Ryerson, T. B.; Wild, R. J.; Perring, A. E.; Brown, S. S.; Aikin, K. C.; Holloway, M.; Roberts, O.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions from agriculture are important to air quality and climate, yet their representation in inventories is incomplete. Increased fertilizer use has lead to increased emissions of nitrogen compounds, which can adversely affect ecosystems and contribute to the formation of fine particulates. Furthermore, extraction and processing of oil and natural gas continues to expand throughout northeastern Colorado; emissions from these operations require ongoing measurement and characterization. This presentation summarizes initial data and analysis from a summer 2014 campaign to study emissions of nitrogen compounds, methane, and other species in northeastern Colorado using a new mobile laboratory. A van was instrumented to measure NH3, N2O, NOx, NOy, CH4, CO, CO2, O3, and bioaerosols with high time resolution. By sampling in close proximity to a variety of emissions sources, the mobile laboratory facilitated accurate source identification and quantification of emissions ratios. Measurements were obtained near agricultural sites, natural gas and oil operations, and other point sources. Additionally, extensive measurements were obtained downwind from urban areas and along roadways. The relationship between ammonia and other trace gases is used to characterize sources and constrain emissions inventories.

  15. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed. PMID:24790975

  16. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed. PMID:24790975

  17. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-02-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted towards improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  18. Utilization of USDA subtyping data as a surveillance and investigation tool: Salmonella Newport-MDR-Amp-C infections associated with ground beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have developed mechanisms to routinely compare molecular subtyping information on bacterial isolates of public health concern from PulseNet a...

  19. Investigating the Environmental Effects of Agriculture Practices on Natural Resources: Scientific Contributions of the U.S. Geological Survey to Enhance the Management of Agricultural Landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) enhances and protects the quality of life in the United States by advancing scientific knowledge to facilitate effective management of hydrologic, biologic, and geologic resources. Results of selected USGS research and monitoring projects in agricultural landscapes are presented in this Fact Sheet. Significant environmental and social issues associated with agricultural production include changes in the hydrologic cycle; introduction of toxic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens; reduction and alteration of wildlife habitats; and invasive species. Understanding environmental consequences of agricultural production is critical to minimize unintended environmental consequences. The preservation and enhancement of our natural resources can be achieved by measuring the success of improved management practices and by adjusting conservation policies as needed to ensure long-term protection.

  20. Final work plan : investigation of potential contamination at the former USDA facility in Powhattan, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-02-02

    This Work Plan outlines the scope of work to be conducted to investigate the subsurface contaminant conditions at the property formerly leased by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) in Powhattan, Kansas (Figure 1.1). Data obtained during this event will be used to (1) evaluate potential contaminant source areas on the property; (2) determine the vertical and horizontal extent of potential contamination; and (3) provide recommendations for future action, with the ultimate goal of assigning this site No Further Action status. The planned investigation includes groundwater monitoring requested by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), in accordance with Section V of the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the Farm Service Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The work is being performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. A nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities. Argonne issued a Master Work Plan (Argonne 2002) that has been approved by the KDHE. The Master Work Plan describes the general scope of all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas and provides guidance for these investigations. It should be consulted for the complete details of plans for work associated with the former CCC/USDA facility at Powhattan.

  1. Temporal dynamics influenced by global change: bee community phenology in urban, agricultural, and natural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Leong, Misha; Ponisio, Lauren C; Kremen, Claire; Thorp, Robbin W; Roderick, George K

    2016-03-01

    Urbanization and agricultural intensification of landscapes are important drivers of global change, which in turn have direct impacts on local ecological communities leading to shifts in species distributions and interactions. Here, we illustrate how human-altered landscapes, with novel ornamental and crop plant communities, result not only in changes to local community diversity of floral-dependent species, but also in shifts in seasonal abundance of bee pollinators. Three years of data on the spatio-temporal distributions of 91 bee species show that seasonal patterns of abundance and species richness in human-altered landscapes varied significantly less compared to natural habitats in which floral resources are relatively scarce in the dry summer months. These findings demonstrate that anthropogenic environmental changes in urban and agricultural systems, here mediated through changes in plant resources and water inputs, can alter the temporal dynamics of pollinators that depend on them. Changes in phenology of interactions can be an important, though frequently overlooked, mechanism of global change. PMID:26663622

  2. Building Capacity to Use Earth Observations in Decision Making for Climate, Health, Agriculture and Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. W.; Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    In order to fill the gaps existing in climate and public health, agriculture, natural disasters knowledge and practices, the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) has developed a Curriculum for Best Practices in Climate Information. This Curriculum builds on the experience of 10 years courses on 'Climate Information' and captures lessons and experiences from different tailored trainings that have been implemented in many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this presentation, we will provide examples of training activities we have developed to bring remote sensing products to monitor climatic and environmental information into decision processes that benefited users such as the World Health Organization, Ministries of Health, Ministries of Agriculture, Universities, Research Centers such as CIFOR and FIOCRUZ. The framework developed by IRI to provide capacity building is based on the IDEAS framework: Innovation (research) Around climate impacts, evaluation of interventions, and the value of climate information in reducing risks and maximizing opportunities Demonstration E.g. in-country GFCS projects in Tanzania and Malawi - or El Nino work in Ethiopia Education Academic and professional training efforts Advocacy This might focus on communication of variability and change? We are WHO collaborating center so are engaged through RBM/Global Malaria Programme Service ENACTS and Data library key to this. Country data better quality than NASA as incorporates all relevant station data and NASA products. This presentation will demonstrate how the IDEAS framework has been implemented and lessons learned.

  3. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Issa, Shams A M

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3″ × 3″] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated. PMID:23509393

  4. Riverine Threat Indices to Assess Watershed Condition and Identify Primary Management Capacity of Agriculture Natural Resource Management Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fore, Jeffrey D.; Sowa, Scott P.; Galat, David L.; Annis, Gust M.; Diamond, David D.; Rewa, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Managers can improve conservation of lotic systems over large geographies if they have tools to assess total watershed conditions for individual stream segments and can identify segments where conservation practices are most likely to be successful (i.e., primary management capacity). The goal of this research was to develop a suite of threat indices to help agriculture resource management agencies select and prioritize watersheds across Missouri River basin in which to implement agriculture conservation practices. We quantified watershed percentages or densities of 17 threat metrics that represent major sources of ecological stress to stream communities into five threat indices: agriculture, urban, point-source pollution, infrastructure, and all non-agriculture threats. We identified stream segments where agriculture management agencies had primary management capacity. Agriculture watershed condition differed by ecoregion and considerable local variation was observed among stream segments in ecoregions of high agriculture threats. Stream segments with high non-agriculture threats were most concentrated near urban areas, but showed high local variability. 60 % of stream segments in the basin were classified as under U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) primary management capacity and most segments were in regions of high agricultural threats. NRCS primary management capacity was locally variable which highlights the importance of assessing total watershed condition for multiple threats. Our threat indices can be used by agriculture resource management agencies to prioritize conservation actions and investments based on: (a) relative severity of all threats, (b) relative severity of agricultural threats, and (c) and degree of primary management capacity.

  5. Riverine threat indices to assess watershed condition and identify primary management capacity of agriculture natural resource management agencies.

    PubMed

    Fore, Jeffrey D; Sowa, Scott P; Galat, David L; Annis, Gust M; Diamond, David D; Rewa, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Managers can improve conservation of lotic systems over large geographies if they have tools to assess total watershed conditions for individual stream segments and can identify segments where conservation practices are most likely to be successful (i.e., primary management capacity). The goal of this research was to develop a suite of threat indices to help agriculture resource management agencies select and prioritize watersheds across Missouri River basin in which to implement agriculture conservation practices. We quantified watershed percentages or densities of 17 threat metrics that represent major sources of ecological stress to stream communities into five threat indices: agriculture, urban, point-source pollution, infrastructure, and all non-agriculture threats. We identified stream segments where agriculture management agencies had primary management capacity. Agriculture watershed condition differed by ecoregion and considerable local variation was observed among stream segments in ecoregions of high agriculture threats. Stream segments with high non-agriculture threats were most concentrated near urban areas, but showed high local variability. 60 % of stream segments in the basin were classified as under U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) primary management capacity and most segments were in regions of high agricultural threats. NRCS primary management capacity was locally variable which highlights the importance of assessing total watershed condition for multiple threats. Our threat indices can be used by agriculture resource management agencies to prioritize conservation actions and investments based on: (a) relative severity of all threats, (b) relative severity of agricultural threats, and (c) and degree of primary management capacity. PMID:24390081

  6. Integrating Federal and State data records to report progress in establishing agricultural conservation practices on Chesapeake Bay farms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, W. Dean; Devereux, Olivia H.; Claggett, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In response to the Executive Order for Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration (E.O. #13508, May 12, 2009), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) took on the task of acquiring and assessing agricultural conservation practice data records for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs, and transferred those datasets in aggregated format to State jurisdictional agencies for use in reporting conservation progress to the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership (CBP Partnership). Under the guidelines and regulations that have been developed to protect and restore water-quality in the Chesapeake Bay, the six State jurisdictions that fall within the Chesapeake Bay watershed are required to report their progress in promoting agricultural conservation practices to the CBP Partnership on an annual basis. The installation and adoption of agricultural best management practices is supported by technical and financial assistance from both Federal and State conservation programs. The farm enrollment data for USDA conservation programs are confidential, but agencies can obtain access to the privacy-protected data if they are established as USDA Conservation Cooperators. The datasets can also be released to the public if they are first aggregated to protect farmer privacy. In 2012, the USGS used its Conservation Cooperator status to obtain implementation data for conservation programs sponsored by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) for farms within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Three jurisdictions (Delaware, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) used the USGS-provided aggregated dataset to report conservation progress in 2012, whereas the remaining three jurisdictions (Maryland, New York, and Virginia) used jurisdictional Conservation Cooperator Agreements to obtain privacy-protected data directly from the USDA. This report reviews the status of conservation data sharing between the USDA and the various jurisdictions, discusses the

  7. Development of sample handling procedures for foods under USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) was implemented in 1997 to update and improve the quality of food composition data maintained in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. NFNAP was designed to sample and analyze fre...

  8. Changes of crop rotation in Iowa determined from the USDA-NASS cropland data layer product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop rotation is one of the important decisions made independently by numerous farm managers, and is a critical variable in models of crop growth and soil carbon. By combining multiple years (2001-2009) of the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) cropland data layer (CDL), it is pos...

  9. School Nutrition Professionals' Usage and Perceptions of USDA Recipes and the Impact of Student Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Keith; Johnson, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the frequency of usage of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Recipes for Schools and investigate factors influencing their usage. The relationship between these variables and school district size (student enrollment) was also investigated. Methods: An expert panel…

  10. 7 CFR 4290.509 - Employment of USDA or SBA officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment of USDA or SBA officials. 4290.509 Section... or SBA officials. (a) Without the Secretary's prior written approval, for a period of two years after... professional services, any person who: (1) Served as an officer, attorney, agent, or employee of SBA or...

  11. 7 CFR 4290.509 - Employment of USDA or SBA officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment of USDA or SBA officials. 4290.509 Section... or SBA officials. (a) Without the Secretary's prior written approval, for a period of two years after... professional services, any person who: (1) Served as an officer, attorney, agent, or employee of SBA or...

  12. A decade of conservation effects assessment research by USDA-ARS: Progress overview and future outlook

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten years ago, the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) began a series of watershed assessment studies as part of the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). In this overview, we review a decade of research progress in 14 watersheds dominated by rain-fed croplands, to introduce a special...

  13. Initiation of a USDA, ARS Area-Wide Methyl Bromide Alternatives Pest Management Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March, 2006 USDA, ARS decided to establish a 5-year AW Pest Management Project on alternatives to MB. The work will focus on pre-plant alternatives to MB for soil fumigation and occur in the most severely impacted agricultural production systems in South Atlantic and Pacific regions of the U.S.,...

  14. History of the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, while quite a mouthful, is aptly named, since it has contributed substantially to the legacy of Jean Mayer, to the scientific stature of the USDA and, in Atwater’s tradition, to the d...

  15. Model development and applications at the USDA-ARS National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has a long history of development of soil erosion prediction technology, initially with empirical equations like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), and more recently with process-based models such as the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP)...

  16. Validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive mission using USDA-ARS experimental watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The calibration and validation program of the Soil Moisture Active Passive mission (SMAP) relies upon an international cooperative of in situ networks to provide ground truth references across a variety of landscapes. The USDA Agricultural Research Service operates several experimental watersheds wh...

  17. USDA Estimates of the Cost of Raising a Child: A Guide to Their Use and Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Carolyn S.

    This guide describes estimates of the cost of raising a child made by the Family Economics Research Group of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The guide starts with a description of what estimates are available, giving short profiles of the cost of raising urban, rural nonfarm, and rural farm children. The next section defines…

  18. School Nutrition Directors' Perspectives on Preparing for and Implementing USDA's New School Meal Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Bethany A.; Amin, Sarah A.; Taylor, Jennifer C.; Johnson, Rachel K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) new school meals regulations went into effect in July 2012. The purpose of this research was to explore school nutrition director's (SNDs) perspectives and attitudes about the new regulations and to identify strategies used to prepare for and subsequently implement the regulations.…

  19. USDA southwest regional hub for adaptation to and mitigation of climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Southwest (SW) Climate Hub was created in February 2014 to develop risk adaptation and mitigation strategies for coping with climate change effects on agricultural productivity. There are seven regional hubs across the country with three subsidiary hubs. The SW Climate Hub Region is made ...

  20. Water consumption of agriculture and natural ecosystems at the Amu Darya in Lebap Province, Turkmenistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevs, Niels; Ovezmuradov, Kurban

    2013-04-01

    The Amu Darya is the main water source for whole Turkmenistan, but also for the regions Khorezm and Karakalpakistan in Uzbekistan. Due to the arid climate in the Amu Darya river basin, agriculture depends on irrigation with river water being the major source of water. Also the natural ecosystems depend on river water. Until end of the 1970s, the Amu Darya flew into the Aral Sea and, together with the Syr Darya, sustained its water level. From the 1960s until today the area under irrigation has been strongly enlarged. During Soviet Union times, mainly cotton was planted on the newly reclaimed land. After independence, new land was reclaimed, in order to grow wheat. In the course of this land reclamation, the downstream section of the Amu Darya, i.e. in Karakalpakistan faces severe water shortage. Today, the Amu Darya only occasionally reaches the previous shore line of the Aral Sea. Against this background, it is necessary that water consumption along the Amu Darya is limited and water is used efficiently, in order to ensure water supply for downstream water users. The province Lebap in Turkmenistan is located at the middle reaches of the Amu Darya. Thus, it is an example of an administrative unit, which consumes water from the Amu Darya and which should release a sufficient amount of water downstream. Furthermore, Lebap harbours one of the last near-natural riparian forests of Central Asia, i.e. the Amu Darya State Reserve, which also is a water consumer. Therefore, we estimate the water consumption of agriculture (cotton, wheat, rice, and house gardens) and the natural ecosystems within Lebap Province. Water consumption refers to the actual evapo-transpiration. We use Landsat ETM and TM satellite images, in order to produce maps of the actual evapo-transpiration. Afterwards, a land cover map is laid over the ETa maps, in order to retrieve the ETa of the different crops and natural ecosystems. These results are compared with the water norms and quotas given for

  1. Final report : phase I investigation at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Savannah, Missouri.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-05

    From approximately 1949 until 1970, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility on federally owned property approximately 0.25 mi northwest of Savannah, Missouri (Figure 1.1). During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the private grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In November 1998, carbon tetrachloride was detected in a private well (Morgan) roughly 50 ft south of the former CCC/USDA facility, as a result of state-wide screening of private wells near former CCC/USDA facilities, conducted in Missouri by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1999). The 1998 and subsequent investigations by the EPA and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MoDNR) confirmed the presence of carbon tetrachloride in the Morgan well, as well as in a second well (on property currently owned and occupied by the Missouri Department of Transportation [MoDOT]), described as being approximately 400 ft east of the former CCC/USDA facility. The identified concentrations in these two wells were above the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) and the default target level (DTL) values of 5.0 {micro}g/L for carbon tetrachloride in water used for domestic purposes (EPA 1999; MoDNR 2000a,b, 2006). (The DTL is defined in Section 4.) Because the observed contamination in the Morgan and MoDOT wells might be linked to the past use of carbon tetrachloride-based fumigants at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA is conducting an investigation to (1) characterize the source(s), extent, and factors controlling the subsurface distribution and movement of carbon tetrachloride at Savannah and (2) evaluate the potential risks to human health, public welfare, and the environment posed by the contamination. This work is being performed in accord with the Intergovernmental Agreement established between the Farm Service

  2. Final work plan : phase II investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Savannah, Missouri.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-16

    From approximately 1949 until 1970, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility on federally owned property approximately 0.25 mi northwest of Savannah, Missouri (Figure 1.1). During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the private grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In November 1998, carbon tetrachloride was detected in a private well (Morgan) roughly 50 ft south of the former CCC/USDA facility, as a result of statewide screening of private wells near former CCC/USDA facilities, conducted in Missouri by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1999). The 1998 and subsequent investigations by the EPA and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MoDNR) confirmed the presence of carbon tetrachloride in the Morgan well, as well as in a second well (on property currently occupied by the Missouri Department of Transportation [MoDOT]) described as being approximately 400 ft east of the former CCC/USDA facility. The identified concentrations in these two wells were above the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) and the Missouri risk-based corrective action default target level (MRBCA DTL) values of 5.0 {micro}g/L for carbon tetrachloride in water used for domestic purposes (EPA 1999; MoDNR 2000a,b, 2006). Because the observed contamination in the Morgan and MoDOT wells might be linked to the past use of carbon tetrachloride-based fumigants at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA is conducting an investigation to (1) characterize the source(s), extent, and factors controlling the subsurface distribution and movement of carbon tetrachloride at Savannah and (2) evaluate the potential risks to human health, public welfare, and the environment posed by the contamination. This work is being performed in accord with the Intergovernmental Agreement established between the Farm Service Agency

  3. La roca magica: Uses of natural zeolites in agriculture and industry

    PubMed Central

    Mumpton, Frederick A.

