Science.gov

Sample records for agriculture veterinary medicine

  1. Introduction to systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; O'Connor, A M

    2014-06-01

    This article is the first in a series of six articles related to systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. In this article, we overview the methodology of systematic reviews and provide a discussion of their use. Systematic reviews differ qualitatively from traditional reviews by explicitly defining a specific review question, employing methods to reduce bias in the selection and inclusion of studies that address the review question (including a systematic and specified search strategy, and selection of studies based on explicit eligibility criteria), an assessment of the risk of bias for included studies and objectively summarizing the results qualitatively or quantitatively (i.e. via meta-analysis). Systematic reviews have been widely used to address human healthcare questions and are increasingly being used in veterinary medicine. Systematic reviews can provide veterinarians and other decision-makers with a scientifically defensible summary of the current state of knowledge on a topic without the need for the end-user to read the vast amount of primary research related to that topic.

  2. Library Cooperation at the NOVA University--the Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllys, Heli

    The Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine--the NOVA University-was established in 1995 to increase the cooperation between the Nordic agricultural universities. The NOVA libraries of the seven institutions and facilities involved wanted to show that they are a very useful partner in launching new ideas. They have the…

  3. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2017-03-11

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  4. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-04-05

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  5. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  6. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-08-02

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  7. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  8. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-09-06

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK, and on other relevant issues.

  9. Biomarkers in Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Myers, Michael J; Smith, Emily R; Turfle, Phillip G

    2017-02-08

    This article summarizes the relevant definitions related to biomarkers; reviews the general processes related to biomarker discovery and ultimate acceptance and use; and finally summarizes and reviews, to the extent possible, examples of the types of biomarkers used in animal species within veterinary clinical practice and human and veterinary drug development. We highlight opportunities for collaboration and coordination of research within the veterinary community and leveraging of resources from human medicine to support biomarker discovery and validation efforts for veterinary medicine.

  10. 76 FR 80878 - Solicitation of Veterinary Shortage Situation Nominations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Solicitation of Veterinary Shortage Situation Nominations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and... and Agriculture (NIFA) is soliciting nominations of veterinary service shortage situations for...

  11. 75 FR 3697 - Solicitation of Nomination of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Solicitation of Nomination of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and... and Agriculture (NIFA) is soliciting nominations for veterinary service shortage situations for...

  12. 76 FR 5131 - Solicitation of Nomination of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Solicitation of Nomination of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and... and Agriculture (NIFA) is soliciting nominations for veterinary service shortage situations for...

  13. Food systems veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Hurd, H Scott

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this review are to suggest the use of the systems thinking framework to improve how veterinary medicine is applied to food production. It applies the eight essential skills of systems thinking to a few selected veterinary examples. Two of the skills determine how we approach or define a problem, and are (i) dynamic thinking (taking a longer term perspective) and (ii) the 30,000 foot view (expanding the boundary of analysis beyond the animal, farm, or even country). The other skills are (iii) system-as-cause, (iv) operational thinking, (v) closed-loop (feedback) thinking, (vi) non-linear thinking, (vii) scientific thinking and (viii) generic thinking. The challenge is to adopt and apply this systems framework to veterinary medicine and food production. The result will be a rigorous new approach to solving the complex food and health problems of the 21st century.

  14. 50 Years: Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narlesky, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Describes the history, research, teaching strategies, and specialties of the University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Documents effects of changing societal attitudes toward wildlife, pets, working animals, and food animals on curriculum, the systems approach to disease, comparative genetics, biotechnology, the ecology of…

  15. Laser In Veterinary Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Carlton; Jaggar, David H.

    1982-12-01

    Lasers have been used for some time now on animals for experimental purposes prior to their use in human medical and surgical fields. However the use of lasers in veterinary medicine and surgery per se is a recent development. We describe the application of high and low intensity laser technology in a general overview of the current uses, some limitations to its use and future needs for future inquiry and development.

  16. Holistic pediatric veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications.

  17. Hirudotherapy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion.

  18. Surgical Lasers In Veterinary Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, H. C.

    1987-03-01

    Veterinary medicine is a latecomer in benefiting from the advent of surgical lasers. It is ironic that although most of the basic work in lasers is carried out in animal species with which we are most conversant, veterinary medicine as a profession has not been very extensively involved.

  19. Renal scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B

    2014-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed.

  20. Lessons of history in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald F

    2013-01-01

    The future of veterinary medicine is best understood in the context of history. What began as a profession rooted in urban centers in proximity to horses, physicians, and medical schools, was transformed into a land grant-based agricultural profession with the arrival of the internal combustion engine in the early twentieth century. Most of the United States' current veterinary colleges are still located in towns or small cities in the middle section of the country, outside the largest metropolitan areas where most veterinarians practice companion-animal medicine. Throughout veterinarian history, substantial numbers of US students have been educated in foreign colleges and this continues today, creating an even greater geographic imbalance between the veterinary educational process and US population centers and major medical schools. Three themes deserve special attention as we celebrate the profession's 150th anniversary. We must first move beyond the land-grant culture and develop a more geographically balanced approach to establishing new veterinary colleges that are also in closer association with schools of medicine and public health. We must also facilitate more opportunities for women leadership in organized veterinary medicine, in practice ownership, in academia, and in the corporate structures that educate, hire, and interface with veterinarians. Finally, we need to expand our understanding of One Health to include the concept of zooeyia (the role of animals in promoting human health), as well as continue to emphasize veterinarians' special roles in the control and management of zoonotic diseases and in advancing comparative medicine in the age of the genome.

  1. 78 FR 23742 - Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA... Act of 1995, invites the general public to comment on an information collection for the...

  2. 76 FR 31299 - Request for Applications for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Request for Applications for the Veterinary Medicine Loan... National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) is announcing the release of the Veterinary Medicine Loan... 2011 Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) application package has been made available...

  3. One world of veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    King, L J

    2009-08-01

    The veterinary profession finds itself in the midst of a new world order. Today veterinarians are part of a world that is exquisitely interconnected culturally, economically, socially, and professionally. As a consequence, societal needs and expectations of the profession are more demanding, critical and far-reaching. Veterinarians must play important roles in five intersecting domains of work: public health, bio-medical research, global food safety and security, ecosystem health and the more traditional role of caring for animals. To be successful in this broad and complex range of services and activities, veterinarians must possess an expanded knowledge base, acquire new skills, and develop a new mindset that will ensure their success and excellence in all these domains. The veterinary profession is becoming more fragmented and specialised, and it needs to be brought back together by a single sphere of knowledge or discipline that can serve as an intellectual foundation. The concept of One World of Veterinary Medicine can do just that. With this mindset veterinarians will become better connected to the world around and gain new public recognition and esteem. To achieve this, a special commitment by academic veterinary medicine is, of course, essential. Veterinary schools must lead an educational transformation that reaffirms the social contract of veterinarians and works to align diverse sectors, build a global community, find a common purpose and expand the 21st Century veterinary portfolio of services, activities, and new possibilities.

  4. Allergens in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses.

  5. The Literature of Veterinary Medicine. CE 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerker, Ann E.; Malamud, Judie

    This course guide outlines the objectives and content for a professional continuing education course on the literature of veterinary medicine. Topics covered include: (1) an introduction to veterinary medicine as a discipline, including comparison with other medical sciences, veterinary medicine education, licensure, animal models, veterinary…

  6. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  7. 75 FR 22736 - Notice of Request for Applications for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Notice of Request for Applications for the Veterinary Medicine.... SUMMARY: The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) is announcing the release of the Veterinary... . DATES: The FY 2010 Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) application package has been...

  8. 77 FR 23461 - Notice of Request for Applications for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Notice of Request for Applications for the Veterinary Medicine.... SUMMARY: The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) is announcing the release of the Veterinary...: The FY 2012 Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) application package will be...

  9. Liver scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The most common veterinary application of liver scintigraphy is for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts (PSSs). There has been a continual evolution of nuclear medicine techniques for diagnosis of PSS, starting in the early 1980s. Currently, transplenic portal scintigraphy using pertechnetate or (99m)Tc-mebrofenin is the technique of choice. This technique provides both anatomical and functional information about the nature of the PSS, with high sensitivity and specificity. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has also been used in veterinary medicine for the evaluation of liver function and biliary patency. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides information about biliary patency that complements finding in ultrasound, which may not be able to differentiate between biliary ductal dilation from previous obstruction vs current obstruction. Hepatocellular function can also be determined by deconvolutional analysis of hepatic uptake or by measuring the clearance of the radiopharmaceutical from the plasma. Plasma clearance of the radiopharmaceutical can be directly measured from serial plasma samples, as in the horse, or by measuring changes in cardiac blood pool activity by region of interest analysis of images. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of the reported applications of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

  10. 75 FR 3193 - Application Package and Reporting Requirements for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA... Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP). This Notice initiates a 60-day comment period and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Gary Sherman; National Program Leader, Veterinary Science; National Institute of Food...

  11. Graduate Program Organization in Clinical Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Graduate training in clinical veterinary medicine is discussed. The options available to the student and problems that must be dealt with are presented, along with the requirements to accomplish a finely structured program that satisfies the needs of both the trainee and clinical veterinary medicine. (Author/MLW)

  12. [Radiotherapy in veterinary medicine (review)].

    PubMed

    von Zallinger, C; Tempel, K

    1998-02-01

    A review of the latest literature concerning the present level of radiation therapy in veterinary medicine is given. In a general section physico-technical as well as biological fundamentals are discussed. In the special part of the paper indications for a radiation therapy of dogs, cats and horses are stated. In this respect the basis for a decision is the TNM-classification into different clinical stages according to the directions of the WHO. Tumors of the hemolymphatic system are very responsive to radiation therapy. While epithelial tumors are sensitive, tumors arising from the mesenchymal tissues react less sensitive. Melanoma and osteosarcoma seem to be resistant to radiation therapy. Besides this, radiation therapy is often questioned by the tolerance of the normal tissue.

  13. Veterinary Preventive Medicine Curriculum Development at Louisiana State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbert, William T.

    1976-01-01

    The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)

  14. Veterinary medicine books recommended for academic libraries

    PubMed Central

    Crawley-Low, Jill

    2004-01-01

    This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US). PMID:15494763

  15. Veterinary medicine books recommended for academic libraries.

    PubMed

    Crawley-Low, Jill

    2004-10-01

    This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US).

  16. Exposure assessment of veterinary medicines in aquatic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metcalfe, Chris; Boxall, Alistair; Fenner, Kathrin; Kolpin, Dana W.; Silberhorn, Eric; Staveley, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The release of veterinary medicines into the aquatic environment may occur through direct or indirect pathways. An example of direct release is the use of medicines in aquaculture (Armstrong et al. 2005; Davies et al. 1998), where chemicals used to treat fish are added directly to water. Indirect releases, in which medicines make their way to water through transport from other matrices, include the application of animal manure to land or direct excretion of residues onto pasture land, from which the therapeutic chemicals may be transported into the aquatic environment (Jørgensen and Halling-Sørensen 2000; Boxall et al. 2003, 2004). Veterinary medicines used to treat companion animals may also be transported into the aquatic environment through disposal of unused medicines, veterinary waste, or animal carcasses (Daughton and Ternes 1999, Boxall et al. 2004). The potential for a veterinary medicine to be released to the aquatic environment will be determined by several different criteria, including the method of treatment, agriculture or aquaculture practices, environmental conditions, and the properties of the veterinary medicine.

  17. Lasers in veterinary medicine: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Kenneth E.

    1994-09-01

    As in other facets of medical science, the use of lasers in veterinary medicine is a relatively new phenomenon. Economic aspects of the profession as well as questionable returns on investment have limited laser applications primarily to the academic community, research institutions, and specialty practices. As technology improves and efficacy is proven, costs should decrease and allow further introduction of laser surgical and diagnostic devices into the mainstream of clinical veterinary medicine.

  18. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  19. Research data services in veterinary medicine libraries

    PubMed Central

    Kerby, Erin E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study investigated veterinary medicine librarians' experience with and perceptions of research data services. Many academic libraries have begun to offer research data services in response to researchers' increased need for data management support. To date, such services have typically been generic, rather than discipline-specific, to appeal to a wide variety of researchers. Methods An online survey was deployed to identify trends regarding research data services in veterinary medicine libraries. Participants were identified from a list of contacts from the MLA Veterinary Medical Libraries Section. Results Although many respondents indicated that they have a professional interest in research data services, the majority of veterinary medicine librarians only rarely or occasionally provide data management support as part of their regular job responsibilities. There was little consensus as to whether research data services should be core to a library's mission despite their perceived importance to the advancement of veterinary research. Furthermore, most respondents stated that research data services are just as or somewhat less important than the other services that they provide and feel only slightly or somewhat prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Lacking a standard definition of “research data” and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services. PMID:27822153

  20. The lost history of American veterinary medicine: the need for preservation*†

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, C. Trenton

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to survey holdings of ephemeral veterinary literature. Methods: WorldCat OCLC catalog, the Library of Congress online catalog, the US National Agricultural Library online catalog, and the Dictionary Catalog of the National Agricultural Library, 1862–1965, were used to determine current library holdings of materials published by veterinary schools that are no longer in existence and veterinary associations that are defunct, veterinary supply catalogs, veterinary house organs, patent medicine publications, and veterinary advertisements. Individual library catalogs were also consulted. In addition, the practice of removing advertisements from bound volumes was examined. Results: There are many gaps in the cataloged library holdings of primary source materials relating to the history of the education of veterinarians in the United States. Conclusions: A proactive action plan needs to be designed and activated to locate, catalog, and preserve this primary source material of veterinary medicine for posterity. PMID:21243050

  1. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  2. Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

  3. The veterinary medicine industry in Britain in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Corley, T A B; Godley, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Economic historians have focused research effort on accounting for the growth and significance of Britain's pharmaceutical industry, but little effort has so far been directed at the veterinary medicine industry, which formed an important part of the wider sector. This article addresses that gap. Factors responsible for that sector's relative insignificance until the 1950s included a general tendency to slaughter rather than to treat sick animals, the absence of advanced medicines until the innovation of sulpha drugs and antibiotics, and difficult relations with the wider pharmaceutical industry. Thereafter output of veterinary medicines increased dramatically, arising from an exponential growth in the demand for intensively farmed poultry meat. Since the 1980s a decline in the use of drugs in agriculture has caused the industry to concentrate on the health needs of domestic animals rather than those of livestock.

  4. The role of veterinary medicine regulatory agencies.

    PubMed

    Smith, M V

    2013-08-01

    An effective animal medicine regulatory programme includes a systematic, evidence-based means of documenting the safety and effectiveness of products before they are produced, marketed or used in a particular country or region. The programme must also include adequate monitoring and controls over the use of these substances. It is clearthat such programmes provide veterinarians, farmers and other animal medicine users with greater assurance that veterinary drugs and biologicals will be safe and effective in preventing and mitigating disease. It is important that these regulatory controls include programmes to ensure that human food obtained from treated animals is safe and that all potential toxicological and microbiological hazards that may be associated with the use of veterinary medicines have been adequately evaluated. There is a great need worldwide for veterinary medicines that provide needed therapies for vast numbers of animals and animal species and, in the case of food-producing animals, for medicinal products that enhance the productivity and efficiency of food production and ensure food safety when they are used in accordance with their approval specifications. The public health mission of regulatory agencies succeeds when they are able to put into the hands of the user an approved, safe and effective, well-manufactured and appropriately labelled medicine, and when there are adequate controls in place to assure proper compliance.

  5. Therapeutic laser in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Brian; Millis, Darryl L

    2015-01-01

    Laser therapy is an increasingly studied modality that can be a valuable tool for veterinary practitioners. Mechanisms of action have been studied and identified for the reduction of pain and inflammation and healing of tissue. Understanding the basics of light penetration into tissue allows evaluation of the correct dosage to deliver for the appropriate condition, and for a particular patient based on physical properties. New applications are being studied for some of the most challenging health conditions and this field will continue to grow. Additional clinical studies are still needed and collaboration is encouraged for all practitioners using this technology.

  6. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines for an integrative veterinary medicine curriculum within veterinary colleges.

    PubMed

    Memon, M A; Shmalberg, J; Adair, H S; Allweiler, S; Bryan, J N; Cantwell, S; Carr, E; Chrisman, C; Egger, C M; Greene, S; Haussler, K K; Hershey, B; Holyoak, G R; Johnson, M; Jeune, S Le; Looney, A; McConnico, R S; Medina, C; Morton, A J; Munsterman, A; Nie, G J; Park, N; Parsons-Doherty, M; Perdrizet, J A; Peyton, J L; Raditic, D; Ramirez, H P; Saik, J; Robertson, S; Sleeper, M; Dyke, J Van; Wakshlag, J

    2016-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative.

  7. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines for an integrative veterinary medicine curriculum within veterinary colleges

    PubMed Central

    Memon, M.A.; Shmalberg, J.; Adair, H.S.; Allweiler, S.; Bryan, J.N.; Cantwell, S.; Carr, E.; Chrisman, C.; Egger, C.M.; Greene, S.; Haussler, K.K.; Hershey, B.; Holyoak, G.R.; Johnson, M.; Jeune, S. Le; Looney, A.; McConnico, R.S.; Medina, C.; Morton, A.J.; Munsterman, A.; Nie, G.J.; Park, N.; Parsons-Doherty, M.; Perdrizet, J.A.; Peyton, J.L.; Raditic, D.; Ramirez, H.P.; Saik, J.; Robertson, S.; Sleeper, M.; Dyke, J. Van; Wakshlag, J.

    2016-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270

  8. 77 FR 67330 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and... and Agriculture (NIFA) is soliciting stakeholder input on the administration of the Veterinary... veterinarians agree to provide, for a specific period of time as identified in the agreement,...

  9. Veterinary school consortia as a means of promoting the food-supply veterinary medicine pipeline.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dale A

    2006-01-01

    Ideas about centers of emphasis and veterinary medical teaching consortia have resurfaced to attract students into food-supply veterinary medicine (FSVM). From 1988 to 2000 a multiple veterinary school consortium approach to food-animal production medicine (FAPM) teaching was conducted to handle regional differences in case load, faculty strengths, and student interests. Six universities developed a memorandum of understanding to provide a wide variety of in-depth, species-specific clinical experiences in FAPM to balance their individual strengths and weakness in addressing food-animal agriculture, to provide for student exchange and faculty development, and to conduct research in food safety. Changes in leadership, redirection of funds, failure to publicize the program to faculty and students, and a focus on research as opposed to teaching led to dissolution of the consortium. However, this approach could work to improve recruitment and retention of students in FSVM if it focused on student exchange, fostered a more integrated curriculum across schools, encouraged faculty involvement, garnered institutional support, and used modern technology in teaching. Private veterinary practices as well as public/corporate practices could be integrated into a broader food-animal curriculum directed at building competency among FSVM students by providing the in-depth training they require. Requirements for the success of this type of program will include funding, marketing, leadership, communication, coordination, integration, and dedicated people with the time to make it work.

  10. 78 FR 69991 - Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Termination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 14 Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the termination of the Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. This document removes the Veterinary Advisory Committee from the Agency's list of...

  11. Entangled Histories: German Veterinary Medicine, c.1770-1900.

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Medical historians have recently become interested in the veterinary past, investigating the development of animal health in countries such as France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. An appreciation of the German context, however, is still lacking - a gap in the knowledge that the present article seeks to fill. Providing a critical interpretation of the evolution of the veterinary profession, this investigation explains why veterinary and medical spheres intersected, drifted apart, then came back together; it also accounts for the stark differences in the position of veterinarians in Germany and Britain. Emphasis is placed on how diverse traditions, interests and conceptualisations of animal health shaped the German veterinary profession, conditioned its field of operation, influenced its choice of animals and diseases, and dictated the speed of reform. Due to a state-oriented model of professionalisation, veterinarians became more enthusiastic about public service than private practice, perceiving themselves to be alongside doctors and scientists in status, rather than next to animal healers or manual labourers. Building on their expertise in epizootics, veterinarians became involved in zoonoses, following outbreaks of trichinosis. They achieved a dominant position in meat hygiene by refashioning abattoirs into sites for the construction of veterinary knowledge. Later, bovine tuberculosis helped veterinarians cement this position, successfully showcasing their expertise and contribution to society by saving as much meat as possible from diseased livestock. Ultimately, this article shows how veterinarians were heavily 'entangled' with the fields of medicine, food, agriculture and the military.

  12. Entangled Histories: German Veterinary Medicine, c.1770–1900

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuda, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Medical historians have recently become interested in the veterinary past, investigating the development of animal health in countries such as France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. An appreciation of the German context, however, is still lacking – a gap in the knowledge that the present article seeks to fill. Providing a critical interpretation of the evolution of the veterinary profession, this investigation explains why veterinary and medical spheres intersected, drifted apart, then came back together; it also accounts for the stark differences in the position of veterinarians in Germany and Britain. Emphasis is placed on how diverse traditions, interests and conceptualisations of animal health shaped the German veterinary profession, conditioned its field of operation, influenced its choice of animals and diseases, and dictated the speed of reform. Due to a state-oriented model of professionalisation, veterinarians became more enthusiastic about public service than private practice, perceiving themselves to be alongside doctors and scientists in status, rather than next to animal healers or manual labourers. Building on their expertise in epizootics, veterinarians became involved in zoonoses, following outbreaks of trichinosis. They achieved a dominant position in meat hygiene by refashioning abattoirs into sites for the construction of veterinary knowledge. Later, bovine tuberculosis helped veterinarians cement this position, successfully showcasing their expertise and contribution to society by saving as much meat as possible from diseased livestock. Ultimately, this article shows how veterinarians were heavily ‘entangled’ with the fields of medicine, food, agriculture and the military. PMID:27998327

  13. Graduate Training in Toxicology in Colleges of Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robens, J. F.; Buck, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are an American Board of Veterinary Toxicology survey and evaluation of the training resources available in graduate programs in toxicology located in colleges of veterinary medicine. Regulatory toxicology, number of toxicologists needed, and curriculum are also discussed. (JMD)

  14. PET and SPECT imaging in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Amy K; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians have gained increasing access to positron emission tomography (PET and PET/CT) imaging facilities, allowing them to use this powerful molecular imaging technique for clinical and research applications. SPECT is currently being used more in Europe than in the United States and has been shown to be useful in veterinary oncology and in the evaluation of orthopedic diseases. SPECT brain perfusion and receptor imaging is used to investigate behavioral disorders in animals that have interesting similarities to human psychiatric disorders. This article provides an overview of the potential applications of PET and SPECT. The use of commercially available and investigational PET radiopharmaceuticals in the management of veterinary disease has been discussed. To date, most of the work in this field has utilized the commercially available PET tracer, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose for oncologic imaging. Normal biodistribution studies in several companion animal species (cats, dogs, and birds) have been published to assist in lesion detection and interpretation for veterinary radiologists and clinicians. Studies evaluating other (18)F-labeled tracers for research applications are underway at several institutions and companion animal models of human diseases are being increasingly recognized for their value in biomarker and therapy development. Although PET and SPECT technologies are in their infancy for clinical veterinary medicine, increasing access to and interest in these applications and other molecular imaging techniques has led to a greater knowledge and collective body of expertise for veterinarians worldwide. Initiation and fostering of physician-veterinarian collaborations are key components to the forward movement of this field.

  15. Evidence-based integrative medicine in clinical veterinary oncology.

    PubMed

    Raditic, Donna M; Bartges, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Integrative medicine is the combined use of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional or traditional Western medicine systems. The demand for integrative veterinary medicine is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. In veterinary clinical oncology, such research could be translated to human medicine, because veterinary patients with spontaneous tumors are valuable translational models for human cancers. An overview of specific herbs, botanics, dietary supplements, and acupuncture evaluated in dogs, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species both in vivo and in vitro is presented for their potential use as integrative therapies in veterinary clinical oncology.

  16. Veterinary Medicine Needs New Green Antimicrobial Drugs.

    PubMed

    Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Ferran, Aude A; Bousquet-Melou, Alain; Pelligand, Ludovic; Lees, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Given that: (1) the worldwide consumption of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in food-producing animals will increase over the coming decades; (2) the prudent use of AMDs will not suffice to stem the rise in human antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of animal origin; (3) alternatives to AMD use are not available or not implementable, there is an urgent need to develop novel AMDs for food-producing animals. This is not for animal health reasons, but to break the link between human and animal resistomes. In this review we establish the feasibility of developing for veterinary medicine new AMDs, termed "green antibiotics," having minimal ecological impact on the animal commensal and environmental microbiomes. We first explain why animal and human commensal microbiota comprise a "turnstile" exchange, between the human and animal resistomes. We then outline the ideal physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of a veterinary green antibiotic and conclude that they can be developed through a rational screening of currently used AMD classes. The ideal drug will be hydrophilic, of relatively low potency, slow clearance and small volume of distribution. It should be eliminated principally by the kidney as inactive metabolite(s). For oral administration, bioavailability can be enhanced by developing lipophilic pro-drugs. For parenteral administration, slow-release formulations of existing eco-friendly AMDs with a short elimination half-life can be developed. These new eco-friendly veterinary AMDs can be developed from currently used drug classes to provide alternative agents to those currently used in veterinary medicine and mitigate animal contributions to the human AMR problem.

  17. Veterinary Medicine Needs New Green Antimicrobial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Ferran, Aude A.; Bousquet-Melou, Alain; Pelligand, Ludovic; Lees, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Given that: (1) the worldwide consumption of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in food-producing animals will increase over the coming decades; (2) the prudent use of AMDs will not suffice to stem the rise in human antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of animal origin; (3) alternatives to AMD use are not available or not implementable, there is an urgent need to develop novel AMDs for food-producing animals. This is not for animal health reasons, but to break the link between human and animal resistomes. In this review we establish the feasibility of developing for veterinary medicine new AMDs, termed “green antibiotics,” having minimal ecological impact on the animal commensal and environmental microbiomes. We first explain why animal and human commensal microbiota comprise a “turnstile” exchange, between the human and animal resistomes. We then outline the ideal physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of a veterinary green antibiotic and conclude that they can be developed through a rational screening of currently used AMD classes. The ideal drug will be hydrophilic, of relatively low potency, slow clearance and small volume of distribution. It should be eliminated principally by the kidney as inactive metabolite(s). For oral administration, bioavailability can be enhanced by developing lipophilic pro-drugs. For parenteral administration, slow-release formulations of existing eco-friendly AMDs with a short elimination half-life can be developed. These new eco-friendly veterinary AMDs can be developed from currently used drug classes to provide alternative agents to those currently used in veterinary medicine and mitigate animal contributions to the human AMR problem. PMID:27536285

  18. 75 FR 77607 - Privacy Act of 1974; Proposed New System of Records; Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Proposed New System of Records; Veterinary Medicine Loan... of Agriculture system of records notice titled, ``Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program Records... subject line of the message. Fax: (202) 401-7752. Mail: Gary Sherman; National Program Leader,...

  19. Entrepreneurship Education and Veterinary Medicine: Enhancing Employable Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Colette; Treanor, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has the purpose of exploring the potential for entrepreneurship education within veterinary medicine. It aims to examine some of the key themes in the entrepreneurship education literature, discuss the make-up of the UK veterinary sector, consider veterinary curricula requirements and illustrate how entrepreneurship education…

  20. PET-Computed Tomography in Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Randall, Elissa K

    2016-05-01

    PET/CT is an advanced imaging modality that is becoming more commonly used in veterinary medicine. It is most commonly used to image patients with cancer, and the most frequently used radiopharmaceutical is F-18 FDG. F-18 FDG is a glucose analog that highlights areas of increased glucose metabolism on the PET images. CT images provide excellent anatomic depiction and aid in interpretation of the PET data. Many types of cancer are hypermetabolic on PET/CT scans, but normal structures and areas of inflammation are also hypermetabolic, so knowledge of normal imaging and cytologic or histopathologic evaluation of lesions is essential.

  1. Antimicrobial drug use in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Morley, Paul S; Apley, Michael D; Besser, Thomas E; Burney, Derek P; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Papich, Mark G; Traub-Dargatz, Josie L; Weese, J Scott

    2005-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of antimicrobial resistance and the need for veterinarians to aid in efforts for maintaining the usefulness of antimicrobial drugs in animals and humans, the Board of Regents of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine charged a special committee with responsibility for drafting this position statement regarding antimicrobial drug use in veterinary medicine. The Committee believes that veterinarians are obligated to balance the well-being of animals under their care with the protection of other animals and public health. Therefore, if an animal's medical condition can be reasonably expected to improve as a result of treatment with antimicrobial drugs, and the animal is under a veterinarian's care with an appropriate veterinarian-client-patient relationship, veterinarians have an obligation to offer antimicrobial treatment as a therapeutic option. Veterinarians also have an obligation to actively promote disease prevention efforts, to treat as conservatively as possible, and to explain the potential consequences associated with antimicrobial treatment to animal owners and managers, including the possibility of promoting selection of resistant bacteria. However, the consequences of losing usefulness of an antimicrobial drug that is used as a last resort in humans or animals with resistant bacterial infections might be unacceptable from a public or population health perspective. Veterinarians could therefore face the difficult choice of treating animals with a drug that is less likely to be successful, possibly resulting in prolonged or exacerbated morbidity, to protect the good of society. The Committee recommends that voluntary actions be taken by the veterinary profession to promote conservative use of antimicrobial drugs to minimize the potential adverse effects on animal or human health. The veterinary profession must work to educate all veterinarians about issues related to conservative antimicrobial drug use and

  2. Committee on Veterinary Medicine at the Society for Medical Education: Skills Labs in Veterinary Medicine - a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Dilly, Marc; Gruber, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012, skills labs have been set up to teach practical skills at veterinary training facilities in the German-speaking world. In addition to didactic considerations, ethical points of view in terms of animal protection form the basis of the increasing significance of skills labs in veterinary medicine. Not least because of the quality standards in veterinary medicine training which apply across Europe, the link between veterinary medicine training facilities is particularly significant when it comes to the setting up and development of skills labs. The Committee on Veterinary Medicine is therefore not only interested in exchange and cooperation within veterinary medicine, but also sees an opportunity for mutual gain in the link with the Society for Medical Education Committee "Practical Skills".

  3. 75 FR 65293 - Draft Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Draft Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal... on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for the Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH) has developed a draft guideline titled ``Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal...

  4. Applied photonic therapy in veterinary medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Terry R.; McLaren, Brian C.

    2005-04-01

    There can be no question that specific systemic physiological results occur, when red light (660nm) is applied to the skin, it is now more a question of detailed mechanisms. Before gathering statistically signifcant clinical trial data, it is important to first enumerate the type of results observed in practice. Case histories are presented highlighting the use of photonic therapy in veterinary medicine. Over 900 surgical procedures have been performed and documented, utilizing the principles of photonic therapy, and while hemostasis, pain relief, and nausea relief, were the primary goals, the peri-operative death rate, the post-operative seroma, and post-operative infection were reduced to almost zero, and there was a noticeable increase in the healing rate. Scientifically applied photonic therapy, rather than supplanting conventional veterinary medicine, compliments and increases the veterinarian's set of skills. This paper proposes a hypothesis of how 660 nm light applied to specific points on the skin, produces various physiological changes in animals. By using animals, there can be no placebo, hypnotic or psychosomatic confounding effects.

  5. 75 FR 4576 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. General Function of the... Rockville Pike, Rockville MD 20852, 301-468-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for...

  6. Women in Veterinary Medicine: The Myths and the Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andberg, Wendy L.

    1976-01-01

    For the years 1969-75, there was no significant difference in the proportions of male and female applicants admitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Minnesota. It is hoped that the sex-typing of veterinary medicine by counselors, teachers, parents, and veterinarians will diminish. (LBH)

  7. The Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program.

    PubMed

    Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake

    2015-04-24

    The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association's Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education.

  8. [Veterinary medical work of Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben, the first teacher of veterinary medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Weidenhöfer, V

    1999-04-01

    Erxleben could be regarded as the founder of the modern, systematic and scientific training of verterinary surgeons in Germany. Thanks to an open-minded up-bringing and a large interest in other scientific fields beyond his medical studies he acquired the ideal basis to turn veterinary medicine into a subject at university. He acquired his knowledge in veterinary medicine by reading numerous veterinary books and by visiting the Netherlands and France and the expert of horses Johann Baptist von Sind. Since 1770 he started with veterinary lessons. When planning his teaching, he tried to avoid the mistakes made by the first schools in France. In order to do so he attached a great importance to a fundamental but practical training. Erxleben also wrote two volumes about veterinary medicine, which he used as a literary basis for his lessons.

  9. Flexing the PECs: Predicting environmental concentrations of veterinary drugs in Canadian agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Belknap, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    Veterinary drugs administered to food animals primarily enter ecosystems through the application of livestock waste to agricultural land. Although veterinary drugs are essential for protecting animal health, their entry into the environment may pose a risk for nontarget organisms. A means to predict environmental concentrations of new veterinary drug ingredients in soil is required to assess their environmental fate, distribution, and potential effects. The Canadian predicted environmental concentrations in soil (PECsoil) for new veterinary drug ingredients for use in intensively reared animals is based on the approach currently used by the European Medicines Agency for VICH Phase I environmental assessments. The calculation for the European Medicines Agency PECsoil can be adapted to account for regional animal husbandry and land use practices. Canadian agricultural practices for intensively reared cattle, pigs, and poultry differ substantially from those in the European Union. The development of PECsoil default values and livestock categories representative of typical Canadian animal production methods and nutrient management practices culminates several years of research and an extensive survey and analysis of the scientific literature, Canadian agricultural statistics, national and provincial management recommendations, veterinary product databases, and producers. A PECsoil can be used to rapidly identify new veterinary drugs intended for intensive livestock production that should undergo targeted ecotoxicity and fate testing. The Canadian PECsoil model is readily available, transparent, and requires minimal inputs to generate a screening level environmental assessment for veterinary drugs that can be refined if additional data are available. PECsoil values for a hypothetical veterinary drug dosage regimen are presented and discussed in an international context. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:331-341. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  10. [Medicinal products for human use in veterinary prescription].

    PubMed

    Kolář, Jozef; Vargová, Lucia; Ambrus, Tünde

    2015-09-01

    The paper deals with the problem of prescription and use of the medicinal products for human use in veterinary medicine. Using partial model analysis describes volume and structure of the prescription of medicinal products for human use in the veterinary practice in the years 2007-2011. Prescriptions included to the study were dispensed in a community pharmacy located in a county town in the Slovak Republic. Data were obtained from the basic collection of 845 veterinary prescriptions that included 1178 prescribed items in a total of 2954 packages.

  11. Use of complementary veterinary medicine in the geriatric horse.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Ed

    2002-12-01

    The use of complementary and alternative veterinary medicine continues to grow within the veterinary community. As more clients seek out complementary and alternative medicine for their own health care, they begin to seek out these forms of therapy for their animals. For the equine practitioner, this includes those clients with geriatric animals. It is hoped that this article provides some insight into what conditions may be helped with CVM (complementary veterinary medicine) and when an equine practitioner may want to consider CVM as a form of therapy for the geriatric horse.

  12. Treatment Strategies for Human Arboviral Infections Applicable to Veterinary Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-16

    0 Lf Reprintod from Tropical Veterinary Medicine : Current Issues and Perspectives 1• • Volume 653 of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences...June 16, 1992 _ Treatment Strategies for Human = __ Arboviral Infections Applicable to I= ’ Veterinary Medicine = ! Chlh. MEIR KENDE (A) U •Department...A 3 0. C . U. 2 * >. U u U>1 it 020 ce*. 0. , -,r- 8 C- ed U a - .; U~u0.M KENDE: HUMAN ARBOVIRAL INFECTIONS AND VETERINARY MEDICINE 299 TABLE 2

  13. Fosfomycin: Uses and potentialities in veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, D.S.; Tapia, M.O.; Soraci, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Fosfomycin (FOS) is a natural bactericidal broad-spectrum antibiotic which acts on proliferating bacteria by inhibiting cell wall and early murein/peptidoglycan synthesis. Bactericidal activity is evident against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and can also act synergistically with other antibiotics. Bacterial resistance to FOS may be natural or acquired. Other properties of this drug include inhibition of bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells, exopolysaccharide biofilm penetration, immunomodulatory effect, phagocytosis promotion and protection against the nephrotoxicity caused by other drugs. FOS has chemical characteristics not typically observed in organic phosphoric compounds and its molecular weight is almost the lowest of all the antimicrobials. It tends to form salts easily due to its acidic nature (disodium salt, for intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) administration; calcium and trometamol salt: for oral (PO) administration). FOS has a very low protein binding (<0.5%) which, along with its low molecular weight and water solubility, contributes to its good diffusion into fluids (cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous and vitreous humor, interstitial fluid) and tissues (placenta, bone, muscle, liver, kidney and skin/fat). In all species, important differences in the bioavailability have been found after administration in relation to the various derivatives of FOS salts. Pharmacokinetic profiles have been described in humans, chickens, rabbits, cows, dogs, horses and weaning piglets. The low toxicity and potential efficacy of FOS are the main factors that contribute to its use in humans and animals. Thus, it has been used to treat a broad variety of bacterial infections in humans, such as localized peritonitis, brain abscesses, severe soft tissue infections, cystitis and other conditions. In veterinary medicine, FOS is used to treat infectious diseases of broiler chickens and pigs. In broilers, it is administered for the treatment of E

  14. The history of veterinary medicine in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Herbert P

    2012-05-16

    Until the middle of the 19th century, very few references exist regarding the occurrence of animal diseases in Namibia. With the introduction of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in 1859, this picture changed completely and livestock owners implemented various forms of disease control in an effort to contain the spread of this disease and minimise its devastating effects. After the establishment of the colonial administration in 1884, the first animal disease legislation was introduced in 1887 and the first veterinarian, Dr Wilhelm Rickmann, arrived in 1894. CBPP and the outbreak of rinderpest in 1897 necessitated a greatly expanded veterinary infrastructure and the first veterinary laboratory was erected at Gammams near Windhoek in 1897. To prevent the spread of rinderpest, a veterinary cordon line was established, which was the very beginning of the Veterinary Cordon Fence as it is known today. After the First World War, a small but dedicated corps of veterinarians again built up an efficient animal health service in the following decades, with veterinary private practice developing from the mid-1950s. The veterinary profession organised itself in 1947 in the form of a veterinary association and, in 1984, legislation was passed to regulate the veterinary profession by the establishment of the Veterinary Council of Namibia. The outbreak of foot and mouth disease in 1961 was instrumental in the creation of an effective veterinary service, meeting international veterinary standards of quality and performance which are still maintained today.

  15. Food-supply veterinary medicine and veterinary medical education: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Rose, Reuben

    2006-01-01

    Food-supply veterinary medicine has been an essential part of veterinary degree programs in Australia since the first veterinary school opened in the late nineteenth century. Australian veterinary schools, like others internationally, are being challenged by the relevance of material in current curricula for modern food-supply veterinary medicine. Additionally, student aspirations are a major issue, as curriculum designers balance companion-animal training with the herd/flock-based issues that focus on productivity and profitability. One of the challenges is to examine the relative balance of education in generic skills (self-knowledge, change management, teamwork, leadership, negotiation) with more technically or scientifically based education. An ongoing process of curriculum review and renewal, which involves input from both external and internal stakeholders and allows regular review and assessment, is needed to ensure continuing curriculum relevance.

  16. Risk Assessment Considerations for Veterinary Medicines in Aquatic Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides a critical evaluation of prospective and retrospective risk assessment approaches for veterinary medicines in aquatic ecosystems and provides recommendations for possible alternative approaches for hazard characterization.

  17. [Tropical veterinary medicine and education in The Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Uilenberg, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    in this lecture an overview is given of the development of tropical veterinary medicine and education in The Netherlands after the Dutch colonial period. The starting point is the development of tropical veterinary medicine in general, especially in Europe and Africa. It is pointed out that just now it is very important to have specialists in tropical diseases not only in the tropics but also in the western world since globalization involves the import of a lot of tropical diseases. The speaker is an advocate of a course on tropical veterinary medicine on an European level, but at the same time he is sceptical about it. In the second part he gives an overview of the education programme on tropical veterinary medicine from the foundation of the Institute at Utrecht University in 1948 until its decline.

  18. Evaluation of Teaching Veterinary Medicine at the University of Nairobi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, U. B.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of graduates from the University of Nairobi, Kenya in the field of veterinary medicine is reported. Areas covered include curriculum; teaching techniques; quality of faculty; and examinations. (JMF)

  19. Extremophiles and their application to veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Extremophiles are organisms that can grow and thrive in harsh conditions, e.g., extremes of temperature, pH, salinity, radiation, pressure and oxygen tension. Thermophilic, halophilic and radiation-resistant organisms are all microbes, some of which are able to withstand multiple extremes. Psychrophiles, or cold-loving organisms, include not only microbes, but fish that live in polar waters and animals that can withstand freezing. Extremophiles are structurally adapted at a molecular level to withstand these conditions. Thermophiles have particularly stable proteins and cell membranes, psychrophiles have flexible cellular proteins and membranes and/or antifreeze proteins, salt-resistant halophiles contain compatible solutes or high concentrations of inorganic ions, and acidophiles and alkaliphiles are able to pump ions to keep their internal pH close to neutrality. Their interest to veterinary medicine resides in their capacity to be pathogenic, and as sources of enzymes and other molecules for diagnostic and pharmaceutical purposes. In particular, thermostable DNA polymerases are a mainstay of PCR-based diagnostics. PMID:21851659

  20. [Veterinary medicine of the GDR in strained relations between technical instructions and political guidelines].

    PubMed

    Prange, H; Azar, J

    2003-01-01

    The development of Veterinary Medicine in the Soviet Occupation Zone in Germany and the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) is sketched in highlights. After the collectivization of agriculture (1960) a centralistically controlled national veterinary system was established. It was suited to the requirements of the industrially organized animal production. The successive classification of socialistic veterinary administration was associated with the following matters: the extension of veterinary subject matters, a vertical division of work with the aid of newly created technical veterinary professions, and a penetration of the profession with political guidelines. As the professional level of the veterinary system in the GDR was relatively high the reflection in retrospective needs to be evaluated in a differentiated way considering the textual and social conditions. In spite of centralism and indoctrination the veterinary system remained professionally autonomous with islands of political independence, which sustained the identity of this profession. The latter formed the base for self renewal of the East German veterinary system at the end of the socialistic area 1989/1990.

  1. Exploring the foundations of population health and preventive medicine as essential elements for veterinary education.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Billy E

    2008-09-15

    The evolution of preventive medicine and public health training in professional veterinary medicine curricula is documented. Most veterinary colleges in the US began with a single course in meat hygiene or public health, with a focus on food hygiene issues. These courses laid the foundation for modern veterinary preventive medicine and public health training for veterinary students. Most graduates of veterinary colleges today have extensive training in population health, preventive medicine, and zoonotic diseases.

  2. 75 FR 61504 - Global Implementation of the Veterinary Medicinal Products Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Global Implementation of the Veterinary Medicinal Products... OIE's services and activities that are needed to carry out OIE's Veterinary International Conference... level. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Program Contact: Merton V. Smith, Center for Veterinary...

  3. 75 FR 50771 - Draft Revised Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Industry on Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products, Active Substances and Excipients... comments of a draft revised guidance for industry ( 100) entitled ``Residual Solvents in New Veterinary... veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for...

  4. Interventional urology: endourology in small animal veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Berent, Allyson C

    2015-07-01

    The use of novel image-guided techniques in veterinary medicine has become more widespread, especially in urologic diseases. With the common incidence of urinary tract obstructions, stones disease, renal disease, and urothelial malignancies, combined with the recognized invasiveness and morbidity associated with traditional surgical techniques, the use of minimally invasive alternatives using interventional radiology and interventional endoscopy techniques has become incredibly appealing to owners and clinicians. This article provides a brief overview of some of the most common procedures done in endourology in veterinary medicine to date, providing as much evidence-based medicine as possible when comparing with traditional surgical alternatives.

  5. Essential veterinary education in avian medicine: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Capua, I; Terregino, C; Castagnaro, M

    2009-08-01

    Avian medicine is a relatively recent discipline in the veterinary curriculum, and is definitely not considered a topical issue. However, in the face of a growing demand for poultry meat worldwide, and in view of the health issues surrounding wild, exotic and pet birds, the relevance of avian medicine should be acknowledged and taken into account when revising curricula.

  6. Therapy and prevention of parasitic insects in veterinary medicine using imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Mencke, Norbert; Jeschke, Peter

    2002-07-01

    Ectoparasitic insects play a major role in veterinary medicine. The flea, especially the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis Bouch 1835) is the most important ectoparasite worldwide. The cat flea parasitizes not only on dogs and cats but also on other warm-blooded animals including humans. The veterinary importance of flea infestation are dermatological conditions due to allergic reactions to antigens in the flea saliva and the transmission of infectious agents like bacteria, viruses and helminths. Insecticides used in veterinary medicine today have to fulfil criteria of elimination of a existing flea infestation (therapy) and prevention (prophylaxis) of new infestation for weeks. Imidacloprid is a compound of the chemical class of CNI (chloronicotinyl insecticides syn. neonicotinoids) that fits these criteria. The high selectivity towards the site of action within insects together with the high safety margin on mammals allowed to develop imidacloprid as an insecticide for agricultural use and finally for the application as a veterinary medicine. The major features of imidacloprid chemistry, toxicology and the development and use as a veterinary medicinal remedy are described.

  7. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: which differences?

    PubMed

    Vanel, Maïa; Blond, Laurent; Vanel, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that prognostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the aggressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all.

  8. [Developments in tropical veterinary medicine at the Utrecht Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (1915-2013)].

    PubMed

    Paling, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Education in livestock diseases in the tropics at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Utrecht University started in 1915 at the Institute for Parasitic and Infectious Diseases. Subsequently, the Institute for Tropical and Protozoon Diseases was established in 1948 and here students and veterinarians were trained in tropical animal health. Research and training were mainly focused on African livestock diseases such as tick borne diseases and trypanosomosis. Training possibilities for students included an elective course ('Tropencursus'), membership of a debating club ('Tropische Kring'), and a traineeship in a project in a tropical country. From 1987 onwards training, education, research, and management of international collaborative projects in tropical animal health became the shared responsibility of the Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology and the Office for International Cooperation. This article focuses on the last 50 years and highlights activities such as education, research, newsletters, networks, and project with African and Asian countries.

  9. Cancer immunotherapy in veterinary medicine: Current options and new developments.

    PubMed

    Regan, Daniel; Guth, Amanda; Coy, Jonathan; Dow, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Excitement in the field of tumor immunotherapy is being driven by several remarkable breakthroughs in recent years. This review will cover recent advances in cancer immunotherapy, including the use of T cell checkpoint inhibitors, engineered T cells, cancer vaccines, and anti-B cell and T cell antibodies. Inhibition of T cell checkpoint molecules such as PD-1 and CTLA-4 using monoclonal antibodies has achieved notable success against advanced tumors in humans, including melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and non-small cell lung cancer. Therapy with engineered T cells has also demonstrated remarkable tumor control and regression in human trials. Autologous cancer vaccines have recently demonstrated impressive prolongation of disease-free intervals and survival times in dogs with lymphoma. In addition, caninized monoclonal antibodies targeting CD20 and CD52 just recently received either full (CD20) or conditional (CD52) licensing by the United States Department of Agriculture for clinical use in the treatment of canine B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, respectively. Thus, immunotherapy for cancer is rapidly moving to the forefront of cancer treatment options in veterinary medicine as well as human medicine.

