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Sample records for agriliance international nis

  1. Landing surface color preferences of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...

  2. Evaluating a new method for monitoring the field establishment and parasitism of Oobius agrili, an egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius agrili is a solitary egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and can be responsible for 50-60% of EAB egg mortality in its native range. O. agrili has been released for biological control of EAB in the US since 2007; however, current methods to monitor its establishme...

  3. Physics and Applications of NIS Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Ullom, J N

    2001-08-24

    This paper reviews the physics and applications of Normal-Insulator-Superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions. The current-voltage properties of NIS junctions are diode-like with a strong temperature dependence. Hence, these structures can be used as sensitive thermometers at temperatures well below the energy gap, {Delta}, of the superconducting electrode. For junction voltages comparable to {Delta}/q, current flow removes energy from the normal electrode. This property has been exploited to build refrigerators capable of cooling thin-film circuits from 0.3 K to 0.1 K. Calorimeters and bolometers for the detection of X-rays and millimeter-wave radiation, respectively, have successfully been built from NIS junctions. NIS junctions have also been used to probe the superconducting state. Finally, recent ideas for the use of NIS junctions as simple circuit elements are described.

  4. Multiparasitism by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera:Braconidae): Implication for biological control of the Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecific competition among different species of insect parasitoids may affect the establishment or efficacies of these species in biological control of targeted pests. The endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang and the ectoparasitoid Spathius agrili Yang, two gregarious larval parasito...

  5. Distinct contributions of the nisin biosynthesis enzymes NisB and NisC and transporter NisT to prenisin production by Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    van den Berg van Saparoea, H Bart; Bakkes, Patrick J; Moll, Gert N; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2008-09-01

    Several Lactococcus lactis strains produce the lantibiotic nisin. The dedicated enzymes NisB and NisC and the transporter NisT modify and secrete the ribosomally synthesized nisin precursor peptide. NisB can function in the absence of the cyclase NisC, yielding the dehydrated prenisin that lacks the thioether rings. A kinetic analysis of nisin production by L. lactis NZ9700 demonstrated that the prenisin was released from the cell into the medium before the processing of the leader sequence occurred. Upon the deletion of nisC, the production of prenisin was reduced by 70%, while in the absence of nisB, the production of prenisin was nearly completely abolished. In cells lacking nisT, no secretion was observed, while the expression of nisABC in these cells resulted in considerable growth rate inhibition caused by the intracellular accumulation of active nisin. Overall, these data indicate that the efficiency of prenisin transport by NisT is markedly enhanced by NisB, suggesting a channeling mechanism of prenisin transfer between the nisin modification enzymes and the transporter.

  6. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the reproductive biology and diapause of oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...

  7. Attraction of spathius agrili yang (Hymenoptera: eulophidae) to male-produced "aggregation-sex pheromone:" differences between the sexes and mating status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male and female Spathius agrili Yang were tested for attraction to the synthetic male pheromone. Lures consisting of a 3-component pheromone blend were placed in the center of a white filter paper target used to activate upwind flight in the wind tunnel. When virgin males and females were tested for...

  8. Male-produced pheromone of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid introduced for the biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The braconid, Spathius agrili, has been released in the U.S. as a biocontrol agent for the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a very destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). We have identified and synthesized seven male-produced compounds. A flight tunnel bioassay identified t...

  9. The Na+/I− Symporter (NIS): Mechanism and Medical Impact

    PubMed Central

    Portulano, Carla; Paroder-Belenitsky, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The Na+/I− symporter (NIS) is the plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates active I− transport in the thyroid and other tissues, such as salivary glands, stomach, lactating breast, and small intestine. In the thyroid, NIS-mediated I− uptake plays a key role as the first step in the biosynthesis of the thyroid hormones, of which iodine is an essential constituent. These hormones are crucial for the development of the central nervous system and the lungs in the fetus and the newborn and for intermediary metabolism at all ages. Since the cloning of NIS in 1996, NIS research has become a major field of inquiry, with considerable impact on many basic and translational areas. In this article, we review the most recent findings on NIS, I− homeostasis, and related topics and place them in historical context. Among many other issues, we discuss the current outlook on iodide deficiency disorders, the present stage of understanding of the structure/function properties of NIS, information gleaned from the characterization of I− transport deficiency-causing NIS mutations, insights derived from the newly reported crystal structures of prokaryotic transporters and 3-dimensional homology modeling, and the novel discovery that NIS transports different substrates with different stoichiometries. A review of NIS regulatory mechanisms is provided, including a newly discovered one involving a K+ channel that is required for NIS function in the thyroid. We also cover current and potential clinical applications of NIS, such as its central role in the treatment of thyroid cancer, its promising use as a reporter gene in imaging and diagnostic procedures, and the latest studies on NIS gene transfer aimed at extending radioiodide treatment to extrathyroidal cancers, including those involving specially engineered NIS molecules. PMID:24311738

  10. Identification of distinct nisin leader peptide regions that determine interactions with the modification enzymes NisB and NisC.

    PubMed

    Khusainov, Rustem; Moll, Gert N; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2013-01-01

    Nisin is the most prominent and applied bacteriocin that serves as a model for class I lantibiotics. The nisin leader peptide importantly determines interactions between precursor nisin and its modification enzymes NisB and NisC that mature nisin posttranslationally. NisB dehydrates serines and threonines, while NisC catalyzes the subsequent coupling of the formed dehydroamino acids to form lanthionines. Currently, little is known about how the nisin leader interacts with NisB and even less is known about its interactions with NisC. To investigate the nisin leader peptide requirements for functional interaction with the modification enzymes NisB and NisC, we systematically replaced six regions, of 2-4 amino acids each, with all-alanine regions. By performing NisB and NisC co-purification studies with these mutant leader peptides, we demonstrate that the nisin leader regions STKD(-22-19), FNLD(-18-15) and PR(-2-1) importantly contribute to the interactions of precursor nisin with both NisB and NisC, whereas the nisin leader region LVSV(-14-11) additionally contributes to the interaction of precursor nisin with NisC.

  11. System for NIS Forecasting Based on Ensembles Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-02

    BMA-NIS is a package/library designed to be called by a script (e.g. Perl or Python). The software itself is written in the language of R. The software assists electric power delivery systems in planning resource availability and demand, based on historical data and current data variables. Net Interchange Schedule (NIS) is the algebraic sum of all energy scheduled to flow into or out of a balancing area during any interval. Accurate forecasts for NIS are important so that the Area Control Error (ACE) stays within an acceptable limit. To date, there are many approaches for forecasting NIS but all none of these are based on single models that can be sensitive to time of day and day of week effects.

  12. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS): regulation and approaches to targeting for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kogai, Takahiko; Brent, Gregory A

    2012-09-01

    Expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is required for efficient iodide uptake in thyroid and lactating breast. Since most differentiated thyroid cancer expresses NIS, β-emitting radioactive iodide is routinely utilized to target remnant thyroid cancer and metastasis after total thyroidectomy. Stimulation of NIS expression by high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone is necessary to achieve radioiodide uptake into thyroid cancer that is sufficient for therapy. The majority of breast cancer also expresses NIS, but at a low level insufficient for radioiodine therapy. Retinoic acid is a potent NIS inducer in some breast cancer cells. NIS is also modestly expressed in some non-thyroidal tissues, including salivary glands, lacrimal glands and stomach. Selective induction of iodide uptake is required to target tumors with radioiodide. Iodide uptake in mammalian cells is dependent on the level of NIS gene expression, but also successful translocation of NIS to the cell membrane and correct insertion. The regulatory mechanisms of NIS expression and membrane insertion are regulated by signal transduction pathways that differ by tissue. Differential regulation of NIS confers selective induction of functional NIS in thyroid cancer cells, as well as some breast cancer cells, leading to more efficient radioiodide therapy for thyroid cancer and a new strategy for breast cancer therapy. The potential for systemic radioiodide treatment of a range of other cancers, that do not express endogenous NIS, has been demonstrated in models with tumor-selective introduction of exogenous NIS.

  13. Glycosylation of Sodium/Iodide Symporter (NIS) Regulates Its Membrane Translocation and Radioiodine Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Taemoon; Youn, Hyewon; Yeom, Chan Joo; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June-Key

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) protein is a membrane glycoprotein that transports iodide ions into thyroid cells. The function of this membrane protein is closely regulated by post-translational glycosylation. In this study, we measured glycosylation-mediated changes in subcellular location of hNIS and its function of iodine uptake. Methods HeLa cells were stably transfected with hNIS/tdTomato fusion gene in order to monitor the expression of hNIS. Cellular localization of hNIS was visualized by confocal microscopy of the red fluorescence of tdTomato. The expression of hNIS was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. Functional activity of hNIS was estimated by radioiodine uptake. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and tunicamycin were used to stimulate and inhibit glycosylation, respectively. In vivo images were obtained using a Maestro fluorescence imaging system. Results cAMP-mediated Glycosylation of NIS resulted in increased expression of hNIS, stimulating membrane translocation, and enhanced radioiodine uptake. In contrast, inhibition of glycosylation by treatment with tunicamycin dramatically reduced membrane translocation of intracellular hNIS, resulting in reduced radioiodine uptake. In addition, our hNIS/tdTomato fusion reporter successfully visualized cAMP-induced hNIS expression in xenografted tumors from mouse model. Conclusions These findings clearly reveal that the membrane localization of hNIS and its function of iodine uptake are glycosylation-dependent, as our results highlight enhancement of NIS expression and glycosylation with subsequent membrane localization after cAMP treatment. Therefore, enhancing functional NIS by the increasing level of glycosylation may be suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer patients who show refractory response to conventional radioiodine treatment. PMID:26599396

  14. Identification of Key Residues in the NisK Sensor Region for Nisin Biosynthesis Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiaoxuan; Teng, Kunling; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jie; Zhong, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Histidine kinase (HK) NisK is well known to sense lantibiotic nisin for regulating the biosynthesis of nisin. NisK possesses two trans-membrane segments and a large extracellular region and nisin contains 34 amino acids with five lanthionine rings. Unlike most peptide sensing HK with multi trans-membrane segments, NisK is a representative of a group of rarely reported HK that sense peptide as ligand. To reveal how NisK senses nisin molecule to regulate nisin biosynthesis, we constructed a reporter Lactococcus lactis strain with nisRK constitutively expressed and a reporter gene lacZ expressed under the control of promoter PnisA. We showed that the extracellular region of NisK was involved in recognizing nisin. Conserved residues in this group of HK were found in the extracellular region of NisK and mutagenesis of these residues in the reporter strain revealed that several hydrophobic residues including two aromatic residues are crucial for NisK sensing nisin and regulating nisin biosynthesis. Substitutions of hydrophobic regions in NisK extracellular domain showed that the first strand that was rich of hydrophobic amino acids was involved in regulating nisin biosynthesis. A negatively charged residue in the first βstrand also contributed to nisin biosynthesis. Protein binding analyses demonstrated that nisin could not interact with key NisK mutants, indicating these site in the extracellular region of NisK was involved in recognizing nisin. PMID:28184221

  15. Magnetic structure of NiS2 -xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, S.; Louca, Despina; Yang, J.; Chatterjee, U.; Bugaris, D. E.; Chung, D. Y.; Peng, L.; Grayson, M.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2016-01-01

    NiS2 -2 xSex is revisited to determine the magnetic structure using neutron diffraction and magnetic representational analysis. Upon cooling, the insulating parent compound, NiS2, becomes antiferromagnetic with two successive magnetic transitions. The first transition (M 1 ) occurs at TN˜39 K with Γ1ψ1 symmetry and a magnetic propagation vector of k =(000 ) . The second transition (M 2 ) occurs at TN˜30 K with k =(0.5 ,0.5 ,0.5 ) and a Γ1ψ2 symmetry with face-centered translations, giving rise to four possible magnetic domains. With doping, the system becomes metallic. The transition to the M 2 state is suppressed prior to x =0.4 while the M 1 state persists. The M 1 magnetic structure gradually vanishes by x ˜0.8 at a lower concentration than previously reported. The details of the magnetic structures are provided.

  16. Codon-optimized Human Sodium Iodide Symporter (opt-hNIS) as a Sensitive Reporter and Efficient Therapeutic Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Hwa; Youn, Hyewon; Na, Juri; Hong, Kee-Jong; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

    2015-01-01

    To generate a more efficient in vivo reporter and therapeutic gene, we optimized the coding sequence of the human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene by replacing NIS DNA codons from wild type to new codons having the highest usage in human gene translation. The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI), representing the number of codons effective for human expression, was much improved (0.79 for hNIS, 0.97 for opt-hNIS). Both wild-type (hNIS) and optimized human NIS (opt-hNIS) were cloned into pcDNA3.1 and pMSCV vectors for transfection. Various cancer cell lines such as thyroid (TPC-1, FRO, B-CPAP), breast (MDA-MB-231), liver (Hep3B), cervical (HeLa), and glioma (U87MG) were transfected with pcDNA3.1/hNIS or pcDNA3.1/opt-hNIS. 125I uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing cells was 1.6 ~ 2.1 times higher than uptake by wild-type hNIS-expressing cells. Stable cell lines were also established by retroviral transduction using pMSCV/hNIS or pMSCV/opt-hNIS, revealing higher NIS protein levels and 125I uptake in opt-hNIS-expressing cells than in hNIS-expressing cells. Moreover, scintigraphic images from cell plates and mouse xenografts showed stronger signals from opt-hNIS-expressing cells than hNIS-expressing cells, and radioactivity uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing tumors was 2.3-fold greater than that by hNIS-expressing tumors. To test the efficacy of radioiodine therapy, mouse xenograft models were established with cancer cells expressing hNIS or opt-hNIS. 131I treatment reduced tumor sizes of hNIS- and opt-hNIS-expressing tumors to 0.57- and 0.27- fold, respectively, compared to their sizes before therapy, suggesting an improved therapeutic effect of opt-hNIS. In summary, this study shows that codon optimization strongly increases hNIS protein levels and radioiodine uptake, thus supporting opt-hNIS as a more sensitive reporter and efficient therapeutic gene. PMID:25553100

  17. The importance of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) for thyroid cancer management.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Denise P; Ferreira, Andrea C F

    2007-07-01

    The thyroid gland has the ability to uptake and concentrate iodide, which is a fundamental step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Radioiodine has been used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for several years. However, the studies related to the mechanisms of iodide transport were only possible after the cloning of the gene that encodes the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS). The studies about the regulation of NIS expression and the possibility of gene therapy with the aim of transferring NIS gene to cells that normally do not express the symporter have also become possible. In the majority of hypofunctioning thyroid nodules, both benign and malignant, NIS gene expression is maintained, but NIS protein is retained in the intracellular compartment. The expression of NIS in non-thyroid tumoral cells in vivo has been possible through the transfer of NIS gene under the control of tissue-specific promoters. Apart from its therapeutic use, NIS has also been used for the localization of metastases by scintigraphy or PET-scan with 124I. In conclusion, NIS gene cloning led to an important development in the field of thyroid pathophysiology, and has also been fundamental to extend the use of radioiodine for the management of non-thyroid tumors.

  18. Air quality monitoring in NIS (SERBIA) and health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Nikic, Dragana; Bogdanovic, Dragan; Nikolic, Maja; Stankovic, Aleksandra; Zivkovic, Nenad; Djordjevic, Amelija

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to indicate the significance of air quality monitoring and to determine the air quality fields for the assessment of air pollution health effects, with special attention to risk population. Radial basis function network was used for air quality index mapping. Between 1991 and 2005, on the territory of Nis, several epidemiological studies were performed on risk groups (pre-school children, school children, pregnant women and persons older than 65). The total number of subjects was 5837. The exposed group comprised individuals living in the areas with unhealthy AQI, while the control group comprised individuals living in city areas with good or moderate AQI. It was determined that even relatively low levels of air pollution had impact on respiratory system and the occurrence of anaemia, allergy and skin symptoms.

  19. Anion exchange strategy to synthesis of porous NiS hexagonal nanoplates for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongchun; Yu, Xuewei; Gu, Aijun; Tang, Huang; Wang, Liangbiao; Lou, Zhengsong

    2017-02-01

    A facile anion exchange strategy was applied to the synthesis of porous NiS hexagonal nanoplates (NiS HNPs) as an electrode material for supercapacitors. It was found that Na2S concentration is a key factor to achieve porous NiS hexagonal nanoplates with well-defined architecture. Porous NiS hexagonal nanoplates exhibited a specific capacitance of 1897 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. NiS HNPs//activated carbon (AC) asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) shows a long cycle lifespan (about 100% capacity retention after 4000 cycles at a current density of 3 A g-1) with a maximum energy density of 11.6 Wh kg-1 at a large loading mass of about 30 mg. Impressively, two NiS HNPs//AC ASCs in series could light up a red LED for about 30 min. The remarkable electrochemical performance of NiS HNPs is ascribed to their unique hierarchical porous architectures. The anion exchange method is a facile and versatile strategy for the synthesis of metal sulfides with high performance for energy storage.

  20. The Na+/I symporter (NIS) mediates electroneutral active transport of the environmental pollutant perchlorate.

    PubMed

    Dohán, Orsolya; Portulano, Carla; Basquin, Cécile; Reyna-Neyra, Andrea; Amzel, L Mario; Carrasco, Nancy

    2007-12-18

    The Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS) is a key plasma membrane protein that mediates active I(-) uptake in the thyroid, lactating breast, and other tissues with an electrogenic stoichiometry of 2 Na(+) per I(-). In the thyroid, NIS-mediated I(-) uptake is the first step in the biosynthesis of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones, which are essential early in life for proper CNS development. In the lactating breast, NIS mediates the translocation of I(-) to the milk, thus supplying this essential anion to the nursing newborn. Perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) is a well known competitive inhibitor of NIS. Exposure to food and water contaminated with ClO(4)(-) is common in the U.S. population, and the public health impact of such exposure is currently being debated. To date, it is still uncertain whether ClO(4)(-) is a NIS blocker or a transported substrate of NIS. Here we show in vitro and in vivo that NIS actively transports ClO(4)(-), including ClO(4)(-) translocation to the milk. A simple mathematical fluxes model accurately predicts the effect of ClO(4)(-) transport on the rate and extent of I(-) accumulation. Strikingly, the Na(+)/ ClO(4)(-) transport stoichiometry is electroneutral, uncovering that NIS translocates different substrates with different stoichiometries. That NIS actively concentrates ClO(4)(-) in maternal milk suggests that exposure of newborns to high levels of ClO(4)(-) may pose a greater health risk than previously acknowledged because ClO(4)(-) would thus directly inhibit the newborns' thyroidal I(-) uptake.

  1. On the similarity of the bonding in NiS and NiO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The bonding in NiS is found to be quite similar to that in NiO, having an ionic contribution arising from the donation of the Ni 4s electron to the S atom and a covalent component arising from bonds between the Ni 3d and the S 3p. The one-electron d bonds are found to be of equal strength for NiO and NiS, but the two-electron d bonds are weaker for NiS.

  2. Efficient adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of Congo red onto hydrothermally synthesized NiS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongxu; Ke, Yingchang; Wang, Dongfeng; Lin, Kaili; Shen, Ruxiang; Chen, Jianhua; Weng, Wen

    2013-03-01

    NiS nanoparticles (NiS NPs) have been hydrothermally prepared and characterized by the methods of X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence, and thermogravimetric analysis. NiS NPs exhibit fast adsorption in the removal of Congo red (CR) in aqueous solution, in which the pseudo-second-order model was the best to describe the adsorption kinetics, and the intraparticle diffusion was not only the rate-limiting step. The NiS NPs also exhibit efficient photocatalytic activity in the degradation of CR under visible-light irradiation, in which the 30 mg/L CR was almost completely degraded after illumination during 210 min. The •OH radicals in the process of photocatalytic degradation were observed by fluorescence technique.

  3. Lantibiotic Immunity: Inhibition of Nisin Mediated Pore Formation by NisI

    PubMed Central

    AlKhatib, Zainab; Lagedroste, Marcel; Fey, Iris; Kleinschrodt, Diana; Abts, André; Smits, Sander H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Nisin, a 3.4 kDa antimicrobial peptide produced by some Lactococcus lactis strains is the most prominent member of the lantibiotic family. Nisin can inhibit cell growth and penetrates the target Gram-positive bacterial membrane by binding to Lipid II, an essential cell wall synthesis precursor. The assembled nisin-Lipid II complex forms pores in the target membrane. To gain immunity against its own-produced nisin, Lactococcus lactis is expressing two immunity protein systems, NisI and NisFEG. Here, we show that the NisI expressing strain displays an IC50 of 73±10 nM, an 8–10-fold increase when compared to the non-expressing sensitive strain. When the nisin concentration is raised above 70 nM, the cells expressing full-length NisI stop growing rather than being killed. NisI is inhibiting nisin mediated pore formation, even at nisin concentrations up to 1 µM. This effect is induced by the C-terminus of NisI that protects Lipid II. Its deletion showed pore formation again. The expression of NisI in combination with externally added nisin mediates an elongation of the chain length of the Lactococcus lactis cocci. While the sensitive strain cell-chains consist mainly of two cells, the NisI expressing cells display a length of up to 20 cells. Both results shed light on the immunity of lantibiotic producer strains, and their survival in high levels of their own lantibiotic in the habitat. PMID:25014359

  4. The Solution Structure of the Lantibiotic Immunity Protein NisI and Its Interactions with Nisin.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Carolin; Christ, Nina A; Duchardt-Ferner, Elke; Korn, Sophie; Göbl, Christoph; Berninger, Lucija; Düsterhus, Stefanie; Hellmich, Ute A; Madl, Tobias; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Wöhnert, Jens

    2015-11-27

    Many Gram-positive bacteria produce lantibiotics, genetically encoded and posttranslationally modified peptide antibiotics, which inhibit the growth of other Gram-positive bacteria. To protect themselves against their own lantibiotics these bacteria express a variety of immunity proteins including the LanI lipoproteins. The structural and mechanistic basis for LanI-mediated lantibiotic immunity is not yet understood. Lactococcus lactis produces the lantibiotic nisin, which is widely used as a food preservative. Its LanI protein NisI provides immunity against nisin but not against structurally very similar lantibiotics from other species such as subtilin from Bacillus subtilis. To understand the structural basis for LanI-mediated immunity and their specificity we investigated the structure of NisI. We found that NisI is a two-domain protein. Surprisingly, each of the two NisI domains has the same structure as the LanI protein from B. subtilis, SpaI, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The two NisI domains and SpaI differ strongly in their surface properties and function. Additionally, SpaI-mediated lantibiotic immunity depends on the presence of a basic unstructured N-terminal region that tethers SpaI to the membrane. Such a region is absent from NisI. Instead, the N-terminal domain of NisI interacts with membranes but not with nisin. In contrast, the C-terminal domain specifically binds nisin and modulates the membrane affinity of the N-terminal domain. Thus, our results reveal an unexpected structural relationship between NisI and SpaI and shed light on the structural basis for LanI mediated lantibiotic immunity.

  5. Hexagonal NiS nanobelts as advanced cathode materials for rechargeable Al-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhijing; Kang, Zepeng; Hu, Zongqian; Lu, Jianhong; Zhou, Zhigang; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2016-08-16

    Hexagonal NiS nanobelts served as novel cathode materials for rechargeable Al-ion batteries based on an AlCl3/[EMIm]Cl ionic liquid electrolyte system. The nano-banded structure of the materials can facilitate the electrolyte immersion and enhance Al(3+) diffusion. The hexagonal NiS nanobelt based cathodes exhibit high storage capacity, good cyclability and low overpotential.

  6. Human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) in fibroadenoma breast--a immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ruchi; Shrivastava, Ashutosh; Tandon, Ashwani; Godbole, Madan M; Kumar, Sandeep; Das, Vinita; Dwivedi, Varsha; Pal, Lily

    2011-02-01

    Human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS), responsible for the active transport of iodine is an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein present in the thyroid cells and extrathyroid tissues like breast and salivary glands. If its functional form is unequivocally shown in benign or malignant breast tissues, then it may serve as a basis for diagnosis and treatment using radioactive iodine. With an aim to analyze the hNIS expression in a distinct benign breast condition of fibroadenoma, biopsy proven fibroadenoma tissues, normal non-lactating breast tissue and biopsy proven infiltrating duct carcinoma tissues were examined for hNIS expression using immunohistochemistry. Out of 20 biopsy proven fibroadenoma tissues, 19 (95%) showed positivity for hNIS protein and only one was negative. Of these 10% were mildly positive, 50% cases were moderately positive and 35% showed intense positivity. None of the control tissue obtained from reduction mammoplasty specimens or normal breast tissues samples (5 cms away from the tumor) were positive, hNIS was also intensely positive in 9 out of 10 (90%) infiltrating duct carcinoma tissues and moderately positive in one case. These preliminary results show that hNIS was present in high frequency as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in fibroadenoma breast.

  7. Bilateral Comparison of 1 V and 10 V Standards between the NIS (Egypt) and the BIPM, August to September 2014 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.; Abdel Mageed, Hala M.; Aladdin, Omar M.; Raouf, M. Helmy A.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Institute for Standards (NIS), Giza, Egypt, was carried out from August to September 2014. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPMB (ZB) and BIPMC (ZC), were transported as hand luggage on board an airplane to NIS and back to BIPM. At NIS, the reference standard for DC voltage is a Josephson Voltage Standard. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the primary standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NIS, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by NIS, at the level of 1.018 V and 10 V, at NIS, UNIS, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of the 7 September 2014. UNIS - UBIPM = 0.09 µV uc = 0.08 µV, at 1 V UNIS - UBIPM = 0.22 µV uc = 0.14 µV, at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NIS, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. This is a satisfactory result. The comparison result shows that the voltage standards maintained by NIS and the BIPM were equivalent, within their stated standard uncertainties, on the mean date of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM

  8. Structure and Mechanism of the tRNA-Dependent Lantibiotic Dehydratase NisB

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Manuel A.; Hao, Yue; Zhang, Qi; Walker, Mark C.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Nair, Satish K.

    2015-01-01

    The lantibiotic nisin is an antimicrobial peptide that is widely used as a food preservative to combat food-borne pathogens1. Nisin contains dehydroalanine and dehydrobutyrine residues that are formed via dehydration of Ser/Thr by the lantibiotic dehydratase NisB2. Recent biochemical studies revealed that NisB glutamylates Ser/Thr side chains as part of the dehydration process3. However, the molecular mechanism by which NisB utilizes glutamate to catalyze dehydration remains unresolved. Here we show that this process involves glutamyl-tRNAGlu to activate Ser/Thr residues. In addition, the 2.9 Å crystal structure of NisB in complex with its substrate peptide NisA reveals the presence of two separate domains that catalyze the Ser/Thr glutamylation and glutamate elimination steps. The co-crystal structure also provides the first insights into substrate recognition by lantibiotic dehydratases. Our findings demonstrate a non-anticipated role for aminoacyl-tRNA in the formation of dehydroamino acids in lantibiotics, and serve as a basis for the functional characterization of the many lantibiotic-like dehydratases involved in the biosynthesis of other classes of natural products. PMID:25363770

  9. NMR resonance assignments of the lantibiotic immunity protein NisI from Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Carolin; Christ, Nina Alexandra; Duchardt-Ferner, Elke; Korn, Sophie; Berninger, Lucija; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Wöhnert, Jens

    2015-10-01

    The lantibiotic nisin is a small antimicrobial peptide which acts against a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria. Nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains express four genes for self-protection against their own antimicrobial compound. This immunity system consists of the lipoprotein NisI and the ABC transporter NisFEG. NisI is attached to the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane via a covalently linked diacylglycerol anchor. Both the lipoprotein and the ABC transporter are needed for full immunity but the exact immunity mechanism is still unclear. To gain insights into the highly specific immunity mechanism of nisin producing strains on a structural level we present here the backbone resonance assignment of NisI (25.8 kDa) as well as the virtually complete (1)H,(15)N,(13)C chemical shift assignments for the isolated 12.7 kDa N-terminal and 14.6 kDa C-terminal domains of NisI.

  10. Unconventional resistivity at the border of metallic antiferromagnetism in NiS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklowitz, P. G.; Alireza, P. L.; Steiner, M. J.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Braithwaite, D.; Knebel, G.; Flouquet, J.; Wilson, J. A.

    2008-03-01

    We report low-temperature and high-pressure measurements of the electrical resistivity ρ(T) of the antiferromagnetic compound NiS2 in its high-pressure metallic state. The form of ρ(T,p) suggests the presence of a quantum phase transition at a critical pressure pc=76±5kbar . Near pc , the temperature variation of ρ(T) is similar to that observed in NiS2-xSex near the critical composition x=1 , where metallic antiferromagnetism is suppressed at ambient pressure. In both cases, ρ(T) varies approximately as T1.5 over a wide range below 100K . This lets us assume that the high-pressure metallic phase of stoichiometric NiS2 also develops itinerant antiferromagnetism, which becomes suppressed at pc . However, on closer analysis, the resistivity exponent in NiS2 exhibits an undulating variation with temperature not seen in NiSSe (x=1) . This difference in behavior may be due to the effects of spin-fluctuation scattering of charge carriers on cold and hot spots of the Fermi surface in the presence of quenched disorder, which is higher in NiSSe than in stoichiometric NiS2 .

  11. CSS, NIS and dynamic stability for two-species behavioral models with continuous trait spaces.

    PubMed

    Cressman, Ross

    2010-01-07

    Static continuously stable strategy (CSS) and neighborhood invader strategy (NIS) conditions are developed for two-species models of frequency-dependent behavioral evolution when individuals have traits in continuous strategy spaces. These are intuitive stability conditions that predict the eventual outcome of evolution from a dynamic perspective. It is shown how the CSS is related to convergence stability for the canonical equation of adaptive dynamics and the NIS to convergence to a monomorphism for the replicator equation of evolutionary game theory. The CSS and NIS are also shown to be special cases of neighborhood p(*)- superiority for p(*) equal to one half and zero, respectively. The theory is illustrated when each species has a one-dimensional trait space.

  12. Moderate temperature sodium cells. V - Discharge reactions and rechargeability of NiS and NiS2 positive electrodes in molten NaAlCl4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, K. M.; Elliot, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    NiS2 and NiS have been characterized as high energy density rechargeable positive electrodes for moderate-temperature Na batteries of the configuration, Na(1)/beta double prime-Al2O3/NaAlCl4(1), NiSx. The batteries operate in the temperature range 170 - 190 C. Positive electrode reactions during discharge/charge cycles have been characterized. Excellent rechargeability of the batteries has been demonstrated by extended cell cycling. A Na/NiS2 cell, operating at 190 C, exceeded 600 deep discharge/charge cycles with practically no capacity deterioration. The feasibility of secondary Na/NiSx batteries with specific energies equal to or greater than 50 Wh/lb and cycle lifes exceeding 1000 deep discharge/charge cycles has been demonstrated.

  13. Development of a screening approach to detect thyroid disrupting chemicals that inhibit the human sodium iodide symporter (NIS).

    PubMed

    Hallinger, Daniel R; Murr, Ashley S; Buckalew, Angela R; Simmons, Steven O; Stoker, Tammy E; Laws, Susan C

    2017-04-01

    The U.S. EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program aims to use high-throughput assays and computational toxicology models to screen and prioritize chemicals that may disrupt the thyroid signaling pathway. Thyroid hormone biosynthesis requires active iodide uptake mediated by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS). Monovalent anions, such as the environmental contaminant perchlorate, are competitive inhibitors of NIS, yet limited information exists for more structurally diverse chemicals. A novel cell line expressing human NIS, hNIS-HEK293T-EPA, was used in a radioactive iodide uptake (RAIU) assay to identify inhibitors of NIS-mediated iodide uptake. The RAIU assay was optimized and performance evaluated with 12 reference chemicals comprising known NIS inhibitors and inactive compounds. An additional 39 chemicals including environmental contaminants were evaluated, with 28 inhibiting RAIU over 20% of that observed for solvent controls. Cell viability assays were performed to assess any confounding effects of cytotoxicity. RAIU and cytotoxic responses were used to calculate selectivity scores to group chemicals based on their potential to affect NIS. RAIU IC50 values were also determined for chemicals that displayed concentration-dependent inhibition of RAIU (≥50%) without cytotoxicity. Strong assay performance and highly reproducible results support the utilization of this approach to screen large chemical libraries for inhibitors of NIS-mediated iodide uptake.

  14. From propargylamides to oxazole derivatives: NIS-mediated cyclization and further oxidation by dioxygen.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yancheng; Yi, Ruxia; Wang, Chunxiang; Xin, Xiaoyi; Wu, Fan; Wan, Boshun

    2014-04-04

    NIS-mediated iodocyclization of N-sulfonyl propargylamides for the synthesis of various oxazolidines and iodoalkylidenedihydrooxazoles via a 5-exo-dig process is developed. The resulting iodoalkylidenedihydrooxazoles can be further transformed into the corresponding oxazoles in the presence of dioxygen.

  15. The use of the NIS reporter gene for optimizing oncolytic virotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Amber; Russell, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Oncolytic viruses are experimental cancer therapies being translated to the clinic. They are unique in their ability to amplify within the body, therefore requiring careful monitoring of viral replication and biodistribution. Traditional monitoring strategies fail to recapitulate the dynamic nature of oncolytic virotherapy. Consequently, clinically relevant, noninvasive, high resolution strategies are needed to effectively track virotherapy in real time. Areas covered: The expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) reporter gene is tightly coupled to viral genome replication and mediates radioisotope concentration, allowing noninvasive molecular nuclear imaging of active viral infection with high resolution. This provides insight into replication kinetics, biodistribution, the impact of vector design, administration, and dosing on therapeutic outcomes, and highlights the heterogeneity of spatial distribution and temporal evolution of infection. NIS-mediated imaging in clinical trials confirms the feasibility of this technology to noninvasively and longitudinally observe oncolytic virus infection, replication, and distribution. Expert opinion: NIS-mediated imaging provides detailed functional and molecular information on the evolution of oncolytic virus infection in living animals. The use of NIS reporter gene imaging has rapidly advanced to provide unparalleled insight into the spatial and temporal context of oncolytic infection which will be integral to optimization of oncolytic treatment strategies. PMID:26457362

  16. SPECT Imaging for in vivo tracking of NIS containing stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Zhenghong

    2013-04-02

    Na+/I- symporter (NIS) gene as a reporter gene (imagene) for non-invasive imaging of infused stem cells distribution and persistence in vivo on small animal models. NIS is an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein that mediates active iodide (I-) uptake into normal thyroid follicular cells and other cells. The advantages of using NIS for non-invasive and repeated scintigraphic imaging in this application are: a) NIS is not a foreign gene and thus eliminate the immunoresponse problem; b) radiotracer or substrate for NIS is simply radioiodide (I-125, I- 123, I-124, and I-124) or [Tc-99m]-pertechnetate, no radiosynthesis is needed. It has been shown that NIS gene transfer can induce radioactive iodide uptake in a variety of cells and that xenografts expressing exogenous NIS could be imaged by non-invasive scintigraphic imaging. The specific aims are: 1.Determine the feasibility, stability and physiological effects of human NIS gene expression on human HSCs and MSCs in vitro. 2.Determine the engraftment of human HSC and MSC co-infused in NOD-SCID mice. 3.Transduce both a drug resistance gene and an imagene into bone marrow stem cells, and follow the dynamics of engraftment after selection in real time.

