Science.gov

Sample records for agriculture veterinary medicine

  1. Library Cooperation at the NOVA University--the Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllys, Heli

    The Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine--the NOVA University-was established in 1995 to increase the cooperation between the Nordic agricultural universities. The NOVA libraries of the seven institutions and facilities involved wanted to show that they are a very useful partner in launching new ideas. They have the…

  2. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:26940413

  3. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:26851100

  4. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:27365238

  5. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-06-11

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:27288166

  6. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-09-10

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:27609956

  7. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:27493045

  8. 77 FR 77008 - Solicitation of Veterinary Shortage Situation Nominations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and... Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) for fiscal year (FY) 2013, as authorized under the... the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program; National Institute of Food and Agriculture;...

  9. 50 Years: Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narlesky, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Describes the history, research, teaching strategies, and specialties of the University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Documents effects of changing societal attitudes toward wildlife, pets, working animals, and food animals on curriculum, the systems approach to disease, comparative genetics, biotechnology, the ecology of…

  10. Laser In Veterinary Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Carlton; Jaggar, David H.

    1982-12-01

    Lasers have been used for some time now on animals for experimental purposes prior to their use in human medical and surgical fields. However the use of lasers in veterinary medicine and surgery per se is a recent development. We describe the application of high and low intensity laser technology in a general overview of the current uses, some limitations to its use and future needs for future inquiry and development.

  11. Hirudotherapy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion. PMID:25115059

  12. Surgical Lasers In Veterinary Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, H. C.

    1987-03-01

    Veterinary medicine is a latecomer in benefiting from the advent of surgical lasers. It is ironic that although most of the basic work in lasers is carried out in animal species with which we are most conversant, veterinary medicine as a profession has not been very extensively involved.

  13. Needlestick injuries in veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Weese, J. Scott; Jack, Douglas C.

    2008-01-01

    Needlestick injuries are an inherent risk of handling needles during the course of veterinary practice. While significant effort has been expended to reduce needlestick injuries in human medicine, a relatively lax approach seems to be prevalent in veterinary medicine. It appears that needlestick injuries are very common among veterinary personnel and that serious adverse effects, while uncommon, do occur. Clients may also receive injuries in clinics during the course of animal restraint, and at home following prescription of injectable medications or fluids. Because of occupational health, personal health, and liability concerns, veterinary practices should review the measures they are taking to reduce the likelihood of needlestick injuries and develop written needlestick injury avoidance protocols. PMID:18978971

  14. Allergens in veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, R. S.; Janda, J.; Jensen-Jarolim, E.; Rhyner, C.; Marti, E.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. PMID:26280544

  15. Allergens in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. PMID:26280544

  16. [Liability in veterinary medicine].

    PubMed

    Hazewinkel, H A

    1986-12-15

    In order to promote the optimum exercise of the profession, the occupational group developed disciplinary standards of its own. To protect itself from socially improper procedures, from default and from its consequences, society developed standards of civil law. When a veterinarian is insufficiently equipped for adequate treatment of a patient, this patient will be referred to a veterinary surgeon who has acquired the necessary accomplishments in the section concerned; high standards of attainment will be imposed on this veterinarian. The fact that the referring veterinarian and the one to whom the patient was referred each retain their own responsibilities, is illustrated in examples. All this may result in a further improvement in quality of veterinary health care in the Netherlands. PMID:3824330

  17. Veterinary medicines in the environment.

    PubMed

    Boxall, A B A; Fogg, L A; Blackwell, P A; Kay, P; Pemberton, E J; Croxford, A

    2004-01-01

    The impact of veterinary medicines on the environment will depend on a number of factors including physicochemical properties, amount used and method of administration, treatment type and dose, animal husbandry practices, manure storage and handling practices, metabolism within the animal, and degradation rates in manure and slurry. Once released to the environment, other factors such as soil type, climate, and ecotoxicity also determine the environmental impact of the compound. The importance of individual routes into the environment for different types of veterinary medicines varies according to the type of treatment and livestock category. Treatments used in aquaculture have a high potential to reach the aquatic environment. The main routes of entry to the terrestrial environment are from the use of veterinary medicines in intensively reared livestock, via the application of slurry and manure to land, and by the use of veterinary medicines in pasture-reared animals where pharmaceutical residues are excreted directly into the environment. Veterinary medicines applied to land via spreading of slurry may also enter the aquatic environment indirectly via surface runoff or leaching to groundwater. It is likely that topical treatments have greater potential to be released to the environment than treatments administered orally or by injection. Inputs from the manufacturing process, companion animal treatments, and disposal are likely to be minimal in comparison. Monitoring studies demonstrate that veterinary medicines do enter the environment, with sheep dip chemicals, antibiotics, sealice treatments, and anthelmintics being measured in soils, groundwater, surface waters, sediment, or biota. Maximum concentrations vary across chemical classes, with very high concentrations being reported for the sheep dip chemicals. The degree to which veterinary medicines may adsorb to particulates varies widely. Partition coefficients (K(d)) range from low (0.61 L kg(-1)) to high

  18. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  19. The Literature of Veterinary Medicine. CE 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerker, Ann E.; Malamud, Judie

    This course guide outlines the objectives and content for a professional continuing education course on the literature of veterinary medicine. Topics covered include: (1) an introduction to veterinary medicine as a discipline, including comparison with other medical sciences, veterinary medicine education, licensure, animal models, veterinary…

  20. Veterinary medicine and the medical school library.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D

    1969-07-01

    The study of veterinary medicine is becoming increasingly important in the progress of human medicine, and as a consequence the literature of veterinary medicine is assuming increased importance in the libraries of schools of human medicine. In the past decade programs in comparative medicine have been initiated in many centers, reestablishing the linkage between veterinary and human medicine. Since 1966 the National Library of Medicine has assumed extra responsibilities in the collection and control of veterinary medical literature. increased indexing has thus far been the major result, with a resultant increase in the need to consult veterinary journals. Advances in the veterinary curriculum and continued veterinary education have also increased demand for veterinary publications. Such demand must be foreseen and met by medical school libraries if they are to fulfill their obligations to the scholarly medical community. PMID:5789821

  1. Lessons of history in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald F

    2013-01-01

    The future of veterinary medicine is best understood in the context of history. What began as a profession rooted in urban centers in proximity to horses, physicians, and medical schools, was transformed into a land grant-based agricultural profession with the arrival of the internal combustion engine in the early twentieth century. Most of the United States' current veterinary colleges are still located in towns or small cities in the middle section of the country, outside the largest metropolitan areas where most veterinarians practice companion-animal medicine. Throughout veterinarian history, substantial numbers of US students have been educated in foreign colleges and this continues today, creating an even greater geographic imbalance between the veterinary educational process and US population centers and major medical schools. Three themes deserve special attention as we celebrate the profession's 150th anniversary. We must first move beyond the land-grant culture and develop a more geographically balanced approach to establishing new veterinary colleges that are also in closer association with schools of medicine and public health. We must also facilitate more opportunities for women leadership in organized veterinary medicine, in practice ownership, in academia, and in the corporate structures that educate, hire, and interface with veterinarians. Finally, we need to expand our understanding of One Health to include the concept of zooeyia (the role of animals in promoting human health), as well as continue to emphasize veterinarians' special roles in the control and management of zoonotic diseases and in advancing comparative medicine in the age of the genome. PMID:23470241

  2. 78 FR 23742 - Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA... Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP). This notice initiates a 30-day comment period and prescribes the... having their full effect. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments by any of the following methods: Federal...

  3. 75 FR 3193 - Application Package and Reporting Requirements for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA... Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP). This Notice initiates a 60-day comment period and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Gary Sherman; National Program Leader, Veterinary Science; National Institute of Food...

  4. Graduate Program Organization in Clinical Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Graduate training in clinical veterinary medicine is discussed. The options available to the student and problems that must be dealt with are presented, along with the requirements to accomplish a finely structured program that satisfies the needs of both the trainee and clinical veterinary medicine. (Author/MLW)

  5. Confronting zoonoses through closer collaboration between medicine and veterinary medicine (as 'one medicine').

    PubMed

    Kahn, Laura H; Kaplan, Bruce; Steele, James H

    2007-01-01

    In the 19th century, the concept of 'one medicine' was embraced by leaders in the medical and veterinary medical communities. In the 20th century, collaborative efforts between medicine and veterinary medicine diminished considerably. While there have been some notable exceptions, such as Calvin W. Schwabe's proposal for unifying human and veterinary medicine and joint efforts by the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization to control zoonotic diseases, 'one medicine' has languished in the modern milieu of clinical care, public health, and biomedical research. Risks of zoonotic disease transmission are rarely discussed in clinical care which is of particular concern if humans and/or animals are immunosuppressed. Physicians and veterinarians should advise their patients and pet-owning clients that some animals should not be pets. The risk of zoonotic disease acquisition can be considerable in the occupational setting. Collaborative efforts in biomedical research could do much to improve human and animal health. As the threat of zoonotic diseases continues to increase in the 21st century, medicine and veterinary medicine must revive 'one medicine' in order to adequately address these challenges. 'One medicine' revival strategies must involve medical and veterinary medical education, clinical care, public health and biomedical research. PMID:20411497

  6. Veterinary medicine books recommended for academic libraries.

    PubMed

    Crawley-Low, Jill

    2004-10-01

    This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US). PMID:15494763

  7. Veterinary medicine books recommended for academic libraries

    PubMed Central

    Crawley-Low, Jill

    2004-01-01

    This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US). PMID:15494763

  8. Veterinary Preventive Medicine Curriculum Development at Louisiana State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbert, William T.

    1976-01-01

    The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)

  9. 76 FR 31299 - Request for Applications for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... comment period upon publication of the interim rule [74 FR 32788-32798, July 9, 2009], NIFA reconsidered... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Request for Applications for the Veterinary Medicine Loan... National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) is announcing the release of the Veterinary Medicine...

  10. [Veterinary medicine in the modern world].

    PubMed

    Holub, A

    1997-08-01

    Present veterinary medicine is the result of a global scientific effort. Unknown are ideological or national barriers. However, the conditions for its realization vary from country to country with a changing clientele as well. The number of farm animals is increasing, as well as interest in the health of animals not in the care of man. There are about 600,000 veterinarians in the world, globally unevenly distributed. Relatively speaking, the least are in areas with greater agricultural population, and the most, in societies of the postindustrial age. In recent years many regions of the world have been going through an avalanche of changes. Even though the concepts of these consequence to the health care of animals far from agree, the direction of veterinary responsibility is shifting from public to private sector. In this regard the care of animal health on an international, national or regional level has been repeatedly analyzed and intricately evaluated from the early '80s. A generally accepted policy has been that in the care of animal health both sectors, public and private, play a significant role. However, under discussion are their relative proportions which differ in various parts of the world. The market is increasingly permeating into health care. In our country up to now the critical break in the development of veterinary medicine has not been objectively evaluated. We are still too concerned with the past, passing on disinformation, persisting in old dogmas and moss-grown myths. The way into a world of new priorities and the hierarchy of values in today's turbulent times is uneasy, all the more to be tentaciously sought. PMID:9381647

  11. Exposure assessment of veterinary medicines in aquatic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metcalfe, Chris; Boxall, Alistair; Fenner, Kathrin; Kolpin, Dana W.; Silberhorn, Eric; Staveley, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The release of veterinary medicines into the aquatic environment may occur through direct or indirect pathways. An example of direct release is the use of medicines in aquaculture (Armstrong et al. 2005; Davies et al. 1998), where chemicals used to treat fish are added directly to water. Indirect releases, in which medicines make their way to water through transport from other matrices, include the application of animal manure to land or direct excretion of residues onto pasture land, from which the therapeutic chemicals may be transported into the aquatic environment (Jørgensen and Halling-Sørensen 2000; Boxall et al. 2003, 2004). Veterinary medicines used to treat companion animals may also be transported into the aquatic environment through disposal of unused medicines, veterinary waste, or animal carcasses (Daughton and Ternes 1999, Boxall et al. 2004). The potential for a veterinary medicine to be released to the aquatic environment will be determined by several different criteria, including the method of treatment, agriculture or aquaculture practices, environmental conditions, and the properties of the veterinary medicine.

  12. Lasers in veterinary medicine: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Kenneth E.

    1994-09-01

    As in other facets of medical science, the use of lasers in veterinary medicine is a relatively new phenomenon. Economic aspects of the profession as well as questionable returns on investment have limited laser applications primarily to the academic community, research institutions, and specialty practices. As technology improves and efficacy is proven, costs should decrease and allow further introduction of laser surgical and diagnostic devices into the mainstream of clinical veterinary medicine.

  13. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty. PMID:19945637

  14. The Feminization of Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Ben

    1998-01-01

    In little more than a generation, veterinary medical schools have gone from enrolling a token number of women to having a higher proportion of women than men in some cases. Developments in drugs to control large animals, relatively low pay for veterinarians, and options for part-time employment have served to change the balance of sexes in the…

  15. Towards a philosophy of veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Fox, M W

    1984-07-01

    The question of animal rights is looked at from a new perspective: animals of similar sentence should be entitled to the same quality of veterinary care and ought not to be treated differently, some more or less humanely than others. The ethical inconsistencies in the moral status of animals in society, and the veterinarian's role and responsibilities, are explored in an attempt to reconcile the dialectic of animal exploitation and animal rights and of the extrinsic and intrinsic worth of animals. The veterinary profession is in the centre of this issue, which necessitates an examination of our profession's ethics and the formulation of a veterinary philosophy. The importance of empathy in the art and practice of veterinary medicine is also discussed. PMID:6464338

  16. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  17. The lost history of American veterinary medicine: the need for preservation*†

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, C. Trenton

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to survey holdings of ephemeral veterinary literature. Methods: WorldCat OCLC catalog, the Library of Congress online catalog, the US National Agricultural Library online catalog, and the Dictionary Catalog of the National Agricultural Library, 1862–1965, were used to determine current library holdings of materials published by veterinary schools that are no longer in existence and veterinary associations that are defunct, veterinary supply catalogs, veterinary house organs, patent medicine publications, and veterinary advertisements. Individual library catalogs were also consulted. In addition, the practice of removing advertisements from bound volumes was examined. Results: There are many gaps in the cataloged library holdings of primary source materials relating to the history of the education of veterinarians in the United States. Conclusions: A proactive action plan needs to be designed and activated to locate, catalog, and preserve this primary source material of veterinary medicine for posterity. PMID:21243050

  18. Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

  19. Adjunctive analgesic therapy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Leigh A

    2008-11-01

    Adjunctive analgesic therapies are interventions for pain that involve agents or techniques other than the traditional analgesics (opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and local anesthetics). Adjunctive therapies may be pharmacologic or nonpharmacologic in nature. The focus of this article is on pharmacologic interventions with potential utility as adjunctive analgesics in veterinary medicine. Pharmacology of selected agents, including medetomidine, ketamine, amantadine, gabapentin, systemic lidocaine, and pamidronate, is discussed in addition to evidence for their safety and efficacy and guidelines for their use in veterinary patients. PMID:18954680

  20. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines for an integrative veterinary medicine curriculum within veterinary colleges

    PubMed Central

    Memon, M.A.; Shmalberg, J.; Adair, H.S.; Allweiler, S.; Bryan, J.N.; Cantwell, S.; Carr, E.; Chrisman, C.; Egger, C.M.; Greene, S.; Haussler, K.K.; Hershey, B.; Holyoak, G.R.; Johnson, M.; Jeune, S. Le; Looney, A.; McConnico, R.S.; Medina, C.; Morton, A.J.; Munsterman, A.; Nie, G.J.; Park, N.; Parsons-Doherty, M.; Perdrizet, J.A.; Peyton, J.L.; Raditic, D.; Ramirez, H.P.; Saik, J.; Robertson, S.; Sleeper, M.; Dyke, J. Van; Wakshlag, J.

    2016-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270

  1. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines for an integrative veterinary medicine curriculum within veterinary colleges.

    PubMed

    Memon, M A; Shmalberg, J; Adair, H S; Allweiler, S; Bryan, J N; Cantwell, S; Carr, E; Chrisman, C; Egger, C M; Greene, S; Haussler, K K; Hershey, B; Holyoak, G R; Johnson, M; Jeune, S Le; Looney, A; McConnico, R S; Medina, C; Morton, A J; Munsterman, A; Nie, G J; Park, N; Parsons-Doherty, M; Perdrizet, J A; Peyton, J L; Raditic, D; Ramirez, H P; Saik, J; Robertson, S; Sleeper, M; Dyke, J Van; Wakshlag, J

    2016-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270

  2. Veterinary school consortia as a means of promoting the food-supply veterinary medicine pipeline.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dale A

    2006-01-01

    Ideas about centers of emphasis and veterinary medical teaching consortia have resurfaced to attract students into food-supply veterinary medicine (FSVM). From 1988 to 2000 a multiple veterinary school consortium approach to food-animal production medicine (FAPM) teaching was conducted to handle regional differences in case load, faculty strengths, and student interests. Six universities developed a memorandum of understanding to provide a wide variety of in-depth, species-specific clinical experiences in FAPM to balance their individual strengths and weakness in addressing food-animal agriculture, to provide for student exchange and faculty development, and to conduct research in food safety. Changes in leadership, redirection of funds, failure to publicize the program to faculty and students, and a focus on research as opposed to teaching led to dissolution of the consortium. However, this approach could work to improve recruitment and retention of students in FSVM if it focused on student exchange, fostered a more integrated curriculum across schools, encouraged faculty involvement, garnered institutional support, and used modern technology in teaching. Private veterinary practices as well as public/corporate practices could be integrated into a broader food-animal curriculum directed at building competency among FSVM students by providing the in-depth training they require. Requirements for the success of this type of program will include funding, marketing, leadership, communication, coordination, integration, and dedicated people with the time to make it work. PMID:17220493

  3. Graduate Training in Toxicology in Colleges of Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robens, J. F.; Buck, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are an American Board of Veterinary Toxicology survey and evaluation of the training resources available in graduate programs in toxicology located in colleges of veterinary medicine. Regulatory toxicology, number of toxicologists needed, and curriculum are also discussed. (JMD)

  4. 76 FR 5131 - Solicitation of Nomination of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP; [75 FR 20239- 20248]), as authorized under the National... the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and... Medicine Coalition ( http://www.avma.org/fsvm/recognition.asp ), gave considerable attention to the...

  5. 76 FR 80878 - Solicitation of Veterinary Shortage Situation Nominations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP; [75 FR 20239- 20248]) for fiscal year (FY) 2012, as... the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and... Medicine Coalition ( http://www.avma.org/fsvm/recognition.asp ), gave considerable attention to the...

  6. Evidence-based integrative medicine in clinical veterinary oncology.

    PubMed

    Raditic, Donna M; Bartges, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Integrative medicine is the combined use of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional or traditional Western medicine systems. The demand for integrative veterinary medicine is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. In veterinary clinical oncology, such research could be translated to human medicine, because veterinary patients with spontaneous tumors are valuable translational models for human cancers. An overview of specific herbs, botanics, dietary supplements, and acupuncture evaluated in dogs, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species both in vivo and in vitro is presented for their potential use as integrative therapies in veterinary clinical oncology. PMID:25174902

  7. Graduates of Higher Education in the Food and Agricultural Sciences: An Analysis of Supply/Demand Relationships. Volume I--Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Kyle Jane, Ed.; Stanton, Marge, Ed.

    Information on the current and projected supply of and demand for graduates of higher education in the food and agricultural sciences is presented, based on federal data bases. The supply data are aggregated by 11 educational clusters, and employment demand data are aggregated by eight occupational clusters. Analysis reveals imbalances in the…

  8. Veterinary Medicine Needs New Green Antimicrobial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Ferran, Aude A.; Bousquet-Melou, Alain; Pelligand, Ludovic; Lees, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Given that: (1) the worldwide consumption of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in food-producing animals will increase over the coming decades; (2) the prudent use of AMDs will not suffice to stem the rise in human antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of animal origin; (3) alternatives to AMD use are not available or not implementable, there is an urgent need to develop novel AMDs for food-producing animals. This is not for animal health reasons, but to break the link between human and animal resistomes. In this review we establish the feasibility of developing for veterinary medicine new AMDs, termed “green antibiotics,” having minimal ecological impact on the animal commensal and environmental microbiomes. We first explain why animal and human commensal microbiota comprise a “turnstile” exchange, between the human and animal resistomes. We then outline the ideal physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of a veterinary green antibiotic and conclude that they can be developed through a rational screening of currently used AMD classes. The ideal drug will be hydrophilic, of relatively low potency, slow clearance and small volume of distribution. It should be eliminated principally by the kidney as inactive metabolite(s). For oral administration, bioavailability can be enhanced by developing lipophilic pro-drugs. For parenteral administration, slow-release formulations of existing eco-friendly AMDs with a short elimination half-life can be developed. These new eco-friendly veterinary AMDs can be developed from currently used drug classes to provide alternative agents to those currently used in veterinary medicine and mitigate animal contributions to the human AMR problem. PMID:27536285

  9. Veterinary Medicine Needs New Green Antimicrobial Drugs.

    PubMed

    Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Ferran, Aude A; Bousquet-Melou, Alain; Pelligand, Ludovic; Lees, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Given that: (1) the worldwide consumption of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in food-producing animals will increase over the coming decades; (2) the prudent use of AMDs will not suffice to stem the rise in human antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of animal origin; (3) alternatives to AMD use are not available or not implementable, there is an urgent need to develop novel AMDs for food-producing animals. This is not for animal health reasons, but to break the link between human and animal resistomes. In this review we establish the feasibility of developing for veterinary medicine new AMDs, termed "green antibiotics," having minimal ecological impact on the animal commensal and environmental microbiomes. We first explain why animal and human commensal microbiota comprise a "turnstile" exchange, between the human and animal resistomes. We then outline the ideal physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of a veterinary green antibiotic and conclude that they can be developed through a rational screening of currently used AMD classes. The ideal drug will be hydrophilic, of relatively low potency, slow clearance and small volume of distribution. It should be eliminated principally by the kidney as inactive metabolite(s). For oral administration, bioavailability can be enhanced by developing lipophilic pro-drugs. For parenteral administration, slow-release formulations of existing eco-friendly AMDs with a short elimination half-life can be developed. These new eco-friendly veterinary AMDs can be developed from currently used drug classes to provide alternative agents to those currently used in veterinary medicine and mitigate animal contributions to the human AMR problem. PMID:27536285

  10. 75 FR 4576 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. General Function of the... Medicine (HFV-3), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD 20855, 240-276-9004,...

  11. Developing a systematic approach to ranking residues of veterinary medicines.

    PubMed

    2015-12-12

    This is the last in an occasional series of articles produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Residues Committee(*). It describes a matrix ranking system developed by the committee to provide a systematic approach to ranking residues of veterinary medicines, and some prohibited substances, based on the risk they pose to consumers. PMID:26667431

  12. Entrepreneurship Education and Veterinary Medicine: Enhancing Employable Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Colette; Treanor, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has the purpose of exploring the potential for entrepreneurship education within veterinary medicine. It aims to examine some of the key themes in the entrepreneurship education literature, discuss the make-up of the UK veterinary sector, consider veterinary curricula requirements and illustrate how entrepreneurship education…

  13. [Use of human medicinal preparations in veterinary medicine].

    PubMed

    Brauner, Pavel; Kolář, Jozef; Hera, Alfréd

    2013-06-01

    The paper aims to analyze the development of the consumption of human and veterinary medicinal preparations used in veterinary practice in the Czech Republic and the dynamics of the individual ATC groups in the years 2001-2008. In human ATC groups, 14 ATC were examined. The researchers examined trading both from the view of the number of items and their volume. A set of 15 veterinary ATC groups was analogically analyzed. In the set of human ATC groups, in most cases a gradual increase in the number of sold packages and items was observed, in the case of veterinary ATC groups this trend was not observed excepting the ATC groups QC03 - cardiovascular system, QP09 - antiparasitics and QV20 - various. One of the elements under study was the determination of the number of active ingredients in the selected ATC group A - the digestive tract and metabolism. In this largest ATC group of the comparative sets, the numbers of active ingredients in the given time axis as well as the number of medicinal preparations containing these ingredients were determined. The set included only the preparations with one active ingredient and when looking at their development in the course of time it can be stated that of the original 51 preparations 145 items were traded at the end of the monitored period and the number of active ingredients was extended from 31 to 59. It results from the analysis that in the course of years there occurs an increase in the number of human medicinal preparations employed for pharmacotherapy in veterinary medicine. PMID:23961817

  14. PET-Computed Tomography in Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Randall, Elissa K

    2016-05-01

    PET/CT is an advanced imaging modality that is becoming more commonly used in veterinary medicine. It is most commonly used to image patients with cancer, and the most frequently used radiopharmaceutical is F-18 FDG. F-18 FDG is a glucose analog that highlights areas of increased glucose metabolism on the PET images. CT images provide excellent anatomic depiction and aid in interpretation of the PET data. Many types of cancer are hypermetabolic on PET/CT scans, but normal structures and areas of inflammation are also hypermetabolic, so knowledge of normal imaging and cytologic or histopathologic evaluation of lesions is essential. PMID:27068445

  15. Veterinary medicine on the information superhighway.

    PubMed

    Boschert, K

    1996-05-01

    The Internet, the world's computer-networking backbone, links thousands of networks on every continent and is used by over 25 million people. This "information superhighway" is much more than its physical interconnection of computers. It is also an efficient and, convenient global interconnection of people, institutions, and businesses that facilitates communication and information exchange. It is important to understand the main communication methods and information-retrieval tools currently used on the Internet. This overview examines various Internet tools and their importance, particularly ones most useful to veterinarians and other animal-related professionals. The major Internet communication tools are those that send and receive electronic mail, connect and run programs on remote computers, transfer computer files, and search databases for information. Recently, two navigation tools, Gopher and the World Wide Web (WWW), have revolutionized ways of finding information on the Internet. Gopher uses a text-based menu of choices, whereas the WWW has a point-and click interface combining text, graphics, sound, and video. The WWW is undergoing explosive growth, both in terms of new servers and new users accessing WWW servers. In the fields of veterinary medicine and animal welfare, a similarly rapid expansion of internut resources is occurring. One experimental project to collect these resources and make them centrally available is NetVet Veterinary Resources (http:// netvet.wustl.edu/). From this site, many other veterinary. Internet services are easily located. This discussion will provide details about the Internet's communication tools and utilities and demonstrate several relevant veterinary and animal-related computer sites. PMID:8898571

  16. The Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program

    PubMed Central

    Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary First initiated in 1995 to provide veterinary students with spay/neuter experience, the shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine has grown to be comprehensive in nature incorporating spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Junior veterinary students spend five days in shelters; senior veterinary students spend 2-weeks visiting shelters in mobile veterinary units. The program has three primary components: spay/neuter, shelter medical days and Animals in Focus. Student gain significant hands-on experience and evaluations of the program by students are overwhelmingly positive. Abstract The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education. PMID:26479234

  17. Committee on Veterinary Medicine at the Society for Medical Education: Skills Labs in Veterinary Medicine - a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Dilly, Marc; Gruber, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012, skills labs have been set up to teach practical skills at veterinary training facilities in the German-speaking world. In addition to didactic considerations, ethical points of view in terms of animal protection form the basis of the increasing significance of skills labs in veterinary medicine. Not least because of the quality standards in veterinary medicine training which apply across Europe, the link between veterinary medicine training facilities is particularly significant when it comes to the setting up and development of skills labs. The Committee on Veterinary Medicine is therefore not only interested in exchange and cooperation within veterinary medicine, but also sees an opportunity for mutual gain in the link with the Society for Medical Education Committee "Practical Skills". PMID:27579349

  18. Committee on Veterinary Medicine at the Society for Medical Education: Skills Labs in Veterinary Medicine – a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    Dilly, Marc; Gruber, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012, skills labs have been set up to teach practical skills at veterinary training facilities in the German-speaking world. In addition to didactic considerations, ethical points of view in terms of animal protection form the basis of the increasing significance of skills labs in veterinary medicine. Not least because of the quality standards in veterinary medicine training which apply across Europe, the link between veterinary medicine training facilities is particularly significant when it comes to the setting up and development of skills labs. The Committee on Veterinary Medicine is therefore not only interested in exchange and cooperation within veterinary medicine, but also sees an opportunity for mutual gain in the link with the Society for Medical Education Committee “Practical Skills”.

  19. Extremophiles and their application to veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Jane Ann

    2010-01-01

    Extremophiles can be defined as organisms that can survive in extreme environments that cannot support mammalian life. They include microorganisms that can tolerate temperature extremes, extremes of pH, salinity, hydrostatic pressure and ionizing radiation, as well as low oxygen tension, desiccation and the presence of heavy metals. Psychrophilic organisms also include fish in polar waters and animals that withstand freezing. Rare examples of thermophilic pathogens exist, and the main category of extremophilic animal pathogens comprises psychrophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms that cause fish diseases, e.g. Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Moritella viscosa, Aliivibrio wodanis and Aliivibrio salmonicida. The most widely known application of an extremophile product in veterinary medicine is DNA polymerase from thermophiles, which is a mainstay of PCR-based diagnostics for an extensive range of animal pathogens. DNA polymerases and other extremophile enzymes are also used in many molecular biology applications and animal genomics. Other extremophile products may find application in veterinary medicine in the future. These include enzymes in biosensors, compatible solutes in skin care products, drug excipients, treatments for respiratory disease, radioprotectants, peptide antibiotics, archaeal lipids for drug delivery and anti-cancer therapeutics. PMID:20662377

  20. Applied photonic therapy in veterinary medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Terry R.; McLaren, Brian C.

    2005-04-01

    There can be no question that specific systemic physiological results occur, when red light (660nm) is applied to the skin, it is now more a question of detailed mechanisms. Before gathering statistically signifcant clinical trial data, it is important to first enumerate the type of results observed in practice. Case histories are presented highlighting the use of photonic therapy in veterinary medicine. Over 900 surgical procedures have been performed and documented, utilizing the principles of photonic therapy, and while hemostasis, pain relief, and nausea relief, were the primary goals, the peri-operative death rate, the post-operative seroma, and post-operative infection were reduced to almost zero, and there was a noticeable increase in the healing rate. Scientifically applied photonic therapy, rather than supplanting conventional veterinary medicine, compliments and increases the veterinarian's set of skills. This paper proposes a hypothesis of how 660 nm light applied to specific points on the skin, produces various physiological changes in animals. By using animals, there can be no placebo, hypnotic or psychosomatic confounding effects.

  1. 78 FR 69991 - Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Termination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... established on April 24, 1984 (49 FR 20809; May 17, 1984). The purpose of the Committee was to review and... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 14 Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the termination of the Veterinary Medicine...

  2. Women in Veterinary Medicine: The Myths and the Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andberg, Wendy L.

    1976-01-01

    For the years 1969-75, there was no significant difference in the proportions of male and female applicants admitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Minnesota. It is hoped that the sex-typing of veterinary medicine by counselors, teachers, parents, and veterinarians will diminish. (LBH)

  3. 77 FR 23461 - Notice of Request for Applications for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... publication of the interim rule [74 FR 32788-32798, July 9, 2009], NIFA reconsidered the policy regarding... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Notice of Request for Applications for the Veterinary Medicine... Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) Request for Applications (RFA) at www.nifa.usda.gov/vmlrp ....

  4. 75 FR 22736 - Notice of Request for Applications for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... comment period upon publication of the interim rule [74 FR 32788-32798, July 9, 2009], NIFA reconsidered... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Notice of Request for Applications for the Veterinary Medicine... Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) Request for Applications (RFA) at...

  5. Veterinary Medicine the Day after Tomorrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, B. E.

    1977-01-01

    Societal changes that will influence the veterinary profession are examined including: population, energy, and food; pet ownership and veterinary service; government regulation; numbers of veterinarians; and percentages of salaried veterinarians. (LBH)

  6. Fosfomycin: Uses and potentialities in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Pérez, D S; Tapia, M O; Soraci, A L

    2014-01-01

    Fosfomycin (FOS) is a natural bactericidal broad-spectrum antibiotic which acts on proliferating bacteria by inhibiting cell wall and early murein/peptidoglycan synthesis. Bactericidal activity is evident against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and can also act synergistically with other antibiotics. Bacterial resistance to FOS may be natural or acquired. Other properties of this drug include inhibition of bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells, exopolysaccharide biofilm penetration, immunomodulatory effect, phagocytosis promotion and protection against the nephrotoxicity caused by other drugs. FOS has chemical characteristics not typically observed in organic phosphoric compounds and its molecular weight is almost the lowest of all the antimicrobials. It tends to form salts easily due to its acidic nature (disodium salt, for intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) administration; calcium and trometamol salt: for oral (PO) administration). FOS has a very low protein binding (<0.5%) which, along with its low molecular weight and water solubility, contributes to its good diffusion into fluids (cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous and vitreous humor, interstitial fluid) and tissues (placenta, bone, muscle, liver, kidney and skin/fat). In all species, important differences in the bioavailability have been found after administration in relation to the various derivatives of FOS salts. Pharmacokinetic profiles have been described in humans, chickens, rabbits, cows, dogs, horses and weaning piglets. The low toxicity and potential efficacy of FOS are the main factors that contribute to its use in humans and animals. Thus, it has been used to treat a broad variety of bacterial infections in humans, such as localized peritonitis, brain abscesses, severe soft tissue infections, cystitis and other conditions. In veterinary medicine, FOS is used to treat infectious diseases of broiler chickens and pigs. In broilers, it is administered for the treatment of E

  7. Fosfomycin: Uses and potentialities in veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, D.S.; Tapia, M.O.; Soraci, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Fosfomycin (FOS) is a natural bactericidal broad-spectrum antibiotic which acts on proliferating bacteria by inhibiting cell wall and early murein/peptidoglycan synthesis. Bactericidal activity is evident against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and can also act synergistically with other antibiotics. Bacterial resistance to FOS may be natural or acquired. Other properties of this drug include inhibition of bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells, exopolysaccharide biofilm penetration, immunomodulatory effect, phagocytosis promotion and protection against the nephrotoxicity caused by other drugs. FOS has chemical characteristics not typically observed in organic phosphoric compounds and its molecular weight is almost the lowest of all the antimicrobials. It tends to form salts easily due to its acidic nature (disodium salt, for intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) administration; calcium and trometamol salt: for oral (PO) administration). FOS has a very low protein binding (<0.5%) which, along with its low molecular weight and water solubility, contributes to its good diffusion into fluids (cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous and vitreous humor, interstitial fluid) and tissues (placenta, bone, muscle, liver, kidney and skin/fat). In all species, important differences in the bioavailability have been found after administration in relation to the various derivatives of FOS salts. Pharmacokinetic profiles have been described in humans, chickens, rabbits, cows, dogs, horses and weaning piglets. The low toxicity and potential efficacy of FOS are the main factors that contribute to its use in humans and animals. Thus, it has been used to treat a broad variety of bacterial infections in humans, such as localized peritonitis, brain abscesses, severe soft tissue infections, cystitis and other conditions. In veterinary medicine, FOS is used to treat infectious diseases of broiler chickens and pigs. In broilers, it is administered for the treatment of E

  8. Residency Programs in Veterinary Internal Medicine. Where Are We Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, J. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Data from the 6th Symposium on Veterinary Medical Education, the Arthur D. Little, Inc. report, and the survey of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine are reported as they pertain to the need for more residency programs, program quality and accreditation. Program funding is also discussed. (JMD)

  9. Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Veterinary Science. Financial Assistance for Study after Standard 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodt, J., Comp.; And Others

    This guide, the seventh in a set of nine, presents a summary of financial assistance available to students of forestry, agriculture, fishing, and veterinary medicine for obtaining a certificate, diploma, or degree after Standard 10 at a university, college, or technikon located in South Africa. The bursaries, loans, and other forms of financial…

  10. 76 FR 68126 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ...The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) is soliciting stakeholder input on the administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) authorized under section 1415A of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3151a). The purpose of this program is for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to enter into......

  11. Evaluation of Teaching Veterinary Medicine at the University of Nairobi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, U. B.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of graduates from the University of Nairobi, Kenya in the field of veterinary medicine is reported. Areas covered include curriculum; teaching techniques; quality of faculty; and examinations. (JMF)

  12. Risk Assessment Considerations for Veterinary Medicines in Aquatic Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides a critical evaluation of prospective and retrospective risk assessment approaches for veterinary medicines in aquatic ecosystems and provides recommendations for possible alternative approaches for hazard characterization.

  13. Extremophiles and their application to veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Extremophiles are organisms that can grow and thrive in harsh conditions, e.g., extremes of temperature, pH, salinity, radiation, pressure and oxygen tension. Thermophilic, halophilic and radiation-resistant organisms are all microbes, some of which are able to withstand multiple extremes. Psychrophiles, or cold-loving organisms, include not only microbes, but fish that live in polar waters and animals that can withstand freezing. Extremophiles are structurally adapted at a molecular level to withstand these conditions. Thermophiles have particularly stable proteins and cell membranes, psychrophiles have flexible cellular proteins and membranes and/or antifreeze proteins, salt-resistant halophiles contain compatible solutes or high concentrations of inorganic ions, and acidophiles and alkaliphiles are able to pump ions to keep their internal pH close to neutrality. Their interest to veterinary medicine resides in their capacity to be pathogenic, and as sources of enzymes and other molecules for diagnostic and pharmaceutical purposes. In particular, thermostable DNA polymerases are a mainstay of PCR-based diagnostics. PMID:21851659

  14. [Veterinary medicine of the GDR in strained relations between technical instructions and political guidelines].

    PubMed

    Prange, H; Azar, J

    2003-01-01

    The development of Veterinary Medicine in the Soviet Occupation Zone in Germany and the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) is sketched in highlights. After the collectivization of agriculture (1960) a centralistically controlled national veterinary system was established. It was suited to the requirements of the industrially organized animal production. The successive classification of socialistic veterinary administration was associated with the following matters: the extension of veterinary subject matters, a vertical division of work with the aid of newly created technical veterinary professions, and a penetration of the profession with political guidelines. As the professional level of the veterinary system in the GDR was relatively high the reflection in retrospective needs to be evaluated in a differentiated way considering the textual and social conditions. In spite of centralism and indoctrination the veterinary system remained professionally autonomous with islands of political independence, which sustained the identity of this profession. The latter formed the base for self renewal of the East German veterinary system at the end of the socialistic area 1989/1990. PMID:12583345

  15. [Feminization of veterinary medicine in the Netherlands 1925-2000].

    PubMed

    Koolmees, P A

    2000-01-01

    The feminisation of veterinary medicine occurred in The Netherlands, as elsewhere in the world, in the course of the twentieth century. In 1930, Jeannette Voet (1907-1979) was the first female veterinarian graduate of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Utrecht University. In contrast with the first Dutch female physician who graduated in 1878, Jeannette Voet was not an active feminist. Instead, she concentrated on the development of various fields of veterinary medicine during her career. Nevertheless, she played an important role in the acceptance of women in Dutch veterinary medicine. The integration of women into all areas of the veterinary profession was a gradual process. Meat inspection, in particular, proved to be rather conservative in its acceptance of female veterinarians. The number of women veterinarians in the profession increased only gradually throughout the twentieth century. In 1970, women represented not more than 5 % of all veterinarians in The Netherlands. A significant increase in female students was first observed in the 1980s. The large influx of city girls who are primarily interested in companion animal and horse medicine is still quite remarkable. The average percentage of female first-year students between 1988 and 1992 was 60; over the last 5 years, this increased to 70%. Between 1988 and 1999, the average percentage of female graduates grew from 35 to 60%. Consequently, the proportion of Dutch female veterinarians increased from 5 to 25% between 1970 and 2000. In spite of this development, the representation of women veterinarians among policymaking officials, leading veterinary authorities and academic staff (particularly at the professor level) is still quite low. From this point of view, veterinary medicine could still be considered as 'a man's job'. Feminisation of veterinary medicine is often explained by an increase in the numbers of companion animals and horses and part-time jobs or by a different, gender-based attitude

  16. Interventional urology: endourology in small animal veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Berent, Allyson C

    2015-07-01

    The use of novel image-guided techniques in veterinary medicine has become more widespread, especially in urologic diseases. With the common incidence of urinary tract obstructions, stones disease, renal disease, and urothelial malignancies, combined with the recognized invasiveness and morbidity associated with traditional surgical techniques, the use of minimally invasive alternatives using interventional radiology and interventional endoscopy techniques has become incredibly appealing to owners and clinicians. This article provides a brief overview of some of the most common procedures done in endourology in veterinary medicine to date, providing as much evidence-based medicine as possible when comparing with traditional surgical alternatives. PMID:26002798

  17. 75 FR 61504 - Global Implementation of the Veterinary Medicinal Products Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Global Implementation of the Veterinary Medicinal Products... OIE's services and activities that are needed to carry out OIE's Veterinary International Conference... level. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Program Contact: Merton V. Smith, Center for Veterinary...