  10. [A legend of tropical veterinary medicine: Dick Zwart].

    PubMed

    Dwinger, Ron; Uilenberg, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    An overview is given of the achievements of Professor Dr. D. Zwart (1930-2005). Following a brief introduction dealing with his background, his first eleven years of working in tropical countries are reviewed. Initially he was employed as a government veterinarian in Dutch New Guinea, followed by five years as a scientist at the agricultural faculty in Kumasi, Ghana, where he completed his PhD on liver cirrhosis in local pigs. He was seconded by the Department of Tropical Veterinary Medicine at Utrecht University to work as a virologist in Vom, Nigeria. Once back in The Netherlands, he was selected to take over the position of head of the Department due to the unexpected death of Professor S. G. Wilson. He stayed for 20 years at Utrecht University and was for another nine years department head at the Agricultural University of Wageningen. He was an influential man during this long period as department head, not only for his students, but also in the international field. Four aspects of the achievements by Dick are highlighted in detail: as a scientist, as an educator, as a stimulating figure, and as a visionary.

  11. 77 FR 77008 - Solicitation of Veterinary Shortage Situation Nominations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... practices contributing to the production of a safe and wholesome food supply and to animal, human, and... risk(s) to the production of a safe and wholesome food supply and/or to animal, human, and... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Solicitation of Veterinary Shortage Situation Nominations...

  12. Antiviral chemotherapy in veterinary medicine: current applications and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dal Pozzo, F; Thiry, E

    2014-12-01

    The current situation in the use of antiviral drugs in veterinary medicine is characterised by a novel and optimistic approach.Viruses of veterinary importance are still used as animal models in the developmentof human therapeutics, but there is growing interest in many of these viruses in the identification of antiviral molecules for use in both livestock and companion animals. The use of antiviral drugs in livestock animals is envisaged for the treatment or control of disease on a large scale (mass treatment), whereas in companion animals an individual approach is favoured. An overview of the most recent examples of research in the use of antivirals in veterinary medicine is presented, with particular emphasis on their in vivo applications.

  13. A ranking of European veterinary medicines based on environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Kools, Stefan A E; Boxall, Alistair; Moltmann, Johann F; Bryning, Gareth; Koschorreck, Jan; Knacker, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    The most likely entry pathways of veterinary pharmaceuticals to the environment are via slurry or manure from intensively reared animals to soil and via dung or urine from animals grazing on pasture. These pathways may result in contamination of surface water via runoff or leaching and drainage. Direct entry into water may occur by defecation by pasture animals or by Scompanion animals. In addition, application of medicines for aquaculture is important for a limited number of veterinary medicinal products. For a large number of veterinary medicinal products, consistent data on the environmental risk have never been generated. In this project, a simple risk-based ranking procedure was developed that should allow assessing the potential for environmental risks of active substances of veterinary medicinal products. In the European Union approximately 2000 products containing 741 active substances were identified. In the prescreening step and in agreement with the technical guidelines released by the European Medicines Agency, 294 natural substances, complex mixtures, and substances with low expected exposure were exempted from the ranking procedure. For 233 active substances, sufficient information was collated on 4 exposure scenarios: Intensively reared animals, pasture animals, companion animals, and aquaculture. The ranking approach was performed in 4 phases: (1) usage estimation; (2) characterization of exposure to soil, dung, surface water, and aquatic organisms depending on exposure scenarios; (3) characterization of effects based on therapeutical doses; and (4) risk characterization, which is the ratio of exposure to effects (risk index), and ranking. Generally, the top-ranked substances were from the antibiotic and parasiticide groups of veterinary medicines. Differences occurred in the ranking of substances in soil via application to either intensively reared or pasture animals. In intensive rearing, anticoccidia, for example, are used as feed

  14. 75 FR 58411 - Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public...: ``Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) eSubmitter Workshop.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to..., Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-100), Food and Drug Administration, 7520 Standish Pl., Rockville,...

  15. 21 CFR 510.112 - Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for... DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.112 Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine... advise the Commissioner on, the use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine and for various...

  16. Pain in veterinary medicine in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Passantino, Annamaria; Fazio, Alessandra; Quartatone, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    The practice of veterinary medicine has changed radically over the past two decades, new technology and scientific breakthroughs have occurred, in close association with the field of human medicine. This progress has not only increased the capacity of veterinarians to provide high-quality care, it has also served to increase client awareness and expectations regarding animal care. On the legal front, it has finally given a "voice" to animals, now defined as sentient beings, thus imposing a series of duties upon veterinarians to promote their welfare. Preventing and managing pain has become a fundamental element of patient care quality in veterinary medicine, and pharmacotherapy is the basis of pain management. This paper takes this as a starting point to clarify the concept of pain in veterinary medicine and explores the relevance of an ethic to the clinical setting which gives the animal patient a strong right to freedom from unnecessary pain and thus creating moral obligations towards patients on the part of veterinary professionals. There is the duty not to inflict pain and suffering beyond what is necessary for effective diagnosis and treatment on the one hand and a duty to do all that can be done to relieve all the pain and suffering which can be alleviated on the other.

  17. Setting up a veterinary medicine skills lab in Germany.

    PubMed

    Dilly, Marc; Tipold, Andrea; Schaper, Elisabeth; Ehlers, Jan P

    2014-01-01

    The amendments introduced to the current Veterinary Licensing Ordinance (TAppV) by the Veterinary Licensing Regulation (TAppO) have brought a high degree of skills orientation to fill the gap between academic study and preparing for a wide range of professional skills. In order to improve the veterinary skills of students while conveying fundamental methods in a structured and reproducible way, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, has set up the first central veterinary skills lab in Germany. Practical training is provided by means of a three-tier delivery approach. This involves around 40 simulators on an area of approx. 800 m(2) under the guidance of 6-8 staff members, along with supplementary resources such as posters, text instructions and YouTube videos. Since it opened in March 2013, there have been 769 visits to the skills lab and 30,734 hits on YouTube. Initial results show that the skills lab helps to maintain student motivation by teaching them practical skills at an early stage of the basic study-based acquisition of knowledge, whilst reinforcing skills acquisition per se in competence-based teaching. It enables veterinary students to prepare for their first examinations and treatments of live patients in a manner compliant with animal welfare.

  18. Setting Up a Veterinary Medicine Skills Lab in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dilly, Marc; Tipold, Andrea; Schaper, Elisabeth; Ehlers, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    The amendments introduced to the current Veterinary Licensing Ordinance (TAppV) by the Veterinary Licensing Regulation (TAppO) have brought a high degree of skills orientation to fill the gap between academic study and preparing for a wide range of professional skills. In order to improve the veterinary skills of students while conveying fundamental methods in a structured and reproducible way, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, has set up the first central veterinary skills lab in Germany. Practical training is provided by means of a three-tier delivery approach. This involves around 40 simulators on an area of approx. 800 m² under the guidance of 6-8 staff members, along with supplementary resources such as posters, text instructions and YouTube videos. Since it opened in March 2013, there have been 769 visits to the skills lab and 30,734 hits on YouTube. Initial results show that the skills lab helps to maintain student motivation by teaching them practical skills at an early stage of the basic study-based acquisition of knowledge, whilst reinforcing skills acquisition per se in competence-based teaching. It enables veterinary students to prepare for their first examinations and treatments of live patients in a manner compliant with animal welfare. PMID:24872855

  19. Issues of reporting in observational studies in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, Jan M; O'Connor, Annette M

    2014-02-15

    Observational studies are common in veterinary medicine; the results may be used to inform decision-making, future research, or as inputs to systematic reviews or risk assessment. To be of use, the results must be published, all of the outcomes that were assessed must be included in the publication, and the research (methods and results) must be reported in sufficient detail that the reader can evaluate the internal and external validity. In human healthcare, concerns about the completeness of reporting - and evidence that poor reporting is associated with study results - have led to the creation of reporting guidelines; these include the STROBE statement for observational studies. There is evidence from a limited body of research that there also are reporting inadequacies in veterinary observational studies. There are differences between human and veterinary observational studies that might be relevant to recommendations for reporting. Such differences include: the use of observational studies in animal populations for simultaneously estimating disease frequency and risk-factor identification; the distinction between the animal owners who consent to participate and the animals that are the study subjects; and the complexity of organizational levels inherent in animal research (in particular, for studies in livestock species). In veterinary medicine, it is common to have clustering within outcomes (due to animal grouping) and clustering of predictor variables. We argue that there is a compelling need for the scientific community involved in veterinary observational studies to use the STROBE statement, use an amended version of STROBE, or to develop and use reporting guidelines that are specific to veterinary medicine to improve reporting of these studies.

  20. The responsibilities of veterinary educators in responding to emerging needs in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, R E W

    2009-08-01

    It is an unfortunate fact that not only has veterinary education failed to adapt in the face of likely future needs, but it has also failed to respond to societal changes that have already taken place and that have affected the requirements for veterinary services and veterinary capability. The responsibility is primarily that of educators, although vision and foresight require a co-ordinated approach involving national and international veterinary organisations. Once it is accepted by all parties that change is essential, the implementation will fail unless there is a unified programme involving the schools and colleges, the accrediting agencies, the licensing authorities, governments, the professional organisations and corporate veterinary medicine. All have a role to play, and any one can readily block progress. A unified approach is an absolute requirement. The developed countries must take a leading role, but the issues are global, and ways must be found to facilitate change in all parts of the world. Disease knows no boundaries, and any strategy is only as strong as its weakest link.

  1. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Harris, N. Beth; Barletta, Raúl G.

    2001-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (basonym M. paratuberculosis) is the etiologic agent of a severe gastroenteritis in ruminants known as Johne's disease. Economic losses to the cattle industry in the United States are staggering, reaching $1.5 billion annually. A potential pathogenic role in humans in the etiology of Crohn's disease is under investigation. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and disease control measures of this important veterinary pathogen. We emphasize molecular genetic aspects including the description of markers used for strain identification, diagnostics, and phylogenetic analysis. Recent important advances in the development of animal models and genetic systems to study M. paratuberculosis virulence determinants are also discussed. We conclude with proposals for the applications of these models and recombinant technology to the development of diagnostic, control, and therapeutic measures. PMID:11432810

  2. Terminology challenges: defining modified release dosage forms in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marilyn N; Lindquist, Danielle; Modric, Sanja

    2010-08-01

    Terminologies for describing dosage form release characteristics for human pharmaceuticals have been addressed by bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), and the US Pharmacopeia (USP). While the definition for terms such as "immediate release," "modified release," "extended release," and "delayed release" are now well accepted for human pharmaceuticals, confusion still exists within the veterinary community. In part, this confusion is attributable to differences between human and veterinary dosage forms (such as the preponderance of parenteral vs. oral extended release products for use in animals vs. the focus on oral extended release formulations for human use) which reflect interspecies differences in physiology and conditions of use. It also simply reflects a lack of attention to existing definitions. In an effort to remedy this problem, this manuscript reflects an initial effort to suggest definitions that may be appropriate for describing formulation effects in veterinary medicine.

  3. Sustainable veterinary medicine for the new era.

    PubMed

    Lin, J H; Kaphle, K; Wu, L S; Yang, N Y J; Lu, G; Yu, C; Yamada, H; Rogers, P A M

    2003-12-01

    Sustainability aims to harmonise life on Earth without compromising the essential natural resources that should be the birthright of future generations. 'Sustainable medicine' (SM) is just one component of the wide range of possible sustainable approaches to peaceful co-existence. Sustainable medicine envisions an uncomplicated system of maintaining the health of people and animals, both now and for many years to come. This type of medicine is based on ancient wisdom, knowledge and healing arts, combined with the advantages and technical achievements of modern science and other areas of medicine; it is an integrated approach to preventive, safe and affordable healing. The term sustainable medicine also implies that the main therapeutic materials used in the course of practising this type of medicine can be replaced or replenished with minimal environmental damage after harvesting. The aim of sustainable medicine is to maintain the balance of nature, allowing an estimated 7 to 100 million species of life forms to co-exist and reproduce, and to sustain the long-term future of this planet. The world is in the midst of an environmental crisis: anthropogenic environmental damage in the last century was greater than in any previous century. One of the major concerns is the misuse of medicines, and the resulting immune depletion in people and animals. Many traditional medical systems have taught that appropriate adaptation by, and of, an effective defence system is the key to health and survival. This is only possible if priority is given to a preventive rather than a curative approach to health care; the very same approach that is advocated by proponents of SM: an approach based on proper diagnosis and the use of personalised, tailor-made medicine. The authors propose SM (the combination of the advantages of modern, traditional and complementary medical systems) as the best approach to providing better health care services for people and animals. The article presents a

  4. 75 FR 63143 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and... Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) authorized under section 1415A of the National..., veterinary services in veterinarian shortage situations. As part of the stakeholder input process, NIFA...

  5. 76 FR 68126 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ...-AA43 Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program... input on the administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) authorized under... as identified in the agreement, veterinary services in veterinarian shortage situations. As part...

  6. [Carl Gillmeister: the first Doctor of veterinary medicine in Mecklenburg--and in Germany (1834)].

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, W; Schäffer, J

    2004-02-01

    German schools and faculties of veterinary medicine did not receive the sovereign right to award the degree "Doctor medicinae veterinarae" until the early twentieth century. Until then, in the nineteenth century there were two possibilities for veterinarians to earn a doctoral degree, usually referred to as the title of "Doctor": 1. On the basis of an exceptionally excellent dissertation and after very stringent examination a candidate could be awarded the degree "Dr. med." by the faculty of a medical school, or, if the candidate had studied at a philosophical faculty, the degree "Dr. phil." 2. A doctoral degree specifically in veterinary medicine could be earned only at a medical faculty. The Medical Faculty of the University of Giessen awarded the degree "Doctor in arte veterinaria" for the first time in 1832. In this study we prove that Giessen was not the first German university to award a doctorate in veterinary medicine, a priority which has never been questioned in the literature. As early as 1829, veterinarians could earn the degree "Doctor artis veterinariae" at the Medical Faculty of the University of Rostock, where three such awards are documented between 1829 and 1831. The designation "medicina" was also intially avoided in Rostock. Therefore, of particular significance is the discovery of a fourth such document from the Rostock University Archives, the doctoral diploma of Carl Jacob Friedrich Gillmeister, who at the age of 22 was awarded the degree "Doctor medicinae veterinariae" in Rostock after a successful defense. This is the earliest, but also the last archival record of the German doctoral degree in veterinary medicine in the modern sense, because after Gillmeister no veterinarian could earn a doctoral degree in Rostock further more. Gillmeisters vita sheds light on the times and the difficulties of the veterinary profession in the poor agricultural area of Mecklenburg.

  7. Modern CT applications in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Garland, Melissa R; Lawler, Leo P; Whitaker, Brent R; Walker, Ian D F; Corl, Frank M; Fishman, Elliot K

    2002-01-01

    Although computed tomography (CT) is used primarily for diagnosis in humans, it can also be used to diagnose disease in veterinary patients. CT and associated three-dimensional reconstruction have a role in diagnosis of a range of illnesses in a variety of animals. In a sea turtle with failure to thrive, CT showed a nodal mass in the chest, granulomas in the lungs, and a ball in the stomach. CT of a sea dragon with balance and movement problems showed absence of the swim bladder. In a sloth with failure to thrive, CT allowed diagnosis of a coin in the intestine. CT of a puffin with failure to thrive showed a mass in the chest, which was found to be a hematoma. In a smooth-sided toad whose head was tilted to one side and who was circling in that direction, CT showed partial destruction of the temporal bone. CT of a domestic cat with listlessness showed a mass with focal calcification, which proved to be a leiomyosarcoma. CT of a sea otter showed pectus excavatum, which is caused by the animal smashing oysters against its chest. In a Japanese koi with abdominal swelling, CT allowed diagnosis of a hepatoma.

  8. Intrigues of biofilm: A perspective in veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, Umar Faruk; Igwenagu, Ephraim; Mu’azu, Anas; Aliyu, Sani; Umar, Maryam Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm has a tremendous impact in the field of veterinary medicine, especially the livestock industry, leading to a serious economic loss. Over the years, little attention has been given to biofilm in animals with most of the research geared toward human biofilm diseases. The greatest challenge posed by biofilm is in its incredible ability to resist most of the currently existing antibiotics. This mystery can best be demystified through understanding the mechanism of the quorum sensing which regulate the pathophysiology of biofilm. Ability of biofilm formation in a variety of inanimate surfaces such as animal food contact surfaces is responsible for a host of biofilm diseases affecting animals and humans. In this review, we highlighted some of the challenges of biofilm in livestock and food industries. Also highlighted are; mechanisms of biofilm development, best diagnostic approach and possible novel therapeutic measures needed to combat the menace of biofilm in veterinary medicine. PMID:27051178

  9. The Changing Fiscal Environment for Academic Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Zimmel, Dana N; Lloyd, James W

    2015-01-01

    The fiscal environment for academic veterinary medicine has changed substantially over the past 50 years. Understanding the flux of state and federal government support and the implications for student debt, academic programs, and scholarly work is critical for planning for the future. The recent precipitous decline in public funding highlights the urgent need to develop and maintain an economically sustainable model that can adapt to the changing landscape and serve societal needs.

  10. [The Veterinary Historical Museum at the Hannover School of Veterinary Medicine--history, conception, duties and problems].

    PubMed

    Schäffer, J

    1994-08-01

    The Veterinary Historical Museum at the School of Veterinary Medicine was founded in 1973. It is the only museum of this kind in Germany at the moment this is open to the public. More than 600 exhibits give information on the history of the School of Veterinary Medicine since 1778 as well as on the development of the different veterinary working fields and the diagnosis and treatment methods during the last centuries. The academic collection contains about 2500 objects that keep the veterinary cultural possessions out of the areas: science, practices, administration and personal sphere. A certain military historical collection also belongs to the museum, the so-called "Sammlung Wens". The Institute for Veterinary History is responsible for the administration and the maintenance of the museum. Like in every other museum it was and is still tried to fulfill the basic tasks of museum work, there are: collecting, keeping, exhibiting, exploring and teaching. These working fields leave a lot of problems due to the "hermaphroditic" position of the museum as a part of the School of Veterinary Medicine on the one hand and as a public museum on the other hand. The result is that the museum has neither specialist staff nor an independent budget until today. A guided tour in the museum and the critical representation of its tasks explain a stalemate situation that should absolutely be avoided at the conception of a future museum for veterinary medicine as it is planned in Berlin.

  11. A model for teaching raptor medicine in the veterinary curriculum.

    PubMed

    Degernes, Laurel A; Osborne, Julie A Nettifee

    2006-01-01

    Injured or sick wild avian species, especially raptors (birds of prey, including hawks, owls, falcons, and eagles), can present different challenges to veterinary students and veterinarians who are trained in companion avian medicine (e.g., parrot medicine). Proper capture and restraint, feeding, housing, and certain diagnostic and treatment techniques involving raptors require different skills, knowledge, and resources than working with parrots. We developed an innovative raptor medicine program that enables students to acquire proficiency in safe capture, restraint, and examination techniques and in common diagnostic and treatment procedures. A self-assessment survey was developed to determine students' confidence and proficiency in 10 procedures taught in the lab. Groups were compared by class status (Year 1 vs. Year 2 and 3) and level of prior raptor experience (non-experienced or experienced). In surveys conducted before and after teaching two sets of raptor training labs, students rated themselves significantly more proficient in all 10 diagnostic and treatment procedures after completing the two raptor laboratories. The greatest improvements were observed in technical skill procedures such as fluid administration, intramuscular injections, cloacal swabs, venipuncture, and bandaging. Our approach to incorporating elective wildlife learning experiences into the veterinary curriculum may be replicable in other veterinary schools, with or without a wildlife rehabilitation program.

  12. IL-12 based gene therapy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Pavlin, Darja; Cemazar, Maja; Sersa, Gregor; Tozon, Natasa

    2012-11-21

    The use of large animals as an experimental model for novel treatment techniques has many advantages over the use of laboratory animals, so veterinary medicine is becoming an increasingly important translational bridge between preclinical studies and human medicine. The results of preclinical studies show that gene therapy with therapeutic gene encoding interleukin-12 (IL-12) displays pronounced antitumor effects in various tumor models. A number of different studies employing this therapeutic plasmid, delivered by either viral or non-viral methods, have also been undertaken in veterinary oncology. In cats, adenoviral delivery into soft tissue sarcomas has been employed. In horses, naked plasmid DNA has been delivered by direct intratumoral injection into nodules of metastatic melanoma. In dogs, various types of tumors have been treated with either local or systemic IL-12 electrogene therapy. The results of these studies show that IL-12 based gene therapy elicits a good antitumor effect on spontaneously occurring tumors in large animals, while being safe and well tolerated by the animals. Hopefully, such results will lead to further investigation of this therapy in veterinary medicine and successful translation into human clinical trials.

  13. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iragüen, D; Urcelay, S; San Martín, B

    2011-04-01

    Iragüen, D., Urcelay, S., San Martín, B. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap.34, 108-115. In Chile, there is no present government policy to survey and analyse adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the field of veterinary medicine. The intent of this study is to assess, for the first time, ADR frequency in treated animals. To this purpose, a 6-month period pilot study based on WHO recommendations was conducted to monitor ADRs in cats and dogs for frequently used drugs and common labelled signs. Of a total of 149 detected ADRs, 29 (6 in cats and 23 in dogs) were notified by means of ADR report forms, while the rest was identified after reviewing patient clinical records, thus evidencing strong under-reporting problems. More than 70% of ADRs were related to antimicrobials, vaccines and tranquilizers. In dogs, there was a significant effect on ADRs' presentation when acepromazine, amoxicillin, carprofen, ivermectin, sextuple vaccine (polyvalent vaccine that confers immunity against canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, Leptospira canicola, L. icterohemmoragiae, canine adenovirus type 2 and canine parainfluenza virus) and phytomenadione (subcutaneous injection) were administered. In the case of cats, a significant influence on ADRs was detected when acepromazine, amoxicillin or vitamin K was administered. Present results suggest the need for a pharmacovigilance programme in veterinary medicine for timely ADR-presenting drug detection and drug safety improvement.

  14. The Utrecht model of teaching veterinary medicine and the role of veterinary parasitology.

    PubMed

    Eysker, M

    2002-10-02

    The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, established a new curriculum for teaching veterinary medicine in 1995 with the main objectives to improve the problem-solving and communication competences of the students and their scientific education. Because it is accepted that graduates cannot get a starting competence in all fields of the veterinary profession, a differentiation of education focused on animal species and life-long learning is emphasised. Major characteristics of this curriculum are a high degree of horizontal and vertical integration of the various disciplines, the preference for teaching in small working groups and the training for self-learning. This curriculum is described in some detail. Parasitology is not taught as a coherent subject but is integrated into various subjects, presented in an interdisciplinary approach. The number of contact hours is variable depending on optional courses and the differentiation tracks taken but it amounts for a minimum of approximately 90 contact hours for each student during the full curriculum. A major disadvantage of the curriculum is that examination of parasitology is within integrated subjects. Thus, students that perform poorly on parasitology may still pass. An advantage is the extended presence of parasitology in the last year of clinical training and the improved interdisciplinary interaction between parasitologists and clinicians. The curriculum has been changed again in 2001; study paths focused on animal species and other subjects start already in the first year, and approximately 25% of the first 4 years of the curriculum will be within these study paths.

  15. Alternative medicines for the geriatric veterinary patient.

    PubMed

    Kidd, J Randy

    2012-07-01

    Over the past several decades, alternative medicines have gained in popularity for use in both humans and animals. While they are not without controversy, client interest and usage dictate that even those practitioners who do not want to practice any of them in their own hospital or clinic should at least be aware of their common use, safety, and efficacy. The author briefly discusses some of the more popular alternative medicines—acupuncture, chiropractic, herbal, homeopathic, and flower essences—with respect to some of the basics that every practitioner should know about them.

  16. The Peak of the Pyramid: Women in Dentistry, Medicine and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Amber B.; Shapiro, Eileen C.

    This paper examines: (1) selected aspects of the current status of women at the top of the hierarchies in the three health professions of dentistry, medicine, and veterinary medicine, and (2) some of the effects of the changing structure of the health care system on the present and future roles of the women in each of these professions. Besides…

  17. A review of neuroendoscopy and potential applications in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Michael; Levesque, Donald

    2011-01-01

    The endoscope was first developed over 200 yr ago. Endoscopy has since been applied to many disciplines of medicine. Its application to the nervous system was initially slow and not widely accepted and mainly involved the biopsy of tumors and the treatment of hydrocephalus. Several reasons for neuroendoscopy's limited use include inadequate endoscope technology, high skill level required, the advent of the surgical microscope, and the development of other treatments such as ventricular shunting. Over the past 50 yr, improvements in optical glass lenses, fiber optics, and electrical circuitry has led to better equipment and a revival of neuroendoscopy. Neuroendoscopy is now used in many diseases in human medicine including hydrocephalus, neoplasia, and intracranial cysts. This review presents the history of neuroendoscopy, the equipment and technology used, and the possible translation of techniques currently used in human medicine to veterinary medicine.

  18. Innovation in veterinary medical education: the concept of 'One World, One Health' in the curriculum of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Calgary.

    PubMed

    Cribb, A; Buntain, B

    2009-08-01

    'One World, One Health' is a foundation concept in veterinary medicine, much like comparative medicine. However, teachers of veterinary medicine often fail to identify it or speak of its importance within the veterinary curriculum. The resurgence of interest in the 'One World, One Health' concept aligns well with the underlying principles on which the University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UCVM) has been newly founded. This concept is therefore a key component of the UCVM programme, and one that is well highlighted for those studying in the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) course and graduate students.

  19. Personalised medicine in veterinary oncology: one to cure just one.

    PubMed

    Klopfleisch, R

    2015-08-01

    The term 'personalised medicine' is frequently used when modern medicine or the future of medicine is being described. Although the term basically implies that patients are individuals and should be treated as such, its modern meaning embraces a major leap by combining diagnostics and therapy. Thus, personalised medicine as presently understood seeks mainly to improve the effectiveness of therapeutic measures by tailoring therapy protocols according to the molecular genotype and phenotype of the individual patient. This has been facilitated by the introduction of new technologies such as next generation sequencing and proteome analysis, which has demonstrated that each tumour is much more distinctive than previously thought. Nevertheless, bioinformatics and experimental assays suggest that only a restricted number of driver genes or molecular pathways contribute to the development of most tumours. So, while tumour genomes have not yet been analysed in veterinary oncology, studies focused on mRNA expression and proteomic profiles of (mainly canine) tumours have already provided clinically relevant biomarkers and gene expression patterns. These data may be the start point for personalised approaches in veterinary oncology leading to better efficacy and safety of therapeutic protocols.

  20. Veterinary medicine, food security and the global environment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, A M; Marshak, R R

    2009-08-01

    The authors focus on the role of veterinary medicine in feeding the nine billion people projected to inhabit the planet by 2050, despite the problems of global warming, political constraints and environmental destruction. Population growth, predominantly urban, will occur mainly in developing countries, at a magnitude comparable to creating a city the size of Los Angeles, the second largest city in the United States of America, every three weeks for the next 40 years. Accompanying this growth will be a greatly increased demand for animal protein. How this burgeoning demand can be met by intensive and extensive systems of animal production is discussed, with particular reference to the immensely important role that the veterinary profession and schools must play.

  1. Echocardiography as a Research and Clinical Tool in Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Allen, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    Echocardiography is the accepted term for the study of cardiac ultrasound. Although a relatively new tool for the study of the heart in man it has already found wide acceptance in the area of cardiac research and in the study of clinical cardiac disease. Animals had often been used in the early experiments with cardiac ultrasound, but only recently has echocardiography been used as a research and clinical tool in veterinary medicine. In this report echocardiography is used in the research of anesthetic effects on ventricular function and clinically in the diagnosis of congestive cardiomyopathy in a cat, ventricular septal defect in a calf, and pericardial effusion in a dog. Echocardiography is now an important adjunct to the field of veterinary cardiology. ImagesFigure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422196

  2. Agricultural pesticides and veterinary substances in Uruguayan beeswax.

    PubMed

    Harriet, Jorge; Campá, Juan Pablo; Grajales, Mauricio; Lhéritier, Christophe; Gómez Pajuelo, Antonio; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas

    2017-06-01

    Over the last decade, Uruguay has expanded and intensified its rainfed crop production. This process has affected beekeeping in several ways: for example, by reducing the space available. This has increased the density of apiaries, the risk of varroosis and acaricide use. Additionally, the dominance of no-tillage crops has increased the frequencies of application and of loads of pesticides in regions where such crops share the land with beekeeping and honey production. Therefore, the exposure of bees to xenobiotics (agricultural pesticides and veterinary products) has increased in line with pollution of hives and their products. To document pollution from hive exposure to pesticides, we surveyed the presence of 30 xenobiotics normally used in Uruguay, in recycled beeswax (RB) and in honey cappings (HC) from the main Uruguayan beekeeping regions. There was contamination of all the analyzed samples (RB and HC) with the herbicide atrazine at a range of 1-2 ng g(-1). At least three or four additional xenobiotics were detected: insecticides (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and thiacloprid); fungicides (azoxystrobin and tebuconazole); and veterinary products (coumaphos, ethion, and tau-fluvalinate). The frequency of detection of chlorpyrifos-ethyl and coumaphos in RB samples was higher than in those of HC. Moreover, the concentrations of azoxystrobin, coumaphos, and tebuconazole in RB samples were higher than in HC samples. Therefore, we suggest the use of HC to produce recycled printed beeswax films for use in hives to minimize pollution transfer.

  3. Veterinarians and public practice at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine: building on a tradition of expertise and partnership.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Katherine A; Walters, Bettye K

    2008-01-01

    The Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM), a regional veterinary college for Maryland and Virginia, has a long and unique tradition of encouraging careers in public and corporate veterinary medicine. The VMRCVM is home to the Center for Public and Corporate Veterinary Medicine (CPCVM), and each year approximately 10% of the veterinary students choose the public/corporate veterinary medicine track. The faculty of the CPCVM, and their many partners from the veterinary public practice community, teach in the veterinary curriculum and provide opportunities for students locally, nationally, and internationally during summers and the final clinical year. Graduates of the program work for government organizations, including the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as in research, in industry, and for non-governmental organizations. Recent activities include securing opportunities for students, providing career counseling for graduate veterinarians interested in making a career transition, delivering continuing education, and offering a preparatory course for veterinarians sitting the board examination for the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine. As the VMRCVM moves forward in recognition of the changing needs of the veterinary profession, it draws on its tradition of partnership and capitalizes on the excellence of its existing program. Future plans for the CPCVM include possible expansion in the fields of public health, public policy, international veterinary medicine, organizational leadership, and the One Health initiative. Quality assurance and evaluation of the program is ongoing, with recognition that novel evaluation approaches will be useful and informative.

  4. Euthanasia, moral stress, and chronic illness in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2011-05-01

    Euthanasia is a double-edged sword in veterinary medicine. It is a powerful and ultimately the most powerful tool for ending the pain and suffering. Demand for its use for client convenience is morally reprehensible and creates major moral stress for ethically conscious practitioners. But equally reprehensible and stressful to veterinarians is the failure to use it when an animal faces only misery, pain, distress, and suffering. Finding the correct path through this minefield may well be the most important ethical task facing the conscientious veterinarian.

  5. Normality and naturalness: a comparison of the meanings of concepts used within veterinary medicine and human medicine.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Henrik; Hofmann, Bjørn

    2011-12-01

    This article analyses the different connotations of "normality" and "being natural," bringing together the theoretical discussion from both human medicine and veterinary medicine. We show how the interpretations of the concepts in the different areas could be mutually fruitful. It appears that the conceptions of "natural" are more elaborate in veterinary medicine, and can be of value to human medicine. In particular they can nuance and correct conceptions of nature in human medicine that may be too idealistic. Correspondingly, the wide ranging conceptions of "normal" in human medicine may enrich conceptions in veterinary medicine, where the discussions seem to be sparse. We do not argue that conceptions from veterinary medicine should be used in human medicine and vice versa, but only that it could be done and that it may well be fruitful. Moreover, there are overlaps between some notions of normal and natural, and further conceptual analysis on this overlap is needed.

  6. Clonality Testing in Veterinary Medicine: A Review With Diagnostic Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Keller, S M; Vernau, W; Moore, P F

    2016-07-01

    The accurate distinction of reactive and neoplastic lymphoid proliferations can present challenges. Given the different prognoses and treatment strategies, a correct diagnosis is crucial. Molecular clonality assays assess rearranged lymphocyte antigen receptor gene diversity and can help differentiate reactive from neoplastic lymphoid proliferations. Molecular clonality assays are commonly used to assess atypical, mixed, or mature lymphoid proliferations; small tissue fragments that lack architecture; and fluid samples. In addition, clonality testing can be utilized to track neoplastic clones over time or across anatomic sites. Molecular clonality assays are not stand-alone tests but useful adjuncts that follow clinical, morphologic, and immunophenotypic assessment. Even though clonality testing provides valuable information in a variety of situations, the complexities and pitfalls of this method, as well as its dependency on the experience of the interpreter, are often understated. In addition, a lack of standardized terminology, laboratory practices, and interpretational guidelines hinders the reproducibility of clonality testing across laboratories in veterinary medicine. The objectives of this review are twofold. First, the review is intended to familiarize the diagnostic pathologist or interested clinician with the concepts, potential pitfalls, and limitations of clonality testing. Second, the review strives to provide a basis for future harmonization of clonality testing in veterinary medicine by providing diagnostic guidelines.

  7. Effectiveness of acupuncture in veterinary medicine: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Habacher, Gabriele; Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2006-01-01

    Acupuncture is a popular complementary treatment option in human medicine. Increasingly, owners also seek acupuncture for their animals. The aim of the systematic review reported here was to summarize and assess the clinical evidence for or against the effectiveness of acupuncture in veterinary medicine. Systematic searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl, Japana Centra Revuo Medicina and Chikusan Bunken Kensaku. Hand-searches included conference proceedings, bibliographies, and contact with experts and veterinary acupuncture associations. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. All controlled clinical trials testing acupuncture in any condition of domestic animals were included. Studies using laboratory animals were excluded. Titles and abstracts of identified articles were read, and hard copies were obtained. Inclusion and exclusion of studies, data extraction, and validation were performed independently by two reviewers. Methodologic quality was evaluated by means of the Jadad score. Fourteen randomized controlled trials and 17 nonrandomized controlled trials met our criteria and were, therefore, included. The methodologic quality of these trials was variable but, on average, was low. For cutaneous pain and diarrhea, encouraging evidence exists that warrants further investigation in rigorous trials. Single studies reported some positive intergroup differences for spinal cord injury, Cushing's syndrome, lung function, hepatitis, and rumen acidosis. These trials require independent replication. On the basis of the findings of this systematic review, there is no compelling evidence to recommend or reject acupuncture for any condition in domestic animals. Some encouraging data do exist that warrant further investigation in independent rigorous trials.

  8. Veterinary antibiotics used in animal agriculture as NDMA precursors.

    PubMed

    Leavey-Roback, Shannon L; Krasner, Stuart W; Suffet, Irwin Mel H

    2016-12-01

    The formation of carcinogenic N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during chloramination at drinking water treatment plants has raised concerns as more plants have switched from chlorine to chloramine disinfection. In this study, a source of NDMA precursors that has yet to be investigated was examined. Veterinary antibiotics are used in large quantities at animal agricultural operations. They may contaminate drinking water sources and may not be removed during wastewater and drinking water treatment. Ten antibiotics used in animal agriculture were shown to produce NDMA or N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) during chloramination. Molar conversions ranged from 0.04 to 4.9 percent, with antibiotics containing more than one dimethylamine (DMA) functional group forming significantly more NDMA. The highest formation for most of the compounds was seen near pH 8.4, in a range of pH 6 to 11 that was investigated. The effect of chlorine-to-ammonia ratio (Cl2/NH3), temperature, and hold time varied for each chemical, suggesting that the effects of these parameters were compound-specific.

  9. Discussion of Animal Stem Cells in the Classroom: Engaging Students through the Lens of Veterinary Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Niess, Daniel; Hutchinson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Learning about stem cells within the context of treating pet illness or injury is an additional way for teachers to discuss the integration of science, technology, and veterinary medicine. We explain how practitioners in veterinary medicine harvest animal stem cells from adipose (fat) tissue in treating pet illness or injury. Further, we narrate…

  10. 21 CFR 510.112 - Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for... DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.112 Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data. (a) An ad hoc committee, Committee on the...

  11. 21 CFR 510.112 - Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for... DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.112 Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine... Medical and Nonmedical Uses of Antibiotics, was formed by the Food and Drug Administration to study,...

  12. 21 CFR 510.112 - Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for... DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.112 Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine... Medical and Nonmedical Uses of Antibiotics, was formed by the Food and Drug Administration to study,...

  13. 21 CFR 510.112 - Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for... DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.112 Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine... Medical and Nonmedical Uses of Antibiotics, was formed by the Food and Drug Administration to study,...

  14. Invited review--Applications for 3D printers in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Hespel, Adrien-Maxence; Wilhite, Ray; Hudson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances in 3D printing have resulted in increased use of this technology in human medicine, and decreasing cost is making it more affordable for veterinary use. Rapid prototyping is at its early stage in veterinary medicine but clinical, educational, and experimental possibilities exist. Techniques and applications, both current and future, are explored and illustrated in this article.

  15. When counting cattle is not enough: multiple perspectives in agricultural and veterinary research.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Gunnar; Schei, Vidar; Greve, Arent

    2011-01-01

    A traditional approach in agricultural and veterinary research is focussing on the biological perspective where large cattle-databases are used to analyse the dairy herd. This approach has yielded valuable insights. However, recent research indicates that this knowledge-base can be further increased by examining agricultural and veterinary challenges from other perspectives. In this paper we suggest three perspectives that may supplement the biological perspective in agricultural and veterinary research; the economic-, the managerial-, and the social perspective. We review recent studies applying or combining these perspectives and discuss how multiple perspectives may improve our understanding and ability to handle cattle-health challenges.

  16. Pre-Veterinary Students in Agriculture at Southern Land-Grant Universities. Journal Series No. 1-810012 of the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkelberger, John E.; And Others

    Because the number of students seeking admission to colleges of veterinary medicine exceeds the number that can be admitted, and because the changes that characterize veterinary students today have important implications for veterinary educators and administrators, this study focused on characteristics of undergraduate pre-veterinary students…

  17. Online tools for teaching evidence-based veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Steele, Michael; Crabb, Nicholas P; Moore, Lynda J; Reyher, Kristen K; Baillie, Sarah; Eisler, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) is of interest and relevance to veterinary practitioners. Consequently, veterinary schools take responsibility for teaching students how to appraise scientific articles and for equipping them with the skills needed to obtain and evaluate the best evidence and to apply this approach to their own cases. As part of our farm animal clinical rotation, we train students in qualitative and quantitative EBVM methods using an e-learning environment, online teaching materials, a wiki (a Web site that allows its users to edit its content via a Web browser), and face-to-face tutorials that support learning. Students working in small groups use a wiki to record details of the history, clinical presentation, diagnostic tests, herd data, and management plans for their chosen farm animal clinical cases. Using a standardized patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO) format, each group formulates a patient question based on either a proposed intervention or diagnostic procedure for the case and conducts an online scientific literature database search. The students appraise the articles retrieved using EBVM approaches and record the information in the wiki. The summation of this body of work, the group's critically appraised topic (CAT), includes the original PICO, a standardized table of the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of the intervention or diagnostic procedure, a summary statement in the form of a clinical bottom line, and their reflections upon the CAT. At the end of the rotation, students take part in a structured "CAT Club" where they present and discuss their findings with fellow students and clinicians.

  18. Driving Success over the Past 50 Years-The Faculty in Academic Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Buss, Daryl D

    2015-01-01

    The faculty at member schools and colleges of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) are critical for continued progress in veterinary medicine. The success of those faculty members over the past 50 years has positioned veterinary medicine to engage an ever-widening array of opportunities, responsibilities, and societal needs. Yet the array of skills and accomplishments of faculty in academic veterinary medicine are not always visible to the public, or even within our profession. The quality and the wide range of their scholarship are reflected, in part, through the according of national and international awards and honors from organizations relevant to their particular areas of expertise. The goal of this study was to illustrate the breadth of expertise and the quality of the faculty at 34 schools/colleges of veterinary medicine by examining the diversity of organizations that have recognized excellence in faculty achievements through a variety of awards.

  19. Funding opportunities for veterinary medicine with USDA competitive programs.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Brad

    2005-01-01

    Dramatic changes are underway in how public higher education and professional training are funded. The shift from a public to a beneficiary funding model is driving increases in tuition for students, the collection of user fees, and fee-for-service activities and has focused increased attention on the need for funding support from federal grants and contracts. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) was the first federal agency to support university-based research and education. While the funding provided by the USDA is now only a fraction of what is available through other federal sources, the USDA remains an important source of funding dedicated specifically to farm-animal-related research and the training of the next generation of veterinary scientists and educators.

  20. The information infrastructure that supports evidence-based veterinary medicine: a comparison with human medicine.

    PubMed

    Toews, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    In human medicine, the information infrastructure that supports the knowledge translation processes of exchange, synthesis, dissemination, and application of the best clinical intervention research has developed significantly in the past 15 years, facilitating the uptake of research evidence by clinicians as well as the practice of evidence-based medicine. Seven of the key elements of this improved information infrastructure are clinical trial registries, research reporting standards, systematic reviews, organizations that support the production of systematic reviews, the indexing of clinical intervention research in MEDLINE, clinical search filters for MEDLINE, and point-of-care decision support information resources. The objective of this paper is to describe why these elements are important for evidence-based medicine, the key developments and issues related to these seven information infrastructure elements in human medicine, how these 7 elements compare with the corresponding infrastructure elements in veterinary medicine, and how all of these factors affect the translation of clinical intervention research into clinical practice. A focused search of the Ovid MEDLINE database was conducted for English language journal literature published between 2000 and 2010. Two bibliographies were consulted and selected national and international Web sites were searched using Google. The literature reviewed indicates that the information infrastructure supporting evidence-based veterinary medicine practice in all of the 7 elements reviewed is significantly underdeveloped in relation to the corresponding information infrastructure in human medicine. This lack of development creates barriers to the timely translation of veterinary medicine research into clinical practice and also to the conduct of both primary clinical intervention research and synthesis research.

  1. Geographic trends in research output and citations in veterinary medicine: insight into global research capacity, species specialization, and interdisciplinary relationships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bibliographic data can be used to map the research quality and productivity of a discipline. We hypothesized that bibliographic data would identify geographic differences in research capacity, species specialization, and interdisciplinary relationships within the veterinary profession that corresponded with demographic and economic indices. Results Using the SCImago portal, we retrieved veterinary journal, article, and citation data in the Scopus database by year (1996–2011), region, country, and publication in species-specific journals (food animal, small animal, equine, miscellaneous), as designated by Scopus. In 2011, Scopus indexed 165 journals in the veterinary subject area, an increase from 111 in 1996. As a percentage of veterinary research output between 1996 and 2010, Western Europe and North America (US and Canada) together accounted for 60.9% of articles and 73.0% of citations. The number of veterinary articles increased from 8815 in 1996 to 19,077 in 2010 (net increase 66.6%). During this time, publications increased by 21.0% in Asia, 17.2% in Western Europe, and 17.0% in Latin America, led by Brazil, China, India, and Turkey. The United States had the highest number of articles in species-specific journals. As a percentage of regional output, the proportion of articles in small animal and equine journals was highest in North America and the proportion of articles in food animal journals was highest in Africa. Based on principal component analysis, total articles were highly correlated with gross domestic product (based on World Bank data). The proportion of articles in small animal and equine journals was associated with gross national income, research and development, and % urban population, as opposed to the proportion of food animal articles, agricultural output, and % rural population. Co-citations linked veterinary medicine with medicine in the United States, with basic sciences in Eastern Europe and the Far East, and with agriculture

  2. Pioneer women in veterinary medicine, their history and where they studied.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Howard H

    2012-05-01

    The women described in this paper were the early pioneers in veterinary medicine; they studied in some of the best veterinary colleges in the world at that time. They paved the way for other women who studied veterinary medicine in later years. According to Drum and Whitely,25 by 1936, there were only 30 female veterinarians in the United States; this was an era when admission to veterinary college for women was nearly impossible. In 1963, there were 277 female veterinarians in the United States, but by 1987 women made up 17% of the veterinary profession. The February 15, 2010 issue of the JAVMA reported that male enrollment in U.S. veterinary colleges decreased from 89% for the 1969-70 school year to 22.4% for 2008-09. During the same period female enrollment increased from 11.0% to 77.6%.

  3. Outcomes Assessment at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleine, Lawrence J.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo; Kimball, Grayson

    2002-01-01

    Using a survey, compared relative values assigned by Tufts veterinary alumni to questions about skills, training, attitudes, and behaviors with those of veterinary employers and faculty. Also assessed their perceptions of future employment opportunities. (EV)

  4. Basic Science and Clinical Application of Stem Cells in Veterinary Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribitsch, I.; Burk, J.; Delling, U.; Geißler, C.; Gittel, C.; Jülke, H.; Brehm, W.

    Stem cells play an important role in veterinary medicine in different ways. Currently several stem cell therapies for animal patients are being developed and some, like the treatment of equine tendinopathies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have already successfully entered the market. Moreover, animal models are widely used to study the properties and potential of stem cells for possible future applications in human medicine. Therefore, in the young and emerging field of stem cell research, human and veterinary medicine are intrinsically tied to one another. Many of the pioneering innovations in the field of stem cell research are achieved by cooperating teams of human and veterinary medical scientists.

  5. [Regulatory requirements regarding cell-based medicinal products for human and veterinary use - a comparison].

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann-Gottke, Johanna; Duchow, Karin

    2015-11-01

    At present, there is no separate regulatory framework for cell-based medicinal products (CBMP) for veterinary use at the European or German level. Current European and national regulations exclusively apply to the corresponding medicinal products for human use. An increasing number of requests for the regulatory classification of CBMP for veterinary use, such as allogeneic stem cell preparations and dendritic cell-based autologous tumour vaccines, and a rise in scientific advice for companies developing these products, illustrate the need for adequate legislation. Currently, advice is given and decisions are made on a case-by-case basis regarding the regulatory classification and authorisation requirements.Since some of the CBMP - in particular in the area of stem-cell products - are developed in parallel for human and veterinary use, there is an urgent need to create specific legal definitions, regulations, and guidelines for these complex innovative products in the veterinary sector as well. Otherwise, there is a risk that that the current legal grey area regarding veterinary medicinal products will impede therapeutic innovations in the long run. A harmonised EU-wide approach is desirable. Currently the European legislation on veterinary medicinal products is under revision. In this context, veterinary therapeutics based on allogeneic cells and tissues will be defined and regulated. Certainly, the legal framework does not have to be as comprehensive as for human CBMP; a leaner solution is conceivable, similar to the special provisions for advanced-therapy medicinal products laid down in the German Medicines Act.