  17. MPC&A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin; Stoy-McLeod, Carol L.

    2006-07-01

    This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC.

  18. A Robust Cooling Platform for NIS Junction Refrigeration and sub-Kelvin Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B.; Atlas, M.; Lowell, P.; Moyerman, S.; Stebor, N.; Ullom, J.; Keating, B.

    2014-08-01

    Recent advances in Normal metal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions (Clark et al. Appl Phys Lett 86: 173508, 2005, Appl Phys Lett 84: 4, 2004) have proven these devices to be a viable technology for sub-Kelvin refrigeration. NIS junction coolers, coupled to a separate cold stage, provide a flexible platform for cooling a wide range of user-supplied payloads. Recently, a stage was cooled from 290 to 256 mK (Lowell et al. Appl Phys Lett 102: 082601 2013), but further mechanical and electrical improvements are necessary for the stage to reach its full potential. We have designed and built a new Kevlar suspended cooling platform for NIS junction refrigeration that is both lightweight and well thermally isolated; the calculated parasitic loading is pW from 300 to 100 mK. The platform is structurally rigid with a measured deflection of 25 m under a 2.5 kg load and has an integrated mechanical heat switch driven by a superconducting stepper motor with thermal conductivity G W/K at 300 mK. An integrated radiation shield limits thermal loading and a modular platform accommodates enough junctions to provide nanowatts of continuous cooling power. The compact stage size of 7.6 cm 8.6 cm 4.8 cm and overall radiation shield size of 8.9 cm 10.0 cm 7.0 cm along with minimal electrical power requirements allow easy integration into a range of cryostats. We present the design, construction, and performance of this cooling platform as well as projections for coupling to arrays of NIS junctions and other future applications.

  19. The EUV spectrum of the Sun: long-term variations in the SOHO CDS NIS spectral responsivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zanna, G.; Andretta, V.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, T. N.; Thompson, W. T.

    2010-07-01

    We present SOHO Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) normal incidence, extreme-ultraviolet spectra of the Sun taken from the beginning of the mission in 1996 until now. We use various methods to study the performance of the instrument during such a long time span. Assuming that the basal chromospheric-transition region emission in the quiet parts of the Sun does not vary over the cycle, we find a slow decrease in the instrument sensitivity over time. We applied a correction to the NIS (Normal Incidence Spectrograph) data, using as a starting reference the NIS absolute calibration obtained from a comparison with a rocket flight in May 1997. We then obtained NIS full-Sun spectral irradiances from observations in 2008 and compared them with the EUV irradiances obtained from the rocket that flew on April 14, 2008 a prototype of the Solar Dynamics Observatory EVE instrument. Excellent agreement is found between the EUV irradiances from NIS and from the EVE-prototype, confirming the NIS radiometric calibration. The NIS instrument over 13 years has performed exceptionally well, with only a factor of about 2 decrease in responsivity for most wavelengths.

  20. Microwave-assisted synthesis of NiS2 nanostructures for supercapacitors and cocatalytic enhancing photocatalytic H2 production

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Huan; Wei, Chengzhen; Li, Xuexue; Li, Guochang; Ma, Yahui; Li, Sujuan; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Jiangshan

    2014-01-01

    Uniform NiS2 nanocubes are successfully synthesized with a microwave-assisted method. Interestingly, NiS2 nanocubes, nanospheres and nanoparticles are obtained by controlling microwave reaction time. NiS2 nanomaterials are primarily applied to supercapacitors and cocatalytic enhancing photocatalytic H2 production. Different morphologies of NiS2 nanostructures show different electrochemical and cocatalytic enhancing H2 production activities. Benefited novel nanostructures, NiS2 nanocube electrodes show a large specific capacitance (695 F g−1 at 1.25 A g−1) and excellent cycling performance (the retention 93.4% of initial specific capacitance after 3000 cycles). More importantly, NiS2 nanospheres show highly cocatalytic enhancing photocatalytic for H2 evolution, in which the photocatalytic H2 production is up to 3400 μmol during 12 hours under irradiation of visible light (λ>420 nm) with an average H2 production rate of 283 μmol h−1. PMID:24389929

  1. NisT, the transporter of the lantibiotic nisin, can transport fully modified, dehydrated, and unmodified prenisin and fusions of the leader peptide with non-lantibiotic peptides.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Anneke; de Boef, Esther; Rink, Rick; Fekken, Susan; Kluskens, Leon D; Driessen, Arnold J M; Leenhouts, Kees; Kuipers, Oscar P; Moll, Gert N

    2004-05-21

    Lantibiotics are lanthionine-containing peptide antibiotics. Nisin, encoded by nisA, is a pentacyclic lantibiotic produced by some Lactococcus lactis strains. Its thioether rings are posttranslationally introduced by a membrane-bound enzyme complex. This complex is composed of three enzymes: NisB, which dehydrates serines and threonines; NisC, which couples these dehydrated residues to cysteines, thus forming thioether rings; and the transporter NisT. We followed the activity of various combinations of the nisin enzymes by measuring export of secreted peptides using antibodies against the leader peptide and mass spectroscopy for detection. L. lactis expressing the nisABTC genes efficiently produced fully posttranslationally modified prenisin. Strikingly, L. lactis expressing the nisBT genes could produce dehydrated prenisin without thioether rings and a dehydrated form of a non-lantibiotic peptide. In the absence of the biosynthetic NisBC enzymes, the NisT transporter was capable of excreting unmodified prenisin and fusions of the leader peptide with non-lantibiotic peptides. Our data show that NisT specifies a broad spectrum (poly)peptide transporter that can function either in conjunction with or independently from the biosynthetic genes. NisT secretes both unmodified and partially or fully posttranslationally modified forms of prenisin and non-lantibiotic peptides. These results open the way for efficient production of a wide range of peptides with increased stability or novel bioactivities.

  2. Expression of the Na+/l- symporter (NIS) is markedly decreased or absent in gastric cancer and intestinal metaplastic mucosa of Barrett esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Altorjay, Áron; Dohán, Orsolya; Szilágyi, Anna; Paroder, Monika; Wapnir, Irene L; Carrasco, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Background The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates iodide (I-) transport in the thyroid, lactating breast, salivary glands, and stomach. Whereas NIS expression and regulation have been extensively investigated in healthy and neoplastic thyroid and breast tissues, little is known about NIS expression and function along the healthy and diseased gastrointestinal tract. Methods Thus, we investigated NIS expression by immunohistochemical analysis in 155 gastrointestinal tissue samples and by immunoblot analysis in 17 gastric tumors from 83 patients. Results Regarding the healthy Gl tract, we observed NIS expression exclusively in the basolateral region of the gastric mucin-producing epithelial cells. In gastritis, positive NIS staining was observed in these cells both in the presence and absence of Helicobacter pylori. Significantly, NIS expression was absent in gastric cancer, independently of its histological type. Only focal faint NIS expression was detected in the direct vicinity of gastric tumors, i.e., in the histologically intact mucosa, the expression becoming gradually stronger and linear farther away from the tumor. Barrett mucosa with junctional and fundic-type columnar metaplasia displayed positive NIS staining, whereas Barrett mucosa with intestinal metaplasia was negative. NIS staining was also absent in intestinalized gastric polyps. Conclusion That NIS expression is markedly decreased or absent in case of intestinalization or malignant transformation of the gastric mucosa suggests that NIS may prove to be a significant tumor marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric malignancies and also precancerous lesions such as Barrett mucosa, thus extending the medical significance of NIS beyond thyroid disease. PMID:17214887

  3. Challenges/issues of NIS used in particle accelerator facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faircloth, Dan

    2013-09-01

    High current, high duty cycle negative ion sources are an essential component of many high power particle accelerators. This talk gives an overview of the state-of-the-art sources used around the world. Volume, surface and charge exchange negative ion production processes are detailed. Cesiated magnetron and Penning surface plasma sources are discussed along with surface converter sources. Multicusp volume sources with filament and LaB6 cathodes are described before moving onto RF inductively coupled volume sources with internal and external antennas. The major challenges facing accelerator facilities are detailed. Beam current, source lifetime and reliability are the most pressing. The pros and cons of each source technology is discussed along with their development programs. The uncertainties and unknowns common to these sources are discussed. The dynamics of cesium surface coverage and the causes of source variability are still unknown. Minimizing beam emittance is essential to maximizing the transport of high current beams; space charge effects are very important. The basic physics of negative ion production is still not well understood, theoretical and experimental programs continue to improve this, but there are still many mysteries to be solved.

  4. Navigating the maze of requirements for obtaining approval of non-interventional studies (NIS) in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Ziel: Dieser Artikel soll über die Komplexität und unerwartete regulatorische Anforderungen bei multinationalen und multizentrischen, nicht-interventionellen Studien (NIS) in der Europäischen Union aufklären.Methoden: Die Internetseiten der zuständigen nationalen Behörden, Ethikkommissionen (EK) und Datenschutzbehörden wurden konsultiert, um Vorschriften und Richtlinien zum Genehmigungsverfahren von NIS in den verschiedenen Mitgliedstaaten der EU zu finden.Ergebnis: Viele zusätzliche Hürden wurden identifiziert, die weder offengelegt noch deutlich in den jeweiligen Verordnungen/Richtlinien für NIS beschrieben waren. Obwohl die Genehmigung durch die nationale Behörde für NIS grundsätzlich nicht erforderlich ist, wird in vielen Ländern dennoch empfohlen die geplante NIS – vor dem EK-Antrag – der nationalen Behörde anzuzeigen, um die Bestätigung zu erhalten, dass die geplante NIS nicht in die Kategorie „interventionelle Studie“ fällt. Zudem ist in einigen Ländern eine Probandenversicherung erforderlich. In vielen Ländern, in denen multizentrische NIS geplant sind, bedarf es zusätzlich zur Zustimmung der zentralen Ethikkommission auch noch die zustimmende Bewertung aller lokalen Ethikkommissionen, denn ein zentrales EK-Gutachten wird nicht als ausreichend betrachtet. Die Anforderungen an EK-Dokumente und an Gebühren für die Einreichung variieren stark unter allen Mitgliedsstaaten. Zusätzliche Genehmigungen von den Datenschutzbehörden und Versicherungsgesellschaften sind in einigen Ländern einzuholen.Schlussfolgerung: Das Genehmigungsverfahren für multizentrische und multinationale NIS ist zeitaufwendig, vor allem wegen des Mangels an Transparenz und den unterschiedlichen regulatorischen Anforderungen der Mitgliedsstaaten. Die EU-Rechtsvorschriften zur Pharmakovigilanz und die neue EU-Verordnung Nr. 536/2014 über klinische Studien sind zwar ein Schritt nach vorn bei der Schaffung eines Rechtsrahmens für PASS (post-authorisation safety

  5. Increase of Fungal Pathogenicity and Role of Plant Glutamine in Nitrogen-Induced Susceptibility (NIS) To Rice Blast

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huichuan; Nguyen Thi Thu, Thuy; He, Xiahong; Gravot, Antoine; Bernillon, Stéphane; Ballini, Elsa; Morel, Jean-Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Highlight  Modifications in glutamine synthetase OsGS1-2 expression and fungal pathogenicity underlie nitrogen-induced susceptibility to rice blast. Understanding why nitrogen fertilization increase the impact of many plant diseases is of major importance. The interaction between Magnaporthe oryzae and rice was used as a model for analyzing the molecular mechanisms underlying Nitrogen-Induced Susceptibility (NIS). We show that our experimental system in which nitrogen supply strongly affects rice blast susceptibility only slightly affects plant growth. In order to get insights into the mechanisms of NIS, we conducted a dual RNA-seq experiment on rice infected tissues under two nitrogen fertilization regimes. On the one hand, we show that enhanced susceptibility was visible despite an over-induction of defense gene expression by infection under high nitrogen regime. On the other hand, the fungus expressed to high levels effectors and pathogenicity-related genes in plants under high nitrogen regime. We propose that in plants supplied with elevated nitrogen fertilization, the observed enhanced induction of plant defense is over-passed by an increase in the expression of the fungal pathogenicity program, thus leading to enhanced susceptibility. Moreover, some rice genes implicated in nitrogen recycling were highly induced during NIS. We further demonstrate that the OsGS1-2 glutamine synthetase gene enhances plant resistance to M. oryzae and abolishes NIS and pinpoint glutamine as a potential key nutrient during NIS. PMID:28293247

  6. Increase of Fungal Pathogenicity and Role of Plant Glutamine in Nitrogen-Induced Susceptibility (NIS) To Rice Blast.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huichuan; Nguyen Thi Thu, Thuy; He, Xiahong; Gravot, Antoine; Bernillon, Stéphane; Ballini, Elsa; Morel, Jean-Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Highlight  Modifications in glutamine synthetase OsGS1-2 expression and fungal pathogenicity underlie nitrogen-induced susceptibility to rice blast. Understanding why nitrogen fertilization increase the impact of many plant diseases is of major importance. The interaction between Magnaporthe oryzae and rice was used as a model for analyzing the molecular mechanisms underlying Nitrogen-Induced Susceptibility (NIS). We show that our experimental system in which nitrogen supply strongly affects rice blast susceptibility only slightly affects plant growth. In order to get insights into the mechanisms of NIS, we conducted a dual RNA-seq experiment on rice infected tissues under two nitrogen fertilization regimes. On the one hand, we show that enhanced susceptibility was visible despite an over-induction of defense gene expression by infection under high nitrogen regime. On the other hand, the fungus expressed to high levels effectors and pathogenicity-related genes in plants under high nitrogen regime. We propose that in plants supplied with elevated nitrogen fertilization, the observed enhanced induction of plant defense is over-passed by an increase in the expression of the fungal pathogenicity program, thus leading to enhanced susceptibility. Moreover, some rice genes implicated in nitrogen recycling were highly induced during NIS. We further demonstrate that the OsGS1-2 glutamine synthetase gene enhances plant resistance to M. oryzae and abolishes NIS and pinpoint glutamine as a potential key nutrient during NIS.

  7. Reduced graphene oxide-induced recrystallization of NiS nanorods to nanosheets and the improved Na-storage properties.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qin; Xie, Jian; Zhu, Tiejun; Cao, Gaoshao; Zhao, Xinbing; Zhang, Shichao

    2014-04-07

    Preparation of two-dimensional (2D) graphene-like materials is currently an emerging field in materials science since the discovery of single-atom-thick graphene prepared by mechanical cleavage. In this work, we proposed a new method to prepare 2D NiS, where reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was found to induce the recrystallization of NiS from nanorods to nanosheets in a hydrothermal process. The process and mechanism of recrystallization have been clarified by various characterization techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The characterization of ex situ NiS/rGO products by SEM and EDS mapping indicates that the recrystallization of NiS from nanorods to nanosheets is realized actually through an exfoliation process, while the characterization of in situ NiS/rGO products by SEM, TEM, and EDS mapping reveals the exfoliation process. The XPS result demonstrates that hydrothermally assisted chemical bonding occurs between NiS and rGO, which induces the exfoliation of NiS nanorods into nanosheets. The obtained NiS/rGO composite shows promising Na-storage properties.

  8. Template Synthesis of Shape-Tailorable NiS2 Hollow Prisms as High-Performance Supercapacitor Materials.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ziyang; Zang, Xiaoxian; Yang, Jun; Sun, Chencheng; Si, Weili; Huang, Wei; Dong, Xiaochen

    2015-11-18

    Uniform NiS2 hollow nanoprisms have been controllably synthesized by a facial sacrificial template method including two-step refluxed reactions. The morphology of the hollow NiS2 prisms can be easily tailored by the low cost nickel complex template. With unique hollow structure, efficient electron, and ion transport pathway as well as single crystal structure, the NiS2 hollow prisms electrode exhibits excellent pseudocapacitive performance in LiOH electrolyte. It can deliver a specific capacitance of 1725 F g(-1) at a current density of 5 A g(-1) and 1193 F g(-1) even at a current density of 40 A g(-1). Furthermore, the materials also present an amazing cycling stability, that is, the specific capacitance can increase from 1367 F g(-1) to 1680 F g(-1) after 10,000 cycles of charge-discharge at the current density of 20 A g(-1).

  9. Regression of experimental NIS-expressing breast cancer brain metastases in response to radioiodide/gemcitabine dual therapy

    PubMed Central

    Renier, Corinne; Foster, Deshka; De, Abhijit; Vogel, Hannes; Jeffrey, Stefanie S.; Tse, Victor; Carrasco, Nancy; Wapnir, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Treating breast cancer brain metastases (BCBMs) is challenging. Na+/I− symporter (NIS) expression in BCBMs would permit their selective targeting with radioiodide (131I−). We show impressive enhancement of tumor response by combining131I− with gemcitabine (GEM), a cytotoxic radiosensitizer. Nude mice mammary fat-pad (MFP) tumors and BCBMs were generated with braintropic MDA-MB-231Br cells transduced with bicistronically-linked NIS and firefly luciferase cDNAs. Response was monitored in vivo via bioluminescent imaging and NIS tumor expression.131I−/GEM therapy inhibited MFP tumor growth more effectively than either agent alone. BCBMs were treated with: high or low-dose GEM (58 or 14.5 mg/Kg×4); 131I− (1mCi or 2×0.5 mCi 7 days apart); and 131I−/GEM therapy. By post-injection day (PID) 25, 82-86% of controls and 78-83% of 131I−-treated BCBM grew, whereas 17% low-dose and 36% high-dose GEM regressed. The latter tumors were smaller than the controls with comparable NIS expression (~20% of cells). High and low-dose 131I−/GEM combinations caused 89% and 57% tumor regression, respectively. High-dose GEM/131I− delayed tumor growth: tumors increased 5-fold in size by PID45 (controls by PID18). Although fewer than 25% of cells expressed NIS, GEM/131I− caused dramatic tumor regression in NIS-transduced BCBMs. This effect was synergistic, and supports the hypothesis that GEM radiosensitizes cells to 131I−. PMID:27363025

  10. Solvotermal synthesis of NiO, Ni and NiS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Angel; Perpiñán, M Felisa; Sánchez, Ana E; Torralba, M Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles of NiO, Ni or NiS have been obtained by solvothermal decomposition of different molecular precursors. The influence of several parameters, such as temperature, reaction time, solvent or capping agent used, in the nature and size of the obtained nanoparticle has been studied. The characterization by XRD and TEM techniques indicates that the nanoparticles of NiO exhibit average sizes of 3-8 nm, while those of Ni are in the 30-40 nm range. This difference in size has been attributed to the presence of molecules of the capping agent (n-octylamine or oleic acid) that surround the NiO nanoparticles but were not present in the nickel ones. The capping agent is, thus, preventing the aggregation of the smallest nanoparticles. The use of either a S-donor capping agent (4-mercaptopyridine) or a precursor having S-donor ligands (diethyldithiocarbamate) have led to the formation of NiS with average sizes around 35 nm. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles have been studied, showing superparamagnetism and magnetic hysteresis below the blocking temperature, which, in time, is dependent of the particle size.

  11. In vivo monitoring of transfected DNA, gene expression kinetics, and cellular immune responses in mice immunized with a human NIS gene-expressing plasmid.

    PubMed

    Son, Hye-Youn; Jeon, Yong-Hyun; Chung, June-Key; Kim, Chul-Woo

    2016-12-01

    In assessing the effectiveness of DNA vaccines, it is important to monitor: (1) the kinetics of target gene expression in vivo; and (2) the movement of cells that become transfected with the plasmid DNA used in the immunization of a subject. In this study, we used, as a visual imaging marker, expression of the transfected human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene, which enhances intracellular radio-pertechnetate (TcO4-) accumulation. After intradermal (i.d.) and systemic injection of mice with pcDNA-hNIS and radioactive Technetium-99m (Tc-99m), respectively, whole-body images were obtained by nuclear scintigraphy. The migration of mice cells transfected with the hNIS gene was monitored over a 2-week period by gamma-radioactivity counting of isolated cell populations and was demonstrated in peripheral lymphoid tissues, especially in the draining lymph nodes (dLNs). Beginning at 24 h after DNA inoculation and continuing for the 2-week monitoring period, hNIS-expressing cells were observed specifically in the T-cell-rich zones of the paracortical area of the dLNs. Over the same time period, high levels of INF-γ-secreting CD8 T-cells were found in the dLNs of the pcDNA-hNIS immunized mice. Tumor growth was also significantly retarded in the mice that received hNIS DNA immunization followed by inoculation with CT26 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells that had been transfected with the rat NIS gene (rNIS), which is 93% homologous to the hNIS gene. In conclusion, mouse cells transfected with hNIS DNA after i.d. immunization were found to traffic to the dLNs, and hNIS gene expression in these cells continued for at least 2 weeks post immunization. Furthermore, sequential presentation of NIS DNA to T-cells by migratory antigen presenting cells could induce NIS DNA-specific Th1 immune responses and thus retard the growth of NIS-expressing tumors.

  12. A novel hNIS/tdTomato fusion reporter for visualizing the relationship between the cellular localization of sodium iodide symporter and its iodine uptake function under heat shock treatment.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Chan Joo; Chung, Taemoon; Youn, Hyewon; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

    2015-01-01

    The function of membrane-localized sodium iodide symporter (NIS) determines the efficacy of radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer. Here, we describe a dual mode reporter fused with human NIS (hNIS) and a red fluorescent protein named tandem dimeric Tomato (tdTomato) for the in vitro and in vivo imaging of hNIS protein expression, localization, and iodide uptake function. Human cervical epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line (HeLa)-hNIS/tdTomato cells were established by transducing a fusion gene expressing hNIS/tdTomato under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter. Fluorescence imaging, confocal microscopy, and an 125I uptake assay were performed to validate the integrity of the fusion protein. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide were used to block newly synthesized hNIS proteins. In vivo images were acquired using a gamma camera and a Maestro fluorescence imaging device. The fluorescence intensity of membrane-localized hNIS and 125I uptake both were increased after heat shock. Scintigraphy and fluorescence imaging indicated specific accumulation of the hNIS/tdTomato fusion protein in xenografted tumors, supporting the utility of this system for in vivo monitoring of hNIS expression and activity. We developed a novel hNIS/tdTomato dual mode reporter that enables visualization of the expression, localization, and iodine uptake function of hNIS in vitro and in vivo.

  13. NIS-assisted aza-Friedel-Crafts reaction with α-carbamoysulfides as precursors of N-carbamoylimines.

    PubMed

    George, Nicolas; Bekkaye, Mathieu; Alix, Aurélien; Zhu, Jieping; Masson, Géraldine

    2014-03-24

    A general and practical N-iodosuccinimide (NIS)-promoted aza-Friedel-Crafts reaction of various aromatic nucleophiles with N-acylimines generated in situ from α-amidosulfides to give a rapid access to highly functionalized amines is described. The newly developed methodology is very mild, fast, efficient, and complementary.

  14. Finite mass enhancement across bandwidth controlled Mott transition in NiS2-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Garam; Kyung, W. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Cheng, C. M.; Tsuei, K. D.; Lee, K. D.; Hur, N.; Kim, H.-D.; Kim, C.

    One of the most important and still debated issues in the strongly correlated electron systems is on the metal insulator transition (MIT) mechanism. In the bandwidth controlled Mott transition (BCMT) scenario, which Mott originally proposed, MIT occurs through a mass divergence in which the effective mass of the quasi-particle (QP) diverges approaching the MIT. The interpretation is supported by dynamic mean field theory (DMFT) model calculations. However, few direct observations have been made yet due to various experimental restrictions. In this talk, I present systematic angle resolved photoemission studies on the MIT in NiS2-xSex, which is a well-known BCMT material. We observed not only the bandwidth shrinkage but also the coherent quasi-particle peak (QP) which is not of the surface origin. In addition, we experimentally showed the mass of the QP remains finite approaching the MIT. This work was supported by IBS-R009-D1.

  15. Photorefractivity in a polymeric composite photosensitized with NiS nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fears, Tyler M.; Anderson, Charles; Winiarz, Jeffrey G.

    2008-10-01

    The photorefractive performance of a polymeric composite photosensitized through the inclusion of NiS nanocrystals is described. The nanocrystals were characterized using visible-absorption spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. We further demonstrate the ability to enhance various aspects of the composite's photorefractive performance by performing ligand exchange on the nanocrystals prior to their incorporation into the polymer composite. This procedure resulted in a lowering of the overmodulation voltage from ˜70to˜50V/μm without affecting the maximum diffraction efficiency of ˜40%. An increase in the two-beam-coupling gain coefficient was similarly observed, increasing from 38to79cm-1. The photoconductivities were used in determining the overall quantum efficiencies associated with the photorefractive devices. All experiments were conducted at 633nm and the data represent a significant improvement in the photorefractive performance of inorganic-organic hybrid photorefractive materials.

  16. Anomalous Line Shifts From Local Intensity Gradients on the Soho/cds NIS Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugan, S. V. H.

    1999-04-01

    Line shifts for some emission lines on the SOHO/CDS NIS detector appear to be strongly correlated with local intensity gradients along the slit in a way that seems impossible to explain with a physical solar model. Line widths also show a correlation with local intensity gradients. The most plausible instrumental explanation seems to be an elliptical, tilted point-spread function inducing the line shifts. A toy model demonstrating the essentials of the observed behaviour is presented. The effective point-spread function of the instrument appears to modify the line shape into something other than a Gaussian, leaving highly structured residuals after line fitting, including `ghost' images in some pixel planes. The cause of these effects is yet unknown, but they should warrant experiments on the engineering model to reproduce the observed effects, shedding light on the nature of the aberrations.

  17. The effects of pressure and temperature on sound velocity and density of Ni-S liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaki, H. G.; Nishida, K.; Urakawa, S.; Uesugi, K.; Kuwabara, S.; Takubo, Y.; Shimoyama, Y.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Kono, Y.; Higo, Y.; Kondo, T.

    2013-12-01

    Sound velocity and density of the core material are indispensable properties to estimate a composition in the terrestrial core comparing with the observed seismic data. Here, we report these properties of Ni-S, which corresponds to the end-member of possible core composition Fe-Ni-S, at high pressure and temperature. These properties were measured based on simultaneous measurement of sound velocity and density combined with X-ray tomography technique. The experiments were carried out at X-ray computed micro-tomography (CT) beamlines (BL20XU, BL20B2), SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. Monochromatized X-ray of 51 keV passed through the sample cell and detected as a radiography image using CCD camera. X-ray radiography images from 0 to 180o were measured for CT measurement by rotating the press. An 80-ton uni-axial press was used to generate high pressure with using opposed-type cupped anvils (Urakawa et al. 2010). Density was determined by using X-ray absorption method obtained from the X-ray radiograph image. The sample thickness for the X-ray path can be directly obtained from the CT data. The sample density was also determined from the volume of the sample at high pressure and temperature. P-wave sound velocity was measured using pulse-echo overlapping ultrasonic method using LiNbO3 transducer attached backside of the anvil. We have successfully measured the sound velocity and density of Ni-S up to 1.5 GPa. Comparing with the previous results of liquid Fe-S, the effect of Ni on the sound velocity is minor but that on the density can not be negligible.

  18. Stainless Steel Mesh-Supported NiS Nanosheet Array as Highly Efficient Catalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun Song; Ren, Jiawen; Shalom, Menny; Fellinger, Tim; Antonietti, Markus

    2016-03-02

    Nickel(II) sulfide (NiS) nanosheets with a thickness of 10 nm and a size of 200 nm were facilely grown on stainless steel (SLS) meshes via a one-pot hydrothermal method. This unique construction renders an excellent electrical contact between the porous film of active NiS sheets and the highly conductive substrate, which exhibits a superior catalytic activity toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The NiS@SLS electrocatalyst exhibits an unusually low overpotential of 297 mV (i.e., 1.524 V vs RHE) at a current density of 11 mA·cm(-2), and an extra small Tafel slope of only 47 mV·dec(-1) proves an even more competitive performance at high to very high current densities. This performance compares very favorably to other Ni-based catalysts and even to the precious state-of-the-art IrO2 or RuO2 catalyst.

  19. Formation of Multiple-Phase Catalysts for the Hydrogen Storage of Mg Nanoparticles by Adding Flowerlike NiS.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiubo; Ma, Xiujuan; Liu, Peng; Shang, Jiaxiang; Li, Xingguo; Liu, Tong

    2017-02-22

    In order to enhance the hydrogen storage properties of Mg, flowerlike NiS particles have been successfully prepared by solvothermal reaction method, and are subsequently ball milled with Mg nanoparticles (NPs) to fabricate Mg-5 wt % NiS nanocomposite. The nanocomposite displays Mg/NiS core/shell structure. The NiS shell decomposes into Ni, MgS and Mg2Ni multiple-phases, decorating on the surface of the Mg NPs after the first hydrogen absorption and desorption cycle at 673 K. The Mg-MgS-Mg2Ni-Ni nanocomposite shows enhanced hydrogenation and dehydrogenation rates: it can quickly uptake 3.5 wt % H2 within 10 min at 423 K and release 3.1 wt % H2 within 10 min at 573 K. The apparent hydrogen absorption and desorption activation energies are decreased to 45.45 and 64.71 kJ mol(-1). The enhanced sorption kinetics of the nanocomposite is attributed to the synergistic catalytic effects of the in situ formed MgS, Ni and Mg2Ni multiple-phase catalysts during the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation process, the porthole effects for the volume expansion and microstrain of the phase transformation of Mg2Ni and Mg2NiH4 and the reduced hydrogen diffusion distance caused by nanosized Mg. This novel method of in situ producing multiple-phase catalysts gives a new horizon for designing high performance hydrogen storage material.

  20. L-cysteine-assisted synthesis of hierarchical NiS2 hollow spheres supported carbon nitride as photocatalysts with enhanced lifetime.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengzhang; Jiang, Zhifeng; Chen, Linlin; Qian, Kun; Xie, Jimin

    2017-03-17

    Novel hierarchical NiS2 hollow spheres modified by graphite-like carbon nitride were prepared using a facile L-cysteine-assisted solvothermal route. The NiS2/g-C3N4 composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic efficiency in rhodamine B, methyl orange and ciprofloxacin degradation as compared to single g-C3N4 and NiS2, which could be due to the synergistic effects of the unique hollow sphere-like structure, strong visible-light absorption and increased separation rate of the photoinduced electron-hole pairs at the intimate interface of heterojunctions. A suitable combination of g-C3N4 with NiS2 showed the best photocatalytic performance. In addition, an electron spin resonance and trapping experiment demonstrated that the photogenerated hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals were the two main photoactive species in photocatalysis. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of NiS2/g-C3N4 composites under visible light irradiation is also proposed. The strategy presented here can be extended to a general strategy for constructing 3D/2D heterostructured photocatalysts for broad applications in photocatalysis.

  1. L-cysteine-assisted synthesis of hierarchical NiS2 hollow spheres supported carbon nitride as photocatalysts with enhanced lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chengzhang; Jiang, Zhifeng; Chen, Linlin; Qian, Kun; Xie, Jimin

    2017-03-01

    Novel hierarchical NiS2 hollow spheres modified by graphite-like carbon nitride were prepared using a facile L-cysteine-assisted solvothermal route. The NiS2/g-C3N4 composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic efficiency in rhodamine B, methyl orange and ciprofloxacin degradation as compared to single g-C3N4 and NiS2, which could be due to the synergistic effects of the unique hollow sphere-like structure, strong visible-light absorption and increased separation rate of the photoinduced electron–hole pairs at the intimate interface of heterojunctions. A suitable combination of g-C3N4 with NiS2 showed the best photocatalytic performance. In addition, an electron spin resonance and trapping experiment demonstrated that the photogenerated hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals were the two main photoactive species in photocatalysis. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of NiS2/g-C3N4 composites under visible light irradiation is also proposed. The strategy presented here can be extended to a general strategy for constructing 3D/2D heterostructured photocatalysts for broad applications in photocatalysis.

  2. Changes in gastric sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) activity are associated with differences in thyroid gland sensitivity to perchlorate during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Carr, James A; Murali, Sharanya; Hu, Fang; Goleman, Wanda L; Carr, Deborah L; Smith, Ernest E; Wages, Mike

    2015-08-01

    We investigated stage-dependent changes in sensitivity of the thyroid gland to perchlorate during development of African clawed frog tadpoles (Xenopus laevis) in relation to non-thyroidal iodide transporting tissues. Perchlorate-induced increases in thyroid follicle cell size and colloid depletion were blunted when exposures began at Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage 55 compared to when exposures began at NF stages 49 or 1-10. To determine if the development of other iodide transporting tissues may contribute to this difference we first examined which tissues expressed transcripts for the sodium dependent iodide symporter (NIS). RT-PCR analysis revealed that NIS was expressed in stomach and small intestine in addition to the thyroid gland of X. laevis tadpoles. NIS mRNA was not detected in lung, kidney, skin, gill, muscle, heart or liver. Perchlorate sensitive (125)I uptake was found in stomach, lung, kidney, gill, and small intestine but not muscle, liver, or heart. Perchlorate-sensitive (125)I uptake by stomach was 6-10 times greater than in any other non-thyroidal tissue in tadpoles. While NF stage 49 tadpoles exhibited perchlorate-sensitive uptake in stomach it was roughly 4-fold less than that observed in NF stage 55 tadpoles. Although abundance of NIS gene transcripts was greater in stomachs from NF stage 55 compared to NF stage 49 tadpoles this difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that gastric iodide uptake increases between NF stages 49 and 55, possibly due to post-translational changes in NIS glycosylation or trafficking within gastric mucosal cells. These developmental changes in gastric NIS gene expression may affect iodide availability to the thyroid gland.