  18. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: which differences?

    PubMed

    Vanel, Maïa; Blond, Laurent; Vanel, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that prognostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the aggressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all. PMID:22197093

  19. 75 FR 3697 - Solicitation of Nomination of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP; [74 FR 32788- 32798]), as authorized under the National... Solicitation Notice Changes in Response On July 9, 2009, NIFA published a Federal Register Notice [74 FR 32788... diseases, and other threats to the health and wellbeing of both animals and humans that consume...

  20. A ranking of European veterinary medicines based on environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Kools, Stefan A E; Boxall, Alistair; Moltmann, Johann F; Bryning, Gareth; Koschorreck, Jan; Knacker, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    The most likely entry pathways of veterinary pharmaceuticals to the environment are via slurry or manure from intensively reared animals to soil and via dung or urine from animals grazing on pasture. These pathways may result in contamination of surface water via runoff or leaching and drainage. Direct entry into water may occur by defecation by pasture animals or by Scompanion animals. In addition, application of medicines for aquaculture is important for a limited number of veterinary medicinal products. For a large number of veterinary medicinal products, consistent data on the environmental risk have never been generated. In this project, a simple risk-based ranking procedure was developed that should allow assessing the potential for environmental risks of active substances of veterinary medicinal products. In the European Union approximately 2000 products containing 741 active substances were identified. In the prescreening step and in agreement with the technical guidelines released by the European Medicines Agency, 294 natural substances, complex mixtures, and substances with low expected exposure were exempted from the ranking procedure. For 233 active substances, sufficient information was collated on 4 exposure scenarios: Intensively reared animals, pasture animals, companion animals, and aquaculture. The ranking approach was performed in 4 phases: (1) usage estimation; (2) characterization of exposure to soil, dung, surface water, and aquatic organisms depending on exposure scenarios; (3) characterization of effects based on therapeutical doses; and (4) risk characterization, which is the ratio of exposure to effects (risk index), and ranking. Generally, the top-ranked substances were from the antibiotic and parasiticide groups of veterinary medicines. Differences occurred in the ranking of substances in soil via application to either intensively reared or pasture animals. In intensive rearing, anticoccidia, for example, are used as feed

  1. 21 CFR 510.112 - Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for... DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.112 Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine... advise the Commissioner on, the use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine and for various...

  2. 21 CFR 510.112 - Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for... DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.112 Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine... advise the Commissioner on, the use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine and for various...

  3. 21 CFR 510.112 - Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for... DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.112 Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine... advise the Commissioner on, the use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine and for various...

  4. 21 CFR 510.112 - Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for... DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.112 Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine... advise the Commissioner on, the use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine and for various...

  5. 75 FR 58411 - Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public...: ``Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) eSubmitter Workshop.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to..., Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-100), Food and Drug Administration, 7520 Standish Pl., Rockville,...

  6. 21 CFR 510.112 - Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for... DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.112 Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine... advise the Commissioner on, the use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine and for various...

  7. Acupuncture for analgesia in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Fry, Lindsey M; Neary, Susan M; Sharrock, Joseph; Rychel, Jessica K

    2014-06-01

    Acupuncture for analgesia is growing rapidly in popularity with veterinarians and pet owners. This article summarizes the mechanisms of analgesia derived from acupuncture and reviews current literature on the topic. Areas covered include the local effects at area of needle insertion, systemic effects secondary to circulating neurotransmitters and changes in cell signaling, central nervous system effects including the brain and spinal cord, and myofascial trigger point and pathology treatment. Clinical applications are discussed and suggested in each section. When used by appropriately trained professionals, acupuncture offers a compelling and safe method for pain management in our veterinary patients and should be strongly considered as a part of multimodal pain management plans. PMID:25454374

  8. Setting up a veterinary medicine skills lab in Germany.

    PubMed

    Dilly, Marc; Tipold, Andrea; Schaper, Elisabeth; Ehlers, Jan P

    2014-01-01

    The amendments introduced to the current Veterinary Licensing Ordinance (TAppV) by the Veterinary Licensing Regulation (TAppO) have brought a high degree of skills orientation to fill the gap between academic study and preparing for a wide range of professional skills. In order to improve the veterinary skills of students while conveying fundamental methods in a structured and reproducible way, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, has set up the first central veterinary skills lab in Germany. Practical training is provided by means of a three-tier delivery approach. This involves around 40 simulators on an area of approx. 800 m(2) under the guidance of 6-8 staff members, along with supplementary resources such as posters, text instructions and YouTube videos. Since it opened in March 2013, there have been 769 visits to the skills lab and 30,734 hits on YouTube. Initial results show that the skills lab helps to maintain student motivation by teaching them practical skills at an early stage of the basic study-based acquisition of knowledge, whilst reinforcing skills acquisition per se in competence-based teaching. It enables veterinary students to prepare for their first examinations and treatments of live patients in a manner compliant with animal welfare. PMID:24872855

  9. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Harris, N. Beth; Barletta, Raúl G.

    2001-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (basonym M. paratuberculosis) is the etiologic agent of a severe gastroenteritis in ruminants known as Johne's disease. Economic losses to the cattle industry in the United States are staggering, reaching $1.5 billion annually. A potential pathogenic role in humans in the etiology of Crohn's disease is under investigation. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and disease control measures of this important veterinary pathogen. We emphasize molecular genetic aspects including the description of markers used for strain identification, diagnostics, and phylogenetic analysis. Recent important advances in the development of animal models and genetic systems to study M. paratuberculosis virulence determinants are also discussed. We conclude with proposals for the applications of these models and recombinant technology to the development of diagnostic, control, and therapeutic measures. PMID:11432810

  10. Veterinary oncology: Biology, big data and precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lisa Y; Argyle, David J

    2016-07-01

    Despite significant advances in both the understanding and the treatment of cancer, the disease remains one of high mortality and morbidity causes in all species. Increases in survival times in human cancer have increased significantly in the past 25 years but most of these increases have been through small incremental changes. For some cancers, e.g. pancreatic cancer, survival times have not increased significantly in over 100 years. In veterinary oncology, there have been major shifts in the management of cancer in companion animals. Increased availability of specialist centres, coupled with changing attitudes in owners and veterinarians, have meant improvements in veterinary cancer care borne from market pressures and increased awareness and understanding. In this review the changing face of cancer biology over the past 25 years will be examined, and the barriers to clinical progress in veterinary medicine considered. Finally, an optimistic view of the future will be presented with the prospect of greater control over this devastating disease. PMID:27240913

  11. Sustainable veterinary medicine for the new era.

    PubMed

    Lin, J H; Kaphle, K; Wu, L S; Yang, N Y J; Lu, G; Yu, C; Yamada, H; Rogers, P A M

    2003-12-01

    Sustainability aims to harmonise life on Earth without compromising the essential natural resources that should be the birthright of future generations. 'Sustainable medicine' (SM) is just one component of the wide range of possible sustainable approaches to peaceful co-existence. Sustainable medicine envisions an uncomplicated system of maintaining the health of people and animals, both now and for many years to come. This type of medicine is based on ancient wisdom, knowledge and healing arts, combined with the advantages and technical achievements of modern science and other areas of medicine; it is an integrated approach to preventive, safe and affordable healing. The term sustainable medicine also implies that the main therapeutic materials used in the course of practising this type of medicine can be replaced or replenished with minimal environmental damage after harvesting. The aim of sustainable medicine is to maintain the balance of nature, allowing an estimated 7 to 100 million species of life forms to co-exist and reproduce, and to sustain the long-term future of this planet. The world is in the midst of an environmental crisis: anthropogenic environmental damage in the last century was greater than in any previous century. One of the major concerns is the misuse of medicines, and the resulting immune depletion in people and animals. Many traditional medical systems have taught that appropriate adaptation by, and of, an effective defence system is the key to health and survival. This is only possible if priority is given to a preventive rather than a curative approach to health care; the very same approach that is advocated by proponents of SM: an approach based on proper diagnosis and the use of personalised, tailor-made medicine. The authors propose SM (the combination of the advantages of modern, traditional and complementary medical systems) as the best approach to providing better health care services for people and animals. The article presents a

  12. Modern CT applications in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Garland, Melissa R; Lawler, Leo P; Whitaker, Brent R; Walker, Ian D F; Corl, Frank M; Fishman, Elliot K

    2002-01-01

    Although computed tomography (CT) is used primarily for diagnosis in humans, it can also be used to diagnose disease in veterinary patients. CT and associated three-dimensional reconstruction have a role in diagnosis of a range of illnesses in a variety of animals. In a sea turtle with failure to thrive, CT showed a nodal mass in the chest, granulomas in the lungs, and a ball in the stomach. CT of a sea dragon with balance and movement problems showed absence of the swim bladder. In a sloth with failure to thrive, CT allowed diagnosis of a coin in the intestine. CT of a puffin with failure to thrive showed a mass in the chest, which was found to be a hematoma. In a smooth-sided toad whose head was tilted to one side and who was circling in that direction, CT showed partial destruction of the temporal bone. CT of a domestic cat with listlessness showed a mass with focal calcification, which proved to be a leiomyosarcoma. CT of a sea otter showed pectus excavatum, which is caused by the animal smashing oysters against its chest. In a Japanese koi with abdominal swelling, CT allowed diagnosis of a hepatoma. PMID:11796898

  13. Intrigues of biofilm: A perspective in veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, Umar Faruk; Igwenagu, Ephraim; Mu’azu, Anas; Aliyu, Sani; Umar, Maryam Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm has a tremendous impact in the field of veterinary medicine, especially the livestock industry, leading to a serious economic loss. Over the years, little attention has been given to biofilm in animals with most of the research geared toward human biofilm diseases. The greatest challenge posed by biofilm is in its incredible ability to resist most of the currently existing antibiotics. This mystery can best be demystified through understanding the mechanism of the quorum sensing which regulate the pathophysiology of biofilm. Ability of biofilm formation in a variety of inanimate surfaces such as animal food contact surfaces is responsible for a host of biofilm diseases affecting animals and humans. In this review, we highlighted some of the challenges of biofilm in livestock and food industries. Also highlighted are; mechanisms of biofilm development, best diagnostic approach and possible novel therapeutic measures needed to combat the menace of biofilm in veterinary medicine. PMID:27051178

  14. [Carl Gillmeister: the first Doctor of veterinary medicine in Mecklenburg--and in Germany (1834)].

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, W; Schäffer, J

    2004-02-01

    German schools and faculties of veterinary medicine did not receive the sovereign right to award the degree "Doctor medicinae veterinarae" until the early twentieth century. Until then, in the nineteenth century there were two possibilities for veterinarians to earn a doctoral degree, usually referred to as the title of "Doctor": 1. On the basis of an exceptionally excellent dissertation and after very stringent examination a candidate could be awarded the degree "Dr. med." by the faculty of a medical school, or, if the candidate had studied at a philosophical faculty, the degree "Dr. phil." 2. A doctoral degree specifically in veterinary medicine could be earned only at a medical faculty. The Medical Faculty of the University of Giessen awarded the degree "Doctor in arte veterinaria" for the first time in 1832. In this study we prove that Giessen was not the first German university to award a doctorate in veterinary medicine, a priority which has never been questioned in the literature. As early as 1829, veterinarians could earn the degree "Doctor artis veterinariae" at the Medical Faculty of the University of Rostock, where three such awards are documented between 1829 and 1831. The designation "medicina" was also intially avoided in Rostock. Therefore, of particular significance is the discovery of a fourth such document from the Rostock University Archives, the doctoral diploma of Carl Jacob Friedrich Gillmeister, who at the age of 22 was awarded the degree "Doctor medicinae veterinariae" in Rostock after a successful defense. This is the earliest, but also the last archival record of the German doctoral degree in veterinary medicine in the modern sense, because after Gillmeister no veterinarian could earn a doctoral degree in Rostock further more. Gillmeisters vita sheds light on the times and the difficulties of the veterinary profession in the poor agricultural area of Mecklenburg. PMID:15032266

  15. The Changing Fiscal Environment for Academic Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Zimmel, Dana N; Lloyd, James W

    2015-01-01

    The fiscal environment for academic veterinary medicine has changed substantially over the past 50 years. Understanding the flux of state and federal government support and the implications for student debt, academic programs, and scholarly work is critical for planning for the future. The recent precipitous decline in public funding highlights the urgent need to develop and maintain an economically sustainable model that can adapt to the changing landscape and serve societal needs. PMID:26673209

  16. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iragüen, D; Urcelay, S; San Martín, B

    2011-04-01

    Iragüen, D., Urcelay, S., San Martín, B. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap.34, 108-115. In Chile, there is no present government policy to survey and analyse adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the field of veterinary medicine. The intent of this study is to assess, for the first time, ADR frequency in treated animals. To this purpose, a 6-month period pilot study based on WHO recommendations was conducted to monitor ADRs in cats and dogs for frequently used drugs and common labelled signs. Of a total of 149 detected ADRs, 29 (6 in cats and 23 in dogs) were notified by means of ADR report forms, while the rest was identified after reviewing patient clinical records, thus evidencing strong under-reporting problems. More than 70% of ADRs were related to antimicrobials, vaccines and tranquilizers. In dogs, there was a significant effect on ADRs' presentation when acepromazine, amoxicillin, carprofen, ivermectin, sextuple vaccine (polyvalent vaccine that confers immunity against canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, Leptospira canicola, L. icterohemmoragiae, canine adenovirus type 2 and canine parainfluenza virus) and phytomenadione (subcutaneous injection) were administered. In the case of cats, a significant influence on ADRs was detected when acepromazine, amoxicillin or vitamin K was administered. Present results suggest the need for a pharmacovigilance programme in veterinary medicine for timely ADR-presenting drug detection and drug safety improvement. PMID:21395600

  17. [The Internet as a communication medium in veterinary medicine].

    PubMed

    Wormek, A; Minkus, G

    1996-10-01

    Medicine is based on expert experience and expert knowledge. One of the newest means to exchange up-to-date information is the Internet, the so-called information highway. Among academic institutions in Germany, transferring information over this world-wide communication network has become increasingly important, particularly concerning national and international cooperations in science and education. The acceptance has improved with new user-friendly graphical computer applications. The internet is regarded as a milestone on the way to the information society. In this report, we will present an overview of resources and services relevant to veterinary medicine available in the international data-network free of charge. PMID:8999585

  18. The Peak of the Pyramid: Women in Dentistry, Medicine and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Amber B.; Shapiro, Eileen C.

    This paper examines: (1) selected aspects of the current status of women at the top of the hierarchies in the three health professions of dentistry, medicine, and veterinary medicine, and (2) some of the effects of the changing structure of the health care system on the present and future roles of the women in each of these professions. Besides…

  19. Echocardiography as a Research and Clinical Tool in Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Allen, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    Echocardiography is the accepted term for the study of cardiac ultrasound. Although a relatively new tool for the study of the heart in man it has already found wide acceptance in the area of cardiac research and in the study of clinical cardiac disease. Animals had often been used in the early experiments with cardiac ultrasound, but only recently has echocardiography been used as a research and clinical tool in veterinary medicine. In this report echocardiography is used in the research of anesthetic effects on ventricular function and clinically in the diagnosis of congestive cardiomyopathy in a cat, ventricular septal defect in a calf, and pericardial effusion in a dog. Echocardiography is now an important adjunct to the field of veterinary cardiology. ImagesFigure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422196

  20. Veterinary medicine, food security and the global environment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, A M; Marshak, R R

    2009-08-01

    The authors focus on the role of veterinary medicine in feeding the nine billion people projected to inhabit the planet by 2050, despite the problems of global warming, political constraints and environmental destruction. Population growth, predominantly urban, will occur mainly in developing countries, at a magnitude comparable to creating a city the size of Los Angeles, the second largest city in the United States of America, every three weeks for the next 40 years. Accompanying this growth will be a greatly increased demand for animal protein. How this burgeoning demand can be met by intensive and extensive systems of animal production is discussed, with particular reference to the immensely important role that the veterinary profession and schools must play. PMID:20128458

  1. Euthanasia, moral stress, and chronic illness in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2011-05-01

    Euthanasia is a double-edged sword in veterinary medicine. It is a powerful and ultimately the most powerful tool for ending the pain and suffering. Demand for its use for client convenience is morally reprehensible and creates major moral stress for ethically conscious practitioners. But equally reprehensible and stressful to veterinarians is the failure to use it when an animal faces only misery, pain, distress, and suffering. Finding the correct path through this minefield may well be the most important ethical task facing the conscientious veterinarian. PMID:21601753

  2. The changing landscape of antiparasitic drug discovery for veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Geary, Timothy G; Conder, George A; Bishop, Bernard

    2004-10-01

    Changes in economic imperatives in the pharmaceutical industry have led to a wave of consolidation, which has had the unintended side effect of shrinking the resource devoted to antiparasitic drug discovery in animal health companies. Scientific changes have altered the way in which drugs could be discovered in the future. New science and business models will need to be implemented to address the demand for innovative antiparasitic drugs in veterinary medicine. Novel drugs are needed to combat drug resistance and for currently non-addressed problems. At the center of the future for this field, however, lies the need for more support into the basic research on the biology of parasites. PMID:15363437

  3. Challenges and opportunities in polymer technology applied to veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, J M; Cid, A G; Ramírez-Rigo, M V; Quinteros, D; Simonazzi, A; Sánchez Bruni, S; Palma, S

    2014-04-01

    An important frontier in the administration of therapeutic drugs to veterinary species is the use of different polymers as drug delivery platforms. The usefulness of polymers as platforms for the administration of pharmaceutical and agricultural agents has been clearly recognized in the recent decades. The chemical versatility of polymers and the wide range of developed controlled-release strategies enhance the possibilities for the formulation of active molecules. In particular, the veterinary area offers opportunities for the development of novel controlled-release drug delivery technologies adapted to livestock or companion animal health needs. In some cases, it also allows to improve profitability in meat production or to meet the safety criteria related to drug residues. A number of factors affect the selection of polymers and subsequent properties of the controlled-release drug delivery system. However, their selection also dictates the release kinetics of the drug from the delivery system. Such choices are therefore crucial as they affect the success and potential of the delivery system for achieving the therapeutic goals of the veterinarian. It is the intention of this review to give an overview of the most relevant polymers, which are used or have been tested as drug delivery release rate modifiers in the veterinary field. The article highlights some recent developments focusing on their advantages and applications and analyzes the future direction of the scientific and technological advancements in this area. PMID:23980692

  4. Veterinarians and public practice at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine: building on a tradition of expertise and partnership.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Katherine A; Walters, Bettye K

    2008-01-01

    The Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM), a regional veterinary college for Maryland and Virginia, has a long and unique tradition of encouraging careers in public and corporate veterinary medicine. The VMRCVM is home to the Center for Public and Corporate Veterinary Medicine (CPCVM), and each year approximately 10% of the veterinary students choose the public/corporate veterinary medicine track. The faculty of the CPCVM, and their many partners from the veterinary public practice community, teach in the veterinary curriculum and provide opportunities for students locally, nationally, and internationally during summers and the final clinical year. Graduates of the program work for government organizations, including the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as in research, in industry, and for non-governmental organizations. Recent activities include securing opportunities for students, providing career counseling for graduate veterinarians interested in making a career transition, delivering continuing education, and offering a preparatory course for veterinarians sitting the board examination for the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine. As the VMRCVM moves forward in recognition of the changing needs of the veterinary profession, it draws on its tradition of partnership and capitalizes on the excellence of its existing program. Future plans for the CPCVM include possible expansion in the fields of public health, public policy, international veterinary medicine, organizational leadership, and the One Health initiative. Quality assurance and evaluation of the program is ongoing, with recognition that novel evaluation approaches will be useful and informative. PMID:18723808

  5. Clonality Testing in Veterinary Medicine: A Review With Diagnostic Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Keller, S M; Vernau, W; Moore, P F

    2016-07-01

    The accurate distinction of reactive and neoplastic lymphoid proliferations can present challenges. Given the different prognoses and treatment strategies, a correct diagnosis is crucial. Molecular clonality assays assess rearranged lymphocyte antigen receptor gene diversity and can help differentiate reactive from neoplastic lymphoid proliferations. Molecular clonality assays are commonly used to assess atypical, mixed, or mature lymphoid proliferations; small tissue fragments that lack architecture; and fluid samples. In addition, clonality testing can be utilized to track neoplastic clones over time or across anatomic sites. Molecular clonality assays are not stand-alone tests but useful adjuncts that follow clinical, morphologic, and immunophenotypic assessment. Even though clonality testing provides valuable information in a variety of situations, the complexities and pitfalls of this method, as well as its dependency on the experience of the interpreter, are often understated. In addition, a lack of standardized terminology, laboratory practices, and interpretational guidelines hinders the reproducibility of clonality testing across laboratories in veterinary medicine. The objectives of this review are twofold. First, the review is intended to familiarize the diagnostic pathologist or interested clinician with the concepts, potential pitfalls, and limitations of clonality testing. Second, the review strives to provide a basis for future harmonization of clonality testing in veterinary medicine by providing diagnostic guidelines. PMID:26933096

  6. Discussion of Animal Stem Cells in the Classroom: Engaging Students through the Lens of Veterinary Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Niess, Daniel; Hutchinson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Learning about stem cells within the context of treating pet illness or injury is an additional way for teachers to discuss the integration of science, technology, and veterinary medicine. We explain how practitioners in veterinary medicine harvest animal stem cells from adipose (fat) tissue in treating pet illness or injury. Further, we narrate…

  7. Invited review--Applications for 3D printers in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Hespel, Adrien-Maxence; Wilhite, Ray; Hudson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances in 3D printing have resulted in increased use of this technology in human medicine, and decreasing cost is making it more affordable for veterinary use. Rapid prototyping is at its early stage in veterinary medicine but clinical, educational, and experimental possibilities exist. Techniques and applications, both current and future, are explored and illustrated in this article. PMID:24889058

  8. The Need for a College of Veterinary Medicine to Serve New England and New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New England Board of Higher Education, Wellesley, MA. New England Library Information Network.

    This report documents the need for and presents well-founded recommendations for the establishment of a college of veterinary medicine to serve New England and New Jersey. The need for a veterinary medicine college is discussed in relation to today's veterinarians, and future shortage estimations. Major recommendations suggest that (1) a regional…

  9. Online tools for teaching evidence-based veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Steele, Michael; Crabb, Nicholas P; Moore, Lynda J; Reyher, Kristen K; Baillie, Sarah; Eisler, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) is of interest and relevance to veterinary practitioners. Consequently, veterinary schools take responsibility for teaching students how to appraise scientific articles and for equipping them with the skills needed to obtain and evaluate the best evidence and to apply this approach to their own cases. As part of our farm animal clinical rotation, we train students in qualitative and quantitative EBVM methods using an e-learning environment, online teaching materials, a wiki (a Web site that allows its users to edit its content via a Web browser), and face-to-face tutorials that support learning. Students working in small groups use a wiki to record details of the history, clinical presentation, diagnostic tests, herd data, and management plans for their chosen farm animal clinical cases. Using a standardized patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO) format, each group formulates a patient question based on either a proposed intervention or diagnostic procedure for the case and conducts an online scientific literature database search. The students appraise the articles retrieved using EBVM approaches and record the information in the wiki. The summation of this body of work, the group's critically appraised topic (CAT), includes the original PICO, a standardized table of the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of the intervention or diagnostic procedure, a summary statement in the form of a clinical bottom line, and their reflections upon the CAT. At the end of the rotation, students take part in a structured "CAT Club" where they present and discuss their findings with fellow students and clinicians. PMID:23975071

  10. Building on existing models from human medical education to develop a communication curriculum in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Adams, Cindy L; Kurtz, Suzanne M

    2006-01-01

    Communication is a core clinical skill of veterinary medicine and one that needs to be taught and learned to the same degree as other clinical skills. To provide this education and essential expertise, veterinary schools in many countries, especially including North America, the United Kingdom, and Australia, have begun to develop programs and communication curricula. Human medical education, however, has 30 years' experience in developing communication curricula, and is thus an excellent resource upon which veterinary educators can build and shape their own communication programs. This article describes a skills-based communication course that has been successfully implemented for veterinary medical education at Ontario Veterinary College (OVC) and was based on the University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine's well-established program. The Calgary-Cambridge Guides and supporting textbooks provide the scaffolding for teaching, learning, and evaluation in both programs. Resources such as space and materials to support the OVC program were also patterned after Calgary's program. Communication skills, and the methods for teaching and learning them, are equally applicable for the needs of both human medicine and veterinary medicine. The research evidence from human medicine is also very applicable for veterinary medicine and provides it the leverage it needs to move forward. With this extensive base available, veterinary medicine is in a position to move communication skills training forward rapidly. PMID:16767635

  11. Funding opportunities for veterinary medicine with USDA competitive programs.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Brad

    2005-01-01

    Dramatic changes are underway in how public higher education and professional training are funded. The shift from a public to a beneficiary funding model is driving increases in tuition for students, the collection of user fees, and fee-for-service activities and has focused increased attention on the need for funding support from federal grants and contracts. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) was the first federal agency to support university-based research and education. While the funding provided by the USDA is now only a fraction of what is available through other federal sources, the USDA remains an important source of funding dedicated specifically to farm-animal-related research and the training of the next generation of veterinary scientists and educators. PMID:16261490

  12. Outcomes Assessment at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleine, Lawrence J.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo; Kimball, Grayson

    2002-01-01

    Using a survey, compared relative values assigned by Tufts veterinary alumni to questions about skills, training, attitudes, and behaviors with those of veterinary employers and faculty. Also assessed their perceptions of future employment opportunities. (EV)

  13. The human-animal bond in academic veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Andrew N

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines the development of academic veterinary interest in the human-animal bond (HAB) and provides short summaries of the various centers currently studying the HAB at North American universities. Although most of these centers are at veterinary schools, the level of involvement by veterinarians is surprisingly low, considering how important a strong HAB is for the average veterinary practitioner (the stronger the bond, the more the client will be willing to pay for veterinary services). PMID:19228896

  14. Pre-Veterinary Students in Agriculture at Southern Land-Grant Universities. Journal Series No. 1-810012 of the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkelberger, John E.; And Others

    Because the number of students seeking admission to colleges of veterinary medicine exceeds the number that can be admitted, and because the changes that characterize veterinary students today have important implications for veterinary educators and administrators, this study focused on characteristics of undergraduate pre-veterinary students…

  15. Geographic trends in research output and citations in veterinary medicine: insight into global research capacity, species specialization, and interdisciplinary relationships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bibliographic data can be used to map the research quality and productivity of a discipline. We hypothesized that bibliographic data would identify geographic differences in research capacity, species specialization, and interdisciplinary relationships within the veterinary profession that corresponded with demographic and economic indices. Results Using the SCImago portal, we retrieved veterinary journal, article, and citation data in the Scopus database by year (1996–2011), region, country, and publication in species-specific journals (food animal, small animal, equine, miscellaneous), as designated by Scopus. In 2011, Scopus indexed 165 journals in the veterinary subject area, an increase from 111 in 1996. As a percentage of veterinary research output between 1996 and 2010, Western Europe and North America (US and Canada) together accounted for 60.9% of articles and 73.0% of citations. The number of veterinary articles increased from 8815 in 1996 to 19,077 in 2010 (net increase 66.6%). During this time, publications increased by 21.0% in Asia, 17.2% in Western Europe, and 17.0% in Latin America, led by Brazil, China, India, and Turkey. The United States had the highest number of articles in species-specific journals. As a percentage of regional output, the proportion of articles in small animal and equine journals was highest in North America and the proportion of articles in food animal journals was highest in Africa. Based on principal component analysis, total articles were highly correlated with gross domestic product (based on World Bank data). The proportion of articles in small animal and equine journals was associated with gross national income, research and development, and % urban population, as opposed to the proportion of food animal articles, agricultural output, and % rural population. Co-citations linked veterinary medicine with medicine in the United States, with basic sciences in Eastern Europe and the Far East, and with agriculture

  16. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, H P; Brown, S A; Chetboul, V; King, J N; Pouchelon, J-L; Toutain, P L

    2007-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors represent one of the most commonly used categories of drugs in canine and feline medicine. ACE inhibitors currently approved for use in veterinary medicine are benazepril, enalapril, imidapril and ramipril. They are all pro-drugs administered by oral route. A physiologically based model taking into account the saturable binding to ACE has been developed for pharmacokinetic analysis. The bioavailability of the active compounds from their respective pro-drug is low. The active metabolites are eliminated by renal, hepatorenal or biliary excretion, according to the drug. The elimination half-life of the free fraction of the active compounds is very short (ranging from approximately 10 min to 2 h). ACE inhibitors are generally well tolerated. Benazepril, enalapril, imidapril and ramipril are approved for dogs with chronic heart failure (CHF). The efficacy of ACE inhibitors has been convincingly demonstrated in dogs with CHF, especially in those with chronic valvular disease. In such clinical settings, ACE inhibitors improve hemodynamics and clinical signs, and increase survival time. In cats with cardiovascular disease, little information is available except for reports of some benefit in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in two non-controlled investigations. ACE inhibitors have also a mild to moderate hypotensive effect. There is also evidence to recommend ACE inhibitors in dogs and cats with chronic renal failure (CRF). They decrease the glomerular capillary pressure, have antiproteinuric effects, tend to delay the progression of CRF and to limit the extent of renal lesions. PMID:17506720

  17. Basic Science and Clinical Application of Stem Cells in Veterinary Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribitsch, I.; Burk, J.; Delling, U.; Geißler, C.; Gittel, C.; Jülke, H.; Brehm, W.

    Stem cells play an important role in veterinary medicine in different ways. Currently several stem cell therapies for animal patients are being developed and some, like the treatment of equine tendinopathies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have already successfully entered the market. Moreover, animal models are widely used to study the properties and potential of stem cells for possible future applications in human medicine. Therefore, in the young and emerging field of stem cell research, human and veterinary medicine are intrinsically tied to one another. Many of the pioneering innovations in the field of stem cell research are achieved by cooperating teams of human and veterinary medical scientists.

  18. [Regulatory requirements regarding cell-based medicinal products for human and veterinary use - a comparison].

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann-Gottke, Johanna; Duchow, Karin

    2015-11-01

    At present, there is no separate regulatory framework for cell-based medicinal products (CBMP) for veterinary use at the European or German level. Current European and national regulations exclusively apply to the corresponding medicinal products for human use. An increasing number of requests for the regulatory classification of CBMP for veterinary use, such as allogeneic stem cell preparations and dendritic cell-based autologous tumour vaccines, and a rise in scientific advice for companies developing these products, illustrate the need for adequate legislation. Currently, advice is given and decisions are made on a case-by-case basis regarding the regulatory classification and authorisation requirements.Since some of the CBMP - in particular in the area of stem-cell products - are developed in parallel for human and veterinary use, there is an urgent need to create specific legal definitions, regulations, and guidelines for these complex innovative products in the veterinary sector as well. Otherwise, there is a risk that that the current legal grey area regarding veterinary medicinal products will impede therapeutic innovations in the long run. A harmonised EU-wide approach is desirable. Currently the European legislation on veterinary medicinal products is under revision. In this context, veterinary therapeutics based on allogeneic cells and tissues will be defined and regulated. Certainly, the legal framework does not have to be as comprehensive as for human CBMP; a leaner solution is conceivable, similar to the special provisions for advanced-therapy medicinal products laid down in the German Medicines Act. PMID:26369765

  19. 76 FR 67746 - Revised Guidance for Industry on Impurities: Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... marketing applications in this guidance) submitted to the European Union, Japan, and the United States... among the European Union, Japan, and the United States. The VICH is a parallel initiative for veterinary... of veterinary medicinal products in the European Union, Japan, and the United States, and...

  20. 75 FR 52605 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... overview of Atlantic salmon, its natural history, aquaculture, and genetic engineering'' and ``The VMAC...Veterinary/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/GeneticEngineering/GeneticallyEngineeredAnimals/default.htm . Please...

  1. A Graduate Program in Veterinary Preventive Medicine--University of Guelph--1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, W. R.; Barnum, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    A three-semester (12-month) diploma program for veterinarians was begun at the University of Guelph in 1971 that is applicable to veterinarians employed in public health, regulatory veterinary medicine, and animal production medicine, where there is emphasis on preventive medicine. Each student completes a project suitable for seminar presentation…

  2. A Perspective on Veterinary Forensic Pathology and Medicine in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Newbery, S G; Cooke, S W; Martineau, H M

    2016-09-01

    Internationally, forensic medicine and pathology are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of work done by veterinary clinicians and veterinary pathologists. In this article, a forensic veterinary clinician, a forensic veterinary pathologist in private practice, and a forensic veterinary pathologist at a veterinary school discuss the interactions among veterinary clinicians, veterinary pathologists, and law enforcement agencies and how future interactions can be improved. The focus is on the United Kingdom, but many of the principles, challenges, and suggestions are applicable to other jurisdictions. Clinicians and pathologists require forensic training to enable them to apply their veterinary knowledge to suspected cases of animal abuse and to subsequently present their findings and conclusions to a court of law in a concise, professional, and unbiased manner, and some opportunities for such advanced training in the United Kingdom are indicated. It is important that forensic veterinary clinicians and pathologists interact in an unbiased and collegial manner to answer the questions posed by courts of law. Opportunities for improved training, communication, and interaction among forensic veterinarians, forensic scientists, and law enforcement are discussed. PMID:27371542

  3. Environmental Risk Assessment of antimicrobials applied in veterinary medicine-A field study and laboratory approach.

    PubMed

    Slana, Marko; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2013-01-01

    The fate and environmental risk of antimicrobial compounds of different groups of veterinary medicine pharmaceuticals (VMP's) have been compared. The aim was to demonstrate a correlation between the physical and chemical properties of active compounds and their metabolism in target animals, as well as their fate in the environment. In addition, the importance of techniques for manure management and agricultural practice and their influence on the fate of active compounds is discussed. The selected active compounds are shown to be susceptible to at least one environmental factor (sun, water, bacterial or fungal degradation) to which they are exposed during their life cycle, which contributes to its degradation. Degradation under a number of environmental factors has also to be considered as authentic information additional to that observed in the limited conditions in laboratory studies and in Environmental Risk Assessment calculations. PMID:23274419

  4. The Buddy System: Peer Teaching in Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, R. J.; Swan, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    A program that paired third-year veterinary students with fifth-year students for exposure to veterinary hospital procedures is described. It is noted that this experience costs little, provides important peer influence and informal peer instruction, and is voluntary. (MSE)

  5. The role of family therapists in veterinary medicine: opportunities for clinical services, education, and research.

    PubMed

    Hafen, McArthur; Rush, Bonnie R; Reisbig, Allison M J; McDaniel, Kara Z; White, Mark B

    2007-04-01

    Marriage and family therapists (MFTs) are applying their specific skill set in a variety of arenas. A new area for collaboration is veterinary medicine. The veterinary medical profession is emphasizing the importance of non-biomedical skills such as communication skills, acknowledging that human clientele are likely to view their pets as family members, and discussing veterinarian personal well-being. Each of these trends has clear application for intervention by MFTs. A discussion of how MFTs may be uniquely positioned to assist veterinary medicine is presented. An example of collaboration between MFT and veterinary medicine at Kansas State University is highlighted. Recommendations are made for development of effective educational relationships and possible private sector collaborations. PMID:17437457

  6. Lasers in veterinary medicine--where have we been, and where are we going?

    PubMed

    Bartels, Kenneth E

    2002-05-01

    Future use of lasers in medicine depends on the active participation of veterinarians in the inception and development of new devices that meet the needs of the entire medical profession. The sensible clinical approach that must be taken every day in the practice of veterinary medicine equips the veterinarian with a unique ability to understand the practical applications of biomedical lasers. Veterinary medicine can and should be in the forefront during these exciting times, adding an essential dimension to development of this twenty-first century technology. PMID:12064038

  7. Augmented reality intravenous injection simulator based 3D medical imaging for veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Lee, J; Lee, A; Park, N; Lee, S; Song, S; Seo, A; Lee, H; Kim, J-I; Eom, K

    2013-05-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology which enables users to see the real world, with virtual objects superimposed upon or composited with it. AR simulators have been developed and used in human medicine, but not in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to develop an AR intravenous (IV) injection simulator to train veterinary and pre-veterinary students to perform canine venipuncture. Computed tomographic (CT) images of a beagle dog were scanned using a 64-channel multidetector. The CT images were transformed into volumetric data sets using an image segmentation method and were converted into a stereolithography format for creating 3D models. An AR-based interface was developed for an AR simulator for IV injection. Veterinary and pre-veterinary student volunteers were randomly assigned to an AR-trained group or a control group trained using more traditional methods (n = 20/group; n = 8 pre-veterinary students and n = 12 veterinary students in each group) and their proficiency at IV injection technique in live dogs was assessed after training was completed. Students were also asked to complete a questionnaire which was administered after using the simulator. The group that was trained using an AR simulator were more proficient at IV injection technique using real dogs than the control group (P ≤ 0.01). The students agreed that they learned the IV injection technique through the AR simulator. Although the system used in this study needs to be modified before it can be adopted for veterinary educational use, AR simulation has been shown to be a very effective tool for training medical personnel. Using the technology reported here, veterinary AR simulators could be developed for future use in veterinary education. PMID:23103217

  8. Epidemiology and Herd Health Training in the School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbald, L. F.; Hagstad, H. V.

    1978-01-01

    At Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, training in preventive medicine is incorporated into all four years of the curriculum. The curriculum is described with focus on the fourth year practical course that involves problem solving, using various herds in the area. (JMD)

  9. Practicing the skills of evidence-based veterinary medicine through case-based pharmacology rounds.

    PubMed

    Fajt, Virginia R; Brown, Dimitri; Scott, Maya M

    2009-01-01

    Accessing new knowledge and using it to make decisions is the foundation of evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM), the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and owner/manager values. Reflecting on our experience with an EBVM-based clinical pharmacology assignment during a clinical rotation, we present the justification for the addition of an EBVM assignment to the clinical (fourth) year at the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at Texas A&M University. We also present an in-depth analysis of the addition, recommendations for the assessment of this exercise as a method of improving evidence-based veterinary practice, and recommendations and implications for other instructors interested in adding EBVM-related learning to their professional curricula. We recommend adding EBVM skill practice in pre-clinical training, abbreviated exercises in EBVM skills on clinical rotations, and increased attention to critical-thinking skills in veterinary education. PMID:19625667

  10. Validation of the Veterinary Aptitude Test at Three Colleges of Veterinary Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Barry A.; Niedzwiedz, Edward R.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between the VAT and performance in curricula at three colleges was examined. Results of the regression analysis indicated that, although the combined percentile score of the VAT was found to be correlated with performance in veterinary school, better prediction was possible using only the Science subscale at two of the three…

  11. Overview of Mosquito Research Programs at the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE), a U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research Service laboratory, was established in World War II to produce products to protect military personnel against insect vector of disease. Currently the mission of CMAVE is ...

  12. The ‘Dangerous’ Women of Animal Welfare: How British Veterinary Medicine Went to the Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the turn toward the small companion animal that occurred in British veterinary medicine in the twentieth century. The change in species emphasis is usually attributed to post-war socioeconomic factors, however this explanation ignores the extensive small animal treatment that was occurring outwith the veterinary profession in the interwar period. The success of this unqualified practice caused the veterinary profession to rethink attitudes to small animals (dogs initially, later cats) upon the decline of horse practice. This paper argues that a shift toward seeing the small animal as a legitimate veterinary patient was necessary before the specialty could become mainstream in the post-war years, and that this occurred between the wars as a result of the activities of British animal welfare charities, especially the People's Dispensary for Sick Animals of the Poor. PMID:25067889

  13. 75 FR 77607 - Privacy Act of 1974; Proposed New System of Records; Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... accredited college of veterinary medicine resulting in a degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine or the... address, such as a U.S. post office, a State motor vehicle administration, a university's office of the... debt to the United States. The records in this system will be maintained in a secure manner...