  6. The veterinary profession and one medicine: some considerations, with particular reference to Italy.

    PubMed

    Battelli, Giorgio; Mantovani, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    The concept of 'one medicine' and its evolution are discussed and some considerations on the relationship between 'one medicine' and veterinary profession are made, with particular reference to Italy. The concept of 'one medicine' is mainly associated with public health and has its roots in the Italian tradition and health organisation. In a future which is already with us, the veterinary profession will be called upon to deal with many problems at worldwide level (e.g. the emergence/re-emergence of new/old zoonotic pathogens, biological and chemical contaminants in food, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, non-epidemic emergencies associated with natural or man-made disasters, animal well-being, etc.), integrating with other professions. In Italy, most of these problems find the Veterinary Services prepared, but not homogeneously throughout the country. At the present time, doubts are expressed on maintaining and improving these services, mainly due to the lack of students interested in veterinary public health (VPH) training. The globalisation of the veterinary profession imposes changes, in both culture and training. The expertise required for 'one medicine' must be considered and aspects of veterinary training should be changed to promote sharing expertise with other professionals, mainly within the Italian Health Service. The public should be informed about professional competence and activities of veterinarians, in both the private and public sectors, in order to offer a true picture of the profession, one that is not limited to the conventional model which the public generally has of veterinary medicine.

  7. Contributions of behavioral primatology to veterinary science and comparative medicine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, G; Clarke, A S

    1984-01-01

    Behavioral primatology is a subdiscipline of the research area referred to as primatology. Like primatology, behavioral primatology is an eclectic field of study made up of researchers from diverse basic disciplines having very different historical roots and employing extremely different methodologies biased by emphases and assumptions dictated by their histories. Psychologists, zoologists, anthropologists, and psychiatrists make up the majority of those currently active in behavioral primatology, but others, including those in veterinary science, are active in research in the area. Behavioral data can be useful to veterinary scientists and to those in comparative medicine and are interesting in their own right. Veterinarians and medical scientists may specialize in behavioral disorders. In addition, those not directly interested in behavior itself may still make use of behavioral indices of potential physiologic and morphologic abnormality. Often an animal may be inadvertently stressed by social and nonsocial environmental factors, and such stress effects may be first and best recognized by behavioral means. A recognition by those not in the behavioral sciences of the basic feral behavior of primates can go a long way toward prevention or alleviation of both behavioral and physical stress of primates in captivity. Studies of free-ranging but captive troops are sources of information almost as good as, and sometimes even better than, field studies. In addition, there is a growing realization that "natural experiments" on primates in zoos can be of value, especially since many species held in zoologic parks are those least well known in more traditional captive research settings. It must be recognized that the findings from research done on captive primates living in large field cages are not directly comparable to those derived from more directly invasive but more experimental laboratory settings. A comparative perspective on captive environments, as well as on

  8. Zebrafish: an animal model for research in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Nowik, N; Podlasz, P; Jakimiuk, A; Kasica, N; Sienkiewicz, W; Kaleczyc, J

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become known as an excellent model organism for studies of vertebrate biology, vertebrate genetics, embryonal development, diseases and drug screening. Nevertheless, there is still lack of detailed reports about usage of the zebrafish as a model in veterinary medicine. Comparing to other vertebrates, they can lay hundreds of eggs at weekly intervals, externally fertilized zebrafish embryos are accessible to observation and manipulation at all stages of their development, which makes possible to simplify the research techniques such as fate mapping, fluorescent tracer time-lapse lineage analysis and single cell transplantation. Although zebrafish are only 2.5 cm long, they are easy to maintain. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections, blood sampling and measurement of food intake are possible to be carry out in adult zebrafish. Danio rerio is a useful animal model for neurobiology, developmental biology, drug research, virology, microbiology and genetics. A lot of diseases, for which the zebrafish is a perfect model organism, affect aquatic animals. For a part of them, like those caused by Mycobacterium marinum or Pseudoloma neutrophila, Danio rerio is a natural host, but the zebrafish is also susceptible to the most of fish diseases including Itch, Spring viraemia of carp and Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis. The zebrafish is commonly used in research of bacterial virulence. The zebrafish embryo allows for rapid, non-invasive and real time analysis of bacterial infections in a vertebrate host. Plenty of common pathogens can be examined using zebrafish model: Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio anguillarum or Listeria monocytogenes. The steps are taken to use the zebrafish also in fungal research, especially that dealing with Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Although, the zebrafish is used commonly as an animal model to study diseases caused by external agents, it is also useful in studies of metabolic

  9. Assessment of motor pathways by magnetic stimulation in human and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Van Soens, Iris; Van Ham, Luc M

    2011-02-01

    Magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive and painless technique for studying the motor pathways in medical neurology. A time-varying magnetic field induces an electrical field in conducting objects, such as nervous tissue. The technique can be applied to nerve roots and peripheral nerves or to the motor cortex of the brain in human and veterinary medicine. In this review, the basic principles, applications and risk factors of peripheral nerve and motor cortex stimulation in human and veterinary medicine are discussed.

  10. A Graduate Program in Veterinary Preventive Medicine--University of Guelph--1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, W. R.; Barnum, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    A three-semester (12-month) diploma program for veterinarians was begun at the University of Guelph in 1971 that is applicable to veterinarians employed in public health, regulatory veterinary medicine, and animal production medicine, where there is emphasis on preventive medicine. Each student completes a project suitable for seminar presentation…

  11. A Perspective on Veterinary Forensic Pathology and Medicine in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Newbery, S G; Cooke, S W; Martineau, H M

    2016-09-01

    Internationally, forensic medicine and pathology are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of work done by veterinary clinicians and veterinary pathologists. In this article, a forensic veterinary clinician, a forensic veterinary pathologist in private practice, and a forensic veterinary pathologist at a veterinary school discuss the interactions among veterinary clinicians, veterinary pathologists, and law enforcement agencies and how future interactions can be improved. The focus is on the United Kingdom, but many of the principles, challenges, and suggestions are applicable to other jurisdictions. Clinicians and pathologists require forensic training to enable them to apply their veterinary knowledge to suspected cases of animal abuse and to subsequently present their findings and conclusions to a court of law in a concise, professional, and unbiased manner, and some opportunities for such advanced training in the United Kingdom are indicated. It is important that forensic veterinary clinicians and pathologists interact in an unbiased and collegial manner to answer the questions posed by courts of law. Opportunities for improved training, communication, and interaction among forensic veterinarians, forensic scientists, and law enforcement are discussed.

  12. 75 FR 52605 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... overview of Atlantic salmon, its natural history, aquaculture, and genetic engineering'' and ``The VMAC...Veterinary/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/GeneticEngineering/GeneticallyEngineeredAnimals/default.htm . Please...

  13. Recombinant protein-based viral disease diagnostics in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Vinayagamurthy; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Sen, Arnab; Annamalai, Lakshmanan; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2010-09-01

    Identification of pathogens or antibody response to pathogens in human and animals modulates the treatment strategies for naive population and subsequent infections. Diseases can be controlled and even eradicated based on the epidemiology and effective prophylaxis, which often depends on development of efficient diagnostics. In addition, combating newly emerging diseases in human as well as animal healthcare is challenging and is dependent on developing safe and efficient diagnostics. Detection of antibodies directed against specific antigens has been the method of choice for documenting prior infection. Other than zoonosis, development of inexpensive vaccines and diagnostics is a unique problem in animal healthcare. The advent of recombinant DNA technology and its application in the biotechnology industry has revolutionized animal healthcare. The use of recombinant DNA technology in animal disease diagnosis has improved the rapidity, specificity and sensitivity of various diagnostic assays. This is because of the absence of host cellular proteins in the recombinant derived antigen preparations that dramatically decrease the rate of false-positive reactions. Various recombinant products are used for disease diagnosis in veterinary medicine and this article discusses recombinant-based viral disease diagnostics currently used for detection of pathogens in livestock and poultry.

  14. [Newly developed virusvaccines in veterinary medicine (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wittmann, G

    1978-03-01

    Newly developed vaccines in veterinary medicine can be classified into two categories. The first category comprises inactivated vaccines produced by "classical" methods such as inactivation of the virus by formalin and the use of A1(OH)3 as adjuvant. Besides, this category also includes live vaccines from attenuated virus. Thus, all of these vaccines represent no genuinely new developments and owe their origin to the fact that the importance of several virus diseases of animals has grown in the last years, making neccessary the rapid production of corresponding vaccines. Such virus diseases are infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/vulvovaginitis, enzootic rhinopneumonitis of cattle, virus diarrhoe of calves, rhinopneumonitis of horses, kennel cough of dogs and Marek's disease of chickens. The second category comprises inactivated vaccines which represent genuinely new developments through the use of more efficient chemicals for virus inactivation (ethylenimines) and more efficient adjuvants (oil emulsions, DEAE dextran). Such vaccines were especially developed with regard to foot-and-mouth disease and Aujeszky disease in pigs, where "classical" vaccines are rather inefficient. These types of vaccines are, however, also efficient in other animal species and with other viruses. Entirely new vaccines which are more or less still in an experimental stage are vaccines made from split products of viruses e.g. from glycoproteids of rabies virus, or made from membrane constituents of cells infected with avian herpes viruses.

  15. Overview of Mosquito Research Programs at the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE), a U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research Service laboratory, was established in World War II to produce products to protect military personnel against insect vector of disease. Currently the mission of CMAVE is ...

  16. Factors affecting the career path choices of graduates at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jelinski, Murray D; Campbell, John R; Naylor, Jonathan M; Lawson, Karen L; Derkzen, Dena

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the demographics of the Class of 2006, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, and to determine which factors influenced the graduates' career path choices. Data were collected via an on-line survey and the response rate was 95.7% (67/70). The majority (57%) of graduates were starting their veterinary career in a food animal-related (FAR) job. Two factors were significantly associated with this choice: 1) those raised in, or near, a small center (population < 10 000) were 3.4 times (P = 0.03) more likely to accept a FAR position than were those raised in a large center (> 10 000), and 2) graduates with a bachelor of science in agriculture (BSc Ag) were 4.5 times (P = 0.04) more likely to begin their career as a FAR practitioner than were those without such a degree. However, 9 of the 16 graduates having a BSc Ag had an urban upbringing.

  17. Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in veterinary medicine--emergence of an underestimated pathogen?

    PubMed

    Müller, Stefanie; Janssen, Traute; Wieler, Lothar H

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of multidrug resistant bacteria causing infections in animals has continuously been increasing. While the relevance of ESBL (extended spectrum beta-lactamase)-producing Enterobacteriaceae spp. and MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is unquestionable, knowledge about multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in veterinary medicine is scarce. This is a worrisome situation, as A. baumannii are isolated from veterinary clinical specimens with rising frequency. The remarkable ability of A. baumannii to develop multidrug resistance and the high risk of transmission are known in human medicine for years. Despite this, data regarding A. baumannii isolates of animal origin are missing. Due to the changing role of companion animals with closer contact between animal and owner, veterinary intensive care medicine is steadily developing. It can be assumed that the number of "high risk" patients with an enhanced risk for hospital acquired infections will be rising simultaneously. Thus, development and spread of multidrug resistant pathogens is envisioned to rise. It is possible, that A. baumannii will evolve into a veterinary nosocomial pathogen similar to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and MRSA. The lack of attention paid to A. baumannii in veterinary medicine is even more worrying, as first reports indicate a transmission between humans and animals. Essential questions regarding the role of livestock, especially as a potential source of multidrug resistant isolates, remain unanswered. This review summarizes the current knowledge on A. baumannii in veterinary medicine for the first time. It underlines the utmost significance of further investigations of A. baumannii animal isolates, particularly concerning epidemiology and resistance mechanisms.

  18. Evidence-based medicine: the design and interpretation of noninferiority clinical trials in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Freise, K J; Lin, T-L; Fan, T M; Recta, V; Clark, T P

    2013-01-01

    Noninferiority trials are clinical studies designed to demonstrate that an investigational drug is at least as effective as an established treatment within a predetermined margin. They are conducted, in part, because of ethical concerns of administering a placebo to veterinary patients when an established effective treatment exists. The use of noninferiority trial designs has become more common in veterinary medicine with the increasing number of established veterinary therapeutics and the desire to eliminate potential pain or distress in a placebo-controlled study. Selecting the appropriate active control and an a priori noninferiority margin between the investigational and active control drug are unique and critical design factors for noninferiority studies. Without reliable historical knowledge of the disease response in the absence of treatment and of the response to the selected active control drug, proper design and interpretation of a noninferiority trial is not possible. Despite the appeal of conducting noninferiority trials to eliminate ethical concerns of placebo-controlled studies, there are real limitations and possible ethical conundrums associated with noninferiority trials. The consequences of incorrect study conclusions because of poor noninferiority trial design need careful attention. Alternative trial designs to typical noninferiority studies exist, but these too have limitations and must also be carefully considered.

  19. All lesions great and small, part 2. Diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed

    2014-06-01

    This is the second in a two-part review of diagnostic cytopathology in veterinary medicine. As in human medicine, cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization. In this second part, the diagnostic applications of cytology in respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, endocrine, ocular, and central nervous system tissues are discussed with a section describing fluid analysis in veterinary medicine. As noted in the previous manuscript, which characterized the cytology of the skin/subcutis, musculoskeletal, and lymphoid tissues, the interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, including familiarity with the frequency and clinical progression of diseases, both of which can be influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. Similar to part one, this review focuses on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse) and highlights lesions that are either unique to veterinary species or have relevant correlates in people. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when appropriate. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not an exhaustive archive of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates and unique entities in veterinary practice.

  20. Augmented reality intravenous injection simulator based 3D medical imaging for veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Lee, J; Lee, A; Park, N; Lee, S; Song, S; Seo, A; Lee, H; Kim, J-I; Eom, K

    2013-05-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology which enables users to see the real world, with virtual objects superimposed upon or composited with it. AR simulators have been developed and used in human medicine, but not in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to develop an AR intravenous (IV) injection simulator to train veterinary and pre-veterinary students to perform canine venipuncture. Computed tomographic (CT) images of a beagle dog were scanned using a 64-channel multidetector. The CT images were transformed into volumetric data sets using an image segmentation method and were converted into a stereolithography format for creating 3D models. An AR-based interface was developed for an AR simulator for IV injection. Veterinary and pre-veterinary student volunteers were randomly assigned to an AR-trained group or a control group trained using more traditional methods (n = 20/group; n = 8 pre-veterinary students and n = 12 veterinary students in each group) and their proficiency at IV injection technique in live dogs was assessed after training was completed. Students were also asked to complete a questionnaire which was administered after using the simulator. The group that was trained using an AR simulator were more proficient at IV injection technique using real dogs than the control group (P ≤ 0.01). The students agreed that they learned the IV injection technique through the AR simulator. Although the system used in this study needs to be modified before it can be adopted for veterinary educational use, AR simulation has been shown to be a very effective tool for training medical personnel. Using the technology reported here, veterinary AR simulators could be developed for future use in veterinary education.

  1. Epidemiology and Herd Health Training in the School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbald, L. F.; Hagstad, H. V.

    1978-01-01

    At Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, training in preventive medicine is incorporated into all four years of the curriculum. The curriculum is described with focus on the fourth year practical course that involves problem solving, using various herds in the area. (JMD)

  2. Practicing the skills of evidence-based veterinary medicine through case-based pharmacology rounds.

    PubMed

    Fajt, Virginia R; Brown, Dimitri; Scott, Maya M

    2009-01-01

    Accessing new knowledge and using it to make decisions is the foundation of evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM), the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and owner/manager values. Reflecting on our experience with an EBVM-based clinical pharmacology assignment during a clinical rotation, we present the justification for the addition of an EBVM assignment to the clinical (fourth) year at the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at Texas A&M University. We also present an in-depth analysis of the addition, recommendations for the assessment of this exercise as a method of improving evidence-based veterinary practice, and recommendations and implications for other instructors interested in adding EBVM-related learning to their professional curricula. We recommend adding EBVM skill practice in pre-clinical training, abbreviated exercises in EBVM skills on clinical rotations, and increased attention to critical-thinking skills in veterinary education.

  3. WIN EPISCOPE 2.0: improved epidemiological software for veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Thrusfield, M; Ortega, C; de Blas, I; Noordhuizen, J P; Frankena, K

    2001-05-05

    Recent changes in veterinary medicine have required quantitative epidemiological techniques for designing field surveys, identifying risk factors for multifactorial diseases, and assessing diagnostic tests. Several relevant techniques are brought together in the package of veterinary epidemiological computer software, WIN EPISCOPE 2.0, described in this paper. It is based on Microsoft Windows and includes modules for the design and analysis of field surveys, control campaigns and observational studies, and a simple mathematical model. It provides comprehensive 'Help' screens and should therefore be useful not only in field investigations but also for teaching veterinary epidemiology.

  4. Importance-performance analysis of food-supply veterinary medicine career commitment.

    PubMed

    Gwinner, Kevin; Andrus, David; Prince, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the results of an analysis that identifies factors important to veterinary students in making a lifetime commitment to a particular career area. Using an importance-performance framework, the study evaluated 28 veterinary career attributes. Results indicate that to develop greater lifetime commitment among students, careers in food-supply veterinary medicine need to improve in the areas of health care and retirement benefits, free time available for family, opportunities to become authorities in the field, opportunities for advancement, and more contact with peer veterinarians.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of canine uropathogens at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Teaching Hospital, 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    Ball, Katherine R; Rubin, Joseph E; Chirino-Trejo, M; Dowling, Patricia M

    2008-10-01

    Between January 2002 and June 2007, uropathogens were isolated from 473 of 1557 canine urine samples submitted to Prairie Diagnostic Services from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Culture and susceptibility results were analyzed, retrospectively, to estimate the prevalence of common bacterial uropathogens in dogs with urinary tract infections and to identify changes in antimicrobial resistance. The most common pathogens identified were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus intermedius, Enterococcus spp., and Proteus spp. Antimicrobial resistance increased during the study period, particularly among recurrent E. coli isolates. Using the formula to help select rational antimicrobial therapy (FRAT), bacterial isolates were most likely to be susceptible to gentamicin, fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and groups 4 and 5 (third generation) cephalosporins.

  6. Validation of the Veterinary Aptitude Test at Three Colleges of Veterinary Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Barry A.; Niedzwiedz, Edward R.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between the VAT and performance in curricula at three colleges was examined. Results of the regression analysis indicated that, although the combined percentile score of the VAT was found to be correlated with performance in veterinary school, better prediction was possible using only the Science subscale at two of the three…

  7. All lesions great and small, part 1: diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed

    2014-06-01

    Cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization in veterinary medicine. Primary care clinicians often screen common cutaneous and subcutaneous aspirates, with other samples most frequently evaluated by board certified veterinary clinical pathologists in reference laboratories. Wright-Giemsa stains are frequently utilized with the application of ancillary diagnostics such as cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostic techniques complicated by the need to develop and validate species specific reagents and protocols. The interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, which includes familiarity with the frequency and biological behavior of inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic lesions that are influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. This review is the first of two parts that focus on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse), taking an organ system approach to survey important lesions that may be unique to veterinary species or have interesting correlates in human medicine. The first of the two-part series covers skin and subcutaneous tissue, the musculoskeletal system, and lymphoid organs. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected molecular mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when characterized. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not a comprehensive catalog of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates in veterinary practice.

  8. Program review of the USDA Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) has a history that starts in 1932 in Orlando to develop methods to control mosquitoes, including malaria vectors under conditions simulating those of the south Pacific jungles, and other insects affecting man and animals...

  9. Evaluation of an internal research funding program in a school of veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Baker, David G; Kearney, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    The present article describes a paradigm for evaluating the internal research funding program of a college or school of veterinary medicine, using as an example a similar exercise recently conducted at the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine (LSU SVM). The purpose of the exercise was to quantify and evaluate the effectiveness of the LSU SVM internal research funding mechanism known as the Competitive Organized Research Program (CORP). The evaluation resulted in several important observations that will allow us to further improve the effectiveness of our internal research funding program investment. Among the most important of these was the greater return on investment for CORP projects funded with smaller awards (approximately $10,000 US) compared to projects funded with larger awards (approximately $52,000 US). Other colleges and schools of veterinary medicine may find such an exercise similarly informative and beneficial.

  10. Is evidence-based medicine so evident in veterinary research and practice? History, obstacles and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Clegg, Peter; Vandenput, Sandrine; Gustin, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) refers to the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence from research for the care of an individual patient. The concept of EBM was first described in human medicine in the early 1990s and was introduced to veterinary medicine 10 years later. However, it is not clear that the EBM approach promulgated in human medicine can be applied to the same extent to veterinary medicine. EBM has the potential to help veterinarians to make more informed decisions, but obstacles to the implementation of EBM include a lack of high quality patient-centred research, the need for basic understanding of clinical epidemiology by veterinarians, the absence of adequate searching techniques and accessibility to scientific data bases and the inadequacy of EBM tools that can be applied to the busy daily practise of veterinarians. This review describes the development of EBM in the veterinary profession, identifies its advantages and disadvantages and discusses whether and how veterinary surgeons should further adopt the EBM approach of human medicine.

  11. Risk Factors of Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever) Seropositivity in Veterinary Medicine Students

    PubMed Central

    de Rooij, Myrna M. T.; Schimmer, Barbara; Versteeg, Bart; Schneeberger, Peter; Berends, Boyd R.; Heederik, Dick; van der Hoek, Wim; Wouters, Inge M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Q fever is an occupational risk for veterinarians, however little is known about the risk for veterinary medicine students. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii among veterinary medicine students and to identify associated risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study with questionnaire and blood sample collection was performed among all veterinary medicine students studying in the Netherlands in 2006. Serum samples (n = 674), representative of all study years and study directions, were analyzed for C. burnetii IgG and IgM phase I and II antibodies with an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Seropositivity was defined as IgG phase I and/or II titer of 1∶32 and above. Results Of the veterinary medicine students 126 (18.7%) had IgG antibodies against C. burnetii. Seropositivity associated risk factors identified were the study direction ‘farm animals’ (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.27 [95% CI 2.14–5.02]), advanced year of study (OR year 6: 2.31 [1.22–4.39] OR year 3–5 1.83 [1.07–3.10]) having had a zoonosis during the study (OR 1.74 [1.07–2.82]) and ever lived on a ruminant farm (OR 2.73 [1.59–4.67]). Stratified analysis revealed study direction ‘farm animals’ to be a study-related risk factor apart from ever living on a farm. In addition we identified a clear dose-response relation for the number of years lived on a farm with C. burnetii seropositivity. Conclusions C. burnetii seroprevalence is considerable among veterinary medicine students and study related risk factors were identified. This indicates Q fever as an occupational risk for veterinary medicine students. PMID:22363803

  12. [New concepts in human oncology: is it possible to use them in veterinary medicine as well?].

    PubMed

    Marconato, L; Ruess-Melzer, K; Buchholz, J; Kaser-Hotz, B

    2011-08-01

    In human oncology, novel targeted therapy focusing on monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors has become an attractive anticancer strategy. The introduction of antiangiogenetic drugs and metronomic chemotherapy has also increased the therapeutic arsenal. Chemotherapy still plays a key role in the treatment of many tumors affecting dogs and cats. However, novel anticancer strategies (including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, as well as antiangiogenetic treatments) are becoming relevant in veterinary medicine, too. The goal of this review is to describe new therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment in veterinary medicine, including less well-known chemotherapeutic drugs.

  13. The ‘Dangerous’ Women of Animal Welfare: How British Veterinary Medicine Went to the Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the turn toward the small companion animal that occurred in British veterinary medicine in the twentieth century. The change in species emphasis is usually attributed to post-war socioeconomic factors, however this explanation ignores the extensive small animal treatment that was occurring outwith the veterinary profession in the interwar period. The success of this unqualified practice caused the veterinary profession to rethink attitudes to small animals (dogs initially, later cats) upon the decline of horse practice. This paper argues that a shift toward seeing the small animal as a legitimate veterinary patient was necessary before the specialty could become mainstream in the post-war years, and that this occurred between the wars as a result of the activities of British animal welfare charities, especially the People's Dispensary for Sick Animals of the Poor. PMID:25067889

  14. Social network analysis. Review of general concepts and use in preventive veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, B; Perez, A M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2009-05-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) and graph theory have been used widely in sociology, psychology, anthropology, biology and medicine. Social network analysis and graph theory provide a conceptual framework to study contact patterns and to identify units of analysis that are frequently or intensely connected within the network. Social network analysis has been used in human epidemiology as a tool to explore the potential transmission of infectious agents such as HIV, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and syphilis. In preventive veterinary medicine, SNA is an approach that offers benefits for exploring the nature and extent of the contacts between animals or farms, which ultimately leads to a better understanding of the potential risk for disease spread in a susceptible population. Social network analysis, however, has been applied only recently in preventive veterinary medicine, therefore the characteristics of the technique and the potential benefits of its use remain unknown for an important section of the international veterinary medicine community. The objectives of this paper were to review the concepts and theoretical aspects underlying the use of SNA and graph theory, with particular emphasis on their application to the study of infectious diseases of animals. The paper includes a review of recent applications of SNA in preventive veterinary medicine and a discussion of the potential uses and limitations of this methodology for the study of animal diseases.

  15. Essential veterinary education in zoological and wildlife medicine: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A A

    2009-08-01

    The current veterinary curriculum leaves graduates ill-equipped for careers in the field of zoological and wildlife medicine. Further postgraduate training is required to be an effective zoo or wildlife veterinarian. However, whether or not students choose to specialise in this field at a later date, the veterinary curriculum should cover several issues that are related to wildlife and zoo animals, including conservation biology, zoology, behaviour, physiology and conservation medicine. These subjects are essential, as we are preparing students to work in a world in which there is a global trade in wild animals, an increasing number of emerging infectious diseases and numerous environmental threats (habitat fragmentation, climate change) linked to anthropogenic change. Veterinary students should also be exposed to new opportunities to identify field and laboratory tools for the management and possible treatment of diseases in captive and wild populations and ecosystems using both in situ and ex situ approaches to conservation.

  16. Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in broiler manure and agricultural soil in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-08-01

    Repeated applications of animal manure as fertilizer are normal agricultural practices that may release veterinary antibiotics and hormones into the environment from treated animals. Broiler manure samples and their respective manure-amended agricultural soil samples were collected in selected locations in the states of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka in Malaysia to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. The samples were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The broiler manure samples were found to be contaminated with at least six target analytes, namely, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, trimethoprim and tylosin. These analytes were detected in broiler manure samples with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78,516 μg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) (doxycycline). For manure-amended agricultural soil samples, doxycycline and enrofloxacin residues were detected in every soil sample. The maximum concentration of antibiotic detected in soil was 1331 μg kg(-1) DW (flumequine). The occurrence of antibiotics and hormones in animal manure at high concentration poses a risk of contaminating agricultural soil via fertilization with animal manure. Some physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and metal content played a considerable role in the fate of the target veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in the environment. It was suggested that these parameters can affect the adsorption of pharmaceuticals to solid environmental matrices.

  17. Medicinal - Agricultural science in Vedic literature.

    PubMed

    Jakhmola, R K

    2012-01-01

    It is crystal clear from critical analysis of Vedic period literature that the man at that time was highly civilized, well educated and had developed adaptation with the nature. Man had established social, economic and political systems and he was aware that all the Dravyas on the earth have medicinal values and they may give results for physical and mental well being if utilized after research as per classics. In Vedas 3 types of medicinal Dravyas are discussed viz Khanija, Vanaspatika, Pranija which are discussed in Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita in terms of Jangala, Oudbidha, Partheeva. Since ancient times with growth in population, agricultural profession also got encouragement resulting in highly developed resources, contamination free soil with its classification, soil types, rain, season and importance of time etc. had given due importance from agriculture point of view. Man had successfully understood the importance of agriculture for production of grain and medicinal herbs. Thus in this sector number of researches were carried out in Vedic period resulting in co-operation between natural resources, various resources related to agricultural profession, different types of methods for cultivation, preservation of grains and medicinal herbs, methods to improve production etc. were researched scientifically.

  18. Medicinal - Agricultural science in Vedic literature

    PubMed Central

    Jakhmola, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    It is crystal clear from critical analysis of Vedic period literature that the man at that time was highly civilized, well educated and had developed adaptation with the nature. Man had established social, economic and political systems and he was aware that all the Dravyas on the earth have medicinal values and they may give results for physical and mental well being if utilized after research as per classics. In Vedas 3 types of medicinal Dravyas are discussed viz Khanija, Vanaspatika, Pranija which are discussed in Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita in terms of Jangala, Oudbidha, Partheeva. Since ancient times with growth in population, agricultural profession also got encouragement resulting in highly developed resources, contamination free soil with its classification, soil types, rain, season and importance of time etc. had given due importance from agriculture point of view. Man had successfully understood the importance of agriculture for production of grain and medicinal herbs. Thus in this sector number of researches were carried out in Vedic period resulting in co-operation between natural resources, various resources related to agricultural profession, different types of methods for cultivation, preservation of grains and medicinal herbs, methods to improve production etc. were researched scientifically. PMID:23049203

  19. Academic Feedback in Veterinary Medicine: A comparison of School Leaver and Graduate Entry cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Kirsty Jean; McCune, Velda; Rhind, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the expectations and experiences of students on a five-year undergraduate ("n"?=?91) and four-year graduate entry ("n"?=?47) veterinary medicine degree programme relating to academic feedback. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to explore new students' expectations and prior experiences of…

  20. An Investigation of the Selection Techniques of Veterinary Science and Medicine Students at Purdue University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gohn, Lyle Alan

    Investigated were factors for predicting success of students of veterinary medicine and science at Purdue University. All males enrolled as beginning students in the fall classes of 1959 through 1965 were analyzed. Student records and questionnaires were employed to gather information on academic records and demographic and non-demographic…

  1. Carcinogens, Teratogens and Mutagens: Their Impact on Occupational Health, Particularly for Women in Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, J. E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Pregnant women, especially those working in veterinary medicine, face occupational health/disease risks from mutagens, teratogens, and carcinogens. These hazards can be placed into three categories: physical, chemical, and biological. Each of these hazards is discussed with examples. (Author/JN)

  2. Veterinary applications of induced pluripotent stem cells: regenerative medicine and models for disease?

    PubMed

    Cebrian-Serrano, Alberto; Stout, Tom; Dinnyes, Andras

    2013-10-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can now be derived from a tissue biopsy and represent a promising new platform for disease modelling, drug and toxicity testing, biomarker development and cell-based therapies for regenerative medicine. In regenerative medicine, large animals may represent the best models for man, and thereby provide invaluable systems in which to test the safety and the potential of iPSCs. Hence, testing iPSCs in veterinary species may serve a double function, namely, developing therapeutic products for regenerative medicine in veterinary patients while providing valuable background information for human clinical trials. The production of iPSCs from livestock or wild species is attractive because it could improve efficiency and reduce costs in various fields, such as transgenic animal generation and drug development, preservation of biological diversity, and because it also offers an alternative to xenotransplantation for in vivo generation of organs. Although the technology of cellular reprogramming using the so-called 'Yamanaka factors' is in its peak expectation phase and many concerns still need to be addressed, the rapid technical progress suggests that iPSCs could contribute significantly to novel therapies in veterinary and biomedical practice in the near future. This review provides an overview of the potential applications of iPSCs in veterinary medicine.

  3. Career Influences, Educational Experiences, and Professional Attitudes of Women and Men in Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andberg, Wendy L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A college of veterinary medicine in a large state university compared its male and female students and found differences in the influences on their career choice and in their academic experiences, gender-role expectations and conflicts, attitudes regarding professional dedication and competence, and need for support services. (Author)

  4. A Model for Producing and Sharing Instructional Materials in Veterinary Medicine. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Billy C.; Niec, Alphonsus P.

    This report describes a study of factors which appear to influence the "shareability" of audiovisual materials in the field of veterinary medicine. Specific factors addressed are content quality, instructional effectiveness, technical quality, institutional support, organization, logistics, and personal attitudes toward audiovisuals. (Author/CO)

  5. What Are the Appropriate Curriculum Contents for Biochemistry Courses in Veterinary Medicine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, A. A. D.; Correia, J. H. R. D.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of the important items that the author's suggest should be included in a biochemistry course given to students in veterinary medicine. Presents a broad range of specific topics in biochemistry and strategies for covering as many topics as possible in one course. (LZ)

  6. Cost of Initial Development of PLATO Instruction in Veterinary Medicine. CERL Report X-43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, George M.

    An academic program instituting the PLATO system of computer-assisted instruction at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine is discussed. Procedures involved setting up an organization, establishing an administrative system, studying capabilities of the system, studying factors making a lesson suitable for programming, and…

  7. The possibilities of practical application of transgenic mammalian species generated by somatic cell cloning in pharmacology, veterinary medicine and xenotransplantology.

    PubMed

    Samiec, M; Skrzyszowska, M

    2011-01-01

    Cloning of genetically-modified mammals to produce: 1) novel animal bioreactors expressing human genes in rens, urinary bladder and the male accessory sex glands, as well as 2) porcine organs suitable in pig-to-human xenotransplantology, could offer new advantages for biomedical purposes. So too does the generation and/or multiplication of genetically-engineered cloned animals in order to produce: 3) physiologically-relevant animal models of serious monogenic human diseases and 4) prion disease-resistant small as well as large animals (i.e., rodents, ruminants). The basic purpose of this paper is to overview current knowledge deciphering the possibilities of using transgenic specimens created by somatic cell nuclear transfer in medical pharmacology, veterinary medicine, agriculture, transplantational medicine and immunology.

  8. Changing the Face of Veterinary Medicine: Research and Clinical Developments at AAVMC Institutions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald F; Hagstrom, Melena R

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a 50-year overview of research and clinical advances in AAVMC member colleges in four representative fields of veterinary medicine: oncology, vaccine development, production medicine, and public health. Though emphasis is on the progress since the mid-1960s, the salient background and associated personnel in each field are also identified to the extent that their description informs more recent events. Advances in board certification and post-graduate clinical and research educational opportunities are also described.

  9. Reported rabies pre-exposure immunization of students at US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, Joann M; Wright, James C; Nusbaum, Kenneth E; Saville, William J A; Evanson, Timothy C; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the US experienced a disruption in human rabies vaccine supplies, leading public health authorities to prioritize vaccine release for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and limit vaccine supplies for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreEP) in high-risk groups. In 2008, the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) surveyed its member institutions on rabies vaccination policies and practices. Senior administrators at Colleges of Veterinary Medicine (CVMs) and departments of veterinary science and comparative medicine were asked to identify the person most knowledgeable about their institution's student rabies vaccination program. Respondents were asked to describe their policies and procedures for administering PreEP to veterinary medical students and staff and to estimate the annual demand for student and staff PreEP vaccine. Twenty-one CVMs responded. Twenty (95%) reported requiring PreEP of veterinary medical students and 16 (80%) of those 20 required vaccination upon matriculation. An estimated 7,309 doses of vaccine were required for PreEP of an estimated 2,436 first-year US veterinary medical students. Seventy-two percent of respondents administered PreEP in August, September, and October, coinciding with the highest public demand for PEP. CVMs should consider altering the timing of rabies vaccine administration to veterinary medical students and staff to other months, thereby helping to ensure that PEP rabies vaccine will be available to people with validated rabies exposures and to ensure that supplies will be available for PreEP of students and staff. AAVMC may wish to identify and support a point of coordination to facilitate the purchase and distribution of human rabies vaccine among its US member CVMs.

  10. Use and acceptance of Wiki systems for students of veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kolski, Darius; Arlt, Sebastian; Birk, Stephan; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Wiki systems are gaining importance concerning the use in education, especially among young users. The aim of our study was to examine, how students of veterinary medicine commonly use wiki systems, whether they consider a veterinary wiki system useful and if they would participate in writing content. Methodology: For data collection a questionnaire was provided to students (n=210) of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the Freie Universität Berlin, Germany. It contained questions regarding the use of Wikipedia in general and concerning educational issues. Results: Most respondents, especially students in the first years, had comprehensive experience in the use of Wikipedia and veterinary wiki systems. In contrast, the experience in writing or editing of information was low (8.6% Wikipedia, 15.3% veterinary wiki systems). Male students had significantly more writing experience than females (p=0,008). In addition, students of the higher years were more experienced in writing and editing than students of the first year (7.4% in the 4th year). The familiarity with wiki systems offered by universities was low. The majority of students (96.2%) are willing to use veterinary wiki systems as an information tool in the future. Nevertheless, only a low percentage is willing to write or edit content. Many students, however, expect a better learning success when writing own texts. In general, students consider the quality of information in a wiki system as correct. Conclusion: In conclusion, wiki systems are considered a useful tool to gain information. This will lead to a successful implementation of wiki systems in veterinary education. A main challenge will be to develop concepts to activate students to participate not only in reading but in the writing and editing process. PMID:23467415

  11. Evidence-based complementary and alternative veterinary medicine--a contradiction in terms?

    PubMed

    Arlt, Sebastian; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) like acupuncture, herbal medicine and homeopathy is increasingly used in the treatment of human and animal disease. On the other hand, CAM is discussed controversially, especially in the context of Evidence-Based Veterinary Medicine (EBVM). This paper provides a balanced analysis of the currently available data on CAM in human and veterinary medicine. In conclusion, little rigorous research data concerning the efficacy and safety of CAM has been published. However, acupuncture is gaining increasing acceptance in academic medicine, based on several metaanalyses that show efficacy for specific conditions. In practice, decisions concerning CAM therapies should also be based on the best available evidence provided by scientifically valid data. This implies that CAM interventions must be validated by stringent high quality research to obtain an objective and replicable overview of efficacy and safety. Nevertheless, trials should be designed according to important aspects of CAM therapies (e.g. individual treatment). In conclusion, Evidence-Based Alternative Veterinary Medicine is not a contradiction in terms.

  12. 3D Reconstruction from X-ray Fluoroscopy for Clinical Veterinary Medicine using Differential Volume Rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khongsomboon, Khamphong; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Shozo

    3D reconstruction from ordinary X-ray equipment which is not CT or MRI is required in clinical veterinary medicine. Authors have already proposed a 3D reconstruction technique from X-ray photograph to present bone structure. Although the reconstruction is useful for veterinary medicine, the thechnique has two problems. One is about exposure of X-ray and the other is about data acquisition process. An x-ray equipment which is not special one but can solve the problems is X-ray fluoroscopy. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method for 3D-reconstruction from X-ray fluoroscopy for clinical veterinary medicine. Fluoroscopy is usually used to observe a movement of organ or to identify a position of organ for surgery by weak X-ray intensity. Since fluoroscopy can output a observed result as movie, the previous two problems which are caused by use of X-ray photograph can be solved. However, a new problem arises due to weak X-ray intensity. Although fluoroscopy can present information of not only bone structure but soft tissues, the contrast is very low and it is very difficult to recognize some soft tissues. It is very useful to be able to observe not only bone structure but soft tissues clearly by ordinary X-ray equipment in the field of clinical veterinary medicine. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new method to determine opacity in volume rendering process. The opacity is determined according to 3D differential coefficient of 3D reconstruction. This differential volume rendering can present a 3D structure image of multiple organs volumetrically and clearly for clinical veterinary medicine. This paper shows results of simulation and experimental investigation of small dog and evaluation by veterinarians.

  13. Preparing students for careers in food-supply veterinary medicine: a review of educational programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Posey, R Daniel; Hoffsis, Glen F; Cullor, James S; Naylor, Jonathan M; Chaddock, Michael; Ames, Trevor R

    2012-01-01

    The real and/or perceived shortage of veterinarians serving food-supply veterinary medicine has been a topic of considerable discussion for decades. Regardless of this debate, there are issues still facing colleges of veterinary medicine (CVMs) about the best process of educating future food-supply veterinarians. Over the past several years, there have been increasing concerns by some that the needs of food-supply veterinary medicine have not adequately been met through veterinary educational institutions. The food-supply veterinary medical curriculum offered by individual CVMs varies depending on individual curricular design, available resident animal population, available food-animal caseload, faculty, and individual teaching efforts of faculty. All of the institutional members of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) were requested to share their Food Animal Veterinary Career Incentives Programs. The AAVMC asked all member institutions what incentives they used to attract and educate students interested in, or possibly considering, a career in food-supply veterinary medicine (FSVM). The problem arises as to how we continue to educate veterinary students with ever shrinking budgets and how to recruit and retain faculty with expertise to address the needs of society. Several CVMs use innovative training initiatives to help build successful FSVM programs. This article focuses on dairy, beef, and swine food-animal education and does not characterize colleges' educational efforts in poultry and aquaculture. This review highlights the individual strategies used by the CVMs in the United States.

  14. Diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine: a comparative and evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Leslie C; Wellman, Maxey L

    2011-03-01

    Diagnostic cytology is a core veterinary pathology service involving specimens from domestic animals, laboratory animals, and exotic species. Evidence-based application of cytopathology involves management of preanalytical factors, and thorough evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the technique in each species and for all specimen types. Unique to veterinary medicine is the reliance on cytology as the basis for crucial medical decisions such as humane euthanasia, especially when the patient is critically ill or when financial considerations limit diagnostic and therapeutic options. This article reviews the cytologic criteria for the diagnosis of selected neoplastic and infectious diseases.

  15. Adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells for musculoskeletal repair in veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Arnhold, Stefan; Wenisch, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells which can be obtained from different adipose tissue sources within the body. It is an abundant cell pool, which is easy accessible and the cells can be obtained in large numbers, cultivated and expanded in vitro and prepared for tissue engineering approaches, especially for skeletal tissue repair. In the recent years this cell population has attracted a great amount of attention among researchers in human as well as in veterinary medicine. In the meantime ASCs have been well characterized and their use in regenerative medicine is very well established. This review focuses on the characterization of ASCs for their use for tissue engineering approaches especially in veterinary medicine and also highlights a selection of clinical trials on the basis of ASCs as the relevant cell source. PMID:25973326

  16. 'One medicine---one pathology': are veterinary and human pathology prepared?

    PubMed

    Cardiff, Robert D; Ward, Jerrold M; Barthold, Stephen W

    2008-01-01

    The American Medical Association and the American Veterinary Medical Association have recently approved resolutions supporting 'One Medicine' or 'One Health' that bridge the two professions. The concept is far from novel. Rudolf Virchow, the Father of Modern Pathology, and Sir William Osler, the Father of Modern Medicine, were outspoken advocates of the concept. The concept in its modern iteration was re-articulated in the 1984 edition of Calvin Schwabe's 'Veterinary Medicine and Human Health.' The veterinary and medical pathology professions are steeped in a rich history of 'One Medicine,' but they have paradoxically parted ways, leaving the discipline of pathology poorly positioned to contribute to contemporary science. The time has come for not only scientists but also all pathologists to recognize the value in comparative pathology, the consequences of ignoring the opportunity and, most importantly, the necessity of preparing future generations to meet the challenge inherent in the renewed momentum for 'One Medicine.' The impending glut of new genetically engineered mice creates an urgent need for prepared investigators and pathologists.

  17. The future of imaging in veterinary oncology: learning from human medicine.

    PubMed

    Mattoon, John S; Bryan, Jeffrey N

    2013-09-01

    Imaging technology is critical for adequate diagnosis and staging in human and veterinary oncology. Sensitive detection of lesions is necessary to determine appropriate local or systemic therapy and to monitor therapeutic results. New technology in digital radiography, ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT) scanning are now widely available in veterinary medicine. Advanced imaging with high-detail CT scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron-emission tomography (PET) are now available in academic centers and some private specialty practices. This review describes the current and future applications of these new imaging systems and modalities in veterinary oncology and how advanced imaging contributes to diagnosis, staging, and monitoring of cancers. The potential of molecular imaging for accurate, minimally invasive diagnosis and monitoring is discussed.

  18. Proteomics in veterinary medicine: applications and trends in disease pathogenesis and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Ceciliani, F; Eckersall, D; Burchmore, R; Lecchi, C

    2014-03-01

    Advancement in electrophoresis and mass spectrometry techniques along with the recent progresses in genomics, culminating in bovine and pig genome sequencing, widened the potential application of proteomics in the field of veterinary medicine. The aim of the present review is to provide an in-depth perspective about the application of proteomics to animal disease pathogenesis, as well as its utilization in veterinary diagnostics. After an overview on the various proteomic techniques that are currently applied to veterinary sciences, the article focuses on proteomic approaches to animal disease pathogenesis. Included as well are recent achievements in immunoproteomics (ie, the identifications through proteomic techniques of antigen involved in immune response) and histoproteomics (ie, the application of proteomics in tissue processed for immunohistochemistry). Finally, the article focuses on clinical proteomics (ie, the application of proteomics to the identification of new biomarkers of animal diseases).

  19. Medical management of myxomatous mitral valve disease: An evidence-based veterinary medicine approach.

    PubMed

    Burchell, Richard K; Schoeman, Johan

    2014-10-22

    Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common heart disease of dogs. The current management of MMVD in dogs is mostly pharmacological, and the recommendations for treatment are based on a number of veterinary studies. Notwithstanding the current consensus regarding the medical management of MMVD, there remains active debate as to which drugs are the most effective. In order to understand how recommendations are constructed in the pharmacological management of diseases, the veterinarian needs to understand the concept of evidence-based veterinary medicine, and how the findings of these studies can be applied in their own practices. This review summarises the current veterinary literature and explains how the consensus regarding the management of MMVD has been reached. This review highlights the limitations of veterinary studies in order to provide veterinary practitioners with a sense of the difficulty there is in establishing the benefit of one treatment over the other. Veterinarians should therefore apply treatment recommendations based on the best evidence, integrated with a pathomechanistic understanding of the disease process and clinical experience.

  20. Criterion-referenced evaluation of day one clinical competencies of veterinary students: VOLES-the VMTH (Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital) Online Evaluation System.

    PubMed

    Zeck, Steven; Wall, Judy A; Smith, Bradford P; Wilson, W David; Walsh, Donal A

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an extensive online criterion-referenced evaluation system for the assessment of veterinary students' achievement during their final year's Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (or equivalent) clinical education. Data are reported for the 2001 to 2009 University of California at Davis veterinary graduates, for a total of more than 1,100 students. These criterion-referenced evaluations extensively document the level of clinical skills attained and demonstrated during the individual clinical rotations that comprise the fourth-year curriculum. On average, in each of the 17,500 clinical rotations undertaken during this time period, student performance was assessed in at least 11 separate areas of skills, knowledge, and professional attributes. This provided more than 200,000 criterion-referenced judgments of the individual clinical attributes of graduates over nine years. The system is based on a previously detailed and validated definition of the skills, knowledge, and professional attributes that students should have demonstrated before graduation. The extensive database that this system has provided has established that this system, termed VOLES (VMTH [Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital] On-Line Evaluation System), is an effective tool to assess the clinical capabilities of veterinary students and their achievement of the "Day One" skills required for entering clinical practice. These expected proficiencies are balanced according to the differing expectations that each area of veterinary clinical practice demands.