    1999-01-01

    For nearly 200 years since their discovery in 1756, geologists considered the zeolite minerals to occur as fairly large crystals in the vugs and cavities of basalts and other traprock formations. Here, they were prized by mineral collectors, but their small abundance and polymineralic nature defied commercial exploitation. As the synthetic zeolite (molecular sieve) business began to take hold in the late 1950s, huge beds of zeolite-rich sediments, formed by the alteration of volcanic ash (glass) in lake and marine waters, were discovered in the western United States and elsewhere in the world. These beds were found to contain as much as 95% of a single zeolite; they were generally flat-lying and easily mined by surface methods. The properties of these low-cost natural materials mimicked those of many of their synthetic counterparts, and considerable effort has made since that time to develop applications for them based on their unique adsorption, cation-exchange, dehydration–rehydration, and catalytic properties. Natural zeolites (i.e., those found in volcanogenic sedimentary rocks) have been and are being used as building stone, as lightweight aggregate and pozzolans in cements and concretes, as filler in paper, in the take-up of Cs and Sr from nuclear waste and fallout, as soil amendments in agronomy and horticulture, in the removal of ammonia from municipal, industrial, and agricultural waste and drinking waters, as energy exchangers in solar refrigerators, as dietary supplements in animal diets, as consumer deodorizers, in pet litters, in taking up ammonia from animal manures, and as ammonia filters in kidney-dialysis units. From their use in construction during Roman times, to their role as hydroponic (zeoponic) substrate for growing plants on space missions, to their recent success in the healing of cuts and wounds, natural zeolites are now considered to be full-fledged mineral commodities, the use of which promise to expand even more in the future. PMID

  4. USDA NATIONAL NUTRIENT DATABASE FOR STANDARD REFERENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) is the major source of food composition data in the United States. It provides the foundation for most food composition databases in the public and private sectors.

  5. The original USDA-ARS experimental watersheds in Texas and Ohio: contributions from the past and visions for the future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service (USDA-SCS) realized the importance of understanding hydrologic processes on agricultural fields and watersheds in the mid 1930's. Based on this realization, the research program of the Hydrologic Division of SCS established three...

  6. Natural radioactivity levels of geothermal waters and their influence on soil and agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Murat Saç, Müslim; Aydemir, Sercan; Içhedef, Mutlu; Kumru, Mehmet N; Bolca, Mustafa; Ozen, Fulsen

    2014-01-01

    All over the world geothermal sources are used for different purposes. The contents of these waters are important to understand positive/negative effects on human life. In this study, natural radioactivity concentrations of geothermal waters were investigated to evaluate the effect on soils and agricultural activities. Geothermal water samples were collected from the Seferihisar Geothermal Region, and the radon and radium concentrations of these waters were analysed using a collector chamber method. Also soil samples, which are irrigated with geothermal waters, were collected from the surroundings of geothermal areas, and natural radioactivity concentrations of collected samples (U, Th and K) were determined using an NaI(Tl) detector system. The activity concentrations of radon and radium were found to be 0.6-6.0 and 0.1-1.0 Bq l(-1), respectively. Generally, the obtained results are not higher compared with the geothermal waters of the world. The activity concentrations in soils were found to be in the range of 3.3-120.3 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra (eU), 0.3-108.5 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th (eTh), 116.0-850.0 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K (% K). PMID:24026900

  7. Edges in agricultural landscapes: species interactions and movement of natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Macfadyen, Sarina; Muller, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes can be characterized as a mosaic of habitat patches interspersed with hostile matrix, or as a gradient of patches ranging from suitable to unsuitable for different species. Arthropods moving through these landscapes encounter a range of edges, with different permeability. Patches of native vegetation in these landscapes may support natural enemies of crop pests by providing alternate hosts for parasitic wasps and/or acting as a source for predatory insects. We test this by quantifying species interactions and measuring movement across different edge-types. A high diversity of parasitoid species used hosts in the native vegetation patches, however we recorded few instances of the same parasitoid species using hosts in both the native vegetation and the crop (canola). However, we did find overall greater densities of parasitoids moving from native vegetation into the crop. Of the parasitoid groups examined, parasitoids of aphids (Braconidae: Aphidiinae) frequently moved from native vegetation into canola. In contrast, parasitoids of caterpillars (Braconidae: Microgastrinae) moved commonly from cereal fields into canola. Late season samples showed both aphids and parasitoids moving frequently out of native vegetation, in contrast predators moved less commonly from native vegetation (across the whole season). The season-long net advantage or disadvantage of native vegetation for pest control services is therefore difficult to evaluate. It appears that the different edge-types alter movement patterns of natural enemies more so than herbivorous pest species, and this may impact pest control services. PMID:23555737

  8. 78 FR 78788 - Nondiscrimination in Programs or Activities Conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA or Department) proposes to amend its regulation on nondiscrimination in programs or activities conducted by the Department. The changes are proposed to clarify the roles and responsibilities of USDA's Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights (OASCR) and USDA agencies in enforcing nondiscrimination in programs or activities conducted......

  9. Shifting Patterns of Agricultural Diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although monocultural cropping systems can provide the greatest yield efficiency in the short term, more diverse agricultural landscapes may contribute multiple ecosystem benefits. The USDA's Cropland Data Layer provides a yearly map of the agricultural lands of the continental United States broken ...

  10. 76 FR 3599 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology... Committee Purpose: USDA supports the responsible development and application of biotechnology within the global food and agricultural system. Biotechnology intersects many of the policies, programs...

  11. Application of principles of integrated agricultural systems: results from farmer panels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Integrated Agricultural Systems working group comprised of USDA-ARS scientists is examining different agricultural systems from various geographic regions of the United States to determine fundamental principles that underlie successful integrated agricultural systems. Our hypothesis is that prin...

  12. USDA registration and rectification requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the requirements of the United States Department of Agriculture for accuracy of aerospace acquired data, and specifically, requirements for registration and rectification of remotely sensed data are discussed. Particular attention is given to foreign and domestic crop estimation and forecasting, forestry information applications, and rangeland condition evaluations.

  13. Safeguarding production agriculture and natural ecosystems against biological terrorism. A U.S. Department of Agriculture emergency response framework.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, R

    1999-01-01

    Foreign pest introductions and outbreaks represent threats to agricultural productivity and ecosystems, and, thus, to the health and national security of the United States. It is advisable to identify relevant techniques and bring all appropriate strategies to bear on the problem of controlling accidentally and intentionally introduced pest outbreaks. Recent political shifts indicate that the U.S. may be at increased risk for biological terrorism. The existing emergency-response strategies of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) will evolve to expand activities in coordination with other emergency management agencies. APHIS will evolve its information superstructure to include extensive application of simulation models for forecasting, meteorological databases and analysis, systems analysis, geographic information systems, satellite image analysis, remote sensing, and the training of specialized cadres within the emergency-response framework capable of managing the necessary information processing and analysis. Finally, the threat of key pests ranked according to perceived risk will be assessed with mathematical models and "what-if" scenarios analyzed to determine impact and mitigation practices. An infrastructure will be maintained that periodically surveys ports and inland regions for the presence of exotic pest threats and will identify trend abnormalities. This survey and monitoring effort will include cooperation from industry groups, federal and state organizations, and academic institutions. PMID:10681969

  14. Natural succession impeded by smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium) in an abandoned agricultural field

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.K.

    1997-11-01

    In 1975, an abandoned agricultural field at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) that had been cultivated for more than 38 years, was seeded with smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium). Although these species are commonly planted in reclamation and roadside seed mixtures, few studies have documented their impact on the re-establishment of native plant communities. In 1994, species richness, cover, and biomass were sampled in the agricultural field and compared to the surrounding mixed-grass prairie at the Site. The agricultural field contained only 61 plant species (62% native), compared to 143 species (81% native) in the surrounding mixed-grass prairie. Community similarity based on species presence/absence was 0.47 (Sorensen coefficient of similarity). Basal vegetative cover was 11.2% in the agricultural field and 29.1% in the mixed-grass prairie. Smooth brome and intermediate wheatgrass accounted for 93% of the relative foliar cover and 96% of the biomass in the agricultural field. The aggressive nature of these two planted species has impeded the natural succession of the agricultural field to a more native prairie community. Studies of natural succession on abandoned fields and roads in northeastern Colorado have indicated that if left alone, fields would return to their native climax state in approximately 50 years and would be approaching their native state after 20--25 years. Based on the results of this study, this agricultural field may take more than 100 years to return to a native mixed-grass prairie state and it may never achieve a native state without human intervention.

  15. Characterization of methanotrophic bacterial populations in natural and agricultural aerobic soils of the European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, Irina; Sukhacheva, Marina; Kizilova, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric methane contributes to about 20% of the total radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, and microbial methane oxidation in upland soils is the only biological sink of methane. Microbial methane oxidation in aerated upland soils is estimated as 15 - 45 Tg yr-1 or 3-9% of the annual sink. Therefore there is need of extensive research to characterize methanotrophic activity in various ecosystems for possible application to reduce atmospheric methane fluxes and to minimize global climate change. The vast majority of known aerobic methanotrophs belongs to the Proteobacteria and placed in the families Methylococcaceae in the Gammaproteobacteria, and Methylocystaceae and Beijerinckiaceae in the Alphaproteobacteria. Known exceptions include the phylum Verrucomicrobia and uncultured methanotrophs such as Candidatus 'Methylomirabilis oxyfera' affiliated with the 'NC10' phylum. Plenty of studies of aerobic methane oxidation and key players of the process have been performed on various types of soils, and it was found that Methylocystis spp and uncultivated methanotrophs are abundant in upland soils. Two of the uncultured groups are upland soil cluster alphaproteobacteria (USCa) and gammaproteobacteria (USCg), as revealed by cultivation-independent surveys of pmoA diversity. Russia is extremely rich in soil types due to its vast territories, and most of these soils have never been investigated from the aspect of methanotrophy. This study addresses methane oxidation activity and diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in eight types of natural aerobic soils, four of which also had been under agricultural use. Methane fluxes have been measured by in situ static chamber method and methane oxidation rates in soil samples - by radioisotope tracer (14CH4) technique. Changes in methanotroph diversity and abundance were assessed by cloning and Sanger sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR of pmoA genes. Methanotrophic population of unmanaged soils turned

  16. Characterizing Ice Nucleating Particles Emitted from Agricultural Activities and Natural Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suski, K. J.; Levin, E. J.; DeMott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Hill, T. C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Soil dust and plant fragment emissions from agricultural harvesting and natural ecosystems are two potentially large, yet unquantified and largely uncharacterized, sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Both organic and mineral components have been shown to contribute to the ice-nucleating ability of soil dust, but apart from the likely presence of ice nucleation-active bacteria, little is known about the ice nucleating potential of plant tissues. This work aims to identify and differentiate the organic and inorganic contributions of soil and plant INP sources emitted from harvesting activities and natural landscapes. For this purpose, the CSU Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC) and the Ice Spectrometer (IS) were utilized in a combination of ambient measurements and laboratory studies. Small variability and low INP numbers (< 10 L-1 at -30 °C) characterized measurements made in air over the grazed Pawnee National Grassland in Colorado, while more variable INP over croplands around the DOE-ARM SGP site in Oklahoma appear linked to regional wind, humidity, and rainfall conditions. Harvesting of milo (grain sorghum), soybean, and wheat at an experimental research farm in Kansas resulted in spikes of INPs, with wheat harvesting producing the largest INP concentrations (up to 100 L-1 at -30 °C). In-situ use of heating tubes upstream of the CFDC to deactivate organic INP showed that milo and wheat harvest emissions showed a stronger reduction of INPs at warm temperatures than soybean emissions, suggesting a larger contribution of organics to their INP activity. Further characterization of the sources and organic and inorganic contributions to terrestrially emitted INPs by comparison to laboratory studies on collected soil dust and plant samples will also be presented.

  17. How the CATCH eat smart program helps implement the USDA regulations in school cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Mitchell, Paul; Dwyer, Johanna; Elder, John; Clesi, Ann; Snyder, Patricia

    2003-08-01

    This article describes the implementation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National School Lunch Program (NSLP) standards in school lunch menus in 56 intervention and 20 control schools from the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) 5 years after the main trial, compared with 12 schools previously unexposed to CATCH. School food service personnel completed questionnaires to assess CATCH guideline implementation, demographic data, behavioral constructs, training, program material use, and participation in competing programs. Five days of menus and recipes were collected from school cafeteria staff, averaged, and compared to USDA School Meal Initiative (SMI) standards. Significant differences between intervention and unexposed schools were found for training and knowledge of CATCH and in mean percentage energy from fat and carbohydrates. Intervention schools most closely met USDA SMI recommendations for fat. Thus, the CATCH Eat Smart Program assisted school cafeterias in meeting USDA guidelines 5 years postimplementation. PMID:12929895

  18. Ecology of plant and free-living nematodes in natural and agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Neher, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    Nematodes are aquatic organisms that depend on thin water films to live and move within existing pathways of soil pores of 25-100 mum diameter. Soil nematodes can be a tool for testing ecological hypotheses and understanding biological mechanisms in soil because of their central role in the soil food web and linkage to ecological processes. Ecological succession is one of the most tested community ecology concepts, and a variety of nematode community indices have been proposed for purposes of environmental monitoring. In contrast, theories of biogeography, colonization, optimal foraging, and niche partitioning by nematodes are poorly understood. Ecological hypotheses related to strategies of coexistence of nematode species sharing the same resource have potential uses for more effective biological control and use of organic amendments to foster disease suppression. Essential research is needed on nematodes in natural and agricultural soils to synchronize nutrient release and availability relative to plant needs, to test ecological hypotheses, to apply optimal foraging and niche partitioning strategies for more effective biological control, to blend organic amendments to foster disease suppression, to monitor environmental and restoration status, and to develop better predictive models for land-use decisions. PMID:20455699

  19. Compost Amendment Enhances Natural Revegetation of a Mediterranean Degraded Agricultural Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Bellino, Alessandro; Morra, Luigi; Alfani, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A vegetation analysis was carried out on a degraded agricultural soil of the Mediterranean area (Campania region, southern Italy) in order to study the effects of different fertilization practices (quality compost, mineral fertilizers, mixed fertilization, and no fertilization) on the whole spontaneous vegetation community. The study was performed for two consecutive years at three different scales (species level, community structure, and community properties), using three different units of abundance (number of individuals, biomass, and cover of each species). The observations were carried out in spring, after 5 and 6 years of soil treatments, on a total area of 4 m2 for each soil treatment and in each year. The different fertilization practices did not determine changes in species composition; however, the relative abundance of dominant species increased in compost and mixed fertilized soils, particularly in the second year of observation. Although the dominance and diversity were unaffected by the different fertilization practices, the total biomass and total number of individuals increased in compost-amended soils. These results indicate the effectiveness of soil quality compost amendments to enhance natural revegetation, a key step in the recovery of degraded areas.

  20. Compost Amendment Enhances Natural Revegetation of a Mediterranean Degraded Agricultural Soil.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Bellino, Alessandro; Morra, Luigi; Alfani, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A vegetation analysis was carried out on a degraded agricultural soil of the Mediterranean area (Campania region, southern Italy) in order to study the effects of different fertilization practices (quality compost, mineral fertilizers, mixed fertilization, and no fertilization) on the whole spontaneous vegetation community. The study was performed for two consecutive years at three different scales (species level, community structure, and community properties), using three different units of abundance (number of individuals, biomass, and cover of each species). The observations were carried out in spring, after 5 and 6 years of soil treatments, on a total area of 4 m(2) for each soil treatment and in each year. The different fertilization practices did not determine changes in species composition; however, the relative abundance of dominant species increased in compost and mixed fertilized soils, particularly in the second year of observation. Although the dominance and diversity were unaffected by the different fertilization practices, the total biomass and total number of individuals increased in compost-amended soils. These results indicate the effectiveness of soil quality compost amendments to enhance natural revegetation, a key step in the recovery of degraded areas. PMID:25982619

  1. An Assessment of Agriculture and Natural Resource Extension Program Needs on American Indian Reservations in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Loretta; Emm, Staci; Hill, George

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a needs assessment involving American Indians and outreach professionals on reservations in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and Washington. The survey featured 36 questions about agricultural and natural resource issues that may pose challenges on reservation lands. A comparison between reservation residents and…

  2. Reentry Orientation and Alumni Networking in U.S. Colleges and Universities with Agriculture and Natural Resources Programs. Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsberger, Paul E.

    This report presents results of a survey of U.S. postsecondary institutions with agriculture and natural resources programs, concerning institutional support for reentry orientation and alumni networking programs. Reentry orientation" involves programs that help international students become aware of the adjustment aspects of returning home, and…

  3. Impact of bioenergy crops on pests, natural enemies and pollinators in agricultural and non-crop landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainability of the nation's bioenergy feedstock production relies on selection and placement of energy crops that efficiently generate biomass or oilseed without compromising existing agricultural or natural systems. Pest and beneficial arthropods (e.g., pollinators, predators) will occur in thes...

  4. Nebraska Vocational Agribusiness Curriculum for City Schools. Production Agriculture. Natural Resources. A Curriculum Guide. 11th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Designed for use with high school juniors, this agribusiness curriculum for city schools contains thirty-two units of instruction in the areas of production agriculture and natural resources. Among the units included are (1) Livestock Selection, (2) Animal Digestion, (3) Livestock Diseases, (4) Soil Conservation Practices, (5) Fertilizers, (6)…

  5. Phylogenetic and genetic diversity of the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria in adjacent agricultural and semi-natural habitats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although intensively investigated for the biological control of insect pests, little is known about the ecology of the fungal entomopathogenic genus Beauveria in natural or agricultural habitats. In this study we used molecular phylogenetic and multilocus genotyping approaches to infer species diver...

  6. USDA Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by approximately 43%, 152%, and 20% respectively since about 1750. In 2013, total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions were 6,673 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMT CO2 eq.), ris...

  7. Teaching the Nature of Science in a Course in Sustainable Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cessna, Stephen; Neufeld, Douglas Graber; Horst, S. Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Claims of the (non-)sustainability of a given agricultural practice generally hinge on scientific evidence and the reliability of that evidence, or at least the perception of its reliability. Advocates of sustainable agriculture may dismiss science as purely subjective, or at the other extreme, may inappropriately elevate scientific findings to…

  8. 78 FR 40425 - Draft Environmental Assessment for the J. Phil Campbell, Senior, Natural Resource Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ..., USDA-ARS-SHEMB, NCAUR, 1815 North University Street, Room 2016, Peoria, Illinois 61604; 309-681-6608... Conservation Center Land Transfer AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of the Draft... Agriculture (USDA) has prepared a Draft Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed transfer of 1,070...

  9. Effectiveness of a Science Agricultural Summer Experience (SASE) in Recruiting Students to Natural Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Edward; Lindline, Jennifer; Petronis, Michael S.; Pilotti, Maura

    2012-12-01

    The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects an increase in Natural Resource Management (NRM) jobs within the next 10 years due to baby-boomer retirements and a 12% increase in demand for these occupations. Despite this trend, college enrollment in NRM disciplines has declined. Even more critical is the fact that the soon-to-be-majority Hispanic population is underrepresented in NRM disciplines. The goal of the present study was to determine if an in-residence, two-week, summer science program for underrepresented minorities would not only increase interest in science, actual science knowledge, and perceived science knowledge, but also have an overall impact on underrepresented minority students' decisions to attend college, major in a scientific discipline and pursue a career in science. During a four-year period, 76 high school students participated in a Science Agricultural Summer Experience (SASE) in Northern New Mexico. A pre/post science-knowledge exam and satisfaction survey were administered to participants. We demonstrate that participants improved significantly ( p < .05) in all areas measured. In particular, comfort with science field and lab activities, science knowledge and perceived science knowledge were enhanced after exposure to the program. Students not only found science exciting and approachable after participation, but also exhibited increased interest in pursuing a degree and career in science. Of the 76 SASE participants within graduation age ( n = 44), all graduated from high school; and 86% enrolled in college. These findings suggest that the implemented SASE initiative was effective in recruiting and increasing the confidence and abilities of underrepresented minority students in science.