  14. Program review of the USDA Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) has a history that starts in 1932 in Orlando to develop methods to control mosquitoes, including malaria vectors under conditions simulating those of the south Pacific jungles, and other insects affecting man and animals...

  15. Production of CAL-programs in medicine, odontology and veterinary medicine in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rydmark, M; Jalling, H; Petersson, G; Philip, F

    1998-06-01

    At the recommendation of the Swedish Government, the Council for the Renewal of Undergraduate Education was established in 1990. In 1993 the Council was declared a permanent National Agency by Swedish Parliament and became part of the newly established National Agency for Higher Education in 1995. The purpose of the Council for Renewal of Undergraduate Education is to promote and support endeavors to develop quality and renewal of undergraduate education. In particular the council awards grants to development activities. Once a year, teachers at Swedish universities, university colleges and professional schools can apply for funding. Applications are accepted for projects directed towards undergraduate education in all disciplines. The Council selects 15-20 projects and each project is funded for 1-3 years. An advisory group--MEDCAL (Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) in MEDicine, Odontology and Veterinary Medicine)--consisting of representatives from all universities supports the Council with registration and evaluation of programs, offers their opinions on the production of CAL and collaborates with similar organizations in other countries, e.g. Australia, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain and USA. In all, 12 projects within the frame of MEDCAL will be reported. PMID:9726519

  16. What Are the Appropriate Curriculum Contents for Biochemistry Courses in Veterinary Medicine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, A. A. D.; Correia, J. H. R. D.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of the important items that the author's suggest should be included in a biochemistry course given to students in veterinary medicine. Presents a broad range of specific topics in biochemistry and strategies for covering as many topics as possible in one course. (LZ)

  17. Carcinogens, Teratogens and Mutagens: Their Impact on Occupational Health, Particularly for Women in Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, J. E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Pregnant women, especially those working in veterinary medicine, face occupational health/disease risks from mutagens, teratogens, and carcinogens. These hazards can be placed into three categories: physical, chemical, and biological. Each of these hazards is discussed with examples. (Author/JN)

  18. Career Influences, Educational Experiences, and Professional Attitudes of Women and Men in Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andberg, Wendy L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A college of veterinary medicine in a large state university compared its male and female students and found differences in the influences on their career choice and in their academic experiences, gender-role expectations and conflicts, attitudes regarding professional dedication and competence, and need for support services. (Author)

  19. A Model for Producing and Sharing Instructional Materials in Veterinary Medicine. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Billy C.; Niec, Alphonsus P.

    This report describes a study of factors which appear to influence the "shareability" of audiovisual materials in the field of veterinary medicine. Specific factors addressed are content quality, instructional effectiveness, technical quality, institutional support, organization, logistics, and personal attitudes toward audiovisuals. (Author/CO)

  20. Cost of Initial Development of PLATO Instruction in Veterinary Medicine. CERL Report X-43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, George M.

    An academic program instituting the PLATO system of computer-assisted instruction at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine is discussed. Procedures involved setting up an organization, establishing an administrative system, studying capabilities of the system, studying factors making a lesson suitable for programming, and…

  1. Veterinary Medicine Program Review. State University System of Florida. Consultant's Report and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David P.

    This report reviews the University of Florida's College of Veterinary Medicine and provides an analysis of the institution's strengths and weaknesses, along with recommendations to improve the college's programs. It examines the college's degree programs, students, faculty, facilities, and resources, as well as actions taken to meet…

  2. Notes from the Field: Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis Among Veterinary Medicine Students--Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, February 2015.

    PubMed

    Drinkard, Lauren N; Halbritter, Ashlee; Nguyen, Giang T; Sertich, Patricia L; King, Max; Bowman, Sallyann; Huxta, Rebecca; Guagenti, Mary

    2015-07-24

    On February 20, 2015, a northeastern university's student health center was notified of five veterinary medicine students with gastrointestinal symptoms. An investigation was conducted to establish the existence of an outbreak, determine the etiology, evaluate risk factors, and recommend control measures. PMID:26203633

  3. Academic Feedback in Veterinary Medicine: A comparison of School Leaver and Graduate Entry cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Kirsty Jean; McCune, Velda; Rhind, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the expectations and experiences of students on a five-year undergraduate ("n"?=?91) and four-year graduate entry ("n"?=?47) veterinary medicine degree programme relating to academic feedback. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to explore new students' expectations and prior experiences of feedback and capture…

  4. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume V: Women in Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    This exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW aimed at identifying and exploring the barriers to success that women face as school applicants and students and at describing the discrimination process, if any, that limits women's entry into the health professions. In this report on veterinary medicine, the profession is…

  5. Changing the Face of Veterinary Medicine: Research and Clinical Developments at AAVMC Institutions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald F; Hagstrom, Melena R

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a 50-year overview of research and clinical advances in AAVMC member colleges in four representative fields of veterinary medicine: oncology, vaccine development, production medicine, and public health. Though emphasis is on the progress since the mid-1960s, the salient background and associated personnel in each field are also identified to the extent that their description informs more recent events. Advances in board certification and post-graduate clinical and research educational opportunities are also described. PMID:26673211

  6. Reported rabies pre-exposure immunization of students at US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, Joann M; Wright, James C; Nusbaum, Kenneth E; Saville, William J A; Evanson, Timothy C; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the US experienced a disruption in human rabies vaccine supplies, leading public health authorities to prioritize vaccine release for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and limit vaccine supplies for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreEP) in high-risk groups. In 2008, the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) surveyed its member institutions on rabies vaccination policies and practices. Senior administrators at Colleges of Veterinary Medicine (CVMs) and departments of veterinary science and comparative medicine were asked to identify the person most knowledgeable about their institution's student rabies vaccination program. Respondents were asked to describe their policies and procedures for administering PreEP to veterinary medical students and staff and to estimate the annual demand for student and staff PreEP vaccine. Twenty-one CVMs responded. Twenty (95%) reported requiring PreEP of veterinary medical students and 16 (80%) of those 20 required vaccination upon matriculation. An estimated 7,309 doses of vaccine were required for PreEP of an estimated 2,436 first-year US veterinary medical students. Seventy-two percent of respondents administered PreEP in August, September, and October, coinciding with the highest public demand for PEP. CVMs should consider altering the timing of rabies vaccine administration to veterinary medical students and staff to other months, thereby helping to ensure that PEP rabies vaccine will be available to people with validated rabies exposures and to ensure that supplies will be available for PreEP of students and staff. AAVMC may wish to identify and support a point of coordination to facilitate the purchase and distribution of human rabies vaccine among its US member CVMs. PMID:23975075

  7. Use and acceptance of Wiki systems for students of veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kolski, Darius; Arlt, Sebastian; Birk, Stephan; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Wiki systems are gaining importance concerning the use in education, especially among young users. The aim of our study was to examine, how students of veterinary medicine commonly use wiki systems, whether they consider a veterinary wiki system useful and if they would participate in writing content. Methodology: For data collection a questionnaire was provided to students (n=210) of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the Freie Universität Berlin, Germany. It contained questions regarding the use of Wikipedia in general and concerning educational issues. Results: Most respondents, especially students in the first years, had comprehensive experience in the use of Wikipedia and veterinary wiki systems. In contrast, the experience in writing or editing of information was low (8.6% Wikipedia, 15.3% veterinary wiki systems). Male students had significantly more writing experience than females (p=0,008). In addition, students of the higher years were more experienced in writing and editing than students of the first year (7.4% in the 4th year). The familiarity with wiki systems offered by universities was low. The majority of students (96.2%) are willing to use veterinary wiki systems as an information tool in the future. Nevertheless, only a low percentage is willing to write or edit content. Many students, however, expect a better learning success when writing own texts. In general, students consider the quality of information in a wiki system as correct. Conclusion: In conclusion, wiki systems are considered a useful tool to gain information. This will lead to a successful implementation of wiki systems in veterinary education. A main challenge will be to develop concepts to activate students to participate not only in reading but in the writing and editing process. PMID:23467415

  8. 3D Reconstruction from X-ray Fluoroscopy for Clinical Veterinary Medicine using Differential Volume Rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khongsomboon, Khamphong; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Shozo

    3D reconstruction from ordinary X-ray equipment which is not CT or MRI is required in clinical veterinary medicine. Authors have already proposed a 3D reconstruction technique from X-ray photograph to present bone structure. Although the reconstruction is useful for veterinary medicine, the thechnique has two problems. One is about exposure of X-ray and the other is about data acquisition process. An x-ray equipment which is not special one but can solve the problems is X-ray fluoroscopy. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method for 3D-reconstruction from X-ray fluoroscopy for clinical veterinary medicine. Fluoroscopy is usually used to observe a movement of organ or to identify a position of organ for surgery by weak X-ray intensity. Since fluoroscopy can output a observed result as movie, the previous two problems which are caused by use of X-ray photograph can be solved. However, a new problem arises due to weak X-ray intensity. Although fluoroscopy can present information of not only bone structure but soft tissues, the contrast is very low and it is very difficult to recognize some soft tissues. It is very useful to be able to observe not only bone structure but soft tissues clearly by ordinary X-ray equipment in the field of clinical veterinary medicine. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new method to determine opacity in volume rendering process. The opacity is determined according to 3D differential coefficient of 3D reconstruction. This differential volume rendering can present a 3D structure image of multiple organs volumetrically and clearly for clinical veterinary medicine. This paper shows results of simulation and experimental investigation of small dog and evaluation by veterinarians.

  9. 78 FR 25417 - Notice of Request for Applications for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    .... 75 FR 20239-20248. Based on comments received during the 60-day comment period upon publication of the interim rule on July 9, 2009, 74 FR 32788-32798, NIFA reconsidered the policy regarding... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Notice of Request for Applications for the Veterinary...

  10. Virtual international experiences in veterinary medicine: an evaluation of students' attitudes toward computer-based learning.

    PubMed

    French, Brigitte C; Hird, David W; Romano, Patrick S; Hayes, Rick H; Nijhof, Ard M; Jongejan, Frans; Mellor, Dominic J; Singer, Randall S; Fine, Amanda E; Gay, John M; Davis, Radford G; Conrad, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    While many studies have evaluated whether or not factual information can be effectively communicated using computer-aided tools, none has focused on establishing and changing students' attitudes toward international animal-health issues. The study reported here was designed to assess whether educational modules on an interactive computer CD elicited a change in veterinary students' interest in and attitudes toward international animal-health issues. Volunteer veterinary students at seven universities (first-year students at three universities, second-year at one, third-year at one, and fourth-year at two) were given by random assignment either an International Animal Health (IAH) CD or a control CD, ParasitoLog (PL). Participants completed a pre-CD survey to establish baseline information on interest and attitudes toward both computers and international animal-health issues. Four weeks later, a post-CD questionnaire was distributed. On the initial survey, most students expressed an interest in working in the field of veterinary medicine in another country. Responses to the three pre-CD questions relating to attitudes toward the globalization of veterinary medicine, interest in foreign animal disease, and inclusion of a core course on international health issues in the veterinary curriculum were all positive, with average values above 3 (on a five-point scale where 5 represented strong agreement or interest). Almost all students considered it beneficial to learn about animal-health issues in other countries. After students reviewed the IAH CD, we found a decrease at four universities, an increase at one university, and no change at the remaining two universities in students' interest in working in some area of international veterinary medicine. However, none of the differences was statistically significant. PMID:18287480

  11. Diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine: a comparative and evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Leslie C; Wellman, Maxey L

    2011-03-01

    Diagnostic cytology is a core veterinary pathology service involving specimens from domestic animals, laboratory animals, and exotic species. Evidence-based application of cytopathology involves management of preanalytical factors, and thorough evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the technique in each species and for all specimen types. Unique to veterinary medicine is the reliance on cytology as the basis for crucial medical decisions such as humane euthanasia, especially when the patient is critically ill or when financial considerations limit diagnostic and therapeutic options. This article reviews the cytologic criteria for the diagnosis of selected neoplastic and infectious diseases. PMID:21295719

  12. Adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells for musculoskeletal repair in veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Arnhold, Stefan; Wenisch, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells which can be obtained from different adipose tissue sources within the body. It is an abundant cell pool, which is easy accessible and the cells can be obtained in large numbers, cultivated and expanded in vitro and prepared for tissue engineering approaches, especially for skeletal tissue repair. In the recent years this cell population has attracted a great amount of attention among researchers in human as well as in veterinary medicine. In the meantime ASCs have been well characterized and their use in regenerative medicine is very well established. This review focuses on the characterization of ASCs for their use for tissue engineering approaches especially in veterinary medicine and also highlights a selection of clinical trials on the basis of ASCs as the relevant cell source. PMID:25973326

  13. 'One medicine---one pathology': are veterinary and human pathology prepared?

    PubMed

    Cardiff, Robert D; Ward, Jerrold M; Barthold, Stephen W

    2008-01-01

    The American Medical Association and the American Veterinary Medical Association have recently approved resolutions supporting 'One Medicine' or 'One Health' that bridge the two professions. The concept is far from novel. Rudolf Virchow, the Father of Modern Pathology, and Sir William Osler, the Father of Modern Medicine, were outspoken advocates of the concept. The concept in its modern iteration was re-articulated in the 1984 edition of Calvin Schwabe's 'Veterinary Medicine and Human Health.' The veterinary and medical pathology professions are steeped in a rich history of 'One Medicine,' but they have paradoxically parted ways, leaving the discipline of pathology poorly positioned to contribute to contemporary science. The time has come for not only scientists but also all pathologists to recognize the value in comparative pathology, the consequences of ignoring the opportunity and, most importantly, the necessity of preparing future generations to meet the challenge inherent in the renewed momentum for 'One Medicine.' The impending glut of new genetically engineered mice creates an urgent need for prepared investigators and pathologists. PMID:18040269

  14. Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in broiler manure and agricultural soil in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-08-01

    Repeated applications of animal manure as fertilizer are normal agricultural practices that may release veterinary antibiotics and hormones into the environment from treated animals. Broiler manure samples and their respective manure-amended agricultural soil samples were collected in selected locations in the states of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka in Malaysia to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. The samples were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The broiler manure samples were found to be contaminated with at least six target analytes, namely, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, trimethoprim and tylosin. These analytes were detected in broiler manure samples with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78,516 μg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) (doxycycline). For manure-amended agricultural soil samples, doxycycline and enrofloxacin residues were detected in every soil sample. The maximum concentration of antibiotic detected in soil was 1331 μg kg(-1) DW (flumequine). The occurrence of antibiotics and hormones in animal manure at high concentration poses a risk of contaminating agricultural soil via fertilization with animal manure. Some physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and metal content played a considerable role in the fate of the target veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in the environment. It was suggested that these parameters can affect the adsorption of pharmaceuticals to solid environmental matrices. PMID:24836135

  15. Sustainable Traditional Medicine: Taking the Inspirations from Ancient Veterinary Science

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Sanjeev; Kaphle, Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Rapid reduction in natural resources as a consequence to the expanded urbanization, global warming and reduced natural habitat posed a considerable threat to the sustainability of traditional medicine. Being completely dependent upon natural resources like herbs, minerals and animal products, traditional medicine would possibly rank first in order of extinction of heritage if an alternative way is not considered well in time. In reference to the use of animal products, Ayurveda presents some unique examples where animals are used without causing harm to them and so without posing a threat to their existence. In the current context, when natural resources are facing a threat to their existence, a revisit to these ideas may give us a new insight to refine our look at natural resources used in traditional medicine. PMID:18980947

  16. Criterion-referenced evaluation of day one clinical competencies of veterinary students: VOLES-the VMTH (Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital) Online Evaluation System.

    PubMed

    Zeck, Steven; Wall, Judy A; Smith, Bradford P; Wilson, W David; Walsh, Donal A

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an extensive online criterion-referenced evaluation system for the assessment of veterinary students' achievement during their final year's Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (or equivalent) clinical education. Data are reported for the 2001 to 2009 University of California at Davis veterinary graduates, for a total of more than 1,100 students. These criterion-referenced evaluations extensively document the level of clinical skills attained and demonstrated during the individual clinical rotations that comprise the fourth-year curriculum. On average, in each of the 17,500 clinical rotations undertaken during this time period, student performance was assessed in at least 11 separate areas of skills, knowledge, and professional attributes. This provided more than 200,000 criterion-referenced judgments of the individual clinical attributes of graduates over nine years. The system is based on a previously detailed and validated definition of the skills, knowledge, and professional attributes that students should have demonstrated before graduation. The extensive database that this system has provided has established that this system, termed VOLES (VMTH [Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital] On-Line Evaluation System), is an effective tool to assess the clinical capabilities of veterinary students and their achievement of the "Day One" skills required for entering clinical practice. These expected proficiencies are balanced according to the differing expectations that each area of veterinary clinical practice demands. PMID:22430080

  17. Recombinant human thyrotropin in veterinary medicine: current use and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Campos, M; van Hoek, I; Peremans, K; Daminet, S

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) was developed after bovine thyrotropin (bTSH) was no longer commercially available. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) as an aid to diagnostic follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in humans and for thyroid remnant ablation with radioiodine. In addition, rhTSH is used in human medicine to evaluate thyroid reserve capacity and to enhance radioiodine uptake in patients with metastatic thyroid cancer and multinodular goiter. Likewise, rhTSH has been used in veterinary medicine over the last decade. The most important veterinary use of rhTSH is thyroidal functional reserve testing for the diagnosis of canine hypothyroidism. Recent pilot studies performed at Ghent University in Belgium have investigated the use of rhTSH to optimize radioiodine treatment of canine thyroid carcinoma and feline hyperthyroidism. Radioiodine treatment optimization may allow a decreased therapeutic dosage of radioiodine and thus may improve radioprotection. This review outlines the current uses of rhTSH in human and veterinary medicine, emphasizing research performed in dogs and cats, as well as potential future applications. PMID:22676297

  18. Probabilistic risk assessment of veterinary medicines applied to four major aquaculture species produced in Asia.

    PubMed

    Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2014-01-15

    Aquaculture production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary medicines into the environment. About 90% of the global aquaculture production is produced in Asia and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of veterinary medicines in Asian aquaculture have not yet been properly evaluated. In this study we performed a probabilistic risk assessment for eight different aquaculture production scenarios in Asia by combining up-to-date information on the use of veterinary medicines and aquaculture production characteristics. The ERA-AQUA model was used to perform mass balances of veterinary medicinal treatments applied to aquaculture ponds and to characterize risks for primary producers, invertebrates, and fish potentially exposed to chemical residues through aquaculture effluents. The mass balance calculations showed that, on average, about 25% of the applied drug mass to aquaculture ponds is released into the environment, although this percentage varies with the chemical's properties, the mode of application, the cultured species density, and the water exchange rates in the aquaculture pond scenario. In general, the highest potential environmental risks were calculated for parasitic treatments, followed by disinfection and antibiotic treatments. Pangasius catfish production in Vietnam, followed by shrimp production in China, constitute possible hot-spots for environmental pollution due to the intensity of the aquaculture production and considerable discharge of toxic chemical residues into surrounding aquatic ecosystems. A risk-based ranking of compounds is provided for each of the evaluated scenarios, which offers crucial information for conducting further chemical and biological field and laboratory monitoring research. In addition, we discuss general knowledge gaps and research priorities for performing refined risk assessments of aquaculture medicines in the near future. PMID:24061054

  19. New viruses in veterinary medicine, detected by metagenomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Belák, Sándor; Karlsson, Oskar E; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael; Granberg, Fredrik

    2013-07-26

    In our world, which is faced today with exceptional environmental changes and dramatically intensifying globalisation, we are encountering challenges due to many new factors, including the emergence or re-emergence of novel, so far "unknown" infectious diseases. Although a broad arsenal of diagnostic methods is at our disposal, the majority of the conventional diagnostic tests is highly virus-specific or is targeted entirely towards a limited group of infectious agents. This specificity complicates or even hinders the detection of new or unexpected pathogens, such as new, emerging or re-emerging viruses or novel viral variants. The recently developed approaches of viral metagenomics provide an effective novel way to screen samples and detect viruses without previous knowledge of the infectious agent, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control, in line with the "One World, One Health" principles (www.oneworldonehealth.org). Using metagenomic approaches, we have recently identified a broad variety of new viruses, such as novel bocaviruses, Torque Teno viruses, astroviruses, rotaviruses and kobuviruses in porcine disease syndromes, new virus variants in honeybee populations, as well as a range of other infectious agents in further host species. These findings indicate that the metagenomic detection of viral pathogens is becoming now a powerful, cultivation-independent, and useful novel diagnostic tool in veterinary diagnostic virology. PMID:23428379

  20. [Prof. Dr. Richard Völker and the School for Veterinary Medicine Technical Assistants in Hannover].

    PubMed

    Hohmann, M; Schäffer, J

    1996-05-01

    The first assistant professions in medicine technical field were established in the last third of the 19th century. Basic units primarily were private institutions which aimed to set up training facilities and money-making opportunities for unmarried women of the middle and upper classes. In correlation with the progress in microbiology and X-ray technics from about 1900 in veterinary medicine the demand for technical assistants raised up too. Since 1929 in some institutes and clinics of the Hannover Veterinary School unpaid trainees were instructed. Accordingly to this the "School for the Training of Technical Assistants in Veterinary Institutes" was founded on the initiative and under control of Richard Völker in summer 1937. In this paper a preliminary report is given which deals with the main aspects of the development of the profession, the school's foundation history and the special role of its founder Völker. A doctoral thesis to this subject is submitted to the veterinary authorities. PMID:8964240

  1. Basic science and clinical application of stem cells in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Ribitsch, I; Burk, J; Delling, U; Geißler, C; Gittel, C; Jülke, H; Brehm, W

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells play an important role in veterinary medicine in different ways. Currently several stem cell therapies for animal patients are being developed and some, like the treatment of equine tendinopathies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have already successfully entered the market. Moreover, animal models are widely used to study the properties and potential of stem cells for possible future applications in human medicine. Therefore, in the young and emerging field of stem cell research, human and veterinary medicine are intrinsically tied to one another. Many of the pioneering innovations in the field of stem cell research are achieved by cooperating teams of human and veterinary medical scientists.Embryonic stem (ES) cell research, for instance, is mainly performed in animals. Key feature of ES cells is their potential to contribute to any tissue type of the body (Reed and Johnson, J Cell Physiol 215:329-336, 2008). ES cells are capable of self-renewal and thus have the inherent potential for exceptionally prolonged culture (up to 1-2 years). So far, ES cells have been recovered and maintained from non-human primate, mouse (Fortier, Vet Surg 34:415-423, 2005) and horse blastocysts (Guest and Allen, Stem Cells Dev 16:789-796, 2007). In addition, bovine ES cells have been grown in primary culture and there are several reports of ES cells derived from mink, rat, rabbit, chicken and pigs (Fortier, Vet Surg 34:415-423, 2005). However, clinical applications of ES cells are not possible yet, due to their in vivo teratogenic degeneration. The potential to form a teratoma consisting of tissues from all three germ lines even serves as a definitive in vivo test for ES cells.Stem cells obtained from any postnatal organism are defined as adult stem cells. Adult haematopoietic and MSCs, which can easily be recovered from extra embryonic or adult tissues, possess a more limited plasticity than their embryonic counterparts (Reed and Johnson, J Cell Physiol 215

  2. Cephalosporins in veterinary medicine - ceftiofur use in food animals.

    PubMed

    Hornish, Rex E; Kotarski, Susan F

    2002-07-01

    Cephalosporins are an important class of antibacterial agents in use today for both humans and animals. Four generations of cephalosporins have evolved, all of which contain the beta-lactam sub-structure first found in penicillin. The range of cephalosporins available for use in food-producing animals, which is the subject of this review, is limited compared to humans. A few first- and second-generation cephalosporins are approved worldwide strictly for treatment of mastitis infections in dairy cattle. A third-generation cephalosporin, ceftiofur, and a fourth-generation cephalosporin, cefquinome, have been developed strictly for veterinary use. Cefquinome has been approved in several countries for the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle and swine, foot rot in cattle and for mastitis in dairy cattle. Ceftiofur has worldwide approvals for respiratory disease in swine, ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) and horses and has also been approved for foot rot and metritis infections in cattle. Ceftiofur has also been approved in various countries for early mortality infections in day-old chicks and turkey poults. This review summarizes cephalosporin use in general terms, and provides an overview of ceftiofur, in terms of its spectrum of activity, indications, metabolism, and degradation in the environment. The safety of ceftiofur is also reviewed, with respect to food-animal residues, rapid metabolism and degradation, and non-persistence of ceftiofur in the environment. The environmental fragility of cephalosporins have not been explored generally, but may be an important characteristic of this antibiotic class with respect to safety of use in animals. PMID:12052187

  3. Residues of veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostats in eggs--causes, control and results of surveillance program in Poland.

    PubMed

    Piatkowska, M; Jedziniak, P; Zmudzki, J

    2012-01-01

    The use of veterinary medicinal products in food producing animals for a variety of purposes causes that their residues may be presented in edible tissues. As a result, in concern of public health, European Union Countries establish each year monitoring plans and they control the levels of harmful substances in food of animal origin. This paper presents survey of residues of veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostats in eggs for Poland and European Union in years 2007-2010. Despite the decrease in reported non-compliant results for coccidiostats, the numbers were still higher than those for veterinary medicines. The most often determined coccidiostats were: nicarbazin, dinitrocarbanilide, salinomycin and lasalocid, and the most often reported non-compliant results for veterinary medicines were: antimicrobials, enrofloxacin and doxycycline. PMID:23390776

  4. The USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology: Developing new mosquito surveillance and control products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE), U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), conducts specific research directed at reducing or eliminating the harm caused by insects to humans, animals, and crops. CMAVE is an internationally ren...

  5. [Folk medicine veterinary science in the level of paterfamilias literature of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Krüger, H

    1993-06-01

    Paterfamilial literature in Germany marked the emergence of a literary category, with its householder writings being precursors of some of a farm management theory. Its pamphlets on veterinary medicine reflected latest knowledge in its time in farming. A number of economy housebooks is presented together with the authors in an attempt to give a somewhat closer account of this literature category in populist veterinary medicine. PMID:8339711

  6. Public health campaign to promote hand hygiene before meals in a college of veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Ellen R E; KuKanich, Kate S; Davis, Elizabeth; White, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary students can be exposed to environmental infectious agents in school that may include zoonotic pathogens. Encouraging effective hand hygiene can minimize the spread of zoonoses and promote public health and the One Health concept among veterinary students. The purpose of this study was to determine if a campaign could improve hand hygiene among veterinary students at extracurricular meetings serving meals. Nine Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine (KSU-CVM) extracurricular organizations participated in the study, sanitizer was provided at each meeting, and baseline hand-hygiene data were observed. A hand-hygiene opportunity was defined as any student observed to approach the buffet food line. Sanitizer use (yes/no) and gender (male/female) were recorded. Campaign interventions included a 3.5-minute educational video and a novel motivational poster. The video was presented to all first-year, second-year, and third-year veterinary students. Posters encouraging hand sanitization were displayed on doors and tables alongside sanitizers at each meeting. Observational hand-hygiene data were collected immediately after introduction of interventions and again 3 months later. Environmental sampling for presence of bacteria in and around meeting locations was also performed. Observed hand hygiene was lowest during baseline (11.0% ± 1.7), improved significantly post-intervention (48.8% ± 3.2), and remained improved at 3-month follow-up (33.5% ± 4.0). Females had higher probability of hand sanitizing (35.9% ± 2.2) than males (21.4% ± 2.4) (p<.01). Clostridium perfringens was isolated from 2/42 samples, and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 4/42 samples. A short-term public health campaign targeting veterinary students successfully improved hand hygiene before meals. PMID:24981423

  7. Grade inflation at a north american college of veterinary medicine: 1985-2006.

    PubMed

    Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; Sanderson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Grade inflation, an upward shift in student grade-point averages without a similar rise in achievement, is considered pervasive by most experts in post-secondary education in the United States. Grade-point averages (GPAs) at US universities have increased by roughly 0.15 points per decade since the 1960s, with a 0.6-point increase since 1967. In medical education, grade inflation has been documented and is particularly evident in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate grade inflation over a 22-year period in a college of veterinary medicine. Academic records from 2,060 students who graduated from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University between 1985 and 2006 were evaluated, including cumulative GPAs earned during pre-clinical professional coursework, during clinical rotations, and at graduation. Grade inflation was documented at a rate of approximately 0.2 points per decade at this college of veterinary medicine. The difference in mean final GPA between the minimum (1986) and maximum (2003) years of graduation was 0.47 points. Grade inflation was similar for didactic coursework (years 1-3) and clinical rotations (final year). Demographic shifts, student qualifications, and tuition do not appear to have contributed to grade inflation over time. A change in academic standards and student evaluation of teaching may have contributed to relaxed grading standards, and technology in the classroom may have led to higher (earned) grades as a result of improved student learning. PMID:19435997

  8. [The invention of animals: a history of Mexican veterinary medicine in the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Blanca Irais Uribe

    2015-12-01

    This article analyzes a phenomenon I call "the invention of animals," that is, the way in which veterinary medicine and the practices of physiology, microbiology and zootechnics produced new and different ways of thinking about, studying, understanding, regulating, legislating, commercializing, exploiting and experiencing "the animal." In particular, the text focuses on the evolution of this phenomenon in Mexico during the nineteenth century, since during this period the impact of these disciplines on animal bodies led to significant changes in the fields of human medicine, public health, and livestock production. PMID:26625921

  9. The contribution of veterinary medicine to public health and poverty reduction in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Muma, John B; Mwacalimba, Kennedy K; Munang'andu, Hetron M; Matope, Gift; Jenkins, Akinbowale; Siamudaala, Victor; Mweene, Aaron S; Marcotty, Tanguy

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have explicitly examined the linkages between human health, animal disease control and poverty alleviation. This paper reviews the contribution that veterinary medicine can make to poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our analysis attempts to explore aspects of this contribution under five themes: food production; food safety; impact and control of zoonotic infections; promotion of ecotourism; and environmental protection. While these areas of human activity have, more or less, fallen under the influence of the veterinary profession to varying degrees, we attempt to unify this mandate using a 'One Health' narrative, for the purpose of providing clarity on the linkages between the veterinary and other professions, livestock production and poverty alleviation. Future opportunities for improving health and reducing poverty in the context of developing African countries are also discussed. We conclude that veterinary science is uniquely positioned to play a key role in both poverty reduction and the promotion of health, a role that can be enhanced through the reorientation of the profession's goals and the creation of synergies with allied and related professions. PMID:24981913

  10. Use of traditional veterinary medicine in Nhema communal area of the Midlands province, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study documents the use of ethno-veterinary medicine to treat livestock in Nhema communal area in the Midlands province of Zimbabwe. This study employed oral interviews and detailed discussions with 69 smallholder farmers and 3 traditional healers. The local people use 23 plant species belonging to 16 families as ethno-veterinary remedies. Two plant families were particularly frequent in usage: Fabaceae and Solanaceae, while the most utilized plant species were Aloe chabaudii (UV = 0.69), Aloe greatheadii (UV = 0.65), Adenium multiflorum (UV = 0.63), Vernonia amygdalina (UV = 0.61), Nicotiana tabacum (UV = 56), Solanum lycopersicum (UV = 55), Capsicum annum (UV = 53) and Pouzolzia hypoleuca (UV = 51). Fourteen animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases were tick-borne diseases, eye problems, retained afterbirth, fleas, lice and diarrhoea. The majority of ethno-veterinary remedies (78%) were collected from the wild, with respondents mostly using herbs (11 species, 48%), followed by 6 trees (26%), 4 shrubs (17%), and 2 climbers (9%). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (51%), followed by bark (16%), roots (13%) and fruits (10%). These remedies were mostly administered as decoctions or infusions of single plants. These plants were used not only as alternatives to conventional veterinary drugs but also because in certain diseases they were thought to be more efficacious. In view of many and widespread uses of wild plants as ethnoveterinary remedies, further research into their pharmacological activities may prove worthwhile. PMID:23983361

  11. Survey of college climates at all 28 US colleges and schools of veterinary medicine: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, Lisa M; Carmichael, K Paige

    2014-01-01

    In April 2011, a nationwide survey of all 28 US veterinary schools was conducted to determine the comfort level (college climate) of veterinary medical students with people from whom they are different. The original hypothesis was that some historically underrepresented students, especially those who may exhibit differences from the predominant race, ethnicity, religion, gender, or sexual orientation, experience a less welcoming college climate. Nearly half of all US students responded to the survey, allowing investigators to make conclusions from the resulting data at a 99% CI with an error rate of less than 2% using Fowler's sample-size formula. Valuable information was captured despite a few study limitations, such as occasional spurious data reporting and little ability to respond in an open-ended manner (most questions had a finite number of allowed responses). The data suggest that while overall the majority of the student population is comfortable in American colleges, some individuals who are underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM) may not feel the same level of acceptance or inclusivity on veterinary school campuses. Further examination of these data sets may explain some of the unacceptably lower retention rates of some of these URVM students on campuses. PMID:24855030

  12. Veterinary medicine protecting and promoting the public's health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2004-03-16

    Dr. Calvin Schwabe's vision of "One Medicine" has long inspired many in the public health community to strive toward bringing human and veterinary medicine together to improve the public's health and well-being around the world. In an increasingly human-dominated world, as Dr. Schwabe suggested many years ago, human health provides the most-logical unifying or apical cause in veterinary medicine's hierarchy of values. Veterinarians in all aspects of the profession-have opportunity and responsibility to protect the health and well-being of people in all that they do, including protecting food security and safety; addressing threats to antibiotic sensitivity; preventing and controlling zoonotic emerging infectious diseases; protecting environments and ecosystems; participating in bio- and agro-terrorism preparedness and response; using their skills to confront non-zoonotic diseases (such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, vaccine preventable diseases, chronic diseases and injuries); strengthening the public-health infrastructure; and advancing medical science through research. This article provides an overview of contributions made by veterinarians in each of these areas, and discusses the challenges to be overcome and the need for strategic thinking and action to achieve the vision of "one medicine". PMID:15041202

  13. [Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in veterinary medicine: a "new emerging pathogen"?].

    PubMed

    Walther, Birgit; Friedrich, Alexander W; Brunnberg, Leo; Wieler, Lothar H; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2006-01-01

    The problem of nosocomial infections is of increasing importance in veterinary medicine. As an example, this review summarizes current knowledge regarding methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a typical example, as these pathogens are the most important agents of nosocomial infections in human medicine worldwide and are being increasingly reported in veterinary medicine. MRSA are classified by their ability to be resistant against oxacillin/methicillin, this feature being confered by mecA, a gene which was acquired by horizontal gene transfer of the staphylococcal gene cassette (SCCmec). It is this genetic information that enables MRSA to be resistant against all penicillins, cehalosporins and carbapenems. In addition, MRSA are often resistant against a variety of other antiinfectives, i.e. aminoglycosides, macrolides, lincosamide, streptomycins, tetracyclin, chloramphenicol, but also against fluorquinolones and rifampicin. Presumably, these highly adapted strains are particularly able to acquire resistance genes located on plasmids or transposons. They are also able to develop point mutations, further leading to resistant phenotypes. If these pathogens are leading to infectious diseases, veterinarians may be confronted with a worst-case scenario, being left without any antiinfective therapeutic. As Staphylococcus aureus is highly tenacid, professional hygiene management is of utmost importance. The increasing number of published sporadic MRSA infections, MRSA-infectious diseases as well as MRSA outbreaks in veterinary medicine justifies their recognition as a "New Emerging Pathogen". So far, horses and dogs are mostly affected by MRSA. Although transmission between humans and animals has been reported occasionally, the sources, routes of transmission or the epidemiological relevance of MRSA infections in animals are far from being understood. Therefore, epidemiological investigations utilizing molecular typing tools are mandatory. Typing tools like

  14. [Veterinary issues in the proceedings of the Amsterdam Agricultural Society, 1776-1832].

    PubMed

    Mathijsen, A H H M

    2006-01-01

    The Amsterdam Agricultural Society, founded in 1776, was created by six wealthy gentlemen, well known for the important positions in society held by them. They invested the money earned through trade among others in the acquisition of land, partially newly reclaimed in the surroundings of Amsterdam. As a consequence of the expansion of the population the profitability of agriculture had increased. The merchants and regents knew how to combine business with pleasure. In the second half of the 17th and the first half of the 18th century, they have built about 500 country estates in the surroundings of Amsterdam. Besides the pleasures of country-life, the owners gained a practical interest in agriculture and animal husbandry. Missing practical knowledge in these fields themselves, they felt the moral obligation to contribute to the general welfare of the society by the promotion of new ideas or experiences gained by others. In the first volume of the Proceedings is stated: 'It is beyond question that chemistry, botany, meteorology and the Ars veterinaria are to be considered as the true fundaments of agricultural knowledge'. Inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment and, quite in conformity with the spirit of the time, the establishment of a society was thought to be the answer in order to bring agricultural and thus economical reform. The method used was copied from the learned societies. The members proposed subjects for prize competitions and judged the answers sent in. The crowned answers were the main, but not the only, contents of the Society's Proceedings. The paper analyses the membership (the number of ordinary members decreased from 70 at the start to 56; that of honorary members was stable at about 20; further there were a few orrespondents), and quantifies the distribution of articles in the Proceedings, devoted respectively to agricultural, veterinary and zootechnical subjects. In addition, a detailed list with commentary, of the veterinary and

  15. Selected veterinary pharmaceuticals in agricultural water and soil from land application of animal manure.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenlu; Ding, Yunjie; Chiou, Cary T; Li, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary pharmaceuticals are commonly administered to animals for disease control, and added into feeds at subtherapeutic levels to improve feeding efficiency. As a result of these practices, a certain fraction of the pharmaceuticals are excreted into animal manures. Land application of these manures contaminates soils with the veterinary pharmaceuticals, which can subsequently lead to contamination of surface and groundwaters. Information on the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals in soil and water is needed to assess the potential for exposure of at-risk populations and the impacts on agricultural ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and fate of four commonly used veterinary pharmaceuticals (amprolium, carbadox, monensin, and tylosin) in a farm in Michigan. Amprolium and monensin were frequently detected in nearby surface water, with concentrations ranging from several to hundreds of nanograms per liter, whereas tylosin or carbadox was rarely found. These pharmaceuticals were more frequently detected in surface runoff during nongrowing season (October to April) than during growing season (May to September). Pharmaceuticals resulting from postharvest manure application appeared to be more persistent than those from spring application. High concentrations of pharmaceuticals in soils were generally observed at the sites where the respective concentrations in surface water were also high. For monensin, the ratios of soil-sorbed to aqueous concentrations obtained from field samples were within the order of the distribution coefficients obtained from laboratory studies. These results suggest that soil is a reservoir for veterinary pharmaceuticals that can be disseminated to nearby surface water via desorption from soil, surface runoff, and soil erosion. PMID:20830908

  16. Medicinal plants used for traditional veterinary in the Sierras de Córdoba (Argentina): An ethnobotanical comparison with human medicinal uses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This is a first description of the main ethnoveterinary features of the peasants in the Sierras de Córdoba. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of medicinal plants and other traditional therapeutic practices for healing domestic animals and cattle. Our particular goals were to: characterize veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge considering age, gender and role of the specialists; interpret the cultural features of the traditional local veterinary medicine and plant uses associated to it; compare the plants used in traditional veterinary medicine, with those used in human medicine in the same region. Methods Fieldwork was carried out as part of an ethnobotanic regional study where 64 informants were interviewed regarding medicinal plants used in veterinary medicine throughout 2001-2010. Based participant observation and open and semi-structured interviews we obtained information on the traditional practices of diagnosis and healing, focusing on the veterinary uses given to plants (part of the plant used, method of preparation and administration). Plants speciemens were collected with the informants and their vernacular and scientific names were registered in a database. Non-parametric statistic was used to evaluate differences in medicinal plant knowledge, use, and valorization by local people. A comparison between traditional veterinary medicine and previous human medicine studies developed in the region was performed by analyzing the percentages of common species and uses, and by considering Sorensen's Similarity Index. Results A total of 127 medicinal uses were registered, corresponding to 70 species of plants belonging to 39 botanic families. Veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge was specialized, restricted, in general, to cattle breeders (mainly men) and to a less degree to healers, and was independent of the age of the interviewees. Native plants were mostly used as skin cicatrizants, disinfectants or for treating digestive disorders. Together

  17. Reducing depth uncertainty in large surgical workspaces, with applications to veterinary medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audette, Michel A.; Kolahi, Ahmad; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Gatti, Claudio; Cleary, Kevin

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents on-going research that addresses uncertainty along the Z-axis in image-guided surgery, for applications to large surgical workspaces, including those found in veterinary medicine. Veterinary medicine lags human medicine in using image guidance, despite MR and CT data scanning of animals. The positional uncertainty of a surgical tracking device can be modeled as an octahedron with one long axis coinciding with the depth axis of the sensor, where the short axes are determined by pixel resolution and workspace dimensions. The further a 3D point is from this device, the more elongated is this long axis, and the greater the uncertainty along Z of this point's position, in relation to its components along X and Y. Moreover, for a triangulation-based tracker, its position error degrades with the square of distance. Our approach is to use two or more Micron Trackers to communicate with each other, and combine this feature with flexible positioning. Prior knowledge of the type of surgical procedure, and if applicable, the species of animal that determines the scale of the workspace, would allow the surgeon to pre-operatively configure the trackers in the OR for optimal accuracy. Our research also leverages the open-source Image-guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK).