  3. Atomic layer deposition of NiS and its application as cathode material in dye sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Mahuli, Neha; Sarkar, Shaibal K.

    2016-01-15

    Nickel sulfide (NiS) is grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using sequential exposures of bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dionate)nickel(II) [Ni(thd){sub 2}] and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) at 175 °C. Complementary combinations of in situ and ex situ characterization techniques are used to understand the deposition chemistry and the nature of film growth. The saturated growth rate of ca. 0.21 Å per ALD cycle is obtained, which is constant within the ALD temperature window (175–250 °C). As deposited films on glass substrates are found polycrystalline without any preferred orientation. Electrical transport measurement reveals degenerative/semimetallic characteristics with a carrier concentration of ca. 9 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −3} at room temperature. The ALD grown NiS thin film demonstrates high catalytic activity for the reduction of I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −} electrolyte that opens its usage as cost-effective counter electrode in dye sensitized solar cells, replacing Pt.

  4. Threat reduction information management: The TREND (formerly referred to as the US/NIS ExtraNet)

    SciTech Connect

    Cernicek, M.; Reams, C.A.

    1998-05-01

    Defense programs still play a central role in protecting and defending US interests, while the government has also developed threat reduction programs to reduce dangers posed by the increasing specter of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Like other defense programs, threat reduction programs produce and manage a great deal of information. The programs involve interaction between collaborative partners, foreign and domestic, that act to prevent the spread of WMD. The unhindered flow of information between those involved in these projects is of great importance to the successes of these programs. For the nuclear threat reduction programs, a system with comprehensive access control was needed to support daily business processes, and to capture programmatic information, simplify it, and synthesize it -- the purpose and definition of information management in this case. Using these criteria, the Threat Reduction ExtraNet (TREND) system, formerly referred to as the US/NIS ExtraNet, was created and implemented by Los Alamos National Laboratory to meet the information management needs of threat reduction programs such as the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP) program. By supporting this nonproliferation program alone, the TREND system supports US nuclear nonproliferation objectives, and it has enabled new opportunities for enhanced program transparency at many different levels, both in the US and Newly Independent States (NIS) of the Former Soviet Union (FSU).

  5. Synthesis of cellulose triacetate from cotton cellulose by using NIS as a catalyst under mild reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; Ragab, Safaa; El Sikaily, Amany; Khaled, Azza

    2015-10-05

    This research discusses the acetylation of cotton cellulose with acetic anhydride without solvents. The acetylation was done in the presence of different amounts of N-Iodosuccinimide (NIS) as a catalyst; this took place under mild reaction conditions. The extent of acetylation was measured by the weight percent gain (WPG) that varied from 24.71 to 71.83%. Cotton cellulose acetates, with the degree of substitution (DS) that ranged from 0.89 to 2.84, were prepared in one step. The cellulose triacetate, with a degree of substitution (DS) 2.84, was obtained. The WPG and DS were easily controlled by changing the reaction duration (1-5h), and the concentration of the catalyst (0.05 g, 0.075 g and 0.10 g for 1g of cellulose) in 25 ml of acetic anhydride. NIS was recognized as a novel and more successful catalyst for the acetylation of hydroxyl groups in cotton cellulose. Formation of the acetates and the calculation of the degree of substitution were performed by FT-IR, Raman, and (1)H NMR.

  6. Information non précise sur la taille du pénis en République Démocratique du Congo: à propos de 21 sources

    PubMed Central

    Mulenga, Philippe Cilundika; Kazadi, Alex Bukasa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction La taille du pénis constitue une préoccupation de beaucoup des gens actuellement et certains ne sont pas satisfaits de la dimension de leur pénis comme le montre l’étude de Tiggemann en 2008. Il existe relativement peu d'études sur le pénis en érection. Cela peut refléter les tabous culturels des chercheurs ou des médecins en interaction avec les hommes qui sont dans un état d’excitation sexuelle. Toutes fois, il est important pour les personnes qui annoncent des détails sur la taille du pénis d’annoncer d’abord les repères de la mesure du pénis puis ensuite donner les chiffres que proposent les chercheurs. Méthodes Notre enquête de type descriptif transversale s’est effectuée dans les deux grandes villes de la République Démocratique du Congo à savoir la ville de Kinshasa et la ville de Lubumbashi, pendant une période de deux ans soit de Mai 2014 à Mai 2016. Au total, 21 sources d’information ont constitué notre échantillon dont 8 à Kinshasa et 13 à Lubumbashi et nous avons trouvé cela suffisant car les sujets à caractère sexuel sont souvent rares chez nous. Les paramètres étudiés étaient: la nature de la source, la précision de la technique de la mesure, la présence de référence bibliographique, la longueur annoncée du pénis. Résultats La majorité des sources d’information sont faites des émissions de radio et de télévision (23,8%), ceci pourra s’expliquer par le fait que dans notre milieu il y a de plus en plus des chaines de radio et télévision et surtout dans les grandes villes. Concernant la précision de la technique de la mesure du pénis lors du partage du message sur la taille du pénis, l’étude nous montre que la majorité des sources d’information ne signale pas cela lorsqu’elles annoncent la taille du pénis au public soit 85,7%. Plusieurs sources ne déclarent pas les références bibliographiques (57,1%). Lorsqu’on regarde même les chiffres de la taille du pénis

  7. The pan-DAC inhibitor LBH589 is a multi-functional agent in breast cancer cells: cytotoxic drug and inducer of sodium-iodide symporter (NIS).

    PubMed

    Fortunati, N; Catalano, M G; Marano, F; Mugoni, V; Pugliese, M; Bosco, O; Mainini, F; Boccuzzi, G

    2010-12-01

    New drugs with anti-tumor activity, also able to modify the expression of selected molecules, are under evaluation in breast cancer which is becoming resistant to conventional treatment, or in metastatic disease. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), which mediates iodide uptake into thyroid cells, and is the molecular basis of radioiodine imaging and therapy in thyroid cancer, is also expressed in a large portion of breast tumors. Since NIS expression in breast cancer is not sufficient for a significant iodide uptake, drugs able to induce its expression and correct function are under evaluation. In the present study, we report for the first time that the pan-deacetylase (DAC) inhibitor LBH589 (panobinostat) significantly induced NIS, both as mRNA and as protein, through the increase of NIS promoter activity, with the final consequence of obtaining a significant up-take of iodide in MCF7, T47D, and MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that LBH589 causes a significant reduction in cell viability of estrogen-sensitive and -insensitive breast cancer cells within nanomolar range. The anti-tumor effect of LBH589 is sustained by apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest in G(2)/M. In conclusion, our data suggest that LBH589 might be a powerful tool in the management of breast cancer due to its multiple effects and support a potential application of LBH589 in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

  8. Measurement and evaluation of the environmental noise levels in the urban areas of the city of Nis (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Prascevic, Momir R; Mihajlov, Darko I; Cvetkovic, Dragan S

    2014-02-01

    The environmental noise level represents one of the key factors of life quality in urban areas of modern cities. A continuous monitoring of the noise levels and the analysis of results have become a necessity when we discuss a possible recovery of those areas with high levels of noise pollution, and particularly, those zones which were designed for specific activities, e.g., areas around hospitals and schools. The city of Nis, Serbia, owing to the permanent long-term noise monitoring, possesses a database containing figures related to the noise levels at relevant locations in the city, which can serve as a basis for an analysis of the change of conditions, their tendencies in the future, and recognizing factors which influence the danger of noise pollution. The paper involves an analysis of the environmental noise level collected during the previous years.

  9. Inhibition of miR-146b expression increases radioiodine-sensitivity in poorly differential thyroid carcinoma via positively regulating NIS expression

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Luchuan; Lv, Bin; Chen, Bo; Guan, Ming; Sun, Yongfeng; Li, Haipeng; Zhang, Binbin; Ding, Changyuan; He, Shan; Zeng, Qingdong

    2015-07-10

    Dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with the loss of radioiodine uptake (RAIU) is often observed in clinical practice under radioiodine therapy, indicating the challenge for poor prognosis. MicroRNA (miRNA) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in many diseases; yet, the role of miRNAs in RAIU has not been generally investigated. Based on recent studies about miRNA expression in papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas, the expression profiles of several thyroid relative miRNAs were investigated in one DTC cell line, derived from normal DTC cells by radioiodine treatment. The top candidate miR-146b, with the most significant overexpression profiles in dedifferentiated cells, was picked up. Further research found that miR-146b could be negatively regulated by histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in normal cells, indicating the correlation between miR-146b and Na{sup +}/I{sup −} symporter (NIS)-mediated RAIU. Fortunately, it was confirmed that miR-146b could regulate NIS expression/activity; what is more important, miR-146b interference would contribute to the recovery of radioiodine-sensitivity in dedifferentiated cells via positively regulating NIS. In the present study, it was concluded that NIS-mediated RAIU could be modulated by miR-146b; accordingly, miR-146b might serve as one of targets to enhance efficacy of radioactive therapy against poorly differential thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). - Highlights: • Significant upregulated miR-146b was picked up from thyroid relative miRNAs in DTC. • MiR-146b was negatively regulated by HDAC3 in normal thyroid carcinoma cells. • NIS activity and expression could be regulated by miR-146b in thyroid carcinoma. • MiR-146b inhibition could recover the decreased radioiodine-sensitivity of DTC cells.

  10. Novel three-dimensional flower-like porous Al2O3 nanosheets anchoring NiS2 nanoparticles for high-efficiency hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yangyang; Zhang, Huijuan; Guan, Yongxin; Mu, Yanping; Wang, Yu

    2017-04-01

    In this contribution, we report unique flower-like porous γ-Al2O3 nanosheets anchoring uniform NiS2 nanoparticles, which are firstly fabricated through a common hydrothermal process and two-step calcinations. Different from the general strategy, the flower-like NiS2@Al2O3 are directly prepared by the precursor of Ni2Al(CO3)2(OH)3 nanosheets rather than adding Al2O3 coating later. This novel nanoarchitecture can efficiently disperse and confine the active nanoparticles, which can not only offer large specific surface area, but also hinder aggregation and peeling off from the substrates, thus to demonstrate superior HER activities, especially the long-time stability. In this work, the as-synthesized composite exhibits an onset potential of -126 mV and excellent durability of 3% decrease in potential at constant current of 10 mA/cm2 for 48 h.

  11. The E-NIS instrument on-board the ESA Euclid Dark Energy Mission: a general view after positive conclusion of the assessment phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenziano, L.; Zerbi, F. M.; Cimatti, A.; Bianco, A.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Butler, R. C.; Content, R.; Corcione, L.; de Rosa, A.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gianotti, F.; Giro, E.; Grange, R.; Leutenegger, P.; Ligori, S.; Martin, L.; Mandolesi, N.; Morgante, G.; Nicastro, L.; Riva, M.; Robberto, M.; Sharples, R.; Spanò, P.; Talbot, G.; Trifoglio, M.; Wink, R.; Zamkotsian, F.

    2010-07-01

    The Euclid Near-Infrared Spectrometer (E-NIS) Instrument was conceived as the spectroscopic probe on-board the ESA Dark Energy Mission Euclid. Together with the Euclid Imaging Channel (EIC) in its Visible (VIS) and Near Infrared (NIP) declinations, NIS formed part of the Euclid Mission Concept derived in assessment phase and submitted to the Cosmic Vision Down-selection process from which emerged selected and with extremely high ranking. The Definition phase, started a few months ago, is currently examining a substantial re-arrangement of the payload configuration due to technical and programmatic aspects. This paper presents the general lines of the assessment phase payload concept on which the positive down-selection judgments have been based.

  12. Enhancement of photocatalytic H2 evolution over TiO2 nano-sheet films by surface loading NiS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaopeng; Tang, Chunni

    2016-05-01

    NiS/TiO2 nano-sheet films (NiS/TiO2 NSFs) photocatalysts were prepared by loading NiS nanoparticles as noble metal-free cocatalysts on the surface of TiO2 films through a solvothermal method. The prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, UV-Vis absorption spectra and XPS analysis. The photocatalytic H2 evolution and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) experiments indicated that the NiS cocatalysts could efficiently promote the separation of photogenerated charge carriers in TiO2 and consequently enhance the H2 evolution activity. The hydrogen yield obtained from the optimal sample reached 4.31 μmol cm-2 at 3.0 h and the corresponding energy efficiency was about 0.26%, which was 21 times higher than that of pure TiO2 NSF. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of NiS cocatalyst on the improvement of the photocatalytic performance of TiO2 NSF was also proposed.

  13. In Situ Fabrication of CoS and NiS Nanomaterials Anchored on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Reversible Lithium Storage.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yingbin; Liang, Ming; Lou, Peili; Cui, Zhonghui; Guo, Xiangxin; Sun, Weiwei; Yu, Xuebin

    2016-06-15

    CoS and NiS nanomaterials anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets, synthesized via combination of hydrothermal with sulfidation process, are studied as high-capacity anode materials for the reversible lithium storage. The obtained CoS nanofibers and NiS nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed on rGO sheets without aggregation, forming the sheet-on-sheet composite structure. Such nanoarchitecture can not only facilitate ion/electron transport along the interfaces, but also effectively prevent metal-sulfide nanomaterials aggregation during the lithium reactions. Both the rGO-supported CoS nanofibers (NFs) and NiS nanoparticles (NPs) show superior lithium storage performance. In particular, the CoS NFs-rGO electrodes deliver the discharge capacity as high as 939 mA h g(-1) after the 100th cycle at 100 mA g(-1) with Coulombic efficiency above 98%. This strategy for construction of such composite structure can also synthesize other metal-sulfide-rGO nanomaterials for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Local disorder investigation in NiS(2-x)Se(x) using Raman and Ni K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Marini, C; Joseph, B; Caramazza, S; Capitani, F; Bendele, M; Mitrano, M; Chermisi, D; Mangialardo, S; Pal, B; Goyal, M; Iadecola, A; Mathon, O; Pascarelli, S; Sarma, D D; Postorino, P

    2014-11-12

    We report on Raman and Ni K-edge x-ray absorption investigations of a NiS(2-x)Se(x) (with x = 0.00, 0.50/0.55, 0.60, and 1.20) pyrite family. The Ni K-edge absorption edge shows a systematic shift going from an insulating phase (x = 0.00 and 0.50) to a metallic phase (x = 0.60 and 1.20). The near-edge absorption features show a clear evolution with Se doping. The extended x-ray absorption fine structure data reveal the evolution of the local structure with Se doping which mainly governs the local disorder. We also describe the decomposition of the NiS(2-x)Se(x) Raman spectra and investigate the weights of various phonon modes using Gaussian and Lorentzian profiles. The effectiveness of the fitting models in describing the data is evaluated by means of Bayes factor estimation. The Raman analysis clearly demonstrates the disorder effects due to Se alloying in describing the phonon spectra of NiS(2-x)Se(x) pyrites.

  15. Large Fermi Surface of Heavy Electrons at the Border of Mott Insulating State in NiS2

    DOE PAGES

    Friedemann, S.; Chang, H.; Gamża, M. B.; ...

    2016-05-12

    One early triumph of quantum physics is the explanation why some materials are metallic whereas others are insulating. While a treatment based on single electron states is correct for most materials this approach can fail spectacularly, when the electrostatic repulsion between electrons causes strong correlations. Not only can these favor new and subtle forms of matter, such as magnetism or superconductivity, they can even cause the electrons in a half-filled energy band to lock into position, producing a correlated, or Mott insulator. The transition into the Mott insulating state raises important fundamental questions. Foremost among these is the fate ofmore » the electronic Fermi surface and the associated charge carrier mass, as the Mott transition is approached. We report the first direct observation of the Fermi surface on the metallic side of a Mott insulating transition by high pressure quantum oscillatory measurements in NiS2. We find our results point at a large Fermi surface consistent with Luttinger's theorem and a strongly enhanced quasiparticle effective mass. These two findings are in line with central tenets of the Brinkman-Rice picture of the correlated metal near the Mott insulating state and rule out alternative scenarios in which the carrier concentration vanishes continuously at the metal-insulator transition.« less

  16. Large Fermi Surface of Heavy Electrons at the Border of Mott Insulating State in NiS2

    PubMed Central

    Friedemann, S.; Chang, H.; Gamża, M. B.; Reiss, P.; Chen, X.; Alireza, P.; Coniglio, W. A.; Graf, D.; Tozer, S.; Grosche, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    One early triumph of quantum physics is the explanation why some materials are metallic whereas others are insulating. While a treatment based on single electron states is correct for most materials this approach can fail spectacularly, when the electrostatic repulsion between electrons causes strong correlations. Not only can these favor new and subtle forms of matter, such as magnetism or superconductivity, they can even cause the electrons in a half-filled energy band to lock into position, producing a correlated, or Mott insulator. The transition into the Mott insulating state raises important fundamental questions. Foremost among these is the fate of the electronic Fermi surface and the associated charge carrier mass, as the Mott transition is approached. We report the first direct observation of the Fermi surface on the metallic side of a Mott insulating transition by high pressure quantum oscillatory measurements in NiS2. Our results point at a large Fermi surface consistent with Luttinger’s theorem and a strongly enhanced quasiparticle effective mass. These two findings are in line with central tenets of the Brinkman-Rice picture of the correlated metal near the Mott insulating state and rule out alternative scenarios in which the carrier concentration vanishes continuously at the metal-insulator transition. PMID:27174799

  17. The Water Reuse project: Sustainable waste water re-use technologies for irrigated land in NIS and southern European states; project overview and results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Elsen, E.; Doerr, S.; Ritsema, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    In irrigated areas in the New Independent States (NIS) and southern European States, inefficient use of conventional water resources occurs through incomplete wetting of soils, which causes accelerated runoff and preferential flow, and also through excessive evaporation associated with unhindered capillary rise. Furthermore, a largely unexploited potential exists to save conventional irrigation water by supplementation with organic-rich waste water, which, if used appropriately, can also lead to improvements to soil physical properties and soil nutrient and organic matter content. This project aims to (a) reduce irrigation water losses by developing, evaluating and promoting techniques that improve the wetting properties of soils, and (b) investigate the use of organic-rich waste water as a non-conventional water resource in irrigation and, in addition, as a tool in improving soil physical properties and soil nutrient and organic matter content. Key activities include (i) identifying, for the NIS and southern European partner countries, the soil type/land use combinations, for which the above approaches are expected to be most effective and their implementation most feasible, using physical and socio-economic research methods, and (ii) examining the water saving potential, physical, biological and chemical effects on soils of the above approaches, and also their impact on performance. Expected outputs include techniques for sustainable improvements in soil wettability management as a novel approach in water saving, detailed evaluation of the prospects and effects of using supplemental organic-rich waste waters in irrigation, an advanced process-based numerical hydrological model, fully adapted to quantify and upscale resulting water savings and nutrient and potential contaminant fluxes for irrigated areas, and identification of suitable areas in the NIS and Mediterranean (in soil, land use, legislative and socio-economic terms) for implementation.

  18. Composition and temperature dependent electronic structures of NiS2 -xSex alloys: First-principles dynamical mean-field theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Chang-Youn; Kang, Hanhim; Jang, Bo Gyu; Shim, Ji Hoon

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the evolution of the electronic structure of NiS2 -xSex alloys with varying temperature and composition x by using the combined approach of density-functional theory and dynamical mean-field theory. Adopting realistic alloy structures containing S and Se dimers, we map their electronic correlation strength on the phase diagram and observe the metal-insulator transition (MIT) at the composition x =0.5 , which is consistent with the experimental measurements. The temperature dependence of the local magnetic susceptibility is found to show a typical Curie-Weiss-like behavior in the insulating phase while it shows a constant Pauli-like behavior in the metallic phase. A comparison of the electronic structures for NiS2 and NiSe2 in different lattice structures suggests that the MIT in this alloy system can be classified as of bandwidth-control type, where the change in the hybridization strength between Ni d and chalcogen p orbitals is the most important parameter.

  19. The ground support equipment for the E-NIS instrument on-board the ESA-Euclid Dark Energy Mission in the baseline configuration presented in phase A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoglio, Massimo; Gianotti, Fulvio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Franceschi, Enrico; Nicastro, Luciano; Valenziano, Luca; Zerbi, Filippo Maria; Cimatti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    Euclid is a high-precision survey mission to map the geometry of the Dark Universe. The Euclid Mission concept presented in the Assessment Phase Study Report1 was selected by ESA on February 2010 to undergo a competitive Definition Phase. Euclid is a candidate for launch in the first slice of the Cosmic Vision Plan (M1/M2), with a possible launch date of 2018. In this paper we refer to the instrument baseline configuration identified in the Assessment Phase. It consisted of a Korsch telescope with a primary mirror of 1.2 m diameter and a focal plane hosting 3 scientific instruments, each with a field of view of 0.5 deg2: (1) E-VIS: a CCD based optical imaging channel, (2) E-NIP: a NIR imaging photometry channel, and (3) E-NIS: a NIR slitless spectral channel. We present the conceptual design developed in the Assessment Phase study for the Ground Support Equipment required to support the assembly, integration and verification operations at instrument level for the E-NIS baseline configuration, with particular regards to the scientific and calibration activities.

  20. Mechanisms and rates of proton transfer to coordinated carboxydithioates: studies on [Ni(S2CR){PhP(CH2CH2PPh2)2}](+) (R = Me, Et, Bu(n) or Ph).

    PubMed

    Alwaaly, Ahmed; Clegg, William; Henderson, Richard A; Probert, Michael R; Waddell, Paul G

    2015-02-21

    The complexes [Ni(S2CR)(triphos)]BPh4 (R = Me, Et, Bu(n) or Ph; triphos = PhP{CH2CH2PPh2}2) have been prepared and characterised. X-ray crystallography (for R = Et, Ph, C6H4Me-4, C6H4OMe-4 and C6H4Cl-4) shows that the geometry of the five-coordinate nickel in the cation is best described as distorted trigonal bipyramidal, containing a bidentate carboxydithioate ligand with the two sulfur atoms spanning axial and equatorial sites, the other axial site being occupied by the central phosphorus of triphos. The reactions of [Ni(S2CR)(triphos)](+) with mixtures of HCl and Cl(-) in MeCN to form equilibrium solutions containing [Ni(SH(S)CR)(triphos)](2+) have been studied using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The kinetics show that proton transfer is slower than the diffusion-controlled limit and involves at least two coupled equilibria. The first step involves the rapid association between [Ni(S2CR)(triphos)](+) and HCl to form the hydrogen-bonded precursor, {[Ni(S2CR)(triphos)](+)HCl} (K) and this is followed by the intramolecular proton transfer (k) to produce [Ni(SH(S)CR)(triphos)](2+). In the reaction of [Ni(S2CMe)(triphos)](+) the rate law is consistent with the carboxydithioate ligand undergoing chelate ring-opening after protonation. It seems likely that chelate ring-opening occurs for all [Ni(S2CR)(triphos)](+), but only with [Ni(S2CMe)(triphos)](+) is the protonation step sufficiently fast that chelate ring-opening is rate-limiting. With all other systems, proton transfer is rate-limiting. DFT calculations indicate that protonation can occur at either sulfur atom, but only protonation at the equatorial sulfur results in chelate ring-opening. The ways in which protonation of either sulfur atom complicates the analyses and interpretation of the kinetics are discussed.

  1. Nickel dithiolenes revisited: structures and electron distribution from density functional theory for the three-member electron-transfer series [Ni(S2C2Me2)2]0,1-,2-.

    PubMed

    Lim, B S; Fomitchev, D V; Holm, R H

    2001-08-13

    The complexes [Ni(S2C2Me2)2](z) (z = 0, 1-, 2-) have been isolated for the purpose of investigating their electronic structures in a reversible three-member electron-transfer series. Members are interrelated by reversible redox reactions with E(1/2)(0/1-) = -0.15 V and E(1/2)(1-/2-) = -1.05 V versus SCE in acetonitrile. The three complexes have nearly planar structures of idealized D(2)(h) symmetry. As the series is traversed in the reducing direction, Ni-S and C-S bond lengths increase; the chelate ring C-C bond length decreases from the neutral complex to the monoanion and does not change significantly in the dianion. Structural trends are compared with previous results for [Ni(S2C2R2)2)](1-,2-). Following the geometrical changes, values of nu(Ni)(-)(S) and nu(C)(-)(S) decrease, while the value of nu(C)(-)(C) increases with increased reduction. Geometry optimizations at the density functional theory (DFT) level were performed for all members of the series. Geometrical parameters obtained from the calculations are in good agreement with the experimental findings. The 5b(2g) orbital was identified as the LUMO in [Ni(S2C2Me2)2], the SOMO in [Ni(S2C2Me2)2](1-), and the HOMO in [Ni(S2C2Me2)2]2-. Unlike in the situation in the [M(CO)2-(S2C2Me2)2]z series (M = Mo, W; z = 0, 1-, 2-), the apparent contribution from the metal d orbital in the electroactive orbital is not constant. In the present series, the d(xz) contribution increases from 13 to 20 to 39% upon passing from the neutral to the monoanionic to the dianionic complex. Accurate calculation of EPR g-values of [Ni(S2C2Me2)2]1- by DFT serves as a test for the reliability of the electronic structure calculations.

  2. [New aspects of polytrauma treatment - current facts and developments: report of the first annual conference of the Committee on Emergency Medicine, Intensive Care and Trauma Management (Sektion NIS)].

    PubMed

    Trentzsch, H; Wölfl, C; Matthes, G; Paffrath, T; Lefering, R; Flohé, S

    2013-11-01

    Taking care of severely injured patients is a complex and ambitious mission. The committee on emergency medicine, intensive care and trauma management of the German Society of Trauma Surgery (Sektion NIS) has accepted this challenge. On the occasion of the release of the annual report of the TraumaRegistry DGU®, the committee held its first annual congress in order to provide members and an intrigued audience with current trends and results from the latest research in national trauma care ranging from the animal facility to the S3 guidelines. Topics of focus were new realizations based on data from the TraumaRegistry DGU® and means of quality assurance in trauma care. This article gives a report on the meeting and summarizes the major results of the presented studies and the latest deployments in this field of trauma research.

  3. Operando QEXAFS studies of Ni₂P during thiophene hydrodesulfurization: direct observation of Ni-S bond formation under reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takahiro; Bando, Kyoko K; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Takakusagi, Satoru; Oyama, S Ted; Asakura, Kiyotaka

    2012-03-01

    Structural changes in Ni(2)P/MCM-41 were followed by quick extended X-ray absorption fine structure (QEXAFS) and were directly related to changes in X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) which had been used earlier for the study of the active catalyst phase. An equation is proposed to correct the transient QEXAFS spectra up to second-order in time to remove spectral distortions induced by structural changes occurring during measurements. A good correlation between the corrected QEXAFS and the XANES spectral changes was found, giving support to the conclusions derived from the XANES in the previous work, namely that the formation of a Ni-S bond in a surface NiPS phase is involved in the active site for the hydrodesulfurization reaction.

  4. Water transport by Na+-coupled cotransporters of glucose (SGLT1) and of iodide (NIS). The dependence of substrate size studied at high resolution

    PubMed Central

    Zeuthen*, Thomas; Belhage, Bo; Zeuthen, Emil

    2006-01-01

    The relation between substrate and water transport was studied in Na+-coupled cotransporters of glucose (SGLT1) and of iodide (NIS) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The water transport was monitored from changes in oocyte volume at a resolution of 20 pl, more than one order of magnitude better than previous investigations. The rate of cotransport was monitored as the clamp current obtained from two-electrode voltage clamp. The high resolution data demonstrated a fixed ratio between the turn-over of the cotransporter and the rate of water transport. This applied to experiments in which the rate of cotransport was changed by isosmotic application of substrate, by rapid changes in clamp voltage, or by poisoning. Transport of larger substrates gave rise to less water transport. For the rabbit SGLT1, 378 ± 20 (n = 18 oocytes) water molecules were cotransported along with the 2 Na+ ions and the glucose-analogue α-MDG (MW 194); using the larger sugar arbutin (MW 272) this number was reduced by a factor of at least 0.86 ± 0.03 (15). For the human SGLT1 the respective numbers were 234 ± 12 (18) and 0.85 ± 0.8 (7). For NIS, 253 ± 16 (12) water molecules were cotransported for each 2 Na+ and 1 thiocyanate (SCN−, MW 58), with I− as anion (MW 127) only 162 ± 11 (19) water molecules were cotransported. The effect of substrate size suggests a molecular mechanism for water cotransport and is opposite to what would be expected from unstirred layer effects. Data were analysed by a model which combined cotransport and osmosis at the membrane with diffusion in the cytoplasm. The combination of high resolution measurements and precise modelling showed that water transport across the membrane can be explained by cotransport of water in the membrane proteins and that intracellular unstirred layers effects are minute. PMID:16322051

  5. Influence of socio-economic crisis on epidemiological characteristic of suicide in the region of Nis (southeastern part of Serbia, Yugoslavia).

    PubMed

    Petrovich, B; Tiodorovich, B; Kocich, B; Cvetkovich, M; Blagojevich, L

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that gross social crises greatly influence the change in epidemiological features of suicide. The aim of this study is to determine whether the social-economic crisis in Yugoslavia influenced the change in epidemiological features of suicide in the region of Nis (southeastern Serbia). The material included death certificates for 1987-1999. The rates were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants (1991 Census) and standardization was performed by direct method (Segi's world population was used as standard population). Generally, trends for suicide rates in the region of Nis from 1987 to 1999 have decreasing tendency among both sexes. The average annual suicide rate in the region during the period 1987/1989 (relatively economically and politically stable) was 14.8 among males, and 6.8 among females. In 1999 (maximum influence of socio-economical and political crisis) suicide rate among males was 13.8 and among females it was 3.7. The decrease in suicide rate in females can be observed in all age groups, and in males in the age groups 15-29 and 50-64. During 1999, compared to 1987/1989, the increase in the number of suicides is perceived in the summer months (1999 -41.5%; 95% CI: 30.8-52.2%; 1987/ 1989 -23.8%; 95% CI: 18.9-28.7%), as well as the decrease of suicide on Monday (1987/1989 -21.2%; 95% CI: 16.2-26.1%; 1999 -9.8%; 95% CI: 3.4 16.2%). During 1999 the rate of suicides committed by fire arms increased (from 8.1 to 14.5%), while there was a decrease in poisoning, in both males (from 26.3 to 9.7%; p < 0.05) and females (from 39.1 to 10.0%; p < 0.05). During 1999 significant changes in epidemiological features of suicide were registered, compared to 1987/1989. These changes were probably enhanced by changed socio-economic factors (primarily war action and the bombing of Serbia, as well as the decline of standard of living and other aspects of economic and political crisis), which requires additional, more complete and thorough research.

  6. The persistence of gender and racial disparities in vascular lower extremity amputation: an examination of HCUP-NIS data (2002-2011).

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Kristin M; Chevan, Julia

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine trends in racial and gender disparities in the severity of lower extremity amputation among individuals with peripheral artery disease (PAD) over the period of a decade (2002-2011). This is a longitudinal secondary analysis of data from the Healthcare Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Survey (HCUP-NIS) for the years 2002-2011. Level of amputation was determined from ICD-9-CM procedure and coded as either transfemoral (TF) or transtibial (TT). The main predictors were gender and race; covariates including age, race, income, insurance status and presence of vascular disease were incorporated as control variables in regression analysis. A total 121,587 cases of non-traumatic dysvascular amputations were identified. Female gender (odds ratio (OR) 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32, 1.39) and black race (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.12, 1.23) are both significantly associated with increased odds for receiving TF amputation with no change in these odds over the decade of study. Other covariates with significant associations with TF amputation level include increased age (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.99, 1.09), low income (OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.15, 1.27), Medicaid insurance (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.29, 1.44), Medicare insurance (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.21, 1.32), and cerebrovascular disease (OR 2.12; 95% CI 2.03, 2.23). In conclusion, although overall rates of amputation have decreased, disparities in level of amputation related to female gender and black race have not significantly changed over time. Higher-level amputation has significant consequences from a quality-of-life, medical and economic perspective.

  7. International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas

    PubMed Central

    Galil, B.S.; Marchini, A.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Minchin, D.; Narščius, A.; Ojaveer, H.; Olenin, S.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present. PMID:24899770

  8. Earth-Abundant Metal Pyrites (FeS2, CoS2, NiS2, and Their Alloys) for Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution and Polysulfide Reduction Electrocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many materials have been explored as potential hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts to generate clean hydrogen fuel via water electrolysis, but none so far compete with the highly efficient and stable (but cost prohibitive) noble metals. Similarly, noble metals often excel as electrocatalytic counter electrode materials in regenerative liquid-junction photoelectrochemical solar cells, such as quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) that employ the sulfide/polysulfide redox electrolyte as the hole mediator. Here, we systematically investigate thin films of the earth-abundant pyrite-phase transition metal disulfides (FeS2, CoS2, NiS2, and their alloys) as promising alternative electrocatalysts for both the HER and polysulfide reduction. Their electrocatalytic activity toward the HER is correlated to their composition and morphology. The emergent trends in their performance suggest that cobalt plays an important role in facilitating the HER, with CoS2 exhibiting highest overall performance. Additionally, we demonstrate the high activity of the transition metal pyrites toward polysulfide reduction and highlight the particularly high intrinsic activity of NiS2, which could enable improved QDSSC performance. Furthermore, structural disorder introduced by alloying different transition metal pyrites could increase their areal density of active sites for catalysis, leading to enhanced performance. PMID:25247028

  9. Earth-Abundant Metal Pyrites (FeS2, CoS2, NiS2, and Their Alloys) for Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution and Polysulfide Reduction Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Faber, Matthew S; Lukowski, Mark A; Ding, Qi; Kaiser, Nicholas S; Jin, Song

    2014-09-18

    Many materials have been explored as potential hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts to generate clean hydrogen fuel via water electrolysis, but none so far compete with the highly efficient and stable (but cost prohibitive) noble metals. Similarly, noble metals often excel as electrocatalytic counter electrode materials in regenerative liquid-junction photoelectrochemical solar cells, such as quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) that employ the sulfide/polysulfide redox electrolyte as the hole mediator. Here, we systematically investigate thin films of the earth-abundant pyrite-phase transition metal disulfides (FeS2, CoS2, NiS2, and their alloys) as promising alternative electrocatalysts for both the HER and polysulfide reduction. Their electrocatalytic activity toward the HER is correlated to their composition and morphology. The emergent trends in their performance suggest that cobalt plays an important role in facilitating the HER, with CoS2 exhibiting highest overall performance. Additionally, we demonstrate the high activity of the transition metal pyrites toward polysulfide reduction and highlight the particularly high intrinsic activity of NiS2, which could enable improved QDSSC performance. Furthermore, structural disorder introduced by alloying different transition metal pyrites could increase their areal density of active sites for catalysis, leading to enhanced performance.