  10. The USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Mary; Nearing, Mark; Goodrich, Dave; Heilman, Phil

    2015-04-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has been supporting research and data collection at instrumented watershed throughout the country since the dust bowl era of the 1930's. In 1953, the USDA established the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in southeastern Arizona near Tombstone to conduct hydrologic and erosion research to quantify the unique rainfall-runoff characteristics of semiarid regions and to understand the downstream effects of conservation practices implemented in watershed uplands. Instrumentation and research on the WGEW has expanded to include meteorological and flux measurements, soil moisture, and ecosystem responses. In addition, the WGEW serves as a validation site for aircraft and satellite based remotely sensed instruments. Core measurements have been used to quantify semiarid rainfall, runoff, infiltration, and transmission losses; develop and validate simulation models, and support broader, regional, basin scale research. The long-term database is a critical resource for advancing the scientific understanding of semiarid ecohydrological processes. The WGEW, its history, significant contributions to instrumentation development, and the current WGEW data collection program in the context of contemporary research questions will be presented.

  11. Towards efficient bioethanol production from agricultural and forestry residues: Exploration of unique natural microorganisms in combination with advanced strain engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinqing; Xiong, Liang; Zhang, Mingming; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-09-01

    Production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as agricultural and forestry residues is receiving increasing attention due to the unsustainable supply of fossil fuels. Three key challenges include high cellulase production cost, toxicity of the cellulosic hydrolysate to microbial strains, and poor ability of fermenting microorganisms to utilize certain fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate. In this article, studies on searching of natural microbial strains for production of unique cellulase for biorefinery of agricultural and forestry wastes, as well as development of strains for improved cellulase production were reviewed. In addition, progress in the construction of yeast strains with improved stress tolerance and the capability to fully utilize xylose and glucose in the cellulosic hydrolysate was also summarized. With the superior microbial strains for high titer cellulase production and efficient utilization of all fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate, economic biofuels production from agricultural residues and forestry wastes can be realized. PMID:27067672

  12. Research update USDA-PBARC and CTAHR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new management method was developed for consistent flowering and fruiting of ‘Kaimana’ lychee at the USDA/ARS PBARC lychee orchard. This method consisted of pruning lychee trees after harvest followed by a foliar fertilizer application one week after pruning. Average production of ‘Kaimana’ tree...

  13. Impacts of the USDA basic breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDAs basic sugarcane breeding program began in the mid 1950s with the objective of moving genes from wild sugarcane germplasm into commercial cane. Several releases have been made from this program, but it is a very long process. To date, the pedigree of seven commercial Louisiana varieties can...

  14. The USDA Pearl Millet Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System pearl millet collection is maintained at the Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit located in Griffin, Ga. The germplasm collection contains 1297 unique accessions collected from 31 different countries. The majority of the accessions were collected or d...

  15. USDA-ARS BRAMBLE RESEARCH AT BELTSVILLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS bramble cultivar development program at Beltsville, Maryland has a long history. Perhaps the greatest success from this program has been the development of several thornless blackberry cultivars including Chester, which currently is the most commonly grown blackberry cultivar in the Ea...

  16. Final work plan : investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Hanover, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-19

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated a grain storage facility at the northeastern edge of the city of Hanover, Kansas, from 1950 until the early 1970s. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In February 1998, trace to low levels of carbon tetrachloride (below the maximum contaminant level [MCL] of 5.0 {micro}g/L) were detected in two private wells near the former grain storage facility at Hanover, as part of a statewide USDA private well sampling program that was implemented by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) near former CCC/USDA facilities. In April 2007, the CCC/USDA collected near-surface soil samples at 1.8-2 ft BGL (below ground level) at 61 locations across the former CCC/USDA facility. All soil samples were analyzed by the rigorous gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analytical method (purge-and-trap method). No contamination was found in soil samples above the reporting limit of 10 {micro}g/kg. In July 2007, the CCC/USDA sampled indoor air at nine residences on or adjacent to its former facility to address the residents concerns regarding vapor intrusion. Low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected at four of the nine homes. Because carbon tetrachloride found in private wells and indoor air at the site might be linked to historical use of fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA is proposing to conduct an investigation to determine the source and extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination associated with the former facility. This investigation will be conducted in accordance with the intergovernmental agreement between the KDHE and the Farm Service Agency (FSA) of the USDA. The investigation at Hanover will be performed, on behalf of the CCC/USDA, by the Environmental Science

  17. 78 FR 36520 - U.S. Department of Agriculture Multi-Family Housing Section 515-Underserved Counties and Colonias...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service U.S. Department of Agriculture Multi-Family Housing Section 515-- Underserved.... Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination against its customers, employees, and...

  18. Final work plan : Phase I investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Savannah, Missouri.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-12

    From approximately 1949 until 1970, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility on federally owned property approximately 0.25 mi northwest of Savannah, Missouri. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the private grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In November 1998, carbon tetrachloride was detected in a private well (Morgan) roughly 50 ft south of the former CCC/USDA facility, as a result of state-wide screening of private wells near former CCC/USDA facilities, conducted in Missouri by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1999). The 1998 and subsequent investigations by the EPA and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MoDNR) confirmed the presence of carbon tetrachloride in the Morgan well, as well as in a second well (on property currently occupied by the Missouri Department of Transportation [MoDOT]), approximately 400 ft east of the former CCC/USDA facility. Carbon tetrachloride concentrations in the Morgan well have ranged from the initial value of 29 {micro}g/L in 1998, up to a maximum of 61 {micro}g/L in 1999, and back down to 22 {micro}g/L in 2005. The carbon tetrachloride concentration in the MoDOT well in 2000 (the only time it was sampled) was 321 {micro}g/L. The concentrations for the two wells are above the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 {micro}g/L for carbon tetrachloride (EPA 1999; MoDNR 2000a,b). Because the observed contamination in the Morgan and MoDOT wells might be linked to the past use of carbon tetrachloride-based grain fumigants at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA will conduct investigations to (1) characterize the source(s), extent, and factors controlling the subsurface distribution and movement of carbon tetrachloride at Savannah and (2) evaluate the health and environmental threats potentially posed by the contamination

  19. Agriculture and Community Development Interface. Joint Meeting of the Southern Region State Leaders for Agriculture and Natural Resources and Community Resource Development Proceedings (October 8-11, 1989, Williamsburg, Virginia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Paul D., Ed.; Campbell, Raymond, Ed.

    This document is a summary of remarks presented at a joint meeting of Agriculture and Natural Resources and Community Resource Development state leaders in 1989. The focus of the meeting was economic viability, rural extension and education, water quality, waste management, biotechnology, low-input sustainable agriculture (LISA), and rural…

  20. Final work plan : investigation of potential contamination at the former USDA facility in Ramona, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2006-01-27

    This Work Plan outlines the scope of work that will be conducted to investigate the subsurface contaminant conditions at the property formerly leased by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) in Ramona, Kansas (Figure 1.1). Data obtained during this event will be used to (1) evaluate potential source areas on the property, (2) determine the vertical and horizontal extent of potential contamination, and (3) provide recommendations for future actions, with the ultimate goal of assigning this site No Further Action status. The planned investigation includes groundwater monitoring requested by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), in accordance with Section V of the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the Farm Service Agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The work is being performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy. Under the Intergovernmental Agreement, Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities. Argonne has issued a Master Work Plan (Argonne 2002) that describes the general scope of all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas and provides guidance for these investigations. The Master Work Plan was approved by the KDHE. It contains materials common to investigations at locations in Kansas and should be consulted for the complete details of plans for work associated with the former CCC/USDA facility at Ramona.

  1. Update on USDA VetNet Salmonella Database, 2004 - Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA VetNet commenced in March 2004. The objectives of USDA VetNet are to determine PFGE patterns of Salmonella isolates submitted to the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), to compare USDA VetNet and PulseNet PFGE patterns, and to use the comparative data for surveillance ...

  2. New USDA rootstocks for better disease tolerance and fruit productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS has a long-term citrus rootstock breeding program in Florida, and in the past two decades the Florida citrus industry has also provided strong financial support for USDA rootstock development. Four new rootstocks have been released by the USDA in Florida over the past 12 years. These ro...

  3. ASSIGNING PYRAMID SERVINGS TO USDA NUTRIENT DATABASE CODES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals utilizes the USDA Nutrient Database (NDB) for Standard Reference and the Survey Recipe Database to calculate the nutrient values for USDA survey foods. The Community Nutrition Research Group (CNRG) has assigned Pyramid servings to USDA survey foo...

  4. 78 FR 45167 - Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture; Pesticides, Agricultural Worker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 170 RIN 2070-AJ22 Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture...). ACTION: Notification of submission to the Secretary of Agriculture. SUMMARY: This document notifies the... Administrator has forwarded to the Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) a...

  5. Agriculture and natural resources in a changing world - the role of irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, T.; Havlík, P.; Schneider, U. A.; Kindermann, G.; Obersteiner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Fertile land and fresh water constitute two of the most fundamental resources for food production. These resources are affected by environmental, political, economic, and technical developments. Regional impacts may transmit to the world through increased trade. With a global forest and agricultural sector model, we quantify the impacts of increased demand for food due to population growth and economic development on potential land and water use. In particular, we investigate producer adaptation regarding crop and irrigation choice, agricultural market adjustments, and changes in the values of land and water. Against the background of resource sustainability and food security topics, this study integrates the spatial and operational heterogeneity of irrigation management into a global land use model. It represents a first large scale assessment of agricultural water use under explicit consideration of alternative irrigation options in their particular biophysical, economic, and technical context, accounting for international trade, motivation-based farming, and quantified aggregated impacts on land scarcity, water scarcity, and food supply. The inclusion of technical and economic aspects of irrigation choice into an integrated land use modeling framework provides new insights into the interdisciplinary trade-offs between determinants of global land use change. Agricultural responses to population and economic growth include considerable increases in irrigated area and agricultural water use, but reductions in the average water intensity. Different irrigation systems are preferred under different exogenous biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Negligence of these adaptations would bias the burden of development on land and water scarcity. Without technical progress in agriculture, predicted population and income levels for 2030 would require substantial price adjustments for land, water, and food to equilibrate supply and demand.

  6. Pasture monitoring at a farm scale with the USDA-NRCS pasture condition score system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pasture Condition Score (PCS) system, developed by the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), is an assessment tool for pastureland enrolled in conservation programs. Ten indicators of vegetation and soils status are rated on a 1 to 5 scale and summed to give an aggregate score, whi...

  7. Food Safety Research at USDA: Hormones in Water and POPs in Food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large concentrated animal farms have been the subject of intense public scrutiny, in part due to concern about environmental release of endocrine disruptors, including natural hormones. Surface waters in proximity to farms were evaluated for hormones and estrogenic activity (E-Screen) by the USDA. ...

  8. A look at the engineering challenges of the USDA Small Watershed Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Small Watershed Program, administered by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service), originated in the 1940s and 1950s through the following statutes: Flood Control Act of 1944; Pilot Watershed Program 1953-1954; and the Watershed Protection and Floo...

  9. Final report : results of the 2006 investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA facility in Ramona, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-18

    The investigation reported here was conducted by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in 2006. The investigation addressed carbon tetrachloride contamination on the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility at Ramona, Kansas. The results clearly demonstrate that only minimal contamination is associated with the past use of carbon tetrachloride on the former CCC/USDA property. No soil contamination was detected at concentrations above Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) risk-based screening level (RBSL) Tier 2 standard of 200 {micro}g/kg for the soil-to-groundwater protection pathway. Carbon tetrachloride concentrations in groundwater above the RBSL and maximum contaminant level (MCL) value of 5.0 {micro}g/L were detected in only two samples, collected at adjacent locations on the southeast part of the property. The relatively low concentrations detected and the limited areal extent of the contamination demonstrate that no imminent threat exists on the former CCC/USDA property to warrant remediation. The soil and groundwater contamination detected on the former CCC/USDA property is clearly separate from contamination detected at off-site locations. The carbon tetrachloride and chloroform contamination in groundwater (at concentrations above the RBSL and MCL value) associated with past activities on the former CCC/USDA property is contained within the property boundaries. Data collected independently by the KDHE in 2006 validate these findings and, furthermore, provide additional evidence that the sources identified on the Co-op property (west of the former CCC/USDA property) are separate from the comparatively minor results of past activities on the former CCC/USDA property. The KDHE concluded in its 2006 report that the sources are separate and that the Co-op is the principally responsible party for the carbon tetrachloride contamination detected during its 2006 investigation.

  10. Climate change, plant traits, and invasion in natural and agricultural ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive species and climate change, each of which is likely to influence agricultural productivity and biological diversity, are also likely to interact. This chapter explores characteristics of both invasive plants and invaded ecosystems to search for generalizations that may allow us to predict w...

  11. Has the conversion of natural wetlands to agricultural land increased the incidence and severity of damaging freezes in south Florida?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, C.H.; Pielke, R.A., Sr.; Steyaert, L.T.

    2004-01-01

    On several occasions, winter freezes have wrought severe destruction on Florida agriculture. A series of devastating freezes around the turn of the twentieth century, and again during the 1980s, were related to anomalies in the large-scale flow of the ocean-atmosphere system. During the twentieth century, substantial areas of wetlands in south Florida were drained and converted to agricultural land for winter fresh vegetable and sugarcane production. During this time, much of the citrus industry also was relocated to those areas to escape the risk of freeze farther to the north. The purpose of this paper is to present a modeling study designed to investigate whether the conversion of the wetlands to agriculture itself could have resulted in or exacerbated the severity of recent freezes in those agricultural areas of south Florida. For three recent freeze events, a pair of simulations was undertaken with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. One member of each pair employed land surface properties that represent pre-1900s (near natural) land cover, whereas the other member of each pair employed data that represent near-current land-use patterns as derived from analysis of Landsat data valid for 1992/93. These two different land cover datasets capture well the conversion of wetlands to agriculture in south Florida during the twentieth century. Use of current land surface properties resulted in colder simulated minimum temperatures and temperatures that remained below freezing for a longer period at locations of key agricultural production centers in south Florida that were once natural wetlands. Examination of time series of the surface energy budget from one of the cases reveals that when natural land cover is used, a persistent moisture flux from the underlying wetlands during the nighttime hours served to prevent the development of below-freezing temperatures at those same locations. When the model results were subjected to an important sensitivity factor, the

  12. High natural erosion rates are the backdrop for present-day soil erosion in the agricultural Middle Hills of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, A. J.; Arnold, M.; AumaItre, G.; Bourles, D. L.; Keddadouche, K.; Bickle, M.; Ojha, T.

    2015-07-01

    Although agriculturally accelerated soil erosion is implicated in the unsustainable environmental degradation of mountain environments, such as in the Himalaya, the effects of land use can be challenging to quantify in many mountain settings because of the high and variable natural background rates of erosion. In this study, we present new long-term denudation rates, derived from cosmogenic 10Be analysis of quartz in river sediment from the Likhu Khola, a small agricultural river basin in the Middle Hills of central Nepal. Calculated long-term denudation rates, which reflect background natural erosion processes over 1000+ years prior to agricultural intensification, are similar to present-day sediment yields and to soil loss rates from terraces that are well maintained. Similarity in short- and long-term catchment-wide erosion rates for the Likhu is consistent with data from elsewhere in the Nepal Middle Hills but contrasts with the very large increases in short-term erosion rates seen in agricultural catchments in other steep mountain settings. Our results suggest that the large sediment fluxes exported from the Likhu and other Middle Hills rivers in the Himalaya are derived in large part from natural processes, rather than from soil erosion as a result of agricultural activity. Catchment-scale erosional fluxes may be similar over short and long timescales if both are dominated by mass wasting sources such as gullies, landslides, and debris flows (e.g., as is evident in the landslide-dominated Khudi Khola of the Nepal High Himalaya, based on compiled data). As a consequence, simple comparison of catchment-scale fluxes will not necessarily pinpoint land use effects on soils where these are only a small part of the total erosion budget, unless rates of mass wasting are also considered. Estimates of the mass wasting contribution to erosion in the Likhu imply catchment-averaged soil production rates on the order of ~ 0.25-0.35 mm yr-1, though rates of mass wasting are

  13. Water for food and nature in drought-prone tropics: vapour shift in rain-fed agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Rockström, Johan

    2003-01-01

    This paper quantifies the eco-hydrological challenge up until 2050 of producing food in balance with goods and services generated by water-dependent ecosystems in nature. Particular focus is given to the savannah zone, covering 40% of the land area in the world, where water scarcity constitutes a serious constraint to sustainable development. The analysis indicates an urgent need for a new green revolution, which focuses on upgrading rain-fed agriculture. Water requirements to produce adequate diets for humans are shown to be relatively generic irrespective of hydro-climate, amounting to a global average of 1,300 m(3) cap(-1) yr(-1). Present food production requires an estimated 6,800 km(3) yr(-1) of consumptive green water (5,000 km(3) yr(-1) in rain-fed agriculture and 1,800 km(3) yr(-1) from irrigated crops). Without considering water productivity gains, an additional 5,800 km(3) yr(-1) of water is needed to feed a growing population in 2,050 and eradicate malnutrition. It is shown that the bulk of this water will be used in rain-fed agriculture. A dynamic analysis of water productivity and management options indicates that large 'crop per drop' improvements can be achieved at the farm level. Vapour shift in favour of productive green water flow as crop transpiration could result in relative water savings of 500 km(3) yr(-1) in semi-arid rain-fed agriculture. PMID:14728794

  14. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The Secretary of Agriculture has...

  15. The history of the USDA Nematode Collection and its database: valuable resources for taxonomic research and identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture Nematode Collection continues to serve as one of the largest and most comprehensive nematode repositories in the world. Nematology research in the United States began in the late 1800’s, and for many years the collections of the USDA nematologists remained...

  16. Progress and challenges in the molecular identification of plant-parasitic nematodes at the USDA ARS Nematology Laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One mission of the USDA Agricultural Research Service Nematology Laboratory in Beltsville, MD is to provide nematode identifications that are urgently required by ARS scientists, federal and state researchers, and regulatory agencies for research, regulatory actions, and control purposes. In additio...

  17. USDA-ARS germplasm evaluated for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in Fort Collins, CO, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-six sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) germplasm from the USDA-Agricultural Research Service pre-breeding program at Fort Collins, Colorado were screened for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR) at the Colorado State University ARDEC facility in Fort Collins, CO. There...

  18. The Use of the USDA Nutrient Analysis Protocol in the Evaluation of Child-Care Menus in North Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Kathy B.; Hickey, Rose; Aloia, Christopher R.; Oakley, Charlotte B.; Bomba, Anne K.