  18. ASVCP guidelines: quality assurance for portable blood glucose meter (glucometer) use in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Karen L; Freeman, Kathleen P

    2016-03-01

    Portable blood glucose meters (PBGM, glucometers) are a convenient, cost effective, and quick means to assess patient blood glucose concentration. The number of commercially available PBGM is constantly increasing, making it challenging to determine whether certain glucometers may have benefits over others for veterinary testing. The challenge in selection of an appropriate glucometer from a quality perspective is compounded by the variety of analytic methods used to quantify glucose concentrations and disparate statistical analysis in many published studies. These guidelines were developed as part of the ASVCP QALS committee response to establish recommendations to improve the quality of testing using point-of-care testing (POCT) handheld and benchtop devices in veterinary medicine. They are intended for clinical pathologists and laboratory professionals to provide them with background knowledge and specific recommendations for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC), and to serve as a resource to assist the provision of advice to veterinarians and technicians to improve the quality of results obtained when using PBGM. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather they provide a minimum standard for management of PBGM in the veterinary setting. PMID:26748942

  19. Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1980-05-01

    The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book. PMID:6248014

  20. Developing Confidence in Uncertainty: Conflicting Roles of Trainees as They Become Educators in Veterinary and Human Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lygo-Baker, Simon; Kokotailo, Patricia K; Young, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    The important role of medical trainees (interns and residents) as teachers is increasingly recognized in veterinary and human medicine, but often is not supported through adult learning programs or other preparatory training methods. To develop appropriate teaching programs focused on effective clinical teaching, more understanding is needed about the support required for the trainee's teaching role. Following discussion among faculty members from education and veterinary and pediatric medicine, an experienced external observer and expert in higher education observed 28 incoming and outgoing veterinary and pediatric trainees in multiple clinical teaching settings over 10 weeks. Using an interpretative approach to analyze the data, we identified five dynamics that could serve as the foundation for a new program to support clinical teaching: (1) Novice-Expert, recognizing transitions between roles; (2) Collaboration-Individuality, recognizing the power of peer learning; (3) Confidence-Uncertainty, regarding the confidence to act; (4) Role-Interdisciplinarity, recognizing the ability to maintain a discrete role and yet synthesize knowledge and cope with complexity; and (5) Socialization-Identity, taking on different selves. Trainees in veterinary and human medicine appeared to have similar needs for support in teaching and would benefit from a variety of strategies: faculty should provide written guidelines and practical teaching tips; set clear expectations; establish sustained support strategies, including contact with an impartial educator; identify physical spaces in which to discuss teaching; provide continuous feedback; and facilitate peer observation across medical and veterinary clinical environments. PMID:26315215

  1. Paśu Ayurvĕda (veterinary medicine) in Garudapurăņa.

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    The history of veterinary medicine is closely tied to the development of human medicine. Evidence of animal medicine has been found in ancient civilizations, such as those of the Hindu, Babylonians, Hebrews, Arabs, Greeks, and Romans. Ancient Indian literature in the form of the holy Vĕda, Purăna, Brăhmaņa, epics, etc. is flooded with information on animal care. The Purăņa are ancient scriptures discuss varied topics like devotion to God and his various aspects, traditional sciences like Ayurvĕda, Jyŏtişa (Astrology), cosmology, concepts like dharma, karma, reincarnation and many others. The treatment of animal diseases using Ayurvedic medicine has been mentioned in Garudapurăna, Agnipurăņa, Atri-samhită, Matsyapurăņa and many other texts. The Garudapurăņa is one of the important Săttvika purăna, the subject matter is divided into two parts, viz. Pŭrvakhaņda (first part) and an Uttarakhaņda (subsequent part). Gavăyurvĕda, Gajăyurvĕda narrated briefly and Aśvăyurvĕda described detailly in Pŭrvakhaņda. PMID:19580108

  2. Geospatial Modeling and Disease Insect Vector Management at the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geospatial modeling at the Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) is used assist in the surveillance of insect vectors and in the management of insect transmitted diseases. The most recent Geospatial Modeling/Technology Transfer success involves the prediction of Rift Val...

  3. How do German veterinarians use social networks? A study, using the example of the 'NOVICE' veterinary medicine network

    PubMed Central

    Schaper, Elisabeth; Forrest, Neil D.; Tipold, Andrea; Ehlers, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: NOVICE (Network Of Veterinary ICT in Education, http://www.noviceproject.eu/), is a professional online social network for veterinarians, lecturers and students of veterinary medicine as well as for e-Learning advisers and others working in establishments that teach veterinary medicine. This study sets out to investigate to what extent German veterinarians, lecturers, students of veterinary medicine and e-Learning representatives would accept a specialist network, what requirements would have to be met by an online social network, how to use web 2.0 tools [21], [30] and what advantages a specialist network could offer. Methodology: The investigation was carried out by analysing data from the Elgg platform database as well as using Google Analytics. Annual focus group surveys and individual interviews were carried out in order to perform an analysis of acceptance among network users. Results: 1961 users from 73 different countries registered on the NOVICE site between 1 September 2010 and 21 March 2012. Germany represents the biggest user group, with 565 users (28.81%). During this period, most individual hits on the website came from Germany too. In total, 24.83% of all members are active, while 19.22% of German members participate actively. In terms of gender, there are significantly more female members than male members, both in the NOVICE network as a whole as well as in Germany. The most used web 2.0 tools are chat and email messaging services as well as writing wikis and contributing to forum discussions. The focus group surveys showed that respondents generally make use of other online communities too. Active members generally use more web 2.0 tools than in other networks, while passive members are generally more reluctant in all networks. All participants of the survey welcomed the idea of having a network specifically set up for the profession and believe that it could be very useful for veterinary medicine. Conclusions: The network and its

  4. Adipose-derived stem cells in veterinary medicine: characterization and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Marx, Camila; Silveira, Maiele Dornelles; Beyer Nardi, Nance

    2015-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells, considered one of the most promising cell types for therapeutic applications due to their capacity to secrete regenerative bioactive molecules, are present in all tissues. Stem cells derived from the adipose tissue have been increasingly used for cell therapy in humans and animals, both as freshly isolated, stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells, or as cultivated adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). ASCs have been characterized in different animal species for proliferation, differentiation potential, immunophenotype, gene expression, and potential for tissue engineering. Whereas canine and equine ASCs are well studied, feline cells are still poorly known. Many companies around the world offer ASC therapy for dogs, cats, and horses, although in most countries these activities are not yet controlled by regulatory agencies. This is the first study to review the characterization and clinical use of SVF and ASCs in spontaneously occurring diseases in veterinary patients. Although a relatively large number of studies investigating ASC therapy in induced lesions are available in the literature, a surprisingly small number of reports describe ASC therapy for naturally affected dogs, cats, and horses. A total of seven studies were found with dogs, only two studies in cats, and four in horses. Taken as a whole, the results do not allow a conclusion on the effect of this therapy, due to the generally small number of patients included, diversity of cell populations used, and lack of adequate controls. Further controlled studies are clearly needed to establish the real potential of ASC in veterinary medicine. PMID:25556829

  5. Designing a Competency-Based Program in Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine for the Professional Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, Lloyd A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A five-day workshop was successful in fulfilling its prime objective, development of a competency-based curriculum for veterinary public health and preventive medicine (VPH & PM). The model now may be used to re-evaluate and, where necessary, revise existing curriculums. (LBH)

  6. Factor Structure of a Brief Version of the Ways of Coping (WOC) Questionnaire: A Study with Veterinary Medicine Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sharon L.

    1994-01-01

    Explored structure of brief version of Ways of Coping (WOC) Questionnaire and coping strategies employed by students enrolled in stressful academic programs. Findings from 207 veterinary medicine students lend support to view that there are relatively stable underlying coping structures across samples or groups within specified coping situations.…

  7. Didactic and experiential training to teach communication skills: the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine collaborative experience.

    PubMed

    Chun, Ruthanne; Schaefer, Susan; Lotta, Corissa C; Banning, Jane A; Skochelak, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    Teaching communication skills to veterinary students is recognized as important; however, incorporation of this into an already crowded curriculum is difficult. At the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine we provide mandatory communication lectures to freshmen and sophomores, and offer elective experiential courses to juniors and seniors. Providing both didactic and experiential training allows students to learn and practice communication techniques in a "safe" setting. Our approach to experiential training is unique in that graduate students in counseling psychology (masters and doctoral level) act as "clients" for the juniors, and professional simulated pet owners are hired for digitally captured role-plays with the seniors. A unique inter-professional partnership has been formed between the Schools of Veterinary Medicine, Education (Department of Counseling Psychology), and (Human) Medicine and Public Health to provide this experiential training for our students. The purpose of this article is to describe the communication training program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine and to encourage other programs to reach across campus and partner with other colleges with the goal of improving training for all of the individuals involved. PMID:19625668

  8. Regulations governing veterinary medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms in the European community.

    PubMed

    Moulin, G

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes particular aspects of the marketing of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) that contain or consist of genetically modified micro-organisms (GMMs) or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The regulatory requirements and the procedures applied in the European Union for each phase (pre-marketing, authorisation process, and post-authorisation labelling and monitoring) are explained. In most cases VMPs are subject to both pharmaceutical and GMO regulations. In the early stages of the process, before applications for marketing authorisation are submitted, the assessment of clinical trials and experiments in contained areas is principally the responsibility of national authorities. However, the marketing of all VMPs containing or consisting of GMOs must be authorised at European level, although the national authorities are informed and involved in the assessment process. PMID:16110880

  9. 3-D Reconstruction From 2-D Radiographic Images and Its Application to Clinical Veterinary Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Sato, Motoyoshi

    3D imaging technique is very important and indispensable in diagnosis. The main stream of the technique is one in which 3D image is reconstructed from a set of slice images, such as X-ray CT and MRI. However, these systems require large space and high costs. On the other hand, a low cost and small size 3D imaging system is needed in clinical veterinary medicine, for example, in the case of diagnosis in X-ray car or pasture area. We propose a novel 3D imaging technique using 2-D X-ray radiographic images. This system can be realized by cheaper system than X-ray CT and enables to get 3D image in X-ray car or portable X-ray equipment. In this paper, a 3D visualization technique from 2-D radiographic images is proposed and several reconstructions are shown. These reconstructions are evaluated by veterinarians.

  10. [Vigilance for veterinary medicinal products: reports of adverse reactions in the year 2012].

    PubMed

    Müntener, C R; Bruckner, L; Kupper, J; Althaus, F R; Schäublin, M

    2013-11-01

    197 adverse reactions of Swissmedic-authorized veterinary medicinal products were reported during the year 2012 (2011: 167). Species and drug classes remain unchanged over the years: most of the reports related to reactions following the use of antiparasitic products (37.6 %), antiinfectives (15.7 %) or non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (11.7 %) in companion animals (94 dogs and 53 cats) followed by cattle/calves (29). Additionally, 45 cases transmitted by the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre in Zürich were processed. We discuss a paradoxical reaction under the potential influence of acepromazine as well as a modified protocol for treating permethrin intoxication in cats. Finally, the vaccinovigilance program received 95 declarations following the application of various vaccines, mainly to dogs or cats. PMID:24168771

  11. Bartonella spp. - a chance to establish One Health concepts in veterinary and human medicine.

    PubMed

    Regier, Yvonne; O Rourke, Fiona; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain a remarkable health threat for humans and animals. In the past, the epidemiology, etiology and pathology of infectious agents affecting humans and animals have mostly been investigated in separate studies. However, it is evident, that combined approaches are needed to understand geographical distribution, transmission and infection biology of "zoonotic agents". The genus Bartonella represents a congenial example of the synergistic benefits that can arise from such combined approaches: Bartonella spp. infect a broad variety of animals, are linked with a constantly increasing number of human diseases and are transmitted via arthropod vectors. As a result, the genus Bartonella is predestined to play a pivotal role in establishing a One Health concept combining veterinary and human medicine. PMID:27161111

  12. Chemical Constituents and an Alternative Medicinal Veterinary Herbal Soap Made from Senna macranthera.

    PubMed

    Inoue Andrade, Flávia; Purgato, Gislaine Aparecida; de Faria Maia, Thalita; Pais Siqueira, Raoni; Lima, Sâmia; Diaz, Gaspar; Diaz, Marisa Alves Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Upon undergoing biomonitoring, the most active dichloromethane extract retrieved from Senna macranthera roots led to the isolation of three main compounds: emodine, physione, and chrysophanol. In this sequence, these compounds revealed a potential antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 20, 90, and 90 μg mL(-1), respectively. Therefore, an herbal soap was also produced from this same active extract. This soap was tested in vitro using gloves contaminated by animals with bovine mastitis that had been discarded after use by milkers and showed similar results to previously tested compounds. These results indicate the potential of this plant as an alternative veterinary medicine for the production of antibacterial soaps that aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections in small Brazilian farms. PMID:25821480

  13. Chemical Constituents and an Alternative Medicinal Veterinary Herbal Soap Made from Senna macranthera

    PubMed Central

    Inoue Andrade, Flávia; Purgato, Gislaine Aparecida; de Faria Maia, Thalita; Pais Siqueira, Raoni; Lima, Sâmia; Diaz, Marisa Alves Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Upon undergoing biomonitoring, the most active dichloromethane extract retrieved from Senna macranthera roots led to the isolation of three main compounds: emodine, physione, and chrysophanol. In this sequence, these compounds revealed a potential antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 20, 90, and 90 μg mL−1, respectively. Therefore, an herbal soap was also produced from this same active extract. This soap was tested in vitro using gloves contaminated by animals with bovine mastitis that had been discarded after use by milkers and showed similar results to previously tested compounds. These results indicate the potential of this plant as an alternative veterinary medicine for the production of antibacterial soaps that aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections in small Brazilian farms. PMID:25821480

  14. Selenium, copper and iron in veterinary medicine-From clinical implications to scientific models.

    PubMed

    Humann-Ziehank, Esther

    2016-09-01

    Diseases related to copper, selenium or iron overload or deficiency are common and well-described in large animal veterinary medicine. Some of them certainly have the potential to serve as useful animal models for ongoing research in the field of trace elements. Obvious advantages of large animal models compared to laboratory animal models like rats and mice are the option of long-term, consecutive examinations of progressive deficient or toxic stages and the opportunity to collect various, high volume samples for repeated measurements. Nevertheless, close cooperation between scientific disciplines is necessary as scientists using high sophisticated analytical methods and equipment are not regularly in touch with scientists working with large animal diseases. This review will give an introduction into some typical animal diseases related to trace elements and will present approaches where the animal diseases were used already as a model for interdisciplinary research. PMID:27316591

  15. Concepts for risk-based surveillance in the field of veterinary medicine and veterinary public health: Review of current approaches

    PubMed Central

    Stärk, Katharina DC; Regula, Gertraud; Hernandez, Jorge; Knopf, Lea; Fuchs, Klemens; Morris, Roger S; Davies, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background Emerging animal and zoonotic diseases and increasing international trade have resulted in an increased demand for veterinary surveillance systems. However, human and financial resources available to support government veterinary services are becoming more and more limited in many countries world-wide. Intuitively, issues that present higher risks merit higher priority for surveillance resources as investments will yield higher benefit-cost ratios. The rapid rate of acceptance of this core concept of risk-based surveillance has outpaced the development of its theoretical and practical bases. Discussion The principal objectives of risk-based veterinary surveillance are to identify surveillance needs to protect the health of livestock and consumers, to set priorities, and to allocate resources effectively and efficiently. An important goal is to achieve a higher benefit-cost ratio with existing or reduced resources. We propose to define risk-based surveillance systems as those that apply risk assessment methods in different steps of traditional surveillance design for early detection and management of diseases or hazards. In risk-based designs, public health, economic and trade consequences of diseases play an important role in selection of diseases or hazards. Furthermore, certain strata of the population of interest have a higher probability to be sampled for detection of diseases or hazards. Evaluation of risk-based surveillance systems shall prove that the efficacy of risk-based systems is equal or higher than traditional systems; however, the efficiency (benefit-cost ratio) shall be higher in risk-based surveillance systems. Summary Risk-based surveillance considerations are useful to support both strategic and operational decision making. This article highlights applications of risk-based surveillance systems in the veterinary field including food safety. Examples are provided for risk-based hazard selection, risk-based selection of sampling strata as

  16. Novel technologies applied to the nucleotide sequencing and comparative sequence analysis of the genomes of infectious agents in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Granberg, F; Bálint, Á; Belák, S

    2016-04-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS), also referred to as deep, high-throughput or massively parallel sequencing, is a powerful new tool that can be used for the complex diagnosis and intensive monitoring of infectious disease in veterinary medicine. NGS technologies are also being increasingly used to study the aetiology, genomics, evolution and epidemiology of infectious disease, as well as host-pathogen interactions and other aspects of infection biology. This review briefly summarises recent progress and achievements in this field by first introducing a range of novel techniques and then presenting examples of NGS applications in veterinary infection biology. Various work steps and processes for sampling and sample preparation, sequence analysis and comparative genomics, and improving the accuracy of genomic prediction are discussed, as are bioinformatics requirements. Examples of sequencing-based applications and comparative genomics in veterinary medicine are then provided. This review is based on novel references selected from the literature and on experiences of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Centre for the Biotechnology-based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases in Veterinary Medicine, Uppsala, Sweden. PMID:27217166

  17. Laboratory evaluation of mobility and sorption for the veterinary antibiotic, tylosin, in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Coats, Joel R

    2009-09-01

    Veterinary medicines, including antibiotics, are utilized in large quantities in intensive livestock farming. It is evidenced that tylosin, one of the most frequently used antibiotics, is only partially metabolized in animals and not completely degraded in the manure storage stage before application to the farmland. In order to assess the mobility of tylosin in soil, a soil-column leaching study and a simple batch sorption experiment were conducted in the laboratory. Tylosin had strong sorption to various soils, with sorption distribution coefficients ranging from 42 to 65 ml/g. The range of concentrations in leachate was detected from non-detectable to 0.27 ng/mL after four simulated rainfall events in one month, and leachability of tylosin is dependent on soil properties and manure amendment. Percentage of clay, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and manure amendment were positively correlated with sorption, and negatively correlated with mobility of tylosin in soil. The majority of tylosin was not recovered in the testing system, indicating that tylosin was most likely mineralized, or irreversibly bound to solid particles since no major degradation products were detected. Some trace level tylosin residues from manure-applied farmlands may be the major source to surface water systems through soil erosion and preferential flow processes. PMID:19724833

  18. [The relation of the faculty of veterinary medicine with the tropics: from developig assistance-projects to international cooporation 1987-2007].

    PubMed

    Paling, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    In the introduction three stages are distinguished in the relation between the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and the tropics: (1) Development of a veterinary infrastructure (research and education) in the former colonies, Netherlands-Indies, Surinam and The Netherlands Antilles (1850 - ca. 1949); (2) Developing Aid Assistance (1965-2000) and (3) Cooperation on the basis of bilateral treaties that express the mutual interests of the two countries involved (1993-today). The Faculty in Utrecht entered into such alliances with sister faculties in Thailand, South-Africa and Malaysia. As a result of internal and external factors the study of tropical veterinary medicine was no longer core business of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Utrecht. Tropical veterinary medicine was incorporated in the Department of Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine. The Office for International Cooperation of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, founded in 1987, partly took over the role of the former institute. Its activities are education and information, research support of the ongoing projects and networking. The accent moved from aid to cooperation for mutual interest. PMID:20642142

  19. Selecting scenarios to assess exposure of surface waters to veterinary medicines in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Manuel K; Stamm, Christian; Fenner, Kathrin

    2007-07-01

    Registering a veterinary medicinal product (VMP) in the European Union requires assessing its potential to contaminate surface waters (SW) on a European scale. VMP are spread to land in manure or excreted during grazing and may enter SW through runoff, erosion, or leaching. Since the factors driving these processes vary largely across Europe, it is necessary to identify characteristic conditions, so-called scenarios, under which VMP enter SW. These scenarios may guide the parameterization of mechanistic fate models to predict environmental concentrations for environmental risk assessment. A number of such scenarios for pesticides and VMP have been developed rather pragmatically. Here, we describe how a geo-referenced European database of driving factors was used to divide the European environment into groups with similar conditions for SW contamination by VMP. Out of these groups, relevant exposure scenarios in Europe were selected by a simple scoring system. Comparing these to the existing scenarios showed that a number of situations are not well covered. The newly identified scenarios are primarily located in hilly areas of Central Europe and the Mediterranean, and in Eastern European plains with a continental climate. We recommend that they are included in the technical guidelines for higher-tier assessment of VMP. PMID:17695913

  20. The Rise of Forensic Pathology in Human Medicine: Lessons for Veterinary Forensic Pathology.

    PubMed

    Pollanen, M S

    2016-09-01

    The rise of forensic pathology in human medicine has greatly contributed to the administration of justice, public safety and security, and medical knowledge. However, the evolution of human forensic pathology has been challenging. Veterinary forensic pathologists can learn from some of the lessons that have informed the growth and development of human forensic pathology. Three main observations have emerged in the past decade. First, wrongful convictions tell us to use a truth-seeking stance rather than an a priori "think dirty" stance when investigating obscure death. Second, missed homicides and concealed homicides tell us that training and certification are the beginning of reliable forensic pathology. Third, failure of a sustainable institutional arrangement that fosters a combination of service, research, and teaching will lead to stagnation of knowledge. Forensic pathology of humans and animals will flourish, help protect society, and support justice if we embrace a modern biomedical scientific model for our practice. We must build training programs, contribute to the published literature, and forge strong collaborative institutions. PMID:27281015

  1. An unusual pedestrian road trauma: from forensic pathology to forensic veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Isabella; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Paciello, Orlando; Britti, Domenico; Pepe, Francesca; De Luca, Ester; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-01-01

    Traffic accidents have increased in the last decade, pedestrians being the most affected group. At autopsy, it is evident that the most common cause of pedestrian death is central nervous system injury, followed by skull base fractures, internal bleeding, lower limb haemorrhage, skull vault fractures, cervical spinal cord injury and airway compromise. The attribution of accident responsibility can be realised through reconstruction of road accident dynamics, investigation of the scene, survey of the vehicle involved and examination of the victim(s). A case study concerning a car accident where both humans and pets were involved is reported here. Investigation and reconstruction of the crime scene were conducted by a team consisting of forensic pathologists and forensic veterinarians. At the scene investigation, the pedestrian and his dog were recovered on the side of the road. An autopsy and a necropsy were conducted on the man and the dog, respectively. In addition, a complete inspection of the sports utility vehicle (SUV) implicated in the road accident was conducted. The results of the autopsy and necropsy were compared and the information was used to reconstruct the collision. This unusual case was solved through the collaboration between forensic pathology and veterinary forensic medicine, emphasising the importance of this kind of co-operation to solve a crime scene concerning both humans and animals. PMID:24091032

  2. Modeling environmental and human health risks of veterinary medicinal products applied in pond aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Rico, Andreu; Geng, Yue; Focks, Andreas; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2013-04-01

    A model called ERA-AQUA was developed to assess the risks posed by the use of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) applied in aquaculture ponds for the targeted produce, surrounding aquatic ecosystems, consumers, and trade of the aquaculture produce. The model calculates risks by following a risk quotient approach, calculating predicted exposure concentrations (exposure assessment) and predicted no-effect concentrations (effect assessment) for the endpoint under study. The exposure assessment is performed by combining information on the environmental characteristics of the aquaculture pond, characteristics of the cultured species, aquaculture management practices, and physicochemical properties of the compound under study. The model predicts concentrations of VMPs in the pond water, pond sediment, cultured species, and watercourse receiving pond effluent discharges by mass balance equations. The effect assessment is performed by combining (eco)toxicological information and food safety threshold concentrations for the studied compound. In the present study, the scientific background, strengths, and limitations of the ERA-AQUA model are presented together with a sensitivity analysis and an example showing its potential applications. PMID:23401106

  3. Radiological protection and the exposure of animals as patients in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Pentreath, R J

    2016-06-01

    It is apparent that most of the techniques that make use of ionising radiation in human medical practices are now being applied in veterinary medicine. Steps are being taken by the IAEA to provide guidance for humans involved in such practices, but there appears to be no international initiative that considers the protection or welfare of the animal as a patient. There is therefore a risk that the deliberate exposure of an animal, particularly in the therapeutic application of radiation, could do more harm than good. In the light of recent developments in dosimetric modelling and the application of known effects of radiation on different types of animals, for the purposes of the protection of biota in an environmental context, it is argued that it would be sensible now to start a serious consideration of this issue. Some suggestions are made with regard to a number of areas that could be considered further, both specifically and with regard to the field of radiological protection as a whole. PMID:27183275

  4. [Regulatory aspects of the development, licensing, and availability of immunological veterinary medicinal products].

    PubMed

    JungbMck, Carmen; Werner, Esther; Von Messling, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines constitute an essential tool for animal health management. In addition to applying traditional vaccine development strategies to new or changing pathogens, the use of innovative approaches in this area is increasing. Recombinant vaccines often have superior safety and efficacy profiles, due to their specific attenuation and the ability to serologically distinguish vaccinated from infected animals. The more detailed understanding of the immune system has also enabled the development of immune-based therapeutics, ranging from immunological castration to tumor therapy, and cell-based therapies for the treatment of cartilage or tendon injuries are increasingly used. In many of these cases, veterinary medicine applications provide important insights for future use in human patients. The associated regulatory challenges lie on the one hand in the integration of the innovative approaches in the existing national and EU legislative framework, and on the other hand in the development of appropriate criteria to evaluate their safety and efficacy. The promotion of innovative products has to be balanced with the safety of the target population as well as contact species and, in the case of food-producing animals, food safety. From the regulatory perspective, simplified licensing procedures represent an attractive alternative on the national level. PMID:26697714

  5. Training Veterinary Students in Shelter-Medicine: A Service-Learning Community Classroom Based Technique

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Brenda J.; Gruen, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Shelter medicine is a rapidly developing field of great importance, and shelters themselves provide abundant training opportunities for veterinary medical students. Students trained in shelter medicine have opportunities to practice zoonotic and species-specific infectious disease control, behavioral evaluation and management, primary care, as well as animal welfare, ethics, and public policy issues. Ranges of sheltering systems now exist, from brick-and-mortar facilities to networks of foster homes with no centralized facility. Exposure to a single shelter setting may not allow students to understand the full range of sheltering systems that exist; a community classroom approach balances the opportunity to introduce students to a diverse array of sheltering systems, while gaining practical experience. This article presents the details and results of a series of two-week, elective clinical rotations with a focus on field and service-learning in animal shelters. The overall aim was to provide opportunities that familiarized students with sheltering systems and provided primary care training. Other priorities included increasing awareness of public health concerns, and equipping students to evaluate shelters on design, operating protocols, infectious disease control, enrichment and community outreach. Students were required to participate in rounds, and complete a project that addressed a need recognized by them during the rotation. This article includes costs associated with the rotation, a blueprint for how the rotation was carried out at our institution, and details of shelters visited and animals treated, including a breakdown of treatments provided. Also discussed are the student projects and student feedback on this valuable clinical experience. PMID:24407109

  6. Strategies for Educational Action To Meet Veterinary Medicine's Role in Biodefense and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John; Blackwell, Michael; Buss, Daryl; Eyre, Peter; Held, Joe R.; Ogilvie, Tim; Pappaioanou, Marguerite; Sawyer, Leigh

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes recommendations of a conference focused on how veterinary education needs to change to meet the challenges ahead related to biodefense and public health. Presents results of seven sections, each dealing with a major issue related to veterinary medical education. (SLD)

  7. Vertically integrated educational collaboration between a college of veterinary medicine and a non-profit animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Karen; Bice, Kathryn; Craig, Tom; Howe, Lisa; Jarrett, Melissa; Jeter, Elizabeth; Kochevar, Deborah; Simpson, R Bruce; Stickney, Mark; Wesp, Ashley; Wolf, Alice M; Zoran, Debra

    2008-01-01

    The College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (CVMBS) at Texas A&M University (TAMU) has developed a multifaceted program in partnership with the Brazos Animal Shelter to provide teaching opportunities with shelter animals during all four years of the professional curriculum. In the first three semesters of the professional program, students working in small groups spend two hours per semester at the shelter performing physical examinations, administering vaccinations and anthelmintics, completing heartworm or FeLV/FIV testing, and performing simple medical treatments. In an expanded fourth-year program, groups of six students spend 16 contact hours at the shelter during two-week rotations, completing similar tasks. Through this program, each student practices animal-handling skills and routine procedures on an average of 150 to 200 dogs and cats. In addition, during third- and fourth-year surgery courses, student teams spay or neuter an average of 12 to 18 dogs or cats each week. More than 800 animals are spayed/neutered annually through this program, and each student directly participates in 12 to 15 spay/neuter survival surgeries. The program represents a creative approach to veterinary training that conscientiously uses animal resources in a positive fashion. We believe that this is a successful partnership between a state-supported veterinary college and a non-profit shelter that benefits both agencies. We encourage other veterinary colleges to explore similar partnership opportunities to provide optimal training for professional students while using animal resources efficiently. PMID:19228920

  8. The use of zootherapeutics in folk veterinary medicine in the district of Cubati, Paraíba State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Raynner RD; de MS Souto, Wedson; da S Mourão, José

    2007-01-01

    Background The present work addresses the use of zootherapy in folk veterinary medicine (ethnoveterinary) by the residents of the municipal district of Cubati, microregion of Seridó, Paraíba State, Brazil. It sought to identify the principal animals used as medicinal sources for zootherapeutics and to contribute to the preservation and sustainability of this traditional knowledge. Methods Field research was undertaken on a weekly or biweekly basis during the period November, 2006, to January, 2007. Free, semi-structured, and open interviews were made with local residents of the municipal district of Cubati (in both urban and rural settings) as well as with venders in public markets. A total of 25 individuals of both sexes were interviewed (with ages varying from 26 to 78 years) although only 16 were finally chosen as informants as these people demonstrated the greatest degree of knowledge concerning zootherapeutics. Graphs and percentages were generated using Microsoft© Excel 2007 software, and the species were identified by photographic registration and subsequent bibliographical surveys. Results Mammals constitute the main medicinal zootherapeutic source for folk veterinary medicines in the studied area, both in terms of the total number of species used and the frequency of their citation. Sheep (Ovis aries), pigs (Sus scrofa), cattle (Bos taurus), and foxes (Cerdocyon thous) were mentioned by 62.5, 43.75, 37.5, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively, as being used in folk veterinary medicine. Additionally, chameleons (Iguana iguana), chickens (Gallus domesticus), and rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) were mentioned by 75, 43.75, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively. Relatively simple animal illnesses, such as furuncles, or injuries resulting from embedded thorns or skin eruptions are responsible for the largest number of zootherapeutic treatment, while, diseases of greater complexity, such as rabies and brucellosis, were not even mentioned. Fat from

  9. ASVCP guidelines: quality assurance for point-of-care testing in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathleen P; Vap, Linda M; Harr, Kendal E

    2013-12-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) refers to any laboratory testing performed outside the conventional reference laboratory and implies close proximity to patients. Instrumental POCT systems consist of small, handheld or benchtop analyzers. These have potential utility in many veterinary settings, including private clinics, academic veterinary medical centers, the community (eg, remote area veterinary medical teams), and for research applications in academia, government, and industry. Concern about the quality of veterinary in-clinic testing has been expressed in published veterinary literature; however, little guidance focusing on POCT is available. Recognizing this void, the ASVCP formed a subcommittee in 2009 charged with developing quality assurance (QA) guidelines for veterinary POCT. Guidelines were developed through literature review and a consensus process. Major recommendations include (1) taking a formalized approach to POCT within the facility, (2) use of written policies, standard operating procedures, forms, and logs, (3) operator training, including periodic assessment of skills, (4) assessment of instrument analytical performance and use of both statistical quality control and external quality assessment programs, (5) use of properly established or validated reference intervals, (6) and ensuring accurate patient results reporting. Where possible, given instrument analytical performance, use of a validated 13s control rule for interpretation of control data is recommended. These guidelines are aimed at veterinarians and veterinary technicians seeking to improve management of POCT in their clinical or research setting, and address QA of small chemistry and hematology instruments. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide a minimum standard for maintenance of POCT instruments in the veterinary setting. PMID:24320778

  10. Tropical Medicine and Animal Diseases: Onderstepoort and the Development of Veterinary Science in South Africa 1908–1950*

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This article traces the development of agricultural science at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, near Pretoria, from its founding in 1908 until the 1950s, by which time many enzootic and epizootic diseases had either been eradicated, or were largely controllable through various forms of prophylaxis. The Institute demonstrated the political and economic significance attributed to the pastoral industry in South Africa and the conviction that scientific discoveries could increase output. During this period, researchers explicated the aetiology and provenance of hitherto mysterious diseases such as lamsiekte, geeldikkop and African horsesickness. They developed vaccines, some of which were adopted internationally. The nature of their investigations showed that veterinary science increasingly entailed more than just progress in biomedical procedures. Ecological factors, in particular the nutritional state of the veld, became a priority from the 1920s onwards as veterinarians saw their function as promoting animal health as well as eliminating disease. Dealing with contagious infections also incorporated less welcome, and at times controversial, approaches to disease control. The imposition of pastoral regulations illustrated the expanding powers of the South African state, founded on presumptions of scientific legitimacy. The article also explores the contribution made by African communities and settler farmers to the institutionalisation of veterinary knowledge, as well as the role South African researchers played in the evolution of a colonial, as well as an increasingly international, scientific culture. PMID:16628249

  11. International Evidence-Based Medicine Survey of the Veterinary Profession: Information Sources Used by Veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Selene J; Dean, Rachel S; Massey, Andrew; Brennan, Marnie L

    2016-01-01

    Veterinarians are encouraged to use evidence to inform their practice, but it is unknown what resources (e.g. journals, electronic sources) are accessed by them globally. Understanding the key places veterinarians seek information can inform where new clinically relevant evidence should most effectively be placed. An international survey was conducted to gain understanding of how veterinary information is accessed by veterinarians worldwide. There were 2137 useable responses to the questionnaire from veterinarians in 78 countries. The majority of respondents (n = 1835/2137, 85.9%) undertook clinical work and worked in a high income country (n = 1576/1762, 89.4%). Respondents heard about the survey via national veterinary organisations or regulatory bodies (31.5%), online veterinary forums and websites (22.7%), regional, discipline-based or international veterinary organisations (22.7%) or by direct invitation from the researchers or via friends, colleagues or social media (7.6%). Clinicians and non-clinicians reportedly used journals most commonly (65.8%, n = 1207/1835; 75.6%, n = 216/286) followed by electronic resources (58.7%, n = 1077/1835; 55.9%, n = 160/286), respectively. Respondents listed a total of 518 journals and 567 electronic sources that they read. Differences in veterinarian preference for resources in developed, and developing countries, were found. The nominated journals most read were the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (12.7% of nominations) for clinicians and the Veterinary Record (5.7%) for non-clinicians. The most accessed electronic resource reported was the Veterinary Information Network (25.6%) for clinicians and PubMed (7.4%) for non-clinicians. In conclusion, a wide array of journals and electronic resources appear to be accessed by veterinarians worldwide. Veterinary organisations appear to play an important role in global communication and outreach to veterinarians and consideration should be given to how these

  12. International Evidence-Based Medicine Survey of the Veterinary Profession: Information Sources Used by Veterinarians

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, Selene J.; Dean, Rachel S.; Massey, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Veterinarians are encouraged to use evidence to inform their practice, but it is unknown what resources (e.g. journals, electronic sources) are accessed by them globally. Understanding the key places veterinarians seek information can inform where new clinically relevant evidence should most effectively be placed. An international survey was conducted to gain understanding of how veterinary information is accessed by veterinarians worldwide. There were 2137 useable responses to the questionnaire from veterinarians in 78 countries. The majority of respondents (n = 1835/2137, 85.9%) undertook clinical work and worked in a high income country (n = 1576/1762, 89.4%). Respondents heard about the survey via national veterinary organisations or regulatory bodies (31.5%), online veterinary forums and websites (22.7%), regional, discipline-based or international veterinary organisations (22.7%) or by direct invitation from the researchers or via friends, colleagues or social media (7.6%). Clinicians and non-clinicians reportedly used journals most commonly (65.8%, n = 1207/1835; 75.6%, n = 216/286) followed by electronic resources (58.7%, n = 1077/1835; 55.9%, n = 160/286), respectively. Respondents listed a total of 518 journals and 567 electronic sources that they read. Differences in veterinarian preference for resources in developed, and developing countries, were found. The nominated journals most read were the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (12.7% of nominations) for clinicians and the Veterinary Record (5.7%) for non-clinicians. The most accessed electronic resource reported was the Veterinary Information Network (25.6%) for clinicians and PubMed (7.4%) for non-clinicians. In conclusion, a wide array of journals and electronic resources appear to be accessed by veterinarians worldwide. Veterinary organisations appear to play an important role in global communication and outreach to veterinarians and consideration should be given to how these

  13. 150th anniversary of veterinary education and the veterinary profession in North America: part 3, 1970-2000.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald F

    2011-01-01

    This is one of a series of articles in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME). These articles are abridged versions of six lectures that make up an elective course on the history of the veterinary profession in North America offered at Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine. This third article in the series of six describes the development of the nine new colleges that opened between 1974 and 1981. The three colleges on or near campuses that also had medical schools are contrasted with those that focused predominantly on their agriculture base. Data are presented by species on the current employment patterns of veterinary graduates from colleges in the US and Ross University. Programs in public health, public policy, and corporate veterinary medicine are also described. This article closes with a description of the factors that led to the curriculum reform instituted at Cornell University in 1993. PMID:22023973

  14. Interactive Virtual Suturing Simulations: Enhancement of Student Learning in Veterinary Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, Amy J.; Boyd, Christine B.