  10. Elementary! A Nuclear Forensics Workshop Teaches Vital Skills to International Practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Minnema, Lindsay T.

    2014-04-01

    The article describes the Nuclear Forensics Workshop sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) and hosted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory October 28-November 8, 2013 in Richland,Washington. Twenty-six participants from 10 countries attended the workshop. Experts from from Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Pacific Northwest national laboratories collaborated with an internationally recognized cadre of experts from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and other U.S. agencies, IAEA, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the United Kingdom Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), and the European Union Joint Research Center Institute for Transuranium Elements, to train practitioners in basic methodologies of nuclear forensic examinations.

  11. International Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  12. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  13. Internal shim

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Clyde H.; Blizinski, Theodore W.

    2003-05-13

    An internal shim used to accurately measure spaces in conjunction with a standard small probe has a shim top and a chassis. The internal shim is adjustably fixed within the space to be measured using grippers that emerge from the chassis and which are controlled by an arm pivotably attached to the shim top. A standard small probe passes through the shim along guides on the chassis and measures the distance between the exterior of the chassis and the boundary. By summing the measurements on each side of the chassis and the width of the chassis, the dimension of the space can be determined to within 0.001 inches.

  14. International Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Three reports discuss the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; the Frankfurt Book Fair, focusing on electronics; and Canadian library trends, including resource sharing, technology projects, information policy, censorship, services for persons with disabilities, construction projects, and library education and…

  15. Internet International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    1995-01-01

    The unexpectedly rapid expansion of the Internet in Eastern and Central Europe is having a significant effect on institutions of higher education, still suffering from decades of isolation. The benefits include global access to information and cost-effective communications. A number of international efforts are under way to expand Internet access,…

  16. International Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Completes a discussion of a systems model of distance education (in articles since May 1999) focusing on the most complex level, international. Discussion includes transfer of technology from United States universities to developing nations, the free market, and the age of the global economy. Presents a list of "early indicators" of changes in…

  17. International Entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pests and diseases of plants in agriculture are a shared international problem. Yet some of the very places that pest invaders come from often lack the institutional structure and organization necessary to help in understanding the biology of the pest or disease. Strengthening entomology by stimulat...

  18. International Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabb, Winston; Bender, David R.; Haycock, Ken; Horodyski, John

    2001-01-01

    Includes three annual reports: one from the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, the Special Libraries Association, and a report on innovations in Canadian libraries that discusses electronic initiatives, partnerships, books and publishing, school libraries, national issues, local challenges, and funding. (LRW)

  19. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  20. Operating internationally

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, R.S.

    1994-02-01

    When Enron Power Corp. took over a 28 MW power facility at the former US Naval base in Subic Bay, the Philippines, the company was required to employ 139 people to run the plant. This large labor force was necessary not because of the plant's operational needs, but because of local labor practices and unemployment pressures. Independent power companies have become all too familiar with the high cost and complexity of developing projects in emerging international markets. Some of the most significant issues involve taxation, unfamiliar legal systems, changing regulations, and foreign investment restrictions. In addition, questions about currency exchange, national credit worthiness, and political stability add to the difficulty of international development. However, one of the most daunting challenges centers not on development, but on long-term operations and maintenance (O M). A key concern is finding qualified labor. Most developers and O M companies agree that local people should run the plant, with the top person, or persons, thoroughly trained in the developer's company philosophy.

  1. International Education for Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moebius, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Describes an international trade education program offered by Waukesha (WI) County Technical College. The program includes international business principles, international marketing, cultural awareness, business Spanish, international documentation, transportation, and finance. (JOW)

  2. Community College Internal Auditors: Internal Audit Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ronna; And Others

    This guidebook includes information compiled by the "Audit Manual" committee of Community College Internal Auditors (CCIA) from several California community college districts regarding their internal auditing practices. The first section of the guidebook discusses the purpose of internal audits, indicating that audits assist members of…

  3. Surveying your internal customers.

    PubMed

    Weir, V L

    1998-06-01

    Internal customers often are overlooked when business techniques are applied. By applying common external customer satisfaction survey techniques to internal business functions, one hospital identified areas for improvement.

  4. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... a malaria-endemic area (See Chapter 3, Malaria ). Tuberculosis All internationally adopted children should be screened for tuberculosis (TB) after arriving in the United States. Internationally ...

  5. Interactions between Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: braconidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), larval parasitoids of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hymenopteran parasitoids introduced from China are currently being released in Michigan and surrounding states in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmare, an Asian beetle species responsible for widespread mortality of Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North A...

  6. BPPD Internal Application Checklists

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA, Office of Pesticide Programs, BPPD internal application checklists for internal guidance to assist BPPD employees in their evaluation of applications submitted to BPPD by applicants and/or registrants.

  7. International Space Station Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, William V., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The overview of the International Space Station (ISS) is comprised of the program vision and mission; Space Station uses; definition of program phases; as well as descriptions and status of several scheduled International Space Station Overview assembly flights.

  8. Fishbone and internal kinks

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, H.; Park, W.; Monticello, D.; Izzo, R.; White, R.; McGuire, K.; Manickam, J.; Goldston, R.

    1983-07-01

    The internal-kink mode, combined with neutral-beam heating and beam losses, appears to be responsible for the fishbone soft x-ray oscillations in PDX. Nonlinear simulations of both ideal and resistive kinks are presented and shown to be consistent with experimental observations. The internal kink may also be important in low-beta internal disruptions.

  9. Improving Internal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonus, Thaddeus, Ed.

    Guidelines for developing the internal communications of colleges and universities, researching internal communication needs, and increasing information flow through traditional and nontraditional media are provided in 11 articles. Titles and authors include the following: "Work for an Open Internal Communication Policy" (Thaddeus Bonus); "Five…

  10. International utilization and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Stanley R.

    1989-01-01

    The international framework of the Space Station Freedom Program is described. The discussion covers the U.S. space policy, international agreements, international Station elements, overall program management structure, and utilization and operations management. Consideration is also given to Freedom's user community, Freedom's crew, pressurized payload and attached payload accommodations, utilization and operations planning, user integration, and user operations.

  11. National and International Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, David

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Canadian government policy dealing with internal matters of party politics and international questions of human rights. Describes the political situation in Burma as an oppressive military regime. Urges the Canadian government to take a firmer stand to influence the international community against tolerating regimes that are guilty of…

  12. Third International Meeting on Next Generation Safeguards:Safeguards-by-Design at Enrichment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Jon D.; McGinnis, Brent R; Morgan, James B; Whitaker, Michael; Lockwood, Mr. Dunbar; Shipwash, Jacqueline L

    2011-01-01

    The Third International Meeting on Next Generation Safeguards (NGS3) was hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) in Washington, D.C. on 14-15 December 2010; this meeting focused on the Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) concept. There were approximately 100 participants from 13 countries, comprised of safeguards policy and technical experts from government and industry. Representatives also were present from the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), the European Atomic Energy Agency (Euratom), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The primary objective of this meeting was to exchange views and provide recommendations on implementation of the SBD concept for four specific nuclear fuel cycle facility types: gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs), GEN III and GEN IV reactors, aqueous reprocessing plants, and mixed oxide fuel fabrication facilities. The general and facility-specific SBD documents generated from the four working groups, which were circulated for comment among working group participants, are intended to provide a substantive contribution to the IAEA's efforts to publish SBD guidance for these specific types of nuclear facilities in the near future. The IAEA has described the SBD concept as an approach in which 'international safeguards are fully integrated into the design process of a new nuclear facility from the initial planning through design, construction, operation, and decommissioning.' As part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), the DOE is working to establish SBD as a global norm through DOE laboratory studies, international workshops, engagement with industry and the IAEA, and setting an example through its use in new nuclear facilities in the United States. This paper describes the discussion topics and final recommendations of the Enrichment Facilities Working

  13. International safeguards data authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M.; Manatt, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.

  14. International Standard for Phenoxymethylpenicillin

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J. H.; Lightbown, J. W.; Mussett, Marjorie V.

    1959-01-01

    A batch of highly purified phenoxymethylpenicillin has been examined by eight laboratories in seven different countries, and has been assayed against the phenoxymethylpenicillin standard of the Food and Drug Administration of the US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The material examined has been established as the International Standard for Phenoxymethylpenicillin, and the International Unit of Phenoxymethylpenicillin is defined as the activity contained in 0.000590 mg of the International Standard. PMID:14405369

  15. International environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, L.K.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a survey of the global international movement for protection of the human environment. It describes the expanding dimensions of international environmental policy, clarifies that policy's present status, and provides a record of events of continuing historical significance. The author calls attention to the need for international agreements and proposals for such vital global environmental issues as climate change, disintegration of the stratospheric ozone layer, and long-range trans-boundary air pollution.

  16. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  17. International migration, international relations and foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C

    1989-01-01

    Recent literature on migration, international relations, and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking mid-range generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state. Especially through the use of comparative perspectives available from domestic policy making studies and from the field of international comparative public policy, this approach offers the opportunity to fix empirically the political roles of transnational social forces, which often present themselves as participants in domestic policy contests. Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy.

  18. International Cooperation at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawney, Timothy; Feldstein, Karen

    International cooperation is a cornerstone principle of NASA’s activities, especially within the activities of the Science Mission Directorate. Nearly two thirds of the flight missions in which NASA leads or participates involve international cooperation. Numerous ground based activities also rely on international cooperation, whether because of unique expertise, unique geography, or the need for a global response. Going forward, in an era of tighter budgets and a more integrated global perspective, NASA and the rest of the space agencies around the world will be forced to work more closely together, in a broader array of activities than ever before, in order to be able to afford to push the boundaries of space exploration. The goal of this presentation is to provide an overview of NASA’s current international science cooperative activities. It will include a discussion of why NASA conducts international cooperation and look at the mechanisms through which international cooperation can occur at NASA, including peer-to-peer development of relationships. It will also discuss some of the limiting factors of international cooperation, such as export control, and ways in which to manage those constraints. Finally, the presentation would look at some of the present examples where NASA is working to increase international cooperation and improve coordination. Case studies will be used to demonstrate these mechanisms and concepts. For example, NASA continues to participate in international coordination groups such as the International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG) and International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), but is expanding into new areas as well. NASA is one of the leaders in expanding and improving international coordination in the area of Near-Earth Object detection, characterization, and mitigation. Having participated in the first meetings of such groups as the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) and Space Missions Planning

  19. International Education (Working Paper).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruson, Edward S.

    The history, objectives, and funding patterns for international education are discussed. Attention is directed toward the language and area study centers of the U.S. Office of Education, undergraduate/graduate and scholarly exchange programs, and the support of advanced research in international studies. The main source of funds for language and…

  20. International Perspectives. Chapter 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains seven papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities that provide an international perspective on the therapeutic community (TC) movement as it is today. Papers include: (1) "What's Happening on an International Level" (William B. O'Brien); (2) "Therapeutic Communities of America"…

  1. International Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schabel, H. G.

    The International Resource Management program enables undergraduate students of the University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, College of Natural Resources to complete an academic minor in International Resource Management. The program attempts to alert students and faculty to global environmental issues and their interconnectedness with a variety of…

  2. International Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    This article, with a focus on North American postsecondary education, identifies international students as a strategic enrollment management institutional priority; presents themes in the international student retention, satisfaction, and success research literature; and describes related best practices. It also presents the findings from an…

  3. Alberta's International Education Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Learning and Teaching Resources Branch.

    Globalization is driving rapid change in knowledge, skills, and innovation. The economic well-being of future generations of Albertans depends on investment in education today to ensure that the knowledge and skills acquired continues to be in demand in international communities. International student recruitment in both the basic education and…

  4. Teaching International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, James M.

    The accelerated pace of society suggests that social education be clearly formulated from a conceptual golobal framework, recognizing the oneness of earth and man's sharing of a common fate, and that the curriculum be designed from a point of view toward improving international understanding. Effective approaches in international relations…

  5. International Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Richard F.

    In response to global changes and a growing focus on international affairs, Foothill and De Anza Colleges have developed a number of international education programs. Since their beginnings, both colleges have hosted full-time students from other countries under the F-1 Visa Program. Another program, Campus Abroad, is a partnership arrangement…

  6. Publishing International Counseling Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…

  7. International. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Dee Anna, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on international issues from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "The Management of Technological Change within Faculties in International American Schools" (Martine Audeoud); (2) "Going Global: Using a Website Development Project To…

  8. International Education Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This curriculum guide is intended to integrate international education into the curriculum of elementary and secondary schools in Washington State. Section 1, "Introduction," comprises a brief list of statistical data about Washington and the world, and a copy of the 1987 Washington State international education legislation. Section 2,…

  9. International Terrorism: Soviet Connectivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    International terrorists may only be remotely part of a larger target group such as a government and Institu- tion or even military organization. People are...the nationality of the target group or the terrorists."(7:34) Waugh sums up the elements of International terrorism by . . ." the qualifications

  10. International Trade and Protectionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  11. New internal multi-range resistors for ac voltage calibration by using TVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Rasha S. M.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate calibration of ac voltages up to 1000 V by using thermal converters requires range resistors connected in series with the converter. The combination of a thermal converter and range resistor is known as the thermal voltage converter. In this paper, multi-range internal range resistors are designed and implemented in the National Institute for Standards (NIS), Egypt to cover the ac voltage ranges from 10 V to 750 V. The range resistor values are 2 kΩ, 10 kΩ, 20 kΩ, 40 kΩ, 100 kΩ, and 150 kΩ to cover the voltage ranges 10 V, 50 V, 100 V, 200 V, 500 V, and 750 V, respectively. The six range resistors are mounted in series with a single-junction thermo-element in the same box to provide a new thermal voltage converter. The required range resistor is selected by using a six-pin selector switch. Each resistor is connected to a selector pin. The new thermal voltage converter ranges are automatically calibrated against other standard thermal voltage converters at different frequencies by using a LabVIEW program to determine their ac-dc transfer difference at each range. The expanded uncertainties are estimated according to the GUM for all ranges at different frequencies. The performance of the new thermal voltage converter is also evaluated by comparing its ac-dc differences and its accuracy in measuring the ac voltage at different frequencies with a traditional thermal voltage converter.

  12. The Intercalibration of SOHO EIT, CDS-NIS, and TRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David H.; Warren, Harry P.

    2006-05-01

    Using coordinated observations of a quiet coronal region, we study the intercalibration of the CDS and EIT instruments on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE). We derive the differential emission measure (DEM) distribution from CDS spectral line intensities and convolve it with EIT and TRACE temperature response functions, calculated with the latest atomic data from the CHIANTI database, to predict count rates in their observing channels. We examine different analysis methods and briefly discuss some more advanced aspects of atomic modeling such as the density dependence of the ionization fractions. We investigate the implications for our study using data from the ADAS database. We find that our CDS DEM can predict the TRACE and EIT 171 and 195 Å channel count rates to within 25%. However, the accuracy of the predictions depends on the ionization fractions and elemental abundances used. The TRACE 284 Å and EIT 284 and 304 Å filter predictions do not agree well with the observations, even after taking the contribution from the optically thick He II 304 Å line to the TRACE 284 Å channel into account. The different CDS DEM solutions we derive using different ionization fractions produce fairly similar results: the majority of the CDS line intensities used are reproduced to within 20% with only around one-fifth reproduced to worse than 50%. However, the comparison provides us with further clues with which to explain the discrepancies found for some lines, and highlights the need for accurate equilibrium ionization balance calculations even at low density.

  13. Carcinome épidermoide du pénis

    PubMed Central

    Naim, Asmaa; Zakouri, Fatim-Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Penile tumors are the rarest male urogenital tract tumors (1%). Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histologic type (95%). Radical surgical excision, though often mutilating, remains the best treatment for localized stages, in terms of local control (6% local recurrence). There are other therapeutic weapons and their possible indications should be adapted to the locoregional extension and at a distance from the primary tumor. We report the case of Mr AS aged 61, without particular pathological antecedents, who consulted, 6 years before, for an ulcerated burgeoning in the anterior surface of the penile bleeding on contact, which extended along the penis, without involving the glans penis. Evolution was marked by tumor progression with extension to the anterior pelvic wall. The patient went into a critical state of hemorrhagic shock. After stabilizing the hemodynamic status, a biopsy of the penis lesion confirmed the diagnosis of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. An evaluation of the extent of loco-regional recurrence and distant metastasis showed pulmonary micronodules in the right lung. The case was discussed at the Multidisciplinary Consultative Meeting and patient was deemed inoperable and offered palliative chemotherapy. The prognosis of advanced stages of penis cancer is reserved; their frequency in our context is related to the modesty of patients, which explains the causes of delay in medical examination. Only socio-cultural awareness allows early diagnosis and, therefore, a better prognosis. PMID:27231503

  14. Cancer from internal emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.

    1995-10-01

    Irradiation from internal emitters, or internally deposited radionuclides, is an important component of radiation exposures encountered in the workplace, home, or general environment. Long-term studies of human populations exposed to various internal emitters by different routes of exposure are producing critical information for the protection of workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to examine recent developments and discuss their potential importance for understanding lifetime cancer risks from internal emitters. The major populations of persons being studied for lifetime health effects from internally deposited radionuclides are well known: Lung cancer in underground miners who inhaled Rn progeny, liver cancer from persons injected with the Th-containing radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast, bone cancer from occupational or medical intakes of {sup 226}Ra or medical injections of {sup 224}Ra, and thyroid cancer from exposures to iodine radionuclides in the environment or for medical purposes.

  15. Internal tide oceanic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhongxiang

    2016-09-01

    A concept of internal tide oceanic tomography (ITOT) is proposed to monitor ocean warming on a global scale. ITOT is similar to acoustic tomography, but that work waves are internal tides. ITOT detects ocean temperature changes by precisely measuring travel time changes of long-range propagating internal tides. The underlying principle is that upper ocean warming strengthens ocean stratification and thus increases the propagation speed of internal tides. This concept is inspired by recent advances in observing internal tides by satellite altimetry. In particular, a plane wave fit method can separately resolve multiple internal tidal waves and thus accurately determines the phase of each wave. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of ITOT. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the yearly time series of travel time changes of the M2 internal tide is closely correlated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation index. In the North Atlantic, significant interannual variations and bidecadal trends are observed and consistent with the changes in ocean heat content measured by Argo floats. ITOT offers a long-term, cost-effective, environmentally friendly technique for monitoring global ocean warming. Future work is needed to quantify the accuracy of this technique.

  16. Waves: Internal Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Oceanic internal tides are internal waves with tidal periodicities. They are ubiquitous throughout the ocean, although generally more pronounced near large bathymetric features such as mid-ocean ridges and continental slopes. The internal vertical displacements associated with these waves can be extraordinarily large. Near some shelf breaks where the surface tides are strong, internal displacements (e.g., of an isothermal surface) can exceed 200 meters. Displacements of 10 meters in the open ocean are not uncommon. The associated current velocities are usually comparable to or larger than the currents of the surface tide. On continental shelves internal tides can occasionally generate packets of internal solitons, which are detectable in remote sensing imagery. Other common nonlinear features are generation of higher harmonics (e.g., 6-hr waves) and wave breaking. Internal tides are known to be an important energy source for mixing of shelf waters. Recent research suggests that they may also be a significant energy source for deep-ocean mixing.

  17. NASA International Environmental Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie; Valek, Susan

    2010-01-01

    For nearly five decades, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been preeminent in space exploration. NASA has landed Americans on the moon, robotic rovers on Mars, and led cooperative scientific endeavors among nations aboard the International Space Station. But as Earth's population increases, the environment is subject to increasing challenges and requires more efficient use of resources. International partnerships give NASA the opportunity to share its scientific and engineering expertise. They also enable NASA to stay aware of continually changing international environmental regulations and global markets for materials that NASA uses to accomplish its mission. Through international partnerships, NASA and this nation have taken the opportunity to look globally for solutions to challenges we face here on Earth. Working with other nations provides NASA with collaborative opportunities with the global science/engineering community to explore ways in which to protect our natural resources, conserve energy, reduce the use of hazardous materials in space and earthly applications, and reduce greenhouse gases that potentially affect all of Earth's inhabitants. NASA is working with an ever-expanding list of international partners including the European Union, the European Space Agency and, especially, the nation of Portugal. Our common goal is to foster a sustainable future in which partners continue to explore the universe while protecting our home planet's resources for future generations. This brochure highlights past, current, and future initiatives in several important areas of international collaboration that can bring environmental, economic, and other benefits to NASA and the wider international space community.

  18. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  19. International energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  20. Internal Swash and Surf

    PubMed Central

    Emery, K. O.; Gunnerson, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    114 temperature sections, each containing an average of 10 bathythermograms, show that internal waves commonly become altered on crossing the shoaling bottom of the continental shelf in Santa Monica Bay, Calif. The alteration takes the form of internal swash (in which the lower isotherms reach farther landward than would be expected from their depth above the outer shelf or above deeper bottom) and of internal surf (that is, denoted by temperature inversions, isolated boluses of colder water at the bottom, and complex short wave-length variations of isotherms). PMID:16592105

  1. The internal customer.

    PubMed

    Labovitz, G H; Lowenhaupt, M

    1993-01-01

    To realize the full potential of CQI, the needs of internal customers throughout the health care organization must be met. This is best done through a collaborative customer-supplier dialogue, where suppliers take the initiative to understand their internal customers' needs and make their own requirements clear. Unfortunately, physicians--the most critical group of internal customers--are unaccustomed to collaborative efforts and are often unwilling to participate in CQI training. The solution is to use the customer-supplier dialogue to understand physicians' unique needs so that they can be trained effectively and drawn into the CQI process.

  2. Internal dosimetry - a review.

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Charles Augustus

    2004-06-01

    The field history and current status of internal dosimetry is reviewed in this article. Elements of the field that are reviewed include standards and models, derivation of dose coefficients and intake retention fractions, bioassay measurements, and intake and dose calculations. In addition, guidance is developed and provided as to the necessity of internal dosimetry for a particular facility or operation and methodology for implementing a program. A discussion of the purposes of internal dosimetry is included as well as recommendations for future development and direction.

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; stocks from 1973 through 1995, and trade from 1985 through 1995.

  4. Xenon International Automated Control

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-05

    The Xenon International Automated Control software monitors, displays status, and allows for manual operator control as well as fully automatic control of multiple commercial and PNNL designed hardware components to generate and transmit atmospheric radioxenon concentration measurements every six hours.

  5. Geoscientists for international development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hastings, David A.

    1980-01-01

    Professional societies are usually concerned with the advancement of scientific knowledge, but a relative newcomer to the international scene has a different focus - geoscience development in the Third World. David Hastings, a member of AGID, explains.

  6. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  7. International Understanding Through Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, William G.

    1977-01-01

    The American Council on International Sports (ACIS), with a State Department grant, planned, organized, and conducted a program designed to revolutionize physical education and sports in all Iranian public schools. Some of the results are discussed. (LBH)

  8. Internal displacement in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for “victims of armed conflict,” with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia’s unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement. PMID:28228997

  9. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  10. Fogarty International Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toronto, CEO of Grand Challenges Canada, Former Fogarty bioethics grantee > More Viewpoints from researchers Home Sub Feature ... 2017 Global Health Matters newsletter Funding News International Bioethics Training Due May 18 Global Infectious Disease Research ...

  11. International Student Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  12. International resources law

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  13. National narcissism: Internal dimensions and international correlates.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huajian; Gries, Peter

    2013-08-01

    In studies conducted in the United States and China, we explored the impact of national narcissism, grandiosity, and entitlement, demonstrating that: (a) national narcissism was distinct from both individual narcissism and collective self-esteem (patriotism); (b) national entitlement and national grandiosity constituted two distinct dimensions of national narcissism; and (c) national narcissism, national grandiosity, and national entitlement, but not individual narcissism, were uniquely predictive of political attitudes, foreign policy preferences, and purchase intentions. Together, these findings provided convergent evidence for the utility of national narcissism and its two internal dimensions, national entitlement and national grandiosity.

  14. International Cometary Explorer (ICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    NASA spacecraft, originally known as ISEE-3 (International Sun-Earth Explorer). First spacecraft to encounter a comet. Launched in August 1978. After completing its original mission, it was reactivated and diverted to pass through the tail of Comet Giacobini-Zinner on 11 September 1985. It also observed Halley's Comet from a distance of 28 million km in March 1986. (See also INTERNATIONAL SUN-EAR...

  15. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This monthly publication provides current international oil data. The Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  16. International energy outlook 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    The report presents the current Energy Information Administration (EIA) assessment of the long-term outlook for international energy markets. The report is provided, as are other EIA reports, as a statistical service for use by managers and international energy analysts and not as a government energy plan. Current U.S. Government policies and foreign government policies are assumed to hold over the projection interval, which extends to the year 2010.

  17. (International meetings on ecology)

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, D.L.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Turner, M.G.

    1990-09-25

    the travelers attended the Fifth International Congress of Ecology (INTECOL) in Yokohama, Japan, and two presented invited papers and chaired symposia. One traveler also attended the OJI International Seminar in Gifu, Japan and the Fukuoka Symposium on Theoretical Ecology in Fukuoka, Japan and presented invited papers. At these scientific gatherings, a large number of symposia and specific presentations were relevant to current research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), especially in the areas of landscape dynamics, plant physiology, and aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Improving Internal Customer Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    sector to find a morse comprehensive model. , , /, v-/ii viii IMPROVING INTERNAL CUSTOMER SERVICE I. Introduction Backgro’rnd More and more American...service, but this research is mostly limited to the general issue of customer service and external customers in regard to the civilian sector of business...the focus is on what quality customer service is, both internal and external, and why customer service is so important today. Second, the dimensions of

  19. International dental standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek W

    2007-09-22

    International dental standards are vital in maintaining the safety and quality of both the products and materials used by dental professionals and the many oral health products used by members of the general public, yet many dentists will be unaware of the role standards play in their daily practice. In this article, Derek W. Jones outlines the vital work of the International Standards Organization and highlights how standards pervade nearly every dental procedure.

  20. Criteria for internal auditing.

    PubMed

    Holder, W W; Clay, R J

    1979-01-01

    An effective, inclusive internal auditing endeavor should help assure hospital managements that (1) an adequate system of internal control exists to assure the safeguarding of assets and the reliability of data produced by the financial information system, (2) uneconomic operating practices are detected promptly so they can be remedied, and (3) program results and effectiveness levels are of sufficiently high quality to demonstrate managerial competence.

  1. Psychopathy and internalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Jochem; Verhaeghe, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is general consensus in clinical and research literature that the core feature of psychopathy consists of an affective deficit. However, previous studies tend to find weak and inconsistent associations between psychopathy and measures of internalizing psychopathology. In this study we test whether the predominant practice of using questionnaires to assess internalizing psychopathology has influenced the results of previous research. We argue that questionnaires measure general distress rather than specific symptoms of internalizing psychopathology, and that the validity of questionnaires might be impaired by psychopathic traits, such as impression management and lack of affective experience. Combining a questionnaire (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21; DASS-21) and a semi-structured interview (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-R Axis 1 Disorders; SCID-I) for internalizing psychopathology, we test the differential association of both measures with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in a sample of 89 male detainees. In accordance with our prediction, we found moderate negative associations between the Interpersonal and Affective facets of the PCL-R and SCID-I, but no significant associations with the DASS-21. We found no evidence that psychopathic traits decrease the validity of the responses on a questionnaire. We conclude that the interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy are negatively related to specific symptoms of internalizing psychopathology, but not with general distress.

  2. International energy annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  3. International energy outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1994 (IEO94) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets between 1990 and 2010. The report is provided as a statistical service to assist energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. These forecasts are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Depart. of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 205(c). The IEO94 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1993-which means that provisions of the Climate Change Action Plan unveiled by the Administration in mid-October are not reflected by the US projections.

  4. The International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) was founded on the premise that any major space program in the future would require international cooperation as a necessary first step toward its successful completion. ISU is devoted to being a leading center for educating future authorities in the world space industry. ISU's background, goals, current form, and future plans are described. The results and benefits of the type of education and experience gained from ISU include technical reports describing the design projects undertaken by the students, an exposure to the many different disciplines which are a part of a large space project, an awareness of the existing activities from around the world in the space community, and an international professional network which spans all aspects of space activities and covers the globe.

  5. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    PubMed

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  6. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This document is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. The Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand and trade in OECD countries.

  7. The international RESPO network

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Winrock International, with sponsorship from the Center for Environment of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S. Export Council for Renewable Energy (US/ECRE), is building a global network of non-governmental organizations to help catalyze the use of renewable energy technologies for rural energy supply in developing countries. Known as the Renewable Energy Project Support Offices (REPSOs), these in-country facilities are managed by local institutions in coordination with Winrock. REPSOs provide an array of technical and financial support services to help developers identify and evaluate opportunities for renewable energy projects.

  8. Internal polarized targets

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. ); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. . Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  9. INTERNAL CUTTING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Russell, W.H. Jr.

    1959-06-30

    A device is described for removing material from the interior of a hollow workpiece so as to form a true spherical internal surface in a workpiece, or to cut radial slots of an adjustable constant depth in an already established spherical internal surface. This is accomplished by a spring loaded cutting tool adapted to move axially wherein the entire force urging the tool against the workpiece is derived from the spring. Further features of importance involve the provision of a seal between the workpiece and the cutting device and a suction device for carrying away particles of removed material.

  10. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2003-05-01

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

  11. INTERNATIONAL DATA ARCHIVE AND ANALYSIS CENTER. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS ARCHIVE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The International Relations Archive undertakes as its primary goal the acquisition, management and dissemination of international affairs data. This...goal necessitates direct interaction between the International Relations Archive staff and the academic community to ensure more adequate standards...contains two documents. The first document is the latest version of the memorandum, ’Data Holdings and Servicing Policies, International Relations Archive

  12. International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassler, Maggie (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) is described in this video, hosted by Marina Sirtis from the 'Star Trek' television show's Starship Enterprise. A complete explanation of what ISU is, how the university functions, and the benefits that the university provides are described. Included are brief comments from former ISU graduates.

  13. Requirements for Xenon International

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  14. [Internal and external haemorrhoids].

    PubMed

    Schuurman, J P; Go, P M N Y H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present 3 cases of patients with different types of haemorrhoidal disease. The first patient is a 27-year-old woman who had been experiencing incidental rectal blood loss without pain during defecation for 3 months. The second patient is a 76-year-old woman who had been bothered by varying degrees of pain from a swelling nearby the anus for 1 year. The third case involves a 31-year-old man who had had continuous severe pain in the anal area for 3 consecutive days. The first patient appeared to have internal hemorrhoids, whereas different forms of external hemorrhoids affected the patients in the other 2 cases. Internal haemorrhoids develop from the intraluminal corpus cavernosum recti; external haemorrhoids from the perianal marginal veins. Patients with internal haemorrhoids present with symptoms that include blood loss and prolaps feeling during defecation. In patients with external haemorrhoids pain is the prominent symptom. Internal haemorrhoids are treated either conservatively or surgically, depending upon their severity. Considering external haemorrhoidal disease surgical treatment provides the most rapid and persistent relief of symptoms.

  15. ETV International Brief

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. ETV Program has been active internationally for more than 10 years. Initially these efforts focused on sharing information about the U.S. program. Over the last four years, ETV has formalized working relationships with other countries with the objective of developing a...

  16. International Youth Year Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palla, Pier Giovanni, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    A digest of ideas and initiatives to make higher education more responsive to young people is provided. Part 1 includes excerpts of articles and reports concerning the International Youth Year (IYY), a United Nations' sponsored year of celebration of youth and a program of meetings to discuss youth problems and solutions. The themes selected for…

  17. International energy outlook 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.

  18. Internal split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat,; George, Thomas [Knoxville, TN; Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Vass, Arpad Alexander [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  19. Requirements for Xenon International

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Harper, Warren W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Humble, Paul H.; Madison, Jill C.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Stewart, Timothy L.

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  20. Study Canada: International Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    This self-contained unit of study on Canada is one of a series which can be used to supplement secondary level courses of social studies, contemporary world problems, government, history, and geography. Developed by teachers, the unit focuses on international relations. A comparative approach is used which stresses understanding Canada from…

  1. Merit Pay International

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    American 15-year-olds continue to perform no better than at the industrial-world average in reading and science, and below that in mathematics. According to the results of the 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests, released in December 2010 by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the United…

  2. Requiem for Cultural Internationalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninkovich, Frank

    1986-01-01

    Reviews Mary Brown Bullock's 1980 book,"An American Transplant: The Rockefeller Foundation and Peking Union Medical College." Far more than a narrow, scholarly history, this book is a case study of the far-reaching cultural impact of international educational exchange efforts. (JDH)

  3. International Summer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, June

    1979-01-01

    The article describes five summer programs for gifted and talented students offered internationally. The programs outlined are workshops in the publication arts, a study of humanistic development; computer science, writing, and photography workshops; a language study; a historical/social study of English history; and a workshop on photography,…

  4. Melanoma International Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jason J. Luke, MD January 07, 2016 Surgical Management of Melanoma: A 2015 Primer Presented by Jeffrey Gershenwald, MD May 09, 2015 Our Awards Melanoma International Foundation Our Mission: To develop personalized strategies with patients so they may live longer, better ...