  1. Recombinant human thyrotropin in veterinary medicine: current use and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Campos, M; van Hoek, I; Peremans, K; Daminet, S

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) was developed after bovine thyrotropin (bTSH) was no longer commercially available. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) as an aid to diagnostic follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in humans and for thyroid remnant ablation with radioiodine. In addition, rhTSH is used in human medicine to evaluate thyroid reserve capacity and to enhance radioiodine uptake in patients with metastatic thyroid cancer and multinodular goiter. Likewise, rhTSH has been used in veterinary medicine over the last decade. The most important veterinary use of rhTSH is thyroidal functional reserve testing for the diagnosis of canine hypothyroidism. Recent pilot studies performed at Ghent University in Belgium have investigated the use of rhTSH to optimize radioiodine treatment of canine thyroid carcinoma and feline hyperthyroidism. Radioiodine treatment optimization may allow a decreased therapeutic dosage of radioiodine and thus may improve radioprotection. This review outlines the current uses of rhTSH in human and veterinary medicine, emphasizing research performed in dogs and cats, as well as potential future applications.

  2. Probabilistic risk assessment of veterinary medicines applied to four major aquaculture species produced in Asia.

    PubMed

    Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2014-01-15

    Aquaculture production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary medicines into the environment. About 90% of the global aquaculture production is produced in Asia and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of veterinary medicines in Asian aquaculture have not yet been properly evaluated. In this study we performed a probabilistic risk assessment for eight different aquaculture production scenarios in Asia by combining up-to-date information on the use of veterinary medicines and aquaculture production characteristics. The ERA-AQUA model was used to perform mass balances of veterinary medicinal treatments applied to aquaculture ponds and to characterize risks for primary producers, invertebrates, and fish potentially exposed to chemical residues through aquaculture effluents. The mass balance calculations showed that, on average, about 25% of the applied drug mass to aquaculture ponds is released into the environment, although this percentage varies with the chemical's properties, the mode of application, the cultured species density, and the water exchange rates in the aquaculture pond scenario. In general, the highest potential environmental risks were calculated for parasitic treatments, followed by disinfection and antibiotic treatments. Pangasius catfish production in Vietnam, followed by shrimp production in China, constitute possible hot-spots for environmental pollution due to the intensity of the aquaculture production and considerable discharge of toxic chemical residues into surrounding aquatic ecosystems. A risk-based ranking of compounds is provided for each of the evaluated scenarios, which offers crucial information for conducting further chemical and biological field and laboratory monitoring research. In addition, we discuss general knowledge gaps and research priorities for performing refined risk assessments of aquaculture medicines in the near future.

  3. Applicant expectations and decision factors for jobs and careers in food-supply veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Prince, J Bruce; Gwinner, Kevin; Andrus, David M

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the job expectations of applicants as reported by recruiters interviewing food-supply veterinary medicine (FSVM) candidates and the career-choice decision factors used by year 3 and 4 veterinary students pursuing careers in FSVM. The responses of 1,047 veterinary recruiters and 270 year 3 and 4 students with a food-supply focus from 32 colleges of veterinary medicine in the United States and Canada were examined. Recruiters were asked to report the two most important job factors applicants took into account when deciding to accept an offer; students were asked the two most important reasons for choosing a career in FSVM and the two most important benefits of working as a food-supply veterinarian. Recruiters reported that high salaries and good benefits are the two most important decision factors. Interest in the food-animal career area and a desire for a rural, outdoor lifestyle were the top reasons students gave for choosing an FSVM career. Students saw the enjoyment of working with and helping producers and food animals as the most important benefits of a career in FSVM.

  4. Sustainable Traditional Medicine: Taking the Inspirations from Ancient Veterinary Science

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Sanjeev; Kaphle, Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Rapid reduction in natural resources as a consequence to the expanded urbanization, global warming and reduced natural habitat posed a considerable threat to the sustainability of traditional medicine. Being completely dependent upon natural resources like herbs, minerals and animal products, traditional medicine would possibly rank first in order of extinction of heritage if an alternative way is not considered well in time. In reference to the use of animal products, Ayurveda presents some unique examples where animals are used without causing harm to them and so without posing a threat to their existence. In the current context, when natural resources are facing a threat to their existence, a revisit to these ideas may give us a new insight to refine our look at natural resources used in traditional medicine. PMID:18980947

  5. Basic science and clinical application of stem cells in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Ribitsch, I; Burk, J; Delling, U; Geißler, C; Gittel, C; Jülke, H; Brehm, W

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells play an important role in veterinary medicine in different ways. Currently several stem cell therapies for animal patients are being developed and some, like the treatment of equine tendinopathies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have already successfully entered the market. Moreover, animal models are widely used to study the properties and potential of stem cells for possible future applications in human medicine. Therefore, in the young and emerging field of stem cell research, human and veterinary medicine are intrinsically tied to one another. Many of the pioneering innovations in the field of stem cell research are achieved by cooperating teams of human and veterinary medical scientists.Embryonic stem (ES) cell research, for instance, is mainly performed in animals. Key feature of ES cells is their potential to contribute to any tissue type of the body (Reed and Johnson, J Cell Physiol 215:329-336, 2008). ES cells are capable of self-renewal and thus have the inherent potential for exceptionally prolonged culture (up to 1-2 years). So far, ES cells have been recovered and maintained from non-human primate, mouse (Fortier, Vet Surg 34:415-423, 2005) and horse blastocysts (Guest and Allen, Stem Cells Dev 16:789-796, 2007). In addition, bovine ES cells have been grown in primary culture and there are several reports of ES cells derived from mink, rat, rabbit, chicken and pigs (Fortier, Vet Surg 34:415-423, 2005). However, clinical applications of ES cells are not possible yet, due to their in vivo teratogenic degeneration. The potential to form a teratoma consisting of tissues from all three germ lines even serves as a definitive in vivo test for ES cells.Stem cells obtained from any postnatal organism are defined as adult stem cells. Adult haematopoietic and MSCs, which can easily be recovered from extra embryonic or adult tissues, possess a more limited plasticity than their embryonic counterparts (Reed and Johnson, J Cell Physiol 215

  6. New viruses in veterinary medicine, detected by metagenomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Belák, Sándor; Karlsson, Oskar E; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael; Granberg, Fredrik

    2013-07-26

    In our world, which is faced today with exceptional environmental changes and dramatically intensifying globalisation, we are encountering challenges due to many new factors, including the emergence or re-emergence of novel, so far "unknown" infectious diseases. Although a broad arsenal of diagnostic methods is at our disposal, the majority of the conventional diagnostic tests is highly virus-specific or is targeted entirely towards a limited group of infectious agents. This specificity complicates or even hinders the detection of new or unexpected pathogens, such as new, emerging or re-emerging viruses or novel viral variants. The recently developed approaches of viral metagenomics provide an effective novel way to screen samples and detect viruses without previous knowledge of the infectious agent, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control, in line with the "One World, One Health" principles (www.oneworldonehealth.org). Using metagenomic approaches, we have recently identified a broad variety of new viruses, such as novel bocaviruses, Torque Teno viruses, astroviruses, rotaviruses and kobuviruses in porcine disease syndromes, new virus variants in honeybee populations, as well as a range of other infectious agents in further host species. These findings indicate that the metagenomic detection of viral pathogens is becoming now a powerful, cultivation-independent, and useful novel diagnostic tool in veterinary diagnostic virology.

  7. Essential veterinary education in conservation medicine and ecosystem health: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A A; Gómez, A

    2009-08-01

    Conservation medicine is an emerging discipline that links human and animal health with ecosystem health and global environmental change. The biosphere is threatened by several pervasive and synergistic phenomena that are the result of increasing human pressures on the planet: climate change, biological impoverishment (loss of biodiversity and ecological processes), emerging infectious diseases ('pathogen pollution') and global 'toxification' (pollutants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals). These factors are working in concert to diminish human, domestic animal, wildlife and environmental health on this planet. By including conservation medicine and ecosystem health into veterinary curricula worldwide we can train young veterinarians that will help change paradigms and be able to form transdisciplinary teams. These veterinary professionals will develop new tools for assessing and monitoring ecological health and will be prepared to fulfil critical roles in sustaining global ecological health.

  8. Teaching Evidence-Based Veterinary Medicine in the US and Canada.

    PubMed

    Shurtz, Suzanne; Fajt, Virginia; Heyns, Erla P; Norton, Hannah F; Weingart, Sandra

    2016-07-14

    There is no comprehensive review of the extent to which evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) is taught in AVMA-accredited colleges of veterinary medicine in the US and Canada. We surveyed teaching faculty and librarians at these institutions to determine what EBVM skills are currently included in curricula, how they are taught, and to what extent librarians are involved in this process. Librarians appear to be an underused resource, as 59% of respondents did not use librarians/library resources in teaching EBVM. We discovered that there is no standard teaching methodology nor are there common learning activities for EBVM among our survey respondents, who represent 22 institutions. Respondents reported major barriers to inclusion such as a perceived shortage of time in an already-crowded course of study, and a lack of high-quality evidence and point-of-care tools. Suggestions for overcoming these barriers include collaborating with librarians and using new EBVM online teaching resources.

  9. [Folk medicine veterinary science in the level of paterfamilias literature of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Krüger, H

    1993-06-01

    Paterfamilial literature in Germany marked the emergence of a literary category, with its householder writings being precursors of some of a farm management theory. Its pamphlets on veterinary medicine reflected latest knowledge in its time in farming. A number of economy housebooks is presented together with the authors in an attempt to give a somewhat closer account of this literature category in populist veterinary medicine.

  10. Public health campaign to promote hand hygiene before meals in a college of veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Ellen R E; KuKanich, Kate S; Davis, Elizabeth; White, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary students can be exposed to environmental infectious agents in school that may include zoonotic pathogens. Encouraging effective hand hygiene can minimize the spread of zoonoses and promote public health and the One Health concept among veterinary students. The purpose of this study was to determine if a campaign could improve hand hygiene among veterinary students at extracurricular meetings serving meals. Nine Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine (KSU-CVM) extracurricular organizations participated in the study, sanitizer was provided at each meeting, and baseline hand-hygiene data were observed. A hand-hygiene opportunity was defined as any student observed to approach the buffet food line. Sanitizer use (yes/no) and gender (male/female) were recorded. Campaign interventions included a 3.5-minute educational video and a novel motivational poster. The video was presented to all first-year, second-year, and third-year veterinary students. Posters encouraging hand sanitization were displayed on doors and tables alongside sanitizers at each meeting. Observational hand-hygiene data were collected immediately after introduction of interventions and again 3 months later. Environmental sampling for presence of bacteria in and around meeting locations was also performed. Observed hand hygiene was lowest during baseline (11.0% ± 1.7), improved significantly post-intervention (48.8% ± 3.2), and remained improved at 3-month follow-up (33.5% ± 4.0). Females had higher probability of hand sanitizing (35.9% ± 2.2) than males (21.4% ± 2.4) (p<.01). Clostridium perfringens was isolated from 2/42 samples, and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 4/42 samples. A short-term public health campaign targeting veterinary students successfully improved hand hygiene before meals.

  11. [Veterinary issues in the proceedings of the Amsterdam Agricultural Society, 1776-1832].

    PubMed

    Mathijsen, A H H M

    2006-01-01

    The Amsterdam Agricultural Society, founded in 1776, was created by six wealthy gentlemen, well known for the important positions in society held by them. They invested the money earned through trade among others in the acquisition of land, partially newly reclaimed in the surroundings of Amsterdam. As a consequence of the expansion of the population the profitability of agriculture had increased. The merchants and regents knew how to combine business with pleasure. In the second half of the 17th and the first half of the 18th century, they have built about 500 country estates in the surroundings of Amsterdam. Besides the pleasures of country-life, the owners gained a practical interest in agriculture and animal husbandry. Missing practical knowledge in these fields themselves, they felt the moral obligation to contribute to the general welfare of the society by the promotion of new ideas or experiences gained by others. In the first volume of the Proceedings is stated: 'It is beyond question that chemistry, botany, meteorology and the Ars veterinaria are to be considered as the true fundaments of agricultural knowledge'. Inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment and, quite in conformity with the spirit of the time, the establishment of a society was thought to be the answer in order to bring agricultural and thus economical reform. The method used was copied from the learned societies. The members proposed subjects for prize competitions and judged the answers sent in. The crowned answers were the main, but not the only, contents of the Society's Proceedings. The paper analyses the membership (the number of ordinary members decreased from 70 at the start to 56; that of honorary members was stable at about 20; further there were a few orrespondents), and quantifies the distribution of articles in the Proceedings, devoted respectively to agricultural, veterinary and zootechnical subjects. In addition, a detailed list with commentary, of the veterinary and

  12. Grade inflation at a north american college of veterinary medicine: 1985-2006.

    PubMed

    Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; Sanderson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Grade inflation, an upward shift in student grade-point averages without a similar rise in achievement, is considered pervasive by most experts in post-secondary education in the United States. Grade-point averages (GPAs) at US universities have increased by roughly 0.15 points per decade since the 1960s, with a 0.6-point increase since 1967. In medical education, grade inflation has been documented and is particularly evident in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate grade inflation over a 22-year period in a college of veterinary medicine. Academic records from 2,060 students who graduated from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University between 1985 and 2006 were evaluated, including cumulative GPAs earned during pre-clinical professional coursework, during clinical rotations, and at graduation. Grade inflation was documented at a rate of approximately 0.2 points per decade at this college of veterinary medicine. The difference in mean final GPA between the minimum (1986) and maximum (2003) years of graduation was 0.47 points. Grade inflation was similar for didactic coursework (years 1-3) and clinical rotations (final year). Demographic shifts, student qualifications, and tuition do not appear to have contributed to grade inflation over time. A change in academic standards and student evaluation of teaching may have contributed to relaxed grading standards, and technology in the classroom may have led to higher (earned) grades as a result of improved student learning.

  13. Factors affecting track selection by veterinary professional students admitted to the school of veterinary medicine at the University of California, Davis.

    PubMed

    Chigerwe, Munashe; Boudreaux, Karen A; Ilkiw, Jan E

    2010-01-01

    Factors affecting track selection before admission to the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California, Davis, and factors affecting change of tracks after the first two years of the curriculum were investigated by means of a survey of the 118 students of the graduating class of 2009. The student's background experience before admission to the School of Veterinary Medicine and other personal reasons were significant factors affecting small-animal and mixed-animal track choices. The student's background experience before admission to the School of Veterinary Medicine was the only significant factor for choosing the zoological track. The most significant factor for students to change their track from the mixed or zoological track to the small-animal track was background experience before admission to the School of Veterinary Medicine. Anticipated increased employment opportunities after graduation was the most significant factor for students to change their track from the mixed- or small-animal track to the zoological track. Other personal reasons was the significant variable for students to change their track from small-animal or zoological to mixed-animal track. Thus, to increase the number of students interested in tracks with lower enrollment, exposure of potential applicants to experience relevant to that track before admission and Admissions Committee selection criteria are likely to increase the odds of students' choosing that track.

  14. [The invention of animals: a history of Mexican veterinary medicine in the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Blanca Irais Uribe

    2015-12-01

    This article analyzes a phenomenon I call "the invention of animals," that is, the way in which veterinary medicine and the practices of physiology, microbiology and zootechnics produced new and different ways of thinking about, studying, understanding, regulating, legislating, commercializing, exploiting and experiencing "the animal." In particular, the text focuses on the evolution of this phenomenon in Mexico during the nineteenth century, since during this period the impact of these disciplines on animal bodies led to significant changes in the fields of human medicine, public health, and livestock production.

  15. A Decade of Counseling Services in One College of Veterinary Medicine: Veterinary Medical Students' Psychological Distress and Help-Seeking Trends.

    PubMed

    Drake, Adryanna A S; Hafen, McArthur; Rush, Bonnie R

    2017-01-01

    Much has been discussed about the high prevalence of psychological distress among veterinary medical students. Studies investigating general samples of veterinary medical students indicate that, on average, depression and anxiety symptoms are present at higher rates than in comparison samples. However, little is known about veterinary medical students who seek counseling. This study intends to expand the literature on veterinary student well-being, as the first to examine a sample of veterinary medical students seeking counseling services. It offers an overview of student distress and help-seeking trends from a decade of counseling services provided in one College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) in the US. The sample includes data from 279 participants. Results indicate a steady increase in students seeking counseling over the last decade. First-year students sought services at higher rates but second-year students experienced the greatest distress when compared to other cohorts. Students seeking counseling services experienced levels of overall distress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and social role concerns that were, on average, above cut-off scores. Physical health was significantly associated with student distress, suggesting opportunities for intervention.

  16. Sulfonimidamides in Medicinal and Agricultural Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chinthakindi, Praveen K; Naicker, Tricia; Thota, Niranjan; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Arvidsson, Per I

    2016-12-13

    The synthesis and evaluation of structural analogues and isosteres are of central importance in medicinal and agricultural chemistry. The sulfonamide functional group represents one of the most important amide isosteres in contemporary drug design, and about 500 such compounds have overcome both the pharmacological and regulatory hurdles that precede studies in humans. The mono aza analogues of sulfonamides, that is, sulfonimidamides, are rapidly gaining popularity as a novel functional group among synthetic chemists involved in the design of biologically active compounds for both pharmaceutical and agrochemical applications. Herein, we review these recent developments to showcase the promise of this functional group.

  17. The contribution of veterinary medicine to public health and poverty reduction in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Muma, John B; Mwacalimba, Kennedy K; Munang'andu, Hetron M; Matope, Gift; Jenkins, Akinbowale; Siamudaala, Victor; Mweene, Aaron S; Marcotty, Tanguy

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have explicitly examined the linkages between human health, animal disease control and poverty alleviation. This paper reviews the contribution that veterinary medicine can make to poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our analysis attempts to explore aspects of this contribution under five themes: food production; food safety; impact and control of zoonotic infections; promotion of ecotourism; and environmental protection. While these areas of human activity have, more or less, fallen under the influence of the veterinary profession to varying degrees, we attempt to unify this mandate using a 'One Health' narrative, for the purpose of providing clarity on the linkages between the veterinary and other professions, livestock production and poverty alleviation. Future opportunities for improving health and reducing poverty in the context of developing African countries are also discussed. We conclude that veterinary science is uniquely positioned to play a key role in both poverty reduction and the promotion of health, a role that can be enhanced through the reorientation of the profession's goals and the creation of synergies with allied and related professions.

  18. Survey of college climates at all 28 US colleges and schools of veterinary medicine: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, Lisa M; Carmichael, K Paige

    2014-01-01

    In April 2011, a nationwide survey of all 28 US veterinary schools was conducted to determine the comfort level (college climate) of veterinary medical students with people from whom they are different. The original hypothesis was that some historically underrepresented students, especially those who may exhibit differences from the predominant race, ethnicity, religion, gender, or sexual orientation, experience a less welcoming college climate. Nearly half of all US students responded to the survey, allowing investigators to make conclusions from the resulting data at a 99% CI with an error rate of less than 2% using Fowler's sample-size formula. Valuable information was captured despite a few study limitations, such as occasional spurious data reporting and little ability to respond in an open-ended manner (most questions had a finite number of allowed responses). The data suggest that while overall the majority of the student population is comfortable in American colleges, some individuals who are underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM) may not feel the same level of acceptance or inclusivity on veterinary school campuses. Further examination of these data sets may explain some of the unacceptably lower retention rates of some of these URVM students on campuses.

  19. Training evidence-based veterinary medicine by collaborative development of critically appraised topics.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Sebastian P; Haimerl, Peggy; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    In current veterinary education, skills such as retrieving, critically appraising, interpreting, and applying the results of published scientific studies are rarely taught. In this study, the authors tested the concept of team-based development of critically appraised topics (CATs) in training students in evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM). The 116 participants were in their fifth year and attending the clinical rotation at the Clinic for Animal Reproduction. Students developed 18 CATs of varying quality on topics of their choice. Preparing the CATs in teams stimulated discussion on the topic and the quality of the retrieved papers. Evaluation of the project revealed that more than 90% of the students endorsed training in critical appraisal of information in veterinary education. In addition, more than 90% considered the development of CATs an effective exercise for assessing the quality of scientific literature. A provided literature evaluation form was perceived as a useful tool for systematically summarizing a publication's quality. In conclusion, team-based development of CATs during clinical rotations is highly valuable for training in EBVM. Learning and intrinsic motivation seem to be enhanced by creating a situation similar to veterinary practice because the task is embedded into an authentic clinical problem. This approach to clinical training helps to prepare students to integrate evidence from literature into practice.

  20. Use of traditional veterinary medicine in Nhema communal area of the Midlands province, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study documents the use of ethno-veterinary medicine to treat livestock in Nhema communal area in the Midlands province of Zimbabwe. This study employed oral interviews and detailed discussions with 69 smallholder farmers and 3 traditional healers. The local people use 23 plant species belonging to 16 families as ethno-veterinary remedies. Two plant families were particularly frequent in usage: Fabaceae and Solanaceae, while the most utilized plant species were Aloe chabaudii (UV = 0.69), Aloe greatheadii (UV = 0.65), Adenium multiflorum (UV = 0.63), Vernonia amygdalina (UV = 0.61), Nicotiana tabacum (UV = 56), Solanum lycopersicum (UV = 55), Capsicum annum (UV = 53) and Pouzolzia hypoleuca (UV = 51). Fourteen animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases were tick-borne diseases, eye problems, retained afterbirth, fleas, lice and diarrhoea. The majority of ethno-veterinary remedies (78%) were collected from the wild, with respondents mostly using herbs (11 species, 48%), followed by 6 trees (26%), 4 shrubs (17%), and 2 climbers (9%). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (51%), followed by bark (16%), roots (13%) and fruits (10%). These remedies were mostly administered as decoctions or infusions of single plants. These plants were used not only as alternatives to conventional veterinary drugs but also because in certain diseases they were thought to be more efficacious. In view of many and widespread uses of wild plants as ethnoveterinary remedies, further research into their pharmacological activities may prove worthwhile.

  1. Part I: twenty-year literature overview of veterinary and allopathic medicine.

    PubMed

    Turnwald, Grant H; Sponenberg, D Phillip; Meldrum, J Blair

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, numerous reports, symposia, and workshops have focused on the challenges and changes facing veterinary and allopathic medicine. Many of these have specifically considered the changing economic and demographic profiles of the health professions, the specific roles of health professionals in society, and the importance of professional curricula in meeting changing professional and societal needs. Changing curricula to address future demands is a common thread that runs through all of these reports. Future demands most consistently noted include the fact that modern veterinary curricula must emphasize the acquisition of skills, values, and attitudes in addition to the acquisition of knowledge. Skills relating to business management, strong interpersonal communication, and problem solving have often been noted as lacking in current curricula. Furthermore, future curricula must allow for greater diversification and "specialization" among veterinary students; should promote greater opportunities for an emphasis on public health and population medicine, including food safety, food security, and bio- and agro-terrorism; and should motivate students to be active learners who possess strong lifelong learning skills and attitudes.

  2. Myokymia and neuromyotonia in veterinary medicine: a comparison with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndrome in humans.

    PubMed

    Vanhaesebrouck, An E; Bhatti, Sofie F M; Franklin, Robin J M; Van Ham, Luc

    2013-08-01

    Involuntary muscle hyperactivity can result from muscle or peripheral nerve hyperexcitability or central nervous system dysfunction. In humans, diseases causing hyperexcitability of peripheral nerves are grouped together under the term 'peripheral nerve hyperexcitability' (PNH). Hyperexcitability of the peripheral motor nerve can result into five different phenotypic main variants, i.e. fasciculations, myokymia, neuromyotonia, cramps and tetany, each with their own clinical and electromyographic characteristics. This review focuses on the most commonly described expressions of PNH in veterinary medicine, i.e. myokymia and neuromyotonia, in particular in young Jack Russell terriers. Data from 58 veterinary cases with generalized myokymia and neuromyotonia were analyzed, including unpublished treatment and follow-up data on eight Jack Russell terriers from a previous study and seven additional Jack Russell terriers. A dysfunction of the potassium channel or its associated proteins has been found in many human syndromes characterized by PNH, in particular in generalized myokymia and neuromyotonia, and is suspected to occur in veterinary medicine. Potential pathomechanisms of potassium channel dysfunction leading to signs of PNH are broad and include genetic mutations, antibody-mediated attack or ion channel maldistribution due to axonal degeneration or demyelination. A more accurate classification of the different PNH syndromes will facilitate a more rapid diagnosis and guide further research into natural occurring PNH in animals.

  3. Veterinary medicine protecting and promoting the public's health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2004-03-16

    Dr. Calvin Schwabe's vision of "One Medicine" has long inspired many in the public health community to strive toward bringing human and veterinary medicine together to improve the public's health and well-being around the world. In an increasingly human-dominated world, as Dr. Schwabe suggested many years ago, human health provides the most-logical unifying or apical cause in veterinary medicine's hierarchy of values. Veterinarians in all aspects of the profession-have opportunity and responsibility to protect the health and well-being of people in all that they do, including protecting food security and safety; addressing threats to antibiotic sensitivity; preventing and controlling zoonotic emerging infectious diseases; protecting environments and ecosystems; participating in bio- and agro-terrorism preparedness and response; using their skills to confront non-zoonotic diseases (such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, vaccine preventable diseases, chronic diseases and injuries); strengthening the public-health infrastructure; and advancing medical science through research. This article provides an overview of contributions made by veterinarians in each of these areas, and discusses the challenges to be overcome and the need for strategic thinking and action to achieve the vision of "one medicine".

  4. Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1980-05-01

    The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book.

  5. The use, publication and future directions of immunocytochemistry in veterinary medicine: a consensus of the Oncology-Pathology Working Group.

    PubMed

    Priest, H L; Hume, K R; Killick, D; Kozicki, A; Rizzo, V L; Seelig, D; Snyder, L A; Springer, N L; Wright, Z M; Robat, C

    2016-03-22

    One of the primary objectives of the Oncology Pathology Working Group (OPWG), a joint initiative of the Veterinary Cancer Society and the American College of Veterinary Pathologists, is for oncologists and pathologists to collaboratively generate consensus documents to standardize aspects of and provide guidelines for oncologic pathology. Consensus is established through review of relevant peer-reviewed literature relative to a subgroup's particular focus. In this document, the authors provide descriptions of the literature reviewed, the review process, and a summary of the information gathered on immunocytochemistry. The intent of this publication is to help educate practitioners and pathologists on the process of immunocytochemistry and to provide a guide for the use of this technique in veterinary medicine. This document represents the opinions of the working group and the authors and does not constitute a formal endorsement by the American College of Veterinary Pathologists or the Veterinary Cancer Society.

  6. Medicinal plants used for traditional veterinary in the Sierras de Córdoba (Argentina): An ethnobotanical comparison with human medicinal uses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This is a first description of the main ethnoveterinary features of the peasants in the Sierras de Córdoba. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of medicinal plants and other traditional therapeutic practices for healing domestic animals and cattle. Our particular goals were to: characterize veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge considering age, gender and role of the specialists; interpret the cultural features of the traditional local veterinary medicine and plant uses associated to it; compare the plants used in traditional veterinary medicine, with those used in human medicine in the same region. Methods Fieldwork was carried out as part of an ethnobotanic regional study where 64 informants were interviewed regarding medicinal plants used in veterinary medicine throughout 2001-2010. Based participant observation and open and semi-structured interviews we obtained information on the traditional practices of diagnosis and healing, focusing on the veterinary uses given to plants (part of the plant used, method of preparation and administration). Plants speciemens were collected with the informants and their vernacular and scientific names were registered in a database. Non-parametric statistic was used to evaluate differences in medicinal plant knowledge, use, and valorization by local people. A comparison between traditional veterinary medicine and previous human medicine studies developed in the region was performed by analyzing the percentages of common species and uses, and by considering Sorensen's Similarity Index. Results A total of 127 medicinal uses were registered, corresponding to 70 species of plants belonging to 39 botanic families. Veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge was specialized, restricted, in general, to cattle breeders (mainly men) and to a less degree to healers, and was independent of the age of the interviewees. Native plants were mostly used as skin cicatrizants, disinfectants or for treating digestive disorders. Together

  7. An overview of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in veterinary medicine and their public health consequences.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Diego Borin; Brocchi, Marcelo

    2014-08-13

    Serious human and animal infections caused by bacteria are usually treated with beta-lactams. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) constitute the most clinically and economically important enzymes that are able to hydrolyze and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics in veterinary medicine. The spread of ESBLs represents a serious threat to healthcare systems, drastically undermining therapeutic options. The relationship between drug usage and the emergence of resistance has been extensively reported. Nevertheless, the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and the emergence of ESBLs in animals remains a matter of debate. Moreover, there is still controversy about whether antibiotic usage in farm animals poses a potential public health risk. This review will (i) deal with aspects related to the presence of ESBLs in veterinary medicine, (ii) its link with human medicine, and (iii) discuss strategies to be implemented to preserve antimicrobial effectiveness. New insights relative to old questions concerning antimicrobial use in domestic animals are also presented.

  8. Genetically modified pigs for medicine and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Prather, Randall S; Shen, Miaoda; Dai, Yifan

    2008-01-01

    The ability to genetically modify pigs has enabled scientists to create pigs that are beneficial to humans in ways that were previously unimaginable. Improvements in the methods to make genetic modifications have opened up the possibilities of introducing transgenes, knock-outs and knock-ins with precision. The benefits to medicine include the production of pharmaceuticals, the provision of organs for xenotransplantation into humans, and the development of models of human diseases. The benefits to agriculture include resistance to disease, altering the carcass composition such that it is healthier to consume, improving the pig's resistance to heat stress, and protecting the environment. Additional types of genetic modifications will likely provide animals with characteristics that will benefit humans in currently unimagined ways.

  9. Reducing depth uncertainty in large surgical workspaces, with applications to veterinary medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audette, Michel A.; Kolahi, Ahmad; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Gatti, Claudio; Cleary, Kevin

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents on-going research that addresses uncertainty along the Z-axis in image-guided surgery, for applications to large surgical workspaces, including those found in veterinary medicine. Veterinary medicine lags human medicine in using image guidance, despite MR and CT data scanning of animals. The positional uncertainty of a surgical tracking device can be modeled as an octahedron with one long axis coinciding with the depth axis of the sensor, where the short axes are determined by pixel resolution and workspace dimensions. The further a 3D point is from this device, the more elongated is this long axis, and the greater the uncertainty along Z of this point's position, in relation to its components along X and Y. Moreover, for a triangulation-based tracker, its position error degrades with the square of distance. Our approach is to use two or more Micron Trackers to communicate with each other, and combine this feature with flexible positioning. Prior knowledge of the type of surgical procedure, and if applicable, the species of animal that determines the scale of the workspace, would allow the surgeon to pre-operatively configure the trackers in the OR for optimal accuracy. Our research also leverages the open-source Image-guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK).

  10. The use of global rating scales for OSCEs in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Read, Emma K; Bell, Catriona; Rhind, Susan; Hecker, Kent G

    2015-01-01

    OSCEs (Objective Structured Clinical Examinations) are widely used in health professions to assess clinical skills competence. Raters use standardized binary checklists (CL) or multi-dimensional global rating scales (GRS) to score candidates performing specific tasks. This study assessed the reliability of CL and GRS scores in the assessment of veterinary students, and is the first study to demonstrate the reliability of GRS within veterinary medical education. Twelve raters from two different schools (6 from University of Calgary [UCVM] and 6 from Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies [R(D)SVS] were asked to score 12 students (6 from each school). All raters assessed all students (video recordings) during 4 OSCE stations (bovine haltering, gowning and gloving, equine bandaging and skin suturing). Raters scored students using a CL, followed by the GRS. Novice raters (6 R(D)SVS) were assessed independently of expert raters (6 UCVM). Generalizability theory (G theory), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests were used to determine the reliability of rater scores, assess any between school differences (by student, by rater), and determine if there were differences between CL and GRS scores. There was no significant difference in rater performance with use of the CL or the GRS. Scores from the CL were significantly higher than scores from the GRS. The reliability of checklist scores were .42 and .76 for novice and expert raters respectively. The reliability of the global rating scale scores were .7 and .86 for novice and expert raters respectively. A decision study (D-study) showed that once trained using CL, GRS could be utilized to reliably score clinical skills in veterinary medicine with both novice and experienced raters.

  11. Geospatial Modeling and Disease Insect Vector Management at the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geospatial modeling at the Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) is used assist in the surveillance of insect vectors and in the management of insect transmitted diseases. The most recent Geospatial Modeling/Technology Transfer success involves the prediction of Rift Val...

  12. Occurrence and ecological hazard assessment of selected veterinary medicines in livestock wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung J; Seo, Cheon-Kyu; Kim, Tak-Hyun; Myung, Seung-Woon

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of some veterinary medicines in the livestock wastewater plants (WWTPs) was investigated. This investigation represented the occurrence of veterinary medicines to treat in the livestock WWTPs or be discharged into the water system in Korea since the sampling sites were widely distributed across the nation and samples were collected from the 11 livestock WWTPs. Nine antibiotics, two analgesics, and two disinfectants occurred in the livestock wastewater plants (WWTPs). From 11 livestock WWTP influents, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, acetylsalicylic acid, and disinfectants frequently occurred with the high concentrations. Meanwhile, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin-H₂O, and trimethoprim did not occur during sampling periods. The values for log Kow of each chemical showed a high correlation with the number of hydrogen bonding acceptors and were important parameters to estimate and understand the biodegradability and toxicity of a compound in the environment. The biodegradability of each compound was proportional to the hydrophilicity of each compound and the toxicity was proportional to the number of hydrogen bonding acceptors of each compound. The expected introductory concentration (EIC), predicted exposure concentration (PEC), and hazard quotient showed that the livestock WWTP effluents were hazardous to ecosystems.

  13. Food safety knowledge and hygiene practices among veterinary medicine students at Trakia University, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Stratev, Deyan; Odeyemi, Olumide A; Pavlov, Alexander; Kyuchukova, Ralica; Fatehi, Foad; Bamidele, Florence A

    2017-02-07

    The results from the first survey on food safety knowledge, attitudes and hygiene practices (KAP) among veterinary medicine students in Bulgaria are reported in this study. It was designed and conducted from September to December 2015 using structured questionnaires on food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. Data were collected from 100 undergraduate veterinary medicine students from the Trakia University, Bulgaria. It was observed that the age and the gender did not affect food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) on food safety knowledge and practices among students based on the years of study. A high level of food safety knowledge was observed among the participants (85.06%), however, the practice of food safety was above average (65.28%) while attitude toward food safety was high (70%). Although there was a significant awareness of food safety knowledge among respondents, there is a need for improvement on food safety practices, interventions on food safety and foodborne diseases.

  14. Developing Confidence in Uncertainty: Conflicting Roles of Trainees as They Become Educators in Veterinary and Human Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lygo-Baker, Simon; Kokotailo, Patricia K; Young, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    The important role of medical trainees (interns and residents) as teachers is increasingly recognized in veterinary and human medicine, but often is not supported through adult learning programs or other preparatory training methods. To develop appropriate teaching programs focused on effective clinical teaching, more understanding is needed about the support required for the trainee's teaching role. Following discussion among faculty members from education and veterinary and pediatric medicine, an experienced external observer and expert in higher education observed 28 incoming and outgoing veterinary and pediatric trainees in multiple clinical teaching settings over 10 weeks. Using an interpretative approach to analyze the data, we identified five dynamics that could serve as the foundation for a new program to support clinical teaching: (1) Novice-Expert, recognizing transitions between roles; (2) Collaboration-Individuality, recognizing the power of peer learning; (3) Confidence-Uncertainty, regarding the confidence to act; (4) Role-Interdisciplinarity, recognizing the ability to maintain a discrete role and yet synthesize knowledge and cope with complexity; and (5) Socialization-Identity, taking on different selves. Trainees in veterinary and human medicine appeared to have similar needs for support in teaching and would benefit from a variety of strategies: faculty should provide written guidelines and practical teaching tips; set clear expectations; establish sustained support strategies, including contact with an impartial educator; identify physical spaces in which to discuss teaching; provide continuous feedback; and facilitate peer observation across medical and veterinary clinical environments.

  15. Paśu Ayurvĕda (veterinary medicine) in Garudapurăņa.

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    The history of veterinary medicine is closely tied to the development of human medicine. Evidence of animal medicine has been found in ancient civilizations, such as those of the Hindu, Babylonians, Hebrews, Arabs, Greeks, and Romans. Ancient Indian literature in the form of the holy Vĕda, Purăna, Brăhmaņa, epics, etc. is flooded with information on animal care. The Purăņa are ancient scriptures discuss varied topics like devotion to God and his various aspects, traditional sciences like Ayurvĕda, Jyŏtişa (Astrology), cosmology, concepts like dharma, karma, reincarnation and many others. The treatment of animal diseases using Ayurvedic medicine has been mentioned in Garudapurăna, Agnipurăņa, Atri-samhită, Matsyapurăņa and many other texts. The Garudapurăņa is one of the important Săttvika purăna, the subject matter is divided into two parts, viz. Pŭrvakhaņda (first part) and an Uttarakhaņda (subsequent part). Gavăyurvĕda, Gajăyurvĕda narrated briefly and Aśvăyurvĕda described detailly in Pŭrvakhaņda.

  16. [From animal medical practitioners to veterinarians: historical note on animal medicine and the São Bento de Olinda Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Pernambuco (1912-1926)].

    PubMed

    Melo, Lúcio Esmeraldo Honório de; Magalhães, Francisco de Oliveira; Almeida, Argus Vasconcelos de; Câmara, Cláudio Augusto Gomes da

    2010-03-01

    The historical aspects of animal medicine indicate an epistemological break with the old practices of animal medical treatment, with introduction of the principles of rationality in the eighteenth century in the formation of veterinary doctors. These healing practices, meanwhile, did not begin with the implementation of graduate courses in animal medicine. In colonial Brazil and, in particular, in the State of Pernambuco, historical records can be found of animal medical practices that were later incorporated into the curriculum of the São Bento de Olinda Graduate School of Veterinary, marked by the presence of a unique evaluation in Brazil: the physicum examination.

  17. How do German veterinarians use social networks? A study, using the example of the 'NOVICE' veterinary medicine network

    PubMed Central

    Schaper, Elisabeth; Forrest, Neil D.; Tipold, Andrea; Ehlers, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: NOVICE (Network Of Veterinary ICT in Education, http://www.noviceproject.eu/), is a professional online social network for veterinarians, lecturers and students of veterinary medicine as well as for e-Learning advisers and others working in establishments that teach veterinary medicine. This study sets out to investigate to what extent German veterinarians, lecturers, students of veterinary medicine and e-Learning representatives would accept a specialist network, what requirements would have to be met by an online social network, how to use web 2.0 tools [21], [30] and what advantages a specialist network could offer. Methodology: The investigation was carried out by analysing data from the Elgg platform database as well as using Google Analytics. Annual focus group surveys and individual interviews were carried out in order to perform an analysis of acceptance among network users. Results: 1961 users from 73 different countries registered on the NOVICE site between 1 September 2010 and 21 March 2012. Germany represents the biggest user group, with 565 users (28.81%). During this period, most individual hits on the website came from Germany too. In total, 24.83% of all members are active, while 19.22% of German members participate actively. In terms of gender, there are significantly more female members than male members, both in the NOVICE network as a whole as well as in Germany. The most used web 2.0 tools are chat and email messaging services as well as writing wikis and contributing to forum discussions. The focus group surveys showed that respondents generally make use of other online communities too. Active members generally use more web 2.0 tools than in other networks, while passive members are generally more reluctant in all networks. All participants of the survey welcomed the idea of having a network specifically set up for the profession and believe that it could be very useful for veterinary medicine. Conclusions: The network and its

  18. Using standardized essays in the veterinary medicine admissions process: are the ratings reliable and valid?

    PubMed

    Hecker, Kent; Violato, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    The reliability and validity of using essays for veterinary medical school admissions requires investigation. We explored the reliability and construct validity of a structured essay station in the 2009 admission process at the University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. One hundred three applicants (female=80.6%, male=19.4%; mean age=23.05 years, SD=3.96) participated. Each applicant wrote a one-hour supervised essay (750 words). Essays were rated independently by two randomly assigned raters (n=16). Raters scored essays on four items, each on a five-point anchored scale. Nine essays were scored by all raters to perform a decision study. Generalizability analysis resulted in a reliability coefficient of 0.55. The decision study indicated that three raters and four items produces a G of 0.68. Essay score correlated with interview score (r=0.30, p<0.01) but not with GPA (r=0.05, p=ns). Overall reliability was adequate and higher than what has been reported for unsupervised written submissions. Results from the decision study suggest that three raters with four items provide adequate reliability. Correlations with interviews and grade point average provide evidence of construct validity. A time-limited essay with a clear scoring protocol results in adequate reliability and some validity.

  19. Designing a Competency-Based Program in Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine for the Professional Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, Lloyd A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A five-day workshop was successful in fulfilling its prime objective, development of a competency-based curriculum for veterinary public health and preventive medicine (VPH & PM). The model now may be used to re-evaluate and, where necessary, revise existing curriculums. (LBH)

  20. Factor Structure of a Brief Version of the Ways of Coping (WOC) Questionnaire: A Study with Veterinary Medicine Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sharon L.

    1994-01-01

    Explored structure of brief version of Ways of Coping (WOC) Questionnaire and coping strategies employed by students enrolled in stressful academic programs. Findings from 207 veterinary medicine students lend support to view that there are relatively stable underlying coping structures across samples or groups within specified coping situations.…

  1. Chemical Constituents and an Alternative Medicinal Veterinary Herbal Soap Made from Senna macranthera

    PubMed Central

    Inoue Andrade, Flávia; Purgato, Gislaine Aparecida; de Faria Maia, Thalita; Pais Siqueira, Raoni; Lima, Sâmia; Diaz, Marisa Alves Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Upon undergoing biomonitoring, the most active dichloromethane extract retrieved from Senna macranthera roots led to the isolation of three main compounds: emodine, physione, and chrysophanol. In this sequence, these compounds revealed a potential antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 20, 90, and 90 μg mL−1, respectively. Therefore, an herbal soap was also produced from this same active extract. This soap was tested in vitro using gloves contaminated by animals with bovine mastitis that had been discarded after use by milkers and showed similar results to previously tested compounds. These results indicate the potential of this plant as an alternative veterinary medicine for the production of antibacterial soaps that aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections in small Brazilian farms. PMID:25821480

  2. Chemical Constituents and an Alternative Medicinal Veterinary Herbal Soap Made from Senna macranthera.

    PubMed

    Inoue Andrade, Flávia; Purgato, Gislaine Aparecida; de Faria Maia, Thalita; Pais Siqueira, Raoni; Lima, Sâmia; Diaz, Gaspar; Diaz, Marisa Alves Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Upon undergoing biomonitoring, the most active dichloromethane extract retrieved from Senna macranthera roots led to the isolation of three main compounds: emodine, physione, and chrysophanol. In this sequence, these compounds revealed a potential antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 20, 90, and 90 μg mL(-1), respectively. Therefore, an herbal soap was also produced from this same active extract. This soap was tested in vitro using gloves contaminated by animals with bovine mastitis that had been discarded after use by milkers and showed similar results to previously tested compounds. These results indicate the potential of this plant as an alternative veterinary medicine for the production of antibacterial soaps that aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections in small Brazilian farms.

  3. Development of starch based mucoadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems for application in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Gök, Mehmet Koray; Özgümüş, Saadet; Demir, Kamber; Cirit, Ümüt; Pabuccuoğlu, Serhat; Cevher, Erdal; Özsoy, Yıldız; Bacınoğlu, Süleyman

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate the mucoadhesive, biocompatible and biodegradable progesterone containing vaginal tablets based on modified starch copolymers for the estrus synchronization of ewes. Starch-graft-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers (S-g-PAA) were synthesized and characterized. The vaginal tablets were fabricated with S-g-PAA and their equilibrium swelling degree (Qe) and matrix erosion (ME%) were determined in lactate buffer solution. In vitro, mucoadhesive properties of the tablets were investigated by using ewe vaginal mucosa and in vivo residence time were also investigated. In vitro and in vivo progesterone release profiles from the tablets were compared with two commercial products. Tablet formulation containing wheat starch based grafted copolymer (WS-g-PAA)gc indicated promising results and might be convenient as an alternative product to the commercial products in veterinary medicine.

  4. 3-D Reconstruction From 2-D Radiographic Images and Its Application to Clinical Veterinary Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Sato, Motoyoshi

    3D imaging technique is very important and indispensable in diagnosis. The main stream of the technique is one in which 3D image is reconstructed from a set of slice images, such as X-ray CT and MRI. However, these systems require large space and high costs. On the other hand, a low cost and small size 3D imaging system is needed in clinical veterinary medicine, for example, in the case of diagnosis in X-ray car or pasture area. We propose a novel 3D imaging technique using 2-D X-ray radiographic images. This system can be realized by cheaper system than X-ray CT and enables to get 3D image in X-ray car or portable X-ray equipment. In this paper, a 3D visualization technique from 2-D radiographic images is proposed and several reconstructions are shown. These reconstructions are evaluated by veterinarians.

  5. Laboratory evaluation of mobility and sorption for the veterinary antibiotic, tylosin, in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Coats, Joel R

    2009-09-01

    Veterinary medicines, including antibiotics, are utilized in large quantities in intensive livestock farming. It is evidenced that tylosin, one of the most frequently used antibiotics, is only partially metabolized in animals and not completely degraded in the manure storage stage before application to the farmland. In order to assess the mobility of tylosin in soil, a soil-column leaching study and a simple batch sorption experiment were conducted in the laboratory. Tylosin had strong sorption to various soils, with sorption distribution coefficients ranging from 42 to 65 ml/g. The range of concentrations in leachate was detected from non-detectable to 0.27 ng/mL after four simulated rainfall events in one month, and leachability of tylosin is dependent on soil properties and manure amendment. Percentage of clay, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and manure amendment were positively correlated with sorption, and negatively correlated with mobility of tylosin in soil. The majority of tylosin was not recovered in the testing system, indicating that tylosin was most likely mineralized, or irreversibly bound to solid particles since no major degradation products were detected. Some trace level tylosin residues from manure-applied farmlands may be the major source to surface water systems through soil erosion and preferential flow processes.

  6. Novel technologies applied to the nucleotide sequencing and comparative sequence analysis of the genomes of infectious agents in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Granberg, F; Bálint, Á; Belák, S

    2016-04-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS), also referred to as deep, high-throughput or massively parallel sequencing, is a powerful new tool that can be used for the complex diagnosis and intensive monitoring of infectious disease in veterinary medicine. NGS technologies are also being increasingly used to study the aetiology, genomics, evolution and epidemiology of infectious disease, as well as host-pathogen interactions and other aspects of infection biology. This review briefly summarises recent progress and achievements in this field by first introducing a range of novel techniques and then presenting examples of NGS applications in veterinary infection biology. Various work steps and processes for sampling and sample preparation, sequence analysis and comparative genomics, and improving the accuracy of genomic prediction are discussed, as are bioinformatics requirements. Examples of sequencing-based applications and comparative genomics in veterinary medicine are then provided. This review is based on novel references selected from the literature and on experiences of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Centre for the Biotechnology-based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases in Veterinary Medicine, Uppsala, Sweden.

  7. Teaching of parasitology to students of veterinary medicine and biomedical sciences.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C A; Lymbery, A J; Hobbs, R P

    2002-10-02

    The teaching of an applied parasitology course suitable for both veterinary and biomedical students is described. A common lecture course is given complemented by separate and specific practical, research and problem-based learning components designed for veterinary and biomedical students. For veterinary and biomedical students, teaching of parasitology during the full course comprises a total of 46 lectures; 13 practical classes for veterinary students and five for biomedical students who also undertake an independent research project.