    2013-01-01

    This capstone addresses an instructional gap in the Morehead State University Veterinary Technology Program and in other similar programs around the globe. Students do not retain the knowledge needed to proficiently complete suture patterns nor do students receive sufficient instructional time during the year to master each suture pattern that is…

  15. Prevalence of common canine digestive problems compared with other health problems in teaching veterinary hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Rakha, Gamal M. H.; Abdl-Haleem, Mounir M.; Farghali, Haithem A. M.; Abdel-Saeed, Hitham

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 816 males and 672 females) and 2376 diseased dogs (included 1542 males and 834 females) were registered for age, sex, breed, and the main complaint from their owners. A complete history and detailed clinical examination of each case were applied to the aids of radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic examination tools. Fecal examination was applied for each admitted case. Rapid tests for parvovirus and canine distemper virus detection were also performed. Results: A five digestive problems were commonly recorded including vomiting, diarrhea, concurrent vomiting with diarrhea, anorexia, and constipation with a prevalence (%) of 13.6, 19.1, 10.1, 13.1, and 0.5 respectively while that of dermatological, respiratory, urinary, neurological, cardiovascular, auditory, and ocular problems was 27.9, 10.5, 3.3, 0.84, 0.4, 0.25, and 0.17 (%) respectively. This prevalence was obtained on the basis of the diseased cases. Age and breed had a significant effect on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs (p<0.001). Gender had an effect on the distribution of digestive problems with significant (p≤0.01) while season had a non-significant effect (p>0.05) on the distribution of such problems. Conclusion: Digestive problems were the highest recorded problems among dogs, and this was the first records for such problems among dogs in Egypt. Age, gender, and breeds had a significant effect on the distribution of the digestive problems in dogs while season had a non-significant effect on

  16. Learning-To-Communicate and Communicating-To-Learn in Veterinary Medicine: A Survey of Writing, Speaking, and Reading in Veterinary Medical Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Isabelle; Hendrix, Charles M.

    2000-01-01

    Finds that communication tasks assigned in veterinary medical courses accord well with the communication tasks expected to be performed by practicing veterinarians. Concludes that the merging of research and practice in the education of veterinary medical students may offer lessons for the education of professional practitioners in technical…

  17. Veterinary medicine in the 21st century: the challenge of biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Alan M

    2005-01-01

    The veterinary profession is presently challenged with developing and maintaining on-farm biosecurity protocols to protect the nation's food supply from acts of bioterrorism, from the growing threat of foreign animal diseases, and from multidrug resistance among pathogenic organisms. This challenge comes at a time when the supply of food animal veterinarians in the United States is progressively in decline, and raises the possibility that the profession is not adequately prepared to fulfill its responsibilities to the health and productivity of the US livestock and poultry populations. Causes of the decline in demand for veterinary services are discussed. They include consolidation of the food animal industries and a trend toward transferring performance of tasks traditionally carried out by veterinarians to the province of lay staff. This development potentially reduces veterinary surveillance of food animal populations. It also runs the risk of delay in recognizing and controlling serious health problems when they arise. Several remedies are proposed, including profound changes in the curriculum for educating food animal veterinarians to serve the consolidated but vulnerable livestock and poultry industries suitably. Also advocated is the initiation of training programs for herdsmen on the symptoms of foreign animal diseases, together with advice on when to call a veterinarian. Significant investment of federal or state resources will be required if these changes are to become reality. PMID:15644565

  18. Genetic modifications of pigs for medicine and agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Prather, Randall S.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Genetically modified swine hold great promise in the fields of agriculture and medicine. Currently, these swine are being used to optimize production of quality meat, to improve our understanding of the biology of disease resistance, and to reduced waste. In the field of biomedicine, swine are anatomically and physiologically analogous to humans. Alterations of key swine genes in disease pathways provide model animals to improve our understanding of the causes and potential treatments of many human genetic disorders. The completed sequencing of the swine genome will significantly enhance the specificity of genetic modifications, and allow for more accurate representations of human disease based on syntenic genes between the two species. Improvements in both methods of gene alteration and efficiency of model animal production are key to enabling routine use of these swine models in medicine and agriculture. PMID:21671302

  19. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2-58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5-89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4-24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45-2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients. PMID:26835187

  20. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals

    PubMed Central

    Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2–58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5–89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4–24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45–2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients. PMID:26835187

  1. Report on Health Manpower and Programs in Ohio: Part Two. Allied Health, Area Health Education Centers, Dentistry, Emergency Medical Services, Nursing, Optometry, Pharmacy, Podiatry, and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    Information on health occupations educational programs in Ohio and current and projected employment needs for health professionals are presented. The following health fields are examined: allied health, dentistry, emergency medical service, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine. Issues and trends affecting each field are…

  2. A Study of the Veterinary Medicine Graduates of the WICHE Student Exchange Programs Showing the Relation of That Group to the Total Veterinarian Manpower of the WICHE States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.

    The relation of veterinarian manpower of the WICHE (Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education) states to the veterinary medicine graduates of the WICHE student exchange programs (SEP) is presented. The states included in the WICHE program are Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. Tables…

  3. 75 FR 63143 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... National Institute of Food and Agriculture RIN 0524-AA43 Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding... Agriculture, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and request for stakeholder input. SUMMARY: The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) is soliciting stakeholder input on the recent implementation of...

  4. 77 FR 67330 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... National Institute of Food and Agriculture RIN 0524-AA43 Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding... Agriculture, USDA. ACTION: Notice of request for stakeholder input. SUMMARY: The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) is soliciting stakeholder input on the administration of the...

  5. 13 Animal Emergencies That Should Receive Immediate Veterinary Consultation and/or Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room Professional Development Jobs Veterinary Salary Calculator Personal Development Training & Service Opportunities Excellence in Veterinary Medicine Awards Veterinary Education Economics & Practice Economics & Finance Practice Management Client Materials Insurance ...

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Lactoferrin-Related Peptides and Applications in Human and Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Natascia; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Biasibetti, Elena; Pessione, Enrica; Cirrincione, Simona; Giraudo, Leonardo; Corona, Antonio; Dosio, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent a vast array of molecules produced by virtually all living organisms as natural barriers against infection. Among AMP sources, an interesting class regards the food-derived bioactive agents. The whey protein lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that plays a significant role in the innate immune system, and is considered as an important host defense molecule. In search for novel antimicrobial agents, Lf offers a new source with potential pharmaceutical applications. The Lf-derived peptides Lf(1-11), lactoferricin (Lfcin) and lactoferrampin exhibit interesting and more potent antimicrobial actions than intact protein. Particularly, Lfcin has demonstrated strong antibacterial, anti-fungal and antiparasitic activity with promising applications both in human and veterinary diseases (from ocular infections to osteo-articular, gastrointestinal and dermatological diseases). PMID:27294909

  7. Improved low-power semiconductor diode lasers for photodynamic therapy in veterinary medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Susanne M.; Mueller, Eduard K.; Van de Workeen, Brian C.; Mueller, Otward M.

    2001-05-01

    Cryogenically cooling semiconductor diode lasers provides higher power output, longer device lifetime, and greater monochromaticity. While these effects are well known, such improvements have not been quantified, and thus cryogenically operated semiconductor lasers have not been utilized in photodynamic therapy (PDT). We report quantification of these results from laser power meter and photospectrometer data. The emission wavelengths of these low power multiple quantum well semiconductor lasers were found to decrease and become more monochromatic with decreasing temperature. Significant power output improvements also were obtained at cryogenic temperatures. In addition, the threshold current, i.e. the current at which lasing begins, decreased with decreasing temperature. This lower threshold current combined with the increased power output produced dramatically higher device efficiencies. It is proposed that cryogenic operation of semiconductor diode lasers will reduce the number of devices needed to produce the requisite output for many veterinary and medical applications, permitting significant cost reductions.

  8. Molecular Biology of Pseudorabies Virus: Impact on Neurovirology and Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Lisa E.; Reynolds, Ashley E.; Hengartner, Christoph J.

    2005-01-01

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a herpesvirus of swine, a member of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, and the etiological agent of Aujeszky's disease. This review describes the contributions of PRV research to herpesvirus biology, neurobiology, and viral pathogenesis by focusing on (i) the molecular biology of PRV, (ii) model systems to study PRV pathogenesis and neurovirulence, (iii) PRV transsynaptic tracing of neuronal circuits, and (iv) veterinary aspects of pseudorabies disease. The structure of the enveloped infectious particle, the content of the viral DNA genome, and a step-by-step overview of the viral replication cycle are presented. PRV infection is initiated by binding to cellular receptors to allow penetration into the cell. After reaching the nucleus, the viral genome directs a regulated gene expression cascade that culminates with viral DNA replication and production of new virion constituents. Finally, progeny virions self-assemble and exit the host cells. Animal models and neuronal culture systems developed for the study of PRV pathogenesis and neurovirulence are discussed. PRV serves as a self-perpetuating transsynaptic tracer of neuronal circuitry, and we detail the original studies of PRV circuitry mapping, the biology underlying this application, and the development of the next generation of tracer viruses. The basic veterinary aspects of pseudorabies management and disease in swine are discussed. PRV infection progresses from acute infection of the respiratory epithelium to latent infection in the peripheral nervous system. Sporadic reactivation from latency can transmit PRV to new hosts. The successful management of PRV disease has relied on vaccination, prevention, and testing. PMID:16148307

  9. Current and Projected Modes of Delivery of Veterinary Medical Services to Animal Agriculture: The Private Practitioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, James A.

    1980-01-01

    The trend in agriculture is to fewer and larger farms--a trend that is evident in the food animal industry as well. The economic value of services delivered, and the need for veterinarians to improve relationships with people in all fields of animal science are discussed. (MLW)

  10. New directions for veterinary technology.

    PubMed

    Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine. PMID:24393780

  11. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 560.533 Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  12. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 560.533 Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  13. [The Hannover School of Veterinary Medicine in the Third Reich. Part 1: early history, assumption of power and consolidation of the Nazi regime].

    PubMed

    Schimanski, M; Schäffer, J

    2001-09-01

    During the time of the Weimar republic the professors and students at the School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover had a national-conservative political attitude with a clearly anti-republican tendency. Before 1933 the National Socialism did not play a role at the school. After the assumption of power by Hitler the 'Gleichschaltung'--which also took place at the universities--ran mostly smoothly at the veterinary school. 75% of the teaching staff and 50% of the students had joined the NSDAP (nazi party) respectively the NSDStB (nazi student organisation) at the end of the summer semester 1933. The following development of the school until World War II is closely connected with the foundation of the Military Veterinary Academy in Hannover in 1935. During the years 1935-1939 offerings were made in a traditional way and without political considerations playing a major role. With the beginning of World War II the school developed into the centre of veterinary studies in Germany. In order to meet the demand of veterinary officers and civil veterinarians the studies were shortened, trimesters were temporarily introduced und standards of examinations were lowered. At the end of the war around 45% of the school was destroyed. In the beginning the denazification meant a significant turning point but it developed into a mere episode of the history of the school by the reappointment of all the seven professors who had been dismissed in 1945/46. PMID:11599440

  14. Advances in the Use of Stem Cells in Veterinary Medicine: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Today, several veterinary diseases may be treated with the administration of stem cells. This is possible because these cells present a high therapeutic potential and may be injected as autologous or allogenic, freshly isolated, or previously cultured. The literature supports that the process is safe and brings considerable benefits to animal health. Knowledge about how adult stem cells modulate the molecular signals to activate cell homing has also been increasingly determined, evidencing the mechanisms which enable cells to repair and regenerate injured tissues. Preclinical studies were designed for many animal models and they have contributed to the translation to the human clinic. This review shows the most commonly used stem cell types, with emphasis on mesenchymal stem cells and their mechanistic potential to repair, as well as the experimental protocols, studied diseases, and species with the highest amount of studies and applications. The relationship between stem cell protocols utilized on clinics, molecular mechanisms, and the physiological responses may offer subsidies to new studies and therefore improve the therapeutic outcome for both humans and animals. PMID:27379197

  15. Advances in the Use of Stem Cells in Veterinary Medicine: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Markoski, Melissa Medeiros

    2016-01-01

    Today, several veterinary diseases may be treated with the administration of stem cells. This is possible because these cells present a high therapeutic potential and may be injected as autologous or allogenic, freshly isolated, or previously cultured. The literature supports that the process is safe and brings considerable benefits to animal health. Knowledge about how adult stem cells modulate the molecular signals to activate cell homing has also been increasingly determined, evidencing the mechanisms which enable cells to repair and regenerate injured tissues. Preclinical studies were designed for many animal models and they have contributed to the translation to the human clinic. This review shows the most commonly used stem cell types, with emphasis on mesenchymal stem cells and their mechanistic potential to repair, as well as the experimental protocols, studied diseases, and species with the highest amount of studies and applications. The relationship between stem cell protocols utilized on clinics, molecular mechanisms, and the physiological responses may offer subsidies to new studies and therefore improve the therapeutic outcome for both humans and animals. PMID:27379197

  16. The evolution of internet-based map server applications in the United States Department of Agriculture, Veterinary Services.

    PubMed

    Maroney, Susan A; McCool, Mary Jane; Geter, Kenneth D; James, Angela M

    2007-01-01

    The internet is used increasingly as an effective means of disseminating information. For the past five years, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Veterinary Services (VS) has published animal health information in internet-based map server applications, each oriented to a specific surveillance or outbreak response need. Using internet-based technology allows users to create dynamic, customised maps and perform basic spatial analysis without the need to buy or learn desktop geographic information systems (GIS) software. At the same time, access can be restricted to authorised users. The VS internet mapping applications to date are as follows: Equine Infectious Anemia Testing 1972-2005, National Tick Survey tick distribution maps, the Emergency Management Response System-Mapping Module for disease investigations and emergency outbreaks, and the Scrapie mapping module to assist with the control and eradication of this disease. These services were created using Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI)'s internet map server technology (ArcIMS). Other leading technologies for spatial data dissemination are ArcGIS Server, ArcEngine, and ArcWeb Services. VS is prototyping applications using these technologies, including the VS Atlas of Animal Health Information using ArcGIS Server technology and the Map Kiosk using ArcEngine for automating standard map production in the case of an emergency. PMID:20422551

  17. 7 CFR 371.4 - Veterinary Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Veterinary Services. 371.4 Section 371.4 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.4 Veterinary Services. (a) General statement. Veterinary Services (VS) protects and safeguards the Nation's livestock...

  18. 75 FR 50771 - Draft Revised Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Register of May 22, 2001 (66 FR 28182) (the 2001 final guidance), has been developed for... requirements for the approval of human pharmaceutical and biological products among the European Union, Japan... medicinal products in the European Union, Japan, and the United States, and includes input from...

  19. [Modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA)--development as recombinant vaccine and prospects for use in veterinary medicine].

    PubMed

    Volz, Asisa; Fux, Robert; Langenmayer, Martin C; Sutter, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Poxviruses as expression vectors are widely used in medical research for the development of recombinant vaccines and molecular therapies. Here we review recent accomplishments in vaccine research using recombinant modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA). MVA is a highly attenuated vaccinia virus strain that originated from serial tissue culture passage in chicken embryo fibroblasts more than 40 years ago. Growth adaptation to avian host cells caused deletions and mutations in the viral genome affecting about 15% of the original genetic information. In consequence, MVA is replication-deficient in cells of mammalian origin and fails to produce many of the virulence factors encoded by conventional vaccinia virus. Because of its safety for the general environment MVA can be handled under conditions of biosafety level one. Non-replicating MVA can enter any target cell and activate its molecular life cycle to express all classes of viral and recombinant genes. Therefore, recombinant MVA have been established as an extremely safe and efficient vector system for vaccine development in medical research. By now, various recombinant MVA vaccines have been found safe and immunogenic when used for phase I/II clinical testing in humans, and suitable for industrial scale production following good practice of manufacturing. Thus, there is an obvious usefulness of recombinant MVA vaccines for novel prophylactic and therapeutic approaches also in veterinary medicine. Results from first studies in companion and farm animals are highly promising. PMID:26697713

  20. Equine glaucoma: a retrospective study of 13 cases presented at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from 1992 to 1999.

    PubMed

    Cullen, C L; Grahn, B H

    2000-06-01

    The prevalence of equine glaucoma seen by the ophthalmology service at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine (WCVM) was 6.5%. The majority of cases (11/13) were associated with clinical manifestations of uveitis. Congenital glaucoma was documented in 1 case, and primary glaucoma was diagnosed in a 12-year-old quarter horse. There were no breed or sex predilections evident. Affected horses were middle-aged to old (average age = 9.5 years, ranging from 2 weeks to 23 years). The clinical manifestations of equine glaucoma included blindness, diffuse corneal edema, corneal vascularization, buphthalmia, corneal striae, recurrent secondary ulcerative keratitis, and less commonly, iris bombé, tapetal hyper-reflectivity, complete pupillary occlusion from posterior synechiae, and optic disc cupping. Elevated intraocular pressure confirmed the diagnosis (n = 10), while 3 cases were normotensive with signs of glaucoma including corneal striae and buphthalmia. Affected eyes were treated medically and/or surgically. Regardless of the therapy instituted, the visual outcome was poor. Most affected eyes were blind at presentation or became blind within a few weeks. PMID:10857031

  1. Net analyte signal standard addition method for simultaneous determination of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim in bovine milk and veterinary medicines.

    PubMed

    Hajian, Reza; Mousavi, Esmat; Shams, Nafiseh

    2013-06-01

    Net analyte signal standard addition method has been used for the simultaneous determination of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim by spectrophotometry in some bovine milk and veterinary medicines. The method combines the advantages of standard addition method with the net analyte signal concept which enables the extraction of information concerning a certain analyte from spectra of multi-component mixtures. This method has some advantages such as the use of a full spectrum realisation, therefore it does not require calibration and prediction step and only a few measurements require for the determination. Cloud point extraction based on the phenomenon of solubilisation used for extraction of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim in bovine milk. It is based on the induction of micellar organised media by using Triton X-100 as an extraction solvent. At the optimum conditions, the norm of NAS vectors increased linearly with concentrations in the range of 1.0-150.0 μmolL(-1) for both sulphadiazine and trimethoprim. The limits of detection (LOD) for sulphadiazine and trimethoprim were 0.86 and 0.92 μmolL(-1), respectively. PMID:23411170

  2. Equine glaucoma: a retrospective study of 13 cases presented at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from 1992 to 1999.

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, C L; Grahn, B H

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of equine glaucoma seen by the ophthalmology service at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine (WCVM) was 6.5%. The majority of cases (11/13) were associated with clinical manifestations of uveitis. Congenital glaucoma was documented in 1 case, and primary glaucoma was diagnosed in a 12-year-old quarter horse. There were no breed or sex predilections evident. Affected horses were middle-aged to old (average age = 9.5 years, ranging from 2 weeks to 23 years). The clinical manifestations of equine glaucoma included blindness, diffuse corneal edema, corneal vascularization, buphthalmia, corneal striae, recurrent secondary ulcerative keratitis, and less commonly, iris bombé, tapetal hyper-reflectivity, complete pupillary occlusion from posterior synechiae, and optic disc cupping. Elevated intraocular pressure confirmed the diagnosis (n = 10), while 3 cases were normotensive with signs of glaucoma including corneal striae and buphthalmia. Affected eyes were treated medically and/or surgically. Regardless of the therapy instituted, the visual outcome was poor. Most affected eyes were blind at presentation or became blind within a few weeks. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5a. PMID:10857031

  3. Establishment of evaluation method to determine effects of veterinary medicinal products on manure fermentation using small-scale composting apparatus.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Kaoru; Otawa, Kenichi; Ohishi, Ryu; Nagase, Hiroyasu; Ogata, Tomoko; Nagai, Hidetaka; Murata, Nanae; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Hirata, Kazumasa; Nakai, Yutaka

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate on a laboratory scale the influence of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) excreted into feces on manure fermentation, we have developed an evaluation method that uses a small-scale composting apparatus. Each run is of approximately 3 kg scale and the operation can be conducted in an environmentally controlled laboratory. The main evaluation parameter is calorific value generated by aerobic fermentation. At the sulfadimethoxine (SDM) trial, the volume of CO(2) generated during fermentation and the disappearance of the inhibitory effect of immature manure on sprouting (using Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis)) were measured. In addition, DNA of 16S rRNA was extracted from a manure sample and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results suggest that the presence of such VMPs in feces affected the microbial community in manure fermentation, and indicate that the evaluation method may be used as a standard method to evaluate the effect of VMPs on the microbial community. Using the method, we obtained data of the influence of five VMPs approved for stockbreeding in Japan on swine manure fermentation. Erythromycin (EM) affected the calorific value even at a relatively low concentration (105 mg/3 kg manure). In contrast, oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC), norfloxacin (NFLX), and tylosin tartrate (TS) had no effect at that concentration. These VMPs also affected the increase of fermentation temperature when added at high concentrations. PMID:22595343

  4. Implications for Veterinary Medical Education: Postprofessional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahrs, Robert F.

    1980-01-01

    Concern about delivery of veterinary medical services to animal agriculture and implications for postprofessional veterinary medical education are discussed. The individual needs and goals of livestock producers, practicing veterinarians, and veterinary academicians are so varied that actual delivery of veterinary medical services is difficult to…

  5. A Clinical Pharmacology Course for Veterinary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Lynn Mulcahy

    1983-01-01

    A one-semester, two-credit course is described that was developed cooperatively by the colleges of pharmacy and veterinary medicine at Washington State University to help resolve an acute shortage of clinical pharmacologists in veterinary medicine and veterinary medical education. Course procedures, content, and evaluation are outlined (MSE)

  6. Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, PT3 and PT5 of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high infection pressure in field trials in Romania. Transgenic clone C5, subsequently named "HoneySweet", showed high re...

  7. Graduate Education in Risk Analysis for Food, Agriculture, and Veterinary Medicine: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, Ana-Paula; Wolt, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    The notion of risk in relation to food and food production has heightened the need to educate students to effectively deal with risk in relation to decision making from a science-based perspective. Curricula and related materials were developed and adopted to support graduate learning opportunities in risk analysis and decision making as applied…

  8. What's in a Name? Classification of Diabetes Mellitus in Veterinary Medicine and Why It Matters.

    PubMed

    Gilor, C; Niessen, S J M; Furrow, E; DiBartola, S P

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a syndrome caused by various etiologies. The clinical manifestations of DM are not indicative of the cause of the disease, but might be indicative of the stage and severity of the disease process. Accurately diagnosing and classifying diabetic dogs and cats by the underlying disease process is essential for current and future studies on early detection, prevention, and treatment of underlying disease. Here, we review the current etiology-based classification of DM and definitions of DM types in human medicine and discuss key points on the pathogenesis of each DM type and prediabetes. We then review current evidence for application of this etiology-based classification scheme in dogs and cats. In dogs, we emphasize the lack of consistent evidence for autoimmune DM (Type 1) and the possible importance of other DM types such as DM associated with exocrine pancreatic disease. While most dogs are first examined because of DM in an insulin-dependent state, early and accurate diagnosis of the underlying disease process could change the long-term outcome and allow some degree of insulin independence. In cats, we review the appropriateness of using the umbrella term of Type 2 DM and differentiating it from DM secondary to other endocrine disease like hypersomatotropism. This differentiation could have crucial implications on treatment and prognosis. We also discuss the challenges in defining and diagnosing prediabetes in cats. PMID:27461721

  9. 76 FR 22339 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and Medical Devices to Sudan and Iran; Comment Request... medical devices to Sudan and Iran. Pursuant to section 906(c) of the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices to Sudan and Iran are set forth in 31...

  10. A Retrospective Analysis of 5,195 Patient Treatment Sessions in an Integrative Veterinary Medicine Service: Patient Characteristics, Presenting Complaints, and Therapeutic Interventions.

    PubMed

    Shmalberg, Justin; Memon, Mushtaq A

    2015-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine, the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care, is increasingly prevalent in veterinary practice and a focus of clinical instruction in many academic teaching institutions. However, the presenting complaints, therapeutic modalities, and patient population in an integrative medicine service have not been described. A retrospective analysis of 5,195 integrative patient treatment sessions in a veterinary academic teaching hospital demonstrated that patients most commonly received a combination of therapeutic modalities (39% of all treatment sessions). The 274 patients receiving multiple modalities were most frequently treated for neurologic and orthopedic disease (50.7% versus 49.6% of all presenting complaints, resp.). Older neutered or spayed dogs (mean age = 9.0 years) and Dachshunds were treated more often than expected based on general population statistics. Acupuncture, laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and hydrotherapy were frequently administered (>50% patients). Neurologic patients were more likely to receive acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and therapeutic exercises but less likely than orthopedic patients to receive laser, hydrotherapy, or therapeutic ultrasound treatments (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the application of these specific modalities to orthopedic and neurologic diseases should be subjected to increased evidence-based investigations. A review of current knowledge in core areas is presented. PMID:26798552

  11. A Retrospective Analysis of 5,195 Patient Treatment Sessions in an Integrative Veterinary Medicine Service: Patient Characteristics, Presenting Complaints, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Mushtaq A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine, the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care, is increasingly prevalent in veterinary practice and a focus of clinical instruction in many academic teaching institutions. However, the presenting complaints, therapeutic modalities, and patient population in an integrative medicine service have not been described. A retrospective analysis of 5,195 integrative patient treatment sessions in a veterinary academic teaching hospital demonstrated that patients most commonly received a combination of therapeutic modalities (39% of all treatment sessions). The 274 patients receiving multiple modalities were most frequently treated for neurologic and orthopedic disease (50.7% versus 49.6% of all presenting complaints, resp.). Older neutered or spayed dogs (mean age = 9.0 years) and Dachshunds were treated more often than expected based on general population statistics. Acupuncture, laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and hydrotherapy were frequently administered (>50% patients). Neurologic patients were more likely to receive acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and therapeutic exercises but less likely than orthopedic patients to receive laser, hydrotherapy, or therapeutic ultrasound treatments (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the application of these specific modalities to orthopedic and neurologic diseases should be subjected to increased evidence-based investigations. A review of current knowledge in core areas is presented. PMID:26798552

  12. Forecasting veterinary school admission probabilities for undergraduate student profiles.

    PubMed

    Green, William H; Watson, Susan E; Kennedy, Gary A; Miceli, Claire A; Taboada, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Increased competition for veterinary school admission has created a need to determine whether individual students are likely to be successful candidates for veterinary school admission early in their undergraduate careers. Students invest considerable time and money in pre-veterinary courses of study, hoping for acceptance into professional veterinary school. A forecasting model was developed to predict the likelihood of students with particular characteristics gaining acceptance. Characteristics such as gender, age, size of high school, and ACT, are known upon entrance into college and can be used to determine the likelihood of an individual's being accepted. Data were gathered from the Louisiana State University College of Veterinary Medicine (LSU-CVM) admissions for all students applying to veterinary school for the classes of 2006 through 2008 from the top two agricultural programs in the state in terms of quantity of applicants to veterinary school: Louisiana State University and Louisiana Tech University. A one-way ANOVA was used to examine whether there were any statistical differences between known demographic and performance variables and acceptance into veterinary school. A logit forecasting model was then estimated to predict the likelihood of gaining acceptance into veterinary school based only on variables known early in the student's undergraduate career. Age, gender, and ACT scores were determined to be important variables in determining the likelihood of gaining admission. Overall, the forecasting model is of use in assigning probabilities of acceptance into veterinary school for specific student profiles, which can assist in one-on-one assistance from advisor to student. PMID:17035222

  13. Fractionation and analysis of veterinary antibiotics and their related degradation products in agricultural soils and drainage waters following swine manure amendment.

    PubMed

    Solliec, Morgan; Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; Coté, Caroline; Généreux, Mylène; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    The fate of antimicrobial active compound residues in the environment, and especially antibiotics used in swine husbandry are of particular interest for their potential toxicity and contribution to antibiotic resistance. The presence of relatively high concentrations of bioactive compounds has been reported in agricultural areas but few information is available on their degradation products. Veterinary antibiotics reach terrestrial environments through many routes, including application of swine manure to soils. The objectives of this project were first, to develop an analytical method able to quantify and identify veterinary antibiotics and their degradation products in manure, soil and water samples; and second, to study the distribution of these target compounds in soils and drainage waters. A brief evaluation of their potential toxicity in the environment was also made. In order to achieve these objectives, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry was used for its ability to quantify contaminants with sensitivity and selectivity, and its capacity to identify degradation products. Samples of manure, soil and water came from a long-term experimental site where swine manure containing veterinary antibiotics has been applied for many years. In this study, tetracycline antibiotics were found at several hundred μg L(-1) in the swine manure slurry used for fertilization, several hundred of ng L(-1) in drainage waters and several ng g(-1) in soils, while degradation products were sometimes found at concentrations higher than the parent compounds. PMID:26605832

  14. Current and Projected Modes of Delivery of Veterinary Medical Services to Animal Agriculture: Industrial/Commercial Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Phillip Ray

    1980-01-01

    Veterinary education must re-establish its teaching objectives. Students need practical knowledge in areas such as business management, communications, marketing, public relations, facility management, and personnel management. Industry must also meet its obligations to continue to provide safe, dependable products that fill a practice need. (MLW)

  15. Assay of calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines for calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium by using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, D.J.; Spann, K.P.

    1985-03-01

    An inductively coupled plasma spectrometric method is described for the determination of 4 elements (Ca, B, P, and Mg) in calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines. Samples are diluted, acidified, and sprayed directly into the plasma. Reproducibility relative confidence intervals for a single sample assay are +/- 1.4% (calcium), +/- 1.8% (boron), +/- 2.6% (phosphorus), and +/- 1.4% (magnesium). The total element concentrations for each of 4 elements compared favorably with concentrations determined by alternative methods. Formulation estimates of levels of calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium salts can be made from the analytical data.

  16. Veterinary Medical Needs in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Regents, Tallahassee.

    There is a wide agreement that (1) Florida needs more practicing veterinarians and veterinary medical services than it now has, especially in the area of large animal and food animal practice, and (2) there is a deficiency of opportunities to study veterinary medicine for those Floridians who would elect this profession. This report takes into…

  17. Fragonard's ecorchés in the context of a new project for a historical museum of veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Degueurce, Christophe; Simon, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief history of the collection held at the National veterinary school in Maisons Alfort, France. We consider the place of Fragonard's anatomical preparations with particular attention, but also try to understand the evolution of the whole collection from its origins in the Enlightenment to the twenty-first century. We discuss the recent museological choices made by the museum's current director. In particular, we contextualize the idea of presenting the museum close to the form it took a century ago. We also present the current research and teaching associated with the museum, underlining its integration into the veterinary school. PMID:20481358

  18. Learning Styles in Veterinary Medicine: Relation to Progression through the Professional Curriculum and Integration into the Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Julia E.; Lloyd, James; Keller, Waldo F.; Cherney, Elaine

    1999-01-01

    Collected Kolb Learning Style Inventory data from veterinary medical students upon matriculation and 13-14 years later and compared the data with transcript and career data. Found that students have diverse learning styles that do not appear to influence completion of the curriculum or future professional activities. (EV)

  19. Veterinary Educators, Saying Changes Are Overdue, Expect to See Reforms This Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Officials at colleges of veterinary medicine feel their field is overdue for major changes in areas including teaching strategies, breadth of curriculum, keeping pace with growing agricultural and medical knowledge, faculty emphasis on research, livestock industry needs, and computer applications. (MSE)

  20. Student versus Faculty Attitudes toward the Veterinary Medical Profession and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, Astrid; Trowald-Wigh, Gunilla

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed and interviewed first-year students and faculty in veterinary medicine at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences on attitudes toward education and practice. Students placed emphasis on specific knowledge and practical skills, while faculty spoke in favor of basic theory; students also wanted integrated exams. Both agreed that…

  1. From Osler to Olafson. The evolution of veterinary pathology in North America.

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, L Z

    1987-01-01

    Most branches of biological science in North America developed first in the United States, and later were taught and practiced in Canada. An exception was veterinary pathology, which as a discipline taught in veterinary colleges and as a field of research, developed first in Canada, and from there crossed the border to the United States. Pathology was first taught at the Montreal Veterinary College, founded in 1866 by Duncan McEachran, a graduate of the Edinburgh Veterinary College. From the outset, he formed a close association with the medical faculty of McGill University, permitting his students to attend the same classes in the basic subjects with the medical students. Eventually, the Montreal Veterinary College became formally affiliated with McGill University, as the Faculty of Comparative Medicine and Veterinary Science. The McGill veterinary faculty was forced to close for economic reasons in 1903, but it left an enduring legacy, particularly in the field of veterinary pathology. The legacy, a novel concept in the 1870's, was that pathology was the cornerstone of a veterinary education; the place where anatomy, physiology, chemistry and botany met with the clinical subjects, and gave the latter meaning. This tradition was formed at the Montreal Veterinary College by the world renowned physician William Osler, North America's leading medical teacher, whom McEachran had invited to teach at the College in 1876 in addition to his duties in the faculty of medicine. Osler had studied with Virchow in Berlin and applied his methods of autopsy technique and of scientific inquiry to his teaching of both human and veterinary pathology at McGill. Osler also undertook investigations into various diseases of domestic animals, at the request of McEachran, who doubled as Chief Veterinary Inspector for the Dominion Department of Agriculture. Osler left McGill University in 1884. Only after that year did other North American veterinary schools adopt pathology as a discipline

  2. Dominant viral pathologies in the extensive and semi-intensive animal breeding and their treatment mode in ethno veterinary medicine in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Kpodékon, T. M.; Ogni, C. A.; Dassou, H.; Dougnon, T. J.; Boko, C.; Koutinhouin, G. B.; Goussanou, J. S. E.; Akoegninou, A.; Youssao, I.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to identify the dominant viral animal pathologies and to list the traditional recipes used by the breeders for their treatment. Materials and Methods: The method of data collection was based on a retrospective survey. Thus, 787 breeders and agro-breeders scattered in the eight agro-ecological areas of Benin were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Results: In total, 5 pathologies were reported by breeders. Among those pathologies, foot and mouth disease was reported by all of the breeders of the southern part of Borgou compared with the other areas (p<0.05) and treated by 25 species of medicinal plants. African swine fever was the main pathology reported (22.92%) (p<0.05) in the fishery areas which is controlled by 7 medicinal plants. Pseudorinderpest was more reported (33.78%) (p<0.05) in the cotton area of central Benin and treated by 8 medicinal plants. There is also Newcastle disease that was mostly reported in the Western Atacora and treated by 32 medicinal plants as well as fowl pox which was a more reported in the lands of the bar area and the low-pressure area about 34.48% and 36.17% proportions, respectively, and treated by eight medicinal plants. Conclusion: The breeders in Benin possess rich ethno veterinary knowledge on medicinal plants and their uses in the treatment of livestock. A total of 57 medicinal plants have been inventoried to fight against five major viral diseases as African swine fever, pseudorinderpest and foot and mouth disease. The common plants used to treat viral disease in general were Euphorbia unispina, Euphorbia poissonii, Lannea acida, and Mangifera indica. The most harvested organs on the plants reported in this survey were the barks, the leaves, and the whole plants. To better develop our indigenous resources, it would be important to expand this ethno-pharmacological investigation to other diseases category. PMID:27047056

  3. Veterinary Assistant, Teachers Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station.

    This study guide was developed for use by male and female vocational agriculture cooperative education students, 16 to 20 years old, preparing to become veterinary assistants. It was designed by subject-matter specialists on the basis of state advisory committee recommendations and refined after being tested in operational programs. Units, to be…

  4. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.525 Section 538.525... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  5. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.525 Section 538.525... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  6. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.525 Section 538.525... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  7. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Iran, to any individual or...

  8. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. 538.525 Section 538.525 Money... commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales, pursuant to § 538.523(a)(1), of agricultural commodities and products, medicine,...

  9. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales of agricultural commodities and products, medicine, and medical equipment pursuant to §§...

  10. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. 538.525 Section 538.525 Money... commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales, pursuant to § 538.523(a)(1), of agricultural commodities and products, medicine,...

  11. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales of agricultural commodities and products, medicine, and medical equipment pursuant to §§...

  12. The impact of using a veterinary medicine activity book in the classroom on fifth- and sixth-grade students' depictions of veterinarians.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Sandra F; Burgess, Wilella; Cipriani Davis, Kauline S; Reed, Dorothy; Adedokun, Omolola

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to develop a diverse, future veterinary workforce must start as early as elementary school, when children begin to form perceptions about careers. The objective of the current project was to determine the impact of the Veterinary Medicine Activity Book: Grade 5 on fifth- and sixth-grade students' depictions of veterinarians. The book was delivered as part of the curriculum in four classrooms. Students were asked to draw a veterinarian and describe the veterinarian's activities before and after being exposed to the book. Drawings were evaluated for the gender and race/ethnicity of the illustrated veterinarian, the description of the veterinarian's activity, and animals portrayed. Significant differences were detected within three of four classrooms. In one class, after exposure to the activity book, more students drew male veterinarians and veterinarians performing an activity specifically mentioned in the book. In a second class, more students drew large animals after exposure to the activity book. In a third class, after exposure to the activity book, more students drew large animals and veterinarians performing an activity specifically mentioned in the book. Results provide preliminary evidence that children's depictions of veterinarians can be altered through use of educational materials delivered in classrooms through teacher-led discussion or formal lesson plans. PMID:24072189

  13. Opinions of Veterinary Medical Educators Towards the Problems and Needs of Veterinary Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dudley B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Members of the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges-Council of Educators were surveyed in an attempt to measure their opinions and feelings towards veterinary medical education. Their opinions on such topics as relationships between students, faculty, the curriculum, and the identity of veterinary medicine are reported. (LBH)

  14. Global veterinary leadership.

    PubMed

    Wagner, G Gale; Brown, Corrie C

    2002-11-01

    The public needs no reminder that deadly infectious diseases such as FMD could emerge in any country at any moment, or that national food security could be compromised by Salmonella or Listeria infections. Protections against these risks include the knowledge that appropriate and equivalent veterinary education will enable detection and characterization of emerging disease agents, as well as an appropriate response, wherever they occur. Global veterinary leadership is needed to reduce the global threat of infectious diseases of major food animal and public health importance. We believe that the co-curriculum is an excellent way to prepare and train veterinarians and future leaders who understand and can deal with global issues. The key to the success of the program is the veterinarian's understanding that there is a cultural basis to the practice of veterinary medicine in any country. The result will be a cadre of veterinarians, faculty, and other professionals who are better able (language and culture) to understand the effects of change brought about by free trade and the importance of interdisciplinary and institutional relationships to deal effectively with national and regional issues of food safety and security. New global veterinary leadership programs will build on interests, experience, ideas, and ambitions. A college that wishes to take advantage of this diversity must offer opportunities that interest veterinarians throughout their careers and that preferably connect academic study with intensive experiential training in another country. At its best, the global veterinary leadership program would include a partnership between veterinarians and several international learning centers, a responsiveness to the identified international outreach needs of the profession, and attention to critical thinking and reflection. The global veterinary leadership program we have described is intended to be a set of ideas meant to promote collaboration, coalitions, and

  15. Anatomical Variations of the Blood Vascular System in Veterinary Medicine: The Internal Iliac Artery of the Dog: Part One.

    PubMed

    Avedillo, L; Martín-Alguacil, N; Salazar, I

    2015-08-01

    Traditional veterinary anatomical models describe the branches of the caudal gluteal artery as the iliolumbar, cranial gluteal, lateral caudal, satellite of the ischiatic nerve and dorsal perineal arteries. However, some classical veterinary anatomy textbooks often indicate variations the general organization of the arterial tree, without giving any pattern of origin or illustrations of the different branching. The aim of this study was to investigate the presumptive variability of the caudal gluteal artery. Two hundred and thirty-two pelvic halves from 116 adult dogs were examined. Twelve anatomical variations were found, nine occurring in more than 5% of the dogs, and three in <5%. A 'long-type' internal iliac artery, which means short caudal gluteal and internal pudendal arteries, was identified, while a 'perineal trunk' was observed as an interesting arterial variation. If the caudal segment alone is taken into consideration, identical vascular patterns in both hemi-pelvises are found in 17% of the dogs. Significant statistical correlation was found for four different types of anatomic variations and gender, two types of variations and body size, one type of variation for body side and one type of variation for head shape. PMID:25196254

  16. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain... CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debit to... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance:...

  17. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain... CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debit to... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance:...

  18. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... classified EAR 99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain... CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debits or... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance:...

  19. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain... CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debit to... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance:...

  20. 78 FR 54199 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and Medical Devices to Sudan and Iran; Comment Request... medical devices to Sudan and Iran. Pursuant to section 906(c) of the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export... Sudan and Iran are set forth in 31 CFR 538.523-526 and 31 CFR 560.530-533. Under the provisions...

  1. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1, and that fall within the term “agricultural commodity” as defined... Commodity Classification of EAR 99 from BIS for medicines and submit a copy to OFAC. See 15 CFR 745.3 for... the Commerce Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no....