  5. Diversity and International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Madeline, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on diversity and international issues in technology and teacher education: (1) "'At-Risk' Learners and the 'Digital Divide': Exploring the Equity in Access Issue" (Jeanne M. Foster and Sharla L. Snider); (2) "Integrating Standards-Based Instructional Technology" (Nicole M. Snow); (3)…

  6. International Development: Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RTI International, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report lists RTI International's efforts to improve education around the world by strengthening education system management. Projects are organized based on the following themes: (1) Conducting research to inform the education policy process; (2) Promoting education reform and policy support; (3) Facilitating and enabling participation; (4)…

  7. Midwifery. An international career.

    PubMed

    Vansintejan, G A

    1989-01-01

    International work is an unforgettable experience that promotes personal growth and fosters adaptability to any professional environment thereafter. The author describes highlights of her own professional career with the hope of encouraging others to undertake midwifery service in less developed countries.

  8. International Aviation (Selected Articles).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-12

    service properties. Multi-directional 4ie forming is adapted to the production of comlex -shaped forgings with internal cavities or convex rims. Through...an ’electronic computer ] program was written in marking complicated electronic diffraction spectra of two phases, twinning crystals and high-level

  9. Independence of Internal Auditors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montondon, Lucille; Meixner, Wilda F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 288 college and university auditors investigated patterns in their appointment, reporting, and supervisory practices as indicators of independence and objectivity. Results indicate a weakness in the positioning of internal auditing within institutions, possibly compromising auditor independence. Because the auditing function is…

  10. International Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Melinda; Kia, Parandeh

    2000-01-01

    Describes international student service units in higher education, including their primary functions, staff roles and responsibilities, major functional challenges, professional challenges and support systems, professional literature, and tips for those interested in the field. Also describes the author's personal career path in international…

  11. [Internal migration in Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Banyikwa, W F

    1982-01-01

    A general survey of population distribution in Tanzania is first presented using data from censuses taken between 1948 and 1979. Variations in distribution patterns are identified and discussed. The author then considers both spontaneous and planned internal migration trends and the factors affecting them. The effects of the official policy to resettle the rural population in larger villages are considered. (summary in ENG, RUS)

  12. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  13. Internal displacement in Burma.

    PubMed

    Lanjouw, S; Mortimer, G; Bamforth, V

    2000-09-01

    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced.

  14. Literature: Internal Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide in literature, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by recognizing its internal forms (i.e., characteristics that recur in settings, characters, and narrative patterns). Materials cover (1) an overview for teachers on the…

  15. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  16. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  17. Clarifying the Internment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulman, Bruce J.

    1993-01-01

    Through efforts to interpret and condemn the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II, the experience of internees themselves has been neglected. To clarify the experience, the author has focused on the internees in faculty seminars and in history classes at the University of California Los Angeles. (SLD)

  18. GNU debugger internal architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.; Nessett, D.; Pizzi, R.

    1993-12-16

    This document describes the internal and architecture and implementation of the GNU debugger, gdb. Topics include inferior process management, command execution, symbol table management and remote debugging. Call graphs for specific functions are supplied. This document is not a complete description but offers a developer an overview which is the place to start before modification.

  19. International HRD Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on international perspectives on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Human Resource Development Practices in American and Chinese High-technology Companies in Taiwan" (Hsin-yi Chen), uses quantitative and qualitative data on HRD practices in high-technology companies in…

  20. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  1. International Business Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendon, Donald W.

    The new International Business major within the School of Business, begun in fall 1989, is an ongoing, enriched program for highly motivated students of above-average scholastic achievement. Its primary purposes are to (1) prepare students to understand America's trading partners and (2) teach the technical knowledge needed in an international…

  2. Internalism, Externalism and Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Philip

    2007-01-01

    I examine some of the issues connected with the internalist/externalist distinction in work on the ontology of language. I note that Chomskyan radical internalism necessarily leads to a passive conception of child language acquisition. I reject that passive conception, and support current versions of constructivism [Tomasello, M., 2001. "The…

  3. The International System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Maurice A.

    Designed as a unit for an international relations course, this systems approach paper outlines a learning method which contributes to the student's awareness that the United States is only one of many actors in the world. It also makes the student aware that there are limitations on the U. S. individual actions because of this interdependence and…

  4. The International Astronomy Olympiad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, Michael G.

    2011-06-01

    The International Astronomy Olympiad (IAO) is an annual scientific-educating event for students of the junior high-school classes, aged 14-18 years. The Euro-Asian Astronomical Society founded the IAO in 1996. The Olympiad includes an intellectual competition between these students. The style of the problems is aimed at developping the imagination, creativity and independent thinking.

  5. International. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Dee Anna, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on international issues from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: (1) "Attitudes of Malaysian Vocational Trainee Teachers towards the Integration of Computer in Teaching" (Ab. Rahim Bakar and Shamsiah Mohamed); (2) "Views from an Asian…

  6. International Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is the November 6, 1996 - October 9, 1997, IUE Final Report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer Final Archive contract. The ultimate objective of this contract is the completion of the archival reprocessing of all IUE data obtained at GSFC between 1978 and 1995.

  7. International Intelligence Forum 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    FORUM 39 Peavie, Barrett K . Intelligence Sharing in Bosnia. Fort Leavenworth, KS : U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced...Investigative Service, 2000. Jenssen, Lars Christian and Olav Riste. Intelligence in the Cold War: Organiza- tion, Role, International Cooperation. Oslo

  8. Childhood Education: International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hujala, Eeva, Ed.

    Education is bound to society, and different educational strategies rise from the society and culture in which people live. This book presents an international perspective on problems and challenges from early education through adult education and highlights teacher education from the point of view of individual cultures and from a cross-cultural…

  9. Fall 2013 International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This Fall report is an aggregated statistical analysis of Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) data from international schools. The report provides a consistent means of comparisons of specific sub-groups by subject and grade, which allows partners to compare their MAP® results with other schools within their region or membership organization.…

  10. International Activities of ASE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Lynne; Jackson, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The Association for Science Education (ASE) has been involved in exchanges with various countries in a number of ways. Teachers from all over the world visit the Annual Conference and their own associations have often used ASE methods in developing their own programmes. The responsibilities of the International Committee of ASE range from…

  11. Technology in International Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In a relatively short time, technology applications have become an essential feature of the admissions business. They make the jobs of international admissions professionals easier in many ways, allowing for more robust communication with applicants and counselors, a streamlined application process, and quicker access to information about…

  12. International reference ionosphere 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

  13. Science Teaching and International Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2007-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the international assessments Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and a review of results from 2003. International comparisons, especially in the media, have elevated interest in science education and stimulated discussions…

  14. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  15. International Water Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The urban district of Nancy and the Town of Nancy, France, have taken the initiative of creating an International Center of Water (Centre International de l'Eau à Nancy—NAN.C.I.E.) in association with two universities, six engineering colleges, the Research Centers of Nancy, the Rhine-Meuse Basin Agency, and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The aim of this center is to promote research and technology transfer in the areas of water and sanitation. In 1985 it will initiate a research program drawing on the experience of 350 researchers and engineers of various disciplines who have already been assigned to research in these fields. The research themes, the majority of which will be multidisciplinary, concern aspects of hygiene and health, the engineering of industrial processes, water resources, and the environment and agriculture. A specialist training program offering five types of training aimed at university graduates, graduates of engineering colleges, or experts, will start in October 1984.

  16. International Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E.

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  17. Internal core tightener

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Snyder, Jr., Harold J.

    1976-06-22

    An internal core tightener which is a linear actuated (vertical actuation motion) expanding device utilizing a minimum of moving parts to perform the lateral tightening function. The key features are: (1) large contact areas to transmit loads during reactor operation; (2) actuation cam surfaces loaded only during clamping and unclamping operation; (3) separation of the parts and internal operation involved in the holding function from those involved in the actuation function; and (4) preloaded pads with compliant travel at each face of the hexagonal assembly at the two clamping planes to accommodate thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling. The latter feature enables use of a "fixed" outer core boundary, and thus eliminates the uncertainty in gross core dimensions, and potential for rapid core reactivity changes as a result of core dimensional change.

  18. The international petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.

    1991-01-01

    The petrochemical industry occupies a crucial place in economic, strategic and political terms in the twentieth century. The author explains its growth and international distribution from the 1920s tot he present, relating the particular experience of petrochemicals to the processes that have shaped the long-term evolution of industry in general. The geographical coverage of this book extends from the regional to international scale, and its historical scope embraces one hundred years from the laboratory origins of polymer science and petrochemistry to the massive operations of modern industry. It represents the result of twenty years of research, and reflects the author's privileged access to company sources in both the U.S. and Europe.

  19. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination.

  20. First International Microgravity Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Tracy; Shea, Charlotte; Wiginton, Margaret; Neal, Valerie; Gately, Michele; Hunt, Lila; Graben, Jean; Tiderman, Julie; Accardi, Denise

    1990-01-01

    This colorful booklet presents capsule information on every aspect of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML). As part of Spacelab, IML is divided into Life Science Experiments and Materials Science Experiments. Because the life and materials sciences use different Spacelab resources, they are logically paired on the IML missions. Life science investigations generally require significant crew involvement, and crew members often participate as test subjects or operators. Materials missions capitalize on these complementary experiments. International cooperation consists in participation by the European Space Agency, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan who are all partners in developing hardware and experiments of IML missions. IML experiments are crucial to future space ventures, like the development of Space Station Freedom, the establishment of lunar colonies, and the exploration of other planets. Principal investigators are identified for each experiment.

  1. Is internal friction friction?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Byerlee, J.D.; Lockner, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Mogi [1974] proposed a simple model of the incipient rupture surface to explain the Coulomb failure criterion. We show here that this model can plausibly be extended to explain the Mohr failure criterion. In Mogi's model the incipient rupture surface immediately before fracture consists of areas across which material integrity is maintained (intact areas) and areas across which it is not (cracks). The strength of the incipient rupture surface is made up of the inherent strength of the intact areas plus the frictional resistance to sliding offered by the cracked areas. Although the coefficient of internal friction (slope of the strength versus normal stress curve) depends upon both the frictional and inherent strengths, the phenomenon of internal friction can be identified with the frictional part. The curvature of the Mohr failure envelope is interpreted as a consequence of differences in damage (cracking) accumulated in prefailure loading at different confining pressures.

  2. Internal friction in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wert, C. A.

    1986-09-01

    Study of the damping of vibrations in solids has developed into an acoustical spectroscopy which can elucidate many geometrical, thermodynamic, and kinetic characteristics of solids. In a relatively brief 15 years, between 1935 and 1950, Clarence Zener contributed physical insight, analytical procedures, and suggestions for important topics which persist even today. This review traces development of ideas and techniques from that period to the present. It uses chiefly as examples the flow of heat across vibrating reeds (and the corollary Gorsky effect), the Snoek effect in interstitial alloys, and the Zener effect in substitutional alloys. Internal friction of molecular reorientation in polymeric solids is described. Finally, the joint use of internal friction and dielectric loss is demonstrated to provide additional insight into molecular configurations in solids which are both mechanical and electric dipoles.

  3. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-10-10

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density (achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms) is described.

  4. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Roy J.

    1986-01-01

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms.

  5. Project: Internal communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Lydia

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceived information needs of NASA Langley employees. One hundred and twelve face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of aero-space technologists, administrative professionals, technicians. and secretarial/clerical personnel. Results of employee perceptions are analyzed and summarized using affinity diagramming. Particular strategies to maximize use of existing internal communication networks are discussed.

  6. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production, oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This monthly publication provides current data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  8. The International Lunar Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    A new lunar science flight projects line has been introduced within NASA s Science Mission Directorate's (SMDs) proposed 2009 budget, including two new robotic missions designed to accomplish key scientific objectives and, when possible, provide results useful to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Space Operations Mission Directorate (SOMD) as those organizations grapple with the challenges of returning humans to the Moon. The first mission in this line will be the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, an ESMD mission that will acquire key information for human return to the moon activities, which will transition after one year of operations to the SMD Lunar Science Program for a 2-year nominal science mission. The second mission, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) will be launch in 2011 along with the GRAIL Discovery mission to the moon. The third is delivery of two landed payloads as part of the International Lunar Network (ILN). This flight projects line provides a robust robotic lunar science program for the next 8 years and beyond, complements SMD s initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines, and increases international participation in NASA s robotic exploration plans. The International Lunar Network is envisioned as a global lunar geophysical network, which fulfills many of the stated recommendations of the recent National Research Council report on The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon [2], but is difficult for any single space agency to accomplish on its own. The ILN would provide the necessary global coverage by involving US and international landed missions as individual nodes working together. Ultimately, this network could comprise 8-10 or more nodes operating simultaneously, while minimizing the required contribution from each space agency. Indian, Russian, Japanese, and British landed missions are currently being formulated and SMD is actively seeking partnership with

  9. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This document is a monthly publication which provides current data on international oil production,demand,imports and stocks. This report has four sections which contain time series data on world oil production and oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Also included is oil supply/demand balance information for the world, and data on oil imports and trade by OECD countries.

  10. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-27

    Caribbean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean and in the mouth of the Orinoco River. According to the firm’s estimates, the total natural - gas reserves on the shelf...significance of the World Ocean in the system of relations regulated by international law results from the fact that most of this natural complex lies...34charter of the seas" their hopes for the expansion of their control over the natural resources of the marine regions adjacent to their shores, for the

  11. International Flight Planning Handbook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    SAC pilots and navigators for international operations and provide increased confidence to deal effectively with contingencies that might occur. -, The...control and altitude separation. Therefore, aircrft separation is greater than operations within a radar enviro :..en:. The service is provided by the ICAO...within the CONUS ARTCC system are connected. Therefore, a handoff of a flight will be effected prior to entry into an adjoining FIR or UIR. Once a flight

  12. International Data Archive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-01-01

    and the International System. 20. Russett Bruce M., Karl Deutsch , Hayward Alker, and Harold Lasswell, World Handbook of Political and Social...Russett, Bruce M., Karl Deutsch , Hayward Alker, and Harold Lasswell. World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators. Data for 141 polities...August, 1969, Charles McClelland. (23,000 Events) World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators, First Edition, Bruce Russett, Karl Deutsch

  13. INTERNATIONAL ENGLISH MANUAL

    SciTech Connect

    AMADOR, MABLE; KELLER, YVONNE KELLER

    2002-02-22

    This document presents a set of guidelines for authors who wish to express themselves more clearly to foreign readers, or readers whose first language is not American English. Topics include idioms, technical terms, jargon, word meaning, acronyms, and international conventions of measurement. The guidelines will help writers of technical documents present their ideas more effectively to audiences that may include individuals whose first language is not American English, including audiences with individuals from other English-speaking countries.

  14. Foreign Internal Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-12

    projects conducted were a primary factor in the decision to form the JTF. Other JTFs may be organized to accomplish specific functional missions such...IV-8 Table of Contents viii JP 3-22 VI-1 Force Employment Factors in Foreign Internal Defense Operations ........ VI-2 VI-2...US combat operations in support of FID Executive Summary xi operations, which requires a Presidential decision and serves only as a temporary

  15. International markets for CCTs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferriter, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    The paper begins by describing the role of the International Energy Agency, the importance of coal, what the IEA is doing in the area of clean coal technology, and the role of the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board. The paper then discusses which coal technologies will be chosen, what the problem areas are, and what can be done to accelerate the take-up of clean coal technologies.

  16. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    absorbed by everyone yet, was once expressed with great emotional force by India’s outstanding leader, Indira Gandhi. Imagine, she...their chests sat on the tight hand side of fhe struc- ture, playing religious tunes on musical instruments. The women wore saris and had a dot on their...deterrence, it’s the real evil in the international realtions , because that’s the source of the arms race. [Kuznetsov2 And you think those fears

  17. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the Federation of Students of Secondary Academic Institutions (around 460,000 members in all) and the Jose Marti Pioneer Organization (more than...through terrorist acts is a delusion. "We," announced one of the leaders of the group, Luis Ötero, "are not fighting for the immediate seizure of...proposed two possible successors— Luis Maria Arganha, chairman of the supreme court and once a member of the International Court of Justice in The

  18. The International DORIS Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavernier, G.; Fagard, H.; Feissel-Vernier, M.; Lemoine, F.; Noll, C.; Ries, J.; Soudarin, L.; Willis, P.

    The DORIS system was initially developed for precise orbit determination and precise positioning on the Earth. In continuation of the DORIS Pilot Experiment initiated in 1999, the International DORIS Service (IDS) officially started on July 1, 2003 as an IAG Service after an official acceptance from the IAG Executive Committee at the IUGG General Assembly in Sapporo, Japan. Following this decision, the IERS Directing board accepted the DORIS Service as a new IERS external service. Six satellites carrying DORIS receivers are currently in orbit, permanently observed by 56 well-distributed tracking stations. Among these, three satellites (Jason-1, ENVISAT and SPOT5) are equipped with the new generation of DORIS receivers and were launched between December 2001 and May 2002. The DORIS receivers on these three spacecraft include a navigation function, called DIODE. The permanent tracking network has been constantly improved and specific campaigns of observations have been conducted in Wettzell, Gads and in Antarctica. Recent DORIS performances for precise positioning were improved by this large increase in the satellite constellation, leading to almost 1 cm precision for weekly station coordinates. Significant improvements were also obtained in Polar Motion estimations, leading to 1.0-1.5 mas daily results. In 2003 and 2004, several steps were taken to improve the operations of the IDS, as well as its international cooperation, by organizing several specific analysis campaigns. The International DORIS Service has now started its scientific activity on a routine basis for the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) and the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS).

  19. USSR Report, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AFFAIRS CONTENTS SOCIALIST COMMUNITY AND CEMA AFFAIRS International Scientific Coordinating Conference in USSR (ZARYA VOSTOKA, 30 Oct 86) • ■ • • 1 ...Czechoslovak Meeting on S&T Cooperation With CEMA (EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, No 1 , Jan 87) 2 Non-Use of CEMA Economic Experience Queried (V. G...U.S. Export Control Laws Revised (Moscow in English to North America, 1 Mar 87) 64 Reagan’s 1984 Directive on Concentration Camps Noted (Vadim

  20. The International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In preparation for the 1985 to 1986 apparition of Halley's Comet, the International Halley Watch (IHW) has initiated a comprehensive program to simulate, encourage, and coordinate scientific observation of the apparition. The observing groups with which the IHW plans to interact are discussed and the ground based observing nets are described in detail. An outline of the history of observations of Halley's Comet and a synopsis of comet properties and physics are included.

  1. Fair trade international surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Humbyrd, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the only valid objection to international surrogacy is that surrogate mothers may be exploited by being given too little compensation. However, the possibility of exploitation is a weak argument for prohibition, as employment alternatives for potential surrogate mothers may be more exploitative or more harmful than surrogacy. It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy. The guidelines of Fair Trade Surrogacy focus on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers.

  2. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  3. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to

  4. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  5. INTERNATIONAL LAW: HINDRANCE OR HELP?

    EPA Science Inventory

    As international Remote Sensing/Geographic Information Systems (RS/GIS)
    organizations develop, legal issues are becoming an important factor in promoting or limiting international cooperation. We must keep legal considerations in mind during the creation, implementation, and ...

  6. The Japanese "Internment" Cases Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward T.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews topics discussed in the OAH article, "Incarcerating Japanese Americans" (Roger Daniels). States that the three internment cases were correct. Asks whether internment could re-occur given the climate in U.S. society since September 11, 2001. (CMK)

  7. Learning Activities for International Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The National Standards for Business Education include nine areas relating to international business: awareness, communication, environmental factors, ethics, finance, management, marketing, import/export, and organizational structure of international business. (SK)

  8. Goddard Summer Interns: Danielle Wood

    NASA Video Gallery

    Profile of Goddard intern Danielle Wood. Danielle is interning at Goddard in the Innovative Partnerships Program and at NASA Headquarters in the Office of the Chief Technologist in the summer of 20...

  9. Reactor Vessel and Reactor Vessel Internals Segmentation at Zion Nuclear Power Station - 13230

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Conrad; Spann, Holger

    2013-07-01

    the Baffle Former Plates. The FaST is designed to remove the Baffle Former Plates from the Core Barrel. The VRS further volume reduces segmented components using multiple configurations of the 38i and horizontal reciprocating saws. After the successful removal and volume reduction of the Internals, the RV will be segmented using a 'First in the US' thermal cutting process through a co-operative effort with Siempelkamp NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH using their experience at the Stade NPP and Karlsruhe in Germany. SNS mobilized in the fall of 2011 to commence execution of the project in order to complete the RVI segmentation, removal and packaging activities for the first unit (Unit 2) by end of the 2012/beginning 2013 and then mobilize to the second unit, Unit 1. Parallel to the completion of the segmentation of the reactor vessel internals at Unit 1, SNS will segment the Unit 2 pressure vessel and at completion move to Unit 1. (authors)

  10. Threats to international science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  11. Internal insulation system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The development of an internal insulation system for cryogenic liquids is described. The insulation system is based on a gas layer concept in which capillary or surface tension effects are used to maintain a stable gas layer within a cellular core structure between the tank wall and the contained cryogen. In this work, a 1.8 meter diameter tank was insulated and tested with liquid hydrogen. Ability to withstand cycling of the aluminum tank wall to 450 K was a design and test condition.

  12. International energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  13. International energy annual, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    This document presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 200 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy includes hydroelectric, geothermal, solar and wind electric power and alcohol for fuel. The data were largely derived from published sources and reports from US Embassy personnel in foreign posts. EIA also used data from reputable secondary sources, industry reports, etc.

  14. International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlberg, Jennifer; Gordon, Randy

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research on the International Space Station (ISS), including the sponsorship of payloads by country and within NASA. Included is a description of the space available for research, the Laboratory "Rack" facilities, the external research facilities and those available from the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo), and highlights the investigations that JAXA has maintained. There is also a review of the launch vehicles and spacecraft that are available for payload transportation to the ISS, including cargo capabilities of the spacecraft.

  15. Rural intern training.

    PubMed

    Mugford, B V; Braund, W; Worley, P S; Martin, A

    2001-01-01

    In recent times, legislative initiatives in Australia have changed the method by which doctors enter general practice. One result of this tightening has been to restrict the access of junior doctors to medical experiences outside the hospital environment, and force a closer examination of the 'generalist training' provided to junior doctors. The Australian Medical Training Review Panel, created as part of these legislative changes, developed a series of recommendations about general training in 1996, one of which was to provide for rural and community experiences for junior doctors. This article describes the experience of a 'rural intern' rotation from Flinders Medical Centre to the rural community of Jamestown, in South Australia.

  16. Amplified total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Dogariu, A; Wang, L J

    2003-02-24

    Totally internal reflected beams can be amplified if the lowerindex medium has gain. We analyze the reflection and refraction of light, and analytically derive the expression for the Goos-Hänchen shifts of a Gaussian beam incident on a lower-index medium, both active and absorptive. We examine the energy flow and the Goos-Hänchen shifts for various cases. The analytical results are consistent with the numerical results. For the TE mode, the Goos-Hänchen shift for the transmitted beam is exactly half of that of the reflected beam, resulting in a "1/2" rule.

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This monthly publication provides international oil data for January 1998. The report presents data on oil production, demand, imports, and stocks in four sections. Section 1 containes time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 containes annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  18. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs.

  19. Journey to International Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Qi

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her journey to international adult education and shares some lessons learned from her journey. The author developed her interest in international adult education through the Scientific Research Institute of International and Comparative Education (SRIICE) at Beijing Normal University and discovered its…

  20. Simulation in International Relations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Brigid A.; Blake, Elizabeth L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the educational implications of simulations in international relations. Highlights include the development of international relations simulations; the role of technology; the International Communication and Negotiation Simulations (ICONS) project at the University of Maryland; evolving information technology; and simulating real-world…

  1. Project Management for International Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Valija M.; Magisos, Joel H.

    A project developed a content model for international project management training. It also compiled a bibliography of project management references, identified specific project management training needs based upon a survey of international sponsors and contractor personnel, and documented the training needs of international project managers. Data…

  2. Affect Control in International Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, David R.; Lerner, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    This research tests the proposition that national leaders generate international interactions in the process of maintaining sentiments about nations and international actions. The analysis deals with 1,934 international incidents in which one of 25 Middle Eastern nations responded twice within four weeks to an instigation by another of the 25…

  3. The Internal-Candidate Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author explains the complications involved when an internal candidate is included in an open search for a leadership position in an academic institution. Internal-candidate syndrome is a dilemma faced by institutions when they have to choose between an internal candidate and an external one. There are two reasons why…

  4. International Cooperation in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Magnus

    This paper addresses some of the general issues of international cooperation within the context of distance education. Examples of the types of international cooperation are introduced in order to explain some of the pitfalls that can occur when coordinating organizations on an international level. Extensive discussion is undertaken concerning…

  5. Celebrate International School Library Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The Fourth Monday in October is International School Library Day (ISLD)--an opportunity for school libraries around the world to celebrate the contribution they make to the education of the children in their care. International School Library Day was proclaimed in 1999 by Dr Blanche Woolls, president of the International Association of School…

  6. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  8. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  9. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  10. International energy outlook 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year`s report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs.

  11. International petroleum transactions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.E.; Dzienkowski, J.S.; Anderson, O.L.; Conine, G.B.; Lowe, J.S.

    1993-12-31

    This book is intended primarily as a casebook for students. However, it should not be discarded on these grounds because if compiles important materials that are useful to practitioners as their energy practices become global. The opening chapter is broad in scope and discusses NAFTA, GATT, the EC, and provides comprehensive and current statistical information on world energy resources and the pivotal role of host countries. Legal issues are analyzed in Chapter 2 which provides an excellent discussion of sovereign immunity and the act of state doctrine. Also, this chapter includes model clauses which are helpful even to a seasoned practitioner. Given that security of investment is critical to an international transaction, the book concludes its opening section with a discussion of expropriation issues. Part II is entitled Exploration, development and Production and is divided into four chapters. Using both cases and source materials, a comprehensive survey of ownership of mineral rights and concessions is presented. From a practitioner`s standpoint, Chapters 5 and 6 are important because of the inclusion of model clauses and contracts for production sharing arrangements, licenses, participation agreements, service contracts, and technology transfers. Chapter 8 deals with joint development and operations. The book concludes with three chapters on the history of the markets and international transactions involving oil and natural gas.

  12. International space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    1996-02-01

    The International Space Station represents the largest scientific and technological cooperative program in history, drawing on the resources of thirteen nations. The early stages of construction will involve significant participation from the Russian Space Agency (RSA), numerous nations of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the space agencies of Canada (CSA), Japan (NASDA) and the United States Space Agency (NASA). Its purpose is to place a unique, highly capable laboratory in tower orbit, where high value scientific research can be performed in microgravity. In addition to providing facilities where an international crew of six astronaut-scientists can live and work in space, it will provide important laboratory research facilities for performing basic research in life science, biomedical and material sciences, as well as space and engineering technology development which cannot be accomplished on Earth. The Space Station will be comprised of numerous interlocking components which are currently being constructed on Earth. Space Station will be assembled in orbit over a period of time and will provide several experimentation modules as well as habitation modules and interfaces for logistic modules. Including the four extensive solar rays from which it will draw electrical power, the Station will measure more than 300 feet wide by 200 feet long. This paper will present an overview of the various phases of construction of the Space Station and the planned science thought will be performed during the construction phase and after completion.

  13. Understanding Lustre Internals

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feiyi; Oral, H Sarp; Shipman, Galen M; Drokin, Oleg; Wang, Di; Huang, He

    2009-04-01

    Lustre was initiated and funded, almost a decade ago, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) Office of Science and National Nuclear Security Administration laboratories to address the need for an open source, highly-scalable, high-performance parallel filesystem on by then present and future supercomputing platforms. Throughout the last decade, it was deployed over numerous medium-to-large-scale supercomputing platforms and clusters, and it performed and met the expectations of the Lustre user community. As it stands at the time of writing this document, according to the Top500 list, 15 of the top 30 supercomputers in the world use Lustre filesystem. This report aims to present a streamlined overview on how Lustre works internally at reasonable details including relevant data structures, APIs, protocols and algorithms involved for Lustre version 1.6 source code base. More importantly, it tries to explain how various components interconnect with each other and function as a system. Portions of this report are based on discussions with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lustre Center of Excellence team members and portions of it are based on our own understanding of how the code works. We, as the authors team bare all responsibilities for all errors and omissions in this document. We can only hope it helps current and future Lustre users and Lustre code developers as much as it helped us understanding the Lustre source code and its internal workings.

  14. International Clean Energy Coalition

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  15. International communications via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLucas, J. L.

    The evolution of communications satellite systems is traced in terms of technical capabilities and technological advances. The Communications Act of 1962 led to the establishment of INTELSAT on an international basis in 1964. The original 19 signatory nations has grown to over 100, and over 800 ground relay stations have been built. The INTELSAT system comprises spacecraft over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans and handles 2/3 of the world's international electronic communications and all transoceanic television. The 1965 Early Bird satellite had a 240 two-way telephone link capacity and weighed 38 kg, while the Intelsat V satellites, of which there will be nine, have increased the capacity to 20,000 voice circuits and Intelsat VI will double the number by 1993. Increasing demand for satellite communications links is driving the design and development of space platforms for multiple missions of communications, meteorological studies, and on-board switching and data processing in excess of current multiple satellite systems.

  16. Hospitals' Internal Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  17. Country watch: international.

    PubMed

    Dionne, P

    1998-01-01

    The International Tribunal for Children's Rights (ITCR) was established to conduct individual and public inquiries and propose concrete solutions to violations of children's rights. This article reports on the efforts of the ITCR to enforce extraterritorial laws in response to the international dimension of child sex exploitation. The primary message being advocated is that travelers cannot go to foreign countries to engage in sexual crimes against children, evade criminal prosecution in the countries where the crimes are committed and then expect to return home without any consequences. In its first public hearings held in Paris, France to the address the effectiveness of extraterritorial legislation, governments and nongovernmental organizations informed the ITCR about their attempts to halt child sexual exploitation. Several changes needed to make extraterritorial laws more effective were cited. These include public awareness-raising; supporting existing instruments; application of preventive approaches to child abuse; and sensitizing and motivating judicial, police and administrative authorities to provide for the needs to fight child sex tourism.

  18. [Vaccinations for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T

    2014-03-01

    Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development.

  19. 1991 international petroleum encyclopedia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    There is no other petroleum industry publication quite like the International Petroleum Encyclopedia. With a timely, accurate combination of global industry coverage and analysis, detailed statistical surveys, cutting-edge reports on technological advancements and the ever-popular atlas maps, the 1991 International Petroleum Encyclopedia is a smart buy for professionals whose business is oil and gas, as well as for those whose business is affected by the industry's trends and developments. Written by a professional staff of Oil and Gas Journal petroleum experts, the 1991 IPE gives you the all important global perspective for constructing sound business strategies for the 90's. The petroleum industry is scrambling for information that will help it survive this volitile period. This book reports on the topics in the petroleum industry the latest developments in horizontal drilling, world refining (the latest information on reformulated fuels), and predictions about the post-war Persian Gulf industry. PULS, discussions on changes in the Gulf of Mexico, developments in the LNG trade, and crude oil tanker supply/.demand curves.

  20. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  1. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  2. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  3. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, E., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Data on international energy indicators were tabulated and graphically represented. The following data are presented: world crude oil production, 1974 to October 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels, 1975 to October, 1981; oil consumption in OECD countries, 1975 to October 1981; USSR crude oil production and exports, 1975 to October 1981; free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973 to December, 1981 and current capacity. Specific US data presented are: US domestic oil supply, 1977 to June, 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to October, 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 to September, 1981; US natural gas trade, 1981; and energy/GNP ratio.

  4. Control Techtronics International

    SciTech Connect

    West, J.

    1995-12-31

    Polish graded coal can be burned in existing stoker boilers and meet the 1998 Air Quality standard. This is accomplished with the Control Techtronics microprocessor-based combustion controller accurately and repeatedly: (a) matching the combustion air to the coal firing rate, with continuous stack sensor feedback; (b) continuously varying the boiler`s firing rate based on output water temperature or steam pressure; (c) continuously varying the exhaust fan`s speed to maintain minimum negative pressure in the boiler`s combustion chamber; and recirculating a portion of the flue gas, at varying amounts throughout the boiler`s firing rate. Systems for five boilers have been installed and are operating on MPEC`s Balicka plant in Krakow. Control Techtronics International has $10 million of U.S. Export-Import Bank funds available for similar projects throughout Poland.

  5. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E. K.

    1981-02-01

    Extensive data are compiled for energy on the international scene and for the US. Data included are: world crude oil production, 1975 to date; Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; Saudi Arabia: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; OPEC (Ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia): capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to date; petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973 to date; USSR crude oil production, 1974 to date; Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973 to date. Data are supplied specifically for the US on US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to date; landed cost of Saudi crude in current and 1974 dollars; US trade in bituminous coal, 1973 to date; summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to date; and energy/GNP ratio.

  6. INTERNATIONAL DECOMMISSIONING SYMPOSIUM 2000

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of IDS 2000 was to deliver a world-class conference on applicable global environmental issues. The objective of this conference was to publicize environmental progress of individual countries, to provide a forum for technology developer and problem-holder interaction, to facilitate environmental and technology discussions between the commercial and financial communities, and to accommodate information and education exchange between governments, industries, universities, and scientists. The scope of this project included the planning and execution of an international conference on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and the providing of a business forum for vendors and participants sufficient to attract service providers, technology developers, and the business and financial communities. These groups, when working together with attendees from regulatory organizations and government decision-maker groups, provide an opportunity to more effectively and efficiently expedite the decommissioning projects.

  7. Chromosome 19 International Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Pericak-Vance, M.A. . Medical Center); Ropers, H.H. . Dept. of Human Genetics); Carrano, A.J. )

    1993-01-04

    The Second International Workshop on Human Chromosome 19 was hosted on January 25 and 26, 1992, by the Department of Human Genetics, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands, at the 'Meerdal Conference Center'. The workshop was supported by a grant from the European Community obtained through HUGO, the Dutch Research Organization (NWO) and the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA). Travel support for American participants was provided by the Department of Energy. The goals of this workshop were to produce genetic, physical and integrated maps of chromosome 19, to identify inconsistencies and gaps, and to discuss and exchange resources and techniques available for the completion of these maps. The second day of the meeting was largely devoted to region or disease specific efforts. In particular, the meeting served as a platform for assessing and discussing the recent progress made into the molecular elucidation of myotonic dystrophy.