  8. Perspectives in molecular imaging through translational research, human medicine, and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Berry, Clifford R; Garg, Predeep

    2014-01-01

    The concept of molecular imaging has taken off over the past 15 years to the point of the renaming of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and Journals (European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and offering of medical fellowships specific to this area of study. Molecular imaging has always been at the core of functional imaging related to nuclear medicine. Even before the phrase molecular imaging came into vogue, radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals were developed that targeted select physiological processes, proteins, receptor analogs, antibody-antigen interactions, metabolites and specific metabolic pathways. In addition, with the advent of genomic imaging, targeted genomic therapy, and theranostics, a number of novel radiopharmaceuticals for the detection and therapy of specific tumor types based on unique biological and cellular properties of the tumor itself have been realized. However, molecular imaging and therapeutics as well as the concept of theranostics are yet to be fully realized. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of the translational approaches to targeted molecular imaging with application to some naturally occurring animal models of human disease.

  9. Critical evaluation of scientific articles and other sources of information: an introduction to evidence-based veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, J P

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly review key concepts regarding critical reading of the scientific literature to make informed decisions, in the context of evidence-based veterinary medicine. Key concepts are reviewed, based on the broader experience in human medicine, with adaptations, as indicated, to veterinary medicine. That a paper has been published in a peer-reviewed journal does not guarantee its credibility; guidelines are given regarding the general merit of different kinds of articles, as well as checklists and criteria that can be used to assess a paper. Specific study designs, their merits and limitations, are briefly discussed. Standard numerical indices for assessment of studies involving treatments and for assessments of diagnostic tests are summarized. Criteria for assessing drug trials are presented. The principles of statistical analysis are described, including practical considerations and common errors. Finally, numerous sources of bias are reviewed.

  10. Workshop report: the 2012 antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine: exploring the consequences of antimicrobial drug use: a 3-D approach.

    PubMed

    Martinez, M; Blondeau, J; Cerniglia, C E; Fink-Gremmels, J; Guenther, S; Hunter, R P; Li, X-Z; Papich, M; Silley, P; Soback, S; Toutain, P-L; Zhang, Q

    2014-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global challenge that impacts both human and veterinary health care. The resilience of microbes is reflected in their ability to adapt and survive in spite of our best efforts to constrain their infectious capabilities. As science advances, many of the mechanisms for microbial survival and resistance element transfer have been identified. During the 2012 meeting of Antimicrobial Agents in Veterinary Medicine (AAVM), experts provided insights on such issues as use vs. resistance, the available tools for supporting appropriate drug use, the importance of meeting the therapeutic needs within the domestic animal health care, and the requirements associated with food safety and food security. This report aims to provide a summary of the presentations and discussions occurring during the 2012 AAVM with the goal of stimulating future discussions and enhancing the opportunity to establish creative and sustainable solutions that will guarantee the availability of an effective therapeutic arsenal for veterinary species.

  11. [The relation of the faculty of veterinary medicine with the tropics: from developig assistance-projects to international cooporation 1987-2007].

    PubMed

    Paling, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    In the introduction three stages are distinguished in the relation between the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and the tropics: (1) Development of a veterinary infrastructure (research and education) in the former colonies, Netherlands-Indies, Surinam and The Netherlands Antilles (1850 - ca. 1949); (2) Developing Aid Assistance (1965-2000) and (3) Cooperation on the basis of bilateral treaties that express the mutual interests of the two countries involved (1993-today). The Faculty in Utrecht entered into such alliances with sister faculties in Thailand, South-Africa and Malaysia. As a result of internal and external factors the study of tropical veterinary medicine was no longer core business of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Utrecht. Tropical veterinary medicine was incorporated in the Department of Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine. The Office for International Cooperation of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, founded in 1987, partly took over the role of the former institute. Its activities are education and information, research support of the ongoing projects and networking. The accent moved from aid to cooperation for mutual interest.

  12. Training veterinary students in shelter medicine: a service-learning community-classroom technique.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Brenda J; Gruen, Margaret E

    2014-01-01

    Shelter medicine is a rapidly developing field of great importance, and shelters themselves provide abundant training opportunities for veterinary medical students. Students trained in shelter medicine have opportunities to practice zoonotic and species-specific infectious disease control, behavioral evaluation and management, primary care, animal welfare, ethics, and public policy issues. A range of sheltering systems now exists, from brick-and-mortar facilities to networks of foster homes with no centralized facility. Exposure to a single shelter setting may not allow students to understand the full range of sheltering systems that exist; a community-classroom approach introduces students to a diverse array of sheltering systems while providing practical experience. This article presents the details and results of a series of 2-week elective clinical rotations with a focus on field and service learning in animal shelters. The overall aim was to provide opportunities that familiarized students with sheltering systems and delivered primary-care training. Other priorities included increasing awareness of public health concerns and equipping students to evaluate shelters on design, operating protocols, infectious disease control, animal enrichment, and community outreach. Students were required to participate in rounds and complete a project that addressed a need recognized by them during the rotation. This article includes costs associated with the rotation, a blueprint for how the rotation was carried out at our institution, and details of shelters visited and animals treated, including a breakdown of treatments provided. Also discussed are the student projects and student feedback on this valuable clinical experience.

  13. Understanding the culture of antimicrobial prescribing in agriculture: a qualitative study of UK pig veterinary surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, L. A.; Latham, S. M.; Williams, N. J.; Dawson, S.; Donald, I. J.; Pearson, R. B.; Smith, R. F.; Pinchbeck, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals has been linked with the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial populations, with consequences for animal and public health. This study explored the underpinning drivers, motivators and reasoning behind prescribing decisions made by veterinary surgeons working in the UK pig industry. Methods A qualitative interview study was conducted with 21 veterinary surgeons purposively selected from all UK pig veterinary surgeons. Thematic analysis was used to analyse transcripts. Results Ensuring optimum pig health and welfare was described as a driver for antimicrobial use by many veterinary surgeons and was considered a professional and moral obligation. Veterinary surgeons also exhibited a strong sense of social responsibility over the need to ensure that antimicrobial use was responsible. A close relationship between management practices, health and economics was evident, with improvements in management commonly identified as being potential routes to reduce antimicrobial usage; however, these were not always considered economically viable. The relationship with clients was identified as being a source of professional stress for practitioners due to pressure from farmers requesting antimicrobial prescriptions, and concern over poor compliance of antimicrobial administration by some farmers. Conclusions The drivers behind prescribing decisions by veterinary surgeons were complex and diverse. A combination of education, improving communication between veterinary surgeons and farmers, and changes in regulations, in farm management and in consumer/retailer demands may all be needed to ensure that antimicrobial prescribing is optimal and to achieve significant reductions in use. PMID:27516473

  14. [Perceptions of veterinary medicine students about acting in the public health area: a study based on Fleck's idea of "thought style"].

    PubMed

    Pfuetzenreiter, Márcia Regina; Zylbersztajn, Arden

    2008-12-01

    As part of a case study conducted in the undergraduate course of Veterinary Medicine of the State University of Santa Catarina (UDESC), Brazil, freshmen and senior students were interviewed for identifying how they perceive their activities as refers to Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Public Health. Taking the ideas of Ludwik Fleck as a theoretical framework, a correspondence was established among the different fields of activity in Veterinary Medicine and the variations in "thought styles", a key idea in Fleck's epistemology, allowing for the definition of analytical categories. It was verified that the teaching in the field of veterinary medicine leads to a thought style giving little importance to collective and preventive concepts. In the end of the article, we emphasize the importance of integration between the different fields of actions of the profession for a better professional education based on the National Guidelines and Bases for Education of 19965.

  15. An unusual pedestrian road trauma: from forensic pathology to forensic veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Isabella; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Paciello, Orlando; Britti, Domenico; Pepe, Francesca; De Luca, Ester; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-01-01

    Traffic accidents have increased in the last decade, pedestrians being the most affected group. At autopsy, it is evident that the most common cause of pedestrian death is central nervous system injury, followed by skull base fractures, internal bleeding, lower limb haemorrhage, skull vault fractures, cervical spinal cord injury and airway compromise. The attribution of accident responsibility can be realised through reconstruction of road accident dynamics, investigation of the scene, survey of the vehicle involved and examination of the victim(s). A case study concerning a car accident where both humans and pets were involved is reported here. Investigation and reconstruction of the crime scene were conducted by a team consisting of forensic pathologists and forensic veterinarians. At the scene investigation, the pedestrian and his dog were recovered on the side of the road. An autopsy and a necropsy were conducted on the man and the dog, respectively. In addition, a complete inspection of the sports utility vehicle (SUV) implicated in the road accident was conducted. The results of the autopsy and necropsy were compared and the information was used to reconstruct the collision. This unusual case was solved through the collaboration between forensic pathology and veterinary forensic medicine, emphasising the importance of this kind of co-operation to solve a crime scene concerning both humans and animals.

  16. Novel gastroretentive controlled-release drug delivery system for amoxicillin therapy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, E; Kagan, L; Chamisha, Y; Gati, I; Hoffman, A; Friedman, M; Lavy, E

    2011-10-01

    Beta-lactam antimicrobials, commonly used in both veterinary and human medicine, generally present short biologic half-lives, whereas their activity is enhanced as pathogen exposure is prolonged. These properties necessitate multiple-dose regimens of standard dosage forms, thereby hampering pet owner adherence, frequently resulting in therapeutic failure. This study presents a novel controlled-release gastroretentive oral drug delivery system for beta-lactams with which single-dose administration provides an effective antimicrobial course, optimizing pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles, minimizing adverse effects and emergence of antimicrobial resistance and facilitating adherence. Our prototype sustained-delivery swelling-tablet (SDST), based on a degradable hydrophilic polymeric matrix, was designed to enable continuous input of these drugs to their absorption sites over several days. Several SDST formulations of the beta-lactam amoxicillin were evaluated in in vitro dissolution studies. Two formulations were selected for further in vivo canine studies, for determination of gastric retention and PK-PD profiling. Prolonged gastric retention times maintaining allowed for maintained effective drug concentrations against many clinically relevant pathogens for more than 48 h for one formulation and more than 5 days for the other. Both SDST formulations offer significant advantages over standard immediate-release therapy in achieving PK-PD goals and enhancing adherence. The prototypical formulations represent a novel platform which may be modified to meet various clinical requirements.

  17. Availability of veterinary medicinal products for food producing minor animal species in the Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Macrì, Agostino; Purificato, Ivana; Tollis, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In its historic role, the Mediterranean used to be the unifying element of heterogenic cultures, economies and societies surrounding its three continents' borders. For the benefit of the leading idea laying behind the present paper and in order to reinforce its original role, the whole Mediterranean area has been deliberately considered as a geographic and legislative unicum relating to MUMS. Such an acronym, well established either in EU countries and internationally, stands for Minor Use/Minor Species and is generally accepted in scientific and regulatory debates to incorporate any reference to a non-core market of a veterinary medicinal product or to an animal species that, conventionally, has not been considered as a major one. Difficulties to develop and market new products have resulted in an internationally recognized severe shortage of drugs for MUMS and, as a consequence, in unacceptable animal suffering, loss of animal life, and financial loss to farm industry. Furthermore, inadequate treatment of sick animals may increase health risks to humans as well as other animals.

  18. The Rise of Forensic Pathology in Human Medicine: Lessons for Veterinary Forensic Pathology.

    PubMed

    Pollanen, M S

    2016-09-01

    The rise of forensic pathology in human medicine has greatly contributed to the administration of justice, public safety and security, and medical knowledge. However, the evolution of human forensic pathology has been challenging. Veterinary forensic pathologists can learn from some of the lessons that have informed the growth and development of human forensic pathology. Three main observations have emerged in the past decade. First, wrongful convictions tell us to use a truth-seeking stance rather than an a priori "think dirty" stance when investigating obscure death. Second, missed homicides and concealed homicides tell us that training and certification are the beginning of reliable forensic pathology. Third, failure of a sustainable institutional arrangement that fosters a combination of service, research, and teaching will lead to stagnation of knowledge. Forensic pathology of humans and animals will flourish, help protect society, and support justice if we embrace a modern biomedical scientific model for our practice. We must build training programs, contribute to the published literature, and forge strong collaborative institutions.

  19. Genetically manipulated phages with improved pH resistance for oral administration in veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nobrega, Franklin L.; Costa, Ana Rita; Santos, José F.; Siliakus, Melvin F.; van Lent, Jan W. M.; Kengen, Servé W. M.; Azeredo, Joana; Kluskens, Leon D.

    2016-01-01

    Orally administered phages to control zoonotic pathogens face important challenges, mainly related to the hostile conditions found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). These include temperature, salinity and primarily pH, which is exceptionally low in certain compartments. Phage survival under these conditions can be jeopardized and undermine treatment. Strategies like encapsulation have been attempted with relative success, but are typically complex and require several optimization steps. Here we report a simple and efficient alternative, consisting in the genetic engineering of phages to display lipids on their surfaces. Escherichia coli phage T7 was used as a model and the E. coli PhoE signal peptide was genetically fused to its major capsid protein (10 A), enabling phospholipid attachment to the phage capsid. The presence of phospholipids on the mutant phages was confirmed by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography, Dynamic Light Scattering and phospholipase assays. The stability of phages was analysed in simulated GIT conditions, demonstrating improved stability of the mutant phages with survival rates 102–107 pfu.mL−1 higher than wild-type phages. Our work demonstrates that phage engineering can be a good strategy to improve phage tolerance to GIT conditions, having promising application for oral administration in veterinary medicine. PMID:27976713

  20. Cryptosporidium infection in Brazil: implications for veterinary medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review paper is to report the results of cryptosporidiosis research in Brazil, mainly its occurrence in animals and implications for veterinary medicine and public health. An increasing number of papers related to Cryptosporidium spp. infection in Brazil are available at national and international literature. The main focus described in these papers is the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in food, environmental samples, in humans and several animal species, particularly birds, cattle, dogs and cats. Using molecular biology techniques, most Cryptosporidium species and genotypes identified in other countries have been described in Brazil. In mammals, there are descriptions of infection by C. bovis, C. canis, C. felis, C. meleagridis, C. parvum, and the cervine genotype; in birds, the following species and genotypes have been described: C. baileyi, C. galli, C. meleagridis, C. parvum and the avian genotypes I, II and III. Several species have been described in humans, such as C. parvum, C. hominis, and some species adapted to animal hosts such as C. canis, C. felis and C. meleagridis.

  1. Radiological protection and the exposure of animals as patients in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Pentreath, R J

    2016-06-01

    It is apparent that most of the techniques that make use of ionising radiation in human medical practices are now being applied in veterinary medicine. Steps are being taken by the IAEA to provide guidance for humans involved in such practices, but there appears to be no international initiative that considers the protection or welfare of the animal as a patient. There is therefore a risk that the deliberate exposure of an animal, particularly in the therapeutic application of radiation, could do more harm than good. In the light of recent developments in dosimetric modelling and the application of known effects of radiation on different types of animals, for the purposes of the protection of biota in an environmental context, it is argued that it would be sensible now to start a serious consideration of this issue. Some suggestions are made with regard to a number of areas that could be considered further, both specifically and with regard to the field of radiological protection as a whole.

  2. Strategies for Educational Action To Meet Veterinary Medicine's Role in Biodefense and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John; Blackwell, Michael; Buss, Daryl; Eyre, Peter; Held, Joe R.; Ogilvie, Tim; Pappaioanou, Marguerite; Sawyer, Leigh

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes recommendations of a conference focused on how veterinary education needs to change to meet the challenges ahead related to biodefense and public health. Presents results of seven sections, each dealing with a major issue related to veterinary medical education. (SLD)

  3. Application of Campylobacter molecular classification and typing techniques in veterinary medicine: old-established methods and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Laturnus, Claudia; Wieler, Lothar H

    2007-01-01

    In this review the application and usefulness of Campylobacter genotypical classification and typing in veterinary medicine will be discussed.While there is a large area of overlapping applications between the veterinary and the medical field, several differences exist, as the spectrum of veterinary pathogens is different from the human and contaminated food of healthy animal origin may cause disease in man. In general, genotyping in the veterinary field can be applied in three different areas: (a) purely diagnostic purposes for classification of Campylobacter species and subspecies, (b) typing methods useful for monitoring or surveillance of animals as well as food products of animal origin, and (c) typing methods that can be applied during outbreaks and for source tracing. In addition, typing methods applied in areas (b) and (c) should be distinguished in regard to local short-term and global long-term epidemiology, respectively. While a whole plethora of discriminative typing methods are available, classification tools of certain species and subspecies are still missing. Perspectively, as the genomes of many relevant Campylobacter species have now been sequenced, this will help to identify several species specific loci, the products of which should be available to develop easy and fast applicable diagnostic tools. Global cooperation, sharing of strains and databases should close the currently existing gaps in Campylobacter identification tools.

  4. [Qualitative study of the acceptance and the requirements of a clinical skills lab at a university of veterinary medicine].

    PubMed

    Rösch, Tanja; Schaper, Elisabeth; Tipold, Andrea; Fischer, Martin R; Ehlers, Jan P

    2014-01-01

    In the education of veterinary medicine undergraduate students are taught theoretical knowledge and practical clinical skills in order to become practically trained professionals. A possibility to teach practical skills is a center for clinical skills ("Clinical Skills Lab"). Students can train skills and gain experience through frequent repetitions of exercises. To respect animal welfare and introduce alternative methods to animal testing simulators and models are used in such a skills lab. In the current study the demands for a center for clinical skills and its equipment should be identified. The hypothesis should be proven, that students and teachers of veterinary medicine are highly motivated to enhance the education in practical skills. Focus group interviews were conducted with students, veterinarians (private practitioners), lecturers of veterinary medicine and experts for simulation of clinical skills. Needs and requirements of students participating in skills lab classes were identified.The interviews were conducted in individual or in group interviews. Many opinions, topics and needs were expressed, from which great benefit for the development of the skills lab can be drawn. The hypothesis that a skills lab is supported by all participants had to be rejected. Especially students were afraid of this new lab, because no former experience existed. In the interviews many needs and requirements were raised. However, they could easily be summarized to formulate an accurate list of requirements for the Clinical Skills Lab. A Skills Lab planned taking into consideration the results of this qualitative study will have a positive impact on veterinary medical education and teaching. According to empirical values of experts from other Skills Labs a widespread acceptance by the users can be expected on a long-term basis.

  5. Making clinical case-based learning in veterinary medicine visible: analysis of collaborative concept-mapping processes and reflections.

    PubMed

    Khosa, Deep K; Volet, Simone E; Bolton, John R

    2014-01-01

    The value of collaborative concept mapping in assisting students to develop an understanding of complex concepts across a broad range of basic and applied science subjects is well documented. Less is known about students' learning processes that occur during the construction of a concept map, especially in the context of clinical cases in veterinary medicine. This study investigated the unfolding collaborative learning processes that took place in real-time concept mapping of a clinical case by veterinary medical students and explored students' and their teacher's reflections on the value of this activity. This study had two parts. The first part investigated the cognitive and metacognitive learning processes of two groups of students who displayed divergent learning outcomes in a concept mapping task. Meaningful group differences were found in their level of learning engagement in terms of the extent to which they spent time understanding and co-constructing knowledge along with completing the task at hand. The second part explored students' and their teacher's views on the value of concept mapping as a learning and teaching tool. The students' and their teacher's perceptions revealed congruent and contrasting notions about the usefulness of concept mapping. The relevance of concept mapping to clinical case-based learning in veterinary medicine is discussed, along with directions for future research.

  6. Current and Projected Modes of Delivery of Veterinary Medical Services to Animal Agriculture: Diagnostic Laboratory Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Vaughn A.

    1980-01-01

    The veterinary diagnostic laboratory's prime role has been diagnosis and/or laboratory findings to assist a diagnosis. Interpretation and evaluation and more involvement with decision-making in monitoring groups of animals and their health status are seen as future roles for diagnostic laboratories. (MLW)

  7. Canada and veterinary parasitology.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, J Owen D

    2009-08-07

    A World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology tradition for its conference is to present some highlights of the country hosting the event, and with an emphasis on the history of, and research in, veterinary parasitology. A review of Canada's peoples, physiography, climate, natural resources, agriculture, animal populations, pioneers in veterinary parasitology, research accomplishments by other veterinary parasitologists, centres for research in veterinary parasitology, and major current research had been presented at a World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology Conference in Canada in 1987, and was published. The present paper updates the information on the above topics for the 22 years since this conference was last held in Canada.

  8. The use of zootherapeutics in folk veterinary medicine in the district of Cubati, Paraíba State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Raynner RD; de MS Souto, Wedson; da S Mourão, José

    2007-01-01

    Background The present work addresses the use of zootherapy in folk veterinary medicine (ethnoveterinary) by the residents of the municipal district of Cubati, microregion of Seridó, Paraíba State, Brazil. It sought to identify the principal animals used as medicinal sources for zootherapeutics and to contribute to the preservation and sustainability of this traditional knowledge. Methods Field research was undertaken on a weekly or biweekly basis during the period November, 2006, to January, 2007. Free, semi-structured, and open interviews were made with local residents of the municipal district of Cubati (in both urban and rural settings) as well as with venders in public markets. A total of 25 individuals of both sexes were interviewed (with ages varying from 26 to 78 years) although only 16 were finally chosen as informants as these people demonstrated the greatest degree of knowledge concerning zootherapeutics. Graphs and percentages were generated using Microsoft© Excel 2007 software, and the species were identified by photographic registration and subsequent bibliographical surveys. Results Mammals constitute the main medicinal zootherapeutic source for folk veterinary medicines in the studied area, both in terms of the total number of species used and the frequency of their citation. Sheep (Ovis aries), pigs (Sus scrofa), cattle (Bos taurus), and foxes (Cerdocyon thous) were mentioned by 62.5, 43.75, 37.5, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively, as being used in folk veterinary medicine. Additionally, chameleons (Iguana iguana), chickens (Gallus domesticus), and rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) were mentioned by 75, 43.75, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively. Relatively simple animal illnesses, such as furuncles, or injuries resulting from embedded thorns or skin eruptions are responsible for the largest number of zootherapeutic treatment, while, diseases of greater complexity, such as rabies and brucellosis, were not even mentioned. Fat from

  9. ASVCP guidelines: quality assurance for point-of-care testing in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathleen P; Vap, Linda M; Harr, Kendal E

    2013-12-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) refers to any laboratory testing performed outside the conventional reference laboratory and implies close proximity to patients. Instrumental POCT systems consist of small, handheld or benchtop analyzers. These have potential utility in many veterinary settings, including private clinics, academic veterinary medical centers, the community (eg, remote area veterinary medical teams), and for research applications in academia, government, and industry. Concern about the quality of veterinary in-clinic testing has been expressed in published veterinary literature; however, little guidance focusing on POCT is available. Recognizing this void, the ASVCP formed a subcommittee in 2009 charged with developing quality assurance (QA) guidelines for veterinary POCT. Guidelines were developed through literature review and a consensus process. Major recommendations include (1) taking a formalized approach to POCT within the facility, (2) use of written policies, standard operating procedures, forms, and logs, (3) operator training, including periodic assessment of skills, (4) assessment of instrument analytical performance and use of both statistical quality control and external quality assessment programs, (5) use of properly established or validated reference intervals, (6) and ensuring accurate patient results reporting. Where possible, given instrument analytical performance, use of a validated 13s control rule for interpretation of control data is recommended. These guidelines are aimed at veterinarians and veterinary technicians seeking to improve management of POCT in their clinical or research setting, and address QA of small chemistry and hematology instruments. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide a minimum standard for maintenance of POCT instruments in the veterinary setting.

  10. Statistics and evidence-based veterinary medicine: answers to 21 common statistical questions that arise from reading scientific manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Evans, Richard B; O'Connor, Annette

    2007-05-01

    Evidence-based veterinary medicine relies critically on the scientific validity of research. A component of validity is the statistical design and subsequent analysis of data collected during the study. Correct statistical design reduces bias and improves generalizability, and correct analysis leads to appropriate inferences. Inference is the art and science of making correct decisions based on data. Because veterinarians are responsible for the medical care of their patents, it is also their responsibility to understand inferences about treatments presented in papers. This article is designed to assist veterinarians with the interpretation and understanding of statistics presented in papers.

  11. Mathematical modeling and simulation in animal health - Part II: principles, methods, applications, and value of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in veterinary medicine and food safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z; Gehring, R; Mochel, J P; Lavé, T; Riviere, J E

    2016-10-01

    This review provides a tutorial for individuals interested in quantitative veterinary pharmacology and toxicology and offers a basis for establishing guidelines for physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development and application in veterinary medicine. This is important as the application of PBPK modeling in veterinary medicine has evolved over the past two decades. PBPK models can be used to predict drug tissue residues and withdrawal times in food-producing animals, to estimate chemical concentrations at the site of action and target organ toxicity to aid risk assessment of environmental contaminants and/or drugs in both domestic animals and wildlife, as well as to help design therapeutic regimens for veterinary drugs. This review provides a comprehensive summary of PBPK modeling principles, model development methodology, and the current applications in veterinary medicine, with a focus on predictions of drug tissue residues and withdrawal times in food-producing animals. The advantages and disadvantages of PBPK modeling compared to other pharmacokinetic modeling approaches (i.e., classical compartmental/noncompartmental modeling, nonlinear mixed-effects modeling, and interspecies allometric scaling) are further presented. The review finally discusses contemporary challenges and our perspectives on model documentation, evaluation criteria, quality improvement, and offers solutions to increase model acceptance and applications in veterinary pharmacology and toxicology.

  12. Genetic modifications of pigs for medicine and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Jeffrey J; Prather, Randall S

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified swine hold great promise in the fields of agriculture and medicine. Currently, these swine are being used to optimize production of quality meat, to improve our understanding of the biology of disease resistance, and to reduced waste. In the field of biomedicine, swine are anatomically and physiologically analogous to humans. Alterations of key swine genes in disease pathways provide model animals to improve our understanding of the causes and potential treatments of many human genetic disorders. The completed sequencing of the swine genome will significantly enhance the specificity of genetic modifications, and allow for more accurate representations of human disease based on syntenic genes between the two species. Improvements in both methods of gene alteration and efficiency of model animal production are key to enabling routine use of these swine models in medicine and agriculture.

  13. Tropical Medicine and Animal Diseases: Onderstepoort and the Development of Veterinary Science in South Africa 1908–1950*

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This article traces the development of agricultural science at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, near Pretoria, from its founding in 1908 until the 1950s, by which time many enzootic and epizootic diseases had either been eradicated, or were largely controllable through various forms of prophylaxis. The Institute demonstrated the political and economic significance attributed to the pastoral industry in South Africa and the conviction that scientific discoveries could increase output. During this period, researchers explicated the aetiology and provenance of hitherto mysterious diseases such as lamsiekte, geeldikkop and African horsesickness. They developed vaccines, some of which were adopted internationally. The nature of their investigations showed that veterinary science increasingly entailed more than just progress in biomedical procedures. Ecological factors, in particular the nutritional state of the veld, became a priority from the 1920s onwards as veterinarians saw their function as promoting animal health as well as eliminating disease. Dealing with contagious infections also incorporated less welcome, and at times controversial, approaches to disease control. The imposition of pastoral regulations illustrated the expanding powers of the South African state, founded on presumptions of scientific legitimacy. The article also explores the contribution made by African communities and settler farmers to the institutionalisation of veterinary knowledge, as well as the role South African researchers played in the evolution of a colonial, as well as an increasingly international, scientific culture. PMID:16628249

  14. Plant biotechnology patents: applications in agriculture and medicine.

    PubMed

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have enabled the field of plant biology to move forward in great leaps and bounds. In particular, recent breakthroughs in molecular biology, plant genomics and crop science have brought about a paradigm shift of thought regarding the manner by which plants can be utilized both in agriculture and in medicine. Besides the more well known improvements in agronomic traits of crops such as disease resistance and drought tolerance, plants can now be associated with topics as diverse as biofuel production, phytoremediation, the improvement of nutritional qualities in edible plants, the identification of compounds for medicinal purposes in plants and the use of plants as therapeutic protein production platforms. This diversification of plant science has been accompanied by the great abundance of new patents issued in these fields and, as many of these inventions approach commercial realization, the subsequent increase in agriculturally-based industries. While this review chapter is written primarily for plant scientists who have great interest in the new directions being taken with respect to applications in agricultural biotechnology, those in other disciplines, such as medical researchers, environmental scientists and engineers, may find significant value in reading this article as well. The review attempts to provide an overview of the most recent patents issued for plant biotechnology with respect to both agriculture and medicine. The chapter concludes with the proposal that the combined driving forces of climate change, as well as the ever increasing needs for clean energy and food security will play a pivotal role in leading the direction for applied plant biotechnology research in the future.

  15. [Rationalization in 20th-century czechoslovak pharmacy practice - commission for rationalization and standardization in medicine, veterinary medicine and pharmacy - part 2*].

    PubMed

    Babica, Jan; Rusek, Václav

    2014-08-01

    In interwar Czechoslovakia health care, an increased attention paid to the new ideas of scientific management (Taylorism), work rationalization and standardization led to the establishment of the Commission for Rationalization and Standardization in Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (RANOK) within the Department of Natural Science and Medicine of the Masaryk Academy of Work. Within RANOK, the group for pharmacy worked between 1928 and 1932. The first part of the paper described the scientific management and standardization movement in interwar Czechoslovakia, the establishment of Masaryk Academy of Work and RANOK, and work objectives of RANOK and its group for pharmacy. The second part deals with the work results, relative failure and importance of the group for pharmacy.

  16. Characterisation of shops selling veterinary medicines in a tsetse-infested area of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bett, B; Machila, N; Gathura, P B; McDermott, J J; Eisler, M C

    2004-04-30

    In a tsetse-infested area of Kenya, we characterised veterinary-drug outlets based on personnel and business characteristics to assess their capacities to provide clinical veterinary services. Structured questionnaires were administered to the retailers and sought information on the characteristics of the owners, salespersons and businesses. A total of 41 retail outlets (20 agro-veterinary, 11 pharmacy, and 10 general shops) were identified. There was poor response to questions on owner characteristics. Proprietors, who had no more than secondary education owned 15 out of 28 shops. Few shops (4/29) were owned by proprietors, who had professional qualifications (in animal health). Most salespersons had only secondary education but no qualifications. Animal-health assistants (AHAs), veterinarians and manufacturer's package inserts (drug leaflets) were the preferred information sources for the retailers. We concluded that drug retailers were poorly equipped with the technical knowledge necessary for drug dispensation and advice.

  17. Predictors of anxiety and depression in veterinary medicine students: a four-year cohort examination.

    PubMed

    Siqueira Drake, Adryanna A; Hafen, McArthur; Rush, Bonnie R; Reisbig, Allison M J

    2012-01-01

    Mental health needs of veterinary medical students have become the focus of concern in recent years. Literature to date is scarce, but indicates a large number of veterinary medical students experience clinical levels of anxiety and depression. The present study focused on the prevalence of anxiety and depression in a sample of veterinary medical students (N=142) across four-year cohorts. Findings indicate elevated scores of anxiety and depression across the four-year cohorts. Students in their second and third years had the highest anxiety and depression scores. Perceived physical health, unclear expectations, difficulty fitting in, heavy workload, and homesickness were most relevant in explaining anxiety and depression symptom prevalence. Implications for practice and future research are addressed based on these findings.

  18. Uses of informatics to solve real world problems in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Suzanne L; Zimmerman, Kurt L

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary informatics is the science of structuring, analyzing, and leveraging information in an effort to advance animal health, disease surveillance, research, education, and business practices. Reference and terminology standards are core components of the informatics infrastructure. This paper focuses on three current activities that use reference standards in veterinary informatics: (1) the construction of a messaging standard in a national animal health laboratory network, (2) the creation of breed and species terminology lists for livestock disease surveillance, and (3) the development of a standardized diagnoses list for small animal practices. These and other endeavors will benefit from research conducted to identify innovative and superior tools, methods, and techniques. The authors believe there are many areas requiring study and special focus in order to advance veterinary informatics, and this paper highlights some of the needs and challenges surrounding these areas.

  19. International Evidence-Based Medicine Survey of the Veterinary Profession: Information Sources Used by Veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Selene J; Dean, Rachel S; Massey, Andrew; Brennan, Marnie L

    2016-01-01

    Veterinarians are encouraged to use evidence to inform their practice, but it is unknown what resources (e.g. journals, electronic sources) are accessed by them globally. Understanding the key places veterinarians seek information can inform where new clinically relevant evidence should most effectively be placed. An international survey was conducted to gain understanding of how veterinary information is accessed by veterinarians worldwide. There were 2137 useable responses to the questionnaire from veterinarians in 78 countries. The majority of respondents (n = 1835/2137, 85.9%) undertook clinical work and worked in a high income country (n = 1576/1762, 89.4%). Respondents heard about the survey via national veterinary organisations or regulatory bodies (31.5%), online veterinary forums and websites (22.7%), regional, discipline-based or international veterinary organisations (22.7%) or by direct invitation from the researchers or via friends, colleagues or social media (7.6%). Clinicians and non-clinicians reportedly used journals most commonly (65.8%, n = 1207/1835; 75.6%, n = 216/286) followed by electronic resources (58.7%, n = 1077/1835; 55.9%, n = 160/286), respectively. Respondents listed a total of 518 journals and 567 electronic sources that they read. Differences in veterinarian preference for resources in developed, and developing countries, were found. The nominated journals most read were the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (12.7% of nominations) for clinicians and the Veterinary Record (5.7%) for non-clinicians. The most accessed electronic resource reported was the Veterinary Information Network (25.6%) for clinicians and PubMed (7.4%) for non-clinicians. In conclusion, a wide array of journals and electronic resources appear to be accessed by veterinarians worldwide. Veterinary organisations appear to play an important role in global communication and outreach to veterinarians and consideration should be given to how these

  20. International Evidence-Based Medicine Survey of the Veterinary Profession: Information Sources Used by Veterinarians

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, Selene J.; Dean, Rachel S.; Massey, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Veterinarians are encouraged to use evidence to inform their practice, but it is unknown what resources (e.g. journals, electronic sources) are accessed by them globally. Understanding the key places veterinarians seek information can inform where new clinically relevant evidence should most effectively be placed. An international survey was conducted to gain understanding of how veterinary information is accessed by veterinarians worldwide. There were 2137 useable responses to the questionnaire from veterinarians in 78 countries. The majority of respondents (n = 1835/2137, 85.9%) undertook clinical work and worked in a high income country (n = 1576/1762, 89.4%). Respondents heard about the survey via national veterinary organisations or regulatory bodies (31.5%), online veterinary forums and websites (22.7%), regional, discipline-based or international veterinary organisations (22.7%) or by direct invitation from the researchers or via friends, colleagues or social media (7.6%). Clinicians and non-clinicians reportedly used journals most commonly (65.8%, n = 1207/1835; 75.6%, n = 216/286) followed by electronic resources (58.7%, n = 1077/1835; 55.9%, n = 160/286), respectively. Respondents listed a total of 518 journals and 567 electronic sources that they read. Differences in veterinarian preference for resources in developed, and developing countries, were found. The nominated journals most read were the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (12.7% of nominations) for clinicians and the Veterinary Record (5.7%) for non-clinicians. The most accessed electronic resource reported was the Veterinary Information Network (25.6%) for clinicians and PubMed (7.4%) for non-clinicians. In conclusion, a wide array of journals and electronic resources appear to be accessed by veterinarians worldwide. Veterinary organisations appear to play an important role in global communication and outreach to veterinarians and consideration should be given to how these

  1. Interactive Virtual Suturing Simulations: Enhancement of Student Learning in Veterinary Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, Amy J.; Boyd, Christine B.

    2013-01-01

    This capstone addresses an instructional gap in the Morehead State University Veterinary Technology Program and in other similar programs around the globe. Students do not retain the knowledge needed to proficiently complete suture patterns nor do students receive sufficient instructional time during the year to master each suture pattern that is…

  2. Survey of Research Resources in Colleges of Veterinary Medicine in the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, John M.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of research resources in 24 veterinary colleges in the US and Canada reports information on university-wide research facilities, college-wide research facilities, personnel, and instrumentation resources. Corporate research resource management was compared with university research resource management. The survey form is outlined.…

  3. Addressing educational challenges in veterinary medicine through the use of distance education.

    PubMed

    Murray, Amanda L; Sischo, William M

    2007-01-01

    The veterinary profession is currently facing many educational challenges, including an insufficient capacity to train and educate veterinarians for the multiple disciplines within the profession, a shortage of veterinarians in private and public practice, a shortage of faculty, a lack of human and professional diversity, and a rising cost of education resulting in extreme student debt loads. As a methodology for teaching, distance education (DE) has the potential to address many of these issues. By its very nature, DE can increase the capacity of current facilities and faculty. In addition, DE can allow students to acquire the necessary knowledge at less cost. This article describes a model for incorporating DE in the form of interactive Web-based courses, in conjunction with short, intensive residential programs, for the lecture portions of courses taught in the pre-veterinary, veterinary, and post-veterinary educational periods. In this model, the Web-based courses are used to convey the necessary core knowledge required at each step of the educational process. The residential portions are then used to apply the knowledge in such a way as to combine clinical applications with research in basic and applied sciences. Distance education can provide increased flexibility, high-quality educational experiences, and a less costly alternative for students while maximizing the reach of current faculty efforts and the capacity of existing physical structures.

  4. Learning-To-Communicate and Communicating-To-Learn in Veterinary Medicine: A Survey of Writing, Speaking, and Reading in Veterinary Medical Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Isabelle; Hendrix, Charles M.

    2000-01-01

    Finds that communication tasks assigned in veterinary medical courses accord well with the communication tasks expected to be performed by practicing veterinarians. Concludes that the merging of research and practice in the education of veterinary medical students may offer lessons for the education of professional practitioners in technical…

  5. Veterinary medicines and competition animals: the question of medication versus doping control.

    PubMed

    Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2010-01-01

    In racing and other equine sports, it is possible to increase artificially both the physical capability and the presence of a competitive instinct, using drugs, such as anabolic steroids and agents stimulating the central nervous system. The word doping describes this illegitimate use of drugs and the primary motivation of an equine anti-doping policy is to prevent the use of these substances. However, an anti-doping policy must not impede the use of legitimate veterinary medications and most regulatory bodies in the world now distinguish the control of illicit substances (doping control) from the control of therapeutic substances (medication control). For doping drugs, the objective is to detect any trace of drug exposure (parent drug or metabolites) using the most powerful analytical methods (generally chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques). This so-called "zero tolerance rule" is not suitable for medication control, because the high level of sensitivity of current screening methods allows the detection of totally irrelevant plasma or urine concentrations of legitimate drugs for long periods after their administration. Therefore, a new approach for these legitimate compounds, based upon pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) principles, has been developed. It involves estimating the order of magnitude of the irrelevant plasma concentration (IPC) and of the irrelevant urine concentration (IUC) in order to limit the impact of the high sensitivity of analytical techniques used for medication control. The European Horserace Scientific Liaison Committee (EHSLC), which is the European scientific committee in charge of harmonising sample testing and policies for racehorses in Europe, is responsible for estimating the IPCs and IUCs in the framework of a Risk Analysis. A Risk Analysis approach for doping/medication control involves three sequential steps, namely risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication. For medication control, the main task of

  6. [Blood analysis 200 years ago--the theory and practice of hematoscopy in veterinary medicine].

    PubMed

    Schäffer, J

    1991-12-01

    Since antiquity the macroscopic judgement of blood obtained through phlebotomy was an important constituent of the medical diagnostic procedures. In the progress of blood sedimentation, the "eucrasia" or the "dyscrasia" of the humours became visible. This paper summarizes the historical and theoretical basis of the haematoscopy, and offers insight into the haemodiagnostic practices of a veterinarian at the end of the 18th century. The authority is the professor of veterinary art and medical advisor Anton Joseph Will (1752-1821), mental father and founder of the veterinary school in Munich, which opened its doors on the 1st of November 1790. Between 1786 and 1790, A. J. Will developed a research program to control animal diseases in Bavaria and examined several thousands of blood samples from healthy and sick animals. The different components of coagulated blood, infected with anthrax, were given to dogs. In this way, he could demonstrate experimentally the high infectiousness of anthrax.

  7. The North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Turtle Rescue Team: a model for a successful wild-reptile clinic.

    PubMed

    Lewbart, Gregory A; Kishimori, Jennifer; Christian, Larry S

    2005-01-01

    The North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU-CVM) Turtle Rescue Team (TRT) is a veterinary student-run organization that treats native, sick and injured, wild chelonians. First-, second-, and third-year students are responsible for case management, consultation coordination, diagnostic testing within the hospital, and placing of recuperating animals with local wildlife rehabilitators. Several clinical research publications have resulted from the opportunity to work with these wild reptiles. Active student participants can also gain a course credit by attending eight hours of lecture/ seminar related to reptile medicine. With regards to outcome assessment, 86% of survey respondents found the program to be valuable or extremely valuable to their veterinary medical education. The logistics of organizing, supporting, and running this service are discussed, and its value as a clinical learning tool is supported by the results of a survey.

  8. Veterinary medicine in the 21st century: the challenge of biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Alan M

    2005-01-01

    The veterinary profession is presently challenged with developing and maintaining on-farm biosecurity protocols to protect the nation's food supply from acts of bioterrorism, from the growing threat of foreign animal diseases, and from multidrug resistance among pathogenic organisms. This challenge comes at a time when the supply of food animal veterinarians in the United States is progressively in decline, and raises the possibility that the profession is not adequately prepared to fulfill its responsibilities to the health and productivity of the US livestock and poultry populations. Causes of the decline in demand for veterinary services are discussed. They include consolidation of the food animal industries and a trend toward transferring performance of tasks traditionally carried out by veterinarians to the province of lay staff. This development potentially reduces veterinary surveillance of food animal populations. It also runs the risk of delay in recognizing and controlling serious health problems when they arise. Several remedies are proposed, including profound changes in the curriculum for educating food animal veterinarians to serve the consolidated but vulnerable livestock and poultry industries suitably. Also advocated is the initiation of training programs for herdsmen on the symptoms of foreign animal diseases, together with advice on when to call a veterinarian. Significant investment of federal or state resources will be required if these changes are to become reality.

  9. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 560.533 Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  10. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 560.533 Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  11. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  12. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  13. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  14. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  15. Antimicrobial resistance of zoonotic and commensal bacteria in Europe: the missing link between consumption and resistance in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Hendriksen, Rene S; Fraile, Lorenzo; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2014-05-14

    The emergence of resistance in food animals has been associated to the consumption of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine. Consequently, monitoring programs have been designed to monitor the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. This study analyses the amount of antimicrobial agents used in nine European countries from 2005 to 2011, and compares by univariate analysis the correlations between consumptions of each of the following antimicrobial classes; tetracycline, penicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones and macrolides. An overview of resistance in zoonotic and commensal bacteria in Europe focusing on Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter sp. and Enterococcus sp., during the same period of time based on monitoring programs is also assessed. With the exception of cephalosporins, linear regressions showed strong positive associations between the consumption of the four different antimicrobial classes. Substantial differences between countries were observed in the amount of antimicrobials used to produce 1 kg of meat. Moreover, large variations in proportions of resistant bacteria were reported by the different countries, suggesting differences in veterinary practice. Despite the withdrawn of a specific antimicrobial from "on farm" use, persistence over the years of bacteria resistant to this particular antimicrobial agent, was still observed. There were also differences in trends of resistance associated to specific animal species. In order to correlate the use of antimicrobial agents to the presence of resistance, surveillance of antimicrobial consumption by animal species should be established. Subsequently, intervention strategies could be designed to minimize the occurrence of resistance.

  16. Report on Health Manpower and Programs in Ohio: Part Two. Allied Health, Area Health Education Centers, Dentistry, Emergency Medical Services, Nursing, Optometry, Pharmacy, Podiatry, and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    Information on health occupations educational programs in Ohio and current and projected employment needs for health professionals are presented. The following health fields are examined: allied health, dentistry, emergency medical service, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine. Issues and trends affecting each field are…

  17. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2-58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5-89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4-24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45-2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients.

  18. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals

    PubMed Central

    Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2–58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5–89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4–24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45–2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients. PMID:26835187

  19. An Exploration of the Relationship between Psychological Capital and Depression among First-Year Doctor of Veterinary Medicine Students.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Dorothy J; Lyons, Sean T; Conlon, Peter D

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of psychological capital on depressive symptoms among Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) students (n=84) over their first two semesters of studies. Our results indicated elevated rates of depression in both the first and second semesters relative to published norms. Using the typology developed by Hafen, Reisbig, White, and Rush (2008), students were classified as either "adaptive" (i.e., improving depressive symptomatology from semester to semester) or "struggling" (i.e., worsening depressive symptomatology from semester to semester). All four components of psychological capital (i.e., self-esteem, optimism, hope, and resilience) were positively associated with adaptive response to depression. These results are significant, as the components of psychological capital can be learned and strengthened through deliberate interventions, providing tangible guidance for students, faculty, and health professionals in their efforts to improve student wellness.

  20. A descriptive analysis of personality and gender at the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Stephanie W; Gill, Marjorie S; Grenier, Charles; Taboada, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to explore the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator profile and gender differences of Louisiana State University veterinary students. A 12-year composite sample (N = 935) revealed that the personality profile was different from the published US population norm, but similar to the bimodal ESTJ-ISTJ profile found in Louisiana medical students. Significant gender differences were found among six of the 16 types. A 12-year trend analysis revealed a significant shift away from the prototypical ESTJ-ISTJ profile, culminating in a discernable heterogeneous profile for both males and females in the last four years. Composite scores for the 2004-2007 cohort (N = 331) revealed that the predominant types for women were ENFP, ESFJ, ESTJ, ISFJ, and ISTJ. For men, the predominant types were ESTJ, ESTP, INTP, and ISTJ. Post hoc tests confirmed significant gender differences for ESTP, INTP, ISTP, and ESFJ types. The evidence of significant gender differences and confirmation that personality profiles have begun to vary widely across the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator spectrum in the last four years have implications at the practical and theoretical levels. This could have profound effects on pedagogical considerations for faculty involved in veterinary medical education.

  1. Electrochemotherapy as First Line Cancer Treatment: Experiences from Veterinary Medicine in Developing Novel Protocols.

    PubMed

    Spugnini, E P; Azzarito, T; Fais, S; Fanciulli, M; Baldi, A

    2016-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment is one of the major obstacles to the efficacy of chemotherapy in cancer patients. The abnormal blood flow within the tumor results in uneven drug distribution. Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a tumor treatment that adopts the systemic or local delivery of anticancer drugs with the application of permeabilizing electric pulses having appropriate amplitude and waveforms. This allows the use of lipophobic drugs that frequently have a narrow therapeutic index maintaining at the same time a reduced patient morbidity and preserving appropriate anticancer efficacy. Its use in humans is addressed to the treatment of cutaneous neoplasms or the palliation of skin tumor metastases, and a standard operating procedure has been devised. On the other hand, in veterinary oncology this approach is gaining popularity, thus becoming a first line treatment for different cancer histotypes, in a variety of clinical conditions due to its high efficacy and low toxicity. This review summarizes the state of the art in veterinary oncology as a preclinical model and reports the new protocols in terms of drugs and therapy combination that have been developed.