  2. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1, and that fall within the term “agricultural commodity” as defined... Commodity Classification of EAR 99 from BIS for medicines and submit a copy to OFAC. See 15 CFR 745.3 for... the Commerce Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no....

  3. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment...

  4. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment...

  5. Cooperating with industry to teach food-animal medicine.

    PubMed

    Herdt, Thomas H; Neuder, Louis M; Green, Charles D; Fordyce, Mike G; Dill, Kevin J; Mahoney, John H

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative programs with agribusiness offer opportunities for colleges of veterinary medicine to expand their instructional programs in agricultural practice. Agribusinesses associated with livestock agriculture recognize the importance of veterinary medicine in maintaining a vibrant and successful industry. Stewardship of corporate support involves close communication with advocates within the companies, providing them with documentation of the potential effects of corporate investments. This article describes the creation of the Michigan State University (MSU) Training Center for Dairy Professionals, a key aspect of which was the identification of innovative and productive areas of mutual interest and benefit. In addition to supporting the dairy industry by training veterinary students, the program offers specific benefits to investors, including the use of MSU facilities and direct participation in veterinary instruction. PMID:18339956

  6. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet. PMID:26084100

  7. Veterinary applications of infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Rekant, Steven I; Lyons, Mark A; Pacheco, Juan M; Arzt, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal body temperature is a major indicator of disease; infrared thermography (IRT) can assess changes in body surface temperature quickly and remotely. This technology can be applied to a myriad of diseases of various etiologies across a wide range of host species in veterinary medicine. It is used to monitor the physiologic status of individual animals, such as measuring feed efficiency or diagnosing pregnancy. Infrared thermography has applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and has been used to detect soring in horses and monitor stress responses. This review addresses the variety of uses for IRT in veterinary medicine, including disease detection, physiologic monitoring, welfare assessment, and potential future applications. PMID:26709943

  8. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized. PMID:25379000

  9. Outcomes Assessment in Veterinary Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Leslie S.; Turnwald, Grant H.; Meldrum, James B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's use of outcomes assessment (OA) as part of the accreditation review process for the American Veterinary Medical Association. Discusses its nine OA survey instruments and use of resulting data during accreditation. (EV)

  10. Educating Veterinary Students in Food Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genigeorgis, Constantin A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A survey of domestic and foreign schools of veterinary medicine is analyzed, revealing a general trend toward deemphasis and/or loss of identity in teaching food safety and regulated veterinary public health subjects. It is suggested that minimal standards need to be set for curricula of U.S. schools. (Author/MLW)

  11. A Survey on Veterinary Graduates in Iran (1939-1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshar, Ahmad; Mehryar, Amir-Houshang

    1979-01-01

    A survey of 690 veterinary graduates (1939-1967) of the University of Teheran is discussed. Data include: socioeconomic background, motivation for studying veterinary medicine, views on veterinary curriculum, and professional activities. Wastage is noted among graduates who leave their vocational profession and take up other jobs. (Author/MLW)

  12. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine...

  13. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine...

  14. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine...

  15. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine...

  16. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine...

  17. Implications for Veterinary Medical Education: Paraprofessional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukens, Roger

    1980-01-01

    The emergence of the veterinary technician as an extension of the veterinarian's capability into animal agriculture is discussed. Some aspects reviewed include: technician education, current restrictions imposed by practice acts, general acceptance by the consumer, and effective relationships for veterinary technicians working under the…

  18. Accelerated Biodegradation of Veterinary Antibiotics in Agricultural Soil following Long-Term Exposure, and Isolation of a Sulfamethazine-degrading sp.

    PubMed

    Topp, Edward; Chapman, Ralph; Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Hartmann, Alain; Marti, Romain; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Sabourin, Lyne; Scott, Andrew; Sumarah, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization has identified antibiotic resistance as one of the top three threats to global health. There is concern that the use of antibiotics as growth promoting agents in livestock production contributes to the increasingly problematic development of antibiotic resistance. Many antibiotics are excreted at high rates, and the land application of animal manures represents a significant source of environmental exposure to these agents. To evaluate the long-term effects of antibiotic exposure on soil microbial populations, a series of field plots were established in 1999 that have since received annual applications of a mixture of sulfamethazine (SMZ), tylosin (TYL), and chlortetracycline (CTC). During the first 6 yr (1999-2004) soils were treated at concentrations of 0, 0.01 0.1, and 1.0 mg kg soil, in subsequent years at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 mg kg soil. The lower end of this concentration range is within that which would result from an annual application of manure from medicated swine. Following ten annual applications, the fate of the drugs in the soil was evaluated. Residues of SMZ and TYL, but not CTC were removed much more rapidly in soil with a history of exposure to 10 mg/kg drugs than in untreated control soil. Residues of C-SMZ were rapidly and thoroughly mineralized to CO in the historically treated soils, but not in the untreated soil. A SMZ-degrading sp. was isolated from the treated soil. Overall, these results indicate that soil bacteria adapt to long-term exposure to some veterinary antibiotics resulting in sharply reduced persistence. Accelerated biodegradation of antibiotics in matrices exposed to agricultural, wastewater, or pharmaceutical manufacturing effluents would attenuate environmental exposure to antibiotics, and merits investigation in the context of assessing potential risks of antibiotic resistance development in environmental matrices. PMID:23673752

  19. Veterinary School Applicants: Financial Literacy and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school. PMID:25872561

  20. Veterinary applications of infrared thermography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abnormal temperature is a major indicator of disease; infrared thermography (IRT) can assess changes in surface temperature quickly and remotely. This technology can be applied to myriad diseases in veterinary medicine, ranging across host species and disease etiologies. It can also be used to deter...

  1. Tocolytic Drugs for Use in Veterinary Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, L.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents a literature review of two tocolytic agents used in veterinary obstetrics: isoxsuprine and clenbuterol. The medical background from which these drugs emerged for human use and to which is linked their application in animal medicine is described. Each drug is reviewed according to its pharmacology, basic considerations for its clinical use and the reports on its application in the treatment and management of obstetrical disorders in veterinary medicine. PMID:17422462

  2. Student perceptions of the first year of veterinary medical school.

    PubMed

    Powers, Donald E

    2002-01-01

    Like other forms of post-baccalaureate study, veterinary medicine can be demanding and sometimes stressful. A brief survey was conducted of nearly 900 first-year students in 14 US veterinary medical schools in order to gather impressions of the first year of veterinary medical education. Although some students reported that conditions were stressful, the majority did not feel that they were inordinately so. Overall, most students were quite positive about their first-year academic experience in veterinary school. PMID:12717641

  3. Risk-based approach to developing a national residue sampling plan for testing under European Union regulation for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives in domestic animal production.

    PubMed

    Danaher, Martin; Shanahan, Conor; Butler, Francis; Evans, Rhodri; O'Sullivan, Dan; Glynn, Denise; Camon, Tim; Lawlor, Peadar; O'Keeffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency × Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) × Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system

  4. Agricultural diseases on the move early in the third millennium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With few exceptions, the diseases that present the greatest risk to food animal production have been largely similar throughout the modern era of veterinary medicine. The current trend of ever - increasing globalization of trade of animals and animal products ensures that agricultural diseases will ...

  5. Internationalizing Veterinary Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Christine C.; Memon, Mushtaq A.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed colleges of veterinary medicine to assess their international activities. Found that 86 percent have international veterinary medicine (IVM) programs and most have faculty involved in internationally oriented research, in teaching IVM, in mentoring students in IVM, and in international consultancies. Foreign animal diseases are the most…

  6. Accreditation of Veterinary Medical Education: Part II--Influence of the American Veterinary Medical Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Elizabeth K.

    1975-01-01

    Traces the development, since its founding in 1863, of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) influence over the standards of training required in the veterinary profession. Attention is focused on the roles of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the military, and the land-grant colleges in that development. (JT)

  7. DNA vaccines in veterinary use

    PubMed Central

    Redding, Laurel; Werner, David B

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccines represent a new frontier in vaccine technology. One important application of this technology is in the veterinary arena. DNA vaccines have already gained a foothold in certain fields of veterinary medicine. However, several important questions must be addressed when developing DNA vaccines for animals, including whether or not the vaccine is efficacious and cost effective compared with currently available options. Another important question to consider is how to apply this developing technology in a wide range of different situations, from the domestic pet to individual fish in fisheries with several thousand animals, to wildlife programs for disease control. In some cases, DNA vaccines represent an interesting option for vaccination, while in others, currently available options are sufficient. This review will examine a number of diseases of veterinary importance and the progress being made in DNA vaccine technology relevant to these diseases, and we compare these with the conventional treatment options available. PMID:19722897

  8. Protocols in Medicolegal Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Green, P. David

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines for the identification of potential legal cases and the correct procedures for recording and handling of information and exhibits are described. Preparation for court appearance as an expert witness is discussed. PMID:761156

  9. Thyroid scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Gregory B; Neelis, Dana A

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is performed in cats and dogs and has been used to a limited degree in other species such as the horse. Thyroid scintigraphy is most commonly used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment management of feline hyperthyroidism but is also used in the evaluation of canine hypothyroidism and canine thyroid carcinoma. This article reviews the normal scintigraphic appearance of the thyroid in the cat, the dog, and the horse and the principles of interpretation of abnormal scan results in the cat and the dog. Radioiodine is the treatment of choice for feline hyperthyroidism, and the principles of its use in the cat are reviewed. PMID:24314043

  10. Protocols in Medicolegal Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Green, P. D.

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines for the examination of cases involving death of animals from gunshot and arrow wounds are described. Appropriate procedures for collecting and preserving specimens and exhibits are also included. A brief description of the appearance of various gunshot wounds is given. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:7260828

  11. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on the Information Behavior and Literacy of Veterinary Medicine Students at University College Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Lorna

    2007-01-01

    Research was conducted on the impact of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) on the information seeking and literacy of veterinary students at University College Dublin. Data were collected using both quantitative and qualitative methods from students, academics and the librarian. Results showed that PBL has a significant impact on how students find and…

  12. Biotechnology: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Biotechnology Research Efforts. Briefing Report. To the Chairman, Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Information pertaining to biotechnology research that was funded in whole or in part by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is presented in this report. Findings obtained from state agricultural experimental stations and colleges of veterinary medicine are discussed in 11 appendices. These include: (1) information on USDA's biotechnology…

  13. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.

  14. A background to nuclear transfer and its applications in agriculture and human therapeutic medicine*

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Keith HS

    2002-01-01

    The development of a single celled fertilized zygote to an animal capable of reproduction involves not only cell division but the differentiation or specialization to numerous cell types forming each tissue and organ of the adult animal. The technique of nuclear transfer allows the reconstruction of an embryo by the transfer of genetic material from a single donor cell, to an unfertilized egg from which the genetic material has been removed. Successful development of live offspring from such embryos demonstrates that the differentiated state of the donor nucleus is not fixed and can be reprogrammed by the egg cytoplasm to control embryo and fetal development. Nuclear transfer has many applications in agriculture and human medicine. This article will review some of the factors associated with the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer and outline the potential uses of the technology. PMID:12033731

  15. 7 CFR 3431.12 - Selection of applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan... a veterinary shortage situation, or pursue a career in food supply veterinary medicine: (i) Major...

  16. 7 CFR 3431.12 - Selection of applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan... a veterinary shortage situation, or pursue a career in food supply veterinary medicine: (i) Major...

  17. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC): 50 Years of History and Service.

    PubMed

    Maccabe, Andrew T; Crawford, Lester; Heider, Lawrence E; Hooper, Billy; Mann, Curt J; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) is to advance the quality of academic veterinary medicine. Founded in 1966 by the 18 US colleges of veterinary medicine and 3 Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine then in existence, the AAVMC is celebrating 50 years of public service. Initially, the AAVMC comprised the Council of Deans, the Council of Educators, and the Council of Chairs. In 1984, the tri-cameral structure was abandoned and a new governing structure with a board of directors was created. In 1997, the AAVMC was incorporated in Washington, DC and a common application service was created. Matters such as workforce issues and the cost of veterinary medical education have persisted for decades. The AAVMC is a champion of diversity in the veterinary profession and a strong advocate for One Health. The AAVMC has adopted a global perspective as more international colleges of veterinary medicine have earned COE accreditation and become members. PMID:26673207

  18. Recommendations of the German Society for Medical Education and the German Association of Medical Faculties regarding university-specific assessments during the study of human, dental and veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jünger, Jana; Just, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    The practice of assessing student performance in human, dental and veterinary medicine at universities in German-speaking countries has undergone significant changes in the past decade. Turning the focus to practical requirements regarding medical practice during undergraduate study away from an often theory-dominated curriculum, the academic scrutiny of the basics of teaching medical knowledge and skills, and amendments to legislation, all require ongoing adjustments to curricula and the ways in which assessments are done during undergraduate medical education. To establish quality standards, the Gesellschaft für medizinische Ausbildung (GMA German Society for Medical Education) reached a consensus in 2008 on recommendations for administering medical school-specific exams which have now been updated and approved by the GMA assessments committee, together with the Medizinischer Fakultätentag (MFT German Association of Medical Faculties), as recommendations for the administration of high-quality assessments. PMID:25228936

  19. Some Observations on Veterinary Undergraduate Training in Surgical Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittick, William G.

    1978-01-01

    The undergraduate surgery course of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, is described with focus on its experential method of teaching surgical techniques. Also discussed are the benefits of veterinary school cooperation with a large city Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA). (JMD)

  20. Animals in Society: A New Focus for Veterinary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weer, Joan C.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a curriculum for veterinary schools developed by the Center for Animals and Public Policy at Tufts School of Veterinary Medicine that fosters an understanding of the facets of the human/animal relationship. Includes sections on animal demographics, the history of the animal protection movement, and the use of companion animals in…

  1. Career attitudes of first-year veterinary students before and after a required course on veterinary careers.

    PubMed

    Fish, Richard E; Griffith, Emily H

    2014-01-01

    Careers in Veterinary Medicine is a required, one-credit-hour course at the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU-CVM), which meets once weekly during veterinary students' first semester. Lectures in this course are presented by one or more veterinarians representing diverse career areas. A voluntary, anonymous survey was distributed before the first class meeting in 2011 (PRE) and at the end of the semester (POST) to assess if students' career interests changed during the semester. The survey collected basic demographic data and students' preferences (on a Likert scale) for 17 veterinary career paths. Out of 63 students, 36 (57%) in the POST survey said that their career interests had changed during the semester, and 17 of the 26 students (65%) who gave a reason credited the careers course as one factor in reconsidering their career choice. Only 3 of the 17 career paths had statistically significant PRE/POST survey differences in Likert response frequency (equine practice, pathology, and wildlife medicine), but both informal discussions with students and responses to open-ended survey questions indicated that many students valued the introduction to unfamiliar veterinary career areas. Careers in Veterinary Medicine is a vital component of recent career-planning initiatives in the college, which will be especially important to veterinary students as they face continued changes in the profession, such as the increased debt load of the new graduate and the threat of veterinary workforce oversupply. PMID:24794169

  2. 9 CFR 161.6 - Suspension or revocation of veterinary accreditation and reaccreditation; criminal and civil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Suspension or revocation of veterinary... SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION OF SUCH ACCREDITATION § 161.6 Suspension or revocation of veterinary accreditation... veterinarian is licensed or legally able to practice veterinary medicine in the State in which the...

  3. 9 CFR 161.6 - Suspension or revocation of veterinary accreditation and reaccreditation; criminal and civil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Suspension or revocation of veterinary... SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION OF SUCH ACCREDITATION § 161.6 Suspension or revocation of veterinary accreditation... veterinarian is licensed or legally able to practice veterinary medicine in the State in which the...

  4. 9 CFR 161.6 - Suspension or revocation of veterinary accreditation and reaccreditation; criminal and civil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Suspension or revocation of veterinary... SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION OF SUCH ACCREDITATION § 161.6 Suspension or revocation of veterinary accreditation... veterinarian is licensed or legally able to practice veterinary medicine in the State in which the...

  5. The Northwest Regional Program in Veterinary Medical Education: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustad, L. K.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Results of a four-year cooperative effort to develop the Washington-Oregon-Idaho Regional Program in Veterinary Medicine (WOI) are summarized. Special admissions policies, curriculum, administrative procedures, and funding approaches are reviewed. (LBH)

  6. Veterinary Medical Education and a Changing Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, James R.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that veterinary medicine needs greater participation by minority groups to incorporate their worldview into the field. Discusses how this community-oriented view is at odds with the manner in which the academy typically assesses performance, and why teaching and service should therefore be more readily and effectively evaluated and…

  7. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  8. All-purpose veterinary education: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Recognition Lecture is an annual honor awarded by the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) to an individual whose leadership and vision have made significant contributions to academic veterinary medicine and the veterinary profession. In 2011, this prestigious honor was awarded to Dr. Peter Eyre, Dean Emeritus of the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM). Dr. Eyre is a fierce advocate for veterinary medical education, with a clear vision of its value in ensuring that veterinarians are well positioned to meet societal needs. Dr. Eyre possesses an international perspective regarding the challenges and problems facing veterinary medical education and has a keen eye for getting to the heart of these challenges. He is known to ask hard questions and propose difficult choices. Dr. Eyre received his undergraduate veterinary degree (BVMS), bachelor of science degree, and PhD from the University of Edinburgh. He was Lecturer in Pharmacology at the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies for seven years before joining the faculty of the University of Guelph's Ontario Veterinary College, where he was Chair of the Department of Biomedical Sciences and Associate Director of the Canadian Centre for Toxicology. Dr. Eyre was appointed Dean of the VMRCVM in 1985, where he established the Center for Government and Corporate Veterinary Medicine in 1989. After retiring in 2003, he was named Interim Dean of the University of Calgary's new veterinary school. Among his many awards are the Norden Distinguished Teacher Award and the Sigma Psi Excellence in Research Award. In 2008 the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) honored him with the President's Award, and in 2010 the University of Edinburgh awarded him the honorary degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery. The Peter Eyre Student Leadership Award at the VMRCVM and the Peter Eyre Prize in Pharmacology at the University of Guelph are both named in his honor

  9. [Veterinary Drug 'what'? Various marginal notes by an 'industrial veterinarian'].

    PubMed

    Hoftijzer, J

    1987-04-15

    A retrospective view of the history of the Veterinary Medicinal Products Act and the current situation of the trade in veterinary drugs is followed by a discussion of a number of changes which will have to be made in the fields of production, packing, distribution and the trade in these drugs. With regard to these last-named items, a connection with the Act on the Practice of Veterinary Medicine should be made. In general it can be stated that the innovating industry is not dissatisfied, but only the actual enforcement of the act will provide genuine replies to questions which are still unanswered. PMID:3576584

  10. Evaluation and validation of biochip multi-array technology for the screening of six families of antibiotics in honey according to the European guideline for the validation of screening methods for residues of veterinary medicines.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Valérie; Hedou, Celine; Soumet, Christophe; Verdon, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The main chemicals used against varoa are acaricides, and the antibiotics used for the control of bee bacterial diseases are mainly tetracyclines, streptomycins, sulfonamides and chloramphenicol. No maximum residue limits (MRLs) have been set for any antibiotics in honey. Therefore, in the European Union, minimum recommended concentrations (RC) for the analytical performance of methods to control a certain set of these non-authorised chemicals in honey were published by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EU-RL) in 2007. Concerning the strategy for the control for antibiotic residues in honey, there is still a great need for a cheap and single multi-residue method. Biochip array technology is an innovative assay technology for the multi-analyte screening of biological samples in a rapid and easy-to-use format. A multi-array system, called Evidence Investigator™ (Randox, Crumlin, Co., Antrim, UK), was evaluated in our laboratory. It is a semi-automated biochip system designed for research, clinical applications and veterinary use. A competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay is employed for the detection of antimicrobials. The MicroArray II kit (AM II) dedicated to the screening of six different families of antibiotic residues was validated according to the European guideline for the validation of screening methods for residues of veterinary medicines. The specificity was proven to be very satisfactory, and applicability to different kinds of honey was demonstrated. The detection capabilities (CCβ) of six antibiotic residues were determined and were below the RCs when exist. The AM II kit could detect at least six quinolones, four tetracyclines and three epimers, three aminoglycosides, three macrolides, thiamphenicol, florfenicol and ceftiofur along with one of its stabilised metabolites, the desfuroylceftiofurcysteine disulfide (DCCD). PMID:25186037

  11. The 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Joan K; Kai, Chieko; Inumaru, Shigeki; Onodera, Takashi

    2012-07-15

    This special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune systems of numerous food animals and wildlife, probing basic immunity and the influence of stress, genetics, nutrition, endocrinology and reproduction. Major presentations addressed defense against pathogens and alternative control and prevention strategies including vaccines, adjuvants and novel biotherapeutics. A special Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Co-operative Research Programme Sponsored Conference on "Vaccination and Diagnosis for Food Safety in Agriculture" highlighted the particular issue of "Immunology in Bovine Paratuberculosis". In April 2010 there was an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the southern part of Japan. This stimulated a special 9th IVIS session on FMD, sponsored by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) of Japan, to discuss improvements of FMD vaccines, their use in FMD control, and risk assessment for decision management. The 9th IVIS was supported by the Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC) of the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) and included workshops for its MHC and Toolkit Committees. Finally VIC IUIS presented its 2010 Distinguished Service Award to Dr. Kazuya Yamanouchi for "outstanding contributions to the veterinary immunology community" and its 2010 Distinguished Veterinary Immunologist Award to Dr. Douglas F. Antczak for "outstanding research on equine immunology". PMID:22766039

  12. The organisation of the Department of Veterinary Services in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nor, M N; Abu Mustapa, A J; Abu Hassan, M A; Chang, K W

    2003-08-01

    The Department of Veterinary Services (DVS) in Malaysia was established in 1888 as an agency to control exotic and domestic animal diseases. Over the years, the structure and functions of the organisation have evolved to meet the growing demand for veterinary services. The responsibilities of the Veterinary Services are enshrined in the Constitution of Malaysia. The current organisation of the DVS is structured to achieve the following objectives:---to prevent, control and eradicate animal and zoonotic diseases--to facilitate the growth and development of a strong animal industry--to ensure that animal products for human consumption are wholesome, clean, safe and suitable to be consumed--to facilitate the growth and development of the animal feed industry--to ensure the welfare and well-being of all animals. To meet these objectives the DVS has nine different divisions, as follows: Planning and Evaluation, Epidemiology and Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Public Health, Research and Development, Industry Development, Production and Development of Genetic Resources, Human Resource Development (HRD), Enforcement, and Administration. The development of the animal industry is managed through national development policies, including the Third National Agriculture Policy. The basis for current programmes for disease control and animal industry development is the Eighth Development Plan (2001-2005). Over the period of this Plan, Malaysia will address the need for sanitary and phytosanitary measures by developing specific programmes covering all fields of the animal industry. This is just one way in which Malaysia is meeting the challenges of the increased liberalisation of trade created by the World Trade Organization and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Free Trade Area. The development of the industry is focused on the major commodities, namely, beef, mutton, poultry meat, eggs, pork and milk. Other commodities receive support if it is considered economically

  13. Veterinary anthropology explored.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Veterinary and social scientists came together at the Centre for Medical Anthropology at the University of Edinburgh in April to discuss areas of common interest and the possibility of defining a new interdisciplinary field of 'veterinary anthropology'. Andrew Gardiner, one of the organisers of the international meeting, reports. PMID:27256260

  14. Veterinary practice marketeer.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Justin

    2015-01-24

    Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care. PMID:25614552

  15. Mantra and yantra in Indian medicine and alchemy.

    PubMed

    Rosu, A

    1988-07-01

    This paper was presented at the International Workshop on mantras and ritual diagrams in Hinduism, held in Paris, 21-22 June1984. The complete text in French, which appeared in the Journal asiatique 1986, p.203, is based upon an analysis of Ayurvedc literature from ancient times down to the present and of numerous Sanskrit sources concerning he specialized sciences: alchemy and latrochemisry, veterinary medicine as well as agricultural and horticulture techniques. PMID:22557624

  16. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain... CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debits or... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury...

  17. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and do not relate to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, and also provided that all... Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security (“BIS”), certifying that the product is EAR 99, is required to be... 99 from BIS for medicines and submit a copy to OFAC. See 15 CFR 745.3 for instructions for...

  18. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and do not relate to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, and also provided that all... Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security (“BIS”), certifying that the product is EAR 99, is required to be... 99 from BIS for medicines and submit a copy to OFAC. See 15 CFR 745.3 for instructions for...

  19. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 99 from BIS for medicines and submit a copy to OFAC. See 15 CFR 745.3 for instructions for obtaining... OFAC, 31 CFR parts 536, 544, 594, 595, 597, and 598, or with any foreign organization, group, or person... Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1, and that...

  20. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain... CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debits or... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury...

  1. Study of Chromosomes: Their Vital Importance in Agriculture, Biology, and Medicine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on chromosomes has enriched the disciplines of genetics, plant breeding, biology, and medicine, which, in turn, have contributed to human welfare. Although the foundation of genetics occurred in 1865, long before the discovery of chromosomes, their subsequent discovery put genetics on a so...

  2. The role of veterinary medical librarians in teaching information literacy.

    PubMed

    Dinkelman, Andrea L; Viera, Ann R; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle A

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study seeks to determine the nature of the instruction librarians provide to veterinary medical students at all 28 United States veterinary colleges. A secondary goal of the study was to determine in what ways and to what extent librarians participated in other instructional activities at their colleges. Over half of the librarians formally taught in one or more courses, predominantly in the first two years of the veterinary curriculum. One presentation per course was most common. Over half of the librarians interviewed stated that evidence-based veterinary medicine was taught at their colleges, and about half of these librarians collaborated with veterinary faculty in this instruction. Many librarians participated in orientation for first-year veterinary students. The librarians also taught instructional sessions for residents, interns, faculty, graduate students, and practicing veterinarians. This study found that librarians teach information literacy skills both formally and informally, but, in general, instruction by librarians was not well integrated into the curriculum. This study advances several recommendations to help veterinary students develop information literacy skills. These include: encourage veterinary faculty and administrators to collaborate more closely with librarians, incorporate a broader array of information literacy skills into assignments, and add a literature evaluation course to the curriculum. PMID:22023922

  3. A qualitative study to explore communication skills in veterinary medical education

    PubMed Central

    Hamood, Wendy J.; Chur-Hansen, Anna; McArthur, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To explore and gain an understanding of what “clinical communication skills” mean to veterinarians working in private practice and what implications this might have for veterinary medical education. Methods: Qualitative research methods were used to purposefully sample a range of veterinary practitioners from a pool of South Australian veterinary practices who were interviewed to determine their understanding of what communication skills mean in the context of veterinary practice. Interviews were conducted with fourteen veterinary practitioners. Participants were sampled from a range of ages, veterinary schools of graduation plus urban and rural locations. Interview transcripts were analysed for themes, definitions and contexts. Results: Participants’ accounts included a number of skills which they considered to be “communication”. Some of the definitions of these skills parallel communication skills and competencies for human medicine on which communication skills training incorporated into veterinary curricula to date have largely been based. However, the veterinarians in this study also raised interesting contextual differences unique to the veterinary profession, such as communication with the animal, selling service, discussing money in relation to decisions for care, and communicating about euthanasia. Conclusions: Veterinary practitioners require high level communication skills. Education and training in veterinary medicine may be better tailored to reflect the unique context of the veterinary profession. PMID:25341230

  4. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  5. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... you get better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring ... can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with food or other medicines you may be taking. They ...

  6. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. PMID:27090769

  7. Stem cell-based tissue engineering in veterinary orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Walter; Burk, Janina; Delling, Uta; Gittel, Claudia; Ribitsch, Iris

    2012-01-28

    Regenerative medicine is one of the most intensively researched medical branches, with enormous progress every year. When it comes to translating research from bench to bedside, many of the pioneering innovations are achieved by cooperating teams of human and veterinary medical scientists. The veterinary profession has an important role to play in this new and evolving technology, holding a great scientific potential, because animals serve widely as models for human medicine and results obtained from animals may serve as preclinical results for human medicine. Regenerative veterinary medicine utilizing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) for the treatment of acute injuries as well as chronic disorders is gradually turning into clinical routine. As orthopaedic disorders represent a major part of all cases in veterinary clinical practice, it is not surprising that they are currently taking a leading role in MSC therapies. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to give an overview on past and current achievements as well as future perspectives in stem cell-based tissue engineering in veterinary orthopaedics. PMID:22287044

  8. Environmental economics reality check: a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project.

    PubMed

    Isla, Ana; Thompson, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project in the Arenal Conservation Area, Costa Rica. Microenterprise is the Sustainable Development and the Women in Development model for gender equity and environment of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and large non-government organizations, like the World Wildlife Fund-Canada. The authors of this paper argue that debt-for-nature investment in microenterprise and ecological economic models are not distinct from neoclassical economic and development models that created the environmental, social and cultural crises in the first place. This case study shows that the world market accommodates only one model of development: unsustainable export-oriented production based on flexible labour markets, low wages, indebtedness and low cost production. Working standards in those micro-enterprises are eroded due to many factors,including indebtedness. What happened at a national level in non-industrial countries with the international debt crisis is now mirrored in individual indebtedness through microenterprise. Is current development policy creating a new form of indentured servitude? Medicinal plants, prior to commodification, were a source of women's power and upon commodification in international development projects, are the source of their exploitation. PMID:12859005

  9. Genetic diversity and distribution of rhizobia associated with the medicinal legumes Astragalus spp. and Hedysarum polybotrys in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Ji, Zhao Jun; Jiao, Yin Shan; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Feng; Guo, Bao Lin; Chen, Wen Xin

    2016-03-01

    With the increasing cultivation of medicinal legumes in agricultural fields, the rhizobia associated with these plants are facing new stresses, mainly from fertilization and irrigation. In this study, investigations on the nodulation of three cultivated medicinal legumes, Astragalus mongholicus, Astragalus membranaceus and Hedysarum polybotrys were performed. Bacterial isolates from root nodules of these legumes were subjected to genetic diversity and multilocus sequence analyses. In addition, the distribution of nodule bacteria related to soil factors and host plants was studied. A total 367 bacterial isolates were obtained and 13 genospecies were identified. The predominant microsymbionts were identified as Mesorhizobium septentrionale, Mesorhizobium temperatum, Mesorhizobium tianshanense, Mesorhizobium ciceri and Mesorhizobium muleiense. M. septentrionale was found in most root nodules especially from legumes grown in the barren soils (with low available nitrogen and low organic carbon contents), while M. temperatum was predominant in nodules where the plants were grown in the nitrogen-rich fields. A. mongholicus tended to be associated with M. septentrionale, M. temperatum and M. ciceri in different soils, while A. membranaceus and H. polybotrys tended to be associated with M. tianshanense and M. septentrionale, respectively. This study showed that soil fertility may be the main determinant for the distribution of rhizobia associated with these cultured legume plants. PMID:26915496

  10. Veterinary involvement in poultry production.

    PubMed

    Parker, Daniel

    2016-01-16

    The worldwide poultry sector is expected to grow substantially over the next few decades, as the world looks to feed a rapidly expanding population. In a further article in Veterinary Record's series looking at the state of different sectors of the veterinary profession, Daniel Parker looks at veterinary involvement in the poultry sector. PMID:26769809

  11. American veterinary history: before the nineteenth century. 1940.

    PubMed

    Bierer, Bert W

    2014-11-01

    With the development of our present day domesticated animals in America (during the 16th and 17th centuries), it was not long before animal diseases became troublesome and destructive (especially during the latter half of the 18th century). Though veterinary medicine became rather firmly established in many European countries (including England) during the latter half of the 18th century, veterinary medicine was relatively nonexistent in America, with only self-styled animal doctors and farriers (with their empirical and often destructive remedies). PMID:25799615

  12. Veterinary and human anaesthesia: an overview of some parallels and contrasts.

    PubMed

    Carter, J; Story, D A

    2013-11-01

    The history of human and veterinary anaesthesia is both intertwined and parallel. Physicians and anaesthetists often first experimented on animals and developments from human anaesthesia have been incorporated into veterinary medicine. Within veterinary medicine, anaesthesia is a specialty discipline as it is in human medicine. Veterinary anaesthetists undertake additional training and rigorous examinations for a diploma or fellowship. In contrast to human anaesthesia in Australia and New Zealand, veterinary anaesthesia is often performed by non-specialists and by veterinary nurses. Veterinary anaesthesia uses many of the same drugs for premedication, induction and maintenance of anaesthesia as human anaesthesia. However, there are species specific effects of some of the drugs used that differ from the effects in humans. Furthermore, some agents, particularly alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists and ketamine, are used very widely in veterinary practice. Also in contrast to most human anaesthesia, in large animal and exotic animal practice the patients can present a physical danger to the anaesthetist. The most notable contrast between human and veterinary anaesthesia is in the reported perioperative complication and mortality rates, with a species dependent perianaesthetic mortality of up to 2% in dogs, cats and horses and greater than 2% in guinea pigs and birds, which is up to 100-fold higher than in human anaesthesia. PMID:24180711

  13. Veterinary drugs in the environment and their toxicity to plants.

    PubMed

    Bártíková, Hana; Podlipná, Radka; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-02-01

    Veterinary drugs used for treatment and prevention of diseases in animals represent important source of environmental pollution due to intensive agri- and aquaculture production. The drugs can reach environment through the treatment processes, inappropriate disposal of used containers, unused medicine or livestock feed, and manufacturing processes. Wide scale of veterinary pharmaceuticals e.g. antibiotics, antiparasitic and antifungal drugs, hormones, anti-inflammatory drugs, anaesthetics, sedatives etc. enter the environment and may affect non-target organisms including plants. This review characterizes the commonly used drugs in veterinary practice, outlines their behaviour in the environment and summarizes available information about their toxic effect on plants. Significant influence of many antibiotics and hormones on plant developmental and physiological processes have been proved. However, potential phytotoxicity of other veterinary drugs has been studied rarely, although knowledge of phytotoxicity of veterinary drugs may help predict their influence on biodiversity and improve phytoremediation strategies. Moreover, additional topics such as long term effect of low doses of drugs and their metabolites, behaviour of mixture of veterinary drugs and other chemicals in ecosystems should be more thoroughly investigated to obtain complex information on the impact of veterinary drugs in the environment. PMID:26606183

  14. Engineering Veterinary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyre, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Calls for a new model for veterinary education, drawn from engineering education, which imparts a strong core of fundamental biomedical knowledge and multi-species clinical experience to all students than allows a genuine opportunity for differentiation into strongly focused subject areas that provide in-depth education and training appropriate to…

  15. The Tuskegee Veterinary School, Its Peer Antecedents and Its Educational Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Theodore S.

    1978-01-01

    The School of Veterinary Medicine at Tuskegee Institute was established to serve the educational needs of Blacks in this profession, and represented the beginning of the third phase in the evolution of veterinary medical education in this country. All three phases are discussed, and the success of the School's graduates is assessed. (JMD)

  16. Veterinary Medicine Mobility Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Moran, Jerry [R-KS

    2013-05-14

    05/14/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.1528, which became Public Law 113-143 on 8/1/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Knowledge and Curriculum in Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Although medical curricula are perceived as scientifically based, much discipline-based material is used as procedural knowledge. Educators must ensure that students have both enough certainty to be effective diagnosticians and enough doubt to question assumptions about the nature of scientific knowledge. (Contains 60 references.) (SK)

  18. Rinderpest: the veterinary perspective on eradication

    PubMed Central

    Roeder, Peter; Mariner, Jeffrey; Kock, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Rinderpest was a devastating disease of livestock responsible for continent-wide famine and poverty. Centuries of veterinary advances culminated in 2011 with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health declaring global eradication of rinderpest; only the second disease to be eradicated and the greatest veterinary achievement of our time. Conventional control measures, principally mass vaccination combined with zoosanitary procedures, led to substantial declines in the incidence of rinderpest. However, during the past decades, innovative strategies were deployed for the last mile to overcome diagnostic and surveillance challenges, unanticipated variations in virus pathogenicity, circulation of disease in wildlife populations and to service remote and nomadic communities in often-unstable states. This review provides an overview of these challenges, describes how they were overcome and identifies key factors for this success. PMID:23798687

  19. Mammary stem cell research in veterinary science: an update.

    PubMed

    Borena, Bizunesh M; Bussche, Leen; Burvenich, Christian; Duchateau, Luc; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2013-06-15

    The mammary gland is an organ with a remarkable regenerative capacity that can undergo multiple cycles of proliferation, lactation, and involution. Growing evidence suggests that these changes are driven by the coordinated division and differentiation of mammary stem cell populations (MaSC). Whereas information regarding MaSC and their role in comparative mammary gland physiology is readily available in human and mice, such information remains scarce in most veterinary mammal species such as cows, horses, sheep, goats, pigs, and dogs. We believe that a better knowledge on the MaSC in these species will not only help to gain more insights into mammary gland (patho) physiology in veterinary medicine, but will also be of value for human medicine. Therefore, this review summarizes the current knowledge on stem cell isolation and characterization in different mammals of veterinary importance. PMID:23360296

  20. Recent Developments in Liposome-Based Veterinary Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in nanomedicine have been studied in the veterinary field and have found a wide variety of applications. The past decade has witnessed a massive surge of research interest in liposomes for delivery of therapeutic substances in animals. Liposomes are nanosized phospholipid vesicles that can serve as delivery platforms for a wide range of substances. Liposomes are easily formulated, highly modifiable, and easily administered delivery platforms. They are biodegradable and nontoxic and have long in vivo circulation time. This review focuses on recent and ongoing research that may have relevance for veterinary medicine. By examining the recent developments in liposome-based therapeutics in animal cancers, vaccines, and analgesia, this review depicts the current significance and future directions of liposome-based delivery in veterinary medicine. PMID:24222862

  1. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a)...

  2. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care §...

  3. 42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sufficient space for chimpanzees to perform species-typical behavior and expression. Examples of such... Laboratory Animal Medicine document, “The Provision of Adequate Veterinary Care,” available on the...

  4. 42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sufficient space for chimpanzees to perform species-typical behavior and expression. Examples of such... Laboratory Animal Medicine document, “The Provision of Adequate Veterinary Care,” available on the...

  5. Limiting and facilitating access to innovations in medicine and agriculture: a brief exposition of the ethical arguments.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Cristian

    2014-12-01

    Taking people's longevity as a measure of good life, humankind can proudly say that the average person is living a much longer life than ever before. The AIDS epidemic has however for the first time in decades stalled and in some cases even reverted this trend in a number of countries. Climate change is increasingly becoming a major challenge for food security and we can anticipate that hunger caused by crop damages will become much more common.Since many of the challenges humanity faced in the past were overcome by inventive solutions coming from the life sciences, we are compelled to reconsider how we incentivize science and technology development so that those in need can benefit more broadly from scientific research. There is a huge portion of the world population that is in urgent need for medicines to combat diseases that are currently neglected by the scientific community and could immensely benefit from agricultural research that specifically targets their environmental conditions. At the same time efforts have to be made to make the fruits of current and future research more widely accessible. These changes would have to be backed by a range of moral arguments to attract people with diverging notions of global justice. This article explores the main ethical theories used to demand a greater share in the benefits from scientific progress for the poor. Since life sciences bring about a number of special concerns, a short list of conflictive issues is also offered. PMID:26085444

  6. Computer-Assisted Management of Instruction in Veterinary Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Elsbeth; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Reviews a course in Food Hygiene and Public Health at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine in which students are sequenced through a series of computer-based lessons or autotutorial slide-tape lessons, the computer also being used to route, test, and keep records. Since grades indicated mastery of the subject, the course will…

  7. Alternative Approach to Teaching Veterinary Anatomy: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hullinger, Ronald; Render, Gary F.

    1975-01-01

    Students in microscopic anatomy at Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine selected a self-directed or teacher-directed approach to the course. Adoption of the experimental approach described here increased faculty time for evaluating student progress but was supportive of student development particularly in cognitive skills and affective…

  8. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including a hypothesis-driven decision tree approach for the safety evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs; comments on the Committee for Veterinary Products for Medicinal Use reflection paper on the new approach developed by JECFA for exposure and maximum residue limit (MRL) assessment of residues; residues of veterinary drugs in honey and possible approaches to derive MRLs for this commodity; comments on a paper entitled "Risk-assessment policies: Differences among jurisdictions"; and the use of no-observed-effect level (NOEL) and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in JECFA assessments. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: three antimicrobial agents (avilamycin, tilmicosin, tylosin), one anthelminthic (triclabendazole), one production aid (melengestrol acetate), two antimicrobial agents and production aids (monensin and narasin), a glucocarticosteroid (dexamethasone) and an antimicrobial agent and contaminant (malachite green). Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and proposed MRLs. PMID:20112498

  9. 7 CFR 3431.10 - Eligibility to participate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan... United States; (e) Sign a service agreement to provide veterinary services in one of the...