    2015-01-01

    Child-care facilities that participate in the federally assisted Child and Adult Care Food Program are required to follow meal patterns that meet the nutrient needs for child growth and development. The purpose of this research is to use the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Analysis Protocols to evaluate child-care menus in order to…

  19. A Tool Kit for Healthy School Meals: Recipes and Training Materials. USDA's New School Lunch and Breakfast Recipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This kit contains a recipe book and various separately published materials to train food service staff in implementing the new breakfast and lunch menus from the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). A training manual provides background information on recipe selection, development, and testing; orients staff to the recipe format; explains and…

  20. The World Sugarcane and Related Grasses Collection at USDA/ARS Genebank Repository in Miami, Florida, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In early 1980’s the USDA-ARS established the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) a network of gene banks to preserve genetic resources of importance to National and International agriculture. The National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Miami, Florida is one of these repositories. This repo...

  1. Outcomes from the USDA/ARS area-wide project for management of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, became established in the continental US in 1985 and now infests 30 states. In 2007 the USDA Agricultural Research Service funded an “area-wide” project focused on the management of this species. The project was a unique federal, state, local collaborati...

  2. Long-term agro-ecosystem research or the southern great plains: The USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory partnership

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is coordinating ten well-established research sites as a Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network. The goal of the LTAR is to sustain a land-based infrastructure for research, environmental management testing, and education, that enables understan...

  3. Technical justification for a request to reclassify the former CCC/USDA facility at Canada, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-12-21

    Contamination in groundwater at Canada, Kansas, was discovered in 1997, during limited private well sampling near former grain storage facilities of the Commodity Credit Corporation, U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). Subsequent investigations by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) confirmed carbon tetrachloride and nitrate concentrations in groundwater above the respective maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) of 5.0 {micro}g/L and 10.0 mg/L. The KDHE investigations identified both the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility and a private grain storage facility as likely sources for the carbon tetrachloride contamination. The CCC/USDA funded extension of a rural water district line to provide a permanent alternate water supply, and the KDHE has conducted long-term monitoring under the State Water Plan. This document presents an analysis of the available information for the Canada site, acquired in previous investigations and the long-term KDHE monitoring. This analysis forms the technical justification for a request to reclassify the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility at Canada as a site requiring no further action under the Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) between the KDHE and the USDA's Farm Service Agency. The KDHE's long-term water level monitoring results indicate a consistent groundwater flow direction to the east-southeast. Consequently, the wells with the highest overall concentrations of carbon tetrachloride are downgradient from the private grain storage facility but not downgradient from the former CCC/USDA facility. The KDHE criterion for reclassification of a site is that contamination there should not pose an unacceptable risk, on the basis of analytical results for four consecutive, equally timed, sequenced sampling episodes over a period of no less than two years. In seven KDHE sampling events over a period of six years (2001-2007), the concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in the monitoring well on the former CCC/USDA

  4. Monitoring the Effect of Wetland Conservation Practices in an Agricultural Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the substantial effect of agriculture on the extent and ability of wetlands to function, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) serves a key role in wetland conservation and restoration. The USDA has implemented several different conservation programs (e.g., the Wetland Reserve Program) wi...

  5. Remote Sensing of Wetland Hydrology: Implications for Water Quality Management in Agricultural Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the substantial effect of agriculture on the ability of wetlands to function, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) serves a key role in wetland conservation and restoration. In order for the USDA to allocate funds to best manage wetlands, a better understanding of wetland functioning is ...

  6. USDA-ARS Riesel Watersheds, Riesel, Texas, USA: Water quality research database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmel, R. Daren; Haney, Richard L.; Smith, Douglas R.; White, Michael; King, Kevin W.

    2014-10-01

    The 75 year legacy database including discharge, sediment loss, land management, and meteorological data for the USDA-ARS Riesel Watersheds, Riesel, TX, USA has been available on the web for more than a decade (www.ars.usda.gov/spa/hydro-data) and used in numerous studies and publications; however, only recently have these data been added to the Sustaining the Earth's Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data System (STEWARDS) database (www.nrrig.mwa.ars.usda.gov/stewards/stewards.html). In addition, water quality data including dissolved inorganic N and P compounds measured from more than 1000 storm runoff events, 1300 base flow sampling events (lateral subsurface return flow or seepage flow), and 157 precipitation events through 2012 were added. The objectives of this manuscript are to present relevant background information on these data, summarize the data collection and analysis methodology, present the measured data along with cursory analyses, and convey the commitment of the USDA-ARS Riesel Watersheds to long-term data accessibility and database enhancement for water quality data and research.

  7. USDA food and nutrient databases provide the infrastructure for food and nutrition research, policy, and practice.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Holden, Joanne M; Harris, Ellen

    2013-02-01

    The USDA food and nutrient databases provide the basic infrastructure for food and nutrition research, nutrition monitoring, policy, and dietary practice. They have had a long history that goes back to 1892 and are unique, as they are the only databases available in the public domain that perform these functions. There are 4 major food and nutrient databases released by the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), part of the USDA's Agricultural Research Service. These include the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database, the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, and the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Database. The users of the databases are diverse and include federal agencies, the food industry, health professionals, restaurants, software application developers, academia and research organizations, international organizations, and foreign governments, among others. Many of these users have partnered with BHNRC to leverage funds and/or scientific expertise to work toward common goals. The use of the databases has increased tremendously in the past few years, especially the breadth of uses. These new uses of the data are bound to increase with the increased availability of technology and public health emphasis on diet-related measures such as sodium and energy reduction. Hence, continued improvement of the databases is important, so that they can better address these challenges and provide reliable and accurate data. PMID:23269654

  8. USDA-ARS and US EPA scientific investigations concerning biochars impact on soil health characteristics, microbial transport, and environmental restoration of mine-impacted soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biochar is being evaluated by scientists from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) for its potential to sequester soil C, to improve soil health, and to increase crop yields. ARS scientists from multiple locations (Florence SC, K...

  9. International School Feeding: USDA's Oversight of the McGovern-Dole Food for Education Program Needs Improvement. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-11-544

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melito, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (MGD Program) provides donations of U.S. agricultural products and financial and technical assistance for school feeding programs in the developing world. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), with about $200 million in funding in fiscal year 2010, the…

  10. 77 FR 68679 - Hispanic-Serving Agricultural Colleges and Universities (HSACU)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Universities (HSACU) AGENCIES: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION PROCESS 0 1. The authority citation for Part... Bakersfield College California State Polytechnic University-Pomona California State...

  11. 78 FR 52496 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension,...

  12. 77 FR 27013 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Solicitation for membership. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory... nominations to fill 9 vacancies on the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

  13. 78 FR 14071 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION... to fill 10 vacancies on the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics... October 1, 2012. ADDRESSES: National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

  14. 77 FR 11064 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Office of the Secretary National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension,...

  15. 77 FR 58978 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY..., and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education,...

  16. 78 FR 25691 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION... the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: All... Agriculture, National Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, 1400...

  17. Experimental learning projects address contemporary issues related to energy, environment, and sustainable agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “Bio-Fuel, sustainability, and geospatial information technologies to enhance experiential learning paradigm for precision agriculture project”, recently funded by USDA extends the environmental stewardship archetype of the preceding project titled “Environmentally conscious precision agricultur...

  18. Final report : results of the 2007 investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA facility in Powhattan, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-08-15

    The 2007 investigation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform contamination at Powhattan, Kansas, was conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2006a). The Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory implemented the investigation on behalf of the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The primary purposes of the investigation were to evaluate potential contaminant source areas on the former CCC/USDA property, determine the horizontal and vertical extent of potential contamination, conduct groundwater monitoring, and provide recommendations for future action.

  19. Rural Development: Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1975. Sixth Annual Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    A consolidated summary of information submitted by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agencies and State Rural Development (RD) Committees, this sixth annual report on USDA information and technical assistance includes USDA organizational arrangements for rural assistance, some assessments, research supporting RD information and technical…

  20. Rural Development: Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1974. Fifth Annual Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    The key role of the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to help local people make rural America a better place to live and work. The Rural Development (RD) Committee structure, conceived in 1969, consists of national, state, regional, and local committees which aid the USDA. During fiscal year 1974, USDA and the State Extension Services…

  1. Agricultural Conservation Planning Toolbox User's Manual

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural Conservation Planning Framework (ACPF) comprises an approach for applying concepts of precision conservation to watershed planning in agricultural landscapes. To enable application of this approach, USDA/ARS has developed a set of Geographic Information System (GIS) based software tools...

  2. Global impacts of conversions from natural to agricultural ecosystems on water resources: Quantity versus quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, B.R.; Jolly, I.; Sophocleous, M.; Zhang, L.

    2007-01-01

    [1] Past land use changes have greatly impacted global water resources, with often opposing effects on water quantity and quality. Increases in rain-fed cropland (460%) and pastureland (560%) during the past 300 years from forest and grasslands decreased evapotranspiration and increased recharge (two orders of magnitude) and streamflow (one order of magnitude). However, increased water quantity degraded water quality by mobilization of salts, salinization caused by shallow water tables, and fertilizer leaching into underlying aquifers that discharge to streams. Since the 1950s, irrigated agriculture has expanded globally by 174%, accounting for ???90% of global freshwater consumption. Irrigation based on surface water reduced streamflow and raised water tables resulting in waterlogging in many areas (China, India, and United States). Marked increases in groundwater-fed irrigation in the last few decades in these areas has lowered water tables (???1 m/yr) and reduced streamflow. Degradation of water quality in irrigated areas has resulted from processes similar to those in rain-fed agriculture: salt mobilization, salinization in waterlogged areas, and fertilizer leaching. Strategies for remediating water resource problems related to agriculture often have opposing effects on water quantity and quality. Long time lags (decades to centuries) between land use changes and system response (e.g., recharge, streamflow, and water quality), particularly in semiarid regions, mean that the full impact of land use changes has not been realized in many areas and remediation to reverse impacts will also take a long time. Future land use changes should consider potential impacts on water resources, particularly trade-offs between water, salt, and nutrient balances, to develop sustainable water resources to meet human and ecosystem needs. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Natural variability versus human impact: Hydroclimate variability and the role of agriculture in changing dust emissions from Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Samuel; Kamber, Balz; McGowan, Hamish; Hooper, James; Zawadzki, Atun

    2016-04-01

    Broad-scale dust emissions play an important role in Earth systems, for example influencing oceanic productivity via phytoplankton fertilisation. Existing palaeo dust records show that dust emissions vary significantly in time, implying its impact is similarly variable. There remains, however, a paucity of records which quantify variability in dust emissions. This study presents continuous, Holocene-aged, records of dust emissions from Australia, an important global dust source. Records demonstrate that rates of dust export have varied by 8-30 times over the mid to late Holocene. This variability is largely attributed to hydroclimate variability and its associated feedbacks within dust source areas. Significantly, however, a major disruption of dust emission rates is recorded in the past 200 years when dust emissions increased by between 2-10 times rates of natural variability in dust export. This change is concomitant with the arrival of Europeans in Australia and is primarily attributed to the development of agriculture which resulted in unprecedented environmental change in Australia's arid interior. This result broadly accords with the few other existing empirical dust records which both pre-date and post-date the onset of agriculture in various arid and semi-arid regions. Collectively, these records imply the impact of dust in Earth systems has changed as a result of agricultural development.

  4. Final work plan : phase I investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Montgomery City, Missouri.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-16

    From September 1949 until September 1966, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) leased property at the southeastern end of Montgomery City, Missouri, for the operation of a grain storage facility. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the private grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In January 2000, carbon tetrachloride was detected in a soil sample (220 {micro}g/kg) and two soil gas samples (58 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and 550 {micro}g/m{sup 3}) collected at the former CCC/USDA facility, as a result of a pre-CERCLIS site screening investigation (SSI) performed by TN & Associates, Inc., on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VII (MoDNR 2001). In June 2001, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MoDNR) conducted further sampling of the soils and groundwater at the former CCC/USDA facility as part of a preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI). The MoDNR confirmed the presence of carbon tetrachloride (at a maximum identified concentration of 2,810 {micro}g/kg) and chloroform (maximum 82 {micro}g/kg) in the soils and also detected carbon tetrachloride and chloroform (42.2 {micro}g/L and 58.4 {micro}g/L, respectively) in a groundwater sample collected at the former facility (MoDNR 2001). The carbon tetrachloride levels identified in the soils and groundwater are above the default target level (DTL) values established by the MoDNR for this contaminant in soils of all types (79.6 {micro}g/kg) and in groundwater (5.0 {micro}g/L), as outlined in Missouri Risk-Based Corrective Action (MRBCA): Departmental Technical Guidance (MoDNR 2006a). The corresponding MRBCA DTL values for chloroform are 76.6 {micro}g/kg in soils of all types and 80 {micro}g/L in groundwater. Because the observed contamination at Montgomery City might be linked to the past use of carbon tetrachloride-based fumigants at its

  5. 25 years of natural product R&D with New South Wales agriculture.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Ian A

    2005-01-01

    Following recent NSW Government restructuring, the Department of Agriculture now exists in a composite form along with Forestry, Fisheries and Minerals in the new NSW Department of Primary Industries. This paper outlines some of the highlights of secondary metabolite R&D accomplished in the 25 years since the essential oil research unit was transferred from the Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences, Sydney to NSW Agriculture's Wollongbar Agricultural Institute on the NSW north coast. The essential oil survey was continued, typing the Australian flora as a suitable source of isolates such as myrtenal (Astartea), myrtenol (Agonis), methyl chavicol(Ochrosperma), alpha-phellandren-8-ol (Prostanthera), methyl myrtenate (Darwinia), methyl geranate (Darwinia), kessane (Acacia), cis-dihydroagarofuran (Prosthanthera), protoanemonin (Clematis), isoamyl isovalerate (Micromyrtus), methyl cinnamate (Eucalyptus) and bornyl acetate (Boronia). Many of these components are used, or have potential use in the fragrance, flavour, medicinal plant or insect attraction fields. Two weeds toxic to livestock in the Central West of the State are also harvested commercially as medicinal plants. Measurement of hypericin concentrations in the various plant parts of St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) over two seasons has shown that the weed can be effectively managed by grazing sheep during the winter months when toxin levels are low. Syntheses of beta-carbolines tribulusterine and perlolyrine have shown that the former alkaloid was misidentified in the literature and hence not the toxic principle responsible for Tribulus staggers in sheep. Poor quality (high 1,8-cineole - low terpinen-4-ol) oil bearing tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) plantations have been established to the detriment of many a tea tree farmer. Analytical methods developed to check leaf quality at an early age indicated precursor sabinene constituents that convert to the active terpinen-4-ol both as the leaf matures or as the

  6. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J. C.; Stephens, J. C.; Chung, Serena; Brady, M. P.; Evans, R. D.; Kruger, C. E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, M. L.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; Rajagopalan, K.; Harrison, John; Tague, C. L.; Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman; Chen, Yong; Guenther, Alex B.; Leung, F. Y.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Perleberg, A. B.; Yoder, J.; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, S.; Chandrasekharan, B.; Malek, K.; Mullis, T.; Miller, C.; Nergui, T.; Poinsatte, J.; Reyes, J.; Zhu, J.; Choate, J. S.; Jiang, X.; Nelson, R.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Yorgey, G. G.; Johnson, Kristen; Chinnayakanhalli, K. J.; Hamlet, A. F.; Nijssen, B.; Walden, Von

    2015-04-01

    As managers of agricultural and natural resources are confronted with uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (land, air, water, economics, etc). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and "usability" of EaSMs. BioEarth is a current research initiative with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region that explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a "bottom-up" approach, upscaling a catchment-scale model to basin and regional scales, as opposed to the "top-down" approach of downscaling global models utilized by most other EaSM efforts. This paper describes the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.

  7. Effectiveness of a Science Agricultural Summer Experience (SASE) in Recruiting Students to Natural Resources Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Edward; Lindline, Jennifer; Petronis, Michael S.; Pilotti, Maura

    2012-01-01

    The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects an increase in Natural Resource Management (NRM) jobs within the next 10 years due to baby-boomer retirements and a 12% increase in demand for these occupations. Despite this trend, college enrollment in NRM disciplines has declined. Even more critical is the fact that the soon-to-be-majority Hispanic…

  8. Legacies and Trajectories of Hormone Export from Agricultural Catchments Under Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, H. E.; Mashtare, M. L.; Sassman, S. A.; Rao, P. C.; Thompson, S. E.; Basu, N. B.; Lee, L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Hormones and other emerging contaminants have been detected in surface waters worldwide at concentrations known to negatively impact sensitive aquatic species. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are a significant source of hormones to the environment, as their recent intensification has increased manure production and land disposal. However, little is known regarding the short- and long-term fate and transport in catchments and likely environmental impacts. Lab microcosm and column studies indicate moderately high retardation (log KOC ~ 2.8 - 3.7) and fast aerobic biotransformation (half-lives < 10 days), yet monitoring reveals consistent presence of hormones in streams. Field studies at nested scales in tile-drained agricultural catchments suggested time-invariant concentrations for hormone export at annual time scales, similar to that noted for nutrients, implying accumulation of legacy stores from annual manure applications. A robust hydro-biogeochemical model, Hormone Export and Restoration Dynamics (HERD), was developed and validated to probe several research questions: (i) can manure application practices lead to the accumulation of hormones within the soil profile and develop legacy sources?; (ii) how persistent are hormones when long-term manure applications cease?; and (iii) to what extent can best management practices be successfully employed to reduce the downstream export of hormones? Preliminary HERD simulations suggest that hormones build up in the soil profile over time as a result of repeated animal waste applications, creating legacy sources that cause hormone export to become mass transfer-limited rather than source-limited. Under such conditions, annual flow-weighted concentrations were found to be chemostatic, implying hydrologic variability rather than biogeochemical processes as the dominant control of hormone export. Additionally, these results suggest that long-term, repeated animal waste applications can lead to chronic exposure

  9. A history of wind erosion prediction models in the United States Department of Agriculture: The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) was officially inaugurated in 1985 by United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) scientists in response to customer requests, particularly those coming from the USDA Soil Conservation Service (SCS), for im...

  10. The USDA quality grades may mislead consumers.

    PubMed

    DeVuyst, E A; Lusk, J L; DeVuyst, M A

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to explore consumers' perceptions about and knowledge of USDA beef quality grades. Data were collected from over 1,000 consumers in online surveys in November and December 2013, and estimates were weighted to force the sample to mirror the U.S. population in terms of age, gender, education, and region of residence. When asked to rank Prime, Choice, and Select grades in terms of leanness, only 14.4% provided the correct ranking with 57.1% of respondents incorrectly indicating steaks grading Prime were the leanest. Despite perceptions that the Prime name indicated the leanest product, in a subsequent question, 55.6% of respondents thought Prime grade to be the juiciest of the 3 grades. In addition to inquiring about perceptions of the grade names, respondents also indicated perceptions of pictures of steaks. Only 14.5% of respondents correctly matched the steak pictures with their corresponding USDA quality grade name, an outcome that is statistically worse than would have occurred through pure random matching (P = 0.03). When asked to match pictures of steaks with expected prices, 54.8% of respondents incorrectly matched the picture of the Prime steak with the lowest price level. More highly educated consumers with greater preferences for steak consumption were more likely to provide correct answers. Results reveal substantial confusion over quality grading nomenclature and suggest the need for more education or for a transition toward more descriptive terminology at the retail level. PMID:24802037

  11. The importance of natural habitats to Brazilian free-tailed bats in intensive agricultural landscapes in the Winter Garden Region of Texas, United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of natural lands to agriculture affects the distribution of biological diversity across the landscape. In particular, cropland monocultures alter insect abundance and diversity compared to adjacent natural habitats, but nevertheless can provide large numbers of insect pests as prey i...