  2. New directions for veterinary technology.

    PubMed

    Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.

  3. 78 FR 25417 - Notice of Request for Applications for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...: On October 1, 2009, the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) became... Medical Service Act (NVMSA) was passed into law adding section 1415A to the National Agricultural Research... veterinarian shortage situations. In November 2005, the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and...

  4. 7 CFR 371.4 - Veterinary Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary Services. 371.4 Section 371.4 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.4 Veterinary Services. (a) General statement. Veterinary Services (VS) protects and safeguards the Nation's livestock...

  5. Plants from Lamiaceae family as source of antifungal molecules in humane and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Serra, Emanoele Figueiredo; Silva, Anna Luiza; Gomes, Angelita Dos Reis; de Mello, João Roberto Braga; de Faria, Renata Osório; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2017-03-01

    This work aimed to review the main plants of Lamiaceae family with activity against pathogenic fungi of medical and veterinary interest. Published studies in the main international databases between January 2002 and June 2016 showed that 55 botanical species belonging to 27 genus presented antifungal activity in different forms of extractions, mainly essential oils. Pathogenic fungi of Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., Malassezia spp., Cryptococcus spp., Sporothrix spp., Microsporum spp., Trichophyton spp. and Epidermophyton spp. genus were in vitro sensitive to several plants of Lamiaceae family. Chemical molecules isolated were described as promising use as antifungals in mycoses, highlighting estragole, 1,8-cineole, terpineol-4, γ-terpinene, among others. However, it should be alert to need of universal standardization in the laboratories tests with natural products.

  6. Improved low-power semiconductor diode lasers for photodynamic therapy in veterinary medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Susanne M.; Mueller, Eduard K.; Van de Workeen, Brian C.; Mueller, Otward M.

    2001-05-01

    Cryogenically cooling semiconductor diode lasers provides higher power output, longer device lifetime, and greater monochromaticity. While these effects are well known, such improvements have not been quantified, and thus cryogenically operated semiconductor lasers have not been utilized in photodynamic therapy (PDT). We report quantification of these results from laser power meter and photospectrometer data. The emission wavelengths of these low power multiple quantum well semiconductor lasers were found to decrease and become more monochromatic with decreasing temperature. Significant power output improvements also were obtained at cryogenic temperatures. In addition, the threshold current, i.e. the current at which lasing begins, decreased with decreasing temperature. This lower threshold current combined with the increased power output produced dramatically higher device efficiencies. It is proposed that cryogenic operation of semiconductor diode lasers will reduce the number of devices needed to produce the requisite output for many veterinary and medical applications, permitting significant cost reductions.

  7. Distribution and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at the small animal hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Patchanee, Prapas; Tadee, Pakpoom; Ingkaninan, Pimlada; Tankaew, Pallop; Hoet, Armando E; Chupia, Vena

    2014-03-01

    Of 416 samples taken from veterinary staff (n = 30), dogs (n = 356) and various environmental sites (n = 30) at the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 13 samples contained methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), of which 1 (SCCmec type II) came from veterinarian, 9 (SCCmec types I, III, IVa, V and untypeable) from dogs, and 3 (SCCmec types I, III, and IVb) from environmental samples. The MRSA isolates were 100% susceptible to vancomycin (100%), 69% to cephazolin and 62% to gentamicin, but were up to 92% resistant to tetracycline group, 69% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazoles and 62% to ceftriaxone. In addition, all MRSA isolates showed multidrug resistance. As the MRSA isolates from the veterinary staff and dogs were of different SCCmec types, this suggests there were no cross-infections. However, environmental contamination appears to have come from dogs, and appropriate hygienic practices should be introduced to solve this problem.

  8. Molecular Biology of Pseudorabies Virus: Impact on Neurovirology and Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Lisa E.; Reynolds, Ashley E.; Hengartner, Christoph J.

    2005-01-01

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a herpesvirus of swine, a member of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, and the etiological agent of Aujeszky's disease. This review describes the contributions of PRV research to herpesvirus biology, neurobiology, and viral pathogenesis by focusing on (i) the molecular biology of PRV, (ii) model systems to study PRV pathogenesis and neurovirulence, (iii) PRV transsynaptic tracing of neuronal circuits, and (iv) veterinary aspects of pseudorabies disease. The structure of the enveloped infectious particle, the content of the viral DNA genome, and a step-by-step overview of the viral replication cycle are presented. PRV infection is initiated by binding to cellular receptors to allow penetration into the cell. After reaching the nucleus, the viral genome directs a regulated gene expression cascade that culminates with viral DNA replication and production of new virion constituents. Finally, progeny virions self-assemble and exit the host cells. Animal models and neuronal culture systems developed for the study of PRV pathogenesis and neurovirulence are discussed. PRV serves as a self-perpetuating transsynaptic tracer of neuronal circuitry, and we detail the original studies of PRV circuitry mapping, the biology underlying this application, and the development of the next generation of tracer viruses. The basic veterinary aspects of pseudorabies management and disease in swine are discussed. PRV infection progresses from acute infection of the respiratory epithelium to latent infection in the peripheral nervous system. Sporadic reactivation from latency can transmit PRV to new hosts. The successful management of PRV disease has relied on vaccination, prevention, and testing. PMID:16148307

  9. Control of the development and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of food animal origin in Japan: a new approach for risk management of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tetsuo; Hiki, Mototaka; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Eguchi, Kaoru; Kawanishi, Michiko; Kojima, Akemi; Endoh, Yuuko S; Hamamoto, Shuichi; Sakai, Masato; Sekiya, Tatsuro

    2014-03-01

    Antimicrobial agents are essential for controlling bacterial disease in food-producing animals and contribute to the stable production of safe animal products. The use of antimicrobial agents in these animals affects the emergence and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from animals and animal products. As disease-causing bacteria are often transferred from food-producing animals to humans, the food chain is considered a route of transmission for the resistant bacteria and/or resistance genes. The Food Safety Commission of Japan (FSC) has been assessing the risk posed to human health by the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria from livestock products via the food chain. In addition to the FSC's risk assessments, the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has developed risk-management guidelines to determine feasible risk-management options for the use of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products during farming practices. This report includes information on risk assessment and novel approaches for risk management of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products for mitigating the risk of development and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria originating from food-producing animals in Japan.

  10. Robert Koch and the invention of the carrier state: tropical medicine, veterinary infections and epidemiology around 1900.

    PubMed

    Gradmann, Christoph

    2010-09-01

    This paper reassesses Robert Koch's work on tropical infections of humans and cattle as being inspired by an underlying interest in epidemiology. Such an interest was developed from the early 1890s when it became clear that an exclusive focus on pathogens was insufficient as an approach to explain the genesis and dynamics of epidemics. Koch, who had failed to do so before, now highlighted differences between infection and disease and described the role of various sub-clinical states of disease in the propagation and--consequently--in the control of epidemics. Studying pathologies of men and cattle in tropical countries eventually facilitated the application of such measures in Europe through the screening of healthy carriers of typhoid, which was carried out in 1902. The concept of the carrier state can be understood as a spin-off from tropical medicine into the study and control of infectious disease in Europe. With it travelled assumptions that were typical for colonial and veterinary medicine where the health of indigenous individuals or cattle would be a secondary objective compared to the control of diseases in populations.

  11. Research in Biological and Medical Sciences, Including Biochemistry, Communicable Disease and Immunology, Internal Medicine, Nuclear Medicine, Physiology, Psychiatry, Surgery, and Veterinary Medicine. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: In-house laboratory independent research; Communicable diseases and immunology; Surgery, internal medicine , psychiatry, Biochemistry...surgery, military internal medicine , military psychiatry; Malaria prophylaxis; and Biosensor systems.

  12. Research in Biological and Medical Sciences Including Biochemistry, Communicable Disease and Immunology, Internal Medicine, Nuclear Medicine, Physiology, Psychiatry, Surgery, and Veterinary Medicine. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    preventive medicine; Military medical research program S. E. Asia; Combat surgery; Military internal medicine ; Military psychiatry; Ionizing radiation injury, prevention and treatment; Malaria prophyaxis; Biosensor systems.

  13. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury....526 Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a)...

  14. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury....533 Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a)...

  15. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury....526 Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a)...

  16. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury....526 Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a)...

  17. 76 FR 22339 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and Medical Devices to Sudan and Iran; Comment Request... medical devices to Sudan and Iran. Pursuant to section 906(c) of the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices to Sudan and Iran are set forth in 31...

  18. The urothelium: anatomy, review of the literature, perspectives for veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, S

    2015-03-01

    Over time, much knowledge has been accumulated about the active role of the urothelium, principally in rodents and human. Far from being a mere passive barrier, this specialized epithelium can alter the ion and protein composition of the urine, is able to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli such as pressure, and react to mechanical stimuli by epithelial cell communication with the nervous system. Most of the specialized functions of the urothelium are linked to a number of morpho-physiologic properties exhibited by the superficial umbrella cells, including specialized membrane lipids, asymmetric unit membrane particles and a plasmalemma with stiff plaques which function as a barrier to most substances found in urine, thus protecting the underlying tissues. Moreover, the entire mucosa lining the low urinary tract, composed of urothelium and sub-urothelium, forms a functional transduction unit, able to respond to eso- and endogenous physical and chemical stimuli in a manner assuring an adequate functional response. This review will summarize the available information on each area of inquiry from a morpho-functional point of view. Possible considerations pertaining to species of veterinary interest are reviewed as well. The review was prepared consulting the electronic databases PubMed and Cab Abstracts and retrieving all pertinent reports and the relative reference lists, in order to identify any potential additional studies that could be included. Full-length research articles and thematic reviews were considered. Information on the urothelium of some domestic animal species was also included.

  19. Assessment of environmental risks to groundwater ecosystems related to use of veterinary medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Boris; Finizio, Antonio

    2017-02-12

    The current EU guidelines for the environmental risk assessment of veterinary pharmaceutical products (VMPs) in groundwater (GW) suggest an approach based on the comparison between the calculated concentration in GW (PECgw) and a threshold concentration of 0.1 μg/L. The latter is the upper limit of the concentration for pesticides in groundwater in the EU. If the calculated PECgw does not exceed the threshold, then the risk is considered acceptable. It is assumed that the concentration of 0.1 μg/L is by default safe for both humans and exposed GW organisms. On this basis, it is not clear whether the GW is recognized as an ecosystem or as a source of drinking water. Largely unrecognized biodiversity in GW is worthy of protection through the adoption of a more scientifically sound risk analysis, which should be based on the consideration of ecological criteria. Based on the evidence of their vulnerability, we propose that risk assessments of GW ecosystems should be a compulsory part of the overall risk assessment of VMPs (as well as pesticides, biocides and feed additives). Furthermore, we suggest the use of a risk quotient approach based on the PEC/PNEC ratio in which the PNEC is calculated including an additional safety factor of 10 to the calculated PNEC for surface water.

  20. Advances in the Use of Stem Cells in Veterinary Medicine: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Today, several veterinary diseases may be treated with the administration of stem cells. This is possible because these cells present a high therapeutic potential and may be injected as autologous or allogenic, freshly isolated, or previously cultured. The literature supports that the process is safe and brings considerable benefits to animal health. Knowledge about how adult stem cells modulate the molecular signals to activate cell homing has also been increasingly determined, evidencing the mechanisms which enable cells to repair and regenerate injured tissues. Preclinical studies were designed for many animal models and they have contributed to the translation to the human clinic. This review shows the most commonly used stem cell types, with emphasis on mesenchymal stem cells and their mechanistic potential to repair, as well as the experimental protocols, studied diseases, and species with the highest amount of studies and applications. The relationship between stem cell protocols utilized on clinics, molecular mechanisms, and the physiological responses may offer subsidies to new studies and therefore improve the therapeutic outcome for both humans and animals. PMID:27379197

  1. 31 CFR 561.327 - Agricultural commodities, food, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., medicine, and medical devices. 561.327 Section 561.327 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.327 Agricultural commodities, food, medicine, and...-grade gelatin powder, and peptones and their derivatives. (c) The term medicine has the same...

  2. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.530 Section 560.530 Money and..., medicine, and medical devices. (a)(1) One-year specific license requirement. The exportation or... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Iran, to any individual or...

  3. 31 CFR 561.327 - Agricultural commodities, food, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., medicine, and medical devices. 561.327 Section 561.327 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.327 Agricultural commodities, food, medicine, and...-grade gelatin powder, and peptones and their derivatives. (c) The term medicine has the same...

  4. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.523 Section 538.523 Money and..., medicine, and medical devices. (a)(1) One-year specific license requirement. The exportation or... purchasers or importers, medicine or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  5. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.523 Section 538.523 Money and..., medicine, and medical devices. (a)(1) One-year specific license requirement. The exportation or... part 538), medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or entity in...

  6. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.530 Section 560.530 Money and..., medicine, and medical devices. (a) One-year license requirement. The exportation or reexportation of...), medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Iran, any entity in Iran, individuals in Iran, or...

  7. Suitability of two commercial preparations for disinfections against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ayhan; Kaleta, Erhard Franz

    2009-05-01

    Two commercially available preparations from the disinfectants list of the German Veterinary Association (Deutsche Veterinärmedizinische Gesellschaft e. V. (DVG)) were tested against a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) field isolate in a concentration as recommended in the list for disinfection of bacteria. The "Guidelines of DVG for testing of disinfection methods and chemical disinfectants" were used as methodical base. Initially, the examinations for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and suitable inactivation substances were carried out. The bactericidal effect of both commercial preparations--a formic acid preparation (55 g per 100 g) and a preparation containing 21 g glutaraldhyde plus 17 g per 100 g formaldehyde--as well as reference disinfectants (37% formaldehyde and 99.5% phenol) were examined in suspension and carrier tests. The suspension tests were performed without and with protein load (20% FBS). Pieces of linden wood were used as carriers. The recommendation of DVG for both Venno Vet 1 super and M&enno Veterinär B neu as bactericide (except of bacterial spores) is 30 min (for preventive disinfections) as well as 120 min contact (for specific disinfections) of 1% concentration. The results show that the disinfection of MRSA do not require higher concentrations and longer contact times as recommended in the disinfectant list of DVG for both commercial disinfectants. Both products were effective in suspension tests in a 1% concentration and within five minutes independent of protein load. In contrast, 1% phenol (reference disinfectant for suspension tests) needed 30 min reaction time without protein load as well as 60 min with protein load for complete inactivation of the MRSA field strain. In carrier tests, a 30 min contact of 1% concentration of both commercial disinfectants and 3% concentration of formalin (reference disinfectant for carrier tests) was sufficient for complete disinfection.

  8. Toward a national core course in agricultural medicine and curriculum in agricultural safety and health: the "building capacity" consensus process.

    PubMed

    Rudolphi, Josie M; Donham, Kelley J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The agricultural industry poses specific hazards and risks to its workers. Since the 1970s, the University of Iowa has been establishing programs to educate rural health care and safety professionals who in turn provide education and occupational health and safety services to farm families and farm workers. This program has been well established in the state of Iowa as a program of Iowa's Center for Agricultural Safety and Health (I-CASH). However, the National 1989 Agriculture at Risk Report indicated there was a great need for agricultural medicine training beyond Iowa's borders. In order to help meet this need, Building Capacity: A National Resource of Agricultural Medicine Professionals was initiated as a project of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health in 2006. Before the first phase of this project, a consensus process was conducted with a group of safety and health professionals to determine topics and learning objectives for the course. Over 300 students attended and matriculated the agricultural medicine course during first phase of the project (2007-2010). Beginning the second phase of the project (2012-2016), an expanded advisory committee (38 internationally recognized health and safety professionals) was convened to review the progress of the first phase, make recommendations for revisions to the required topics and competencies, and discuss updates to the second edition of the course textbook (Agricultural Medicine: Occupational and Environmental Health for the Health Professions). A formal consensus process was held and included an online survey and also a face-to-face meeting. The group was charged with the responsibility of developing the next version of this course by establishing best practices and setting an agenda with the long-term goal of developing a national course in agricultural medicine.

  9. [Veterinary medicine and organic animal husbandry. III. Animal health in organic dairy farms].

    PubMed

    van Klink, E G; de Ruyter, W G; Sijpkens, C D; van Ham, P W

    1995-03-01

    Animal health is dealt with differently on biological farms then on conventional farms. On biological farms, stockmen see their animals not only as individual animals, but also as part of a herd in a balanced ecosystem. Disease prevention is therefore given much thought. The use of medicines is selective and subjected to strict regulations. This paper presents a summary of disease incidence in dairy cattle on biological farms and highlights specific problems and problem prevention in biological animal husbandry.

  10. A novel subcutaneous controlled-release amoxicillin degradable implant for extended-interval administration in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, E; Kagan, L; Avni-Magen, N; Daryi, D; Gati, I; Hoffman, A; Friedman, M; Lavy, E

    2011-10-01

    Dosage forms of antimicrobials play a critical role in facilitating the attainment of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) targets as well as adherence in both veterinary and human medicine. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a controlled-release subcutaneous amoxicillin implant for single-dose therapy of large ruminants such as goats, sheep, and deer. The degradable implant, designed to attain PK-PD targets following single administration, was evaluated for amoxicillin release rate and time-concentration profile. In vitro release studies demonstrated constant-rate release of approximately 40% of amoxicillin content within 96 h. In an in vivo study in goats, serving as a model for target animals, a serum concentration of approximately 0.4 mg/L was achieved within 8 h of implant insertion and maintained for >6 days. In comparison, in control goats given a standard single intramuscular amoxicillin dose of 15 mg/kg, amoxicillin peaked at 1.2 mg/L after 1 h, rapidly dropping to below detection level at 8 h. These results suggest that the proposed implant offers a unique modality for animal caregivers to conveniently administer a full antimicrobial course following a single dose of an efficient PK-PD-optimized dosage form. Furthermore, modifications of implant composition may allow for tailoring of its characteristics to various PK, PD, microbiological, and clinical requirements.

  11. Social media and impression management: Veterinary Medicine students’ and faculty members’ attitudes toward the acceptability of social media posts

    PubMed Central

    KEDROWICZ, APRIL A.; ROYAL, KENNETH; FLAMMER, KEVEN

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: While social media has the potential to be used to make professional and personal connections, it can also be used inappropriately, with detrimental ramifications for the individual in terms of their professional reputation and even hiring decisions. This research explored students’ and faculty members’ perceptions of the acceptability of various social media postings. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. All students and faculty members at the College of Veterinary Medicine were invited to participate. The sample size included 140 students and 69 faculty members who completed the Social Media Scale (SMS), a 7-point semantic differential scale. The SMS consisted of 12 items that measured the extent to which a variety of behaviors, using social media, constituted acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. Items appearing on the SMS were an amalgamation of modified items previously presented by Coe, Weijs, Muise et al. (2012) and new items generated specifically for this study. The data were collected during the spring semester of 2015 using Qualtrics online survey software and analyzed using t-tests and ANOVA. Results: The results showed that statistically significant differences existed between the students’ and faculty members’ ratings of acceptable behavior, as well as gender differences and differences across class years. Conclusion: These findings have implications for the development of policy and educational initiatives around professional identity management in the social sphere. PMID:27795965

  12. Establishment of evaluation method to determine effects of veterinary medicinal products on manure fermentation using small-scale composting apparatus.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Kaoru; Otawa, Kenichi; Ohishi, Ryu; Nagase, Hiroyasu; Ogata, Tomoko; Nagai, Hidetaka; Murata, Nanae; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Hirata, Kazumasa; Nakai, Yutaka

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate on a laboratory scale the influence of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) excreted into feces on manure fermentation, we have developed an evaluation method that uses a small-scale composting apparatus. Each run is of approximately 3 kg scale and the operation can be conducted in an environmentally controlled laboratory. The main evaluation parameter is calorific value generated by aerobic fermentation. At the sulfadimethoxine (SDM) trial, the volume of CO(2) generated during fermentation and the disappearance of the inhibitory effect of immature manure on sprouting (using Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis)) were measured. In addition, DNA of 16S rRNA was extracted from a manure sample and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results suggest that the presence of such VMPs in feces affected the microbial community in manure fermentation, and indicate that the evaluation method may be used as a standard method to evaluate the effect of VMPs on the microbial community. Using the method, we obtained data of the influence of five VMPs approved for stockbreeding in Japan on swine manure fermentation. Erythromycin (EM) affected the calorific value even at a relatively low concentration (105 mg/3 kg manure). In contrast, oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC), norfloxacin (NFLX), and tylosin tartrate (TS) had no effect at that concentration. These VMPs also affected the increase of fermentation temperature when added at high concentrations.

  13. Net analyte signal standard addition method for simultaneous determination of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim in bovine milk and veterinary medicines.

    PubMed

    Hajian, Reza; Mousavi, Esmat; Shams, Nafiseh

    2013-06-01

    Net analyte signal standard addition method has been used for the simultaneous determination of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim by spectrophotometry in some bovine milk and veterinary medicines. The method combines the advantages of standard addition method with the net analyte signal concept which enables the extraction of information concerning a certain analyte from spectra of multi-component mixtures. This method has some advantages such as the use of a full spectrum realisation, therefore it does not require calibration and prediction step and only a few measurements require for the determination. Cloud point extraction based on the phenomenon of solubilisation used for extraction of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim in bovine milk. It is based on the induction of micellar organised media by using Triton X-100 as an extraction solvent. At the optimum conditions, the norm of NAS vectors increased linearly with concentrations in the range of 1.0-150.0 μmolL(-1) for both sulphadiazine and trimethoprim. The limits of detection (LOD) for sulphadiazine and trimethoprim were 0.86 and 0.92 μmolL(-1), respectively.

  14. How Metabolic Diseases Impact the Use of Antimicrobials: A Formal Demonstration in the Field of Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Raboisson, Didier; Barbier, Maxime; Maigné, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the use of antimicrobials has become a primary objective for both human and veterinary medicine in many countries. Medical prevention and good nutrition are seen as key parameters for reducing antimicrobial use. However, little consideration has been given to how metabolic diseases may influence the use of antimicrobials in humans and animals through limiting the prevalence and severity of infectious diseases. To quantify this relationship using the example of a common metabolic disease in dairy cows (subclinical ketosis, SCK), we constructed a stochastic model reporting the total quantity of curative antimicrobials for a given population with the prevalence of cows at risk for SCK. We considered the prevalence of SCK, the relative risk of the disease in cases of SCK compared to no SCK and the use of antimicrobials to treat SCK-induced infectious diseases. Reducing the percentage of cows at risk for SCK from 80% to 10% was associated with an average decrease in the use of antimicrobials of 11% (prevalence of SCK from 34% to 17%, respectively) or 25% (prevalence of SCK from 68% to 22%, respectively), depending on the relative risk to contract SCK if risk was present. For a large percentage of the cows at risk for SCK, using a preventive bolus of monensin reduced the use of curative antimicrobials to the same level that was observed when the percentage of cows at risk for SCK was low. The present work suggests similar approaches for obesity and diabetes. PMID:27716805

  15. [Modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA)--development as recombinant vaccine and prospects for use in veterinary medicine].

    PubMed

    Volz, Asisa; Fux, Robert; Langenmayer, Martin C; Sutter, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Poxviruses as expression vectors are widely used in medical research for the development of recombinant vaccines and molecular therapies. Here we review recent accomplishments in vaccine research using recombinant modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA). MVA is a highly attenuated vaccinia virus strain that originated from serial tissue culture passage in chicken embryo fibroblasts more than 40 years ago. Growth adaptation to avian host cells caused deletions and mutations in the viral genome affecting about 15% of the original genetic information. In consequence, MVA is replication-deficient in cells of mammalian origin and fails to produce many of the virulence factors encoded by conventional vaccinia virus. Because of its safety for the general environment MVA can be handled under conditions of biosafety level one. Non-replicating MVA can enter any target cell and activate its molecular life cycle to express all classes of viral and recombinant genes. Therefore, recombinant MVA have been established as an extremely safe and efficient vector system for vaccine development in medical research. By now, various recombinant MVA vaccines have been found safe and immunogenic when used for phase I/II clinical testing in humans, and suitable for industrial scale production following good practice of manufacturing. Thus, there is an obvious usefulness of recombinant MVA vaccines for novel prophylactic and therapeutic approaches also in veterinary medicine. Results from first studies in companion and farm animals are highly promising.

  16. Graduate Education in Risk Analysis for Food, Agriculture, and Veterinary Medicine: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, Ana-Paula; Wolt, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    The notion of risk in relation to food and food production has heightened the need to educate students to effectively deal with risk in relation to decision making from a science-based perspective. Curricula and related materials were developed and adopted to support graduate learning opportunities in risk analysis and decision making as applied…

  17. Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, PT3 and PT5 of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high infection pressure in field trials in Romania. Transgenic clone C5, subsequently named "HoneySweet", showed high re...

  18. A Clinical Pharmacology Course for Veterinary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Lynn Mulcahy

    1983-01-01

    A one-semester, two-credit course is described that was developed cooperatively by the colleges of pharmacy and veterinary medicine at Washington State University to help resolve an acute shortage of clinical pharmacologists in veterinary medicine and veterinary medical education. Course procedures, content, and evaluation are outlined (MSE)

  19. Research in Biological and Medical Sciences, Including Biochemistry, Communicable Disease and Immunology, Internal Medicine, Nuclear Medicine, Physiology, Psychiatry, Surgery, and Veterinary Medicine. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Military preventive medicine; Military medical research program S. E. Asia; Military medical materiel; Combat surgery; Military internal ... medicine ; Military psychiatry; Ionizing radiation injury, prevention, and treatment; Malaria prophylaxis; and Biosensor systems.

  20. Fractionation and analysis of veterinary antibiotics and their related degradation products in agricultural soils and drainage waters following swine manure amendment.

    PubMed

    Solliec, Morgan; Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; Coté, Caroline; Généreux, Mylène; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    The fate of antimicrobial active compound residues in the environment, and especially antibiotics used in swine husbandry are of particular interest for their potential toxicity and contribution to antibiotic resistance. The presence of relatively high concentrations of bioactive compounds has been reported in agricultural areas but few information is available on their degradation products. Veterinary antibiotics reach terrestrial environments through many routes, including application of swine manure to soils. The objectives of this project were first, to develop an analytical method able to quantify and identify veterinary antibiotics and their degradation products in manure, soil and water samples; and second, to study the distribution of these target compounds in soils and drainage waters. A brief evaluation of their potential toxicity in the environment was also made. In order to achieve these objectives, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry was used for its ability to quantify contaminants with sensitivity and selectivity, and its capacity to identify degradation products. Samples of manure, soil and water came from a long-term experimental site where swine manure containing veterinary antibiotics has been applied for many years. In this study, tetracycline antibiotics were found at several hundred μg L(-1) in the swine manure slurry used for fertilization, several hundred of ng L(-1) in drainage waters and several ng g(-1) in soils, while degradation products were sometimes found at concentrations higher than the parent compounds.

  1. A Retrospective Analysis of 5,195 Patient Treatment Sessions in an Integrative Veterinary Medicine Service: Patient Characteristics, Presenting Complaints, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Mushtaq A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine, the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care, is increasingly prevalent in veterinary practice and a focus of clinical instruction in many academic teaching institutions. However, the presenting complaints, therapeutic modalities, and patient population in an integrative medicine service have not been described. A retrospective analysis of 5,195 integrative patient treatment sessions in a veterinary academic teaching hospital demonstrated that patients most commonly received a combination of therapeutic modalities (39% of all treatment sessions). The 274 patients receiving multiple modalities were most frequently treated for neurologic and orthopedic disease (50.7% versus 49.6% of all presenting complaints, resp.). Older neutered or spayed dogs (mean age = 9.0 years) and Dachshunds were treated more often than expected based on general population statistics. Acupuncture, laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and hydrotherapy were frequently administered (>50% patients). Neurologic patients were more likely to receive acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and therapeutic exercises but less likely than orthopedic patients to receive laser, hydrotherapy, or therapeutic ultrasound treatments (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the application of these specific modalities to orthopedic and neurologic diseases should be subjected to increased evidence-based investigations. A review of current knowledge in core areas is presented. PMID:26798552

  2. Veterinary Medicine and Omics (Veterinomics): Metabolic Transition of Milk Triacylglycerol Synthesis in Sows from Late Pregnancy to Lactation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yantao; Guan, Wutai; Qiao, Hanzhen; Wang, Chaoxian; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Yinzhi; Liao, Zhichao

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian milk is a key source of lipids, providing not only important calories but also essential fatty acids. Veterinary medicine and omics systems sciences intersection, termed as "veterinomics" here, has received little attention to date but stands to offer much promise for building bridges between human and animal health. We determined the changes in porcine mammary genes and proteomics expression associated with milk triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and secretion from late pregnancy to lactation. TAG content and fatty acid (FA) composition were determined in porcine colostrum (the 1st day of lactation) and milk (the 17th day of lactation). The mammary transcriptome for 70 genes and 13 proteins involved in TAG synthesis and secretion from six sows, each at d -17(late pregnancy), d 1(early lactation), and d 17 (peak lactation) relative to parturition were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. The TAG content and the concentrations of de novo synthesized FAs, saturated FAs, and monounsaturated FAs were higher in milk than in colostrum (p<0.05). Robust upregulation with high relative mRNA abundance was evident during lactation for genes associated with FA uptake (VLDLR, LPL, CD36), FA activation (ACSS2, ACSL3), and intracellar transport (FABP3), de novo FA synthesis (ACACA, FASN), FA elongation (ELOVL1), FA desaturation (SCD, FADS1), TAG synthesis (GPAM, AGPAT1, LPIN1, DGAT1), lipid droplet formation (BTN2A1, XDH, PLIN2), and transcription factors and nuclear receptors (SREBP1, SCAP, INSIG1/2). In conclusion, a wide variety of lipogenic genes and proteins regulate the channeling of FAs towards milk TAG synthesis and secretion in porcine mammary gland tissue. These findings inform future omics strategies to increase milk fat production and lipid profile and attest to the rise of both veterinomics and lipidomics in postgenomics life sciences.

  3. Electroporation in veterinary oncology.

    PubMed

    Impellizeri, J; Aurisicchio, L; Forde, P; Soden, D M

    2016-11-01

    Cancer treatments in veterinary medicine continue to evolve beyond the established standard therapies of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. New technologies in cancer therapy include a targeted mechanism to open the cell membrane based on electroporation, driving therapeutic agents, such as chemotherapy (electro-chemotherapy), for local control of cancer, or delivery of gene-based products (electro-gene therapy), directly into the cancer cell to achieve systemic control. This review examines electrochemotherapy and electro-gene therapy in veterinary medicine and considers future directions and applications.

  4. Assay of calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines for calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium by using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, D.J.; Spann, K.P.

    1985-03-01

    An inductively coupled plasma spectrometric method is described for the determination of 4 elements (Ca, B, P, and Mg) in calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines. Samples are diluted, acidified, and sprayed directly into the plasma. Reproducibility relative confidence intervals for a single sample assay are +/- 1.4% (calcium), +/- 1.8% (boron), +/- 2.6% (phosphorus), and +/- 1.4% (magnesium). The total element concentrations for each of 4 elements compared favorably with concentrations determined by alternative methods. Formulation estimates of levels of calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium salts can be made from the analytical data.

  5. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.525 Section 538.525... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  6. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Iran, to any individual or...

  7. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.525 Section 538.525... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  8. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.525 Section 538.525... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  9. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. 538.525 Section 538.525 Money... commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales, pursuant to § 538.523(a)(1), of agricultural commodities and products, medicine,...

  10. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. 538.525 Section 538.525 Money... commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales, pursuant to § 538.523(a)(1), of agricultural commodities and products, medicine,...

  11. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales of agricultural commodities and products, medicine, and medical equipment pursuant to §§...

  12. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales of agricultural commodities and products, medicine, and medical equipment pursuant to §§...

  13. Student versus Faculty Attitudes toward the Veterinary Medical Profession and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, Astrid; Trowald-Wigh, Gunilla

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed and interviewed first-year students and faculty in veterinary medicine at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences on attitudes toward education and practice. Students placed emphasis on specific knowledge and practical skills, while faculty spoke in favor of basic theory; students also wanted integrated exams. Both agreed that…

  14. 75 FR 15387 - Veterinary Feed Directive

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 514, and 558 Veterinary Feed Directive... relating to veterinary feed directive (VFD) drugs. FDA's VFD regulation, which became effective on January... CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-230), Food and Drug Administration,...

  15. 78 FR 75515 - Veterinary Feed Directive

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 514 and 558 RIN 0910-AG95 Veterinary Feed... Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend its animal drug regulations regarding veterinary feed directive (VFD..., Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-220), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl., Rockville,...

  16. Preparedness and disaster response training for veterinary students: literature review and description of the North Carolina State University Credentialed Veterinary Responder Program.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Dianne; Martin, Michael P; Tickel, Jimmy L; Gentry, William B; Cowen, Peter; Slenning, Barrett D

    2009-01-01

    The nation's veterinary colleges lack the curricula necessary to meet veterinary demands for animal/public health and emergency preparedness. To this end, the authors report a literature review summarizing training programs within human/veterinary medicine. In addition, the authors describe new competency-based Veterinary Credential Responder training at North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU CVM). From an evaluation of 257 PubMed-derived articles relating to veterinary/medical disaster training, 14 fulfilled all inclusion requirements (nine were veterinary oriented; five came from human medical programs). Few offered ideas on the core competencies required to produce disaster-planning and response professionals. The lack of published literature in this area points to a need for more formal discussion and research on core competencies. Non-veterinary articles emphasized learning objectives, commonly listing an incident command system, the National Incident Management System, teamwork, communications, and critical event management/problem solving. These learning objectives were accomplished either through short-course formats or via their integration into a larger curriculum. Formal disaster training in veterinary medicine mostly occurs within existing public health courses. Much of the literature focuses on changing academia to meet current and future needs in public/animal health disaster-preparedness and careers. The NCSU CVM program, in collaboration with North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service, Emergency Programs and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Public Health, operates as a stand-alone third-year two-week core-curriculum training program that combines lecture, online, experiential, and group exercises to meet entry-level federal credentialing requirements. The authors report here its content, outcomes, and future development plans.

  17. From Osler to Olafson. The evolution of veterinary pathology in North America.

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, L Z

    1987-01-01

    Most branches of biological science in North America developed first in the United States, and later were taught and practiced in Canada. An exception was veterinary pathology, which as a discipline taught in veterinary colleges and as a field of research, developed first in Canada, and from there crossed the border to the United States. Pathology was first taught at the Montreal Veterinary College, founded in 1866 by Duncan McEachran, a graduate of the Edinburgh Veterinary College. From the outset, he formed a close association with the medical faculty of McGill University, permitting his students to attend the same classes in the basic subjects with the medical students. Eventually, the Montreal Veterinary College became formally affiliated with McGill University, as the Faculty of Comparative Medicine and Veterinary Science. The McGill veterinary faculty was forced to close for economic reasons in 1903, but it left an enduring legacy, particularly in the field of veterinary pathology. The legacy, a novel concept in the 1870's, was that pathology was the cornerstone of a veterinary education; the place where anatomy, physiology, chemistry and botany met with the clinical subjects, and gave the latter meaning. This tradition was formed at the Montreal Veterinary College by the world renowned physician William Osler, North America's leading medical teacher, whom McEachran had invited to teach at the College in 1876 in addition to his duties in the faculty of medicine. Osler had studied with Virchow in Berlin and applied his methods of autopsy technique and of scientific inquiry to his teaching of both human and veterinary pathology at McGill. Osler also undertook investigations into various diseases of domestic animals, at the request of McEachran, who doubled as Chief Veterinary Inspector for the Dominion Department of Agriculture. Osler left McGill University in 1884. Only after that year did other North American veterinary schools adopt pathology as a discipline

  18. Bibliometric study of grey literature in core veterinary medical journals

    PubMed Central

    Pelzer, Nancy L.; Wiese, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Grey literature has been perceived by many as belonging to the primary sources of information and has become an accepted method of nonconventional communication in the sciences and medicine. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in veterinary medicine, a systematic study was done to analyze and characterize the bibliographic citations appearing in twelve core veterinary journals. Methods: Citations from 2,159 articles published in twelve core veterinary journals in 2000 were analyzed to determine the portion of citations from grey literature. Those citations were further analyzed and categorized according to the type of publication. Results: Citation analysis yielded 55,823 citations, of which 3,564 (6.38%) were considered to be grey literature. Four veterinary specialties, internal medicine, pathology, theriogenology, and microbiology, accounted for 70% of the total number of articles. Three small-animal clinical practice journals cited about 2.5–3% grey literature, less than half that of journals with basic research orientations, where results ranged from almost 6% to approximately 10% grey literature. Nearly 90% of the grey literature appeared as conferences, government publications, and corporate organization literature. Conclusions: The results corroborate other reported research that the incidence of grey literature is lower in medicine and biology than in some other fields, such as aeronautics and agriculture. As in other fields, use of the Internet and the Web has greatly expanded the communication process among veterinary professionals. The appearance of closed community email forums and specialized discussion groups within the veterinary profession is an example of what could become a new kind of grey literature. PMID:14566374

  19. Factors influencing the choice of a career in food-animal practice among recent graduates and current students of Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lenarduzzi, Roland; Sheppard, Guy A; Slater, Margaret R

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about a shortage of large and mixed-animal veterinarians have been discussed in the profession. To better understand veterinary career choices among currently enrolled veterinary students (classes of 2007-2010) and recent graduate veterinarians in Texas (classes of 2002-2006), an online survey was developed. The objectives were to examine: (1) the respondents' backgrounds, demographic data, and experiences; (2) the respondents' working conditions and rural lifestyle considerations; (3) the respondents' perceptions of large/mixed-animal practice; and (4) the factors that have influenced respondents' career choices. The response rate was 37% (390/1,042). Overall, 72% of students and 55% of recent graduates were interested in large/mixed-animal practice. More than 70% of respondents indicated that veterinary practitioners had the strongest personal influence on career choices. Respondents who were no longer interested in large/mixed-animal practice, or who had never been interested, reported no experience with large animals (42% and 64%, respectively) as the most common reason for their lack of interest. Previous and current interest in large/mixed-animal practice were associated with working in a large/mixed-animal practice, any agricultural experience, and working for at least 6 months on a farm or ranch. Any 4-H experience increased the likelihood of previous interest, while being married decreased the likelihood of current interest. Student contact with practitioners (82%) and financial considerations (77%) were most commonly cited as factors that would make a career in large/mixed-animal practice more attractive. Rural lifestyle drawbacks influenced respondents' career choices. Many forms of agricultural experience may expose and encourage students to consider large/mixed-animal practice.

  20. Veterinary Assistant, Teachers Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station.

    This study guide was developed for use by male and female vocational agriculture cooperative education students, 16 to 20 years old, preparing to become veterinary assistants. It was designed by subject-matter specialists on the basis of state advisory committee recommendations and refined after being tested in operational programs. Units, to be…

  1. Dominant viral pathologies in the extensive and semi-intensive animal breeding and their treatment mode in ethno veterinary medicine in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Kpodékon, T. M.; Ogni, C. A.; Dassou, H.; Dougnon, T. J.; Boko, C.; Koutinhouin, G. B.; Goussanou, J. S. E.; Akoegninou, A.; Youssao, I.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to identify the dominant viral animal pathologies and to list the traditional recipes used by the breeders for their treatment. Materials and Methods: The method of data collection was based on a retrospective survey. Thus, 787 breeders and agro-breeders scattered in the eight agro-ecological areas of Benin were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Results: In total, 5 pathologies were reported by breeders. Among those pathologies, foot and mouth disease was reported by all of the breeders of the southern part of Borgou compared with the other areas (p<0.05) and treated by 25 species of medicinal plants. African swine fever was the main pathology reported (22.92%) (p<0.05) in the fishery areas which is controlled by 7 medicinal plants. Pseudorinderpest was more reported (33.78%) (p<0.05) in the cotton area of central Benin and treated by 8 medicinal plants. There is also Newcastle disease that was mostly reported in the Western Atacora and treated by 32 medicinal plants as well as fowl pox which was a more reported in the lands of the bar area and the low-pressure area about 34.48% and 36.17% proportions, respectively, and treated by eight medicinal plants. Conclusion: The breeders in Benin possess rich ethno veterinary knowledge on medicinal plants and their uses in the treatment of livestock. A total of 57 medicinal plants have been inventoried to fight against five major viral diseases as African swine fever, pseudorinderpest and foot and mouth disease. The common plants used to treat viral disease in general were Euphorbia unispina, Euphorbia poissonii, Lannea acida, and Mangifera indica. The most harvested organs on the plants reported in this survey were the barks, the leaves, and the whole plants. To better develop our indigenous resources, it would be important to expand this ethno-pharmacological investigation to other diseases category. PMID:27047056

  2. Integrating the issues of global animal and public health into the veterinary education curriculum: a Latin American perspective.

    PubMed

    Berruecos, J M; Zarco, L

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a consensus profile for the Latin American veterinarian, and its adoption as the basis for curricular change by veterinary schools in the region. The process has been conducted by three Pan American organisations: the Pan American Association of Veterinary Science, the Pan American Federation of Veterinary Schools, and the Pan American Council of Veterinary Education, with strong backing bythe Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Recommendations for curricular harmonisation have been issued that will facilitate student and academic exchanges and, above all, will guarantee that the graduates from participating colleges have the knowledge, competencies and skills to adequately perform in the different fields of veterinary medicine, including those most relevant to global animal and public health.

  3. In memoriam: Adriano Mantovani, DVM, 1926-2012. One of the world's most prominent contributors to veterinary public health and a committed advocate of the importance of One Medicine.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Adriano Mantovani was born in 1926 in Altedo, Malalbergo (Bologna). After graduating in veterinary medicine from Bologna University in 1948, he gained his Masters in public health from the University of Minnesota in 1952 and qualified to lecture in microbiology and immunology in 1957 and in parasitology in 1963. He held numerous positions over the years: Assistant, Aide and Vice-Director of the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Teramo(1949-1962), Researcher at the Faculty of Medicine in Rome (1962-1965), Professor of Infectious Diseases, Prophylaxis and Veterinary Police Work at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Bologna, Director of the Institute of the same name (1965-1982) and Research Manager and Director of the Parasitology Laboratory at the Italian National Institute of Health and the WHO/FAO Collaboration Centre for Veterinary Public Health in Rome (1983-1991). He was active in numerous national and international organisations, including as a member of the National Health Council (1974-1982), Secretary of the World Federation of Parasitologists (1971-1987) and from 1972 President, Vice President or presenter in various WHO, FAO and OIE working groups. He worked in numerous countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and North America as an expert, presenter and lecturer. From 1978, the year in which the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Plan was established, he was one of the major collaborators of the WHO Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre in Athens (MZCC). In 1989, he was the first Italian to be awarded the OIE's international award for contributions to veterinary public health and in 2001 was publicly recognised by the MZCC for his many years of activities carried out to support the zoonoses control plan and promote well-being in the Mediterranean. He had been a member of the Italian National Guard's Commission for Predicting and Preventing Great Risks since 1994. In 2002, he was presented with the Italian Parasitology Society's Battista

  4. [Hygiene, diet and medicine in Arabic agricultural calendars].

    PubMed

    Barbaud, J

    1997-01-01

    The author studied nine arab agricultural calendars placed at intervals between the "Kitab al Azmina" or the "book of seasons" by Jean Mésué (9th c.) and a tunisian calendar of the 19th c. of andalusian origin (?). There is a clear relationship between these different calendars, all of them issued from an archetype lost to-day, which would have been a mixture of basic principles and traditions of different origins. One could no longer identify to-day with certainty but one could discern its preislamic tradition (the calendar system of the "anwa") babylonian tradition (the predictions extracted from astronomic, meteorologic or geologic events) and a greek tradition (the influence of the humoral theory). In matter of dietetic, these calendars real authentic almanachs do nothing but reproduce the hippocratic prescriptions. In matter of hygiene, they specify seasons for physical exercices, both as well as the perfumes to make use of. ...

  5. The impact of using a veterinary medicine activity book in the classroom on fifth- and sixth-grade students' depictions of veterinarians.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Sandra F; Burgess, Wilella; Cipriani Davis, Kauline S; Reed, Dorothy; Adedokun, Omolola

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to develop a diverse, future veterinary workforce must start as early as elementary school, when children begin to form perceptions about careers. The objective of the current project was to determine the impact of the Veterinary Medicine Activity Book: Grade 5 on fifth- and sixth-grade students' depictions of veterinarians. The book was delivered as part of the curriculum in four classrooms. Students were asked to draw a veterinarian and describe the veterinarian's activities before and after being exposed to the book. Drawings were evaluated for the gender and race/ethnicity of the illustrated veterinarian, the description of the veterinarian's activity, and animals portrayed. Significant differences were detected within three of four classrooms. In one class, after exposure to the activity book, more students drew male veterinarians and veterinarians performing an activity specifically mentioned in the book. In a second class, more students drew large animals after exposure to the activity book. In a third class, after exposure to the activity book, more students drew large animals and veterinarians performing an activity specifically mentioned in the book. Results provide preliminary evidence that children's depictions of veterinarians can be altered through use of educational materials delivered in classrooms through teacher-led discussion or formal lesson plans.

  6. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... technology or software used to manufacture agricultural commodities, medicine, or medical devices, such as technology to design or produce biotechnological items or medical devices. (4) Nothing in this section or in..., that are intended for ultimate use in Iran as: (A) Food for humans (including raw, processed,...

  7. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section affects prohibitions on the sale or supply of U.S. technology or software used to manufacture agricultural commodities, medicine, or medical devices, such as technology to.... 1, that are intended for ultimate use in Sudan as: (A) Food for humans (including raw,...

  8. 78 FR 54199 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and Medical Devices to Sudan and Iran; Comment Request... medical devices to Sudan and Iran. Pursuant to section 906(c) of the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export... Sudan and Iran are set forth in 31 CFR 538.523-526 and 31 CFR 560.530-533. Under the provisions...

  9. Global veterinary leadership.

    PubMed

    Wagner, G Gale; Brown, Corrie C

    2002-11-01

    The public needs no reminder that deadly infectious diseases such as FMD could emerge in any country at any moment, or that national food security could be compromised by Salmonella or Listeria infections. Protections against these risks include the knowledge that appropriate and equivalent veterinary education will enable detection and characterization of emerging disease agents, as well as an appropriate response, wherever they occur. Global veterinary leadership is needed to reduce the global threat of infectious diseases of major food animal and public health importance. We believe that the co-curriculum is an excellent way to prepare and train veterinarians and future leaders who understand and can deal with global issues. The key to the success of the program is the veterinarian's understanding that there is a cultural basis to the practice of veterinary medicine in any country. The result will be a cadre of veterinarians, faculty, and other professionals who are better able (language and culture) to understand the effects of change brought about by free trade and the importance of interdisciplinary and institutional relationships to deal effectively with national and regional issues of food safety and security. New global veterinary leadership programs will build on interests, experience, ideas, and ambitions. A college that wishes to take advantage of this diversity must offer opportunities that interest veterinarians throughout their careers and that preferably connect academic study with intensive experiential training in another country. At its best, the global veterinary leadership program would include a partnership between veterinarians and several international learning centers, a responsiveness to the identified international outreach needs of the profession, and attention to critical thinking and reflection. The global veterinary leadership program we have described is intended to be a set of ideas meant to promote collaboration, coalitions, and

  10. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment...