  10. 7 CFR 3431.10 - Eligibility to participate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan... United States; (e) Sign a service agreement to provide veterinary services in one of the...

  11. 7 CFR 3431.10 - Eligibility to participate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan... United States; (e) Sign a service agreement to provide veterinary services in one of the...

  12. 7 CFR 3431.10 - Eligibility to participate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan... United States; (e) Sign a service agreement to provide veterinary services in one of the...

  13. Escherichia coli and selected veterinary and zoonotic pathogens isolated from environmental sites in companion animal veterinary hospitals in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Colleen P; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Boerlin, Patrick; Weese, J Scott; Prescott, John F; Janecko, Nicol; Hassard, Lori; McEwen, Scott A

    2010-09-01

    Hospital-based infection control in veterinary medicine is emerging and the role of the environment in hospital-acquired infections (HAI) in veterinary hospitals is largely unknown. This study was initiated to determine the recovery of Escherichia coli and selected veterinary and zoonotic pathogens from the environments of 101 community veterinary hospitals. The proportion of hospitals with positive environmental swabs were: E. coli--92%, Clostridium difficile--58%, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)--9%, CMY-2 producing E. coli--9%, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius--7%, and Salmonella--2%. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp., canine parvovirus, and feline calicivirus were not isolated. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates was low. Important potential veterinary and human pathogens were recovered including Canadian epidemic strains MRSA-2 and MRSA-5, and C. difficile ribotype 027. There is an environmental reservoir of pathogens in veterinary hospitals; therefore, additional studies are required to characterize risk factors associated with HAI in companion animals, including the role of the environment. PMID:21119862

  14. Escherichia coli and selected veterinary and zoonotic pathogens isolated from environmental sites in companion animal veterinary hospitals in southern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Colleen P.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Boerlin, Patrick; Weese, J. Scott; Prescott, John F.; Janecko, Nicol; Hassard, Lori; McEwen, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Hospital-based infection control in veterinary medicine is emerging and the role of the environment in hospital-acquired infections (HAI) in veterinary hospitals is largely unknown. This study was initiated to determine the recovery of Escherichia coli and selected veterinary and zoonotic pathogens from the environments of 101 community veterinary hospitals. The proportion of hospitals with positive environmental swabs were: E. coli — 92%, Clostridium difficile — 58%, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) — 9%, CMY-2 producing E. coli — 9%, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius — 7%, and Salmonella — 2%. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp., canine parvovirus, and feline calicivirus were not isolated. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates was low. Important potential veterinary and human pathogens were recovered including Canadian epidemic strains MRSA-2 and MRSA-5, and C. difficile ribotype 027. There is an environmental reservoir of pathogens in veterinary hospitals; therefore, additional studies are required to characterize risk factors associated with HAI in companion animals, including the role of the environment. PMID:21119862

  15. Genomic approaches for veterinary pest control and eradication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arthropod pests of veterinary importance remain a threat to the health of livestock herds in the United States (US) and contribute to global food insecurity because they impact animal agriculture productivity directly through their parasitic habits and indirectly, in specific cases, due to the disea...

  16. Veterinary antibiotic effects on atrazine degradation and soil microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in manure applied to agricultural lands may change agrichemical degradation by altering soil microbial community structure or function. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of two VAs, sulfamethazine (SMZ) and oxytetracycline (OTC), on atrazine ...

  17. Reflections on the future of veterinary medical education.

    PubMed

    Prasse, Keith W

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Keith Prasse is a very distinguished leader in veterinary education. He started his career achieving his BS and DVM degrees from Iowa State University (ISU). He returned to ISU after a brief period in private practice in Illinois. His well-recognized career in veterinary pathology began with his MS and PhD degrees, followed by a five-year period of teaching at ISU. Dr. Prasse joined the faculty of the University of Georgia in 1972, and thus began a long-term partnership with Dr. Bob Duncan that is arguably the foundation of veterinary clinical pathology. The textbook they authored, Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, or "Duncan and Prasse" as it is known, remains the standard today, with later participation from Dr. Ed Mahaffey and most recently Dr. Ken Latimer. Dr. Prasse has mentored numerous graduate students and received many awards over his 23-year career in teaching, including the Norden Distinguished Teaching award twice, once at ISU and once at Georgia. His leadership as President of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists was greatly acknowledged and appreciated. Dr. Prasse's administrative service at the University of Georgia spanned 14 years, first as Associate Dean for Public Service and Outreach and later as Dean for eight years, during which time he served as President of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC). The growth of the College of Veterinary Medicine under Dean Prasse's visionary leadership was extraordinary. He led through difficult economic and political times, yet the college and its community continued to prosper. His legacy at the University of Georgia is indelible and perpetual. His outstanding leadership of the college was recognized by the Georgia Veterinary Medical Association in 2004, when he was given the Georgia Veterinarian of the Year award. Since his retirement from Georgia, Dr. Prasse has contributed greatly to the profession and to the AAVMC by leading the Foresight project

  18. Piloting interprofessional education interventions with veterinary and veterinary nursing students.

    PubMed

    Kinnison, Tierney; Lumbis, Rachel; Orpet, Hilary; Welsh, Perdi; Gregory, Sue; Baillie, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) has received little attention in veterinary education even though members of the veterinary and nursing professions work closely together. The present study investigates veterinary and veterinary nursing students' and practitioners' experiences with interprofessional issues and the potential benefits of IPE. Based on stakeholder consultations, two teaching interventions were modified or developed for use with veterinary and veterinary nursing students: Talking Walls, which aimed to increase individuals' understanding of each other's roles, and an Emergency-Case Role-Play Scenario, which aimed to improve teamwork. These interventions were piloted with volunteer veterinary and veterinary nursing students who were recruited through convenience sampling. A questionnaire (the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale [RIPLS]) was modified for use in veterinary education and used to investigate changes in attitudes toward IPE over time (pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and four to five months afterward). The results showed an immediate and significant positive change in attitude after the intervention, highlighting the students' willingness to learn collaboratively, their ability to recognize the benefits of IPE, a decreased sense of professional isolation, and reduced hierarchical views. Although nearly half of the students felt concerned about learning with students from another profession before the intervention, the majority (97%) enjoyed learning together. However, the positive change in attitude was not evident four to five months after the intervention, though attitudes remained above pre-intervention levels. The results of the pilot study were encouraging and emphasize the relevance and importance of veterinary IPE as well as the need for further investigation to explore methods of sustaining a change in attitude over time. PMID:22023984

  19. Adverse drug reactions in veterinary patients associated with drug transporters.

    PubMed

    Mealey, Katrina L

    2013-09-01

    For many drugs used in veterinary practice, plasma and tissue concentrations are highly dependent on the activity of drug transporters. This article describes how functional changes in drug transporters, whether mediated by genetic variability or drug-drug interactions, affect drug disposition and, ultimately, drug safety and efficacy in veterinary patients. A greater understanding of species, breed, and individual (genetic) differences in drug transporter function, as well as drug-drug interactions involving drug transporters, will result in improved strategies for drug design and will enable veterinarians to incorporate individualized medicine in their practices. PMID:23890239

  20. Veterinary hospice and palliative care: a comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Katherine J

    2016-04-01

    The death of a pet is a universal experience for those who share their lives with animals. In parallel with a rising interest in palliative medicine, hospice care and advance-care planning within human medicine, increasing attention is currently being given to serious illness and death within veterinary medicine. Our ability to prolong life has created the need for thoughtful end of life discourse. Interest in hospice and palliative care for companion animals is on the rise, yet there has been limited scholarly research in these areas to date. This review concludes that veterinary hospice and palliative care is currently hindered by an inadequate amount of scholarly research to guide clinicians. Given a lack of prospective studies in veterinary hospice and palliative care to date, a significant opportunity exists for veterinary teaching institutions to contribute to the literature in an important and growing field. PMID:27056812

  1. Masters in veterinary professional studies.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Catherine; Tee, Rebekah

    2015-05-30

    Kate Thompson and Dan Shaw will soon become the first graduates of the University of Liverpool's Postgraduate Masters in Veterinary Professional Studies. Catherine McGowan, director of veterinary postgraduate education, and Rebekah Tee, lecturer in small animal practice, believe that the programme marks a new phase in postgraduate education. PMID:26025722

  2. Estimating farm-level private expenditure on veterinary medical inputs in England.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, W; Rushton, J

    2014-03-15

    The current re-evaluation of responsibility and cost sharing between the public and private sectors with reference to animal health and welfare (AHW) would be improved by a greater understanding of the contributions made at farm level. This knowledge would facilitate the design of a cost-sharing system which best balances technical, economic and political objectives. This paper presents a framework by which the farm-level investment in AHW can be assessed. An evaluation of data available for the framework was made and, as a benchmark, an estimate of total expenditure on veterinary medical inputs for commercial agricultural holdings in England calculated. In 2010/2011 it is calculated that farmers on commercial holdings in England spent £230 million on veterinary medicines and fees, with an additional £160 million being spent for horses kept on non-commercial holdings. By contrast, for 2012/2013, Defra budgeted £277 million on AHW. The results presented emphasise the critical importance of generating sufficient evidence to support the development of an efficient, equitable and sustainable AHW strategy. PMID:24463989

  3. Fate of veterinary antibiotics in a macroporous tile drained clay soil.

    PubMed

    Kay, Paul; Blackwell, Paul A; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2004-05-01

    The environment may be exposed to veterinary medicines administered to livestock through the application of organic fertilizers to land. For other groups of substances that are applied to agricultural land (e.g., pesticides), preferential flow in underdrained clay soils has been identified as an extremely important mechanism by which pollution of surface waters can occur. This study, therefore, was performed to investigate the fate of three antibiotics from the sulfonamide, tetracycline, and macrolide groups. Pig slurry was applied to a field in arable production in two consecutive years and the fate of the compounds was monitored in the soil and drainage water. Both sulfachloropyridazine and oxytetracycline were detected in soil at concentrations up to 365 and 1691 microg/kg, respectively. Subsequently, peak concentrations of the two substances in drainflow were 613.2 and 36.1 microg/L, although mass losses to the receiving water were less than 0.5%. In contrast, tylosin was not detected at all. These findings could be explained by the persistence and sorption characteristics of the antibiotics, while preferential flow via desiccation cracks and worm channels to the tile drains was found to be the most important route for translocation of the chemicals. Thus, when the soil was disced prior to slurry application, losses were reduced significantly. It is evident that processes governing pesticide fate also apply to veterinary antibiotics. PMID:15180364

  4. Companion animal medicine: fresh challenges in the evidence-based, client-focused fast lane.

    PubMed

    Allan, Ross

    2016-07-01

    In the last of Veterinary Record's series of articles on the state of different sectors of the veterinary profession, Ross Allan reflects on some of the forces driving companion animal medicine forward. PMID:27389750

  5. Nanotechnology and patents in agriculture, food technology, nutrition and medicine - advantages and risks: worldwide patented nano- and absorber particles in food nutrition and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Benckiser, Gero

    2012-12-01

    The keywords nanotechnology, super absorber, agriculture, nutrition, and food technology exhibited 28,149 positive matches under more than 68 million patents worldwide. A closer look at the first 500 nanotechnology, agriculture, nutrition and biotechnology related patents, published during 2011-2012, unveiled that 64% are parts of machines and control devices while about 36% comprise metal oxides, fertilizers, pesticides and drugs, which are compounds and often applied in combination with inorganic or organic super absorbing polymeric structures. The latter compounds are in the focus of this special issue. PMID:23061649

  6. Challenges facing the farm animal veterinary profession in England: A qualitative study of veterinarians' perceptions and responses.

    PubMed

    Ruston, Annmarie; Shortall, Orla; Green, Martin; Brennan, Marnie; Wapenaar, Wendela; Kaler, Jasmeet

    2016-05-01

    The farm animal veterinary profession in the UK has faced a number of challenges in recent decades related to the withdrawal of government funding and a contraction of the agricultural sector. They have come under pressure to respond by developing skills and focusing on disease prevention advisory services. However, this puts veterinarians in competition with other providers of these services, and moves in this direction have only been partial. Failure to respond to these challenges puts the veterinary profession at risk of de-professionalisation-a loss of their monopoly over knowledge, an erosion of client beliefs in their service ethos and a loss of work autonomy. This paper explores how farm animal veterinarians in England perceive these challenges and are responding to them. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with 28 veterinarians from Royal College of Veterinary Surgeon farm accredited practices. Veterinarians were chosen from high, medium and low density cattle farming regions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and themes identified through the constant comparison method. The majority of respondents recognised the challenges facing the veterinary profession. Most believed their role had changed, moving towards that of a disease prevention adviser who was part of the farm management team. In terms of maintaining and redefining their professional status, farm animal veterinarians do have a defined body of knowledge and the ability to develop trusting relationships with clients, which enhances their competitiveness. However, while they recognise the changes and challenges, moves towards a disease prevention advisory model have only been partial. There seem to be little effort towards using Farm accreditation status or other strategies to promote their services. They do not appear to be finding effective strategies for putting their knowledge on disease prevention into practice. Disease prevention appears to be delivered on farm on an ad

  7. Terminology and classification of seizures and epilepsy in veterinary patients.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Christopher L

    2013-05-01

    The classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsy is a controversial and dynamic topic that has undergone many iterations in human medicine. The International League against Epilepsy is a multinational organization that has formed a number of task forces and subcommittees to study this issue, and has ratified several reports outlining recommended terminology and classification schemes for human patients. Veterinary publications on this issue have generally adapted these schemes to fit small animal patients, but a formally endorsed system to classify seizures and epilepsy has never been developed for veterinary patients. This review outlines the classification systems that have been published for human patients and summarizes previous efforts by veterinary authors to utilize these methods. Finally, a set of definitions and terminology for use in veterinary patients is proposed, which includes a glossary of descriptive terminology for ictal semiology and a diagnostic scheme for classification of individual patients. This document is intended as a starting point of discussion, which will hopefully eventually result in a formally ratified document that will be useful for communication between health professionals, the design of clinical trials and for guiding treatment decisions and prognostication for veterinary patients with seizures. PMID:24070679

  8. Veterinary Science Departments: Their Role in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Terrence M.

    1977-01-01

    The roles played by veterinary science departments are creditable and important, says this head of a department of veterinary science. Those roles will reflect an absolute increase in participation with veterinary schools on a regional and national basis, and a relative increase in direct involvement in veterinary education. (LBH)

  9. Current Issues and the Veterinary Medical Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nault, Andre J.

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…

  10. Establishment of the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP) and the current status of veterinary clinical pathology in Europe.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, P J; Fournel-Fleury, C; Bolliger, A P; Freeman, K P; Braun, J-P; Archer, J; Paltrinieri, S; Tvedten, H; Polizopoulou, Z S; Jensen, A L; Pastor, J; Lanevschi-Pietersma, A; Thoren-Tolling, K; Schwendenwien, I; Thoresen, S I; Bauer, N B; Ledieu, D; Cerón, J J; Palm, M; Papasouliotis, K; Gaál, T; Vajdovich, P

    2007-12-01

    After 5 years of development, the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP) was formally recognized and approved on July 4, 2007 by the European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS), the European regulatory body that oversees specialization in veterinary medicine and which has approved 23 colleges. The objectives, committees, basis for membership, constitution, bylaws, information brochure and certifying examination of the ECVCP have remained unchanged during this time except as directed by EBVS. The ECVCP declared full functionality based on the following criteria: 1) a critical mass of 65 members: 15 original diplomates approved by the EBVS to establish the ECVCP, 37 de facto diplomates, 7 diplomates certified by examination, and 5 elected honorary members; 2) the development and certification of training programs, laboratories, and qualified supervisors for residents; currently there are 18 resident training programs in Europe; 3) administration of 3 annual board-certifying examinations thus far, with an overall pass rate of 70%; 4) European consensus criteria for assessing the continuing education of specialists every 5 years; 5) organization of 8 annual scientific congresses and a joint journal (with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology) for communication of scientific research and information; the College also maintains a website, a joint listserv, and a newsletter; 6) collaboration in training and continuing education with relevant colleges in medicine and pathology; 7) development and strict adherence to a constitution and bylaws compliant with the EBVS; and 8) demonstration of compelling rationale, supporting data, and the support of members and other colleges for independence as a specialty college. Formal EBVS recognition of ECVCP as the regulatory body for the science and practice of veterinary clinical pathology in Europe will facilitate growth and development of the discipline and compliance of academic

  11. [Policy recommendations based on SWOT analysis for agricultural industrialization of traditional Chinese medicinal materials--a case study of uncariae ramulus cum uncis from Jianhe county in Guizhou province].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong; Huo, Ke-Yi; Xiang, Hua

    2013-09-01

    This thesis reviews the historical background of agricultural industrialization, and analyzes the major theories of agricultural industrialization. It also utilizes SWOT analysis method to discuss the industrialization of traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jianhe county, and finally it puts forward the recommendations for its further development. PMID:24380319

  12. Update on Veterinary Tuberculosis Vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Educational Objective: At the conclusion of this presentation, the participant will know the current status of veterinary tuberculosis vaccine research and development, and understand the challenges which remain for the future introduction of tuberculosis vaccines intended for wildlife and livestock...

  13. A framework for meta-analysis of veterinary drug pharmacokinetic data using mixed effect modeling.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengjie; Gehring, Ronette; Lin, Zhoumeng; Riviere, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Combining data from available studies is a useful approach to interpret the overwhelming amount of data generated in medical research from multiple studies. Paradoxically, in veterinary medicine, lack of data requires integrating available data to make meaningful population inferences. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling is a useful tool to apply meta-analysis to diverse pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of veterinary drugs. This review provides a summary of the characteristics of PK data of veterinary drugs and how integration of these data may differ from human PK studies. The limits of meta-analysis include the sophistication of data mining, and generation of misleading results caused by biased or poor quality data. The overriding strength of meta-analysis applied to this field is that robust statistical analysis of the diverse sparse data sets inherent to veterinary medicine applications can be accomplished, thereby allowing population inferences to be made. PMID:25641543

  14. Echinococcosis in wild carnivorous species: epidemiology, genotypic diversity, and implications for veterinary public health.

    PubMed

    Carmena, David; Cardona, Guillermo A

    2014-05-28

    Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by helminths of the genus Echinococcus. The infection, one of the 17 neglected tropical diseases listed by the World Health Organization, has a cosmopolitan distribution and can be transmitted through a variety of domestic, synanthropic, and sylvatic cycles. Wildlife has been increasingly regarded as a relevant source of infection to humans, as demonstrated by the fact that a significant proportion of human emerging infectious diseases have a wildlife origin. Based on available epidemiological and molecular evidence, of the nine Echinococcus species currently recognized as valid taxa, E. canadensis G8-G10, E. felidis, E. multilocularis, E. oligarthrus, E. shiquicus, and E. vogeli are primarily transmitted in the wild. E. canadensis G6-G7, E. equinus, E. granulosus s.s., and E. ortleppi are considered to be transmitted mainly through domestic cycles. We summarize here current knowledge on the global epidemiology, geographical distribution and genotype frequency of Echinococcus spp. in wild carnivorous species. Topics addressed include the significance of the wildlife/livestock/human interface, the sympatric occurrence of different Echinococcus species in a given epidemiological scenario, and the role of wildlife as natural reservoir of disease to human and domestic animal populations. We have also discussed the impact that human activity and intervention may cause in the transmission dynamics of echinococcosis, including the human population expansion an encroachment on shrinking natural habitats, the increasing urbanization of wildlife carnivorous species and the related establishment of synanthropic cycles of Echinococcus spp., the land use (e.g. deforestation and agricultural practices), and the unsupervised international trade and translocation of wildlife animals. Following the 'One Health' approach, we have also emphasized that successful veterinary public health interventions in the field of echinococcosis requires an

  15. High-throughput sequencing in veterinary infection biology and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Belák, S; Karlsson, O E; Leijon, M; Granberg, F

    2013-12-01

    Sequencing methods have improved rapidly since the first versions of the Sanger techniques, facilitating the development of very powerful tools for detecting and identifying various pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria and other microbes. The ongoing development of high-throughput sequencing (HTS; also known as next-generation sequencing) technologies has resulted in a dramatic reduction in DNA sequencing costs, making the technology more accessible to the average laboratory. In this White Paper of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Centre for the Biotechnology-based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases in Veterinary Medicine (Uppsala, Sweden), several approaches and examples of HTS are summarised, and their diagnostic applicability is briefly discussed. Selected future aspects of HTS are outlined, including the need for bioinformatic resources, with a focus on improving the diagnosis and control of infectious diseases in veterinary medicine. PMID:24761741

  16. On-line veterinary communities: the time is now or I've got a modem: what should I do with it? Where should I point it?

    PubMed

    Pion, P D; Ferguson, D C

    1996-05-01

    Veterinary medicine has until recently existed as a small and geographically diffuse group of professionals. Communicating with significant numbers of colleagues to confer on cases or business related issues on a regular basis has been limited primarily to those in academia. Isolation has prevented the individual practice from significantly affecting the policies of national suppliers or the politics of organized veterinary medicine through a large unified voice. Although only a small percentage of the profession is on-line, the building of on-line communities of veterinarians is currently changing the rules in these areas. Considering when, why, and how to venture into the world of on-line veterinary medicine is only part of the issue we face as a profession. Choosing to keep a sense of community as the centerpiece of on-line veterinary interactions is critical to ensuring that on-line veterinary medicine, above all, serves the best interests of the practicing veterinarian. PMID:8898572

  17. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-01

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26669269

  18. [Ethical evaluation of veterinary research].

    PubMed

    Visser, M B; Verhoog, H

    1988-10-01

    From the point of view of ethics, experimental studies occupy a particular position in veterinary research, as the animals benefit directly by the results. An ethical evaluation of this form of research would therefore seem te be less difficult than that of other experimental studies, which frequently are the object of much criticism. The present paper contains a number of critical notes on this matter. The first part consists of a systematic analysis of the basic moral positions, from which the moral admissibility of veterinary actions in general may be assessed. These may be differentiated into two categories, anthropocentric ethics in which human interests prevail and biocentric ethics in which efforts are made to weigh the interests of man and animals more equitably. Starting from the intrinsic value of animals, the authors grant particular rights to (experimental) animals in the second part. This starting-point is decisive in evaluating the moral admissibility of veterinary procedures. The 'moral right principle' is compared with the well-known utilitarianism and 'the worst-off principle'. When the moral status of the animal is determined and the standards of evaluation are fixed, is will be possible in principle to assess the ethical permissibility of veterinary experiments and other veterinary actions. The authors explain and justify their personal choice. PMID:3176012

  19. Converging Science, Medicine, and Agriculture: An Update on Executing the NADC’s ‘One Health Mission’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NADC was established in 1961 to conduct basic and applied research on the livestock and poultry diseases of major economic importance to US agriculture. Now 50 years later, the NADC is the largest US federal animal health research facility focused on high-impact endemic diseases of livestock an...

  20. US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network: Prioritization & Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network represents a broad community plan to begin to systematically address the immunological reagent gap for the US veterinary immunology research community including for the following groups: ruminants (concentrating on cattle), swine, poultry (primarily chickens)...

  1. Seasonal microbiological quality of air in veterinary practices in Poland.

    PubMed

    Sitkowska, Jolanta; Sitkowski, Wiesław; Sitkowski, Łukasz; Lutnicki, Krzysztof; Adamek, Łukasz; Wilkołek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies focused on the bioaerosols in the areas of industry, agriculture and animal husbandry, concerning both residential and public buildings, have been conducted continuously for many years. The aim of the present work was to determine the concentration and composition of mesophilic bacterial flora in the air of selected medical and veterinary clinics located in the cities and in the countryside. Air sampling was carried out in 2011-2013 in 44 veterinary practices in autumn-winter and spring-summer seasons. The concentration of bacteria ranged from 39 - 5,034 cfu/m(3) , with higher values recorded in offices operating in the cities. In the examined medical and veterinary offices, Gram-positive bacteria comprised the largest group of microorganisms, among which Gram-positive cocci of the genus Staphylococcus prevailed, with the highest average of 1,074.40 cfu/m(3) in urban offices during the autumn season. The smallest group was represented by Gram-negative bacteria, with a concentration of 0.0 - 215 cfu/m(3). In total, 93 kinds/species of bacteria were identified. A 12-month series of studies showed the highest mean concentrations of microorganisms in autumn for offices located in the city, while the lowest in winter for rural centres. The environment of veterinary offices is a habitat of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria, which may pose health problems not only for residents, but also for the animals. PMID:26706965

  2. Technical innovation changes standard radiographic protocols in veterinary medicine: is it necessary to obtain two dorsoproximal-palmarodistal oblique views of the equine foot when using computerised radiography systems?

    PubMed

    Whitlock, J; Dixon, J; Sherlock, C; Tucker, R; Bolt, D M; Weller, R

    2016-05-21

    Since the 1950s, veterinary practitioners have included two separate dorsoproximal-palmarodistal oblique (DPr-PaDiO) radiographs as part of a standard series of the equine foot. One image is obtained to visualise the distal phalanx and the other to visualise the navicular bone. However, rapid development of computed radiography and digital radiography and their post-processing capabilities could mean that this practice is no longer required. The aim of this study was to determine differences in perceived image quality between DPr-PaDiO radiographs that were acquired with a computerised radiography system with exposures, centring and collimation recommended for the navicular bone versus images acquired for the distal phalanx but were subsequently manipulated post-acquisition to highlight the navicular bone. Thirty images were presented to four clinicians for quality assessment and graded using a 1-3 scale (1=textbook quality, 2=diagnostic quality, 3=non-diagnostic image). No significant difference in diagnostic quality was found between the original navicular bone images and the manipulated distal phalanx images. This finding suggests that a single DPr-PaDiO image of the distal phalanx is sufficient for an equine foot radiographic series, with appropriate post-processing and manipulation. This change in protocol will result in reduced radiographic study time and decreased patient/personnel radiation exposure. PMID:27114406

  3. Understanding antimicrobial use and prescribing behaviours by pig veterinary surgeons and farmers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, L A; Pinchbeck, G L; Williams, N J; Smith, R F; Dawson, S; Pearson, R B; Latham, S M

    2014-12-13

    Increasing awareness of bacterial antimicrobial resistance in human beings and veterinary medicine has raised concerns over the issue of overprescribing and the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials. Their use in food-producing animals is under scrutiny due to the perceived risk from the zoonotic transfer of resistant pathogens from animals to human beings. This study used focus groups to explore the drivers and motivators behind antimicrobial use and prescribing by veterinary surgeons and farmers in the pig industry in the UK. Studies of two veterinary and four farmer focus groups were undertaken, each with between three and six participants, in three geographically distinct regions of low, moderate and high pig density in England. Thematic analysis of the focus group transcriptions revealed convergent themes, both within and across, the veterinary and farmer focus groups. Veterinary opinion was such that 'external pressures', such as pressure from clients, legislation and public perception, were considered to strongly influence prescribing behaviour, whereas, farmers considered issues surrounding farming systems and management to be greater drivers towards antimicrobial use. Acquiring such in-depth insight into the antimicrobial prescribing behaviours in veterinary medicine provides more detailed understanding of prescribing practice and will aid the development of interventions to promote the responsible use of antimicrobials. PMID:25200432

  4. Relationship between anticipatory socialization experiences and first-year veterinary students' career interests.

    PubMed

    Kedrowicz, April A; Fish, Richard E; Hammond, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to explore first-year veterinary students' anticipatory socialization-life, education, and social experiences that assist in preparation for professional occupations-and determine what relationship exists between those experiences and career interests. Seventy-three first-year veterinary students enrolled in the Careers in Veterinary Medicine course completed the Veterinary Careers survey. Results show that students' anticipatory vocational socialization experiences are significantly related to their stated career interests. The career interests with the highest percentage of students expressing "a great deal of interest" included specialty private practice (37%), research and teaching in an academic setting (33%), and international veterinary medicine (31%). The career interests with the highest percentage of students expressing "no interest at all" included the military (50%), equine private practice (42%), and the pharmaceutical industry (41%). Less than half of the students (42%) stated that they reconsidered their career path after the first semester of veterinary school, but the majority (87%) developed a better understanding of how to pursue a nontraditional career path should they choose to do so. PMID:25572335

  5. Exploring the Teaching Motivations, Satisfaction, and Challenges of Veterinary Preceptors: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Cary T; Myhre, Douglas L; Hecker, Kent G; Bailey, Jeremy V; Lockyer, Jocelyn M

    2016-01-01

    Optimization of clinical veterinary education requires an understanding of what compels veterinary preceptors in their role as clinical educators, what satisfaction they receive from the teaching experience, and what struggles they encounter while supervising students in private practice. We explored veterinary preceptors' teaching motivations, enjoyment, and challenges by undertaking a thematic content analysis of 97 questionnaires and 17 semi-structured telephone interviews. Preceptor motivations included intrinsic factors (obligation to the profession, maintenance of competence, satisfaction) and extrinsic factors (promotion of the veterinary field, recruitment). Veterinarians enjoyed observing the learner (motivation and enthusiasm, skill development) and engaging with the learner (sharing their passion for the profession, developing professional relationships). Challenges for veterinary preceptors included variability in learner interest and engagement, time management, and lack of guidance from the veterinary medicine program. We found dynamic interactions among the teaching motivations, enjoyment, and challenges for preceptors. Our findings suggest that in order to sustain the veterinary preceptor, there is a need to recognize the interplay between the incentives and disincentives for teaching, to foster the motivations and enjoyment for teaching, and to mitigate the challenges of teaching in community private practice. PMID:26752019

  6. Subject matter expert and public evaluations of a veterinary toxicology course brochure-writing assignment.

    PubMed

    Dorman, David C; Alpi, Kristine M; Chappell, Kimberly H

    2013-01-01

    Veterinary schools are increasingly developing students' communication skills, with an emphasis placed on practice conveying medical and scientific knowledge to different audiences. We describe how patient-centered written communication has been integrated into the training of veterinary students using toxicology-related preventive materials. Third-year veterinary students were given an assignment to prepare a client-focused brochure related to veterinary toxicology. Since 2010, 148 students have completed this assignment, with an average score of 93.4%. Use of a grading rubric was instituted in 2011 and resulted in a more rigorous assessment of the brochures by the course instructors. In this study, we evaluated a sample (n=6) selected from 10 brochures volunteered for further public and expert assessment. Each brochure was measured for readability and assessed with a rubric for perceived usefulness and acceptability by 12 veterinary toxicologists and 10 or 11 adult members of the public attending a college of veterinary medicine open house. Veterinary toxicologist review anticipated that the brochures would be useful for most clients, and the public reviewers confirmed this assessment. Evaluation of the brochures using set marking criteria and readability indexes showed that students had successfully targeted the chosen audiences. Feedback showed that the general public rated the sample brochures highly in terms of quality, usefulness, and interest. Completion of this study has resulted in revision of the grading rubric, an increased use of brochure examples, and additional instruction in readability assessment and brochure development, thereby improving the assignment as a learning exercise. PMID:23475408

  7. An alumni survey to assess self-reported career preparation attained at a US veterinary school.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Laura E; Ainsworth, J A

    2007-01-01

    The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) has challenged veterinary schools to improve self-assessment of curricular outcomes. One way to assess the quality of education is to gather feedback from alumni. To successfully gather feedback using a questionnaire, questions must be pertinent to veterinary education and include quantifiable responses. Several principles must be applied in questionnaire development to ensure that the questions address the intended issues, that questions are interpreted correctly and consistently, and that responses are quantifiable. The objectives of the questionnaire for alumni of Mississippi State University's College of Veterinary Medicine (MSU-CVM) were twofold: (1) to determine whether graduates were comparable to their US peers in terms of work opportunities and salary, and (2) to evaluate how well the CVM curriculum prepared students to begin their veterinary careers. Demographic categories used by the AVMA and published knowledge, skills, attitudes, and aptitudes of veterinary graduates were used in developing the questions. College-specific questions, such as those relating to student activities and impressions of college resources, were also incorporated. Questionnaires were mailed to participants, who could respond via the World Wide Web. Questionnaire results allowed leaders within the college to determine which aspects of alumni's experiences were exceptionally positive, which needed immediate response, and which might require further study. This article describes the application of principles in developing, administering, and analyzing responses to a questionnaire regarding veterinary education. PMID:18326782

  8. Applicability of the Calgary-Cambridge Guide to Dog and Cat Owners for Teaching Veterinary Clinical Communications.

    PubMed

    Englar, Ryane E; Williams, Melanie; Weingand, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication in health care benefits patients. Medical and veterinary schools not only have a responsibility to teach communication skills, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) requires that communication be taught in all accredited colleges of veterinary medicine. However, the best strategy for designing a communications curriculum is unclear. The Calgary-Cambridge Guide (CCG) is one of many models developed in human medicine as an evidence-based approach to structuring the clinical consultation through 71 communication skills. The model has been revised by Radford et al. (2006) for use in veterinary curricula; however, the best approach for veterinary educators to teach communication remains to be determined. This qualitative study investigated if one adaptation of the CCG currently taught at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) fulfills client expectations of what constitutes clinically effective communication. Two focus groups (cat owners and dog owners) were conducted with a total of 13 participants to identify common themes in veterinary communication. Participants compared communication skills they valued to those taught by MWU CVM. The results indicated that while the CCG skills that MWU CVM adopted are applicable to cat and dog owners, they are not comprehensive. Participants expressed the need to expand the skillset to include compassionate transparency and unconditional positive regard. Participants also expressed different communication needs that were attributed to the species of companion animal owned. PMID:27075274

  9. Purdue University graduate certificate program in Veterinary Homeland Security.

    PubMed

    Amass, Sandra F; Blossom, Thaddaeus D; Ash, Marianne; McCay, Don; Mattix, Marc E

    2008-01-01

    Our nation lacks a critical mass of professionals trained to prevent and respond to food- and animal-related emergencies. Training veterinarians provides an immediate means of addressing this shortage of experts. Achievement of critical mass to effectively address animal-related emergencies is expedited by concurrent training of professionals and graduate students in related areas. Purdue University offers a Web-based Graduate Certificate in Veterinary Homeland Security to address this special area of need. The program is a collaborative effort among the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine, the Purdue Homeland Security Institute, the Indiana State Board of Animal Health, the Indiana State Police, and others with the overall goal of increasing capacity and preparedness to manage animal-related emergencies. Individuals with expertise in veterinary medicine, public health, animal science, or homeland security are encouraged to participate. The Web-based system allows courses to be delivered efficiently and effectively around the world and allows participants to continue their graduate education while maintaining full-time jobs. Participants enhance their understanding of natural and intentional threats to animal health, strengthen their skills in managing animal-health emergencies, and develop problem-solving expertise to become effective members of animal emergency response teams and of their communities. Students receive graduate credit from Purdue University that can be used toward the certificate and toward an advanced graduate degree. Currently, 70 participants from 28 states; Washington, DC; Singapore; and Bermuda are enrolled. PMID:18723810

  10. Current Status of Veterinary Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Meeusen, Els N. T.; Walker, John; Peters, Andrew; Pastoret, Paul-Pierre; Jungersen, Gregers

    2007-01-01

    The major goals of veterinary vaccines are to improve the health and welfare of companion animals, increase production of livestock in a cost-effective manner, and prevent animal-to-human transmission from both domestic animals and wildlife. These diverse aims have led to different approaches to the development of veterinary vaccines from crude but effective whole-pathogen preparations to molecularly defined subunit vaccines, genetically engineered organisms or chimeras, vectored antigen formulations, and naked DNA injections. The final successful outcome of vaccine research and development is the generation of a product that will be available in the marketplace or that will be used in the field to achieve desired outcomes. As detailed in this review, successful veterinary vaccines have been produced against viral, bacterial, protozoal, and multicellular pathogens, which in many ways have led the field in the application and adaptation of novel technologies. These veterinary vaccines have had, and continue to have, a major impact not only on animal health and production but also on human health through increasing safe food supplies and preventing animal-to-human transmission of infectious diseases. The continued interaction between animals and human researchers and health professionals will be of major importance for adapting new technologies, providing animal models of disease, and confronting new and emerging infectious diseases. PMID:17630337

  11. Masterclass in veterinary public health.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Hannah

    2016-02-01

    Each summer, one student from each vet school in the British Isles gets the chance to attend a week-long masterclass to learn more about veterinary public health. Last year, Hannah Clifford was one of them. Here she explains how her understanding of the relevance and responsibility of vets working in public health has changed. PMID:26851115

  12. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  13. US Veterinary Immune Reagents Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to advances in veterinary immunology and disease control is the lack of sufficient immunological reagents specific for ruminants, swine, poultry, equine and aquaculture species". Sets of reagents, i.e., monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal antibodies, that can identify the major leukocy...

  14. US Veterinary Immune Reagents Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to advances in veterinary immunology and disease control is the lack of sufficient immunological reagents specific for ruminants, swine, poultry, equine, and aquaculture species. Sets of reagents, i.e. monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal antibodies (Ab), that can identify the major leu...

  15. Incorporating reflection into veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    2016-05-21

    New graduates are encouraged to reflect on their progress during their Professional Development Phase, but what does reflection really mean, and how can veterinary professionals use it to better their day-to-day practice? This was a topic discussed during an afternoon of sessions at the recent BSAVA congress in Birmingham. Georgina Mills reports. PMID:27199044

  16. Standards for the academic veterinary medical library

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sarah Anne; Bedard, Martha A.; Crawley-Low, Jill; Fagen, Diane; Jette, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The Standards Committee of the Veterinary Medical Libraries Section was appointed in May 2000 and charged to create standards for the ideal academic veterinary medical library, written from the perspective of veterinary medical librarians. The resulting Standards for the Academic Veterinary Medical Library were approved by members of the Veterinary Medical Libraries Section during MLA '03 in San Diego, California. The standards were approved by Section Council in April 2005 and received final approval from the Board of Directors of the Medical Library Association during MLA '04 in Washington, DC. PMID:15685288

  17. Occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment in Flanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servaes, K.; Vanermen, G.; Seuntjens, P.