  12. APPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM MODELS IN ASSESSING AND MANAGING CONTAMINATION OF THE SOIL-WATER-ATMOSPHERE CONTINUUM IN AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last three decades, there has been a growing public concern about the adverse effects of modern agriculture on environmental quality and soil-water resources. In the mid-1980's, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) identified the need for models of whole agricultural systems that wi...

  13. Application of Agricultural System Models in Assessing and Managing Contamination of Soil-Water-Atmosphere Continuum in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last three decades, there has been a growing public concern about the adverse effects of modern agriculture on environmental quality and soil-water resources. In the mid-1980s, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) identified the need for models of whole agricultural systems th...

  14. Arthropod genomics research in the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: Current impacts and future prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the intramural research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) which employs scientists to conduct basic and applied research aimed to develop and transfer solutions to agricultural problems of high national priority and to ensure food...

  15. Methane and its Stable Isotope Signature Across Pennsylvania: Assessing the Potential Impacts of Natural Gas Development and Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Garcés, F.; Fuentes, J. D.; Grannas, A. M.; Martins, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 72 times that of carbon dioxide (20 year time horizon). Many recent efforts have been focused on improving our understanding of methane sources to the atmosphere and better quantifying the atmospheric methane budget. Increased natural gas exploration, particularly associated with shale gas drilling, has been hypothesized to be a potential source of atmospheric methane during well development and also due to fugitive emissions from operational well sites and pipelines. For a six-day period in June 2012, measurements of methane and its stable isotope signature were obtained from a mobile measurement platform using cavity ringdown spectroscopy. Transects from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania were studied, with samples obtained in rural, forested, urban, farm-impacted and well-impacted sites. Particular emphasis was placed on performing air sampling in the vicinity of natural gas wells under development, just completed, and in full operation. In the rural atmosphere, away from cattle farms and natural gas systems, the ambient levels of methane were around 1.75 ppm. Near and around gas wells under development, ambient methane levels resembled those found in the rural atmosphere. In some cases, the atmosphere was enriched with methane (up to 2.2 ppm) in areas near old wells and existing pipelines. Ambient methane levels around cattle farms were significantly enhanced, with mixing ratios reaching about 4 ppm. We will discuss here the impact of both gas well development and agricultural activities on observed methane concentrations and stable isotope signatures.

  16. Utilization of agricultural and forest industry waste and residues in natural fiber-polymer composites: A review.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Taneli; Haapala, Antti; Lappalainen, Reijo; Tomppo, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Natural fiber-polymer composites (NFPCs) are becoming increasingly utilized in a wide variety of applications because they represent an ecological and inexpensive alternative to conventional petroleum-derived materials. On the other hand, considerable amounts of organic waste and residues from the industrial and agricultural processes are still underutilized as low-value energy sources. Organic materials are commonly disposed of or subjected to the traditional waste management methods, such as landfilling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The use of organic waste and residue materials in NFPCs represents an ecologically friendly and a substantially higher value alternative. This is a comprehensive review examining how organic waste and residues could be utilized in the future as reinforcements or additives for NFPCs from the perspective of the recently reported work in this field. PMID:27184447

  17. Distinct cell surface appendages produced by Sinorhizobium fredii USDA257 and S. fredii USDA191, cultivar-specific and nonspecific symbionts of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sinorhizobium fredii USDA257 and S. fredii USDA191 are fast-growing rhizobia that form nitrogen-fixing nodules on soybean roots. In contrast to USDA191, USDA257 exhibits cultivar specificity and can form nodules only on primitive soybean cultivars. In response to flavonoids released from soybean ro...

  18. The natural abundance of 13C with different agricultural management by NIRS with fibre optic probe technology.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Mariela; González-Martín, Inmaculada; Hernández-Hierro, Jose Miguel; Hidalgo, Claudia; Govaerts, Bram; Etchevers, Jorge; Sayre, Ken D; Dendooven, Luc

    2009-06-30

    In the present study the natural abundance of (13)C is quantified in agricultural soils in Mexico which have been submitted to different agronomic practices, zero and conventional tillage, retention of crop residues (with and without) and rotation of crops (wheat and maize) for 17 years, which have influenced the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil. The natural abundance of C13 is quantified by near infrared spectra (NIRS) with a remote reflectance fibre optic probe, applying the probe directly to the soil samples. Discriminate partial least squares analysis of the near infrared spectra allowed to classify soils with and without residues, regardless of the type of tillage or rotation systems used with a prediction rate of 90% in the internal validation and 94% in the external validation. The NIRS calibration model using a modified partial least squares regression allowed to determine the delta(13)C in soils with or without residues, with multiple correlation coefficients 0.81 and standard error prediction 0.5 per thousand in soils with residues and 0.92 and 0.2 per thousand in soils without residues. The ratio performance deviation for the quantification of delta(13)C in soil was 2.5 in soil with residues and 3.8 without residues. This indicated that the model was adequate to determine the delta(13)C of unknown soils in the -16.2 per thousand to -20.4 per thousand range. The development of the NIR calibration permits analytic determinations of the values of delta(13)C in unknown agricultural soils in less time, employing a non-destructive method, by the application of the fibre optic probe of remote reflectance to the soil sample. PMID:19376340

  19. Naturally occurring tyrosinase inhibitors: mechanism and applications in skin health, cosmetics and agriculture industries.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Shoukat; Kang, Moonkyu; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Bae, Hyunsu

    2007-09-01

    Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme, which is widely distributed in microorganisms, animals and plants and is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, involved in determining the color of mammalian skin and hair. In addition, unfavorable enzymatic browning of plant-derived foods by tyrosinase causes a decrease in nutritional quality and economic loss of food products. The inadequacy of current conventional methods to prevent tyrosinase action encourages researchers to seek new potent tyrosinase inhibitors for food and cosmetics. This article presents a study on the importance of tyrosinase, biochemical characteristics, type of inhibitions, activators from various natural sources with its clinical and industrial importance in recent prospects is discussed in this paper. PMID:17605157

  20. Status of USDA VetNet: 2003-present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA VetNet was established in 2003 and modeled after PulseNet USA, the national molecular subtyping network for food borne disease surveillance. The objectives of USDA VetNet are to use pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to subtype zoonotic pathogens submitted to the animal arm of the Nationa...

  1. Update on the USDA, ARS Citrus Scion Improvement Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A citrus breeding program has been conducted by the USDA in Florida since 1893 when W.T. Swingle made his first crosses at the USDA Subtropical Laboratory in Eustis, FL. The initial emphasis was to develop disease resistant cultivars. A second objective was to develop citrus fruit that were easy to...

  2. What's the latest on USDA citrus scion breeding?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In its 120 year history, the USDA citrus scion breeding program has provided the mainstays of the Florida specialty citrus industry. In the last few years, the USDA has released US Early Pride mandarin, US Seedless Pineapple sweet orange and most recently, US Furr/US Furr-ST mandarin. Clearly huangl...

  3. Campylobacter Database Update: USDA VetNet (2004-2009)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March 2004, USDA VetNet was launched with the intention of providing Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) on Salmonella isolates originating from animals as a complement to the CDC PulseNet program. The objectives of USDA VetNet are to determine PFGE patterns of Salmonella and Campylobacter i...

  4. Overview of USDA VetNet Campylobacter Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA VetNet commenced in March 2004 with submission of Salmonella isolates and in December 2005, Campylobacter isolates were added to the program. The objectives of USDA VetNet are to determine PFGE patterns of Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates submitted to the National Antimicrobial Resistance...

  5. Overview of USDA VetNet Salmonella Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA VetNet commenced in May 2004 with submission of Salmonella isolates and in December 2005, Campylobacter isolates were added to the program. The objectives of USDA VetNet are to determine PFGE patterns of Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates submitted to the National Antimicrobial Resistance Mo...

  6. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20 contains data for 7,517 food items for up to 140 food components when a complete profile is available for a food item. It replaces the previous release, SR19, issued in August 2006. Data in SR20 supersede values in printed USDA handbooks ...

  7. Quickening nature's pulse: atomic agriculture at the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Jacob Darwin

    2015-01-01

    Mutation breeders in the 1960s seemed poised to use atomic energy to speed up mutation rates in plants in order to develop new crop varieties, for the benefit of all people. Although skepticism had slowed this work in the United States, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) nurtured the scientific field, its community of experts, and an imagined version of the future that put humans in control of their destiny. The IAEA acted as a center of dissemination and support for experts and ideas even when they had fallen from favor elsewhere. Through the lens of the IAEA, plant breeding bore the appearance of a socially progressive, ultra-modern science destined to alleviate population pressures. Administrators at the IAEA also were desperate for success stories, hoping to highlight mutation plant breeding as a potential solution to the world's ills. The community of mutation plant breeders gained a lifeline from the consistent clarion call from the Vienna-based agency to use atomic energy to understand the natural world and quicken its pulse with radioisotopes. PMID:26775434

  8. Coupled dynamics of soil formation and erosion in natural and agricultural ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelak, N. F.; Manzoni, S.; Wang, J.; Bras, R. L.; Porporato, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Soil development by weathering is counterbalanced by losses through erosion. This balance may be disturbed by extreme natural events and human activities, resulting in reduced soil depths, deteriorated soil hydraulic properties, and loss of biogeochemical function. The presence of vegetation, while accelerating soil development is also necessary to maintain soil stability by reducing erosion. Plants require in turn a hydrologically and biogeochemically suitable soil environment to thrive. It is thus conceivable that disturbed soil states may allow lower vegetation carrying capacity, leading to increased erosion and further decline in vegetation and ecosystem function. Such disturbed systems may recover slowly or not at all. We explore these positive feedbacks by employing a minimal model of coupled nonlinear differential equation for the dynamics of soil development, vegetation, and surface hydrology. The model describes a plant compartment, soil carbon, soil depth, and soil moisture, and includes key feedbacks such as plant-driven inhibition of erosion, dynamic changes in rooting depth and soil textural properties as erosion progresses, and vegetation water stress. Results suggest that ecosystem functioning may deteriorate under various climate scenarios that could cause both longer droughts and higher erosion rates. Impact of anthropogenic disturbances such as removal of vegetation and tillage on the mass and energy balances of the soil-plant system and the stability of the systems are also investigated using this modeling framework, with special attention to land use changes in the Southeastern US and soil degradation problems at the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory (CZO).

  9. Natural radioactivity, dose assessment and uranium uptake by agricultural crops at Khan Al-Zabeeb, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Kharouf, Samer J; Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F; Dababneh, Munir

    2008-07-01

    Khan Al-Zabeeb, an irrigated cultivated area lies above a superficial uranium deposits, is regularly used to produce vegetables and fruits consumed by the public. Both soil and plant samples collected from the study area were investigated for their natural radioactivity to determine the uranium uptake by crops and hence to estimate the effective dose equivalent to human consumption. Concentrations of (238)U, (235)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, (137)Cs and (40)K in nine soil profiles were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry whereas watermelon and zucchini crops were analyzed for their uranium content by means of alpha spectrometry after radiochemical separation. Correlations between measured radionuclides were made and their activity ratios were determined to evaluate their geochemical behavior in the soil profiles. Calculated soil-plant transfer factors indicate that the green parts (leaves, stems and roots) of the studied crops tend to accumulate uranium about two orders of magnitude higher than the fruits. The maximum dose from ingestion of 1 kg of watermelon pulp was estimated to be 3.1 and 4.7 nSv y(-1) for (238)U and (234)U, respectively. Estimations of the annual effective dose equivalent due to external exposure showed extremely low values. Radium equivalent activity and external hazard index were seen to exceed the permissible limits of 370 Bq kg(-1) and 1, respectively. PMID:18359539

  10. Assessing the relation of USDA conservation expenditures to suspended sediment reductions in an Iowa watershed.

    PubMed

    Villarini, Gabriele; Schilling, Keith E; Jones, Christopher S

    2016-09-15

    From 1936 to 2010, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) agencies spent $293.7 billion (value adjusted for inflation at the 2009 level) on conservation programs. Of these expenditures, $75.2 billion (26%) were allocated for technical assistance (TA; it is related to costs associated with USDA field staff providing their expert advice to farmers) and $218.5 billion (74%) for financial assistance (FA; monetary incentives for farmers to adopt conservation programs). A major environmental goal of these programs was to reduce soil erosion and sediment leaving the land. In this study, we correlate expenditures on FA and TA programs to a unique long (1937-2009) record of total suspended solids (TSS) and sediment load (SL) for the Raccoon River at Van Meter, Iowa. Study results suggest that three predictors (rainfall, TA and FA) are important in explaining the temporal changes in annual TSS and SL and provide evidence that USDA expenditures helped reduce TSS and SL in the Raccoon River. TA was more effective than FA in reducing TSS levels in the watershed. Our empirical model represents an initial, broad-scale attempt to correlate conservation expenditures to a specific water quality outcome, although more work is needed to disentangle the impacts associated with other unexplored factors. PMID:27262032

  11. The Edwards Aquifer Water Resource Conflict: USDA Farm Program resource-use incentives?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaible, Glenn D.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

    1999-10-01

    This paper summarizes economic and hydrological analyses of the impacts of the 1990 and 1996 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) farm programs on irrigation water withdrawals from the Edwards Aquifer in south central Texas and on aquifer-dependent spring flows that support threatened and endangered species. Economic modeling, a regional producer behavioral survey, as well as institutional and farm characteristic analyses are used to examine likely irrigation water-use impacts. Hydrologie modeling is used to examine spring flow effects. Study results show that 1990 USDA commodity programs caused producers to require less irrigation water, in turn increasing rather than decreasing aquifer spring flows. Market economic factors are the dominant criteria influencing producer irrigation decisions. Farm-tenure arrangements and aquifer management responsibilities of the Edwards Aquifer Authority indicate that the 1996 Farm Act's PFC payment program will not cause an increase in irrigation withdrawals. Broader actions such as long-term water supply enhancement/conservation programs, dry-year water-use reduction incentives and water markets all provide tools for Edwards water-use conflict resolution. USDA farm programs do not apparently play a material part in the total debate.

  12. Measuring the Interest of German Students in Agriculture: the Role of Knowledge, Nature Experience, Disgust, and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickel, Malte; Strack, Micha; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2015-06-01

    Modern knowledge-based societies, especially their younger members, have largely lost their bonds to farming. However, learning about agriculture and its interrelations with environmental issues may be facilitated by students' individual interests in agriculture. To date, an adequate instrument to investigate agricultural interests has been lacking. Research has infrequently considered students' interest in agricultural content areas as well as influencing factors on students' agricultural interests. In this study, a factorial design of agricultural interests was developed combining five agricultural content areas and four components of individual interest. The instrument was validated with German fifth and sixth graders ( N = 1,085) using a variance decomposition confirmatory factor analysis model. The results demonstrated a second-order factor of general agricultural interest, with animal husbandry, arable farming, vegetable and fruit cropping, primary food processing, and agricultural engineering as discrete content areas of agricultural interest. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that prior knowledge, garden experience, and disgust sensitivity are predictors of general agricultural interest. In addition, gender influenced interest in four of the five agricultural content areas. Implications are directed at researchers, teachers, and environmental educators concerning how to trigger and develop pupils' agricultural interests.

  13. Characterization of VOCs Across Pennsylvania: Assessing Emissions from Rural, Forested, Agricultural and Natural Gas Drilling-Impacted Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grannas, A. M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ramos-Garcés, F.; Wang, D. K.; Martins, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin are important to troposphere chemistry, particularly the formation of photochemical smog and secondary organic aerosol. There is concern that increased natural gas exploration may lead to increased emissions of certain VOCs during well development and due to fugitive emissions from operational well sites and pipelines. For a six-day period in June 2012, a variety of VOCs were measured using canister sampling from a mobile measurement platform. Transects from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania were studied, with samples obtained in rural, forested, urban, farm-impacted and gas well-impacted sites. As expected, biogenic VOCs and isoprene oxidation products were enhanced in forested regions, while anthropogenic non-methane hydrocarbons were enhanced in urban areas. BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) was enhanced in urban areas, but the concentrations of BTEX measured near developing and existing natural gas sites were similar to rural and forested sites. Halogenated hydrocarbons and Freon compounds were consistent at all site locations. We will discuss the specific concentrations and signatures of these compounds and assess the potential impact of agricultural activities and gas well development on the observed VOC concentrations and variability.

  14. USDA Section 9006 Program: Status and Energy Benefits of Grant Awards in FY 2003-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, T.; Savage, S.; Brown, J.

    2006-08-01

    At the request of the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory reviewed projects awarded in the Section 9006 Program: Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program. This report quantifies federal and private investment, outlines project status based on recent field updates, and calculates the effects on energy and emissions of energy efficiency and renewable energy projects awarded grants in FY 2003, FY 2004, and FY 2005. An overview of the program challenges and modifications in the first three years of operation is also included.

  15. Fugitive methane emissions from natural, urban, agricultural, and energy-production landscapes of eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Iverach, Charlotte P.; Lowry, Dave; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2015-04-01

    Modern cavity ringdown spectroscopy systems (CRDS) enable the continuous measurement of methane concentration. This allows for improved quantification of greenhouse gas emissions associated with various natural and human landscapes. We present a subset of over 4000 km of continuous methane surveying along the east coast of Australia, made using a Picarro G2301 CRDS, deployed in a utility vehicle with an air inlet above the roof at 2.2 mAGL. Measurements were made every 5 seconds to a precision of <0.5 ppb for CH4. These surveys were undertaken during dry daytime hours and all measurements were moisture corrected. We compare the concentration of methane in the near surface atmosphere adjacent to open-cut coal mines, unconventional gas developments (coal seam gas; CSG), and leaks detected in cities and country towns. In areas of dryland crops the median methane concentration was 1.78 ppm, while in the irrigation districts located on vertisol soils the concentration was as low as 1.76 ppm, which may indicate that these soils are a sink for methane. In the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, open-cut coal mining district we mapped a continuous 50 km interval where the concentration of methane exceeded 1.80 ppm. The median concentration in this interval was 2.02 ppm. Peak readings were beyond the range of the reliable measurement (in excess of 3.00 ppm). This extended plume is an amalgamation of plumes from 17 major pits 1 to 10 km in length. Adjacent to CSG developments in the Surat Basin, southeast Queensland, only small anomalies were detected near the well-heads. Throughout the vast majority of the gas fields the concentration of methane was below 1.80 ppm. The largest source of fugitive methane associated with CSG was off-gassing methane from the co-produced water holding ponds. At one location the down wind plume had a cross section of approximately 1 km where the concentration of methane was above 1.80 ppm. The median concentration within this section was 1.82 ppm

  16. Measuring the Interest of German Students in Agriculture: The Role of Knowledge, Nature Experience, Disgust, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Malte; Strack, Micha; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Modern knowledge-based societies, especially their younger members, have largely lost their bonds to farming. However, learning about agriculture and its interrelations with environmental issues may be facilitated by students' individual interests in agriculture. To date, an adequate instrument to investigate agricultural interests has been…

  17. Graduates of Higher Education in the Food and Agricultural Sciences: An Analysis of Supply/Demand Relationships. Volume I--Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Kyle Jane, Ed.; Stanton, Marge, Ed.