  8. Internal constitution of Mars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Models of the internal structure of Mars consistent with the mass, radius and moment of inertia of the planet are constructed. The models assume that the radius of the core is between 0.36 and 0.60 of the radius of the planet, that the zero-pressure density of the mantle is between 3.54 and 3.49 g/cu cm, and that the planet contains 25 to 28% iron. Meteorite models of Mars containing 25 wt % iron and 12 wt % core are also proposed. It is maintained that Mars in contrast to the earth is an incompletely differentiated planet with a core substantially richer in sulfur than the core of the earth. The absence of a magnetic field on Mars is possibly linked with lack of lunar precessional torque and the small size and high resistivity of the Martian core.

  9. International Reference Ionosphere -2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    The International Reference Ionosphere 2010 includes several important improvements and ad-ditions. This presentation introduces these changes and discusses their benefits. The electron and ion density profiles for the bottomside ionosphere will be significantly improved by using more ionosonde data as well as photochemical considerations. As an additional lower iono-sphere parameter IRI-2010 will include the transition height from molecular to cluster ions. At the F2 peak Neural Net models for the peak density and the propagation factor M3000F2, which is related to the F2 peak height, are introduced as new options. At high latitudes the model will benefit from the introduction of auroral oval boundaries and their variation with magnetic activity. Regarding the electron temperature, IRI-2010 now models variations with solar activity. The homepage for the IRI project is at http://IRI.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

  10. Internal Ocean Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Internal waves are waves that travel within the interior of a fluid. The waves propagate at the interface or boundary between two layers with sharp density differences, such as temperature. They occur wherever strong tides or currents and stratification occur in the neighborhood of irregular topography. They can propagate for several hundred kilometers. The ASTER false-color VNIR image off the island of Tsushima in the Korea Strait shows the signatures of several internal wave packets, indicating a northern propagation direction.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 60 by 120 kilometers (37.2 by 74.4 miles) Location: 34.6 degrees North latitude, 129.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1

  11. [International migration: 1979].

    PubMed

    1981-01-01

    Statistics on international migration in Panama in 1979 are provided for the 3 airports, 6 seaports, and 2 border crossings used by international travelers. The categories of visitors, temporary visitors, immigrants, and residents among those entering and leaving the country are defined and the data collection procedures are briefly specified. Between 1975-79, the number of persons entering the country through all points increased from 392,449 to 520,454, while the number departing increased from 397,759 to a figure provisionally estimated at 514,250. In 1979, 317,303 men and 203,151 women entered the country, 427,527 by air, 89,764 by land, and 3,163 by sea. 473 men and 355 women immigrated, all arriving by air. 391,502 of those entering were visitors, 2,407 were temporary visitors, and 98,589 were residents, of whom 81,462 were Panamanian and 17,127 foreign. Another table indicates the number of persons by category entering at each point by month; December had the highest number of arrivals, 56,070, followed by July, with 47,889. Other tables indicate the number of arrivals by category according to country of nationality and country of permanent residence; the number of arrivals by sex and category in 5-year age groups; the number of visitors entering for motives related to travel according to nationality and country of residence; the number entering by duration of stay, according to reasons for travel and country of residence; the number entering through the airport at Tocumen or the border crossing at Paso de Canoa, by motives for travel, according to country of residence, and by sex and age; and the number of returning Panamanian residents by port of entry and nationality, according to point of origin. Data are also provided on the number leaving by category for each point of departure and month of departure.

  12. International health care spending.

    PubMed

    Schieber, G J; Puollier, J P

    1986-01-01

    Trends in health are reviewed for the member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) covering the following: the basic difficulties inherent in international comparative studies; the absolute levels of health expenditures in 1984; the levels and rates of growth of the health share in the gross domestic product (GDP) and the public share of total health expenditures; the elasticities of real health expenditures to real GDP for the 1960-75, 1975-84, and 1960-84 time periods; growth in health expenditures for the largest 7 OECD countries in terms of growth in population, health prices, health care prices in excess of overall prices, and utilization/intensity of services per person. International comparisons are a problem due to differences in defining the boundaries of the health sector, the heterogeneity of data, and methodological problems arising from comparing different economic, demographic, cultural, and institutional structures. The most difficult problem in international comparisons of health expenditures is lack of appropriate measures of health outcome. Exhibit 1 contains per capita health expenditures denominated in US dollars based on GDP purchasing power parities for 21 OECD countries for 1984. Per capita health expenditures ranged from less than $500 in Greece, Portugal, and Spain to over $1400 in Sweden and the US, with an OECD average of $871. After adjusting for price level differences, there still appears to be a greater than 3-fold difference in the "volume" of services consumed across the OECD countries. To determine if per capita health expenditures are related to a country's wealth as measured by its per capita GDP, the relationship between per capita health expenditures and per capita GDP for the 21 countries were examined for 1984. The data points and the "best fitting" trend line indicate a statistically significant relationship in which each $100 difference in per capita GDP is associated with a $10

  13. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  14. Guidelines for dynamic international programs

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, M.A. )

    1993-06-01

    Matters of global concern-deforestation, global warming, biodiversity loss, sustainable development, fuelwood crises, watershed destruction, and large-scale flooding-frequently involve forests and natural resources. In the future, university students will enter a global setting that more than ever depends on a strong knowledge of international issues. USA land-grant universities are attempting to prepare students for this challenge by improving their international programs including forestry. To improve university programs, several factors will need to be addressed and are discussed, with examples, in this article: commitment of the faculty; program specialization; geographic specialization; reward systems for international contributions; international collaboration; recycled dollars within the university; active teaching programs; research; extention and outreach; language training; international faculty; travel grants; twinning relationships with sister institutions; selective in pursuit of international development assistance; and study centers. 6 refs.

  15. Turbulent Shear and Internal Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, James; Sutherland, Bruce

    2008-11-01

    A series of experiments is presented that model the generation of non-hydrostatic internal gravity waves in upper ocean by the forcing of wind driven turbulent eddies in the surface mixed layer. A turbulent shear layer is forced by a conveyor belt with affixed flat plates near the surface of a stratified fluid and downward propagating internal waves are generated. The turbulence in the shear layer is characterized using particle image velocimetry to measure the kinetic energy as well as length and time scales. The internal waves are measured using synthetic schlieren to determine the amplitudes, frequencies, momentum fluxes, and the energy of the generated waves. The fraction of energy that leaks from the mixed layer to the internal wave field is presented. Consistent with other studies, it is found that the frequencies of internal waves generated by turbulence are an approximate constant fraction of the buoyancy frequency. Implications to internal waves propagating into the deep ocean will be discussed.

  16. Solid rocket motor internal insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twichell, S. E. (Editor); Keller, R. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Internal insulation in a solid rocket motor is defined as a layer of heat barrier material placed between the internal surface of the case propellant. The primary purpose is to prevent the case from reaching temperatures that endanger its structural integrity. Secondary functions of the insulation are listed and guidelines for avoiding critical problems in the development of internal insulation for rocket motors are presented.

  17. Internal Waves in Straits Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    generation, propagation and dissipation of large amplitude internal tides . OBJECTIVES To obtain time series and spatial structure of internal tidal...of the largest internal tides in the ocean, with depth-integrated energy fluxes >60 kW m−1 (Figures 1–2), are generated at two parallel ridges in...model (red), or mooring (blue). Spring tides are labelled 1–4 (Figure 2a). Areas of model overlap (light red) may suffer from edge effects. 2 In the

  18. Shoaling internal solitary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, B. R.; Barrett, K. J.; Ivey, G. N.

    2013-09-01

    The evolution and breaking of internal solitary waves in a shallow upper layer as they approach a constant bottom slope is examined through laboratory experiments. The waves are launched in a two-layer fluid through the standard lock-release method. In most experiments, the wave amplitude is significantly larger than the depth of the shallow upper layer so that they are not well described by Korteweg-de Vries theory. The dynamics of the shoaling waves are characterized by the Iribarren number, Ir, which measures the ratio of the topographic slope to the square root of the characteristic wave slope. This is used to classify breaking regimes as collapsing, plunging, surging, and nonbreaking for increasing values of Ir. For breaking waves, the maximum interface descent, Hi⋆, is predicted to depend upon the topographic slope, s, and the incident wave's amplitude and width, Asw and Lsw, respectively, as Hi⋆≃4sAswLsw. This prediction is corroborated by our experiments. Likewise, we apply simple heuristics to estimate the speed of interface descent, and we characterize the speed and range of the consequent upslope flow of the lower layer after breaking has occurred.

  19. International energy outlook 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2020, prepared by the Energy Information Administration. The outlooks for major energy fuels are discussed, along with electricity, transportation, and environmental issues. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. The historical time frame begins with data from 1970 and extends to 1996, providing readers with a 26-year historical view of energy demand. The IEO99 projections covers a 24-year period. The next part of the report is organized by energy source. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in the five fuel chapters, along with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. The third part of the report looks at energy consumption in the end-use sectors, beginning with a chapter on energy use for electricity generation. New to this year`s outlook are chapters on energy use in the transportation sector and on environmental issues related to energy consumption. 104 figs., 87 tabs.

  20. Internal Surface Water Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Mitchell H.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction The South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Program is an intergovernmental effort to reestablish and maintain the ecosystem of south Florida. One element of the restoration effort is the development of a firm scientific basis for resource decision making.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides scientitic information as part of the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Program. The USGS began its own project, called the South Florida Ecosystem Project in fiscal year 1995 for the purpose of gathering hydrologic, cartographic, and geologic data that relate to the mainland of south Florida, Florida Bay, and the Florida Keys and Reef ecosystems. Historical changes in water-management practices to accommodate a large and rapidly growing urban population along the Atlantic coast, as well as intensive agricultural activities, have resulted in a highly managed hydrologic system with canals, levees, and pumping stations. These structures have altered the hydology of the Everglades ecosystem on both coastal and interior lands. Surface-water flows in a direction south of Lake Okeechobee have been regulated by an extensive canal network, begun in the 1940's, to provide for drainage, flood control, saltwater intrusion control, agricultural requirements, and various environmental needs. Much of the development and subsequent monitoring of canal and river discharge south of Lake Okeechobee has traditionally emphasized the eastern coastal areas of Florida. Recently, more emphasis has been placed on providing a more accurate water budget for internal canal flows.

  1. International exploration by independent

    SciTech Connect

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-04-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  2. International exploration by independents

    SciTech Connect

    Bertagne, R.G. )

    1991-03-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues.

  3. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E. K.

    1980-03-01

    For the international sector, a table of data is first presented followed by corresponding graphs of the data for the following: (1) Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut in, 1974 to February 1980; (2) Saudi Arabia (same as Iran); (3) OPEC (ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia); capacity, production, and shutin, 1974 to January 1980; (4) non-OPEC Free World and US production of crude oil, 1973 to January 1980; (5) oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to 1979; (6) petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973 to October 1979; (7) USSR crude oil production, 1974 to February 1980; (8) Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973 to January 1980. For the United States, the same data format is used for the following: US imports of crude oil and products 1973 to January 1980; landed cost of Saudi Arabia crude oil in current and 1974 dollars, 1974 to October 1979; US trade in coal, 1973 to 1979; summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to January 1980; and US energy/GNP ratio (in 1972 dollars), 1947 to 1979.

  4. Improving election prediction internationally.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ryan; Wojcik, Stefan; Lazer, David

    2017-02-03

    This study reports the results of a multiyear program to predict direct executive elections in a variety of countries from globally pooled data. We developed prediction models by means of an election data set covering 86 countries and more than 500 elections, and a separate data set with extensive polling data from 146 election rounds. We also participated in two live forecasting experiments. Our models correctly predicted 80 to 90% of elections in out-of-sample tests. The results suggest that global elections can be successfully modeled and that they are likely to become more predictable as more information becomes available in future elections. The results provide strong evidence for the impact of political institutions and incumbent advantage. They also provide evidence to support contentions about the importance of international linkage and aid. Direct evidence for economic indicators as predictors of election outcomes is relatively weak. The results suggest that, with some adjustments, global polling is a robust predictor of election outcomes, even in developing states. Implications of these findings after the latest U.S. presidential election are discussed.

  5. Update in Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    López-Jiménez, Francisco; Brito, Máximo; Aude, Y. Wady; Scheinberg, Phillip; Kaplan, Mariana; Dixon, Denise A.; Schneiderman, Neil; Trejo, Jorge F.; López-Salazar, Luis Humberto; Ramírez-Barba, Ector Jaime; Kalil, Roberto; Ortiz, Carmen; Goyos, José; Buenaño, Alvaro; Kottiech, Samer; Lamas, Gervasio A.

    2009-01-01

    More than 500,000 new medical articles are published every year and available time to keep updated is scarcer every day. Nowadays, the task of selecting useful, consistent, and relevant information for clinicians is a priority in many major medical journals. This review has the aim of gathering the results of the most important findings in clinical medicine in the last few years. It is focused on results from randomized clinical trials and well-designed observational research. Findings were included preferentially if they showed solid results, and we avoided as much as possible including only preliminary data, or results that included only non-clinical outcomes. Some of the most relevant findings reported here include the significant benefit of statins in patients with coronary artery disease even with mean cholesterol level. It also provides a substantial review of the most significant trials assessing the effectiveness of IIb/IIIa receptor blockers. In gastroenterology many advances have been made in the H. pylori eradication, and the finding that the cure of H. pylori infection may be followed by gastroesophageal reflux disease. Some new antivirals have shown encouraging results in patients with chronic hepatitis. In the infectious disease arena, the late breaking trials in anti-retroviral disease are discussed, as well as the new trends regarding antibiotic resistance. This review approaches also the role of leukotriene modifiers in the treatment of asthma and discusses the benefit of using methylprednisolone in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome, among many other advances in internal medicine. PMID:11068074

  6. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, M.; Nakamori, M.; Honda, S.; Ishida, Y.; Nakanishi, T.

    1988-05-03

    An internal combustion engine is described comprising: (a) an engine body having a chamber; (b) a crankshaft rotatably mounted on the engine body; (c) a camshaft rotatably mounted on the engine body; (d) an oil lubricated endless transmission member extended around and operatively engaged with the crankshaft and the camshaft, the endless transmission member being movable along a closed path of travel in the chamber; (e) a tensioner hanger comprising an upper hanger member detachably secured to the engine body and a lower hanger member secured at an upper portion thereof to the upper hanger member, the upper hanger member having oil passage means adapted to receive lubrication oil from the endless transmission member at an inlet and guide the oil downwardly therethrough to an outlet; (f) a hollow mounting member affixed at an upper portion thereof to a lower portion of the lower hanger member of the tensioner hanger; (g) a hydraulic lock mechanism comprising a hollow cylinder and a plunger slidably received in the cylinder to define a hydraulic chamber in the cylinder; (h) a replenishable oil reservoir defined by a funnel-shaped space between the mounting member and the cylinder for receiving oil from the oil passage means and for holding the oil received therein; and (i) a tensioner member movably attached to the engine body and operatively engaged with the plunger.

  7. Asymmetrical internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Barret, P.

    1983-03-08

    An internal combustion engine adapted to be powered by a burnable gaseous fuel includes one cylinder, first and second pistons reciprocally movable in the cylinder substantially in opposite directions, inlet and outlet valves for controlling the flow of the gaseous fuel into the cylinder, and the exhaust of the burnt fuel therefrom, respectively, and a linkage device connected to the pistons for converting the reciprocating movement thereof into a rotary movement. The linkage device includes change-of-rate-of-displacement devices for increasing the rate of velocity in the maximum acceleration range, and for reducing the rate of displacement in the maximum velocity range of one piston with respect to the other piston, first and second piston rods pivotably connected to the first and second pistons, respectively, first and second crankshafts pivotably connected to the first and second piston rods, rotatable about first and second axes disposed substantially parallel to, and displaced by a predetermined angle from one another, respectively, and a gear train coupling the first and second crankshafts to one another. The gear train includes first and second fixedly mounted gearwheels, first and second concentrically mounted gear wheels, and a position-shiftable coupling mechanism for coupling the first gear wheels and the second gear wheels to one another, respectively, and an engaging device for meshing the eccentrically mounted gear wheels with one another.

  8. Transient internal probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, Thomas R.; Mattick, Arthur T.

    1993-12-01

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) diagnostic is a novel method for probing the interior of hot magnetic fusion plasmas that are inaccessible with ordinary stationary probes. A small probe of magneto-optic (Verdet) material is fired through a plasma at speeds of several km/sec, illuminated by a laser beam. The beam's polarization is rotated in the probe by the local magnetic field and retroreflection back to a polarimetry detector allows determination of the B-field profile across the diameter of a plasma at a spatial resolution of better than 1-cm and an absolute B-field resolution of a few tens of Gauss. The principal components of a TIP diagnostic system were developed and tested. A two-stage light gas gun was constructed that accelerates 30-caliber projectiles to 3 km/sec, and methods were examined for stripping a lexan sabot from a probe prior to entry into a plasma. Probes of CdMnTe and FR-5 Verdet glass were fabricated, and a polarimetry system was constructed for resolving polarization to within 0.25 deg. The diagnostic was validated by measuring a static B-field with a moving (dropped) TIP probe, and finding agreement with Hall-probe measurements to within experimental accuracy (40 Gauss).

  9. International Energy Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Summarizes the overall structure of the International Energy Model and its interface with other NEMS modules, mathematical specifications of behavioral relationships, and data sources and estimation methods.

  10. International radioactive material recycling challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Greeves, John T.; Lieberman, James

    2007-07-01

    The paper explores current examples of successful International radioactive recycling programs and also explores operational regulatory and political challenges that need to be considered for expanding international recycling world-wide. Most countries regulations are fully consistent with the International Atomic Agency (IAEA) Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Material and the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. IAEA member States reported on the status of their efforts to control transboundary movement of radioactive material recently during the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management meeting in May 2006. (authors)

  11. International Grants and Cooperative Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA provides grants and enters into cooperative agreements that support protecting human health and the environment while advancing U.S. national interests through international environmental collaboration.

  12. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  13. Core competencies in internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Porcel, José Manuel; Casademont, Jordi; Conthe, Pedro; Pinilla, Blanca; Pujol, Ramón; García-Alegría, Javier

    2012-06-01

    The working group on Competencies of Internal Medicine from the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) proposes a series of core competencies that we consider should be common to all European internal medicine specialists. The competencies include aspects related to patient care, clinical knowledge, technical skills, communication skills, professionalism, cost-awareness in medical care and academic activities. The proposal could be used as a working document for the Internal Medicine core curriculum in the context of the educational framework of medical specialties in Europe.

  14. International Space Station Research Racks

    NASA Video Gallery

    The International Space Station has a variety of multidisciplinary laboratory facilities and equipment available for scientists to use. This video highlights the capabilities of select facilities. ...

  15. Comparing International Curriculum Systems: The International Instructional Systems Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creese, Brian; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets out the main findings of the International Instructional Systems Study (IISS), conducted by the UCL Institute of Education and funded by the Center on International Education Benchmarking (CIEB). The study examined the instructional systems and intended curricula of six "high performing" countries and two US states. The…

  16. International Relations. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This is the third volume of International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, a series which aims to feature something of the variety of research being undertaken into higher education systems and issues outside of North America. The theme of this volume is International Relations, or how students, academics, universities and higher…

  17. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  18. Fogarty International Center: A Resource for International Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glittenberg, JoAnn E.

    1989-01-01

    The Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health is an international research center for research training of foreign health professionals and allied health personnel, strengthening of health institutional research capability in foreign countries, direct technical assistance for disease control, and improvement of the…

  19. What Is International about International Schools? An Institutional Legitimacy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnell, Tristan; Fertig, Michael; James, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the number of International Schools around the world has increased rapidly largely as a result of growth of new forms of International Schools, which differ markedly from the traditional forms. These new forms: are often operated on a for-profit commercial basis; are usually for children from the local (indigenous), wealthy…

  20. International Education: The International Baccalaureate, Montessori and Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunold-Conesa, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) programs and Montessori education both claim to promote values associated with global citizenship in order to help prepare students for new challenges presented by an increasingly globalized world. While the IB's secondary programs are widespread in international schools, Montessori programs at that level are…

  1. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts.

  2. Landsat's international partners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrnes, Raymond A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the launch of the first Landsat satellite 40 years ago, International Cooperators (ICs) have formed a key strategic alliance with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to not only engage in Landsat data downlink services but also to enable a foundation for scientific and technical collaboration. The map below shows the locations of all ground stations operated by the United States and IC ground station network for the direct downlink and distribution of Landsat 5 (L5) and Landsat 7 (L7) image data. The circles show the approximate area over which each station has the capability for direct reception of Landsat data. The red circles show the components of the L5 ground station network, the green circles show components of the L7 station network, and the dashed circles show stations with dual (L5 and L7) status. The yellow circles show L5 short-term ("campaign") stations that contribute to the USGS Landsat archive. Ground stations in South Dakota and Australia currently serve as the primary data capture facilities for the USGS Landsat Ground Network (LGN). The Landsat Ground Station (LGS) is located at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The Alice Springs (ASN) ground station is located at the Geoscience Australia facility in Alice Springs, Australia. These sites receive the image data, via X-band Radio Frequency (RF) link, and the spacecraft housekeeping data, via S-band RF link. LGS also provides tracking services and a command link to the spacecrafts.

  3. [Fundamentals of internal medicine].

    PubMed

    Stehouwer, C D A

    2006-04-08

    The most important diagnostic tools of the internist are the patient history and physical examination, after which a plan must be made for further diagnostic evaluation and treatment. For this the internist uses clinical reasoning based on his or her knowledge of evidence-based medicine and pathobiology. Pathobiology is primarily concerned with the question of how something works; evidence-based medicine is concerned with whether something works, and if so, how often or how much on average. Diseases do not exist in their own right and diagnostic criteria are based on consensus. A diagnosis of a 'disease' is based on our observation of patients as well as our opinions, whether right or wrong, regarding its cause. It is important to distinguish between 'partial causes' and a 'causative complement'. As a result of this concept, the biological relevance of a partial cause in the development of a disease cannot be derived from the strength of the link between it and the disease. Our opinions regarding the cause of disease appear to be based on induction. However, induction is not a good foundation from which to determine causation. Hypotheses on the cause of disease cannot be proved. They can, however, be disproved. Education, training, research and patient care all depend on effective communication. Communication is enhanced if the thesis is given first and thereafter the arguments. Hence, transfer of patient information such as during a morning report should begin with a working diagnosis (the 'thesis') and thereafter the findings of patient history, et cetera (the 'arguments'). At this time, too little attention is given to these branches of clinical reasoning and communication in education and continuing education in internal medicine.

  4. Internal rotor friction instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1990-01-01

    The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.

  5. Discussion of internal erosion modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal erosion is one common mode of dam failure. Internal erosion occurs when water flows through a cavity, crack, and/or other continuous opening within the embankment, detaching material. The detachment of material (erosion) results in expansion of the continuous flow path, increased discharg...

  6. The International Project. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutimann, Hans

    The International Project of the Commission on Preservation and Access was begun in June 1988 to explore the feasibility of creating an international database of preserved materials. Its main goals are to: (1) determine the extent to which preservation records exist in other countries; (2) identify the difficulties in converting records to…

  7. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  8. Internal Benchmarking for Institutional Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronco, Sharron L.

    2012-01-01

    Internal benchmarking is an established practice in business and industry for identifying best in-house practices and disseminating the knowledge about those practices to other groups in the organization. Internal benchmarking can be done with structures, processes, outcomes, or even individuals. In colleges or universities with multicampuses or a…

  9. International Comparisons and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C., Ed.

    Increasingly over the past decade there have appeared in the press bar graphs comparing the performance of U.S. students with their counterparts in other countries. Usually these graphs have been accompanied by dire warnings and pointing fingers. The main source of the data on international comparisons has been the International Association for…

  10. Factor Analysis of Intern Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.; Hannah, Shellie Louise; Bell, Columbus David

    2012-01-01

    Four factors in teaching intern effectiveness, as measured by a Praxis III-similar instrument, were found among observational data of teaching interns during the 2010 spring semester. Those factors were lesson planning, teacher/student reflection, fairness & safe environment, and professionalism/efficacy. This factor analysis was as much of a…

  11. International Recognition of Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imrie, Bradford W.

    Certain issues are relevant to the international recognition of vocational qualifications: (1) the assumption that each country does or should value vocational education and training; (2) the quality of the national system and the implications for international recognition of qualifications, including recognition of the accrediting and awarding…

  12. AFOSR International Science Program Office

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-04

    abroad, and hosting 4 • Window-on-the-World ( WOW ) • 7 participants to 6 different countries in FY12 • Data Mining • Developing methods to leverage...combining old and new tasks to best support all of IO • ESEP, WOW , international agreements, developing international initiatives, “1-800-AFOSR

  13. International Research and Studies Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…

  14. An Accounting International Experience Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Leigh Redd; Rudolph, Holly R.; Seay, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Accounting students need practical opportunities to personally experience other cultures and international business practices if they are to effectively compete in today's global marketplace. In order to address this need, the Department of Accounting at Murray State University offers an international experience course which includes a short-term…

  15. International. Go8 Backgrounder 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    International education, particularly study in Australia, provides significant economic benefits for Australia. It is both a major export industry and a source of domestic economic growth. If Australia can attract talented international students through scholarships and a reputation for quality, they will return to their home countries to become…

  16. Sharing International Culture at Kingsmont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Kim Houston

    1987-01-01

    Camp Kingsmont, a weight reduction and fitness facility for boys and girls located near West Stockbridge, Massachusetts, traditionally celebrates International Day each July. Campers design costumes, prepare native dances and songs, enjoy an outdoor feast, stage an "International Beautyless Contest," and gather around a bonfire to view a…

  17. [Core competencies in internal medicine].

    PubMed

    Porcel, J M; Casademont, J; Conthe, P; Pinilla, B; Pujol, R; García-Alegría, J

    2011-06-01

    The working group of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) on "Competencies of the Internist" has defined the basic medical knowledge, skills and attitudes that all internists in Spain should have. This list of competencies represents the Internal Medicine core curriculum within the context of the future educational framework of medical specialties in Health Sciences.

  18. International Experiential Learning Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Andrew Curtis

    2006-01-01

    International experiential learning projects have increased in popularity over recent years, and many of these projects focus on environmental topics in the developing world. An experimental course in International Groundwater Studies was developed to bridge the gap between extracurricular service type programs and academically-based study abroad…

  19. Emerging Opportunities in International Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Maxwell C.; Koller, Albert M., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the development and activities of Community Colleges for International Development, Inc. (CCID), a 70-member consortium of community colleges promoting global economic development through postsecondary international education. Provides brief descriptions of CCID programs in Suriname, Guyana, Russia, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Taiwan,…

  20. Australian University International Student Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  1. Business and International Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Business and International Education Program of the International Education Programs Service (IEPS). This program provides funds to institutions of higher education that enter into an agreement with a trade association, a business, or both for the purpose of improving business curriculum and as a means of…

  2. Geography in the International Baccalaureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple, Stuart; Dawson, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) is doing much to promote the teaching of geography in schools. Since its establishment in 1968 to provide a common curriculum and university entrance credential for children of a geographically mobile international community, it has evolved and now includes schools in national systems all over the…

  3. International law and communicable diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2002-01-01

    Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boundaries of global health governance through legally binding and "soft-law" regimes negotiated and adopted within the mandate of multilateral institutions - the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Office International des Epizooties. The globalization of public health has employed international law as an indispensable tool in global health governance aimed at diminishing human vulnerability to the mortality and morbidity burdens of communicable diseases. PMID:12571722

  4. Putting 'international' back in IPEC.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    2000-10-27

    During the previous six annual sessions of the International Petroleum Environmental Conference (IPEC), little attention has been given to international issues. Although the US is clearly a leader in oil field research and regulatory development information is available on interesting projects throughout the world Many participants in IPEC have little exposure to international oil and gas environmental problems and solutions. Beginning with the 7th IPEC, a stronger effort is being made to include international issues in the confidence. This paper describes some of the author's experiences in working with international oil and gas environmental issues in North America, Latin America, Europe, and Asia. Among the topics to be discussed are the issues that developing oil and gas-producing nations face and the need for sensitivity to other nation's cultures and legal systems.

  5. International Perspectives on Plagiarism and Considerations for Teaching International Trainees

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees’ scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism. PMID:21194646

  6. International perspectives on plagiarism and considerations for teaching international trainees.

    PubMed

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees' scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism.

  7. International Telecommunication Control: International Law and the Ordering of Satellite and Other Forms of International Broadcasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Delbert D.

    The need for and the available alternatives for international telecommunication controls are examined, and a functional approach to this area of law is offered. Information from a number of areas is collected and examined as it relates to the basic problem. These areas include general principles of international law, the activities of the…

  8. Continental Drift: International Students Become International Alumni and Create International Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulley, John

    2009-01-01

    No nation would entrust its foreign relations to ambassadors bereft of international experience. Nor would a global conglomerate ignore overseas markets and expect to prosper. Yet colleges and universities have frequently taken a remarkably unsophisticated and laissez faire approach to advancing their international interests--if they have bothered…

  9. International Cell Exchange, 1994.

    PubMed

    Lau, M; Terasaki, P I; Park, M S

    1994-01-01

    1. We summarize typings of 40 cells for Class I antigens and 20 cultured cell lines for Class II antigens through the International Cell Exchange in 1994. Serologic Class II typings were compared with DNA typings for the same 20 cells. Two hundred eighty-one laboratories participated in the monthly Class I Serum Exchange. One hundred nineteen serology laboratories and 74 DNA laboratories reported Class II specificities on a monthly basis. 2. The average detection levels, as well as the high detection levels, were determined for 16 A-locus and 27 B-locus antigens. Mean detection rates of 95% or greater average detection were obtained for 12 A-locus and 10 B-locus antigens. Lower than 80% agreement was calculated for one A-locus antigen (A74) and 7 B-locus (B46, B48, B61, B67, B73, B75, B77) antigens. 3. We compared discrepancy rates of 10 A-locus and 7 B-locus antigens typed 3 times or more. The false-negative discrepancy rates, i.e. how often the antigen was missed, were greater for more of the B-locus specificities than for the A-locus antigens. B62, having the highest false-positive rate, tended to be overassigned. The discrepancy rates, especially the false-negative rate, for B70 were shown to decrease over a 7-year period. 4. In 1994, 8 laboratories attained records of total no misses for all analyzed antigens. Twelve laboratories had final records of only one discrepancy, and 5 laboratories had impressive perfect records (zero false negatives and false positives) for their yearly antigen reports. 5. Retyping of 12 Class I and 8 Class II reference cells showed improved detection of antigens. Results of a donor typed 4 times over 11 years demonstrated marked improvement, nearly doubling for A33, B38, and B75. Two cells first typed in 1991, then retyped in 1994, showed improved detection for Class II splits by serology and DNA typing. 6. We updated the list of sequenced Class I Exchange cells. Seven new cells were added as well as confirmatory sequence data for A

  10. International cooperation in water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, J.R.; Beall, R.M.; Giusti, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    Advancements in hydrology proceeded slowly until the late 1800's when new ventures created a surge of interest and accomplishment. Progress waned again until the middle 20th century when an International Hydrological Decade was conceived, eventually receiving wide multinational support from governmental agencies and nongovernmental institutions. Organized by UNESCO, the Decade program was launched January 1, 1965. Participation included 107 nations, six United Nations agencies, and more than a dozen international scientific organizations. The initial program emphasized scientific research, and international cooperation; the second half of the Decade, emphasized technical assistance and technology transfer, largerly through education, training and demonstration. The success of the Decade led to the establishment of the International Hydrological Program, again under the aegis of UNESCO, to continue the work of the Decade indefinitely. The five major program activities, now involving about 90 countries and several international organizations, include: the scientific program, the promotion of education and training, the enhancement of information exchange, support of technical assistance, and the enlargement of regional cooperation. A significant amount of activity related to hydrological data networks and forecasting is carried on in an Operational Hydrology Programme by the WMO, chiefly through its Commission for Hydrology. Other international governmental organizations with a strong interest in water include the UN, the UN Development Programme, the FAO, the WHO, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the UN Environment Programme, the International Standardization Organization, and developmental institutions such as the World Bank. The specialized interests of researchers outside of the governmental structure, are met through association in various scientific and technical organizations which are world wide in scope and membership. Notwithstanding a sometimes

  11. The international standard for colistin*

    PubMed Central

    Lightbown, J. W.; Bond, J. M.; Grab, B.

    1973-01-01

    An International Standard for Colistin has been established and the International Unit defined as the activity contained in 0.00004878 mg of this preparation. The unit was defined on the basis of a collaborative assay in which nine laboratories from six different countries participated. The material used to prepare the international standard had been manufactured in Japan; it was shown to have a composition similar to that of material produced in Europe and to be suitable for the assay of colistin from the existing sources of manufacture. PMID:4541149

  12. Problems of International Students Enrolled in Texas Public Community Colleges as Perceived by International Students and International Student Advisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Roy H.

    This study investigates student personnel problem perceptions of international students and international student advisors on selected community college campuses in Texas. The International Student Problem Inventory (ISPI) was administered to 220 international students and 30 international student advisors. Percentages were utilized to identify…

  13. OLED devices with internal outcoupling

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jr., Jie Jerry; Sista, Srinivas Prasad; Shi, Xiaolei; Zhao, Ri-An; Chichak, Kelly Scott; Youmans, Jeffrey Michael; Janora, Kevin Henry; Turner, Larry Gene

    2016-12-06

    Optoelectronic devices with enhanced internal outcoupling include a substrate, an anode, a cathode, an electroluminescent layer, and an electron transporting layer comprising inorganic nanoparticles dispersed in an organic matrix.

  14. The International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza; Engle, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an engineering project unlike any other. The vehicle is inhabited and operational as it is constructed. The habitability resources available to the crew are the sleep quarters, the galley, the waste and hygiene compartment, and exercise equipment. These items are mainly in the Russian Service Module and their placement is awkward for the crew to use and work around. ISS assembly will continue with the truss build and the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Prior to the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Node 2 will be added. The Node 2 module will provide additional stowage volume and room for more crew sleep quarters. The purpose of the ISS is to perform research and a major area of emphasis is on the effects of long duration space flight on humans, as result of this research the habitability requirements for the International Space Station crews will be determined.

  15. International Affairs Sector (NAICS 928120)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find EPA laws and regulatory information for international agreements, including import and export, Montreal Protocol for Ozone depleting substances, ocean vessels, MARPOL, and port and border compliance assistance centers.