    2009-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. Pharmaceuticals are classified as so-called ‘emerging pollutants'. ‘Emerging pollutants' are not necessarily new chemical compounds. Often these compounds are already present in the environment for a long time. But, their occurrence and especially their impact on the environment has only recently become clear. Consequently, data on their occurrence are rather scarce. In this study, we focus on the occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water in Flanders. We have only considered active substances administered to cattle, pigs and poultry. Based on the literature and information concerning the use in Belgium, a selection of 25 veterinary pharmaceuticals has been made. This selection consists of the most important antibiotics and antiparasitic substances applied in veterinary medicine in Belgium. We develop an analytical methodology based on UPLC-MS/MS for the detection of these veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water. Therefore, the mass characteristics as well as the optimum LC conditions will be determined. To obtain limits of detection as low as possible, the samples are concentrated prior to analysis using solid phase extraction (SPE). Different SPE cartridges will be tested during the method development. At first, this SPE sample pre-treatment is performed off-line. In a next step, online SPE is optimized for this purpose. The analytical procedure will be subject to an in-house validation study, thereby determining recovery, repeatability (% RSD), limits of detection and limits of quantification. Finally, the developed methodology will be applied for monitoring the occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water and groundwater in Flanders. These water samples will be taken in areas characterized by intensive cattle breeding. Moreover, the samples will be collected during springtime. In this season, farmers apply manure, stored during winter

  18. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. PMID:25991694

  19. Effective information design for PDAs in veterinary medical education.

    PubMed

    Swarts, Jason; Vannorman, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, personal digital assistants (PDAs) have been ignominiously characterized as a solution without a problem. To many, they were glorified versions of calendars, address books, notepads, and calculators that appeared only minimally more useful than their paper predecessors. Today's PDAs cater to a wider range of mobile computing needs, especially in the veterinary field, where they support mobile, information-centric work. Despite the PDA's resurgent popularity, hardware constraints limit its wide-scale integration. Most notably, small screen sizes limit the PDA designers who compose texts, videos, and images for PDA delivery. This article addresses the problem of designing for small screens by re-characterizing the issue as an information design problem rather than a hardware problem. By analyzing how fourth-year students in a veterinary medicine program use their PDAs in their clinical education, we offer suggestions for designing information to meet their needs. PMID:18339966

  20. Emergency deployment of genetically engineered veterinary vaccines in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ramezanpour, Bahar; de Foucauld, Jean; Kortekaas, Jeroen

    2016-06-24

    On the 9th of November 2015, preceding the World Veterinary Vaccine Congress, a workshop was held to discuss how veterinary vaccines can be deployed more rapidly to appropriately respond to future epizootics in Europe. Considering their potential and unprecedented suitability for surge production, the workshop focussed on vaccines based on genetically engineered viruses and replicon particles. The workshop was attended by academics and representatives from leading pharmaceutical companies, regulatory experts, the European Medicines Agency and the European Commission. We here outline the present regulatory pathways for genetically engineered vaccines in Europe and describe the incentive for the organization of the pre-congress workshop. The participants agreed that existing European regulations on the deliberate release of genetically engineered vaccines into the environment should be updated to facilitate quick deployment of these vaccines in emergency situations. PMID:27208587

  1. Researching Applicants Online in the Veterinary Program Admissions Process: Perceptions, Practices, and Implications for Curricular Change.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Lori R; Hellyer, Peter W; Stewart, Sherry M; Hendrickson, Dean A; Dowers, Kristy L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2015-01-01

    As the use of social media websites continues to grow among adults 18-34 years old, it is necessary to examine the consequences of online disclosure to the veterinary admissions processes and to consider the effects on the professional integrity of veterinary schools and on the e-professionalism of DVM graduates. Prior research has shown that employers, across all fields, routinely use information from social media sites to make hiring decisions. In veterinary medicine, a little over one-third of private practitioners reported using online information in the selection of new associates. However, professional academic programs appear to use online information less frequently in the selection processes. The current study examines the behaviors and attitudes of veterinary medical admissions committees toward the use of applicants' online information and profiles in their recruitment and selection process. An online survey was distributed to Associate Deans for Academic Affairs at all AAVMC-affiliated schools of veterinary medicine. A total of 21 schools completed the survey. The results showed that most veterinary schools do not currently use online research in their admissions process; however, most admissions committee members feel that using online social networking information to investigate applicants is an acceptable use of technology. Previous research has suggested that the majority of veterinary student applicants view this as an invasion of their privacy. Given this discordance, future educational efforts should focus on helping veterinary students determine what type of information is appropriate for posting online and how to use privacy settings to control their sharing behaviors. PMID:26291414

  2. Veterinary Homeopathy: The Implications of Its History for Unorthodox Veterinary Concepts and Veterinary Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Dwight B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of veterinary homeopathy, its future and implications are discussed. The need for investigation into the validity of both allopathic and homeopathic claims is stressed and it is suggested that maintenance of quality is the key factor in any approach. (BH)

  3. Zoological medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Osburn, Bennie I

    2006-01-01

    Public-health issues regarding zoological collections and free-ranging wildlife have historically been linked to the risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases and accidents relating to bites or injection of venom or toxins by venomous animals. It is only recently that major consideration has been given worldwide to the role of the veterinary profession in contributing to investigating zoonotic diseases in free-ranging wildlife and integrating the concept of public health into the management activities of game preserves and wildlife parks. At the veterinary undergraduate level, courses in basic epidemiology, which should include outbreak investigation and disease surveillance, but also in population medicine, in infectious and parasitic diseases (especially new and emerging or re-emerging zoonoses), and in ecology should be part of the core curriculum. Foreign diseases, especially dealing with zoonotic diseases that are major threats because of possible agro-terrorism or spread of zoonoses, need to be taught in veterinary college curricula. Furthermore, knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired either during pre-veterinary studies or, at least, at the beginning of the veterinary curriculum. At the post-graduate level, master's degrees in preventive veterinary medicine, ecology and environmental health, or public health with an emphasis on infectious diseases should be offered to veterinarians seeking job opportunities in public health and wildlife management. PMID:17035205

  4. Using genomics for surveillance of veterinary infectious agents.

    PubMed

    Mathijs, E; Vandenbussche, F; Van Borm, S

    2016-04-01

    Factors such as globalisation, climate change and agricultural intensification can increase the risk of microbial emergence. As a result, there is a growing need for flexible laboratory-based surveillance tools to rapidly identify, characterise and monitor global (re-)emerging diseases. Although many tools are available, novel sequencing technologies have launched a new era in pathogen surveillance. Here, the authors review the potential applications of high-throughput genomic technologies for the surveillance of veterinary pathogens. They focus on the two types of surveillance that will benefit most from these new tools: hazard-specific surveillance (pathogen identification and typing) and early-warning surveillance (pathogen discovery). The paper reviews how the resulting sequencing data can be used to improve diagnosis and concludes by highlighting the major challenges that hinder the routine use of this technology in the veterinary field. PMID:27217175

  5. Veterinary clinical pathologists in the biopharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Schultze, A Eric; Bounous, Denise I; Bolliger, Anne Provencher

    2008-06-01

    There is an international shortage of veterinary clinical pathologists in the workplace. Current trainees in veterinary clinical pathology may choose to pursue careers in academe, diagnostic laboratories, government health services, biopharmaceutical companies, or private practice. Academic training programs attempt to provide trainees with an exposure to several career choices. However, due to the proprietary nature of much of the work in the biopharmaceutical industry, trainees may not be fully informed regarding the nature of work for veterinary clinical pathologists and the myriad opportunities that await employment in the biopharmaceutical industry. The goals of this report are to provide trainees in veterinary clinical pathology and other laboratory personnel with an overview of the work-life of veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry, and to raise the profile of this career choice for those seeking to enter the workforce. Biographical sketches, job descriptions, and motivation for 3 successful veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry are provided. Current and past statistics for veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry are reviewed. An overview of the drug development process and involvement of veterinary clinical pathologists in the areas of discovery, lead optimization, and candidate evaluation are discussed. Additional duties for veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry include development of biomarkers and new technologies, service as scientific resources, diagnostic support services, and laboratory management responsibilities. There are numerous opportunities available for trainees in veterinary clinical pathology to pursue employment in the biopharmaceutical industry and enjoy challenging and rewarding careers. PMID:18533913

  6. Teaching and assessing veterinary professionalism.

    PubMed

    Mossop, Liz H; Cobb, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The teaching and assessment of professional behaviors and attitudes are important components of veterinary curricula. This article aims to outline some important considerations and concepts which will be useful for veterinary educators reviewing or developing this topic. A definition or framework of veterinary professionalism must be decided upon before educators can develop relevant learning outcomes. The interface between ethics and professionalism should be considered, and both clinicians and ethicists should deliver professionalism teaching. The influence of the hidden curriculum on student development as professionals should also be discussed during curriculum planning because it has the potential to undermine a formal curriculum of professionalism. There are several learning theories that have relevance to the teaching and learning of professionalism; situated learning theory, social cognitive theory, adult learning theory, reflective practice and experiential learning, and social constructivism must all be considered as a curriculum is designed. Delivery methods to teach professionalism are diverse, but the teaching of reflective skills and the use of early clinical experience to deliver valid learning opportunities are essential. Curricula should be longitudinal and integrated with other aspects of teaching and learning. Professionalism should also be assessed, and a wide range of methods have the potential to do so, including multisource feedback and portfolios. Validity, reliability, and feasibility are all important considerations. The above outlined approach to the teaching and assessment of professionalism will help ensure that institutions produce graduates who are ready for the workplace. PMID:23975066

  7. Laboratories which produce veterinary vaccines.

    PubMed

    Randall, D C

    1998-08-01

    Borders, continents and oceans no longer provide a significant barrier to the movement of goods and services. Under the regulations of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the World Trade Organisation, governments may no longer prevent the importation of veterinary vaccines without scientific proof that the product would pose a threat to the health and safety of the nation. The origins of production laboratories for veterinary vaccines and the management of those laboratories are as diverse as the government programmes by which they are regulated. Both processed-based and performance-based approaches can be equally effective in the quality assurance of products. Seven international and regulatory initiatives have been developed to review these regulatory systems and, where possible, to harmonise standards and/or recognise equivalents to ease the movement of products. Continued exchange of information on a regional and world-wide basis can ensure the quality and availability of veterinary vaccines for animal health programmes around the world. PMID:9713896

  8. The Impact of a Group Communication Course on Veterinary Medical Students' Perceptions of Communication Competence and Communication Apprehension.

    PubMed

    Kedrowicz, April A

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of a group communication course on veterinary medical students' perceptions of communication competence and communication anxiety. Students enrolled in the Group Communication in Veterinary Medicine course completed the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension and the Communicative Competence Scale at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of the semester. Results show that first-year veterinary students' self-perceptions of communication competence increased and their self-reported levels of communication apprehension decreased across multiple contexts from Time 1 to Time 2. This research provides support for experiential communication training fostering skill development and confidence. PMID:26966983

  9. Can online conference systems improve veterinary education? A study about the capability of online conferencing and its acceptance.

    PubMed

    Koch, Michael; Fischer, Martin R; Tipold, Andrea; Ehlers, Jan P

    2012-01-01

    In veterinary medicine, there is an ongoing need for students, educators, and veterinarians to exchange the latest knowledge in their respective fields and to learn about unusual cases, emerging diseases, and treatment. Networking among veterinary faculties is developing rapidly, but conferences and meetings can be difficult to attend because of time limitations and travel costs. The current study examines acceptance of synchronous online conferences, seminars, meetings, and lectures by veterinarians and students. First, an online survey on the use of communication technology in veterinary medicine was made available for 15 weeks to every German-speaking veterinary university and via professional journals and an online veterinary forum. A total of 1,776 persons (620 veterinarians and 1,156 students) participated. Most reported using the Internet at least once per day; more than half reported using instant messengers. Most participants used the Internet for communication, but less than half used Skype. Second, to test the spectrum of tools for online conferences, a variety of "virtual classroom" systems (netucate systems iLinc, Adobe Acrobat Connect Pro, Cisco WebEx, Skype) were used to deliver student lectures, veterinary continuing-education courses, and academic conferences at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover (TiHo). Of 591 participants in 63 online events, 99.4% rated the virtual events as enjoyable, 96.1% found them useful, and 92.4% said that they learned a lot. Participants noted that the courses were not tied to a certain place, and thus saved time and travel costs. Online conference systems thus offer new opportunities to provide information in veterinary medicine. PMID:22951464

  10. The Shifting Supply of Men and Women to Occupations: Feminization in Veterinary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    A confining limitation for the occupational sex segregation literature has been the inability to determine how many persons of one sex "would" have entered an occupation had the other sex not successfully entered instead. Using panel data from all American colleges of veterinary medicine (1976-1995), a fixed-effects model with lagged independent…

  11. 9 CFR 161.4 - Suspension or revocation of veterinary accreditation; criminal and civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to practice veterinary medicine in at least one State. (c) Accreditation shall be automatically.... The application may be submitted when the revocation has been in effect for not less than 2 years... submit an application for reaccreditation until the revocation has been in effect for a period of...

  12. 9 CFR 161.6 - Suspension or revocation of veterinary accreditation and reaccreditation; criminal and civil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... The application may be submitted when the revocation has been in effect for not less than 2 years... submit an application for reaccreditation until the revocation has been in effect for a period of time... veterinarian is licensed or legally able to practice veterinary medicine in the State in which the...

  13. Breaking with Tradition: The Reform of British Veterinary Education 1900-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Alison

    2004-01-01

    What obstructions stand in the way of our universities in their endeavours to develop higher courses in Veterinary medicine cannot be realised by Parliament and the general public. These obstructions are due to the continued existence of regulations which should have been swept away long ago, and, I must add, to the most regrettable inertia of the…

  14. Handbook for Veterinary Faculty: Use of the PLATO System. CERL Report X-39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, George M.

    This document, intended for faculty at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, provides information about the PLATO computer-based instructional system and instructions for participating in lesson preparation. The physical components of the PLATO system and the PLATO IV terminals, student consoles, and teaching stations are…

  15. A Collaborative Bovine Artificial Insemination Short Course for Students Attending a Caribbean Veterinary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Joseph C.; Robinson, James Q.; DeJarnette, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of cattle is a critical career skill for veterinarians interested in food animal practice. Consequently, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine Student Chapter of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Select Sires, and University of Idaho Extension have partnered to offer an intensive 2-day course to…

  16. Approaches to assess the effects and risks of veterinary antibiotics applied with manure to soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In veterinary medicine, large quantities of antibiotic substances are administered each year for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes or to promote growth. As a consequence, the antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants located on mobile genetic elements are excreted by...

  17. Teaching General and Systemic Pathology in a New Veterinary School. II. Materials and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, W. A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The amounts, types and costs of materials used to initiate a Year II (sophomore) pathology course in the L.S.U. School of Veterinary Medicine were tabulated. Use of the autotutorial method resulted in slightly greater costs than the traditional method, but this was offset by general satisfaction with it. (Author/LBH)

  18. Engineering Veterinary Education: A Clarion Call for Reform in Veterinary Education--Let's Do It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radostits, Otto M.

    2003-01-01

    Supports an engineering model of tracking programs in veterinary medical education and suggests that undergraduate student quotas need to be considered in order to educate a sufficient number of new veterinary graduates in the different fields needed by society. (SLD)

  19. Experiences and difficulties encountered during a course on veterinary public health with students of different nationalities.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Mauro; de Balogh, Katinka K I M

    2005-01-01

    Veterinary public health (VPH) issues have received increased attention over the last few years as a result of the rising threat of emerging zoonoses (i.e., those due to globalized trade in animal and animal products and to changes in livestock production systems and the environment). The international dimension of VPH is gradually becoming recognized, and there is a growing need for veterinarians with experience in this field. In order to familiarize (future) veterinarians with the international dimension of VPH, the Department of Public Health and Food Safety of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, has been organizing a course in Veterinary Public Health and Animal Production for over the last 10 years. This course has been intended for Dutch as well as foreign final-year veterinary students and recent veterinary graduates. By bringing together participants from different countries, the course reinforces the international dimension of the issues addressed through the exchange of experiences by the participants themselves. The present article provides information about this course on Veterinary Public Health (VPH): it discusses logistics, didactical approaches, the course program, and the use of information and communication technology (ICT). Special attention is given to the intercultural aspects of higher education, all of which play an important role in the efficient exchange of knowledge between lecturers and students. International courses are an important tool to enable participants to interact in a multicultural environment and address issues that demand international cooperation and a global public health focus. PMID:16261501

  20. Undergraduate Training in Companion Animal Preventive Medicine at Louisiana State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bech-Nielsen, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The veterinary curriculum at the LSU School of Veterinary Medicine has developed an undergraduate professional training program in companion animal preventive medicine--a new area of specialization--as a field of clinical practice. Curricula for years three and four are described. (Author/MLW)

  1. Correlative Medicine--Bridging the Gap between Basic Science and Clinical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Edward B.; Smart, Marian

    1980-01-01

    Greater flexibility in clinical instruction in the veterinary field through the introduction of a course in Correlative Medicine at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine is described. The changes in the course over the past 10 years are described and the course's original objectives are assessed. (Author/MLW)

  2. Survey of factors influencing faculty decisions on international veterinary work.

    PubMed

    Renberg, Walter C; White, Brad J

    2012-01-01

    Faculty members at US colleges of veterinary medicine can encounter opportunities to work as a veterinarian in a foreign country. Institutions, governments, and other organizations can more effectively recruit faculty for these positions if they understand the characteristics of the individuals who are most likely to participate in these programs. The purpose of this study was to determine what characteristics influence veterinary faculty's desire to participate in foreign programs. Results illustrated that position type (tenure, clinical), rank (assistant professor, associate professor, full professor), gender, and the presence of pre-elementary aged children were significantly associated with willingness to work in a foreign country. In addition, survey respondents who indicated that the duration of the assignment was of high importance were less willing to travel than respondents who indicated that the duration of the assignment was of moderate importance or lower. The results from this survey provide important information about the characteristics of individuals more willing to participate in foreign programs. This information allows targeted recruiting by organizations, facilitating veterinary work in foreign countries. PMID:22718006

  3. Culture and propagation of microsporidia of veterinary interest

    PubMed Central

    LALLO, Maria Anete; VIDOTO DA COSTA, Lidiana Flora; ALVARES-SARAIVA, Anuska Marcelino; ROCHA, Paulo Ricardo Dell’Armelina; SPADACCI-MORENA, Diva Denelle; KONNO, Fabiana Toshie de Camargo; SUFFREDINI, Ivana Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular mitochrondria-lacking pathogens that rely on host cells to grow and multiply. Microsporidia, currently classified as fungi, are ubiquitous in nature and are found worldwide. They infect a large number of mammals and are recognized as opportunistic infection agents in HIV-AIDS patients. Its importance for veterinary medicine has been unveiled in recent years through the description of clinical and subclinical forms of infection in domestic and wild animals. Domestic and wild birds may be infected by the same human microsporidia, reinforcing their zoonotic potential. Microsporidiosis in fish is prevalent and causes significant economic losses for fish farming. Some species of microsporidia have been propagated in cell cultures, which may provide conditions for the development of diagnostic techniques, understanding of pathogenesis and immune responses and for the discovery of potential therapies. Unfortunately, the cultivation of these parasites is not fully standardized in most research laboratories, especially in the veterinary field. The aim of this review is to relate the most important microsporidia of veterinary interest and demonstrate how these pathogens can be grown and propagated in cell culture for diagnostic purposes or for pathogenesis studies. Cultivation of microsporidia allowed the study of its life cycle, metabolism, pathogenesis and diagnosis, and may also serve as a repository for these pathogens for molecular, biochemical, antigenic and epidemiological studies. PMID:26346746

  4. Culture and propagation of microsporidia of veterinary interest.

    PubMed

    Lallo, Maria Anete; Vidoto Da Costa, Lidiana Flora; Alvares-Saraiva, Anuska Marcelino; Rocha, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina; Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle; Konno, Fabiana Toshie de Camargo; Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa

    2016-02-01

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular mitochondria-lacking pathogens that rely on host cells to grow and multiply. Microsporidia, currently classified as fungi, are ubiquitous in nature and are found worldwide. They infect a large number of mammals and are recognized as opportunistic infection agents in HIV-AIDS patients. Its importance for veterinary medicine has been unveiled in recent years through the description of clinical and subclinical forms of infection in domestic and wild animals. Domestic and wild birds may be infected by the same human microsporidia, reinforcing their zoonotic potential. Microsporidiosis in fish is prevalent and causes significant economic losses for fish farming. Some species of microsporidia have been propagated in cell cultures, which may provide conditions for the development of diagnostic techniques, understanding of pathogenesis and immune responses and for the discovery of potential therapies. Unfortunately, the cultivation of these parasites is not fully standardized in most research laboratories, especially in the veterinary field. The aim of this review is to relate the most important microsporidia of veterinary interest and demonstrate how these pathogens can be grown and propagated in cell culture for diagnostic purposes or for pathogenesis studies. Cultivation of microsporidia allowed the study of its life cycle, metabolism, pathogenesis and diagnosis, and may also serve as a repository for these pathogens for molecular, biochemical, antigenic and epidemiological studies. PMID:26346746

  5. Successes and challenges in a novel doctoral program in systems agriculture: a case example.

    PubMed

    Lust, D; Topliff, D; Deotte, R

    2010-01-01

    A doctoral program in Systems Agriculture was initiated at West Texas A&M University, Canyon, TX, in September, 2003. The stated objective of the program was "..to prepare leaders for the agricultural industry that are trained in a multidisciplinary, research-based curriculum that emphasizes a systems approach to problem solving". The program offers a single doctoral degree in Agriculture and accepts qualified students with a master's or professional degree in agricultural or related disciplines. Courses related to systems methodologies, leadership, agricultural economics, plant and soil science, and animal science are required. Additional program requirements include a systems research project and dissertation, leadership training, and written and oral exams. The program has exceeded enrollment and graduation targets, suggesting interest in this approach to a doctoral degree. Students have entered the program with M.S. backgrounds in education, traditional agricultural disciplines, veterinary medicine, business, and physics. Graduates have gained employment in industry, university teaching and research, government research/administration, and extension. Doctoral student projects in systems agriculture contributed to curriculum changes and to the conceptual framework adopted by a multi-state research group. Designing and teaching courses for students with diverse backgrounds has been challenging. Development of a common understanding of systems agriculture was identified by a third-party program review as an issue for faculty. Development and maintenance of program standards and administrative procedures posed additional challenges. Leadership, administrative support, and timely and continuing program assessment are suggested as necessary components for a nontraditional doctoral program. PMID:20491404

  6. A New Approach to Teaching Veterinary Economics--Practice Management and Veterinary Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, David A.

    1976-01-01

    The procedure of having veterinary students enrolled in a course in Veterinary Economics and Practice Management visit a veterinary practice to obtain practice management data and to prepare a written analysis for the practice is described. This project has been continued for nine years at two different universities, involving 692 students and 624…

  7. 7 CFR 3431.23 - Service to Federal government in emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.23 Service to Federal government in emergency...

  8. 7 CFR 3431.18 - Service agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.18 Service agreement. (a) The...

  9. 7 CFR 3431.19 - Payment and tax liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.19 Payment and tax liability. (a)...

  10. 7 CFR 3431.23 - Service to Federal government in emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.23 Service to Federal government in emergency...

  11. 7 CFR 3431.23 - Service to Federal government in emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.23 Service to Federal government in emergency...

  12. 7 CFR 3431.23 - Service to Federal Government in emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program §...

  13. 7 CFR 3431.14 - Priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.14 Priority. Pursuant to NVMSA, the Secretary will...

  14. 7 CFR 3431.20 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.20 Administration. The VMLRP will be administered by...

  15. 7 CFR 3431.24 - Reporting requirements, monitoring, and close-out.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program §...

  16. 7 CFR 3431.23 - Service to Federal government in emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.23 Service to Federal government in emergency...

  17. Pet poultry training for veterinary practitioners.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Rocio; Faux, Cynthia; Dhillon, Singh A; Newberry, Ruth C; Moore, Dale A

    2010-01-01

    Keeping backyard poultry in urban areas is a burgeoning trend in the United States. As such, we believe urban pet poultry owners are increasingly likely to seek veterinary services from urban companion-animal practitioners. Traditionally, poultry species have been classified as production animals. Most small-animal practitioners have limited experience or knowledge of these species and hesitate to accept these animals at their practices. We developed a one-day course to train veterinarians in pet poultry (as opposed to commercial poultry) medicine. The course covers poultry examination, diseases, and treatments and provides an introduction to poultry breeds and behavior and the basics of nutrition and husbandry. We believe this type of continuing education program is important for veterinarians because they are often on the front line of human public health issues. In addition, courses of this type increase the number of veterinarians trained to spot serious avian diseases, including foreign diseases and diseases with zoonotic potential. Most important, veterinarians with this training develop the knowledge to contribute to the health and well-being of pet poultry along with their clients' other companion animals. PMID:21135406

  18. 9 CFR 102.5 - U.S. Veterinary Biological Product License.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Veterinary Biological Product License. 102.5 Section 102.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS LICENSES...

  19. 9 CFR 102.4 - U.S. Veterinary Biologics Establishment License.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Veterinary Biologics Establishment License. 102.4 Section 102.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND...

  20. 9 CFR 102.5 - U.S. Veterinary Biological Product License.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Veterinary Biological Product License. 102.5 Section 102.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS LICENSES...

  1. 9 CFR 102.4 - U.S. Veterinary Biologics Establishment License.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Veterinary Biologics Establishment License. 102.4 Section 102.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND...

  2. 9 CFR 102.4 - U.S. Veterinary Biologics Establishment License.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Veterinary Biologics Establishment License. 102.4 Section 102.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND...

  3. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  4. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  5. USDA-ARS extension activities in medical, veterinary and urban entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), National Program 104 conducts research on veterinary, medical, and urban entomology. The goal of this program is to develop more effective methods of preventing or suppressing insects, ticks, and mites that affect animal and human well-being....

  6. Veterinary antibiotic sorption and transport through agroforestry buffer, grass buffer and cropland soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs), such as sulfamethazine (SMZ) are released into the environment by application of manure to agricultural fields. Understanding the fate and transport of VAs is important for assessing and mitigating possible environmental hazards. To study the effects of dissolved organi...

  7. 9 CFR 102.4 - U.S. Veterinary Biologics Establishment License.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Veterinary Biologics Establishment License. 102.4 Section 102.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND...

  8. 9 CFR 102.4 - U.S. Veterinary Biologics Establishment License.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Veterinary Biologics Establishment License. 102.4 Section 102.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND...

  9. Monitoring the Veterinary Medical Student Experience: An Institutional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Miller, RoseAnn; Mavis, Brian E; Lloyd, James W; Grabill, Chandra M; Henry, Rebecca C; Patterson, Coretta C

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary medical school challenges students academically and personally, and some students report depression and anxiety at rates higher than the general population and other medical students. This study describes changes in veterinary medical student self-esteem (SE) over four years of professional education, attending to differences between high and low SE students and the characteristics specific to low SE veterinary medical students. The study population was students enrolled at the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine from 2006 to 2012. We used data from the annual anonymous survey administered college-wide that is used to monitor the curriculum and learning environment. The survey asked respondents to rate their knowledge and skill development, learning environment, perceptions of stress, skill development, and SE. Participants also provided information on their academic performance and demographics. A contrasting groups design was used: high and low SE students were compared using logistic regression to identify factors associated with low SE. A total of 1,653 respondents met inclusion criteria: 789 low SE and 864 high SE students. The proportion of high and low SE students varied over time, with the greatest proportion of low SE students during the second-year of the program. Perceived stress was associated with low SE, whereas perceived supportive learning environment and skill development were associated with high SE. These data have provided impetus for curricular and learning environment changes to enhance student support. They also provide guidance for additional research to better understand various student academic trajectories and their implications for success. PMID:26421517

  10. [Organisation of Veterinary Services in the developing countries of West Africa].

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, H

    2004-04-01

    The Veterinary Services in West Africa focused on animal health and production activities, which up until the beginning of the 1990s, were exclusively their responsibility. They were supported by many projects, conducted with notable successes. Veterinary public health activities were considered to be less of a priority because the major objective was improving productivity and because the concept of food safety was perceived by stakeholders to be much less important. The major challenges and issues that the weakened Veterinary Services will have to face are complying with the requirements of the World Trade Organization, negotiating new economic partnership agreements and dealing with the consequences of the implementation of structural adjustment programmes in the agricultural sector. The reorganisation of these Services is therefore taking place in the context of the globalisation of health problems, and in a trading framework that requires the application of the current international standards and regulations. Veterinary Services and their governments will have to meet these challenges by initiating discussions that lead to effective operational structures that can implement public health measures, satisfy the expectations of consumers and partner countries and withstand assessment by other countries. However, such reform depends upon several factors, such as a demonstration of political will, the development of an approach based on regional economic unions, and the indispensable support of financial backers. To add to the debate, the author offers recommendations and guidelines on the institutional framework, veterinary personnel and equipment and material needs. Creating effective Veterinary Services that have efficient operational structures and procedures is an ongoing process; how long this process takes depends on the ability of Veterinary Services to respond to the various challenges. Underlying these challenges and issues, in this region of the world as

  11. Introduction to veterinary clinical oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Context is key in veterinary education.

    PubMed

    Mills, Georgina

    2016-01-16

    Debate about whether a veterinary education adequately prepares new graduates for a career in practice is not new, and the way students are taught, and what they are taught, is constantly evolving. A session at the BVA Congress explored how veterinary education might need to change to produce the vets of the future. Georgina Mills reports. PMID:26769807

  13. 21 CFR 530.5 - Veterinary records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Veterinary records. 530.5 Section 530.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.5 Veterinary...

  14. 21 CFR 530.5 - Veterinary records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Veterinary records. 530.5 Section 530.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.5 Veterinary...

  15. 21 CFR 530.5 - Veterinary records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Veterinary records. 530.5 Section 530.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.5 Veterinary...

  16. 21 CFR 530.5 - Veterinary records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Veterinary records. 530.5 Section 530.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.5 Veterinary...

  17. 75 FR 15387 - Veterinary Feed Directive

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    .... In the Federal Register of December 8, 2000 (65 FR 76924), FDA issued a final rule amending the new... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 514, and 558 Veterinary Feed Directive... relating to veterinary feed directive (VFD) drugs. FDA's VFD regulation, which became effective on...

  18. 21 CFR 530.5 - Veterinary records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary records. 530.5 Section 530.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.5 Veterinary...

  19. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. PMID:27515387

  20. 21 CFR 201.105 - Veterinary drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to...

  1. 21 CFR 201.105 - Veterinary drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to...

  2. Bioavailability of veterinary antibiotics in surface water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary antibiotics are commonly used as feed additives in livestock production for growth promotion and disease prevention. These pharmaceuticals are often excreted by the livestock in urine and feces, and enter the environment via manure application. Little is known about the fate of veterinary...

  3. Is it time to define veterinary professionalism?

    PubMed

    Mossop, Liz H

    2012-01-01

    The medical profession has spent much time and many resources engaging in a discourse of medical professionalism and debating the appropriate attitudes and behavior of physicians, but little has been published concerning the concept of veterinary professionalism. Physicians are commonly examined by social scientists and educationalists to establish definitions of medical professionalism in order to teach and assess these values within curricula. This challenging process has not been without criticism, however, with some calling the numerous definitions unhelpful, especially when these behaviors are not demonstrated in practice or the wider sociological implications of medical professionalism are ignored. Veterinary curricula often include professional skills, and there has been some discussion about their inclusion as well as the scope of veterinary surgeons and their role in society. Despite this, no true definition of veterinary professionalism exists, and the teaching of the values and behaviors expected of veterinary professionals may not be explicit. Regardless of the difficulties of engaging in such a discourse, perhaps it is time that this occurred and a realistic and usable definition of veterinary professionalism is established. This is a period of change for the veterinary profession, and a teachable and assessable definition can provide some clarity and assist educators within ever evolving veterinary curricula. PMID:22433745

  4. 21 CFR 201.105 - Veterinary drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to...

  5. 21 CFR 201.105 - Veterinary drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to...

  6. 21 CFR 201.105 - Veterinary drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to...

  7. The ninth international veterinary immunology symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This Introduction to the special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August, 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune...

  8. Veterinary Medical Genetics: A Developing Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, James E.; Templeton, Joe W.

    1978-01-01

    Areas that will influence the development of veterinary medical genetics as a clinical discipline are discussed, some critical research areas of immediate concern are suggested, and misconceptions held by many practicing veterinarians which must be corrected at the level of veterinary education are identified. (JMD)

  9. The veterinary technician's role in laser surgery.

    PubMed

    Kronberger, Charly

    2002-05-01

    The use of surgical lasers in veterinary practice has grown significantly since 1996. Many veterinarians have studied and implemented the basic physics and tissue didactics required to successfully incorporate a surgical laser program into their practice. The support role of the veterinary technician is crucial to ensuring an efficient, safe, and successful outcome of any surgical laser procedure. The technician's role may include practice management duties, client communication, and laser safety officer duties. Although there are a variety of lasers, the most common types used in veterinary practice are carbon dioxide (CO2) and diode. This article presents an overview of the veterinary technician's role as a key support person in ensuring a safe and positive outcome in the implementation of CO2 and diode lasers in a veterinary practice. PMID:12064050

  10. Survey of the UK veterinary profession: common species and conditions nominated by veterinarians in practice

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, T. D.; Dean, R. S.; Robinson, N. J.; Massey, A.; Brennan, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    The practice of evidence-based veterinary medicine involves the utilisation of scientific evidence for clinical decision making. To enable this, research topics pertinent to clinical practice need to be identified, and veterinary clinicians are best placed to do this. The main aim of this study was to describe the veterinary population, the common species and conditions veterinary clinicians nominated they saw in practice and how much information clinicians perceived was available in the literature for these. A questionnaire was distributed to all Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons registered veterinarians agreeing to be contacted for research purposes (n=14,532). A useable response rate of 33 per cent (4842/14,532) was achieved. The most commonly seen species reported by vets were dogs, cats and rabbits followed by equines and cattle. Overall, skin conditions were most commonly mentioned for small animals, musculoskeletal conditions for equines and reproduction conditions for production animals. Veterinary clinicians perceived there was a higher level of information available in the literature for conditions in dogs, cattle and equines and lower levels for rabbits and guinea pigs. The results from this study can be used to help define the research needs of the profession to aid the incorporation of evidence in veterinary practice. PMID:24570401

  11. Next-generation sequencing workflows in veterinary infection biology: towards validation and quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Van Borm, S; Wang, J; Granberg, F; Colling, A

    2016-04-01

    Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies and sequence data analysis have revolutionised research in many areas of biology and medicine, including veterinary infection biology. New technology is poised to bridge the gap between the research and diagnostic laboratory. This paper defines the potential diagnostic value and purposes of next-generation sequencing (NGS) applications in veterinary infection biology and explores their compatibility with the existing validation principles and methods of the World Organisation for Animal Health. Critical parameters for validation and quality control (quality metrics) are suggested, with reference to established validation and quality assurance guidelines for NGS-based methods of diagnosing human heritable diseases. Although most currently described NGS applications in veterinary infection biology are not primary diagnostic tests that directly result in control measures, this critical reflection on the advantages and remaining challenges of NGS technology should stimulate discussion on its diagnostic value and on the potential to validate NGS methods and monitor their diagnostic performance. PMID:27217169

  12. A Telephone Communication Skills Exercise for Veterinary Students: Experiences, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Grevemeyer, Bernard; Betance, Larry; Artemiou, Elpida

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from human medicine shows a rise in telephone communication in support of after-hours services and in providing medical advice, follow-up information, etc. While specific training programs are continuously being developed for human medical education, limited publications are available on training veterinary students in telephone communication. Presented is our method of introducing a telephone communication skills exercise to third-year veterinary students. The exercise progressed over three phases and currently follows the principles of the Calgary-Cambridge Guide. Challenges and improvements on implementing a telephone communication exercise are discussed. Within veterinary communication curricula, attention should be given to the specific communication skills required for successful telephone consultations. In the absence of visual nonverbal cues and prompts during a telephone interaction, communication skills must be applied with greater intent and attention to achieve an effective consultation outcome. PMID:27111006

  13. Analysis of cases of forensic veterinary opinions produced in a research and teaching unit.

    PubMed

    Listos, Piotr; Gryzinska, Magdalena; Kowalczyk, Marek

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to present the results of necropsies carried out in the years 2000-2014 in the Department of Pathological Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The material used for the analysis consisted of expert opinions prepared on the basis of a decision by a judicial body to admit an expert opinion as evidence. An increase was observed in the demand for the services of veterinary forensic experts, beginning in 2006 and persisting through 2014. The response to the growing popularity of veterinary forensic examinations should be systematization of knowledge and exchange of experience, which would enable the further development of this interdisciplinary science. PMID:26408394

  14. Domestic violence shelter partnerships and veterinary student attitudes at North American veterinary schools and colleges.

    PubMed

    Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K

    2013-01-01

    Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified. PMID:23697544

  15. Approaches to veterinary education--tracking versus a final year broad clinical experience. Part one: effects on career outcome.

    PubMed

    Klosterman, E S; Kass, P H; Walsh, D A

    2009-08-01

    This is the first of two papers that provide extensive data and analysis on the two major approaches to clinical veterinary education, which either provide students with experience of a broad range of species (often defined as omni/general clinical competence), or just a few species (sometimes just one), usually termed 'tracking'. Together the two papers provide a detailed analysis of these two approaches for the first time. The responsibilities of veterinary medicine and veterinary education are rapidly increasing throughoutthe globe. It is critical for all in veterinary education to reassess the approaches that have been used, and evaluate on a school-by-school basis which may best meet its expanding and ever-deepening responsibilities. PMID:20128492

  16. Clinical and research searching on the wild side: exploring the veterinary literature

    PubMed Central

    Alpi, Kristine M.; Stringer, Elizabeth; DeVoe, Ryan S.; Stoskopf, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Zoological medicine furthers the health and well-being of captive and free-ranging wild animals. Effective information retrieval of the zoological medicine literature demands searching multiple databases, conference proceedings, and organization websites using a wide variety of keywords and controlled vocabulary. Veterinarians, residents, students, and the librarians who serve them must have patience for multiple search iterations to capture the majority of the available knowledge. The complexities of thorough literature searches are more difficult for nondomestic animal clinical cases and research reviews as demonstrated by three search requests involving poisonous snakes, a gorilla, and spiders. Expanding and better disseminating the knowledgebase of zoological medicine will make veterinary searching easier. PMID:19626142

  17. Accreditation of veterinary inspection systems.

    PubMed

    Gary, F

    2003-08-01

    Accreditation of Veterinary Services could be a key factor in facilitating international recognition of certificates. For this to occur, accreditation must be conducted within the international normative framework on compliance evaluation. The EN 45004 standard for inspection bodies is the most appropriate organisational reference. It makes a clear distinction between the technical activity of inspection, and decisions which fall within the competence of public authorities. However, there are few international normative texts describing inspection methods, which is a major obstacle to the development of a widely recognised accreditation system. Organisations that accredit inspection bodies exist in many countries, but there are no agreements on multilateral recognition. This paper describes the accreditation cycle and outlines the possibilities for accrediting networks or individual sites. PMID:15884604

  18. Information technology in veterinary pharmacology instruction.

    PubMed

    Kochevar, Deborah T

    2003-01-01

    Veterinary clinical pharmacology encompasses all interactions between drugs and animals and applies basic and clinical knowledge to improve rational drug use and patient outcomes. Veterinary pharmacology instructors set educational goals and objectives that, when mastered by students, lead to improved animal health. The special needs of pharmacology instruction include establishing a functional interface between basic and clinical knowledge, managing a large quantity of information, and mastering quantitative skills essential to successful drug administration and analysis of drug action. In the present study, a survey was conducted to determine the extent to which veterinary pharmacology instructors utilize information technology (IT) in their teaching. Several IT categories were investigated, including Web-based instructional aids, stand-alone pharmacology software, interactive videoconferencing, databases, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and e-book applications. Currently IT plays a largely ancillary role in pharmacology instruction. IT use is being expanded primarily through the efforts of two veterinary professional pharmacology groups, the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology (ACVCP) and the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (AAVPT). The long-term outcome of improved IT use in pharmacology instruction should be to support the larger educational mission of active learning and problem solving. Creation of high-quality IT resources that promote this goal has the potential to improve veterinary pharmacology instruction within and across institutions. PMID:14976618

  19. Veterinary and human vaccine evaluation methods

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009

  20. Survey of the UK veterinary profession 2: sources of information used by veterinarians

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, T. D.; Dean, R. S.; Massey, A.; Brennan, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Access to the most up-to-date evidence is an important cornerstone for veterinarians attempting to practice in an evidence-based manner; therefore, an understanding of what and how information is accessed is vital. The aim of this study was to identify what resources the UK veterinary profession access and regard as most useful. Based on questionnaires received from veterinarians, the Veterinary Times was nominated as most often read journal or magazine by respondents (n=3572, 79 per cent). In Practice (n=3224, 82 per cent) and the Veterinary Record (n=165, 34 per cent) were seen as most useful by clinicians, and non-clinicians, respectively. Google was the most often nominated electronic resource by all respondents (n=3076, 71 per cent), with Google (n=459, 23 per cent) and PubMed (n=60, 17 per cent) seen as most useful by clinicians and non-clinicians, respectively. The abstract and conclusion sections were the most read parts of scientific manuscripts nominated by all respondents. When looking for assistance with difficult cases, colleagues were the common information choice for clinicians. Different sections of the veterinary profession access information, and deem resources useful, in different ways. Access to good quality evidence is important for the practice of evidence-based veterinary medicine, and therefore, researchers should think about disseminating their findings in a targeted way for optimal use by the profession. PMID:26246397