    Information on the current and projected supply of and demand for graduates of higher education in the food and agricultural sciences is presented, based on federal data bases. The supply data are aggregated by 11 educational clusters, and employment demand data are aggregated by eight occupational clusters. Analysis reveals imbalances in the…

  18. Remote sensing applications in African agriculture and natural resources: Highlighting and managing the stress of increasing population pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amissah-Arthur, Abigail; Balstad Miller, Roberta

    Given current population trends and projections in sub-Saharan Africa, it is anticipated that substantial intensification of agricultural cropland is certain within the next decades. In the absence of adoption of improved technologies poor rural populations in this region will continue to degrade and mine the natural resources to ensure their survival. All these actions will have far-reaching implications for environmental quality and human health. However, only through the integration of environment and development concerns with greater attention to these link can we achieve the goal of fulfilling the basic needs, improved living standards for all, better protected and managed eco-systems and a safer, more prosperous future. The paper reviews case studies and provides examples of the integration, analysis, and visualization of information from remotely sensed, biophysical and socioeconomic information to assess the present situation hindering agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies show the interactions between socio-economic and environmental factors that can help governments and policy-makers assess the scope of the problems, examine alternatives and decide on a course of action. Sound decisions depend on accurate information, yet most African countries face severe competing demands for the financial and human commitments necessary to staff an information system equal to its policy-making requirements. The role of international data centers is reviewed in terms of their abilities to develop and maintain information systems that bring together available accumulated knowledge and data. This permits comparative studies, which make it possible to develop a better understanding of the relationships among demographic dynamics, technology, cultural behavioral norms, and land resources and hence better decision making for sustainable development.

  19. USDA Programs of Interest to American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Intended to familiarize American Indian tribal leaders, planners, and community leaders with the programs available to Indians through the U.S. Department of Agriculture, this brochure provides information on program benefits, application procedures, and who to contact for further information for 49 programs in the areas of agriculture, community…

  20. Assessment of natural fluorescence as a tracer of diffuse agricultural pollution from slurry spreading on intensely-farmed grasslands.

    PubMed

    Naden, Pamela S; Old, Gareth H; Eliot-Laize, Caroline; Granger, Steve J; Hawkins, Jane M B; Bol, Roland; Haygarth, Phil

    2010-03-01

    The value of natural fluorescence in tracing diffuse pollution, in liquid phase, following slurry application to land was assessed by field experiment using twelve one hectare lysimeters on a heavy clay soil in Devon, UK, during autumn 2007. A strong linear relationship was found between natural fluorescence intensity and slurry concentration. The ratio of indices of tryptophan-like and fulvic/humic-like fluorescence (TI:FI) varied between 2 and 5 for a range of slurries sampled from Devon farms and allowed slurry to be distinguished from uncontaminated drainage waters (TI:FI<1). Incidental losses of slurry, indicated by significantly enhanced TI:FI ratios, high TI and high ammonium levels, occurred via the drain flow pathway of the drained lysimeters during the first small event following slurry-spreading. The maximum estimated loss from a single lysimeter was 2-8kg or 0.004-0.016% of the applied slurry. In the second larger storm event, some five weeks later, significantly enhanced TI:FI ratios in the drain flows were not associated with high TI but with high nitrate levels and, compared to the earlier storm, an increase in the humification index. This implies the loss of slurry decomposition products during this event but further work is needed to validate this. There was no significant enhancement of TI:FI in the surface/throughflow pathways of the drained or undrained lysimeters in either of the events. The observed change over a period of weeks in the strength and nature of the fluorescence signal from spread slurry restricts quantification of slurry losses to those immediately after slurry spreading. Nonetheless, this study demonstrates the utility of fluorescence as an indicator of slurry in drainage waters and the importance of field drains in diffuse agricultural pollution. PMID:20018337

  1. 75 FR 49357 - United States Department of Agriculture Research Misconduct Regulations for Extramural Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...The Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO) is establishing U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) regulations implementing the Federal Policy on Research Misconduct applicable to extramural research. The regulation defines research misconduct and establishes basic USDA requirements for the conduct of fair and timely investigations of alleged or suspected infractions. The regulation also......

  2. Nitrogen and carbon pools in an agricultural soil amended with natural and NH4-enriched K-Chabazite zeolitite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Giacomo; Faccini, Barbara; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Massimo, Coltorti

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen and Carbon pools in a reclaimed agricultural soil amended with 5 to 15 Kg m-2 of natural and NH4-enriched (K-Chabazite) zeolitites have been investigated. Zeolitites were enriched by means of static exchange with a swine slurry in a prototype (ZeoLIFE Project, www.zeolife.it). The experimental field is located in the Po Delta plain near Codigoro (Ferrara, Italy), it extends over an area of about 6 ha and it was divided in six parcels. The field has been heavily fertilized with chemical fertilizers and livestock sewage since 1960. Nowadays the area is part of the Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (Nitrate Directive 91/676/CEE) and a maximum annual input of 170 Kg-N ha-1 must be respected. With respect to the control parcels, at the end of the agronomic year, sorghum yield was 4% and 14% higher in the parcels treated with natural zeolitite and in that treated with NH4-enriched zeolitite, respectively. This notwithstanding the N fertilizers reduction from 30% in the former to 50% in the latter. Beside the yield improvement, N and C pools are affected by the use of zeolitite and relevant changes have been noticed. i) δ15N ratios in both soil (total and fixed N-NH4 inside the clay interlayer and zeolite exchange sites) and different organs of the sorghum crops show that the N-NH4 stocked in the enriched zeolitite has been transferred to the crops and preferentially stocked in the leaves with respect to the N-NH4 provided by chemical fertilizer. ii) The active role of fixed N-NH4 pool in mineral nutrition of the crops and its replacement can be due to inorganic N fertilizers (Urea and Diammonium Phosphate). This pool in fact decreased during the crops growth, suggesting that it represented an important contribution to the active N pool in the soil. iii) Due to the high N content in this agricultural field, no significant total N decrease was observed during the growing season, which is also responsible for the low C/N ratio in the soil. After the N input from NH4

  3. History of the USDA-ARS Watershed, Water Resources and Climate Research at Chickasha, Durant, and El Reno, Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The watershed, water resources and climate research conducted at the Great Plains Agroclimate and Natural Resources Research Unit at the USDA, ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory in El Reno, Oklahoma, is rooted in events reaching as far back as the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression. In this narrat...

  4. The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Soil Analysis Network (SCAN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface soil moisture plays an important role in the dynamics of land atmosphere interactions and many current and upcoming models and satellite sensors. In situ data will be required to provide calibration and validation data sets. Therefore, there is a need for sensor networks at a variety of sc...

  5. Biotechnology: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Biotechnology Research Efforts. Briefing Report. To the Chairman, Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Information pertaining to biotechnology research that was funded in whole or in part by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is presented in this report. Findings obtained from state agricultural experimental stations and colleges of veterinary medicine are discussed in 11 appendices. These include: (1) information on USDA's biotechnology…

  6. Rural Development: Part 1. Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1973. Fourth Annual Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    As part 1 of a four part report to the U.S. Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 of the Agricultural Act of 1970, this fourth annual report is limited to rural development activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) delivery system (the USDA National Rural Development Committee, State Rural Development Committee, and county…

  7. Rural Development: Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1971. A Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    As the first part of a four part report to the U.S. Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 of the Agricultural Act of 1970, this second annual report is limited to rural development activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) delivery system (the USDA National Rural Development Committee, State Rural Development Committee, and…

  8. Rural Development: Part 1. Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1972. Third Annual Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    As the first part of a four part report to the U.S. Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 of the Agricultural Act of 1970, this third annual report is limited to rural development activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) delivery system (the USDA National Rural Development Committee, State Rural Development Committee, and…

  9. Impacts of climate change on Southwestern working lands and water resources: a report from the inaugural year of the USDA Southwest climate hub

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In February 2014 the USDA established seven regional climate hubs to assist farmers, ranchers and foresters in adapting to the effects of climate change. The SW region encompasses six states (including Hawaii) and provides highly diverse agricultural crops including cotton, stone fruit and grapes. ...

  10. THE MYCOLOGISTS AND MYCOLOGICAL RESOURCES AT THE SYSTEMATIC BOTANY & MYCOLOGY LABORATORY, USDA-ARS, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND: HOME OF THE U.S. NATIONAL FUNGUS COLLECTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service’ Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory (SBML) serves as the research base for five systematic mycologists plus two plant-quarantine mycologists. The SBML is also the organization that maintains the U.S. National Fungus Collections with databases about plant...

  11. Establishment of the USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital in 1978

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC) is a unique cooperative venture among Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, and the USDA/Agricultural Research Service. The CNRC is dedicated to defining the nutrient needs of children, from conception through adolescence, and the need...

  12. A Global Soil Moisture Data Assimilation System for the USDA-FAS Crop Assessment Data Retrieval and Evaluation (CADRE) Decision Support System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) system has been designed to integrate soil moisture retrievals from the EOS Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) into the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Crop Assessment Data Retrieval and Evaluation (CADRE) Decision Support System (DSS). The operati...

  13. Coupling of Bayesian Networks with GIS for wildfire risk assessment on natural and agricultural areas of the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherb, Anke; Papakosta, Panagiota; Straub, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires cause severe damages to ecosystems, socio-economic assets, and human lives in the Mediterranean. To facilitate coping with wildfire risks, an understanding of the factors influencing wildfire occurrence and behavior (e.g. human activity, weather conditions, topography, fuel loads) and their interaction is of importance, as is the implementation of this knowledge in improved wildfire hazard and risk prediction systems. In this project, a probabilistic wildfire risk prediction model is developed, with integrated fire occurrence and fire propagation probability and potential impact prediction on natural and cultivated areas. Bayesian Networks (BNs) are used to facilitate the probabilistic modeling. The final BN model is a spatial-temporal prediction system at the meso scale (1 km2 spatial and 1 day temporal resolution). The modeled consequences account for potential restoration costs and production losses referred to forests, agriculture, and (semi-) natural areas. BNs and a geographic information system (GIS) are coupled within this project to support a semi-automated BN model parameter learning and the spatial-temporal risk prediction. The coupling also enables the visualization of prediction results by means of daily maps. The BN parameters are learnt for Cyprus with data from 2006-2009. Data from 2010 is used as validation data set. A special focus is put on the performance evaluation of the BN for fire occurrence, which is modeled as binary classifier and thus, could be validated by means of Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves. With the final best models, AUC values of more than 70% for validation could be achieved, which indicates potential for reliable prediction performance via BN. Maps of selected days in 2010 are shown to illustrate final prediction results. The resulting system can be easily expanded to predict additional expected damages in the mesoscale (e.g. building and infrastructure damages). The system can support planning of

  14. Challenges and opportunities for use of natural fallout 7Be as a soil erosion tracer in agricultural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Will; Taylor, Alex; Mabit, Lionel

    2015-04-01

    High resolution measurement of soil erosion amounts is difficult to achieve using conventional methodologies without interfering with agricultural practice and hence compromising the representativeness of results. Tracer technologies, both natural and tag-and-trace, offer opportunity to derive soil erosion data under 'real-world' conditions, providing a valuable complement to experimental and modelled data. Beryllium-7 (7Be) is a naturally-occurring cosmogenic fallout radionuclide formed in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of nitrogen and oxygen. Its constant production and delivery to the surface via precipitation coupled with its affinity for soil and sediment particles has underpinned its application as a conservative soil and sediment tracer wherein its short half-life (53.3 days) lends itself to tracing soil redistribution dynamics over short time periods. While the radionuclide budget approach to deriving soil redistribution amounts and patterns is conceptually straightforward, important aspects of the tracer's environmental behaviour, especially linked to its physical and geochemical distribution within the soil, remain poorly understood. These contribute to uncertainty in conversion of radionuclide inventory to soil erosion amounts and there is a need to develop a rigorous harmonised approach to application of the tracer, with opportunity to share experience with the tag-and-trace community. Drawing on past studies and recent experimental work within a validation plot experiment, this contribution offers an evaluation of the approach as applied to date and explores the challenges and opportunities for effective use of 7Be as a tracer to support soil conservation and management strategies in the future.

  15. Large-scale sequestration of atmospheric carbon via plant roots in natural and agricultural ecosystems: why and how

    PubMed Central

    Kell, Douglas B.

    2012-01-01

    The soil holds twice as much carbon as does the atmosphere, and most soil carbon is derived from recent photosynthesis that takes carbon into root structures and further into below-ground storage via exudates therefrom. Nonetheless, many natural and most agricultural crops have roots that extend only to about 1 m below ground. What determines the lifetime of below-ground C in various forms is not well understood, and understanding these processes is therefore key to optimising them for enhanced C sequestration. Most soils (and especially subsoils) are very far from being saturated with organic carbon, and calculations show that the amounts of C that might further be sequestered (http://dbkgroup.org/carbonsequestration/rootsystem.html) are actually very great. Breeding crops with desirable below-ground C sequestration traits, and exploiting attendant agronomic practices optimised for individual species in their relevant environments, are therefore important goals. These bring additional benefits related to improvements in soil structure and in the usage of other nutrients and water. PMID:22527402

  16. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; Brady, Michael P.; Evans, R. David; Kruger, Chad E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, Mingliang; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; et al

    2014-04-24

    Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region thatmore » explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.« less

  17. Boundary work for sustainable development: Natural resource management at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

    PubMed

    Clark, William C; Tomich, Thomas P; van Noordwijk, Meine; Guston, David; Catacutan, Delia; Dickson, Nancy M; McNie, Elizabeth

    2016-04-26

    Previous research on the determinants of effectiveness in knowledge systems seeking to support sustainable development has highlighted the importance of "boundary work" through which research communities organize their relations with new science, other sources of knowledge, and the worlds of action and policymaking. A growing body of scholarship postulates specific attributes of boundary work that promote used and useful research. These propositions, however, are largely based on the experience of a few industrialized countries. We report here on an effort to evaluate their relevance for efforts to harness science in support of sustainability in the developing world. We carried out a multicountry comparative analysis of natural resource management programs conducted under the auspices of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. We discovered six distinctive kinds of boundary work contributing to the successes of those programs-a greater variety than has been documented in previous studies. We argue that these different kinds of boundary work can be understood as a dual response to the different uses for which the results of specific research programs are intended, and the different sources of knowledge drawn on by those programs. We show that these distinctive kinds of boundary work require distinctive strategies to organize them effectively. Especially important are arrangements regarding participation of stakeholders, accountability in governance, and the use of "boundary objects." We conclude that improving the ability of research programs to produce useful knowledge for sustainable development will require both greater and differentiated support for multiple forms of boundary work. PMID:21844351

  18. The Importance of Change: Contextualizing Natural and Anthropogenic Hydrologic Variability in terms of agricultural and sectorial economies in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce de Leon Barido, D.; Nelson, H.; Thatikonda, S.; Smith, R.; Roe, T.; Foufoula, E.

    2012-12-01

    Freshwater availability and human prosperity are intricately connected. In many parts of the world however, water demands exceed the renewable water supply and groundwater resources are depleted at an alarming rate. Such is the case in India, especially in its agriculturally intensive regions of Punjab and Telagana where most of the country's rice and wheat is produced. Punjab (Northwest India; deep alluvial aquifers), and Telangana (Central India; shallow bedrock aquifers), with vastly different natural resource endowments (water and hydrogeology) and economic structures, present an exemplary case study for depicting the linkages that exist between hydrological variability, climate change adaptation, and regional sectorial economies. We focus our study on precipitation variability and key parameters that can explain how the Indian monsoon has been evolving over time: total and monthly monsoon rainfall, the frequency and length of dry spells, the spatial distribution of rainfall, and the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Using a social accounting matrix (SAM) to describe the sector composition and structure of the Punjab, Telengana and the rest of India, we evaluate the economic implications of variability, adaptation, and policy changes, via a general equilibrium framework. Hydrologic variability and change is given context as "water shocks" are translated to economic consequences allowing to study scenarios and trade-offs.

  19. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; Brady, Michael P.; Evans, R. David; Kruger, Chad E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, Mingliang; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; Rajagopalan, Kirti; Harrison, John A.; Tague, Christina L.; Kalyanaraman, Ananth; Chen, Yong; Guenther, Alex; Leung, Fok-Yan; Leung, L. Ruby; Perleberg, Andrew B.; Yoder, Jonathan; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, Sarah; Chandrasekharan, Bhagyam; Malek, Keyvan; Mullis, Tristan; Miller, Cody; Nergui, Tsengel; Poinsatte, Justin; Reyes, Julian; Zhu, Jun; Choate, Janet S.; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Nelson, Roger; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Yorgey, Georgine G.; Johnson, Kristen; Chinnayakanahalli, Kiran J.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Nijssen, Bart; Walden, Von

    2014-04-24

    Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region that explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.

  20. Dioxins, furans, biphenyls, arsenic, thorium and uranium in natural and anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium used in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Avelar, A C; Ferreira, W M; Pemberthy, D; Abad, E; Amaral, M A

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the presence of dioxins, furans and biphenyls, and the inorganic contaminants such as arsenic (As), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) in three main products used in Agriculture in Brazil: feed grade dicalcium phosphate, calcined bovine bone meal and calcitic limestone. The first two are anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium, while calcitic limestone is a natural unprocessed mineral. Regarding to dioxin-like substances, all samples analyzed exhibited dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) concentrations below limit of detection (LOD). In general, achieved is in accordance with regulation in Brazil where is established a maximum limit in limestone used in the citric pulp production (0.50pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). In addition, reported data revealed very low levels for limestone in comparison with similar materials reported by European legislation. As result for toxic metals, achieved data were obtained using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). On one hand, limestone sample exhibits the largest arsenic concentration. On another hand, dicalcium phosphate exhibited the largest uranium concentration, which represents a standard in animal nutrition. Therefore, it is phosphorus source in the animal feed industry can be a goal of concern in the feed field. PMID:26901743

  1. Professional Manpower and Bachelor's and Graduate Enrollment and Degrees in Agriculture and Natural Resources: Projections to 1980 for the United States and Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottman, Roy M.; Geyer, Richard E.