  16. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  17. Goddard Summer Interns: Andy Ryan

    NASA Video Gallery

    Andy Ryan is an intern staff assistant with the Lunar and Planetary Science Academy. This summer the LPSA traveled to the Channeled Scablands of eastern Washington to study and map the geology of t...

  18. Astronomy and international science diplomacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Claus

    2015-08-01

    Since WW2, science has played an important, if sometimes overlooked, role in international relations and international diplomacy. The founding of CERN in 1954 and the more recent establishment of SESAME as a major research infrastructure in the Middle East are examples of this. The IAU has played its own role in the field of science diplomacy ranging from quietly fostering interaction between the antagonists of the Cold War period to the world-uniting initiative of the International Year of Astronomy. Beyond the IAU, yet still with clear links to it, we have seen ESO as an example as well as the more recent one of SKA as a vehicle for development and for strengthening international relations.

  19. The proposed international DORIS service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P.; Tavernier, G.; Feissel-Vernier, M.; Lemoine, F.; Noll, C.; Ries, J.; Soudarin, L.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the status of the DORIS Pilot experiment, to analyze the progress made during the past two years and to propose the official creation within the IAG of an International DORIS Service (IDS).

  20. International Megan's Law of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Christopher H. [R-NJ-4

    2009-03-19

    04/27/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. International reference standards in coagulation.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma.

  2. Aplastic Anemia & MDS International Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menu Donate I'm Like You. "The Aplastic Anemia and MDS International Foundation is helping patients like ... cope with bone marrow failure disease." Diseases Aplastic Anemia Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) Related ...

  3. International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is an international scientific program to understand the external drivers of space weather. The science and applications of space weather has been brought to prominence because of the rapid development of space based technology that is useful for all human beings. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This talk outlines the ISWI program including its organization and proposed activities.

  4. The International Space Weather Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nat, Gopalswamy; Joseph, Davila; Barbara, Thompson

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is a program of international cooperation aimed at understanding the external drivers of space weather. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009 and will continue with those aspects that directly affect life on Earth. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This presentation outlines the ISWI program including its organizational aspects and proposed activities. The ISWI observatory deployment and outreach activities are highly complementary to the CAWSES II activities of SCOSTEP.

  5. Goddard Summer Interns: Alejandro Arambula

    NASA Video Gallery

    Alejandro Arambula is an aerospace engineering student at M.I.T. and a 2011 summer intern in Goddard's Propulsion Lab. This summer he is working with his mentor Khary Parker in building a test asse...

  6. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  7. International Physics Olympiad still alive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polma, Richard; Kříž, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is an annual physics competition for high school students. In our article, we will discuss its development and results of research among former contestants from Czechoslovakia, resp. from Czech Republic.

  8. The International Planetary Data Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkissian, A.; Crichton, D. J.; Hughes, J. S.; Heather, D.; Martinez, S.; Beebe, R.; Neakrase, L. D. V.; Yamamoto, Y.; Capria, M. T.; Krishna, B. G.

    2013-09-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is an international collaboration of space agencies with a mission of providing access to scientific data returned from solar system missions archived at international data centers. In order to improve access and share scientific data, the IPDA was founded to develop data and software standards. The IPDA has focused on promoting standards that drive common methods for collecting and describing planetary science data. An initial starting point for developing such a standard has been the internationalization of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standard, which has become the de-facto archival data standard. Given the demands of supporting more capable and international missions and collaborations, the Planetary Data System, in partnership with the IPDA, has embarked on developing a next generation data standard and system called PDS4. Significant progress has been made on PDS4 and early adopters are beginning to use the emerging standard on new planetary science missions.

  9. International Conference on Human Relations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Festinger , Sherif, Ex, Rohrer, Pinto, Singh, and Mailhiot. One outcome of the Conference was the formation of a working committee to establish an International Documentation and Information Center for the field of Human Relations.

  10. Linking International Cancer Screening Efforts

    Cancer.gov

    Drs. Sudha Sivaram and Steve Taplin speak at the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) Meeting, which brings together individuals involved in cancer screening research and cancer screening programs from the ICSN’s member countries.

  11. Computerized international geothermal information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.

    1980-03-01

    The computerized international geothermal energy information system is reviewed. The review covers establishment of the Italy - United States linked data centers by the NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society, through a bilateral agreement, and up to the present time. The result of the information exchange project is given as the bibliographic and numerical data available from the data centers. Recommendations for the exchange of computerized geothermal information at the international level are discussed.

  12. INTERNAL AUTOSCOPY : A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K.N.

    1992-01-01

    Internal autoscopy, a rare special type of visual hallucination, is claimed to have been mainly reported by French psychiatrist who considered it to occur mainly in young female subjects suffering from hysteria. In this report, such a cases is described in a 70 year old male patient suffering from M.D.P. (Depression). Its differential diagnosis and phenomenology is discussed. It is suggested that Internal autoscopy may be cognitive or ideational disturbance, expressed as a perceptual experience. PMID:21776133

  13. Information Warfare and International Law

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 1998 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1998 to 00-00-1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Information Warfare and...for International Studies; Melanie Greenberg of the Stanford University Center for International Security and Arms Control (CISAC); Daniel Kuehl of

  14. Finding international Landsat data online

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) lists Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) data available from the participating international ground stations shown below. These databases of the Landsat Ground Station Operations Working Group (LGSOWG) can be searched, but not ordered, using GLIS. To order Landsat scenes identified on the GLIS data search, contact the international ground station where those scenes are available, indicated by the second character of the Entity ID.

  15. Internal Wave Generation in Straits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    echo sounders (PIESs) so as to observe the generation of internal waves by tidal interaction with topography in Luzon Strait (Fig. 1), and to...Pressure sensor equipped Inverted Echo Sounders [PIES] (see Li et al. 2009). Five instruments were deployed in a pilot study and 13 were deployed at the...internal waves using the inverted echo sounder , J. Atmos. Oceanic Technology, 26, 2228−2242. Li Qiang & David M Farmer (2011), The Generation and

  16. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  17. Incorporating International Business Topics into Every Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perreault, Heidi; Burchfield, Kathy

    2001-01-01

    Presents activities and resources for addressing international business in the curriculum, including e-mail partnerships, international document specifications, currency comparisons, marketing to other cultures, scavenger hunt, business lunch, and international telephone and travel etiquette. (SK)

  18. 77 FR 76091 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... international mail contract. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related... an expired International Business Reply Service (IBRS) competitive contract.\\1\\ The Postal...

  19. School's Still out on Internal Auditing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzetto, Charles E.; Moran, Daniel D.

    1988-01-01

    Survey responses from 271 members of the Association of School Business Officials International were analyzed to determine the extent and use of internal auditing in school districts and the characteristics of districts with internal auditing positions. (MLF)

  20. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the International Codes...

  1. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the International Codes...

  2. MONJU AS AN INTERNATIONAL ASSET: INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE AND COOPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.; Wisner, R.S.; Stuart, R.

    2004-10-06

    The role of the fast breeder reactor prototype Monju has expanded to meet the challenges of the 21st century. Today instead of being merely a demonstration of an economical, safe, environmentally responsible source of energy, as originally designed, it has also the capability to be transformed into a unique International Irradiations Test Facility. The potential for Monju's role in the Generation IV nuclear energy systems development, and fast reactor research and development area is clear. Its incomparable fast neutron spectrum density will be a major interest not only for Sodium Fast Reactor but for all the Generation IV concepts. As Monju's potential future role is laid out, plans for future tests can be made. Tests of advanced fuels and materials in support of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, as well as Minor Actinide Burning can be envisaged. Tests planned on transmutation of minor actinides have the objectives of an industrial demonstration of the reduction of toxic wastes and the stewardship burden of the long-lived wastes. Tests and demonstrations carried out at Monju will provide a bridge from existing Generation III fast reactor systems, now in the later stages of their projected operational lifetimes, to Generation IV nuclear energy systems. The JNC founded the International Cooperation and Technology Development Center and the International Research Fellowship program to facilitate this international effort. The Center exists specifically to formulate and perform projects ensuring the maximum technical benefit from Monju. The staff includes physicists, engineers and nuclear industry leaders from around the world. Research Fellowships center is based on several technical areas: advanced instrumentation, inspection techniques, plant reliability and safety, nucleonics, sodium handling technologies, irradiation and experiment management and coordination and advanced post-irradiation examination capabilities and techniques. This paper describes the recent

  3. Strategic business planning for internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Ervin, F R

    1996-07-01

    The internal medicine generalist is at market risk with expansion of managed care. The cottage industry of Academic Departments of internal medicine should apply more business tools to the internal medicine business problem. A strength, weakness, opportunity, threat (SWOT) analysis demonstrates high vulnerability to the internal medicine generalist initiative. Recommitment to the professional values of internal medicine and enhanced focus on the master clinician as the competitive core competency of internal medicine will be necessary to retain image and market share.

  4. Precise quantification of nanoparticle internalization.

    PubMed

    Gottstein, Claudia; Wu, Guohui; Wong, Benjamin J; Zasadzinski, Joseph Anthony

    2013-06-25

    Nanoparticles have opened new exciting avenues for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in human disease, and targeted nanoparticles are increasingly used as specific drug delivery vehicles. The precise quantification of nanoparticle internalization is of importance to measure the impact of physical and chemical properties on the uptake of nanoparticles into target cells or into cells responsible for rapid clearance. Internalization of nanoparticles has been measured by various techniques, but comparability of data between different laboratories is impeded by lack of a generally accepted standardized assay. Furthermore, the distinction between associated and internalized particles has been a challenge for many years, although this distinction is critical for most research questions. Previously used methods to verify intracellular location are typically not quantitative and do not lend themselves to high-throughput analysis. Here, we developed a mathematical model which integrates the data from high-throughput flow cytometry measurements with data from quantitative confocal microscopy. The generic method described here will be a useful tool in biomedical nanotechnology studies. The method was then applied to measure the impact of surface coatings of vesosomes on their internalization by cells of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). RES cells are responsible for rapid clearance of nanoparticles, and the resulting fast blood clearance is one of the major challenges in biomedical applications of nanoparticles. Coating of vesosomes with long chain polyethylene glycol showed a trend for lower internalization by RES cells.

  5. Mask strategy at International SEMATECH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2002-08-01

    International SEMATECH (ISMT) is a consortium consisting of 13 leading semiconductor manufacturers from around the globe. Its objective is to develop the infrastructure necessary for its member companies to realize the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) through efficiencies of shared development resources and knowledge. The largest area of effort is lithography, recognized as a crucial enabler for microelectronics technology progress. Within the Lithography Division, most of the efforts center on mask-related issues. The development strategy at International SEMATCH will be presented and the interlock of lithography projects clarified. Because of the limited size of the mask production equipment market, the business case is weak for aggressive investment commensurate with the pace of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. With masks becoming the overwhelming component of lithography cost, new ways of reducing or eliminating mask costs are being explored. Will mask technology survive without a strong business case? Will the mask industry limit the growth of the semiconductor industry? Are advanced masks worth their escalating cost? An analysis of mask cost from the perspective of mask value imparted to the user is presented with examples and generic formulas for the reader to apply independently. A key part to the success for both International SEMATECH and the industry globally will be partnerships on both the local level between mask-maker and mask-user, and the macro level where global collaborations will be necessary to resolve technology development cost challenges.

  6. In Pursuit of Internal Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Orders of magnitude larger than surface waves, and so powerful that their generation impacts the lunar orbit, internal waves, propagating disturbances of a density-stratified fluid, are ubiquitous throughout the ocean and atmosphere. Following the discovery of the phenomenon of ``dead water'' by early Arctic explorers and the classic laboratory visualizations of the curious St. Andrew's Cross internal wave pattern, there has been a resurgence of interest in internal waves, inspired by their pivotal roles in local environmental and global climate processes, and their profound impact on ocean and aerospace engineering. We detail our widespread pursuit of internal waves through theoretical modeling, laboratory experiments and field studies, from the Pacific Ocean one thousand miles north and south of Hawaii, to the South China Sea, and on to the Arctic Ocean. We also describe our recent expedition to surf the most striking internal wave phenomenon of them all: the Morning Glory cloud in remote Northwest Australia. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation through a CAREER Grant OCE-064559 and through Grants OCE-1129757 and OCE-1357434, and by the Office of Naval Research through Grants N00014-09-1-0282, N00014-08-1-0390 and N00014-05-1-0575.

  7. Internal to external wavelength calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kailash C.

    1999-01-01

    The spectra of Hen 1357 (the Stingray nebula) were used to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the STIS first order CCD modes. The radial velocity of the Stingray nebula is known to high accuracy (< 1 km/sec) and the line with of the nebular line is very narrow (< 8 km/sec for the integrated nebula). Thus the observations of the Stingray nebula are ideal to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the first order modes. The observations were taken in G430L and G750M modes using a 52 x 0.05 arcsec slit covering the wavelength range 2900 to 5700 A and 6295 to 6867 A, respectively. The observed wavelength range includes many nebular emission lines. The wavelengths of the nebular lines derived using the pipeline internal wavelength calibration were compared with the wavelengths derived from other ground based observations. In all cases, the wavelength match between the two is of the same order as the accuracy to which the line center can be measured. These results imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibrations for these modes. The HDF-S QSO observations were also used for this test both for the first order and the Echelle modes. The results of the HDF-S QSO observations further confirm the above finding for the first order modes, and imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibration for the Echelle modes.

  8. Hypoallometric scaling in international collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiehchen, David; Espinoza, Magdalena; Hsieh, Antony

    2016-02-01

    Collaboration is a vital process and dominant theme in knowledge production, although the effectiveness of policies directed at promoting multinational research remains ambiguous. We examined approximately 24 million research articles published over four decades and demonstrated that the scaling of international publications to research productivity for each country obeys a universal and conserved sublinear power law. Inefficient mechanisms in transborder team dynamics or organization as well as increasing opportunity costs may contribute to the disproportionate growth of international collaboration rates with increasing productivity among nations. Given the constrained growth of international relationships, our findings advocate a greater emphasis on the qualitative aspects of collaborations, such as with whom partnerships are forged, particularly when assessing research and policy outcomes.

  9. Internal fixation: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Greenhagen, Robert M; Johnson, Adam R; Joseph, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Internal fixation has become a pillar of surgical specialties, yet the evolution of these devices has been relatively short. The first known description of medical management of a fracture was found in the Edwin Smith Papyrus of Ancient Egypt (circa 2600 bc). The first description of internal fixation in the medical literature was in the 18th century. The advancement of techniques and technology over the last 150 years has helped to preserve both life and function. The pace of advancement continues to accelerate as surgeons continue to seek new technology for osseous fixation. The authors present a thorough review of the history of internal fixation and the transformation into a multibillion dollar industry.

  10. Internal Stresses in Laminated Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heim, A L; Knauss, A C; Seutter, Louis

    1923-01-01

    This report reviews the procedure employed in an investigation of the sources and influence of internal stresses in laminated construction, and discusses the influence of shrinkage and swelling stresses caused by atmospheric conditions upon the tensile strength across grain in laminated construction with special reference to airplane propellers. The investigation covered three sources of internal stress, namely, the combination of plain-sawed and quarter-sawed material in the same construction, the gluing together of laminations of different moisture contents, and the gluing together of laminations of different densities. Glued specimens and free specimens, made up under various manufacturing conditions, were subjected to various climatic changes inducing internal stresses and then were tested.

  11. INTERNAL HEMIPELVECTOMY: REPORT ONEIGHT CASES

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Alexandre Ferreira; Vieira, Leonardo José; do Nascimento, Antônio Carlos Rodrigues; de Paula Fraga, João Baptista; Costa, Rómmel Ribeiro Lourenço; do Nascimento, Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Internal hemipelvectomy is a surgical procedure adequate for treatment of certain tumors of the pelvic girdle. Being a lower limb-preserving approach, it is a therapeutic alternative to the classical interilioabdominal amputation and hip joint disarticulation. According to Enneking's classification, there are four types of internal hemipelvectomies, although the association of different types of resection in the same procedure is feasible if necesary. This surgical approach should be correctly indicated to positively affect the patient's morbidity, mortality and quality of life. We report eight cases of internal hemipelvectomy in patients diagnosed with tumors of the pelvic girdle. We also discuss the neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatments used, along with their follow-up. PMID:27047900

  12. International Nuclear Safeguards at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Sternat, Matthew R.

    2015-02-01

    As global nuclear energy expands, assuring peaceful uses of nuclear technology becomes increasingly important. In addition to complying with international nuclear safeguards, a responsible nuclear energy program promotes a corresponding safeguards culture. Establishment of transparent peaceful uses of nuclear technologies starts with cooperative international engagements and safeguards systems. Developing states investing in nuclear energy must assure the international community of their longterm commitment to safeguards, safety, and security (3S) of nuclear materials and technologies. Cultivating a safeguards culture starts in the initial phases of infrastructure planning and must be integrated into the process of developing a responsible nuclear energy program. Sandia National Laboratories supports the implementation of safeguards culture through a variety of activities, including infrastructure development.

  13. International program for Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During the 1990 summer session of the International Space University, graduate students of many different countries and with various academic backgrounds carried out a design project that focused on how to meet the most pressing environmental information requirements of the 1990's. The International Program for Earth Observations (IPEO) is the result of the students labor. The IPEO report examines the legal and institutional, scientific, engineering and systems, financial and economic, and market development approaches needed to improve international earth observations and information systems to deal with environmental issues of global importance. The IPEO scenario is based on the production of a group of lightweight satellites to be used in global remote sensing programs. The design and function of the satellite is described in detail.

  14. Fourth International Bemisia Workshop International Whitefly Genomics Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invited speakers from around the world presented research and management tactics conducted in their respective geographic regions and areas of expertise. Sessions were arranged with a slate of invited speakers followed by discussion, comments, and questions. Attendance was truly international with m...

  15. Processes of Internal and International Migration from Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bohra, Pratikshya; Massey, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examine which factors predict internal and international migration from Chitwan, a flat valley located in the South-Central region of Nepal, seeking to measure the effect of theoretically specified variables such as human capital, social capital, physical capital, and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions while controlling for demographic variables. We use data from the Chitwan Valley Family Study (CVFS) to estimate a series of discrete time event history models of first and repeat migration to three competing destinations: other locations within Chitwan, other districts within Nepal, and places outside of Nepal. Results support hypotheses derived from neoclassical economics, the theory of new economics of migration, social capital theory, and cumulative causation theory. Our results underscore the need for a synthetic theoretical model that incorporates factors operating at the individual, household, and community levels. The use of multiple explanatory models yields a clearer picture of the forces driving internal and international migration from rural districts in developing nations such as Nepal. PMID:21423821

  16. International ties. [international cooperation in the space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A historical overview of NASA's participation in international activities in space science is given. The Ariel, Alouette, Isis, and San Marco satellite programs are addressed along with sounding rocket and ground based projects. Relations and cooperation with the Soviet Union are also discussed.

  17. Developing International Business Managers through International Study Visits to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Yiming; Rose, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is a key factor in the success of business organizations today, impacting many aspects of management performance. Understanding the global business environment has therefore become a key objective in the teaching of international business on Executive MBA programs. Drawing on the theory of experiential learning, this study examines…

  18. University Employment Transitions in International Performing Arts: The Intern's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carneiro, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects my journey as a performing arts student and intern both in Portugal and abroad. It is not intended as a personal journal, but rather a reflection and an aftermath comment on my experiences and learning processes. First it provides a context regarding my university education in a Southern European country, against a previous…

  19. Internal and International Migration Across the Urban Hierarchy in Albania.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between the processes of urbanization and international migration in less developed and transition countries have important repercussions for socioeconomic development, but are not well understood. Based on the retrospective data from the Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey 2008, we first assess the geography of migration in terms of the rural-urban continuum, the urban hierarchy and the outside world since 1990. We then investigate the spatio-temporal diffusion of rural-to-urban and international movements using survival models. Results reveal an immediate onset of large-scale rural exodus, despite the post-communist crisis. Internal migrants mainly moved to the capital, bypassing secondary cities, and were predominantly female. Initially, international migrants were primarily men who tended to originate from the main urban agglomerations. The diffusion of opportunities to emigrate down the urban hierarchy and across the sexes then redirected the rural exodus abroad, despite domestic economic development. This evolution in population mobility is related to the gendered patterns and interlinkages of the two flows, as well as to rising inequalities within the urban hierarchy.

  20. The International Reference Ionosphere 2012 - a model of international collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Altadill, David; Zhang, Yongliang; Mertens, Chris; Truhlik, Vladimir; Richards, Phil; McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Reinisch, Bodo

    2014-02-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) project was established jointly by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) in the late sixties with the goal to develop an international standard for the specification of plasma parameters in the Earth's ionosphere. COSPAR needed such a specification for the evaluation of environmental effects on spacecraft and experiments in space, and URSI for radiowave propagation studies and applications. At the request of COSPAR and URSI, IRI was developed as a data-based model to avoid the uncertainty of theory-based models which are only as good as the evolving theoretical understanding. Being based on most of the available and reliable observations of the ionospheric plasma from the ground and from space, IRI describes monthly averages of electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, ion composition, and several additional parameters in the altitude range from 60 km to 2000 km. A working group of about 50 international ionospheric experts is in charge of developing and improving the IRI model. Over time as new data became available and new modeling techniques emerged, steadily improved editions of the IRI model have been published. This paper gives a brief history of the IRI project and describes the latest version of the model, IRI-2012. It also briefly discusses efforts to develop a real-time IRI model. The IRI homepage is at http://IRImodel.org.

  1. Mesoscale Eddy - Internal Wave Coupling:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polzin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The issue of internal wave--mesoscale eddy interactions is revisited. Direct estimates of energy transfer from the Local Dynamics Experiment of the PolyMode field program (Polzin, 2010 JPO) return viscosity estimates of ν h \\cong 50 m2 s-1 and ν v + (f2)/(N^2) Kh \\cong 2.5×10-3 m2 s-1. These estimates indicate that mesoscale eddy-internal wave interactions may play an O(1) role in the mesoscale eddy energy budget as dissipation and the internal wave budget as a source. Radiation balance equation formulations for this coupling (Müller 1976, JFM) are examined. In these formulations permanent transfer of energy and internal wave pseudomomentum for mesoscale eddy potential vorticity is enabled by nonlinearity in the wavefield. Revision of radiation balance equation formulations to account for non-local effects returns predictions of ν h \\cong 50-100 m2 s-1 and ν v + (f2)/(N^2) Kh \\cong -1×10-3 to 4×10-3 m2 s-1. The prediction for the effective vertical viscosity is sensitive to how internal wave energy is distributed in the spectral domain with negative values appropriate to the Garrett and Munk spectrum and positive values appropriate to the background spectrum in the LDE area. Geographic scalings in terms of latitude, stratification and mesoscale eddy variability will be described. The process described here is best interpreted as an amplifier of a pre-existing or externally forced finite amplitude wavefield rather than the spontaneous imbalance of a linear field. Energy, pseudomomentum and vorticity can be transfered from the slow manifold (geostrophically balanced motions) to the fast manifold (internal gravity waves) via linear wave propagation in asymmetric background flows, but that transfer is reversible. The permanent transfer is accomplished by nonlinearity on the fast manifold.

  2. Technology and international climate policy

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-05-01

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  3. Stuart Gatehouse: The International Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Van Tasell, Dianne J.; Levitt, Harry

    2008-01-01

    The international contributions of Stuart Gatehouse are reviewed in three areas: as a scientist, as an advisor to health policy makers, and as a participant in international conferences. He was able, as no other auditory scientist of his time, to bridge the gap between scientific and clinical research. His ability to apply sound scientific principles to issues of clinical importance was most apparent in his work in three main areas of his research: acclimatization to amplified speech, auditory disability and hearing aid benefit, and candidature for linear and nonlinear signal processing. PMID:18567589

  4. The Importance of Internal Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gerst, Kacy; Moore, Randy A., Schaefer, Richard

    2015-02-10

    The story of an ARPA-E awardee doesn’t necessarily end when ARPA-E funding runs out. Two ARPA-E awardees—Eagle Picher Technologies and Baldor Electric Company—have developed technologies to the point where internal stakeholders of their respective companies committed additional funds to help these technologies achieve success in the market. This video features remarks from ARPA-E Technology-to-Market Advisor Kacy Gerst and interviews with technologists at Eagle Picher and Baldor, who each tell the story of how they achieved buy-in from their internal leadership to further develop their ARPA-E-funded technologies.

  5. International Scientific Unions and Global Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation will deal with the role that international scientific unions play in coordinating international research efforts. Rather than give a general, theoretical, talk on the role that ICSU - the International Council of Science - plays in International Science, I will briefly outline their role and then focus on a case study relevant to the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG). I will compare the scientific activities, and the outreach and education activities, of two major international research programs - the International Year of Planet Earth and the International Polar Year. These were two of the IGY+50 activities. Past informal polls of conference attendees to determine how many had heard of each IGY+50 event result in. eGY (electronic Geophysical Year) 1% IHY (International Heliophysical Year) 4% IYPE (International Year of Planet Earth) 31% IPY (International Polar Year) 64% Why is IPY the one of which most scientists are aware?

  6. Benefits of International Collaboration on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasbrook, Pete; Robinson, Julie A.; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; De Parolis, Lina; Hatton, Jason; Shirakawa, Masaki; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Valentini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station is a valuable platform for research in space, but the benefits are limited if research is only conducted by individual countries. Through the efforts of the ISS Program Science Forum, international science working groups, and interagency cooperation, international collaboration on the ISS has expanded as ISS utilization has matured. Members of science teams benefit from working with counterparts in other countries. Scientists and institutions bring years of experience and specialized expertise to collaborative investigations, leading to new perspectives and approaches to scientific challenges. Combining new ideas and historical results brings synergy and improved peer-reviewed scientific methods and results. World-class research facilities can be expensive and logistically complicated, jeopardizing their full utilization. Experiments that would be prohibitively expensive for a single country can be achieved through contributions of resources from two or more countries, such as crew time, up- and down mass, and experiment hardware. Cooperation also avoids duplication of experiments and hardware among agencies. Biomedical experiments can be completed earlier if astronauts or cosmonauts from multiple agencies participate. Countries responding to natural disasters benefit from ISS imagery assets, even if the country has no space agency of its own. Students around the world participate in ISS educational opportunities, and work with students in other countries, through open curriculum packages and through international competitions. Even experiments conducted by a single country can benefit scientists around the world, through specimen sharing programs and publicly accessible "open data" repositories. For ISS data, these repositories include GeneLab, the Physical Science Informatics System, and different Earth data systems. Scientists can conduct new research using ISS data without having to launch and execute their own experiments

  7. Extension Resources for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  8. Our International Art Exchange Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocciolone, Kathy R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses an international art exchange project designed to teach fifth-grade students that the culture of a country is reflected in its art and that art is a universal language. Describes the contributions from Scotland, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Japan, and India. Points out ways to use materials in schools. (KO)

  9. International Literacy Day Tool Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This tool kit suggests various International Literacy Day activities to raise awareness of the issues of adult literacy and language learning, to connect local literacy programs with national programs, and to help achieve the National Literacy Summit goal by 2010. The kit is intended for individuals, programs, and organizations that want to call…

  10. Value Systems in International Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiba, Farouk I.

    Every society has a system of values and seeks to achieve goals which it defines as desirable. To gain insight and a measure of understanding of another culture, international marketers can approach a country as a whole, seek out behavioral premises, obtain a theoretical knowledge of the culture, and learn the country's social heritage.…

  11. OLED devices with internal outcoupling

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jie Jerry; Sista, Srinivas Prasad; Shi, Xiaolei; Zhao, Ri-An; Chichak, Kelly Scott; Youmans, Jeffrey Michael; Janora, Kevin Henry; Turner, Larry Gene

    2015-03-03

    Optoelectronic devices that have enhanced internal outcoupling are disclosed. The devices include a substrate, an anode, a cathode, an electroluminescent layer, and a hole injecting layer. The hole injecting layer includes inorganic nanoparticles that have a bimodal particle size distribution and which are dispersed in an organic matrix.

  12. Internal Wave Generation by Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoanet, Daniel Michael

    In nature, it is not unusual to find stably stratified fluid adjacent to convectively unstable fluid. This can occur in the Earth's atmosphere, where the troposphere is convective and the stratosphere is stably stratified; in lakes, where surface solar heating can drive convection above stably stratified fresh water; in the oceans, where geothermal heating can drive convection near the ocean floor, but the water above is stably stratified due to salinity gradients; possible in the Earth's liquid core, where gradients in thermal conductivity and composition diffusivities maybe lead to different layers of stable or unstable liquid metal; and, in stars, as most stars contain at least one convective and at least one radiative (stably stratified) zone. Internal waves propagate in stably stratified fluids. The characterization of the internal waves generated by convection is an open problem in geophysical and astrophysical fluid dynamics. Internal waves can play a dynamically important role via nonlocal transport. Momentum transport by convectively excited internal waves is thought to generate the quasi-biennial oscillation of zonal wind in the equatorial stratosphere, an important physical phenomenon used to calibrate global climate models. Angular momentum transport by convectively excited internal waves may play a crucial role in setting the initial rotation rates of neutron stars. In the last year of life of a massive star, convectively excited internal waves may transport even energy to the surface layers to unbind them, launching a wind. In each of these cases, internal waves are able to transport some quantity--momentum, angular momentum, energy--across large, stable buoyancy gradients. Thus, internal waves represent an important, if unusual, transport mechanism. This thesis advances our understanding of internal wave generation by convection. Chapter 2 provides an underlying theoretical framework to study this problem. It describes a detailed calculation of the

  13. Risk assessment in international operations

    SciTech Connect

    Stricklin, Daniela L.

    2008-11-15

    During international peace-keeping missions, a diverse number of non-battle hazards may be encountered, which range from heavily polluted areas, endemic disease, toxic industrial materials, local violence, traffic, and even psychological factors. Hence, elevated risk levels from a variety of sources are encountered during deployments. With the emphasis within the Swedish military moving from national defense towards prioritization of international missions in atypical environments, the risk of health consequences, including long term health effects, has received greater consideration. The Swedish military is interested in designing an optimal approach for assessment of health threats during deployments. The Medical Intelligence group at FOI CBRN Security and Defence in Umea has, on request from and in collaboration with the Swedish Armed Forces, reviewed a variety of international health threat and risk assessment models for military operations. Application of risk assessment methods used in different phases of military operations will be reviewed. An overview of different international approaches used in operational risk management (ORM) will be presented as well as a discussion of the specific needs and constraints for health risk assessment in military operations. This work highlights the specific challenges of risk assessment that are unique to the deployment setting such as the assessment of exposures to a variety of diverse hazards concurrently.

  14. International Tours with Student Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Ella

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the process of planning an international performance tour to include discussions on the mission, preparation, funding, delegation, and communication. Includes information on immunizations, passports, visas, tour companies, choosing a tour company, resources for travel information, and tips for travel with student performers. (CMK)

  15. Education Libraries: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Anne M.

    1997-01-01

    Explains what an education library is and describes methods used in seeking out such libraries on an international basis. Libraries in Sweden, Finland, Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Canada are described, including address, World Wide Web page, mission, history, clientele, type of collection, services, publications, and databases. (LRW)

  16. Sighting the International Space Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  17. Navigation Rules, International-Inland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    of the United Nations ’ Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) in 1972. The 72 COLREGS enter into force at 12 noon, local zone...OF BARGES ----------------------------- 161 XV REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES------------------ 163 XVI APPENDIX...they appear in the inter- national convention. COLUMN II A cross-reference index to the 1960 International Rules appears in the second column from the

  18. Internal Poverty and Teen Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tamera M.; Martin Sue S.; Young, Michael E.; Ting, Ling

    2001-01-01

    Examined selected predictor variables from baseline 1988 wave of data, taken from the National Education Longitudinal Study, in relation to pregnancy status. Results indicated statistically significant difference in locus of control between those females who became pregnant later in adolescence (external) and those who did not (internal).…

  19. Store Security: Internal Shrinkage Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhardt, Richard M.

    The document presents a 10-week training program designed to provide helpful and proven methods for controlling internal shrinkage in retail stores. Shrinkage includes the three problems of shoplifting, employee theft, and errors, each of which is addressed by the course. Ohio's laws are also discussed. The format for the course content section is…

  20. The Internal Resistance of Supercapacitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, G. G. G.; Pietronero, R. C.; Catunda, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the transient behaviour of RC circuits with supercapacitors, varying R between 1 and 100 [omega]. We demonstrate that supercapacitors behave as ideal capacitors in series with an internal resistance (r [similar to] 8 [omega] for C = 0.2 F, 5.5 V). This result is important to optimize the demonstration of RC circuits using a…

  1. New Directions in International Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Richard D., Ed.; Heston, Alan W., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Twelve articles offer a sampling of a wide variety of interrelated studies, reports, and recommendations on international education. They all relate to that aspect of the educational system in the United States devoted to studying, writing, and teaching about other parts of the world. A key article discusses the findings and recommendations of the…

  2. International Instructional Systems: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Jacek; Chapman, Arthur; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted as part of the International Instructional System Study that explored five subject areas across nine jurisdictions in six high-performing countries. The Study's overall aim was to understand what, if anything, there is in common in the curricula and assessment arrangements among the high-performing…

  3. International standardization compliance in aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Tyler B.

    The commercial aviation industry is global in the sense that passengers travel around the world from destination to destination. It is also global in that the states of the world (countries) regulate the industry domestically and internationally. There is a unique stage where the world comes together to promote aviation, discuss ideas and establish international standards. This stage is the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The 191 current member states signed treaties acknowledging their commitment to abiding by the standards and practices established by ICAO. No state is 100 percent compliant with international standards, however, and the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the fulfillment of compliance by individual member states and the safety of the commercial aviation industry in terms of fatality rates. Analysis of the results suggested that there is a relationship between compliance and fatalities, as compliance percentage increases the fatality rate decreases. Further analysis indicated the results were statistically significant regardless of the wealth of a state or size of a state's commercial operation.