  11. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment...

  12. [Hygiene, dietetics and medicine in arab agricultural calendars].

    PubMed

    Barbaud, J

    1998-01-01

    The author studied nine arab agricultural calendars placed at intervals between the Kitab al-Azmina or the Book of seasons by Jean Mésué (IXth c.) and a tunisian calendar of the XIXth c. of andalusian origin (?). There is a clear relationship between these different calendars, all of them issued from an archetype lost today, which would have been a mixture of basic principles and traditions of different origins. One could no longer identify today with certainty but one could discern its preislamic tradition (the calendar system of the anwâ'), babylonian tradition (the predictions extracted from astronomic, meteorologic or geologic events) and a greek tradition (the influence of the humoral theory). In matter of dietetic, these calendars real authentic almanachs do nothing but reproduce the hippocratic prescriptions. In matter of hygiene, they specify seasons for physical exercices, bath as well as the perfumes to make use of. Otherwise these almanachs mention the most usual affections and the liabale means to cure, or better, to prevent them. Are recommanded differents electuaries including the theriac, trochics, eyewashes and other medications.

  13. Determination of oxytetracycline/oxytetracycline hydrochloride in animal feed, fish feed, and veterinary medicinal products by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Thiex, Nancy J; Larson, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A method for determining oxytetracycline (OTC) in animal feed, fish feed, and veterinary medicinal products at medicated use and contamination levels was collaboratively studied. The method is applicable to the analysis of animal feeds and mineral premixes containing levels > or =2 mg/kg, and fish feed containing levels > or =10 mg/kg. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC.HCI) is extracted from ground feed material in acid-methanol solution using mechanical agitation. After centrifugation for 5 min at 1230 x g, an aliquot of the extract is diluted with water andlor acid-methanol so that the concentration of OTC.HCI is approximately the same as that in the working standard, and the solutions contain at least 50% water. Injectable veterinary medicinal materials (also called animal remedy materials) are diluted with water andlor extractant to reach the target concentration. The extracts are filtered and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection with excitation at 390 nm and emission at 512 nm. Twenty-eight test samples of medicated feeds, supplements, and drug premixes, including 4 test samples for trace-level analysis, were sent to 17 collaborators in Canada, The Netherlands, and the United States. Results were received from 11 laboratories. The RSDr values (within-laboratory repeatability) ranged from 1.26 to 9.21%; RSDR values (among-laboratory reproducibility) ranged from 2.14 to 12.9%, and HorRat values ranged from 0.54 to 3.02. It is recommended that this method be adopted AOAC Official First Action.

  14. Superficial veterinary mycoses.

    PubMed

    Bond, Ross

    2010-03-04

    Dermatophytes are significant pathogens in animal health due to their zoonotic potential, the economic consequences of infection in farm animal and fur production systems, and the distressing lesions they cause in small domestic pets. Malassezia spp are normal commensal and occasional pathogens of the skin of many veterinary species. Malassezia pachydermatis is a very common cause of otitis and pruritic dermatitis in dogs but is of less importance in other veterinary species. Dermatophytosis, and Malassezia otitis and dermatitis, represent the superficial mycoses of greatest significance in companion and farm animal health. Although the dermatophytes and Malassezia spp both exist in the stratum corneum of mammalian skin, there are important differences in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical consequences of infection. Dermatophytes are significant due to their zoonotic potential, the economic consequences of infection in farm animal and fur production systems, and the concern for owners of pets with inflammatory skin disease that is sometimes severe. Malassezia spp are normal commensals and occasional pathogens of the skin for many veterinary species, and M pachydermatis is a very common cause of otitis and pruritic dermatitis in dogs. This chapter will focus on the epidemiologic, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of dermatophytosis and Malassezia dermatitis in veterinary species. There are generally only sporadic reports of other superficial mycoses, such as candidiasis, piedra, and Rhodotorula dermatitis in veterinary medicine, and these are not included here.

  15. The usefulness and limitations of hand-held refractometers in veterinary laboratory medicine: an historical and technical review.

    PubMed

    George, Jeanne W.

    2001-01-01

    Medical hand-held refractometers have been used in veterinary practice since their development in the 1960s. They have become ubiquitous for the measurement of protein and urine solute concentrations because of their rapidity of analysis, ease of use, and relatively low cost. Refraction of light offers advantages for the determination of solute concentrations because the measurement requires no chemical alteration of the specimen. Numerous authors have reported that the results of protein estimation by refractometry for domestic mammals correlate well with those obtained by the biuret method, although others have reported both higher and lower refractometric results compared with biuret results. Major discrepancies between biuret and refractometric results have been reported for avian samples. Some of the variation in reported results may be due to differences in design by refractometer manufacturers. Another possible source may be variation in the biuret reagent mixture and assay conditions. Refractometers also can be used to calculate serum water concentration. A table that converts index of refraction to serum water concentration can be used to convert electrolyte concentration from mmol/L of serum to mmol/L of serum water, a more accurate indicator of effective electrolyte concentration. Refractometers are especially useful for determining urine specific gravity on veterinary samples because they require relatively small sample volumes. Specific gravity continues to be the most common unit for reporting total solids concentration. Some solutes, such as acetone, may cause false increases in specific gravity by refractometry, as they increase refraction but are less dense than water.

  16. Anatomical Variations of the Blood Vascular System in Veterinary Medicine: The Internal Iliac Artery of the Dog: Part One.

    PubMed

    Avedillo, L; Martín-Alguacil, N; Salazar, I

    2015-08-01

    Traditional veterinary anatomical models describe the branches of the caudal gluteal artery as the iliolumbar, cranial gluteal, lateral caudal, satellite of the ischiatic nerve and dorsal perineal arteries. However, some classical veterinary anatomy textbooks often indicate variations the general organization of the arterial tree, without giving any pattern of origin or illustrations of the different branching. The aim of this study was to investigate the presumptive variability of the caudal gluteal artery. Two hundred and thirty-two pelvic halves from 116 adult dogs were examined. Twelve anatomical variations were found, nine occurring in more than 5% of the dogs, and three in <5%. A 'long-type' internal iliac artery, which means short caudal gluteal and internal pudendal arteries, was identified, while a 'perineal trunk' was observed as an interesting arterial variation. If the caudal segment alone is taken into consideration, identical vascular patterns in both hemi-pelvises are found in 17% of the dogs. Significant statistical correlation was found for four different types of anatomic variations and gender, two types of variations and body size, one type of variation for body side and one type of variation for head shape.

  17. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet.

  18. The management of risk arising from the use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine in EU/EEA countries - a review.

    PubMed

    Törneke, K; Torren-Edo, J; Grave, K; Mackay, D K J

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobials are essential medicines for the treatment of many microbial infections in humans and animals. Only a small number of antimicrobial agents with new mechanisms of action have been authorized in recent years for use in either humans or animals. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) arising from the use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine is a concern for public health due to the detection of increasing levels of resistance in foodborne zoonotic bacteria, particularly gram-negative bacteria, and due to the detection of determinants of resistance such as Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in bacteria from animals and in foodstuffs of animal origin. The importance and the extent of the emergence and spread of AMR from animals to humans has yet to be quantified. Likewise, the relative contribution that the use of antimicrobial agents in animals makes to the overall risk to human from AMR is currently a subject of debate that can only be resolved through further research. Nevertheless, risk managers have agreed that the impact on public health of the use of antimicrobials in animals should be minimized as far as possible and a variety of measures have been introduced by different authorities in the EU to achieve this objective. This article reviews a range of measures that have been implemented within European countries to reduce the occurrence and the risk of transmission of AMR to humans following the use of antimicrobial agents in animals and briefly describes some of the alternatives to the use of antimicrobial agents that are being developed.

  19. Secondary metabolites of endophytic Xylaria species with potential applications in medicine and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia; Sánchez-Fernández, Rosa Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Fungal endophytes are important sources of bioactive secondary metabolites. The genus Xylaria Hill (ex Schrank, 1789, Xylariaceae) comprises various endophytic species associated to both vascular and non vascular plants. The secondary metabolites produced by Xylaria species include a variety of volatile and non-volatile compounds. Examples of the former are sesquiterpenoids, esters, and alcohols, among others; and of the latter we find terpenoids, cytochalasins, mellein, alkaloids, polyketides, and aromatic compounds. Some of these metabolites have shown potential activity as herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides; others possess antibacterial, antimalarial, and antifungal activities, or α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Thus metabolites from Xylaria are promising compounds for applications in agriculture for plague control as biopesticides, and biocontrol agents; and in medicine, for example as drugs for the treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases. This review seeks to show the great value of the secondary metabolites of Xylaria, particularly in the agriculture and medicine fields.

  20. Future challenges for parasitology: vector control and 'One health' in Europe: the veterinary medicinal view on CVBDs such as tick borreliosis, rickettsiosis and canine leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Mencke, Norbert

    2013-08-01

    The medical as well as the veterinary importance of parasitic arthropods or ectoparasites in general terms, is characterized by the primary or secondary impact on the health of humans and companion animals alike. The parasitic arthropods addressed here are those ectoparasites belong to the class of insects, such as fleas and sand flies, or the subclass of acarids, such as ticks. These parasitic arthropods interact intensively with their hosts by blood feeding. Fleas, sand flies and ticks hold the vector capacity to transmit pathogens such as virus, bacteria or protozoa to cats, dogs and humans. The diseases caused by these pathogens are summarized under the terms canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD), feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) or metazoonoses. In small animal practice, it is important to understand that the transmitted pathogen may either lead to a disease with clinical signs, or more often to asymptomatic, clinically healthy, or silent infections. Blocking of the vector-host interactions, the blood feeding and subsequently the transmission of pathogens during blood feeding is a key element of CVBD control. The focus of this review is on the current knowledge of the epidemiology of parasitic vectors and three important CVBDs they transmit; rickettsiosis, tick borreliosis and canine leishmaniosis from a European perspective, and how veterinary medicine may contribute to the challenges of CVBDs and their control. Prevention of CVBDs is fundamentally based on ectoparasite control. Ectoparasite management in cats and dogs is important not only for the health and well-being of the individual companion animal but for public health in general and is therefore a perfect example of the 'One health' approach.

  1. Disease mapping in veterinary parasitology: an update.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, L; Musella, V; Cringoli, G

    2006-06-01

    The development of methods for disease mapping has progressed considerably in recent years. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) represent new tools for the study of epidemiology, and their application to veterinary medicine, and in particular to veterinary parasitology, has become more and more advanced to study the spatial and temporal patterns of diseases. The present paper reports an update regarding the use of these technologies in veterinary parasitology.

  2. Science and technology foresight: a provocative tool for contending with future challenges in food safety and public veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jack E

    2007-01-01

    The author describes how foresight methods can provide a provocative approach to some of the key challenges faced by the world of animal health and public veterinary practices while supporting the safety and security of the food system and public health in general. Being provocative is important because the future may be very unfamiliar and demands an approach of critical thinking, which can best be activated by having to consider the prospective reality of one or more substantially different policy operational environments. The factors that are shaping our future may also be quite disruptive (for example from 1989 to 1994 when the Cold War abruptly ended, the Soviet Union dissolved and the internet was born). Consequently it is essential that any forward preparedness efforts explore a range of plausible options and not immediately discount those that may in today's terms appear unlikely. The author reviews the methods through to the point where scenario parameters are defined, and then switches to observations about how the process can influence and provoke policy formulation. The results of the foresight and scenarios employment are described by Willis in another paper in this volume.

  3. Veterinary homeopathy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Vockeroth, W G

    1999-08-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies, including homeopathy, have a definite place in veterinary medicine today. The public is demanding access to a full range of conventional and complementary therapies, and the best scenario is to have all therapies available, for there is a place and a need for all of them in the right situation. In my own practice, I use both alternative and conventional therapies, as well as referring patients to specialists, for services such as ultrasound and surgery. I believe that the wave of the future is to have veterinarians skilled in both complementary and conventional therapies, and to have veterinary practitioners who are well enough educated to be able to treat the majority of their patients, but who are willing to refer to the appropriate "specialist," if the case and the client demand it. Veterinarians are definitely becoming more aware of the need for and showing more interest in alternative medicine. There are currently several associations in North America for veterinarians with an interest in complementary therapies. In 1998, the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society (IVAS) boasted 1400 members, and the American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association (AHVMA) over 800 (1). There are professional courses in veterinary acupuncture, chiropractic, and homeopathy, all 150-200 hours in length, which provide a good basic understanding of these modalities. In most of these modalities, there is also advanced training. Conventional teaching institutions are recognizing the need to have veterinarians well versed in all aspects of veterinary medicine. Colorado State University has offered elective courses for students and on-site courses for practitioners on alternative therapies for 3 years (1). These are designed to teach veterinarians what the alternative modalities are, whether they are effective, and what it takes to become qualified to practise them. The overriding goal in most veterinarians' minds is to heal animals and

  4. Veterinary homeopathy: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Vockeroth, W G

    1999-01-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies, including homeopathy, have a definite place in veterinary medicine today. The public is demanding access to a full range of conventional and complementary therapies, and the best scenario is to have all therapies available, for there is a place and a need for all of them in the right situation. In my own practice, I use both alternative and conventional therapies, as well as referring patients to specialists, for services such as ultrasound and surgery. I believe that the wave of the future is to have veterinarians skilled in both complementary and conventional therapies, and to have veterinary practitioners who are well enough educated to be able to treat the majority of their patients, but who are willing to refer to the appropriate "specialist," if the case and the client demand it. Veterinarians are definitely becoming more aware of the need for and showing more interest in alternative medicine. There are currently several associations in North America for veterinarians with an interest in complementary therapies. In 1998, the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society (IVAS) boasted 1400 members, and the American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association (AHVMA) over 800 (1). There are professional courses in veterinary acupuncture, chiropractic, and homeopathy, all 150-200 hours in length, which provide a good basic understanding of these modalities. In most of these modalities, there is also advanced training. Conventional teaching institutions are recognizing the need to have veterinarians well versed in all aspects of veterinary medicine. Colorado State University has offered elective courses for students and on-site courses for practitioners on alternative therapies for 3 years (1). These are designed to teach veterinarians what the alternative modalities are, whether they are effective, and what it takes to become qualified to practise them. The overriding goal in most veterinarians' minds is to heal animals and

  5. Veterinary applications of infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Rekant, Steven I; Lyons, Mark A; Pacheco, Juan M; Arzt, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal body temperature is a major indicator of disease; infrared thermography (IRT) can assess changes in body surface temperature quickly and remotely. This technology can be applied to a myriad of diseases of various etiologies across a wide range of host species in veterinary medicine. It is used to monitor the physiologic status of individual animals, such as measuring feed efficiency or diagnosing pregnancy. Infrared thermography has applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and has been used to detect soring in horses and monitor stress responses. This review addresses the variety of uses for IRT in veterinary medicine, including disease detection, physiologic monitoring, welfare assessment, and potential future applications.

  6. Accelerated Biodegradation of Veterinary Antibiotics in Agricultural Soil following Long-Term Exposure, and Isolation of a Sulfamethazine-degrading sp.

    PubMed

    Topp, Edward; Chapman, Ralph; Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Hartmann, Alain; Marti, Romain; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Sabourin, Lyne; Scott, Andrew; Sumarah, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization has identified antibiotic resistance as one of the top three threats to global health. There is concern that the use of antibiotics as growth promoting agents in livestock production contributes to the increasingly problematic development of antibiotic resistance. Many antibiotics are excreted at high rates, and the land application of animal manures represents a significant source of environmental exposure to these agents. To evaluate the long-term effects of antibiotic exposure on soil microbial populations, a series of field plots were established in 1999 that have since received annual applications of a mixture of sulfamethazine (SMZ), tylosin (TYL), and chlortetracycline (CTC). During the first 6 yr (1999-2004) soils were treated at concentrations of 0, 0.01 0.1, and 1.0 mg kg soil, in subsequent years at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 mg kg soil. The lower end of this concentration range is within that which would result from an annual application of manure from medicated swine. Following ten annual applications, the fate of the drugs in the soil was evaluated. Residues of SMZ and TYL, but not CTC were removed much more rapidly in soil with a history of exposure to 10 mg/kg drugs than in untreated control soil. Residues of C-SMZ were rapidly and thoroughly mineralized to CO in the historically treated soils, but not in the untreated soil. A SMZ-degrading sp. was isolated from the treated soil. Overall, these results indicate that soil bacteria adapt to long-term exposure to some veterinary antibiotics resulting in sharply reduced persistence. Accelerated biodegradation of antibiotics in matrices exposed to agricultural, wastewater, or pharmaceutical manufacturing effluents would attenuate environmental exposure to antibiotics, and merits investigation in the context of assessing potential risks of antibiotic resistance development in environmental matrices.

  7. Agricultural diseases on the move early in the third millennium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With few exceptions, the diseases that present the greatest risk to food animal production have been largely similar throughout the modern era of veterinary medicine. The current trend of ever - increasing globalization of trade of animals and animal products ensures that agricultural diseases will ...

  8. How do German veterinarians use social networks? A study, using the example of the 'NOVICE' veterinary medicine network.

    PubMed

    Schaper, Elisabeth; Forrest, Neil D; Tipold, Andrea; Ehlers, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    Zielsetzung: NOVICE (Network Of Veterinary ICt in Education, http://www.noviceproject.eu) ist ein soziales professionelles online-Netzwerk für Tiermediziner, Dozierende und Studierende der Tiermedizin sowie für E-Learning-Berater bzw. Didaktiker der veterinärmedizinischen Bildungsstätten. In dieser Arbeit sollte untersucht werden, wie die Akzeptanz bei deutschen Tierärzten, Dozierenden und Studierenden der Veterinärmedizin sowie E-Learning-Beauftragten für ein fachspezifisches Netzwerk ist, welche Anforderungen durch die Nutzer an soziale online-Netzwerke gestellt werden, wie der Umgang mit Web 2.0-Werkzeugen [21], [30] erfolgt und welches Potential ein berufsspezifisches Netzwerk bieten könnte. Methodik: Die Untersuchung erfolgte mittels Datenanalyse durch die Datenbank der Elgg-Plattform sowie zusätzlich mit google analytics. Jährliche Fokusgruppenbefragungen und Einzelinterviews wurden durchgeführt, um eine Akzeptanzanalyse der Netzwerk-Nutzer vorzunehmen.Ergebnisse: In NOVICE haben sich zwischen dem 01. September 2010 und 21. März 2012 1961 Mitglieder aus 73 Ländern registriert, dabei hat Deutschland mit 565 Nutzern (28,81%) den größten Anteil. In diesem Zeitraum kamen auch die meisten Einzelbesuche der Webseite aus Deutschland. Insgesamt sind im Netzwerk 24,83% aller Mitglieder und 19,22% der deutschen Mitglieder aktiv. In Bezug auf das Geschlecht befinden sich sowohl in Hinblick auf alle Mitglieder als auch auf die deutschen Mitglieder deutlich mehr Frauen als Männer in NOVICE. Die am häufigsten verwendeten Web 2.0-Werkzeuge sind das Versenden von Chat- und Email-Nachrichten sowie das Schreiben von Wiki- und Diskussionsbeiträgen. Aus den Fokusgruppenbefragungen ging hervor, dass von den Befragten in der Regel auch andere online-communities in Anspruch genommen werden, die aktiven Mitglieder mehr Web 2.0-Werkzeuge nutzen als in anderen Netzwerken, während die passiven Mitglieder in allen Netzwerken eher zurückhaltend sind. Über ein eigenes

  9. Nanomedicine in veterinary oncology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei

    2015-08-01

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology.

  10. Outcomes Assessment in Veterinary Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Leslie S.; Turnwald, Grant H.; Meldrum, James B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's use of outcomes assessment (OA) as part of the accreditation review process for the American Veterinary Medical Association. Discusses its nine OA survey instruments and use of resulting data during accreditation. (EV)

  11. Gender shifts in equine veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Heinke, Marsha L; Sabo, Carol

    2009-12-01

    This article examines gender shifts in equine veterinary practice. A significant gender compensation gap continues across the spectrum of professions, including veterinary medicine. Many styles of practice serve the disparate and sometimes conflicting goals of financial well-being, patient care, and physical family presence.

  12. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine...

  13. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine...

  14. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine...

  15. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine...

  16. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine...

  17. Veterinary autogenous vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hera, A; Bures, J

    2004-01-01

    Autogenous vaccines remain a regulatory issue. They are demanded by practising veterinarians and by animal owners and they are quite widely used, mainly in Central European Countries, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovak Republic having probably the longest tradition with these products in Central Europe. The scope given in Article 3, Para. 2 (and/or Article 4 for some countries) of Directive 2001/82/EC applies to these products in the Acceding Countries. As these products are exempt from the harmonised regulation at the EU level, they are regulated by individual countries, the regulation varying from practically no regulatory measures in certain countries to a quite complex and demanding regulation in the other countries. Both risks and benefits are related to these products and they shall be taken into account when regulatory measures are considered. The major risks related to veterinary autogenous vaccines relate to possibility of transmission of TSE agents or other viral, bacterial and/or fungal contaminants. As appropriate and well balanced regulation of these products is deemed necessary, considering the risks related to these products, and based on the fact that national regulatory measures could be considered as a trade barrier under certain circumstances, harmonisation of the key issues or legal admission of the nationally based regulatory measures, including movement of these products from the other Member States, shall be laid down in the EU legislation. The veterinary autogenous vaccines complying with basic quality and safety requirements are thus a very useful tool in the animal health and welfare management but their use should be restricted to situations where there is no authorised veterinary medicinal product available and veterinary autogenous vaccines must not be allowed to replace good farming or veterinary practices.

  18. Exploratory Analysis of Methods for Automated Classification of Laboratory Test Orders into Syndromic Groups in Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Muckle, C. Anne; Kelton, David; McClure, JT.; McEwen, Beverly J.; McNab, W. Bruce; Sanchez, Javier; Revie, Crawford W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent focus on earlier detection of pathogen introduction in human and animal populations has led to the development of surveillance systems based on automated monitoring of health data. Real- or near real-time monitoring of pre-diagnostic data requires automated classification of records into syndromes–syndromic surveillance–using algorithms that incorporate medical knowledge in a reliable and efficient way, while remaining comprehensible to end users. Methods This paper describes the application of two of machine learning (Naïve Bayes and Decision Trees) and rule-based methods to extract syndromic information from laboratory test requests submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Results High performance (F1-macro = 0.9995) was achieved through the use of a rule-based syndrome classifier, based on rule induction followed by manual modification during the construction phase, which also resulted in clear interpretability of the resulting classification process. An unmodified rule induction algorithm achieved an F1-micro score of 0.979 though this fell to 0.677 when performance for individual classes was averaged in an unweighted manner (F1-macro), due to the fact that the algorithm failed to learn 3 of the 16 classes from the training set. Decision Trees showed equal interpretability to the rule-based approaches, but achieved an F1-micro score of 0.923 (falling to 0.311 when classes are given equal weight). A Naïve Bayes classifier learned all classes and achieved high performance (F1-micro = 0.994 and F1-macro = .955), however the classification process is not transparent to the domain experts. Conclusion The use of a manually customised rule set allowed for the development of a system for classification of laboratory tests into syndromic groups with very high performance, and high interpretability by the domain experts. Further research is required to develop internal validation rules in order to establish automated methods to

  19. Veterinary medical education and veterinary involvement in aquatic-animal health and aquaculture in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega S, César

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes curriculum offerings related to aquaculture and/or aquatic-animal health taught in veterinary medical schools or colleges in Mexico. The information database of the Mexican Association of Schools and Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and the Web sites of veterinary institutions indicate that 60% of veterinary colleges include courses related to aquaculture in their curriculum, but most of these are optional courses. There are few specialized continuing education programs or graduate level courses. There is also a lack of veterinary participation, in both public and private sectors, in aquatic-animal health. It is evident that there should be a greater involvement by the veterinary profession in Mexico's aquaculture to ensure food production in a safe and sustainable manner; to achieve this, veterinary medical institutions must include more aquaculture and aquatic-animal health courses in their curricula.

  20. Veterinary School Applicants: Financial Literacy and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.

  1. Tocolytic Drugs for Use in Veterinary Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, L.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents a literature review of two tocolytic agents used in veterinary obstetrics: isoxsuprine and clenbuterol. The medical background from which these drugs emerged for human use and to which is linked their application in animal medicine is described. Each drug is reviewed according to its pharmacology, basic considerations for its clinical use and the reports on its application in the treatment and management of obstetrical disorders in veterinary medicine. PMID:17422462

  2. Veterinary applications of infrared thermography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abnormal temperature is a major indicator of disease; infrared thermography (IRT) can assess changes in surface temperature quickly and remotely. This technology can be applied to myriad diseases in veterinary medicine, ranging across host species and disease etiologies. It can also be used to deter...

  3. 78 FR 63221 - Guidance for Industry on Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... availability of a guidance for industry 188 entitled ``Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine.'' The purpose of this guidance is to assist sponsors or...

  4. Geriatric veterinary pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Kukanich, Butch

    2012-07-01

    Geriatric dogs and cats are an important group of patients in veterinary medicine. Healthy geriatric patients have similar physiology and presumably pharmacology as healthy adult animals. Geriatric patients with subclinical organ dysfunction are overtly healthy but have some organ dysfunction that may alter the clinical pharmacology of some drugs. Geriatric patients with an overt disease are expected to have altered drug pharmacology for some drugs based on the underlying disease. Diseases including cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, osteoarthritis, neurologic, and neoplastic are expected in the geriatric population and discussed, including the effects of the underlying disease and potential drug-drug interactions.

  5. Toxicity of herbal extracts used in ethno-veterinary medicine and green-encapsulated ZnO nanoparticles against Aedes aegypti and microbial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Banumathi, Balan; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Ishwarya, Ramachandran; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-04-07

    Dengue and chikungunya are arboviral diseases mainly vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Presently, there is no treatment for these viral diseases and their prevention is still based on vector control measures. Nanopesticides fabricated using herbal extracts as reducing and capping agents currently represent an excellent platform for pest control. In this scenario, the present study assessed the acute toxicity of seven plants employed in ethno-veterinary medicine of southern India, as well as the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles, on third-instar larvae of A. aegypti. Larvae were exposed to extracts of the seven plants obtained with solvents of different polarity (acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether, and water) for 24 h. Maximum efficacy was observed for Lobelia leschenaultiana leaf extracts prepared using all the four solvent extracts (LC50 = 22.83, 28.12, 32.61, and 36.85 mg/L, respectively). Therefore, this plant species was used for the synthesis and stabilization of ZnO nanoparticles based on its maximum efficacy against third-instar larvae of A. aegypti. L. leschenaultiana-encapsulated ZnO nanoparticles showed 100% mortality when tested at 10 mg/L, the LC50 was extremely low,  1.57 mg/L. Zinc acetate achieved only 65.33% when tested at 60 mg/L, with a LC50 of 51.62 mg/L. Additionally, ZnO nanoparticles inhibited growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus and also inhibited biofilm formation on selected microbila pathogens, showing impact on EPS production and hydrophobicity. Overall, our results suggest that L. leschenaultiana-fabricated ZnO nanoparticles have a significant potential to control A. aegypti mosquitoes and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens.

  6. Next-generation sequencing in veterinary medicine: how can the massive amount of information arising from high-throughput technologies improve diagnosis, control, and management of infectious diseases?

    PubMed

    Van Borm, Steven; Belák, Sándor; Freimanis, Graham; Fusaro, Alice; Granberg, Fredrik; Höper, Dirk; King, Donald P; Monne, Isabella; Orton, Richard; Rosseel, Toon

    2015-01-01

    The development of high-throughput molecular technologies and associated bioinformatics has dramatically changed the capacities of scientists to produce, handle, and analyze large amounts of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data. A clear example of this step-change is represented by the amount of DNA sequence data that can be now produced using next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms. Similarly, recent improvements in protein and peptide separation efficiencies and highly accurate mass spectrometry have promoted the identification and quantification of proteins in a given sample. These advancements in biotechnology have increasingly been applied to the study of animal infectious diseases and are beginning to revolutionize the way that biological and evolutionary processes can be studied at the molecular level. Studies have demonstrated the value of NGS technologies for molecular characterization, ranging from metagenomic characterization of unknown pathogens or microbial communities to molecular epidemiology and evolution of viral quasispecies. Moreover, high-throughput technologies now allow detailed studies of host-pathogen interactions at the level of their genomes (genomics), transcriptomes (transcriptomics), or proteomes (proteomics). Ultimately, the interaction between pathogen and host biological networks can be questioned by analytically integrating these levels (integrative OMICS and systems biology). The application of high-throughput biotechnology platforms in these fields and their typical low-cost per information content has revolutionized the resolution with which these processes can now be studied. The aim of this chapter is to provide a current and prospective view on the opportunities and challenges associated with the application of massive parallel sequencing technologies to veterinary medicine, with particular focus on applications that have a potential impact on disease control and management.

  7. Immune-mediated Hemolytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia in the Dog: A retrospective study of 55 cases diagnosed from 1979 through 1983 at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Marion L.; Kruth, Stephen A.

    1985-01-01

    All recognized cases (n = 55) of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia in dogs presented to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from 1969 through 1983 were reviewed. Specific areas of concern were: association with other conditions, therapeutic response, prognosis, relapse rate and final outcome. Of these 55 cases, 19 were immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, 26 were immune-mediated thrombocytopenia and 10 were both immune-mediated hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Females were slightly over-represented and the mean age was 6.4 years. Therapy consisted of various combinations of immuno-suppressive drugs and in some cases, whole blood transfusion and splenectomy. No firm conclusions could be made regarding therapeutic efficacy, as a result of variation in treatment protocol and the occasional unavailability of follow-up data. Well over half of all cases were diagnosed as idiopathic. Precipitating factors or diseases most frequently implicated in secondary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia or hemolytic anemia were: recent vaccination, drug therapy, obstetrical complications, stress, recent viral infection and neoplasia. Twice as many cases of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia were seen in the cooler months (October to March), although this could not be related to antibody class or thermal reactivity. Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia both as a single disease and combined with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia had no seasonal incidence. History, clinical findings and hematological and clinical chemistry findings were consistent with data previously reported, with the exception of icterus, which appeared to be of higher incidence than most reports, being present in almost 50% of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia cases. Just over half of all dogs survived, although the survival rate was highest for immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, followed closely by immune-mediated thrombocytopenia and lowest for the combined disease. Immune

  8. Risk-based approach to developing a national residue sampling plan for testing under European Union regulation for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives in domestic animal production.

    PubMed

    Danaher, Martin; Shanahan, Conor; Butler, Francis; Evans, Rhodri; O'Sullivan, Dan; Glynn, Denise; Camon, Tim; Lawlor, Peadar; O'Keeffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency × Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) × Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system

  9. It may be a dog's life but the relationship with her owners is also key to her health and well being: communication in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Adams, Cindy L; Frankel, Richard M

    2007-01-01

    Effective communication is necessary for achieving important outcomes in veterinary practice, including patient health, accuracy, efficiency, and economic viability. Communication is a series of learned skills. Daily practice, feedback, and refinement are the ingredients for continued practice success.

  10. Biotechnology: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Biotechnology Research Efforts. Briefing Report. To the Chairman, Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Information pertaining to biotechnology research that was funded in whole or in part by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is presented in this report. Findings obtained from state agricultural experimental stations and colleges of veterinary medicine are discussed in 11 appendices. These include: (1) information on USDA's biotechnology…

  11. Accreditation of Veterinary Medical Education: Part II--Influence of the American Veterinary Medical Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Elizabeth K.

    1975-01-01

    Traces the development, since its founding in 1863, of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) influence over the standards of training required in the veterinary profession. Attention is focused on the roles of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the military, and the land-grant colleges in that development. (JT)

  12. Internationalizing Veterinary Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Christine C.; Memon, Mushtaq A.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed colleges of veterinary medicine to assess their international activities. Found that 86 percent have international veterinary medicine (IVM) programs and most have faculty involved in internationally oriented research, in teaching IVM, in mentoring students in IVM, and in international consultancies. Foreign animal diseases are the most…

  13. A background to nuclear transfer and its applications in agriculture and human therapeutic medicine*

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Keith HS

    2002-01-01

    The development of a single celled fertilized zygote to an animal capable of reproduction involves not only cell division but the differentiation or specialization to numerous cell types forming each tissue and organ of the adult animal. The technique of nuclear transfer allows the reconstruction of an embryo by the transfer of genetic material from a single donor cell, to an unfertilized egg from which the genetic material has been removed. Successful development of live offspring from such embryos demonstrates that the differentiated state of the donor nucleus is not fixed and can be reprogrammed by the egg cytoplasm to control embryo and fetal development. Nuclear transfer has many applications in agriculture and human medicine. This article will review some of the factors associated with the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer and outline the potential uses of the technology. PMID:12033731

  14. DNA vaccines in veterinary use

    PubMed Central

    Redding, Laurel; Werner, David B

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccines represent a new frontier in vaccine technology. One important application of this technology is in the veterinary arena. DNA vaccines have already gained a foothold in certain fields of veterinary medicine. However, several important questions must be addressed when developing DNA vaccines for animals, including whether or not the vaccine is efficacious and cost effective compared with currently available options. Another important question to consider is how to apply this developing technology in a wide range of different situations, from the domestic pet to individual fish in fisheries with several thousand animals, to wildlife programs for disease control. In some cases, DNA vaccines represent an interesting option for vaccination, while in others, currently available options are sufficient. This review will examine a number of diseases of veterinary importance and the progress being made in DNA vaccine technology relevant to these diseases, and we compare these with the conventional treatment options available. PMID:19722897

  15. DNA vaccines in veterinary use.

    PubMed

    Redding, Laurel; Weiner, David B

    2009-09-01

    DNA vaccines represent a new frontier in vaccine technology. One important application of this technology is in the veterinary arena. DNA vaccines have already gained a foothold in certain fields of veterinary medicine. However, several important questions must be addressed when developing DNA vaccines for animals, including whether or not the vaccine is efficacious and cost effective compared with currently available options. Another important question to consider is how to apply this developing technology in a wide range of different situations, from the domestic pet to individual fish in fisheries with several thousand animals, to wildlife programs for disease control. In some cases, DNA vaccines represent an interesting option for vaccination, while in others, currently available options are sufficient. This review will examine a number of diseases of veterinary importance and the progress being made in DNA vaccine technology relevant to these diseases, and we compare these with the conventional treatment options available.

  16. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  17. Protocols in Medicolegal Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Green, P. D.

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines for the examination of cases involving death of animals from gunshot and arrow wounds are described. Appropriate procedures for collecting and preserving specimens and exhibits are also included. A brief description of the appearance of various gunshot wounds is given. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:7260828

  18. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.

  19. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on the Information Behavior and Literacy of Veterinary Medicine Students at University College Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Lorna

    2007-01-01

    Research was conducted on the impact of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) on the information seeking and literacy of veterinary students at University College Dublin. Data were collected using both quantitative and qualitative methods from students, academics and the librarian. Results showed that PBL has a significant impact on how students find and…

  20. Alternative therapies in veterinary dermatology.

    PubMed

    Budgin, Jeanne B; Flaherty, Molly J

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of alternative therapies for skin disorders including traditional Chinese medicine (acupuncture and Chinese herbs), homeopathy, and Western herbs and plant extracts. The medical and veterinary literature on the aforementioned modalities will be reviewed with a focus on reduction of inflammation and pruritus of the skin and ear canal in the canine species. Clinical application and potential adverse effects will also be included when available.

  1. Changes in Veterinary Students' Attitudes Toward the Rural Environment and Rural Veterinary Practice: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Cary T; Woloschuk, Wayne; Hecker, Kent G

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of research regarding veterinary students' attitudes toward the rural environment and rural veterinary practice and how these attitudes might change over the course of a veterinary medicine program that includes rural clinical experience. Using a 23-item questionnaire, attitudes toward rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, opportunities for career and skill development in rural veterinary practice, and inter-professional teamwork in the rural environment were assessed at the beginning and completion of a four-year veterinary medicine program. Eighty-six students (74.4% female) were included in this Canadian study over a six-year period. Thirty-one participants (36.1%) were rural students. Overall, students' attitudes toward the rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, and inter-professional teamwork in rural veterinary practice all significantly decreased (p<.001) over the course of the program. As compared to urban students, rural students had significantly higher rural lifestyle scores at both the beginning (p<.001) and end (p<.01) of the veterinary medicine program. A less positive attitude toward living and working in a rural environment could influence students to exclude rural veterinary practice as a career choice. Rural clinical experiences designed to sustain or increase veterinary student interest in rural practice may not be sufficient to support positive rural attitudes. Given the demand for rural veterinary services in developed countries, the implications of this study may extend beyond Canada.

  2. Veterinary education in Africa: current and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Swan, G E; Kriek, N P J

    2009-03-01

    Veterinary education commenced in South Africa in 1920 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa in association with the Transvaal University College, now the University of Pretoria. Sir Arnold Theiler, Director of Veterinary Research and Education, was the first Dean. Today there are 46 veterinary training institutions in Africa of which 21 are in sub-Saharan Africa. Veterinary services are indispensable to the sustained health and wellbeing of animals and humans, and agricultural economies of countries worldwide. Veterinary education, postgraduate training, and research, and adequate numbers of veterinarians, are essential to satisfy the millennium development goals, the objectives of NEPAD and the African Union, and the agreements regulating international trade. The relevance of the veterinary profession internationally is currently subject to profound scrutiny. Its contributions are assessed against major environmental, demographic, political, disease, technological and economic needs. The scope of veterinary training in future will have to emphasise veterinary public health, food safety, emerging diseases, international trade, bioterrorism, and biomedical research, within the context of a one-health system focusing on the interface between wildlife, domesticated animals, humans, and their environment. Within the context of time available, it would mean reducing the time allocated to training in the field of companion animals. A brief history and scope of veterinary education; current international trends in veterinary education and provisioning; and some perspectives on future veterinary training and initiatives applicable to Africa are provided.

  3. Teaching of veterinary parasitology: the Italian perspective.

    PubMed

    Kramer, L; Genchi, C

    2002-10-02

    The curriculum in veterinary medicine in Italy is undergoing important changes, as in the rest of Europe. The 2001 fall semester will mark the beginning of a new format for the degree in veterinary medicine and these changes will obviously affect the teaching of veterinary parasitology. In Italy, veterinary parasitology is usually taught in the third year with a disciplinary approach, similar to that described by Euzéby [Vet. Parasitol. 64 (1996) 21] and Eckert [Vet. Parasitol. 88 (2000) 117]. Approximately 90 h of lectures and 40 h of laboratory are offered and are usually divided into parasitology, followed by parasitic diseases. A more problem-oriented approach to parasitology is offered to fifth-year students within several professional routes (large animal medicine, small animal medicine, hygiene and food safety, etc.), amounting to approximately 15-60 h per student. Indeed, in the last year of study, there are less students and it is possible to present clinical cases and orient the students towards team work and critical discussion. This new curriculum guarantees a reduction in the number of lecture hours and an increase in both laboratory work and personal study, as suggested by the guidelines of the European association of establishment for veterinary education (EAEVE).

  4. [History of veterinary association in the Netherlands around 1850. The influence of the Central Veterinary Society (1848-1862)].

    PubMed

    Hasselaar, J C

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a review is given of the different stages of the professionalization process of veterinary medicine in the Netherlands around 1850. From 1827 onwards, various professional veterinary journals were published by lecturers from the State Veterinary School in Utrecht. In 1842, the first veterinary society was established in the province of Groningen. Other provinces followed suit. Most of these societies only consisted of 5-10 members. Between 1848 and 1861 meetings were organised on a national level within the framework of the Central Veterinary Society. Apart from professional issues on the agenda, such as the struggle against quacks and veterinary legislation, these meetings were also used to discuss various animal diseases and their proposed treatments. Mainly due to mutual disputes between members and the local societies, it took until 1862 before the Netherlands Veterinary Association was established.

  5. American Veterinary Medical Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Discipline Resources VMA Resource Center Tools for K-12 Educators You are here: Home Print Share This! ... Veterinary Career Center AVMA@WorkBlog Center for Veterinary Education Accreditation ECFVG: International Graduate Certification Animal Welfare AVMAPAC ...

  6. Update on genomics in veterinary oncology.

    PubMed

    Breen, Matthew

    2009-08-01

    The release of an annotated human genome sequence assembly and the emergence of genomics technologies have led to significant advances in our understanding of many human diseases including cancers. As DNA sequencing technology has become less costly, the field of comparative genomics has progressed rapidly and attention has turned now to generating whole genome assemblies and dedicated genomics resources for veterinary species. Such progress brings a whole new series of opportunities to advance veterinary medicine. Many human and animal diseases share a pathogenetic basis, and although veterinary species need advances in biomedical research in their own right, the consideration of companion animals also as good comparative models for human disease saw the emergence of the "one medicine" concept. The future of many areas of human and veterinary biomedical research is very much interdependent, with one of the closest associations being in oncology. It is inevitable that veterinary oncology will benefit enormously from data derived from genomics and that this era will see a huge shift in the ways in which companion animal cancer patients are evaluated and subsequently treated. Here, we will review some of the advancements of genomics as they relate to veterinary oncology.

  7. Some Observations on Veterinary Undergraduate Training in Surgical Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittick, William G.

    1978-01-01

    The undergraduate surgery course of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, is described with focus on its experential method of teaching surgical techniques. Also discussed are the benefits of veterinary school cooperation with a large city Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA). (JMD)

  8. Veterinary students' attitudes on One Health: implications for curriculum development at veterinary colleges.

    PubMed

    Wong, David; Kogan, Lori R

    2013-01-01

    One Health knowledge has been identified by the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium (NAVMEC) as a core competency for all graduating veterinarians. Many veterinary colleges, however, are still in the preliminary stages of exploring how best to incorporate One Health principles into their existing curricula. In February 2012, we conducted a survey among second to fourth-year Professional Veterinary Medicine (PVM) students at the Colorado State University College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences to assess One Health needs and attitudes. Out of 407 students, 93 (22.9%) completed the survey. Although 74.2% of respondents were very or somewhat familiar with the One Health Initiative, only 34.4% reported some level of involvement with One Health-related activities. Over 80% of respondents rated the One Health Initiative as very important for public health, wildlife health, and food-animal medicine or surgery; less than 30% rated the One Health Initiative as very important for equine medicine or surgery and small-animal medicine or surgery. The majority of respondents were very interested in educational activities involving inter-disciplinary interactions with both human and ecosystem health professionals. Our findings can help guide the development and implementation of One Health-focused curricula at veterinary colleges.

  9. Career attitudes of first-year veterinary students before and after a required course on veterinary careers.

    PubMed

    Fish, Richard E; Griffith, Emily H

    2014-01-01

    Careers in Veterinary Medicine is a required, one-credit-hour course at the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU-CVM), which meets once weekly during veterinary students' first semester. Lectures in this course are presented by one or more veterinarians representing diverse career areas. A voluntary, anonymous survey was distributed before the first class meeting in 2011 (PRE) and at the end of the semester (POST) to assess if students' career interests changed during the semester. The survey collected basic demographic data and students' preferences (on a Likert scale) for 17 veterinary career paths. Out of 63 students, 36 (57%) in the POST survey said that their career interests had changed during the semester, and 17 of the 26 students (65%) who gave a reason credited the careers course as one factor in reconsidering their career choice. Only 3 of the 17 career paths had statistically significant PRE/POST survey differences in Likert response frequency (equine practice, pathology, and wildlife medicine), but both informal discussions with students and responses to open-ended survey questions indicated that many students valued the introduction to unfamiliar veterinary career areas. Careers in Veterinary Medicine is a vital component of recent career-planning initiatives in the college, which will be especially important to veterinary students as they face continued changes in the profession, such as the increased debt load of the new graduate and the threat of veterinary workforce oversupply.

  10. Recommendations of the German Society for Medical Education and the German Association of Medical Faculties regarding university-specific assessments during the study of human, dental and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Jünger, Jana; Just, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    The practice of assessing student performance in human, dental and veterinary medicine at universities in German-speaking countries has undergone significant changes in the past decade. Turning the focus to practical requirements regarding medical practice during undergraduate study away from an often theory-dominated curriculum, the academic scrutiny of the basics of teaching medical knowledge and skills, and amendments to legislation, all require ongoing adjustments to curricula and the ways in which assessments are done during undergraduate medical education. To establish quality standards, the Gesellschaft für medizinische Ausbildung (GMA German Society for Medical Education) reached a consensus in 2008 on recommendations for administering medical school-specific exams which have now been updated and approved by the GMA assessments committee, together with the Medizinischer Fakultätentag (MFT German Association of Medical Faculties), as recommendations for the administration of high-quality assessments.

  11. 9 CFR 161.4 - Suspension or revocation of veterinary accreditation; criminal and civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension or revocation of veterinary... REVOCATION OF SUCH ACCREDITATION § 161.4 Suspension or revocation of veterinary accreditation; criminal and... to practice veterinary medicine in at least one State. (c) Accreditation shall be...

  12. 78 FR 14801 - Veterinary Oversight of Antimicrobial Use in Livestock: Impact on Stakeholders; Public Meetings...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Oversight of Antimicrobial Use in Livestock... areas that may lack access to adequate veterinary services. The meetings are jointly sponsored by FDA...: Patricia Arnwine, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-6), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish...

  13. 9 CFR 130.14 - User fees for FADDL veterinary diagnostics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for FADDL veterinary..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES § 130.14 User fees for FADDL veterinary diagnostics. (a... 167.00 Rabbit antiserum, any agent 1 mL 179.00 185.00 190.00 196.00 (b) Veterinary diagnostics...

  14. The Northwest Regional Program in Veterinary Medical Education: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustad, L. K.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Results of a four-year cooperative effort to develop the Washington-Oregon-Idaho Regional Program in Veterinary Medicine (WOI) are summarized. Special admissions policies, curriculum, administrative procedures, and funding approaches are reviewed. (LBH)

  15. The interface between veterinary and human antibiotic use.

    PubMed

    Shryock, Thomas R; Richwine, Amy

    2010-12-01

    The identification and early development of novel antimicrobial agents for use in veterinary medicine is subject to many of the same business and technical challenges as those found in antimicrobial agent use for human infectious disease. However, as awareness that some of the antimicrobial classes used in veterinary medicine are the same as used in human medicine, concern by multiple stakeholders has increased that this nonhuman use might be contributing to the problem of antimicrobial resistance to pathogens in humans, particularly with regard to food-borne diseases, such as salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis. Consequently, the interface between veterinary and human antibiotic use and resistance, especially with respect to human microbial food safety, has begun to redirect the industry pipeline of novel antimicrobial agents to be commercialized for use in veterinary medicine.