    The comprehensive study, based on 1970 census data and other recent information from a variety of sources, provides assessment of trends and a projection of future States as well as the State of Ohio. Besides meeting the primary end objective of providing a basis for projecting enrollment needs in agriculture and natural resources in the College…

  2. Comparison of the pathogenicity of the USDA challenge virus strain to a field strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Koski, Danielle M; Predgen, Ann S; Trampel, Darrell W; Conrad, Sandra K; Narwold, Debra R; Hermann, Joseph R

    2015-07-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) causes respiratory disease in chickens. This alphaherpesvirus infects laryngeal tracheal epithelial cells and causes outbreaks culminating in decreases in egg production, respiratory distress in chickens and mortality. There are several different vaccines to combat symptoms of the virus, including chicken embryo origin, tissue culture origin and recombinant vaccines. All vaccines licensed for use in the U.S. are tested for efficacy and potency according to U.S. federal regulation using a vaccine challenge assay involving the use of an ILT challenge virus. This challenge virus is provided to biologics companies by the Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The current USDA challenge virus originated from a vaccine strain and has been subjected to multiple passages in eggs, and may not represent what is currently circulating in the field. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the pathogenicity of USDA's challenge virus strain to the pathogenicity of a recent ILT field isolate. Using the challenge virus and various dilutions of the field isolate, clinical signs, mortality and pathology were evaluated in chickens. Results indicate that the field isolate at a 1:20 dilution is comparable in pathogenicity to the USDA challenge virus at a 1:4 dilution, and that the ILTV field isolate is a viable candidate that could be used as a challenge virus when evaluating vaccine efficacy. PMID:26050912

  3. Understanding the USDA and EPA structure for SBIR Funding

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation is part of SBA webinar series on all of the different SBIR agencies. With USDA, this presentation will describe funding opportunities with EPA's SBIR Program. Audience will be small businesses interested in support for their environmental technologies.

  4. 7 CFR 3022.6 - Notification of USDA of allegations of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-FUNDED EXTRAMURAL RESEARCH; RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 3022.6 Notification of USDA of allegations of research misconduct. (a) Research institutions that conduct USDA-funded extramural research must promptly notify OIG and the USDA RIO of all allegations of research misconduct involving USDA funds when the...

  5. An overview of the DOE/SANDIA/USDA vertical axis wind turbine Test Bed project

    SciTech Connect

    Klimas, P.C.; Dodd, H.M.; Clark, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is presently erecting its Department of Energy (DOE) funded 34-m diameter vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) Test Bed on a Department of Agriculture (USDA) site near Amarillo, Texas. This versatile VAWT, rated at 500 kW in a 12.5 m/s (28 mph) wind, has been designed to demonstrate aerodynamic, structural dynamic, and control strategies intended to improve the effectiveness of VAWT systems. The paper addresses all aspects of this major wind energy project. The need for a turbine in this general physical size range, the choice of a modular fabrication scheme, and the reasons for component materials and subsystems are all discussed. The selection of the Bushland, Texas, site and the motivation behind the involvement of the USDA Agricultural Research Service is described. The SNL organization and management plan assembled to design, procure, erect, and operate the Test Bed is detailed. The technical features in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, power systems, control philosophies, instrumentation, data acquisition, and data analysis are highlighted. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  6. Managing agricultural greenhouse gases: The basis of GRACEnet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, USDA Agricultural Research Service has been engaged in a national project called GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network). Goals of the project are to (1) evaluate soil organic carbon status and change, (2) assess net greenhouse gas emissions (...

  7. Using UAVs to enhance the quality of precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies by USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have indicated potential for significant improvement in the quality and application of Precision Agriculture products through the use of very high resolution imagery. An assessment of potential platforms to collect such imagery at an afford...

  8. Final report : results of the 2006-2007 investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA facility in Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-08-28

    The 2006-2007 investigation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform contamination at Barnes, Kansas, was conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory implemented the investigation on behalf of the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The overall goal of the investigation was to establish criteria for monitoring leading to potential site reclassification. The investigation objectives were to (1) determine the hydraulic gradient near the former CCC/USDA facility, (2) delineate the downgradient carbon tetrachloride plume, and (3) design and implement an expanded monitoring network at Barnes (Argonne 2006a).

  9. 75 FR 32736 - Notice of Solicitation for Members of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ..., Extension, Education and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education and Economics, USDA. ACTION... National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: Deadline for..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Office, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Room...

  10. 75 FR 68598 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION... to 9 member positions of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board; Research Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

  11. Municipal biosolid applications: Improving ecosystem services across urban, agricultural, and wildlife interfaces in Austin, Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our project encompasses emerging contaminants, ecosystem services, and urban-agriculture-wildlife interfaces. This seminal research collaboration between USDA-ARS Grassland, Soil, and Water Research Laboratory, The City of Austin Water Utility, and Texas Parks and Wildlife Environmental Contaminant...

  12. Recent Land Use Change to Agriculture in the U.S. Lake States: Impacts on Cellulosic Biomass Potential and Natural Lands

    PubMed Central

    Mladenoff, David J.; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Johnson, Christopher P.; Rothstein, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Perennial cellulosic feedstocks may have potential to reduce life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by offsetting fossil fuels. However, this potential depends on meeting a number of important criteria involving land cover change, including avoiding displacement of agricultural production, not reducing uncultivated natural lands that provide biodiversity habitat and other valued ecosystem services, and avoiding the carbon debt (the amount of time needed to repay the initial carbon loss) that accompanies displacing natural lands. It is unclear whether recent agricultural expansion in the United States competes with lands potentially suited for bioenergy feedstocks. Here, we evaluate how recent land cover change (2008–2013) has affected the availability of lands potentially suited for bioenergy feedstock production in the U.S. Lake States (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan) and its impact on other natural ecosystems. The region is potentially well suited for a diversity of bioenergy production systems, both grasses and woody biomass, due to the widespread forest economy in the north and agricultural economy in the south. Based on remotely-sensed data, our results show that between 2008 and 2013, 836,000 ha of non-agricultural open lands were already converted to agricultural uses in the Lake States, a loss of nearly 37%. The greatest relative changes occurred in the southern half that includes some of the most diverse cultivable lands in the country. We use transition diagrams to reveal gross changes that can be obscured if only net change is considered. Our results indicate that expansion of row crops (corn, soybean) was responsible for the majority of open land loss. Even if recently lost open lands were brought into perennial feedstock production, there would a substantial carbon debt. This reduction in open land availability for biomass production is closing the window of opportunity to establish a sustainable cellulosic feedstock economy in the Lake States as

  13. Recent Land Use Change to Agriculture in the U.S. Lake States: Impacts on Cellulosic Biomass Potential and Natural Lands.

    PubMed

    Mladenoff, David J; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Johnson, Christopher P; Rothstein, David E

    2016-01-01

    Perennial cellulosic feedstocks may have potential to reduce life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by offsetting fossil fuels. However, this potential depends on meeting a number of important criteria involving land cover change, including avoiding displacement of agricultural production, not reducing uncultivated natural lands that provide biodiversity habitat and other valued ecosystem services, and avoiding the carbon debt (the amount of time needed to repay the initial carbon loss) that accompanies displacing natural lands. It is unclear whether recent agricultural expansion in the United States competes with lands potentially suited for bioenergy feedstocks. Here, we evaluate how recent land cover change (2008-2013) has affected the availability of lands potentially suited for bioenergy feedstock production in the U.S. Lake States (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan) and its impact on other natural ecosystems. The region is potentially well suited for a diversity of bioenergy production systems, both grasses and woody biomass, due to the widespread forest economy in the north and agricultural economy in the south. Based on remotely-sensed data, our results show that between 2008 and 2013, 836,000 ha of non-agricultural open lands were already converted to agricultural uses in the Lake States, a loss of nearly 37%. The greatest relative changes occurred in the southern half that includes some of the most diverse cultivable lands in the country. We use transition diagrams to reveal gross changes that can be obscured if only net change is considered. Our results indicate that expansion of row crops (corn, soybean) was responsible for the majority of open land loss. Even if recently lost open lands were brought into perennial feedstock production, there would a substantial carbon debt. This reduction in open land availability for biomass production is closing the window of opportunity to establish a sustainable cellulosic feedstock economy in the Lake States as

  14. FGD gypsum's place in American agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, C.

    2007-07-01

    Surface cracks and soil clumps form when saline-sodic, high-clay soil dries out. Treatment with FGD gypsum and irrigation water flowing into these cracks leaches salts until the aggregates swell and the cracks close up. The article describes research projects to develop agricultural uses of FGD gypsum from coal-fired power plants that have been conducted by university researchers and USDA-Agricultural Research Service scientists.

  15. Past agricultural land use and present-day fire regimes can interact to determine the nature of seed predation.

    PubMed

    Stuhler, John D; Orrock, John L

    2016-06-01

    Historical agriculture and present-day fire regimes can have significant effects on contemporary ecosystems. Although past agricultural land use can lead to long-term changes in plant communities, it remains unclear whether these persistent land-use legacies alter plant-consumer interactions, such as seed predation, and whether contemporary disturbance (e.g., fire) alters the effects of historical agriculture on these interactions. We conducted a study at 27 sites distributed across 80,300 ha in post-agricultural and non-agricultural longleaf pine woodlands with different degrees of fire frequency to test the hypothesis that past and present-day disturbances that alter plant communities can subsequently alter seed predation. We quantified seed removal by arthropods and rodents for Tephrosia virginiana and Vernonia angustifolia, species of conservation interest. We found that the effects of land-use history and fire frequency on seed removal were contingent on granivore guild and microhabitat characteristics. Tephrosia virginiana removal was greater in low fire frequency sites, due to greater seed removal by rodents. Although overall removal of V. angustifolia did not differ among habitats, rodents removed more seeds than arthropods at post-agricultural sites and non-agricultural sites with low fire frequencies, but not at non-agricultural sites with high fire frequencies. Land-use history and fire frequency also affected the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and removal of V. angustifolia. Our results suggest that historical agriculture and present-day fire regimes may alter seed predation by shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators among habitats, with potential consequences for the establishment of rare plant species consumed by one or both predators. PMID:26905418

  16. USDA-ARS perspective on PAM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) described herein is a synthetic organic polymer used globally by a number of important industries. It also has a number of valuable applications in irrigated agriculture, including its use in furrow irrigation to control erosion and sediment loss in runoff, manage infiltration,...

  17. The USDA acquires new switchgrass germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., is a highly productive perennial warm season grass native to the United States. Efforts to expand switchgrass germplasm available in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Plant Germplasm System have resulted in the completion of several collection trips fund...

  18. Global Agriculture Yields and Conflict under Future Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rising, J.; Cane, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Aspects of climate have been shown to correlate significantly with conflict. We investigate a possible pathway for these effects through changes in agriculture yields, as predicted by field crop models (FAO's AquaCrop and DSSAT). Using satellite and station weather data, and surveyed data for soil and management, we simulate major crop yields across all countries between 1961 and 2008, and compare these to FAO and USDA reported yields. Correlations vary by country and by crop, from approximately .8 to -.5. Some of this range in crop model performance is explained by crop varieties, data quality, and other natural, economic, and political features. We also quantify the ability of AquaCrop and DSSAT to simulate yields under past cycles of ENSO as a proxy for their performance under changes in climate. We then describe two statistical models which relate crop yields to conflict events from the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict dataset. The first relates several preceding years of predicted yields of the major grain in each country to any conflict involving that country. The second uses the GREG ethnic group maps to identify differences in predicted yields between neighboring regions. By using variation in predicted yields to explain conflict, rather than actual yields, we can identify the exogenous effects of weather on conflict. Finally, we apply precipitation and temperature time-series under IPCC's A1B scenario to the statistical models. This allows us to estimate the scale of the impact of future yields on future conflict. Centroids of the major growing regions for each country's primary crop, based on USDA FAS consumption. Correlations between simulated yields and reported yields, for AquaCrop and DSSAT, under the assumption that no irrigation, fertilization, or pest control is used. Reported yields are the average of FAO yields and USDA FAS yields, where both are available.

  19. 76 FR 20305 - Consultative Group To Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Consultative Group To Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural Products AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. ACTION: Request for Comment on Guidelines for Eliminating Child and Forced Labor in Agricultural Supply Chains. SUMMARY: Notice is...

  20. Work plan : targeted investigation to assess current conditions associated with the carbon tetrachloride plume downgradient from the former CCC/USDA facility at Milford, Nebraska.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-07-09

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) formerly operated a grain storage facility at Milford, Nebraska. In May 2008, the CCC/USDA directed the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory, as its technical consultant, to develop a work plan for a targeted investigation at the Milford site. The purpose of the targeted investigation is to assess the current extent and configuration of the carbon tetrachloride plume downgradient from the former CCC/USDA facility and proximal to the banks of the Big Blue River, which borders the area of concern to the east, southeast, and northeast. In 1995, carbon tetrachloride contamination was detected by the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services in a private drinking water well and a livestock well 1.25 mi south of Milford (Figure 1.1). The Trojan drinking water well is located directly downgradient (approximately 300 ft east) of the former CCC/USDA facility. Low levels of carbon tetrachloride contamination were also found in the Troyer livestock well, approximately 1,200 ft north of the former CCC/USDA facility.

  1. Unraveling the intraguild competition between Oscheius spp. nematodes and entomopathogenic nematodes: Implications for their natural distribution in Swiss agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Půža, Vladimir; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Blanco-Pérez, Rubén; Čepulytė-Rakauskienė, Rasa; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-11-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are excellent biological control agents to fight soil-dwelling insect pests. In a previous survey of agricultural soils of Switzerland, we found mixtures of free-living nematodes (FLN) in the genus Oscheius, which appeared to be in intense competition with EPN. As this may have important implications for the long-term persistence of EPN, we studied this intraguild competition in detail. We hypothesized that (i) Oscheius spp. isolates act as scavengers rather than entomopathogens, and (ii) cadavers with relatively small numbers of EPN are highly suitable resources for Oscheius spp. reproduction. To study this, we identified Oscheius spp. isolated from Swiss soils, quantified the outcome of EPN/Oscheius competition in laboratory experiments, developed species-specific primers and probe for quantitative real-time PCR, and evaluated their relative occurrence in the field in the context of the soil food web. Molecular analysis (ITS/D2D3) identified MG-67/MG-69 as Oscheius onirici and MG-68 as O. tipulae (Dolichura-group). Oscheius spp. indeed behaved as scavengers, reproducing in ∼64% of frozen-killed cadavers from controlled experiments. Mixed infection in the laboratory by Oscheius spp. with low (3 IJs) or high (20 IJs) initial EPN numbers revealed simultaneous reproduction in double-exposed cadavers which resulted in a substantial reduction in the number of EPN progeny from the cadaver. This effect depended on the number of EPN in the initial inoculum and differed by EPN species; Heterorhabditis megidis was better at overcoming competition. This study reveals Oscheius spp. as facultative kleptoparasites that compete with EPN for insect cadavers. Using real-time qPCR, we were able to accurately quantify this strong competition between FLN and EPN in cadavers that were recovered after soil baiting (∼86% cadavers with >50% FLN production). The severe competition within the host cadavers and the intense management of the soils in

  2. Providing farmers, ranchers, and foresters in California with actionable climate information: opportunities and obstacles for California's USDA Regional Climate Sub Hub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, A. C.; Steenwerth, K. L.; Stine, P.; Chambers, J.; Fischer, C.; Kiger, L.; Hedt, T.; Gonzales, O.; Tse, R.; Tse, A.; Gunasekara, A.; Henly, R.; DeLaRosa, J.; Battany, M.; Pathak, T.; Parker, D.; Schwartz, M.; Tjeerdema, R.; Kalansky, J.; Kehmeier, E.; Xides, A.; Marshall, A.; Jagannathan, K.

    2015-12-01

    California is the #1 agricultural state in the US, with output worth $50 billion in 2014. California produces half the nation's specialty crops (fruits, vegetables, and nuts) and is a leader in beef and dairy production. California also has 10% of the forestland west of the Mississippi, including many economically and ecologically important forest types. The USDA Regional Climate Sub Hub for California was created in 2014 to help land users (farmers, ranchers, and forest land owners) cope with climate variability and change, via two-way linkages with producers of climate information. In its first year and a half, the Sub Hub has formed partnerships with California's many other climate-focused organizations, including state and federal government, universities, and NGOs. The Sub Hub coordinates climate-related work among several USDA agencies (ARS, FS, NRCS, and others), which formerly had no mechanism to do so. The Sub Hub also works with other federal climate programs (such as the DOI's CA Landscape Conservation Cooperative, with which the Sub Hub is engaged in a multi-year assessment to balance conservation and agriculture in the Central Valley). State government agencies, such as the Natural Resources Agency and the Department of Food and Agriculture, are key partners for priority-setting and data-sharing. One of the Sub Hub's crucial synergies is with UC Cooperative Extension, which provides insight into land users' needs and provides an outlet to deliver Sub Hub products on the ground. In response to stakeholder concerns, the Sub Hub's 2015-16 emphasis is the ongoing California drought. The Sub Hub's current stakeholder-focused projects include (1) a climate vulnerability assessment of California rangelands, including detailed maps of likely vegetation change and suggestions for location-specific adaptation options; (2) a comprehensive climate-related update of Cooperative Extension's widely used Forest Stewardship Series for private landowners; (3) a study on

  3. Formation of Pedogenic Carbonates in the Semi-arid Rio Grande Valley: Insights from Carbon, Major elements, and U-series isotopes in Natural and Agricultural Soils of Southern New Mexico and Western Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyachoti, S. K.; Ma, L.; Jin, L.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Accumulation of pedogenic carbonates in arid and semi-arid soils affects soil porosity, water infiltration, and global carbon cycle. We investigate formation rates of these carbonates under different land uses in the semi-arid Rio Grande valley using mineralogy, concentrations of major elements (including C), and U-series isotopes. Our study sites include one alfalfa farm (Alfalfa) at El Paso, TX under frequent irrigation with saline water from the Rio Grande River, and one natural shrub field under natural rainfall conditions at the USDA Jornada Experimental Range (Jornada) in NM. Major minerals observed at Alfalfa and Jornada are calcite, quartz, and feldspars. Calcite/quartz ratios increase upward in the profile at Alfalfa, suggesting formation of carbonates in shallow soils. Consistently, total carbon increases toward the soil surface at Alfalfa, contributed by both soil organic carbon and soil inorganic carbon (pedogenic carbonates). Concentrations of major elements (e.g Ca, Mg, and Sr) also increase toward the surface at Alfalfa, suggesting surface addition. Alternating trends of enrichment and depletion are observed throughout the soil profiles. In contrast, calcite/quartz ratios decrease toward the surface at Jornada, indicative of leaching at shallow soils and redeposition of calcite at depth. This is in agreement with high soil inorganic carbon contents measured at depth. At Jornada however, the Ca, Mg and Sr concentrations decrease toward the surface, showing typical depletion profiles. (234U/238U) activity ratios in bulk soils increase upward at Alfalfa while at Jornada (234U/238U) ratios decrease toward the surface. (234U/238U) ratios at Alfalfa suggest surface addition of U onto shallow soils probably from irrigation water, which is known to have high (234U/238U) ratios. Jornada shows preferential loss of 234U upward. U-series disequilibrium in pedogenic carbonates enables calculation of their formation ages. At Alfalfa, carbonate ages range from 2

  4. Nutrient database improvement project: the influence of USDA quality and yield grade on the separable components and proximate composition of raw and cooked retail cuts from the beef chuck.