  4. International Dimension in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borri, C.; Guberti, E.; Melsa, J.

    2007-01-01

    Engineers of the 21st century will spend appreciable portions of their careers in environments rich with global connections. Therefore, engineering colleges and universities must develop strategies that provide the global perspectives and international experiences that will help their graduates excel in this new world order. The current paper…

  5. Governing International Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses the international education sector in Australia as a case study to argue against understanding globalization as an exogenous force. It introduces the notion of globalization as a governmentality and discusses alternative interpretations which take into account notions of subjectivity, positionality and space/time. The paper…

  6. International Adoptions: The Quiet Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Richard H.

    1984-01-01

    Examines patterns in the international migration of children for adoption since World War II, with emphasis on those going to Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Relates findings to political and cultural factors. Observes that Latin America became a major source area for the United States in the 1970s, but that Asia remained…

  7. Geographic Considerations in International Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kott, Richard F.

    Based on students' generally shallow knowledge of geographic concepts on the one hand and a new and almost universal awareness of man in his milieu on the other, the author seeks to draw attention to the discipline of geography, and more specifically, political geography as an essential, fundamental component of international studies. The…

  8. American Achievement in International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrilli, Michael J.; Scull, Janie

    2011-01-01

    The release of the latest results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) garnered all the usual headlines about America's lackluster performance and the rise of competitor nations. To be sure, the findings--that America's fifteen-year-olds perform in the middle of the pack in both reading and math--are disconcerting for a…

  9. The Educational Experience of Interns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stephen J.

    To better understand the medical internship, a required and critical part of the educational preparation of young physicians, and its relevance for their future careers, the experience of interns on the Harvard Medical Service at the Boston City Hospital was documented. The principal method used to gather information was participation in and…

  10. International Association of School Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genco, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities of the International Association of School Librarianship (IASL) that were conducted at the annual conference in Belfast (Northern Ireland), including the keynote address on managing school library change; talks about and tours of Belfast schools; professional awards; IASL objectives; board members; and future plans. (LRW)

  11. International Association of School Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genco, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the International Association of School Librarianship (IASL), including an overview of organizational history; a review of the 1993 annual conference in Adelaide (Australia); descriptions of professional awards; lists of 1994-97 conference sites and board members; an address to contact for more information about the organization and its…

  12. International consensus on allergy immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Marek; Agache, Ioana; Bonini, Sergio; Burks, A Wesley; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, Walter; Cox, Linda; Demoly, Pascal; Frew, Antony J; O'Hehir, Robin; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Muraro, Antonella; Lack, Gideon; Larenas, Désirée; Levin, Michael; Nelson, Harald; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; van Ree, Ronald; Sampson, Hugh; Santos, Alexandra F; Du Toit, George; Werfel, Thomas; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Zhang, Luo; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2015-09-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been used to treat allergic disease since the early 1900s. Despite numerous clinical trials and meta-analyses proving AIT efficacious, it remains underused and is estimated to be used in less than 10% of patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma worldwide. In addition, there are large differences between regions, which are not only due to socioeconomic status. There is practically no controversy about the use of AIT in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, but for atopic dermatitis or food allergy, the indications for AIT are not well defined. The elaboration of a wider consensus is of utmost importance because AIT is the only treatment that can change the course of allergic disease by preventing the development of asthma and new allergen sensitizations and by inducing allergen-specific immune tolerance. Safer and more effective AIT strategies are being continuously developed both through elaboration of new allergen preparations and adjuvants and alternate routes of administration. A number of guidelines, consensus documents, or both are available on both the international and national levels. The international community of allergy specialists recognizes the need to develop a comprehensive consensus report to harmonize, disseminate, and implement the best AIT practice. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the World Allergy Organization, has decided to issue an international consensus on AIT.

  13. Framing Issues of International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbeh, Leila; Williams, Jobila

    2010-01-01

    "It can be said, and has been said by many, that the internationalization of education is inevitable, as the advancement of knowledge and understanding is a global enterprise that has no borders." Various motivations drive international ventures, such as expanding access to higher education, generating profits, increasing visibility and…

  14. 2001 MAPLD International Conference Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This CD contains the proceedings from the '2001 MAPLD International Conference', held on 11-13 September 2001 at Johns Hopkins University. Sessions included the following: (1) Applications: Military and Aerospace; (2) Design 1: Processors, Logic, and Programmable Devices; (3) Reliability: Devices and The Effects of the Radiation Environment; (4) Design 2: Systems; and (5) Design 3: Fault Tolerance.

  15. Inherently Unstable Internal Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Here we show that there exist internal gravity waves that are inherently unstable, that is, they cannot exist in nature for a long time. The instability mechanism is a one-way (irreversible) harmonic-generation resonance that permanently transfers the energy of an internal wave to its higher harmonics. We show that, in fact, there are countably infinite number of such unstable waves. For the harmonic-generation resonance to take place, nonlinear terms in the free surface boundary condition play a pivotal role, and the instability does not obtain for a linearly-stratified fluid if a simplified boundary condition such as rigid lid or linear form is employed. Harmonic-generation resonance discussed here also provides a mechanism for the transfer of the energy of the internal waves to the higher-frequency part of the spectrum where internal waves are more prone to breaking, hence losing energy to turbulence and heat and contributing to oceanic mixing. Yong Liang (yong.liang@berkeley.edu).

  16. Job Satisfaction: An International Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    An international comparison of job satisfaction levels strongly suggests that the idea of job satisfaction as a gauge of well-being at the workplace should be rejected, but that workers' reactions to aspects of their jobs may be meaningful. The article presents data from national surveys of managers, workers, and trade unions to explain this…

  17. International Relations: Library Instruction Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathie

    In support of the United States Naval Academy's program in international relations, library reference staff developed an instruction unit featuring appropriate research guides and a videotape produced at the Naval Academy Educational Resource Center. The videotape illustrates a sample search strategy and then highlights the use of four basic…

  18. International Study of Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liander, Bertil, Ed.

    The International Marketing Federation (IMF), supported by the Marketing Science Institute, has surveyed IMF member countries and a representative scattering of others to determine the current state and future trends in marketing education. This volume presents the findings of the survey of 21 countries--Argentina, Australia, Canada, Denmark,…

  19. International Education Year 1970. Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Bulletin number 1 of 17 stated that it will be published at regular monthly intervals. Its purpose is to inform member states, United Nations agencies, National Commissions for UNESCO, non-governmental and inter-governmental organizations of plans for "International Education Year 1970 (IEY)" and coming events. As proclaimed by…

  20. International Collaboration in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bertram S., Ed.; Torrey, E. Fuller, Ed.

    Presented in five parts on research, services, training, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse are 31 reports of mental health studies and programs supported by the U.S. and other countries. Explained in the introduction are reasons the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has supported international collaboration. The following are among subjects…

  1. International Perspectives on Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holford, John, Ed.; Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

    This book contains 30 papers providing international perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Edgar Faure after 25 Years" (Roger Boshier); "Public Rhetoric and Public Policy" (Colin Griffin); "Lifelong Learning and the European Union" (Barry J. Hake); "Critical Perspectives and New…

  2. Planning Curriculum in International Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durtka, Sharon; Dye, Alex; Freund, Judy; Harris, Jay; Kline, Julie; LeBreck, Carol; Reimbold, Rebecca; Tabachnick, Robert; Tantala, Renee; Wagler, Mark

    International education begins at home, in the very communities and environments most familiar to students. A student does not need to travel outside U.S. borders to meet the peoples or understand the issues of the global village. This planning guide shows how curriculum in all subject areas encompasses global challenges, global cultures, and…

  3. [International migration in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, A

    1995-12-01

    Trends in international migration in Latin America are reviewed using data from published sources. Aspects considered include historical views; migration according to occupational status and educational level; migration to the United States; migration characteristics in different regions of Latin America; and the crisis of the 1980s and its impact on population distribution.

  4. Global Ocean Internal Wave Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    of Delaware,,Newark,,DE, 19716 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10 . SPONSOR...km. The wavelength is about 10 km. 4 Figure 2 ERS-1 SAR image of internal waves near the Galapagos Islands The ERS-1 SAR image

  5. Education International Annual Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education International, Brussels (Belgium).

    In 2001, Education International (EI) achieved a high level of program implementation. This report provides a summary of that action. It is the first annual report and the last dealing with an earlier approach to programming. Following a review of ways of enhancing membership participation, the EI World Congress adopted a new approach to the…

  6. International Radio Broadcasting: Who Listens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Donald R.

    It is difficult to obtain reliable data on the nature of the audience for international broadcast programs in Asia (e.g., those beamed by the Voice of America or Radio Japan). However, analysis of listener mail and some survey research have provided a fairly clear profile of the audience: young (ages 15-34), well educated, urban, male (but with a…

  7. The CARE International Evaluation Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugh, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The 1996 American Evaluation Association conference in Atlanta featured a session on strategies to promote monitoring and evaluation (M&E) in international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs). At that time, there was a lengthy list of proposed initiatives to be undertaken in CARE. With the perspective of hindsight and reviewing the…

  8. Blog Consumption and International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    International relations professors have sought to incorporate current events into their curriculum through various mechanisms. A traditional way to incorporate the news into the classroom is to have students either subscribe and read a particular newspaper or watch the nightly news and hold them responsible for that information. However, with the…

  9. International Marketing: A Teaching Prospectus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzin, Margaret A.

    Three designs for a course in international marketing are described. The first requires a team of three to four students to research a designated country according to specific guidelines to determine which American products would sell best in that country. This project requires a written paper and an oral presentation. The five areas investigated…

  10. The International Big History Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big…

  11. Are International Undergraduates Struggling Academically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass-Holmes, Barry; Vaughn, Allison A.

    2014-01-01

    Are international undergraduates struggling academically, and are their struggles due to weaknesses in English as a second language? The present study showed that 1) at most 10% of these students in three cohorts (ranging in size from N = 322 to N = 695) at an American west coast public university struggled (quarterly grade point averages below C)…

  12. Internal Audit in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alison, Ed.; Brown, Sally, Ed.

    This book describes a range of examples of internal audit in higher education as part of a process of the exchange of good practice. The book recognizes well-established links with audit theory from other contexts and makes use of theoretical perspectives explored in the financial sector. The chapters are: (1) "Quality Audit Issues"…

  13. International Students and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  14. International Communication; Media, Channels, Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Heinz-Dietrich, Ed.; Merrill, John Calhoun, Ed.

    A total of 41 essays explore several major issues in international communication. The essays are grouped according to their topic, beginning with the broader topics of communication systems and concepts and the flow of world news and proceeding to considerations of national concerns such as freedom and restriction of communication, national…

  15. International Studies Program Procedures Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelston, Theodore

    This eleven-part procedures manual provides information on the operations of the International Studies Program (ISP) at St. Louis Community College. After introductory material on the program, which provides off-campus credit courses involving travel and field study of life and the cultures in foreign countries, Section I presents the philosophy…

  16. Algorithms for international atomic time.

    PubMed

    Panfilo, Gianna; Arias, E Felicitas

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the creation and technical evolution of atomic time scales. In particular, we focus our attention on the method of calculation and the characteristics of International Atomic Time (TAI), and show how it is disseminated at the ultimate level of precision.

  17. Expanding Internationally: OCLC Gears Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) efforts in China, Germany, Canada, Scotland, Jamaica and Brazil. Discusses FirstSearch, an end-user reference service, and WorldCat, a bibliographic database. Highlights international projects developing increased OCLC online availability, database loading software, CD-ROM cataloging,…

  18. The International Sweethearts of Rhythm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Liz

    1987-01-01

    The International Sweethearts of Rhythm, a popular, long-lived, all-female jazz band of the 1940s, were the first racially integrated women's band in America. Their achievement has been largely neglected by music historians. A brief history of the band is presented, and their significance is discussed. (BJV)

  19. Identity in Africa's Internal Conflicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Francis M.

    1996-01-01

    Identifies and defines four models of internal ethnic conflict and discusses those conflicts within various African nations. The corresponding models and countries include Integration Model: Botswana and Somalia; Managed Diversity Model: Ghana, Cote d'Ivorie, Kenya, and Nigeria; Ambivalent Accommodation Model: Ethiopia and Djibouti; and Acute…

  20. International Education for Spaceship Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David C.

    This book is based on an extensive study conducted by the Foreign Policy Association for the United States Office of Education on needs and priorities in international education. To give students adequate preparation for today's world of constant and rapid change the schools must help them gain a global perspective of the world as a single system.…

  1. Antarctica Day: An International Celebration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Hambrook Berkman, J.; Berkman, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    For more than half a century, the 1959 Antarctic Treaty continues to shine as a rare beacon of international cooperation. To celebrate this milestone of peace in our civilization with hope and inspiration for future generations, Antarctica Day is celebrated each year on December 1st , the anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty signing. As an annual event - initiated by the Foundation for the Good Governance of International Spaces (www.internationalspaces.org/) in collaboration with the Association of Polar Early Carer Scientists (www.apecs.is) - Antarctica Day encourages participation from around the world. The Antarctic Treaty set aside 10% of the earth, 'forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes in the interest of mankind.' It was the first nuclear arms agreement and the first institution to govern all human activities in an international region beyond sovereign jurisdictions. In this spirit, Antarctica Day aims to: - Demonstrate how diverse nations can work together peacefully, using science as a global language of cooperation for decision making beyond national boundaries, - Provide strategies for students learning about Antarctica through art, science and history at all school levels, - Increase collaboration and communication between classrooms, communities, researchers and government officials around the world, and - Provide a focus for polar educators to build on each year. Through close collaboration with a number of partners. Antarctica Day activities have included: a Polar Film Festival convened by The Explorers Club; live sessions connecting classrooms with scientists in Antarctica thanks to PolarTREC and ARCUS; an international activity that involved children from 13 countries who created over 600 flags which exemplify Antarctica Day (these were actually flown in Antarctica with signed certificates then returned to the classes); a map where Antarctica Day participants all over the world could share what they were doing; an Antarctic bird count

  2. International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme: Examining College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David; McGaughy, Charis; Davis-Molin, Whitney; Farkas, Rachel; Fukuda, Erin

    2014-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) works with schools, governments, and international organizations to develop challenging programmes of international education and rigorous assessment. This three-phase study prepared by the Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) on behalf of the International Baccalaureate Organization explored the impact…

  3. 77 FR 39560 - International Joint Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... International Joint Commission International Joint Commission Invites Public Comment on Upper Great Lakes Report The International Joint Commission (IJC) announced today that it is inviting public comment on the final report of its International Upper Great Lakes Study Board, Lake Superior Regulation:...

  4. International aspects of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Trivelpiece, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    The national laboratories of the Department of Energy can rightly claim to be called international laboratories because of their role in international research and development activities. These laboratories have staff that pursue internationally acclaimed research with both national and international colleagues and have facilities that support these endeavors.

  5. International Education and (Dis)Embodied Cosmopolitanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder Kaur; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    This article is a critical examination of practices and representations that constitute international education. While international education has provided substantial contributions and benefits for nation-states and international students, we question the discourses and practices which inform the international education export industry. The…

  6. Canadian Policy Responses to International Comparison Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volante, Louis

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines policy responses across Canada to international student assessment programs such as the program for international student assessment, trends in international mathematics and science study, and progress in international reading and literacy study. Literature reviewed included refereed and non-refereed journal articles,…

  7. International society for antiviral research - 23rd international conference.

    PubMed

    Mason, Vicki L

    2010-06-01

    The 23rd International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR), organized by the International Society for Antiviral Research (ISAR) and held in San Francisco, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of antivirals. This conference report highlights selected presentations on CD4-BFFI (Roche Holding AG), a CD4 mAb-based bifunctional HIV entry inhibitor; a CLDC-HBsAg vaccine (Juvaris BioTherapeutics Inc/China National Biotec Group) against HBV; ODE-(S)-MPMPA (University of California San Diego), a potent anti-HCV compound; the anti-human CMV activity exhibited by tricin; the protective activity of Ingavirin against influenza A; and Prosetta Bioconformatics's approach to identifying small-molecule antivirals.

  8. Skin: A mirror of internal malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Kota, RahulKrishna S.; Diwan, Nilofar G.; Jivani, Nidhi B.; Gandhi, Shailee S.

    2016-01-01

    Skin manifestations are a reflection of many of the internal diseases. Sometimes, skin disease may be the only manifestation of the internal disease. Internal malignancies may give rise to a number of cutaneous manifestations through their immunological, metabolic, and metastatic consequences. Curth proposed criteria to establish a causal relationship between a dermatosis and a malignant internal disease. Malignancy can present with a plethora of cutaneous manifestations. Here, we describe in brief about various skin manifestations of internal malignancies. PMID:28144085

  9. The "old internationals": Canadian nurses in an international nursing community.

    PubMed

    Lapeyre, Jaime; Nelson, Sioban

    2010-12-01

    The vast devastation caused by both the First World War and the influenza pandemic of 1918 led to an increased worldwide demand for public health nurses. In response to this demand, a number of new public health training programs for nurses were started at both national and international levels. At the international level, one of two influential programs in this area included a year-long public health nursing course offered by the League of Red Cross Societies, in conjunction with Bedford College in London, England. In total, 341 nurses from 49 different countries have been documented as participants in this initiative throughout the interwar period, including 20 Canadians. Using archival material from the Canadian Nurses Association and the Royal College of Nursing, as well as articles from the journals Canadian Nurse, American Journal of Nursing and British Journal of Nursing, this paper examines these nurses' commitment to internationalism throughout their careers and explores the effect of this commitment on the development of nursing education and professionalization at the national level.

  10. The Role of International Law: Formulating International Legal Instruments and Creating International Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szasz, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    Using as a basis the threat of climatic change resulting from global warming, this article considers the functions that might be assigned to an international regime. For each function individually and collectively, the instruments and institutions that would be required for the various processes are examined. (SLD)

  11. International Research Results and Accomplishments From the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Perkins, Nekisha; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; Heppener, Marc; Hatton, Jason; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Umemura, Sayaka; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Cotronei, Vittorio; Sabbagh, Jean

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the first-ever compilation of international ISS research publications resulting from research performed on the ISS through 2011. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a collection of summaries of over 1,200 journal publications that describe ISS research in the areas of biology and biotechnology; Earth and space science; educational activities and outreach; human research; physical sciences; technology development and demonstration; and, results from ISS operations. This paper will summarize the ISS results publications obtained through 2011 on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum that is made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. NASA's ISS Program Science office maintains an online experiment database (www.nasa.gov/issscience) that tracks and communicates ISS research activities across the entire ISS partnership, and it is continuously updated. It captures ISS experiment summaries and results and includes citations to the journals, conference proceedings, and patents as they become available. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a testament to the research that was underway even as the ISS laboratory was being built. It reflects the scientific knowledge gained from ISS research, and how it impact the fields of science in both space and traditional science disciplines on Earth. Now, during a time when utilization is at its busiest, and with extension of the ISS through at least 2024, the ISS partners work together to track the accomplishments and the new knowledge gained in a way that will impact humanity like no laboratory on Earth. The ISS Program Science Forum will continue to capture and report on these results in the form of journal publications, conference proceedings, and patents. We anticipate that successful ISS research will

  12. 10. international mouse genome conference

    SciTech Connect

    Meisler, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ten years after hosting the First International Mammalian Genome Conference in Paris in 1986, Dr. Jean-Louis Guenet presided over the Tenth Conference at the Pasteur Institute, October 7--10, 1996. The 1986 conference was a satellite to the Human Gene Mapping Workshop and had approximately 50 attendees. The 1996 meeting was attended by 300 scientists from around the world. In the interim, the number of mapped loci in the mouse increased from 1,000 to over 20,000. This report contains a listing of the program and its participants, and two articles that review the meeting and the role of the laboratory mouse in the Human Genome project. More than 200 papers were presented at the conference covering the following topics: International mouse chromosome committee meetings; Mutant generation and identification; Physical and genetic maps; New technology and resources; Chromatin structure and gene regulation; Rate and hamster genetic maps; Informatics and databases; and Quantitative trait analysis.

  13. Student Interns Work on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, C. D.; Bebak, M.; Bollen, D. M.; Curtis, K.; Daniel, C.; Grigsby, B.; Herman, T.; Haynes, E.; Lineberger, D. H.; Pieruccini, S.

    2004-01-01

    The exceptional imagery and data acquired by the Mars Exploration Rovers since their January 2004 landing have captured the attention of scientists, the public, and students and teachers worldwide. One aspect of particular interest lies with a group of high school teachers and students actively engaged in the Athena Student Interns Program. The Athena Student Interns Program (ASIP) is a joint effort between NASA s Mars Public Engagement Office and the Athena Science Investigation that began in early 1999 as a pilot student-scientist research partnership program associated with the FIDO prototype Mars rover field test . The program is designed to actively engage high school students and their teachers in Mars exploration and scientific inquiry. In ASIP, groups of students and teachers from around the country work with mentors from the mission s Athena Science Team to carry out an aspect of the mission.

  14. International Ultraviolet Explorer Observatory operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the final report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer IUE Observatory Operations contract. The fundamental operational objective of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) program is to translate competitively selected observing programs into IUE observations, to reduce these observations into meaningful scientific data, and then to present these data to the Guest Observer in a form amenable to the pursuit of scientific research. The IUE Observatory is the key to this objective since it is the central control and support facility for all science operations functions within the IUE Project. In carrying out the operation of this facility, a number of complex functions were provided beginning with telescope scheduling and operation, proceeding to data processing, and ending with data distribution and scientific data analysis. In support of these critical-path functions, a number of other significant activities were also provided, including scientific instrument calibration, systems analysis, and software support. Routine activities have been summarized briefly whenever possible.

  15. Multicultural factors for international spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Kring, J P

    2001-06-01

    Spaceflight operations, including the International Space Station (ISS) and a mission to Mars, depend on international cooperation. Accordingly, safety, performance, and mission success rely on how well crews and operational personnel with different cultural backgrounds operate together. This paper outlines 10 areas related to spaceflight that are influenced by the national culture and backgrounds of personnel: (a) Communication, (b) Cognition and Decision Making, (c) Technology Interfacing, (d) Interpersonal Interactions, (e) Work, Management, and Leadership Style, (f) Personal Hygiene and Clothing, (g) Food Preparation and Meals, (h) Religion and Holidays, (i) Recreation, and (j) Habitat Aesthetics. Research findings and recommendations are presented, as well as a multicultural training approach to reduce potential challenges for long-duration spaceflight.

  16. The Importance of Internal Development

    ScienceCinema

    Gerst, Kacy; Moore, Randy A., Schaefer, Richard

    2016-07-12

    The story of an ARPA-E awardee doesn’t necessarily end when ARPA-E funding runs out. Two ARPA-E awardees—Eagle Picher Technologies and Baldor Electric Company—have developed technologies to the point where internal stakeholders of their respective companies committed additional funds to help these technologies achieve success in the market. This video features remarks from ARPA-E Technology-to-Market Advisor Kacy Gerst and interviews with technologists at Eagle Picher and Baldor, who each tell the story of how they achieved buy-in from their internal leadership to further develop their ARPA-E-funded technologies.

  17. Nuclear reactor internals alignment configuration

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Singleton, Norman R.

    2009-11-10

    An alignment system that employs jacking block assemblies and alignment posts around the periphery of the top plate of a nuclear reactor lower internals core shroud to align an upper core plate with the lower internals and the core shroud with the core barrel. The distal ends of the alignment posts are chamfered and are closely received within notches machined in the upper core plate at spaced locations around the outer circumference of the upper core plate. The jacking block assemblies are used to center the core shroud in the core barrel and the alignment posts assure the proper orientation of the upper core plate. The alignment posts may alternately be formed in the upper core plate and the notches may be formed in top plate.

  18. Internal morphology of human phalanges.

    PubMed

    Schulter-Ellis, F P; Lazar, G T

    1984-07-01

    The internal morphology of human phalanges has been defined by measurements taken directly from specimens of these bones. For this study, all 14 phalanges were prepared from 25 fresh cadaver hands. Measurements were taken of both external and internal variables. Intramedullary structures are described. In the proximal metaphysis of the phalanges, the canal presents the shape of a tunnel with a flat floor on its palmar aspect and an arching roof dorsally. Distally, toward middiaphysis, the canal becomes more elliptic and its size is smaller relative to the metaphyseal area. This suggests that not only dimensions but also the shape of the canal should be given full consideration in the design of intramedullary devices.

  19. The International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza; Engle, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an engineering project unlike any other. The vehicle is inhabited and operational as construction goes on. The habitability resources available to the crew are the crew sleep quarters, the galley, the waste and hygiene compartment, and exercise equipment. These items are mainly in the Russian Service Module and their placement is awkward for the crew to deal with ISS assembly will continue with the truss build and the addition of International Partner Laboratories. Also, Node 2 and 3 will be added. The Node 2 module will provide additional stowage volume and room for more crew sleep quarters. The Node 3 module will provide additional Environmental Control and Life Support Capability. The purpose of the ISS is to perform research and a major area of emphasis is the effects of long duration space flight on humans, a result of this research they will determine what are the habitability requirements for long duration space flight.

  20. [Semantic information. Internal language. Thinking].

    PubMed

    Azcoaga, J E

    1993-06-01

    Semantic information has reached an objective condition after a lengthy history of semantic inquiries that instrumental neurophysiological devices--such as event-related potentials, electroencephalographic spectral analysis, regional brain circulation, PET scan, deep brain electrodes, and other--have made easier. In turn, internal language, as screened according to Vigotsky's perspective, is considered a product of semantic information circulation understood as neurosemae interconnection. Finally, in normal adults, thinking processes are assumed to be made up by both sensoperceptive information (proprioceptive information included) and semantic information. Thus, an "extraverbal thinking" can be distinguished, whose activity is hardly describable in healthy adults but should be considered as a condition of non-educated deaf persons, and a "verbal thinking", or internal language, made up by semantic information.

  1. Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of 120 papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 18-20, 1999. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from at least eight international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for the Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  2. International Space Station in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-105 mission from the Shuttle Orbiter Discovery after deparating from the ISS. The STS-105 mission was the 11th ISS assembly flight and its goals were the rotation of the ISS Expedition Two crew with the Expedition Three crew, and the delivery of supplies utilizing the Italian-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Leonardo. Aboard Leonardo were six resupply stowage racks, four resupply stowage supply platforms, and two new scientific experiment racks, EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Racks 4 and 5, which added science capabilities to the ISS. Another payload was the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), which included materials and other types of space exposure experiments mounted on the exterior of the ISS.

  3. International Space Station in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-105 mission from the Shuttle Orbiter Discovery after separating from the ISS. The STS-105 mission was the 11th ISS assembly flight and its goals were the rotation of the ISS Expedition Two crew with Expedition Three crew, and the delivery of supplies utilizing the Italian-built Multipurpose Logistic Module (MPLM) Leonardo. Aboard Leonardo were six resupply stowage racks, four resupply stowage supply platforms, and two new scientific experiment racks, EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Racks 4 and 5, which added science capabilities to the ISS. Another payload was the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), which included materials and other types of space exposure experiments mounted on the exterior of the ISS.

  4. International Collaboration: Promises and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, R. Jay; Widmer, Jocelyn M.; Lerman, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We currently face a myriad of grand global challenges in fields such as poverty, the environment, education, science, and medicine. However, our current means of dealing with such challenges has fallen short, and ingenious solutions are required to overcome the inherent resistance to progress toward ameliorating such difficulties. Here, we highlight the promises and challenges of international collaboration in achieving success toward these trials. We note prior successes in fields such as education, medicine, science, and environmental issues made to date, yet at the same time we do note deficiencies and shortcomings in these efforts. Hence, the notion of international collaboration should be strengthened and encouraged by governments, non-profit organizations, and others moving forward using creative means to bring talented teams together to tackle these challenges across the globe. PMID:25973264

  5. International Collaboration in Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, K. Bruce; Horack, John M.; Nall, Mark; Leahy, Bart. D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration commits the United States to return astronauts to the moon by 2020 using the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. Like the Apollo program of the 1960s and 1970s, this effort will require preliminary reconnaissance in the form of robotic landers and probes. Unlike Apollo, some of the data NASA will rely upon to select landing sites and conduct science will be based on international missions as well, including SMART-1, SELENE, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Opportunities for international cooperation on the moon also lie in developing lunar exploration technologies. The European Space Agency's SMART-1 orbiter (Figure 1) is making the first comprehensive inventory of key chemical elements in the lunar surface. It is also investigating the impact theory of the moon's formation.'

  6. International impact research and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.; Hammitt, William E.; Cole, David N.

    1998-01-01

    To be sustainable, ecotourism requires the protection of natural environments and processes both from development and operation of the tourism infrastructure, and from the activities of ecotourists within protected areas. This book chapter reviews the international literature on the study of visitor or recreation-related resource impacts with special reference to ecotourism. Four case examples are presented to characterize the geographic scope, focus, and principal findings of this recreation ecology literature and its relevance to ecotourism management. Case examples include the Cairngorms National Nature Reserve, Scotland; the Great Barrier Reef, Australia; the Central American tropics; and wildlife viewing in Kenya?s protected areas. Implications for the management of international protected areas and ecotourism resources are discussed.

  7. Precautionary principle in international law.

    PubMed

    Saladin, C

    2000-01-01

    The deregulatory nature of trade rules frequently brings them into conflict with the precautionary principle. These rules dominate debate over the content and legal status of the precautionary principle at the international level. The World Trade Organization (WTO), because of its power in settling disputes, is a key player. Many States are concerned to define the precautionary principle consistent with WTO rules, which generally means defining it as simply a component of risk analysis. At the same time, many States, especially environmental and public health policymakers, see the principle as the legal basis for preserving domestic and public health measures in the face of deregulatory pressures from the WTO. The precautionary principle has begun to acquire greater content and to move into the operative articles of legally binding international agreements. It is important to continue this trend.

  8. Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 22-24, 2001. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  9. Environmental concerns and international migration.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1996-01-01

    "This article focuses on international migration occurring as a result of environmental changes and processes. It briefly reviews attempts to conceptualize environment-related migration and then considers the extent to which environmental factors have been and may be significant in initiating migration. Following is an examination of migration as an independent variable in the migration-environment relationship. Finally, ethical and policy dimensions are addressed."

  10. Internal Solitons in the Oceans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    of complex geography , inland seas with differing tidal responses, and a deep pycnocline formed by the stress of the trade winds all work to cause the...analysis and filtering of ocean surface waves, Chaos, solitons and fractals , 5, 2623-2637. 180. Osborne, A. R., and T. I. Burch, 1980, Internal solitons...n. 7, 844-854. 196. Parkes, E. J., 2005, Explicit solutions of the reduced Ostrovsky equation, Chaos, Soli- tons and Fractals , in press. 197

  11. Internal Water Vapor Photoacoustic Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Water vapor absorption is ubiquitous in the infrared wavelength range where photoacoustic trace gas detectors operate. This technique allows for discontinuous wavelength tuning by temperature-jumping a laser diode from one range to another within a time span suitable for photoacoustic calibration. The use of an internal calibration eliminates the need for external calibrated reference gases. Commercial applications include an improvement of photoacoustic spectrometers in all fields of use.

  12. IRI: An international Rawer initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper was presented during the special session that was held at the 1993 International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) Workshop in honor of Karl Rawer's 80th birthday. It retraces the steps that led from the start of the IRI project to the present edition of the model highlighting the important role that the honoree played in guiding IRI from infancy to maturity. All summary view graphs are reproduced at the end of the article.

  13. [Sugar and diabetes: international recommendations].

    PubMed

    Sanz París, Alejandro; Boj Carceller, Diana; Melchor Lacleta, Isabel; Albero Gamboa, Ramón

    2013-07-01

    Nutrition in the diabetic patient is not just a mere nutrient but his treatment is based. In fact, international scientific societies have called "medical nutrition therapy" to give it the emphasis it deserves. Nutritional recommendations of scientific societies have been changing in recent years with evidence-based medicine. Regarding the consumption of sugar, most believe it does not affect metabolic control if it is replaced by other carbohydrates, but does not indicate a specific amount.

  14. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Chart / Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  15. The AAVSO International GRB Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron

    2003-04-01

    The AAVSO International GRB Network provides services to both amateurs and professionals to help detect GRB afterglows. The network leverages the unique abilities of amateur astronomers to offer global coverage to eliminate geographic and climatic restrictions to GRB alert reaction times. Additionally, public outreach is a critical component of the network and automated online chart making procedures have made it a useful tool for professionals. The financial support of NASA and the Curry Foundation is gratefully appreciated.

  16. The International Reactor Dosimetry File.

    SciTech Connect

    DUNFORD, CHARLIE

    2008-08-07

    Version 01 The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-2002) contains recommended neutron cross-section data to be used for reactor neutron dosimetry by foil activation and subsequent neutron spectrum unfolding. It also contains selected recom�mended values for radiation damage cross-sections and benchmark neutron spectra. Two related programs available from NEADB and RSICC are: SPECTER-ANL (PSR-263) & STAY’SL (PSR-113).

  17. International waste management fact book

    SciTech Connect

    Amaya, J P; LaMarche, M N; Upton, J F

    1997-10-01

    Many countries around the world are faced with nuclear and environmental management problems similar to those being addressed by the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this Fact Book is to provide the latest information on US and international organizations, programs, activities and key personnel to promote mutual cooperation to solve these problems. Areas addressed include all aspects of closing the commercial and nuclear fuel cycle and managing the wastes and sites from defense-related, nuclear materials production programs.

  18. ES Cell International & regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Colman, Alan; Alliston, Doug

    2006-03-01

    ES Cell International believes that human embryonic stem cells offer a renewable source material for the elaboration of a multitude of different tissues for use in human cell replacement therapy. There are many challenges to the successful implementation of this vision including technical, regulatory, financial and ethical hurdles. However with demographic changes towards an aging population in the richer countries, leading to growing demands of ways to combat degenerative disease, science would be remiss not to explore every potential medical solution.

  19. Fifth international fungus spore conference

    SciTech Connect

    Timberlake, W.E.

    1993-04-01

    This folio contains the proceedings of the Fifth International Fungal Spore Conference held August 17-21, 1991 at the Unicoi State Park at Helen, Georgia. The volume contains abstracts of each oral presentation as well as a collection of abstracts describing the poster sessions. Presentations were organized around the themes (1) Induction of Sporulation, (2) Nuclear Division, (3) Spore Formation, (4) Spore Release and Dispersal, and (4) Spore Germination.

  20. Forecasting International Interdependence and Conflict.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-30

    market by the likes of multinational corporations , and, in some cases, by the state itself. This opposing school would argue that while the importance...and the phenomenon-interdependence, are related. The openness of interdependent nations to comunications and many other transmitters of culture, as...vulnerabilities that go with par- ticipation. Also ignored are multinational corporations and their effects on home and host country economies, international