  16. The history of the veterinary profession and education in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo; Arifiantini, Iis

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the veterinary profession in Indonesia dates back to the middle of the 19th century. During the Dutch colonization period a development program for large ruminants was started by the 'Nederlandsch-Indië' government. In 1907 this government established a veterinary laboratory, planned by Dr. J.K.F. de Does. The laboratory was then merged with a veterinary training course for Indonesian (bumiputera) 'veterinarians' named 'Cursus tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Veeartsen'. In 1910 the name of the training course was changed to 'Inlandsche Veeartsenschool', and in 1914 the school was named 'Nederlandsch-Indische Veeartsenijschool' (NIVS). During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945) the veterinary school was named 'Bogor Semon Zui Gakko'. After the declaration of independence by Indonesia in August 1945, it became the High School of Veterinary Education. In 1946 the curriculum was extended from 4 to 5 years. Thereafter the school was closed and re-opened a few times due to the changing political circumstances. In 1947 the first Faculty of Veterinary Medicine ('Diergeneeskundige Faculteit') of the University of Indonesia was established in the former building of NIVS at Taman Kencana Campus in Bogor. Between 1948 and 1963, four more veterinary faculties were established in Indonesia: Gajah Mada, Syiahkuala, Airlangga and Udayana. The Indonesian Veterinary Medical Association (IVMA) was established on January 9, 1953. The membership now exceeds 20,000 veterinarians and the association has 15 special interest groups. Since 2008, five new faculties of veterinary medicine have been established, bringing the total to 10.

  17. Excellence in Minority Health Education and Care Act. Hearing on H.R. 954, A Bill to Amend the Public Health Service Act to Authorize Assistance for Centers for Minority Medical Education, Minority Pharmacy Education, Minority Veterinary Medicine Education, and Minority Dentistry Education, before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This document comprises testimony and materials presented at a hearing on H.R. 954, a bill which would provide assistance for centers for minority education in medicine, pharmacy, veterinary medicine, and dentistry. The following individuals presented testimony: (1) Lindy Boggs, a Representative from Louisiana; (2) William Hill Boner, a…

  18. Prose Learning for Veterinary Educators: Facilitating Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkness, John E.

    1978-01-01

    A prose text in veterinary medicine can be arranged and supplemented to facilitate efficient and effective acquisition into short-term memory. Methods include: variation in textual format; relating new information to previous knowledge and future goals; providing specific, test-relevant objectives or introductions, describing mnemonic devices; and…

  19. Veterinary Medical Education and a Changing Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, James R.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that veterinary medicine needs greater participation by minority groups to incorporate their worldview into the field. Discusses how this community-oriented view is at odds with the manner in which the academy typically assesses performance, and why teaching and service should therefore be more readily and effectively evaluated and…

  20. The future of veterinary parasitology: a time for change?

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C

    2001-07-12

    The future of veterinary parasitology is discussed at a time when R&D funding from the pharmaceutical industry is declining, yet the opportunities for veterinary parasitologists to diversify their activities has never been greater. Emerging and re-emerging areas requiring input from veterinary parasitologists include: veterinary public health; conservation and wildlife diseases; emerging and exotic infectious diseases; surveillance strategies; economic effects of parasitic diseases; aquaculture; molecular epidemiology; dietary and biological control of parasitic diseases; animal welfare; organic agricultural systems; novel vaccination strategies; drug target characterisation and rational drug design. Without change, the survival of veterinary parasitology as a viable, distinct discipline is under threat. In this environment, veterinary parasitologists must be adaptable, imaginative and pro-active in terms of setting the agendas for establishing strategic alliances, promoting research needs and developing research programs.

  1. All-purpose veterinary education: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Recognition Lecture is an annual honor awarded by the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) to an individual whose leadership and vision have made significant contributions to academic veterinary medicine and the veterinary profession. In 2011, this prestigious honor was awarded to Dr. Peter Eyre, Dean Emeritus of the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM). Dr. Eyre is a fierce advocate for veterinary medical education, with a clear vision of its value in ensuring that veterinarians are well positioned to meet societal needs. Dr. Eyre possesses an international perspective regarding the challenges and problems facing veterinary medical education and has a keen eye for getting to the heart of these challenges. He is known to ask hard questions and propose difficult choices. Dr. Eyre received his undergraduate veterinary degree (BVMS), bachelor of science degree, and PhD from the University of Edinburgh. He was Lecturer in Pharmacology at the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies for seven years before joining the faculty of the University of Guelph's Ontario Veterinary College, where he was Chair of the Department of Biomedical Sciences and Associate Director of the Canadian Centre for Toxicology. Dr. Eyre was appointed Dean of the VMRCVM in 1985, where he established the Center for Government and Corporate Veterinary Medicine in 1989. After retiring in 2003, he was named Interim Dean of the University of Calgary's new veterinary school. Among his many awards are the Norden Distinguished Teacher Award and the Sigma Psi Excellence in Research Award. In 2008 the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) honored him with the President's Award, and in 2010 the University of Edinburgh awarded him the honorary degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery. The Peter Eyre Student Leadership Award at the VMRCVM and the Peter Eyre Prize in Pharmacology at the University of Guelph are both named in his honor

  2. [Veterinary Drug 'what'? Various marginal notes by an 'industrial veterinarian'].

    PubMed

    Hoftijzer, J

    1987-04-15

    A retrospective view of the history of the Veterinary Medicinal Products Act and the current situation of the trade in veterinary drugs is followed by a discussion of a number of changes which will have to be made in the fields of production, packing, distribution and the trade in these drugs. With regard to these last-named items, a connection with the Act on the Practice of Veterinary Medicine should be made. In general it can be stated that the innovating industry is not dissatisfied, but only the actual enforcement of the act will provide genuine replies to questions which are still unanswered.

  3. Pain Medicines for Pets: Know the Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers ... of drugs extensively used in both human and veterinary medicine for their anti-fever, anti-inflammatory and ...

  4. Guidelines for zoo and aquarium veterinary medical programs and veterinary hospitals.

    PubMed

    Backues, Kay; Clyde, Vickie; Denver, Mary; Fiorello, Christine; Hilsenroth, Rob; Lamberski, Nadine; Larson, Scott; Meehan, Tom; Murray, Mike; Ramer, Jan; Ramsay, Ed; Suedmeyer, Kirk; Whiteside, Doug

    2011-03-01

    These guidelines for veterinary medical care and veterinary hospitals are written to conform with the requirements of the Animal Welfare Act, which states that programs of disease prevention and parasite control, euthanasia, and adequate veterinary care shall be established and maintained under the supervision of a veterinarian. Ideally the zoo and aquarium should be providing the best possible veterinary medical care for the animals in their collections. Many of these animals are rare and endangered and the institutions should endeavor both to provide for the long term health and well being of these animals and to advance the field of non-domestic animal medicine. It is hoped that this publication will aid in this process.

  5. MANTRA AND YANTRA IN INDIAN MEDICINE AND ALCHEMY

    PubMed Central

    Rosu, Arion

    1988-01-01

    This paper was presented at the International Workshop on mantras and ritual diagrams in Hinduism, held in Paris, 21-22 June1984. The complete text in French, which appeared in the Journal asiatique 1986, p.203, is based upon an analysis of Ayurvedc literature from ancient times down to the present and of numerous Sanskrit sources concerning he specialized sciences: alchemy and latrochemisry, veterinary medicine as well as agricultural and horticulture techniques. PMID:22557624

  6. Financial dimensions of veterinary medical education: an economist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, James W

    2013-01-01

    Much discussion has transpired in recent years related to the rising cost of veterinary medical education and the increasing debt loads of graduating veterinarians. Underlying these trends are fundamental changes in the funding structure of higher education in general and of academic veterinary medicine specifically. As a result of the ongoing disinvestment by state governments in higher education, both tuition rates and academic programs have experienced a substantial impact across US colleges and schools of veterinary medicine. Programmatically, the effects have spanned the entire range of teaching, research, and service activities. For graduates, both across higher education and in veterinary medicine specifically, the impact has been steadily increasing levels of student debt. Although the situation is clearly worrisome, viable repayment options exist for these escalating debt loads. In combination with recent income and employment trends for veterinarians, these options provide a basis for cautious optimism for the future.

  7. Veterinary practice marketeer.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Justin

    2015-01-24

    Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care.

  8. Veterinary Medicine and Multi-Omics Research for Future Nutrition Targets: Metabolomics and Transcriptomics of the Common Degenerative Mitral Valve Disease in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinghong; Freeman, Lisa M; Rush, John E; Huggins, Gordon S; Kennedy, Adam D; Labuda, Jeffrey A; Laflamme, Dorothy P; Hannah, Steven S

    2015-08-01

    Canine degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) is the most common form of heart disease in dogs. The objective of this study was to identify cellular and metabolic pathways that play a role in DMVD by performing metabolomics and transcriptomics analyses on serum and tissue (mitral valve and left ventricle) samples previously collected from dogs with DMVD or healthy hearts. Gas or liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrophotometry were used to identify metabolites in serum. Transcriptomics analysis of tissue samples was completed using RNA-seq, and selected targets were confirmed by RT-qPCR. Random Forest analysis was used to classify the metabolites that best predicted the presence of DMVD. Results identified 41 known and 13 unknown serum metabolites that were significantly different between healthy and DMVD dogs, representing alterations in fat and glucose energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and other pathways. The three metabolites with the greatest single effect in the Random Forest analysis were γ-glutamylmethionine, oxidized glutathione, and asymmetric dimethylarginine. Transcriptomics analysis identified 812 differentially expressed transcripts in left ventricle samples and 263 in mitral valve samples, representing changes in energy metabolism, antioxidant function, nitric oxide signaling, and extracellular matrix homeostasis pathways. Many of the identified alterations may benefit from nutritional or medical management. Our study provides evidence of the growing importance of integrative approaches in multi-omics research in veterinary and nutritional sciences.

  9. Quantitative susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to antimicrobial agents licensed in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Wisselink, Henk J; Veldman, Kees T; Van den Eede, Chris; Salmon, Sarah A; Mevius, Dik J

    2006-03-10

    The susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains (n=384) isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined. For that purpose a microbroth dilution method was used according to CLSI recommendations. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: ceftiofur, cefquinome, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, tilmicosin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Using breakpoints established by CLSI for veterinary pathogens, all strains were susceptible to ceftiofur, florfenicol, enrofloxacin and penicillin. MIC-90 values of these antibiotics were < or = 0.03, 0.5, 2 and < or = 0.13 microg/mL, respectively. A low degree of resistance was observed for gentamicin (1.3%), spectinomycin (3.6%) and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (6.0%). MIC-90 values of these antibiotics were 8, 16 and 2 microg/mL, respectively. A high level of resistance was observed for tetracycline (75.1%). A MIC-90 value of 64 microg/mL was found for this antibiotic. Serotype-associated differences in MIC-90 values were observed for tetracycline, tilmicosin and trimethoprim/suphamethoxazole.

  10. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reexportation of the excluded food items specified in paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section, agricultural commodities that do not fall within the definition of food set forth in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section, food (as defined in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section) intended for military or law...

  11. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reexportation of the excluded food items specified in paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section, agricultural commodities that do not fall within the definition of food set forth in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section, food (as defined in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section) intended for military or law...

  12. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reexportation of the excluded food items specified in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section, agricultural commodities that do not fall within the definition of food set forth in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section, food (as defined in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section) intended for military or law...

  13. Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gigi

    2017-01-10

    The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to drug residues. As beneficial as compounded medical therapies may be to animal patients, these therapies are not without risks, and serious adverse events may occur from poor quality compounds or excipients that are uniquely toxic when administered to a given species. Other challenges in extemporaneous compounding for animals include significant regulatory variation across the global veterinary community, a relative lack of validated compounding formulas for use in animals, and poor adherence by compounders to established compounding standards. The information presented in this article is intended to provide an overview of the current landscape of compounding for animals; a discussion on associated benefits, risks, and challenges; and resources to aid compounders in preparing animal compounds of the highest possible quality.

  14. Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Gigi

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to drug residues. As beneficial as compounded medical therapies may be to animal patients, these therapies are not without risks, and serious adverse events may occur from poor quality compounds or excipients that are uniquely toxic when administered to a given species. Other challenges in extemporaneous compounding for animals include significant regulatory variation across the global veterinary community, a relative lack of validated compounding formulas for use in animals, and poor adherence by compounders to established compounding standards. The information presented in this article is intended to provide an overview of the current landscape of compounding for animals; a discussion on associated benefits, risks, and challenges; and resources to aid compounders in preparing animal compounds of the highest possible quality. PMID:28075379

  15. 78 FR 37202 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Food AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION... at the 21st Session of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods (CCRVDF) of the... for Veterinary Medicine, 7520 Standish Place, Rockville, MD 20855, Telephone: (240) 276-8214,...

  16. 75 FR 48928 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Food AGENCY: Office of the Acting Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA... (FDA), Center for Veterinary Medicine, are sponsoring a public meeting on August 16, 2010. The... Veterinary Drugs in Foods (CCRVDF), which will be held in Burlington, Vermont, from August 30-September...

  17. 77 FR 16806 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Food AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION... discussed at the 20th Session of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods (CCRVDF) of... Science & Policy, Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation, HFV-100, FDA, Center for Veterinary Medicine,...

  18. Microscope use in clinical veterinary practice and potential implications for veterinary school curricula.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Sherry M; Dowers, Kristy L; Cerda, Jacey R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy (skill of using a microscope) and the concepts of cytology (study of cells) and histology (study of tissues) are most often taught in professional veterinary medicine programs through the traditional method of glass slides and light microscopes. Several limiting factors in veterinary training programs are encouraging educators to explore innovative options for teaching microscopy skills and the concepts of cytology and histology. An anonymous online survey was administered through the Colorado Veterinary Medical Association to Colorado veterinarians working in private practice. It was designed to assess their current usage of microscopes for cytological and histological evaluation of specimens and their perceptions of microscope use in their veterinary education. The first part of the survey was answered by 183 veterinarians, with 104 indicating they had an onsite diagnostic lab. Analysis pertaining to the use of the microscope in practice and in veterinary programs was conducted on this subset. Most respondents felt the amount of time spent in the curriculum using a microscope was just right for basic microscope use and using the microscope for viewing and learning about normal and abnormal histological sections and clinical cytology. Participants felt more emphasis could be placed on clinical and diagnostic cytology. Study results suggest that practicing veterinarians frequently use microscopes for a wide variety of cytological diagnostics. However, only two respondents indicated they prepared samples for histological evaluation. Veterinary schools should consider these results against the backdrop of pressure to implement innovative teaching techniques to meet the changing needs of the profession.

  19. Nanofibers by green electrospinning of aqueous suspensions of biodegradable block copolyesters for applications in medicine, pharmacy and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinyuan; Bubel, Kathrin; Chen, Fei; Kissel, Thomas; Agarwal, Seema; Greiner, Andreas

    2010-12-01

    Poly(hexamethylene adipate)-PEO block copolymers (PHA-b-PEO) with different PEO contents were synthesized and processed to aqueous suspensions with high solid contents by a solvent displacement method followed by dialysis. The best suspension displayed a solid content of 16 wt.-% and an average particle size of 108 nm. This suspension was mixed with a small amount of high molecular weight PEO and Brij78 and electrospun into corresponding nanofibers. After extraction with water, nanofibers of PHA-b-PEO were obtained. Electrospinning of aqueous suspensions of biodegradable polyesters alleviates concerns regarding safety, toxicology and environmental problems, which are associated with spinning of such polyesters from harmful organic solvents and thereby offers novel perspectives for applications in medicine, pharmacy and agriculture. Electrospinning of polymers from aqueous suspensions avoiding harmful organic solvents is suggested to be "green electrospinning".

  20. The use of ciprofloxacin in veterinary proprietary products of enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Sumano, L H; Gomez, R B; Gracia, M I; Ruiz-Ramirez, L

    1994-10-01

    A 3-mo chemical surveillance of 5 proprietary products of enrofloxacin for veterinary use was carried out. In all, 50 samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Only the original brand of enrofloxacin (BAYTRIL) contained 5% of the drug while the 40 samples from the other 4 products contained 7.5% ciprofloxacin. A word of caution is given for the indiscriminate use of fluoroquinolones in veterinary medicine.

  1. Environmental economics reality check: a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project.

    PubMed

    Isla, Ana; Thompson, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project in the Arenal Conservation Area, Costa Rica. Microenterprise is the Sustainable Development and the Women in Development model for gender equity and environment of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and large non-government organizations, like the World Wildlife Fund-Canada. The authors of this paper argue that debt-for-nature investment in microenterprise and ecological economic models are not distinct from neoclassical economic and development models that created the environmental, social and cultural crises in the first place. This case study shows that the world market accommodates only one model of development: unsustainable export-oriented production based on flexible labour markets, low wages, indebtedness and low cost production. Working standards in those micro-enterprises are eroded due to many factors,including indebtedness. What happened at a national level in non-industrial countries with the international debt crisis is now mirrored in individual indebtedness through microenterprise. Is current development policy creating a new form of indentured servitude? Medicinal plants, prior to commodification, were a source of women's power and upon commodification in international development projects, are the source of their exploitation.

  2. Genetic diversity and distribution of rhizobia associated with the medicinal legumes Astragalus spp. and Hedysarum polybotrys in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Ji, Zhao Jun; Jiao, Yin Shan; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Feng; Guo, Bao Lin; Chen, Wen Xin

    2016-03-01

    With the increasing cultivation of medicinal legumes in agricultural fields, the rhizobia associated with these plants are facing new stresses, mainly from fertilization and irrigation. In this study, investigations on the nodulation of three cultivated medicinal legumes, Astragalus mongholicus, Astragalus membranaceus and Hedysarum polybotrys were performed. Bacterial isolates from root nodules of these legumes were subjected to genetic diversity and multilocus sequence analyses. In addition, the distribution of nodule bacteria related to soil factors and host plants was studied. A total 367 bacterial isolates were obtained and 13 genospecies were identified. The predominant microsymbionts were identified as Mesorhizobium septentrionale, Mesorhizobium temperatum, Mesorhizobium tianshanense, Mesorhizobium ciceri and Mesorhizobium muleiense. M. septentrionale was found in most root nodules especially from legumes grown in the barren soils (with low available nitrogen and low organic carbon contents), while M. temperatum was predominant in nodules where the plants were grown in the nitrogen-rich fields. A. mongholicus tended to be associated with M. septentrionale, M. temperatum and M. ciceri in different soils, while A. membranaceus and H. polybotrys tended to be associated with M. tianshanense and M. septentrionale, respectively. This study showed that soil fertility may be the main determinant for the distribution of rhizobia associated with these cultured legume plants.

  3. Veterinary Students' Perspectives on Resilience and Resilience-Building Strategies.

    PubMed

    Moffett, Jenny E; Bartram, David J

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, resilience has been lauded as a valuable, even necessary, facet of an effective veterinary practitioner. This study describes a mixed-methods research exploration of the impact of a self-care and mental well-being teaching intervention on the self-reported resilience of 105 first-year veterinary students enrolled at the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Surrey, UK. Quantitative data were obtained through a questionnaire, the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), which students completed before and after the teaching intervention. The median total score on the scale increased from 27 (IQR=25-30) to 29 (IQR=26-32) (p<.001), a medium effect size (r=-0.28). Student focus groups were held to allow qualitative data analysis of the students' perspectives on the teaching intervention and on the topic of resilience in general. The results of this study suggest that appropriate training in resilience-building strategies can help veterinary students build greater awareness of resilience, and potentially support their development of a more resilient approach in their personal and professional lives. In this study, veterinary students felt that resilience training was a valuable addition to the veterinary curriculum, and that resilience likely plays an important role in achieving a successful veterinary career. The study also suggested that veterinary students utilize a variety of different resilience-building strategies, including drawing on past experiences, seeking help from support networks, and developing an ability to change their perspectives.

  4. Nectar yeasts of the Metschnikowia clade are highly susceptible to azole antifungals widely used in medicine and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; de Vega, Clara; Pozo, María I; Lenaerts, Marijke; Van Assche, Ado; Herrera, Carlos M; Jacquemyn, Hans; Lievens, Bart

    2016-02-01

    The widespread use of azole antifungals in medicine and agriculture and the resulting long-persistent residues could potentially affect beneficial fungi. However, there is very little information on the tolerance of non-target environmental fungi to azoles. In this study, we assessed the susceptibility of diverse plant- and insect-associated yeasts from the Metschnikowia clade, including several ecologically important species, to widely used medical and agricultural azoles (epoxiconazole, imazalil, ketoconazole and voriconazole). A total of 120 strains from six species were tested. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the EUCAST broth microdilution procedure after some necessary modifications were made. The majority of species tested were highly susceptible to epoxiconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole (>95% of strains showed MICs ≤ 0.125 mg l(-1)). Most strains were also very susceptible to imazalil, although MIC values were generally higher than for the other azoles. Furthermore, certain Metschnikowia reukaufii strains displayed a 'trailing' phenotype (i.e. showed reduced but persistent growth at antifungal concentrations above the MIC), but this characteristic was dependent on test conditions. It was concluded that exposure to azoles may pose a risk for ecologically relevant yeasts from the Metschnikowia clade, and thus could potentially impinge on the tripartite interaction linking these fungi with plants and their insect pollinators.

  5. Teaching veterinary parasitology.

    PubMed

    Verster, A

    1994-08-01

    The history of parasitology and the teaching of veterinary parasitology in South Africa are reviewed briefly. Courses in veterinary parasitology are presented at the faculties of veterinary science at the University of Pretoria and the Medical University of South Africa as well as at the Pretoria Technicon. At the University of Pretoria, the three disciplines of veterinary parasitology, entomology, helminthology and protozoology, are covered in 330 core lectures; from 13 to 40% of the contact time is devoted to practical classes. Teaching veterinary parasitology is both labour intensive and costly, viz. R1700 (US$570) per student per annum. Such costs are justified by the R148.8 million (US$49.6 million) spent every year in South Africa on anthelmintics, ectoparasiticides and vaccines to control parasites. Veterinary parasitology is a dynamic subject and the curriculum must be revised regularly to incorporate new information. Because the parasite faunas are so diverse no single textbook can satisfy the requirements of the various institutions worldwide which teach the subject, with the result that extensive use is made of notes. In Australia and in Europe, ticks and tick-borne diseases are less important than they are in Africa; consequently insufficient space is devoted to them in textbooks to satisfy the requirements of the subject in African countries. Parasite control under extensive and intensive conditions is dealt with adequately at the University of Pretoria, but increasing emphasis will be given to small-scale farming systems, particularly if alternative food animals are to be kept.

  6. Estimating product bioequivalence for highly variable veterinary drugs.

    PubMed

    Claxton, R; Cook, J; Endrenyi, L; Lucas, A; Martinez, M N; Sutton, S C

    2012-04-01

    The occurrence of drugs and drug formulations associated with large intrasubject pharmacokinetic (PK) variability has been well described in humans and is likewise encountered in veterinary medicine. The scaled average bioequivalence (SABE) approach adopted by CDER of the FDA for the determination of bioequivalence (BE) of highly variable drugs (HVD) needs to be considered when applied to veterinary dosage forms. However, because of some of the unique challenges that are encountered within the framework of veterinary medicine, variations of CDER's approach are presented. The present manuscript discusses HVD and highly variable veterinary drugs (HVVD) from the perspective of possible alternative approaches to support the assessment of product BE in veterinary medicine. Limitations in the use of 3- and 4-way crossover study designs are enumerated. In addition to a need for a statistical analysis of HVVD when using a parallel study design, the use of the secondary criteria (test-to-reference ratio), definition of σ(0) , and average BE with expanding limits are raised. A number of the details need to be finalized, from the selection of a regulatory constant to the determination of 'highly variable' in a veterinary drug product. Academicians, industrial scientists, and regulators should continue this discussion and resolve these details.

  7. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  8. A survey of reading, writing, and oral communication skills in North American veterinary medical colleges.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, C M; Thompson, I K; Mann, C J

    2001-01-01

    In the 1989 report by the Pew National Veterinary Education Program (PNVEP), communication skills topped the list of characteristics the veterinary graduate should possess in order to function effectively in the twenty-first century. To determine the reading, writing, and oral communication requirements and opportunities in veterinary curricula in the US and Canada, and to determine the perceived communication tasks that might be commonly required of practicing veterinarians in the next century, we sent a 15-item communications skills questionnaire to the academic deans of the 31 veterinary curricula in the US and Canada. The results reinforce the importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine, as detailed by the PNVEP over 10 years ago. Based on the responses to our questionnaire and on our own experiences with veterinary medical students, we make several recommendations to enhance communication instruction in veterinary medical curricula.

  9. Zoonotic disease risk perceptions in the British veterinary profession.

    PubMed

    Robin, Charlotte; Bettridge, Judy; McMaster, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    In human and veterinary medicine, reducing the risk of occupationally-acquired infections relies on effective infection prevention and control practices (IPCs). In veterinary medicine, zoonoses present a risk to practitioners, yet little is known about how these risks are understood and how this translates into health protective behaviour. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions within the British veterinary profession and identify motivators and barriers to compliance with IPCs. A cross-sectional study was conducted using veterinary practices registered with the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Here we demonstrate that compliance with IPCs is influenced by more than just knowledge and experience, and understanding of risk is complex and multifactorial. Out of 252 respondents, the majority were not concerned about the risk of zoonoses (57.5%); however, a considerable proportion (34.9%) was. Overall, 44.0% of respondents reported contracting a confirmed or suspected zoonoses, most frequently dermatophytosis (58.6%). In veterinary professionals who had previous experience of managing zoonotic cases, time or financial constraints and a concern for adverse animal reactions were not perceived as barriers to use of personal protective equipment (PPE). For those working in large animal practice, the most significant motivator for using PPE was concerns over liability. When assessing responses to a range of different "infection control attitudes", veterinary nurses tended to have a more positive perspective, compared with veterinary surgeons. Our results demonstrate that IPCs are not always adhered to, and factors influencing motivators and barriers to compliance are not simply based on knowledge and experience. Educating veterinary professionals may help improve compliance to a certain extent, however increased knowledge does not necessarily equate to an increase in risk-mitigating behaviour. This highlights that the construction of risk is complex and

  10. The history of veterinary cardiology.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, James W

    2013-03-01

    Throughout civilization, animals have played a pivotal role in the advancement of science and medicine. From as early as 400 BC when Hippocrates recognized that diseases had natural causes, the steadfast advances made by biologists, scientists, physicians and scholars were fueled by timely and important facts and information- much of it gained through animal observations that contributed importantly to understanding anatomy, physiology, and pathology. There have been many breakthroughs and historic developments. For example, William Harvey in the 16th and 17th centuries clarified the importance of the circulatory system, aided by observations in dogs and pigs, which helped to clarify and confirm his concepts. The nineteenth century witnessed advances in physical examination techniques including auscultation and percussion. These helped create the basis for enhanced proficiency in clinical cardiology. An explosion of technologic advances that followed in the 20th century have made possible sophisticated, accurate, and non-invasive diagnostics. This permitted rapid patient assessment, effective monitoring, the development of new cardiotonic drugs, clinical trials to assess efficacy, and multi-therapy strategies. The latter 20th century has marshaled a dizzying array of advances in medical genetics and molecular science, expanding the frontiers of etiologies and disease mechanisms in man, with important implications for animal health. Veterinary medicine has evolved during the last half century, from a trade designed to serve agrarian cultures, to a diverse profession supporting an array of career opportunities ranging from private, specialty practice, to highly organized, specialized medicine and subspecialty academic training programs in cardiology and allied disciplines.

  11. Compounding of Veterinary Drugs for Equine Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Scott D; Moffitt, Krysta; Wiebe, Valerie

    2017-04-01

    Equine practitioners should follow these recommendations when using compounded medications: (1) the decision must be veterinary driven, based on a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship and on evidence-based medicine; (2) compliance with the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994; and (3) use limited to (a) horses for which no other method or route of drug delivery is practical; (b) those drugs for which safety, efficacy, and stability have been demonstrated; or (c) disease conditions for which a quantifiable response to therapy or drug concentration can be monitored.

  12. Veterinary and human anaesthesia: an overview of some parallels and contrasts.

    PubMed

    Carter, J; Story, D A

    2013-11-01

    The history of human and veterinary anaesthesia is both intertwined and parallel. Physicians and anaesthetists often first experimented on animals and developments from human anaesthesia have been incorporated into veterinary medicine. Within veterinary medicine, anaesthesia is a specialty discipline as it is in human medicine. Veterinary anaesthetists undertake additional training and rigorous examinations for a diploma or fellowship. In contrast to human anaesthesia in Australia and New Zealand, veterinary anaesthesia is often performed by non-specialists and by veterinary nurses. Veterinary anaesthesia uses many of the same drugs for premedication, induction and maintenance of anaesthesia as human anaesthesia. However, there are species specific effects of some of the drugs used that differ from the effects in humans. Furthermore, some agents, particularly alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists and ketamine, are used very widely in veterinary practice. Also in contrast to most human anaesthesia, in large animal and exotic animal practice the patients can present a physical danger to the anaesthetist. The most notable contrast between human and veterinary anaesthesia is in the reported perioperative complication and mortality rates, with a species dependent perianaesthetic mortality of up to 2% in dogs, cats and horses and greater than 2% in guinea pigs and birds, which is up to 100-fold higher than in human anaesthesia.

  13. Optimizing biomedical science learning in a veterinary curriculum: a review.

    PubMed

    Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.

  14. Veterinary drugs in the environment and their toxicity to plants.

    PubMed

    Bártíková, Hana; Podlipná, Radka; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-02-01

    Veterinary drugs used for treatment and prevention of diseases in animals represent important source of environmental pollution due to intensive agri- and aquaculture production. The drugs can reach environment through the treatment processes, inappropriate disposal of used containers, unused medicine or livestock feed, and manufacturing processes. Wide scale of veterinary pharmaceuticals e.g. antibiotics, antiparasitic and antifungal drugs, hormones, anti-inflammatory drugs, anaesthetics, sedatives etc. enter the environment and may affect non-target organisms including plants. This review characterizes the commonly used drugs in veterinary practice, outlines their behaviour in the environment and summarizes available information about their toxic effect on plants. Significant influence of many antibiotics and hormones on plant developmental and physiological processes have been proved. However, potential phytotoxicity of other veterinary drugs has been studied rarely, although knowledge of phytotoxicity of veterinary drugs may help predict their influence on biodiversity and improve phytoremediation strategies. Moreover, additional topics such as long term effect of low doses of drugs and their metabolites, behaviour of mixture of veterinary drugs and other chemicals in ecosystems should be more thoroughly investigated to obtain complex information on the impact of veterinary drugs in the environment.

  15. A review of bioinformatics training applied to research in molecular medicine, agriculture and biodiversity in Costa Rica and Central America.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Allan; Morera, Jessica; Jiménez, Sergio; Boza, Ricardo

    2013-09-01

    Today, Bioinformatics has become a scientific discipline with great relevance for the Molecular Biosciences and for the Omics sciences in general. Although developed countries have progressed with large strides in Bioinformatics education and research, in other regions, such as Central America, the advances have occurred in a gradual way and with little support from the Academia, either at the undergraduate or graduate level. To address this problem, the University of Costa Rica's Medical School, a regional leader in Bioinformatics in Central America, has been conducting a series of Bioinformatics workshops, seminars and courses, leading to the creation of the region's first Bioinformatics Master's Degree. The recent creation of the Central American Bioinformatics Network (BioCANET), associated to the deployment of a supporting computational infrastructure (HPC Cluster) devoted to provide computing support for Molecular Biology in the region, is providing a foundational stone for the development of Bioinformatics in the area. Central American bioinformaticians have participated in the creation of as well as co-founded the Iberoamerican Bioinformatics Society (SOIBIO). In this article, we review the most recent activities in education and research in Bioinformatics from several regional institutions. These activities have resulted in further advances for Molecular Medicine, Agriculture and Biodiversity research in Costa Rica and the rest of the Central American countries. Finally, we provide summary information on the first Central America Bioinformatics International Congress, as well as the creation of the first Bioinformatics company (Indromics Bioinformatics), spin-off the Academy in Central America and the Caribbean.

  16. Limiting and facilitating access to innovations in medicine and agriculture: a brief exposition of the ethical arguments.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Cristian

    2014-12-01

    Taking people's longevity as a measure of good life, humankind can proudly say that the average person is living a much longer life than ever before. The AIDS epidemic has however for the first time in decades stalled and in some cases even reverted this trend in a number of countries. Climate change is increasingly becoming a major challenge for food security and we can anticipate that hunger caused by crop damages will become much more common.Since many of the challenges humanity faced in the past were overcome by inventive solutions coming from the life sciences, we are compelled to reconsider how we incentivize science and technology development so that those in need can benefit more broadly from scientific research. There is a huge portion of the world population that is in urgent need for medicines to combat diseases that are currently neglected by the scientific community and could immensely benefit from agricultural research that specifically targets their environmental conditions. At the same time efforts have to be made to make the fruits of current and future research more widely accessible. These changes would have to be backed by a range of moral arguments to attract people with diverging notions of global justice. This article explores the main ethical theories used to demand a greater share in the benefits from scientific progress for the poor. Since life sciences bring about a number of special concerns, a short list of conflictive issues is also offered.

  17. Recommended guidelines for the conduct and evaluation of prognostic studies in veterinary oncology.

    PubMed

    Webster, J D; Dennis, M M; Dervisis, N; Heller, J; Bacon, N J; Bergman, P J; Bienzle, D; Cassali, G; Castagnaro, M; Cullen, J; Esplin, D G; Peña, L; Goldschmidt, M H; Hahn, K A; Henry, C J; Hellmén, E; Kamstock, D; Kirpensteijn, J; Kitchell, B E; Amorim, R L; Lenz, S D; Lipscomb, T P; McEntee, M; McGill, L D; McKnight, C A; McManus, P M; Moore, A S; Moore, P F; Moroff, S D; Nakayama, H; Northrup, N C; Sarli, G; Scase, T; Sorenmo, K; Schulman, F Y; Shoieb, A M; Smedley, R C; Spangler, W L; Teske, E; Thamm, D H; Valli, V E; Vernau, W; von Euler, H; Withrow, S J; Weisbrode, S E; Yager, J; Kiupel, M

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for more accurate prognostic and predictive markers in veterinary oncology because of an increasing number of treatment options, the increased financial costs associated with treatment, and the emotional stress experienced by owners in association with the disease and its treatment. Numerous studies have evaluated potential prognostic and predictive markers for veterinary neoplastic diseases, but there are no established guidelines or standards for the conduct and reporting of prognostic studies in veterinary medicine. This lack of standardization has made the evaluation and comparison of studies difficult. Most important, translating these results to clinical applications is problematic. To address this issue, the American College of Veterinary Pathologists' Oncology Committee organized an initiative to establish guidelines for the conduct and reporting of prognostic studies in veterinary oncology. The goal of this initiative is to increase the quality and standardization of veterinary prognostic studies to facilitate independent evaluation, validation, comparison, and implementation of study results. This article represents a consensus statement on the conduct and reporting of prognostic studies in veterinary oncology from veterinary pathologists and oncologists from around the world. These guidelines should be considered a recommendation based on the current state of knowledge in the field, and they will need to be continually reevaluated and revised as the field of veterinary oncology continues to progress. As mentioned, these guidelines were developed through an initiative of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists' Oncology Committee, and they have been reviewed and endorsed by the World Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. ABSTRACTS FROM EAST EUROPEAN SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL JOURNALS NO. 163 (BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE SERIES).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ABSTRACTS, BIBLIOGRAPHIES, *BIOLOGY, *MEDICINE, PARASITES, TOXOPLASMA , ANIMALS, PATHOLOGY, DISEASES, PHYSIOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY, DRUGS, BIOCHEMISTRY, PSYCHIATRY, NEUROLOGY, CANCER, INFANTS, CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, VETERINARY MEDICINE

  19. A Comprehensive Wellness Program for Veterinary Medical Education: Design and Implementation at North Carolina State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Kenneth; Flammer, Keven; Borst, Luke; Huckle, Jeffrey; Barter, Hillary; Neel, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Research in veterinary medical education has illustrated the challenges students face with respect to mental and emotional wellness, lack of attention to physical health, and limited opportunities to meaningfully engage with persons from different backgrounds. In response, the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine has…

  20. 77 FR 15033 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Veterinary Services User Fee System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Veterinary Services User..., as amended. The system of records being proposed is the APHIS Veterinary Services User Fee System... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is proposing to add a new system of records, entitled APHIS...

  1. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  2. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  3. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  4. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  5. WAAVP/Pfizer award for excellence in teaching veterinary parasitology: teaching of veterinary parasitology--quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Eckert, J

    2000-02-29

    Some thoughts on training and recruitment of academic teachers and future trends in teaching veterinary parasitology are presented with emphasis on the European situation. It is underlined that research is an indispensable basis for academic teaching. Besides a broad scientific background of the teacher, motivation and teaching methods are also important. Many academic teachers do not receive formal training in teaching methods. In order to improve future education, training of staff members in teaching methods should be promoted. Quality control of teaching and research, already established in many schools, should generally be introduced. Teaching is mostly underestimated in relation to research. Therefore, more weight should be placed on the former both in selecting scientists for the career as academic teachers and in evaluating and ranking departments for their academic activities. In the future veterinary medicine will have to cope with profound changes in the society and the veterinary profession, and the progressing European unification will enhance trends for internationalizing teaching curricula. Therefore, veterinary medicine has to reconsider the teaching subjects and methods and to lay more emphasis on flexibility, skills of problem-solving and self-learning and on training for life-long learning. At present there is an ongoing discussion on the question how to teach veterinary medicine, including veterinary parasitology. There are various options, and some of them are discussed, namely, the disciplinary and the problem-based/organ-focussed approaches. It is concluded that for teaching of veterinary parasitology and related disciplines a combined disciplinary and problem-based approach offers the best chances for fulfilling the requirements of teaching for the future. In the curriculum of undergraduate teaching of veterinary medicine at least 70-90 h should be dedicated to veterinary parasitology using a disciplinary and taxonomic approach. Additional

  6. Rinderpest: the veterinary perspective on eradication

    PubMed Central

    Roeder, Peter; Mariner, Jeffrey; Kock, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Rinderpest was a devastating disease of livestock responsible for continent-wide famine and poverty. Centuries of veterinary advances culminated in 2011 with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health declaring global eradication of rinderpest; only the second disease to be eradicated and the greatest veterinary achievement of our time. Conventional control measures, principally mass vaccination combined with zoosanitary procedures, led to substantial declines in the incidence of rinderpest. However, during the past decades, innovative strategies were deployed for the last mile to overcome diagnostic and surveillance challenges, unanticipated variations in virus pathogenicity, circulation of disease in wildlife populations and to service remote and nomadic communities in often-unstable states. This review provides an overview of these challenges, describes how they were overcome and identifies key factors for this success. PMID:23798687

  7. Antimicrobial potential of bacteriocins: in therapy, agriculture and food preservation.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Varish; Khan, Mohd Sajid; Jamal, Qazi Mohammad Sajid; Alzohairy, Mohammad A; Al Karaawi, Mohammad A; Siddiqui, Mughees Uddin

    2017-01-01

    Due to the appearance of antibiotic resistance and the toxicity associated with currently used antibiotics, peptide antibiotics are the need of the hour. Thus, demand for new antimicrobial agents has brought great interest in new technologies to enhance safety. One such antimicrobial molecule is bacteriocin, synthesised by various micro-organisms. Bacteriocins are widely used in agriculture, veterinary medicine as a therapeutic, and as a food preservative agent to control various infectious and food-borne pathogens. In this review, we highlight the potential therapeutic and food preservative applications of bacteriocin.

  8. Teaching non-technical (professional) competence in a veterinary school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Burns, Gilbert A; Ruby, Kathleen L; Debowes, Richard M; Seaman, Susan J; Brannan, Julia K

    2006-01-01

    Data from focused studies and comprehensive surveys suggest that developing or enhancing non-technical (professional) skills will result in a more satisfied and successful veterinary student or veterinary graduate. The College of Veterinary Medicine at Washington State University has devoted considerable time, effort, and resources to augmenting the non-technical aspects of its curriculum while maintaining the traditional strengths of its DVM program. Here we summarize pertinent research and best-practice recommendations from a variety of sources and outline the steps that have been taken, with the underlying rationales, to integrate the teaching and modeling of non-technical (professional) competence throughout a four-year course of veterinary study.

  9. Disposal of Unused Medicines: What You Should Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers ( ... Medicine Safe Disposal of Medicines Disposal of Unused Medicines: What You Should Know Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  10. Recent Developments in Liposome-Based Veterinary Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in nanomedicine have been studied in the veterinary field and have found a wide variety of applications. The past decade has witnessed a massive surge of research interest in liposomes for delivery of therapeutic substances in animals. Liposomes are nanosized phospholipid vesicles that can serve as delivery platforms for a wide range of substances. Liposomes are easily formulated, highly modifiable, and easily administered delivery platforms. They are biodegradable and nontoxic and have long in vivo circulation time. This review focuses on recent and ongoing research that may have relevance for veterinary medicine. By examining the recent developments in liposome-based therapeutics in animal cancers, vaccines, and analgesia, this review depicts the current significance and future directions of liposome-based delivery in veterinary medicine. PMID:24222862

  11. Mammary Stem Cell Research in Veterinary Science: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Borena, Bizunesh M.; Bussche, Leen; Burvenich, Christian; Duchateau, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The mammary gland is an organ with a remarkable regenerative capacity that can undergo multiple cycles of proliferation, lactation, and involution. Growing evidence suggests that these changes are driven by the coordinated division and differentiation of mammary stem cell populations (MaSC). Whereas information regarding MaSC and their role in comparative mammary gland physiology is readily available in human and mice, such information remains scarce in most veterinary mammal species such as cows, horses, sheep, goats, pigs, and dogs. We believe that a better knowledge on the MaSC in these species will not only help to gain more insights into mammary gland (patho) physiology in veterinary medicine, but will also be of value for human medicine. Therefore, this review summarizes the current knowledge on stem cell isolation and characterization in different mammals of veterinary importance. PMID:23360296

  12. Agriculture, physiology and medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Rattazzi, M.C.; Scandalios, J.G.; Whitt, G.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 15 papers. Some of the titles are: Genetics, Expression, and Modification in the Human Alkaline Phosphatases; Sensitive Techniques for the Detection of Genetic Variation in Human Isozymes; The Effect of Heavy Metals on Isozyme Gene Expression in Silen cucubalus; and Plant Genetic Resources: Prediction by Isozyme Markers and Ecology.

  13. Veterinary Medicine Mobility Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Moran, Jerry [R-KS

    2013-05-14

    05/14/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.1528, which became Public Law 113-143 on 8/1/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Nutrition and skin diseases in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Veterinarians are confronted with a variety of food and nutrition-related skin diseases, with cutaneous food adverse reaction the most common in small animal dermatology. In addition to canine atopic dermatitis, cutaneous food adverse reaction has been an area of interest for extensive research for the last decade. Nutritional deficiencies and toxicoses are rare these days due to commercially available high-quality diets; however, poorly stored diets, inadequate husbandry of exotic pets, or problems in a farm animal environment may result in zinc, vitamin A, vitamin C, and fatty acid, or copper deficiency. Inherited deficiencies due to abnormal zinc absorption through the gastrointestinal tract must be considered in Nordic breed dogs and goats.

  15. Knowledge and Curriculum in Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Although medical curricula are perceived as scientifically based, much discipline-based material is used as procedural knowledge. Educators must ensure that students have both enough certainty to be effective diagnosticians and enough doubt to question assumptions about the nature of scientific knowledge. (Contains 60 references.) (SK)

  16. Increasing the number of trained health and safety professionals in agricultural medicine: evaluation of the "building capacity" program, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Rudolphi, Josie M; Donham, Kelley J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The University of Iowa began training health care professionals to care for farmers' occupational health needs since 1974. In order to geographically expand this training to practicing health and safety professionals, the "Building Capacity: A National Resource of Agricultural Medicine Professionals" program was developed and launched in 2006. The model began in 1987 as a program of Iowa's Center for Agricultural Safety and Health. In 2006, with funding from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health (GPCAH), the program was expanded beyond the Iowa borders. The principal component of the program, the 40-hour course, Agricultural Medicine: Occupational and Environmental Health for Rural Health Professionals-the Core Course (AMCC) is now being offered to health and safety professionals in nine states in the United States, in Australia, and a modified version presented in Turkey. An initial paper evaluated the first phase of the program, years 2007-2010. This paper compares the first phase (2007-2010) with the second phase (2011-2013), which has involved over 500 health and safety professionals. This paper also describes evaluation of the course and changes resulting from the evaluation. Finally, this paper describes best practices for operating this program and makes recommendations for future courses, as well as other trainings within the field.

  17. 75 FR 52505 - Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary Diagnostic Services, and Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary... plasm, organisms, and vectors; for certain veterinary diagnostic services; and for export certification... information on Veterinary Diagnostic program operations, contact Dr. Elizabeth Lautner, Director,...

  18. Computer-Assisted Management of Instruction in Veterinary Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Elsbeth; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Reviews a course in Food Hygiene and Public Health at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine in which students are sequenced through a series of computer-based lessons or autotutorial slide-tape lessons, the computer also being used to route, test, and keep records. Since grades indicated mastery of the subject, the course will…

  19. Cell-Based Veterinary Pharmaceuticals - Basic Legal Parameters Set by the Veterinary Pharmaceutical Law and the Genetic Engineering Law of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Faltus, Timo; Brehm, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based therapies have been in use in veterinary medicine for years. However, the legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are not as well developed as the respective requirements of chemical pharmaceuticals. Cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are medicinal products in the sense of the pharmaceutical law of the European Union (EU). For that reason, such medicinal products principally require official approval for their manufacture and an official marketing authorization for their placement on the market before being used by the veterinarian. The manufacture, placing on the market, and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals without manufacturing approval and marketing authorization is permitted only in certain exceptional cases determined by EU and individual Member State law. Violations of this requirement may have consequences for the respective veterinarian under criminal law and under the code of professional conduct in the respective Member State. The regular use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the scope of a therapeutic emergency as well as the import of such veterinary pharmaceuticals from non-European countries for use in the EU are currently out of the question in the EU because of a lack of legal bases. Here, we review the general legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market, and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the EU and point out different implementations of EU law within the different Member States.

  20. Cell-Based Veterinary Pharmaceuticals – Basic Legal Parameters Set by the Veterinary Pharmaceutical Law and the Genetic Engineering Law of the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Faltus, Timo; Brehm, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based therapies have been in use in veterinary medicine for years. However, the legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are not as well developed as the respective requirements of chemical pharmaceuticals. Cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are medicinal products in the sense of the pharmaceutical law of the European Union (EU). For that reason, such medicinal products principally require official approval for their manufacture and an official marketing authorization for their placement on the market before being used by the veterinarian. The manufacture, placing on the market, and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals without manufacturing approval and marketing authorization is permitted only in certain exceptional cases determined by EU and individual Member State law. Violations of this requirement may have consequences for the respective veterinarian under criminal law and under the code of professional conduct in the respective Member State. The regular use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the scope of a therapeutic emergency as well as the import of such veterinary pharmaceuticals from non-European countries for use in the EU are currently out of the question in the EU because of a lack of legal bases. Here, we review the general legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market, and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the EU and point out different implementations of EU law within the different Member States. PMID:27965965