    PubMed

    West, S E; Harris, K B; Haneklaus, A N; Savell, J W; Thompson, L D; Brooks, J C; Pool, J K; Luna, A M; Engle, T E; Schutz, J S; Woerner, D R; Arcibeque, S L; Belk, K E; Douglass, L; Leheska, J M; McNeill, S; Howe, J C; Holden, J M; Duvall, M; Patterson, K

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to provide updated information on the separable components, cooking yields, and proximate composition of retail cuts from the beef chuck. Additionally, the impact the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Quality and Yield Grade may have on such factors was investigated. Ultimately, these data will be used in the USDA - Nutrient Data Laboratory's (NDL) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). To represent the current United States beef supply, seventy-two carcasses were selected from six regions of the country based on USDA Yield Grade, USDA Quality Grade, gender, and genetic type. Whole beef chuck primals from selected carcasses were shipped to three university laboratories for subsequent retail cut fabrication, raw and cooked cut dissection, and proximate analyses. The incorporation of these data into the SR will improve dietary education, product labeling, and other applications both domestically and abroad, thus emphasizing the importance of accurate and relevant beef nutrient data. PMID:24769877

  5. Keeping wetlands wet in the western United States: adaptations to drought in agriculture-dominated human-natural systems.

    PubMed

    Downard, Rebekah; Endter-Wada, Joanna

    2013-12-15

    Water is critical to protecting wetlands in arid regions, especially in agriculture-dominated watersheds. This comparative case study analyzes three federal wildlife refuges in the Bear River Basin of the U.S. West where refuge managers secured water supplies by adapting to their local environmental context and their refuge's relationship to agriculture in being either irrigation-dependent, reservoir-adjacent or diked-delta wetlands. We found that each refuge's position confers different opportunities for securing a water supply and entails unique management challenges linked to agricultural water uses. Acquiring contextually-appropriate water rights portfolios was important for protecting these arid region wetlands and was accomplished through various strategies. Once acquired, water is managed to buffer wetlands against fluctuations caused by a dynamic climate and agricultural demands, especially during droughts. Management plans are responsive to needs of neighboring water users and values of the public at large. Such context-specific adaptations will be critical as the West faces climate change and population growth that threaten wetlands and agricultural systems to which they are linked. PMID:24211568

  6. 78 FR 54841 - Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture; Pesticides; Satisfaction of Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 152 RIN 2070-AJ58 Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture... Agriculture. SUMMARY: This document notifies the public as required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and... Department of Agriculture (USDA) a draft final rule titled: ``Pesticides; Satisfaction of Data...

  7. 77 FR 47351 - Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture; Pesticides; Regulation To Clarify...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 168 RIN 2070-AJ53 Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture... (EPA). ACTION: Notification of submission to the Secretary of Agriculture. SUMMARY: This document... EPA Administrator has forwarded to the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) a...

  8. 76 FR 13973 - United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... example of a processed agricultural product is apple juice concentrate. In the past, USDA has issued USWA... agricultural products such as apple juice concentrate and other similar products. This proposal is in response... following questions: Should FSA offer a license for processed agricultural products such as apple...

  9. USDA Southwest Regional Hub for Adaptation to and Mitigation of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rango, A.; Elias, E.; Steele, C. M.; Havstad, K.

    2014-12-01

    The USDA Southwest (SW) Climate Hub was created in February 2014 to develop risk adaptation and mitigation strategies for coping with climate change effects on agricultural productivity. There are seven regional hubs across the country with three subsidiary hubs. The SW Climate Hub Region is made up of six states: New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, California and Hawaii (plus the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands). The SW Climate Hub has a subsidiary hub located in Davis, California. The Southwest region has high climatic diversity, with the lowest and highest average annual rainfall in the U.S.(6.0 cm in Death Valley, CA and 1168 cm at Mt. Waialeale, HI). There are major deserts in five of the six states, yet most of the states, with exception of Hawaii, depend upon the melting of mountain snowpacks for their surface water supply. Additionally, many of the agricultural areas of the SW Regional Hub depend upon irrigation water to maintain productivity. Scientific climate information developed by the Hub will be used for climate-smart decision making. To do this, the SW Regional Hub will rely upon existing infrastructure of the Cooperative Extension Service at Land-Grant State Universities. Extension service and USDA-NRCS personnel have existing networks to communicate with stakeholders (farmers, ranchers, and forest landowners) through meetings and workshops which have already started in the six states. Outreach through the development of a weather and climate impact modules designed for seventh grade students and their teachers will foster education of future generations of rural land managers. We will be synthesizing and evaluating existing reports, literature and information on regional climate projections, water resources, and agricultural adaptation strategies related to climate in the Southwest. The results will be organized in a spatial format and provided through the SW Hub website (http://swclimatehub.info) and peer-reviewed articles.

  10. Final work plan : supplemental upward vapor intrusion investigation at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Hanover, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-12-15

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated a grain storage facility at the northeastern edge of the city of Hanover, Kansas, from 1950 until the early 1970s. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In February 1998, trace to low levels of carbon tetrachloride (below the maximum contaminant level [MCL] of 5.0 {micro}g/L) were detected in two private wells near the former grain storage facility at Hanover, as part of a statewide USDA private well sampling program that was implemented by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) near former CCC/USDA facilities. In 2007, the CCC/USDA conducted near-surface soil sampling at 61 locations and also sampled indoor air at nine residences on or adjacent to its former Hanover facility to address the residents concerns regarding vapor intrusion. Low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected at four of the nine homes. The results were submitted to the KDHE in October 2007 (Argonne 2007). On the basis of the results, the KDHE requested sub-slab sampling and/or indoor air sampling (KDHE 2007). This Work Plan describes, in detail, the proposed additional scope of work requested by the KDHE and has been developed as a supplement to the comprehensive site investigation work plan that is pending (Argonne 2008). Indoor air samples collected previously from four homes at Hanover were shown to contain the carbon tetrachloride at low concentrations (Table 2.1). It cannot be concluded from these previous data that the source of the detected carbon tetrachloride is vapor intrusion attributable to former grain storage operations of the CCC/USDA at Hanover. The technical objective of the vapor intrusion investigation described here is to assess the risk to human health due to the potential for upward migration of carbon tetrachloride and

  11. Prevalence of a potentially lethal parasite of wading birds in natural and agricultural wetlands in south Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luent, Margaret C.; Collins, Melissa; Jeske, Clinton; Leberg, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Gambusia affinis (Western Mosquitofish) were sampled from 18 sites representing marsh, forested wetlands, and agricultural wetlands in south Louisiana to determine distribution and infection parameters of Eustrongylides ignotus, a potentially lethal nematode parasite of wading birds, (n = 400 per site). Overall, prevalence of infection was 0.3%, with significantly higher prevalence in agricultural wetlands than in marshes or swamps. Our findings are similar to work in Florida suggesting parasite prevalence is higher in disturbed wetlands, and suggest that birds foraging in crayfish ponds and rice fields may be at increased risk of exposure.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions in natural and agricultural lands in sub-Saharan Africa: synthesizing of available data and suggestions for further studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. G.; Thomas, A. D.; Pelster, D.; Rosenstock, T. S.; Sanz-Cobena, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper synthesizes currently available data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from African natural and agricultural lands, outlines the knowledge gaps and suggests future directions and strategies for GHG emission studies. GHG emission data were collected from 42 studies conducted in 21 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Soil GHG emissions from African natural terrestrial systems ranged from 3.3 to 57.0 Mg carbon dioxide (CO2) ha-1 y-1, -4.8 to 3.5 kg methane (CH4) ha-1 y-1 and -0.1 to 13.7 kg nitrous oxide (N2O) ha-1 y-1. Soil physical and chemical properties, rewetting, vegetation type, forest management and land-use changes were all found to be important factors affecting soil GHG emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions from African aquatic systems ranged from 5.7 to 232.0 Mg CO2 ha-1 y-1, -26.3 to 2741.9 kg CH4 ha-1 y-1 and 0.2 to 3.5 kg N2O ha-1 y-1 and were strongly affected by amount of discharge. Soil GHG emissions from African croplands ranged from 1.7 to 141.2 Mg CO2 ha-1 y-1, -1.3 to 66.7 kg CH4 ha-1 y-1 and 0.05 to 112.0 kg N2O ha-1 y-1 and N2O emission factor (EF) ranged from 0.01 to 4.1%. Soil GHG emissions in vegetable gardens ranged from 73.3 to 132.0 Mg CO2 ha-1 y-1 and 53.4 to 177.6 kg N2O ha-1 y-1 and N2O EFs ranged from 3 to 4%. Throughout agricultural lands, N2O emissions slowly increased with N inputs below 150 kg N ha-1 y-1 and exponentially with N application rates up to 300 kg N ha-1 y-1. The lowest yield-scaled N2O emissions were reported with N application rates ranging between 100 and 150 kg N ha-1. Overall, total CO2 eq. emissions in African natural and agricultural lands were 56.9 ± 12.7 Pg CO2 eq. y-1 and natural and agricultural lands contribute 76.3% and 23.7%, respectively. Additional GHG emission measurements throughout Africa agricultural and natural lands are urgently required to quantify annual GHG emissions and identify major control factors and mitigation options on emissions.

  13. Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational Services.

    Designed for use in the Connecticut Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers, this curriculum provides exploratory and specialization units for four major areas of agriculture. These are Agriculture Mechanics, Animal Science, Natural Resources, and Plant Science. The exploratory units are required for grades 9 and 10, while the specialization units…

  14. The effects of a socioscientific issues instructional model in secondary agricultural education on students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoulders, Catherine Woglom

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a socioscientific issues-based instructional model on secondary agricultural education students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. This study utilized a pre-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design to assess the impacts of a nine-week unit that incorporated a socioscientific issue into instruction on secondary agriculture students' agriscience content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. The population for this study was Florida's secondary students enrolled in agricultural education. The accessible population was students enrolled in Agriscience Foundations classes in Florida. A convenience sample of Florida's Agriscience Foundations teachers attending a summer professional development or Chapter Officer Leadership Training session was taken. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to determine the impact the treatment had on students' agriscience content knowledge on distal and proximal assessments, as well as on students' scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills related to number of argumentation justifications and quality of those justifications, and views of the nature of science. Paired-samples t tests were also conducted to determine whether the treatment yielded results with middle school or high school students. Statistical analysis found significant improvements in students' agriscience content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, and argumentation skills. High school students' scores resulted in significant improvements in proximal content knowledge assessments and argumentation justification quality. Middle school students' scores resulted in significant improvements in proximal content knowledge assessments and scientific reasoning ability. No significant difference was found between students' views of the nature of science before and after

  15. Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

  16. THE REVISED USDA NUTRIENT DATA SET FOR FRESH PORK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient composition data for fresh pork products in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) have not been updated since 1991. Since that time, changes in animal husbandry practices and industry procedures have led to the availability of leaner cuts. In order to provide up-to...

  17. Environmentally friendly lubricant development programs at the USDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA is engaged in a comprehensive program to bring about the development and commercialization of environmentally friendly lubricants. A wide range of critical issues are being addresses through basic and applied research internally and in collaboration with industry and academia. The main thr...

  18. USDA develops a database for flavonoids to assess dietary intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beneficial health effects of dietary flavonoids continue to interest the scientific community in associating the flavonoid intakes and certain chronic diseases. Scientists at the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) and the Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG), USDA planned a study of the intakes of fl...

  19. USDA-ARS and EMBRAPA Scientists Build Bridges With Strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the '3rd Simposio Nacional do Morango'and '2nd Encontro de Pequenas Frutas e Frutas Nativas do Mercosul' at Pelotas, Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil, held 7 - 10 November 2006, I was invited to describe strawberry breeding in the United States and also my own USDA-ARS strawberry breeding program at Bel...

  20. Postharvest treatment research at USDA-ARS: stored product fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall goal of this USDA-ARS research is to ensure the protection and quality of stored product foodstuffs. The results of this research directly enhance production, distribution, and safety of foodstuffs, promote and retain access of United States-grown crops to domestic and foreign markets, a...

  1. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23 contains data for over 7,600 food items for up to 146 food components when a complete profile is available for a food item. It replaces the previous release, SR22, issued in September 2009. Data in SR23 supersede values in the printed h...

  2. USDA updates nutrient values for fast food pizza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of quick service pizza has increased as Americans are spending more on food away from home. Pizza is consistently a primary Key Food in the USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) because it is a contributor of more than 14 nutrients of public health significance to the...

  3. Climate programs update: USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PROGRAM OVERVIEW: The overarching goal of the USDA SW Climate Hub is to assist farmers, ranchers and foresters in addressing the effects of climate change including prolonged drought, increased insect outbreaks and severe wildfires. In the first year of operations, the SW Climate Hub (est. Februa...

  4. Hungry for Nutrient Data? Navigating the USDA Nutrient Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) is the major source of food composition data in the United States, providing the foundation for most food composition databases in the public and private sectors. Most nutrition professionals are familiar with the basics of the SR onlin...

  5. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, release 28

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28 contains data for nearly 8,800 food items for up to 150 food components. SR28 replaces the previous release, SR27, originally issued in August 2014. Data in SR28 supersede values in the printed handbooks and previous electronic...

  6. HERU research in support of the USDA Small Watershed Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nation is confronted with issues related to aging infrastructure. The USDA Small Watershed Program flood control dams are a part of that aging infrastructure and as a result have many unique challenges. The National Rehabilitation Amendment of 2000 has helped set into motion a program of addre...

  7. USDA, ARS Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory, Annual Report 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The report describes new activities for the lab including the a transitions in the laboratory and activites on the USDA, NIFA-funded Triticeae CAP project. Recent research on milling and quality evaluations, data management, molecular evaluations, stem rust resistance from the lab are highlighted, ...

  8. USDA NATIONAL NUTRIENT DATABASE FOR STANDARD REFERENCE, RELEASE 19

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 19 contains data for 7,291 food items for up to 140 food components when a complete profile is available for a food item. It replaces the previous release, SR18, issued in August 2005. Data in SR19 supersede values in the printed Handbooks a...

  9. Pulsed electric field (PEF)research at USDA, ARS, ERRC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article summarizes the effects of pulsed electric fields on the microbiological safety and quality aspects of various liquid food matrices, obtained at USDA, ARS, Eastern Regional Research Center under CRIS Project No. 1935-41420-013-00D, Processing Intervention Technologies for Enhancing the S...

  10. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 24

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 24 contains data for over 7,900 food items for up to 146 food components. It replaces the previous release, SR23, issued in September 2010. Data in SR24 supersede values in the printed Handbooks and previous electronic releases of the databa...

  11. USDA Mosquito Control Product Research for the US Military

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New techniques that were developed at the USDA to protect deployed military troops from the threat of vector-borne diseases and are also applicable for use by civilian mosquito control program use are described. Techniques to be illustrated include: (1) novel military personal protection methods, (2...

  12. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21 contains data for 7,414 food items for up to 140 food components when a complete profile is available for a food item. It replaces the previous release, SR20, issued in September 2007. Data in SR21 supersede values in the printed Handbook...

  13. USDA-VETNET: A MOLECULAR APPROACH TO EPIDEMIOLOGIC PUZZLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA - VetNet was established as a complimentary central database of PFGE fingerprints to CDC’s PulseNet. VetNet analyze PFGE fingerprints recovered from various animal sources including poultry, cattle (feed lot and dairy), and swine throughout the US. These isolates are presently being received ...

  14. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22 contains data for over 7,500 food items for up to 143 food components when a complete profile is available for a food item. It replaces the previous release, SR21, issued in September 2008. Data in SR22 supersede values in the printed Han...

  15. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25(SR25)contains data for over 8,100 food items for up to 146 food components. It replaces the previous release, SR24, issued in September 2011. Data in SR25 supersede values in the printed handbooks and previous electronic releas...

  16. The Ins and Outs of USDA Nutrient Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) is the major source of food composition data in the United States, providing the foundation for most food composition databases in the public and private sectors. Sources of data used in SR include analytical studies, food manufacturer...

  17. Expansion of the USDA ARS Aerial Application spray atomization models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effort is underway to update the USDA ARS aerial spray nozzle models using new droplet sizing instrumen-tation and measurement techniques. As part of this effort, the applicable maximum airspeed is being increased from 72 to 80 m/s to provide guidance to applicators when using new high speed air...

  18. Particle-size distribution models for the conversion of Chinese data to FAO/USDA system.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Wei; Dai, YongJiu; García-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Yuan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    We investigated eleven particle-size distribution (PSD) models to determine the appropriate models for describing the PSDs of 16349 Chinese soil samples. These data are based on three soil texture classification schemes, including one ISSS (International Society of Soil Science) scheme with four data points and two Katschinski's schemes with five and six data points, respectively. The adjusted coefficient of determination r (2), Akaike's information criterion (AIC), and geometric mean error ratio (GMER) were used to evaluate the model performance. The soil data were converted to the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) standard using PSD models and the fractal concept. The performance of PSD models was affected by soil texture and classification of fraction schemes. The performance of PSD models also varied with clay content of soils. The Anderson, Fredlund, modified logistic growth, Skaggs, and Weilbull models were the best. PMID:25121108

  19. USDA regulatory guidelines and practices for veterinary Leptospira vaccine potency testing.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, G B; Walker, A; Rippke, B

    2013-09-01

    Batch-release potency testing of leptospiral vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) historically was conducted through animal vaccination-challenge models. The hamster vaccination-challenge assay was Codified in 1974 for bacterins containing Leptospira pomona, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, and Leptospira canicola, and in 1975 for bacterins containing Leptospira grippotyphosa. In brief, 10 hamsters are vaccinated with a specified dilution of bacterin. After a holding period, the vaccinated hamsters, as well as nonvaccinated controls, are challenged with virulent Leptospira and observed for mortality. Eighty percent of vaccinated hamsters must survive in the face of a valid challenge. The high cost of the Codified tests, in terms of monetary expense and animal welfare, prompted the Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) to develop ELISA alternatives for them. Potency tests for other serogroups, such as Leptospira hardjo-bovis, that do not have Codified requirements for potency testing continue to be examined on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23838570

  20. Particle-Size Distribution Models for the Conversion of Chinese Data to FAO/USDA System

    PubMed Central

    Dai, YongJiu; García-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Yuan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    We investigated eleven particle-size distribution (PSD) models to determine the appropriate models for describing the PSDs of 16349 Chinese soil samples. These data are based on three soil texture classification schemes, including one ISSS (International Society of Soil Science) scheme with four data points and two Katschinski's schemes with five and six data points, respectively. The adjusted coefficient of determination r 2, Akaike's information criterion (AIC), and geometric mean error ratio (GMER) were used to evaluate the model performance. The soil data were converted to the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) standard using PSD models and the fractal concept. The performance of PSD models was affected by soil texture and classification of fraction schemes. The performance of PSD models also varied with clay content of soils. The Anderson, Fredlund, modified logistic growth, Skaggs, and Weilbull models were the best. PMID:25121108