Science.gov

Sample records for agrilife classification description

  1. Description and Classification of Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    Solar prominences are bright cloud-like structures when observed beyond the solar limb and they appear as dark filamentary objects which are termed filaments when seen against the solar disk. The aims of prominence classifications were from the start to establish references and frameworks for understanding the physical conditions for their formation and development through interplay with the solar magnetic environment. The multi-thermal nature of solar prominences became fully apparent once observations from space in UV, VUV, EUV and X-rays could be made. The cool prominence plasma is thermally shielded from the much hotter corona and supported in the field of gravity by small- and large-scale magnetic fields of the filament channels. High cadence, subarcsecond observing facilities on ground and in space have firmly proven the highly dynamic nature of solar prominences down to the smallest observed structural sizes of 100 km. The origin of the ubiquitous oscillations and flowing of the plasma over a variety of spatial and temporal scales, whether the cool dense plasma originates from below via levitation, injections by reconnection or results from condensation processes, are central issues in prominence research today. The unveiling of instabilities leading to prominences eruptions and Coronal Mass Ejections is another important challenge. The objective of this chapter is to review the main characteristics of various types of prominences and their associated magnetic environments, which will all be addressed in details in the following chapters of this book.

  2. A Descriptive Genetic Classification for Glaciovolcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, B. R.; Russell, K.; Porritt, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    We review the recently published descriptive genetic classification for glaciovolcanoes (Russell et al., Quat Sci Rv, 2014). The new classification uses 'tuya' as a root word for all glaciovolcanic edifices, and with modifiers that make the classification descriptive (e.g., andesitic, lava-dominated, flat topped tuya). Although tuyas can range in composition from basaltic to rhyolitic, many of the characteristics diagnostic of glaciovolcanic environments are largely independent of lava composition (e.g., edifice morphology, columnar jointing patterns, glass distributions, pyroclast shapes). Tuya subtypes are first classified on the basis of variations in edifice-scale morphologies (e.g., conical tuya) then, on the proportions of the essential lithofacies (e.g., tephra-dominated conical tuya), and lastly on magma composition (e.g., basaltic, tephra-dominated, conical tuya). The lithofacies associations within tuyas broadly record the interplay between magmatic and glaciohydraulic conditions extent during the active phases of the eruption, including the dominant style of eruption (e.g., explosive vs. effusive). We present nine distinct, endmember models for glaciovolcanic edifices that simultaneously record changes in eruption conditions (explosive, transitional, effusive) for different general glaciohydraulic conditions (closed/sealed, leaky/partly sealed, open/well-drained). To date we have identified potential examples for 7 of the 9 models. Use of a simplified, descriptive classification scheme for glaciovolcanoes will facilitate communications amongst volcanologists and planetary scientists and the use of tuyas for recovering critical paleo-environmental information, particularly the local glaciohydraulics extent during eruptions.

  3. 77 FR 22768 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Freight Classification Description

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Freight Classification Description AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning freight classification description. Public comments... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0055, Freight Classification Description, by any of...

  4. 48 CFR 52.247-53 - Freight Classification Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight Classification... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-53 Freight Classification Description. As prescribed in 47.305-9(b)(1), insert the...

  5. 48 CFR 52.247-53 - Freight Classification Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight Classification... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-53 Freight Classification Description. As prescribed in 47.305-9(b)(1), insert the...

  6. Descriptive and Functional Classifications of Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Albert S.; Stauss, Fred F.

    1977-01-01

    Polydrug (non-opiate-drug) abusers have previously been classified by a variety of typologies that can be characterized as either descriptive, functional, or a combination of both. This investigation proposes two objective scoring systems that classify polydrug users on a streetwise/straight dimension and on a self-medication/recreational-use…

  7. Venus small volcano classification and description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubele, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    The high resolution and global coverage of the Magellan radar image data set allows detailed study of the smallest volcanoes on the planet. A modified classification scheme for volcanoes less than 20 km in diameter is shown and described. It is based on observations of all members of the 556 significant clusters or fields of small volcanoes located and described by this author during data collection for the Magellan Volcanic and Magmatic Feature Catalog. This global study of approximately 10 exp 4 volcanoes provides new information for refining small volcano classification based on individual characteristics. Total number of these volcanoes was estimated to be 10 exp 5 to 10 exp 6 planetwide based on pre-Magellan analysis of Venera 15/16, and during preparation of the global catalog, small volcanoes were identified individually or in clusters in every C1-MIDR mosaic of the Magellan data set. Basal diameter (based on 1000 measured edifices) generally ranges from 2 to 12 km with a mode of 34 km, and follows an exponential distribution similar to the size frequency distribution of seamounts as measured from GLORIA sonar images. This is a typical distribution for most size-limited natural phenomena unlike impact craters which follow a power law distribution and continue to infinitely increase in number with decreasing size. Using an exponential distribution calculated from measured small volcanoes selected globally at random, we can calculate total number possible given a minimum size. The paucity of edifice diameters less than 2 km may be due to inability to identify very small volcanic edifices in this data set; however, summit pits are recognizable at smaller diameters, and 2 km may represent a significant minimum diameter related to style of volcanic eruption. Guest, et al, discussed four general types of small volcanic edifices on Venus: (1) small lava shields; (2) small volcanic cones; (3) small volcanic domes; and (4) scalloped margin domes ('ticks'). Steep

  8. Venus small volcano classification and description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubele, J. C.

    1993-03-01

    The high resolution and global coverage of the Magellan radar image data set allows detailed study of the smallest volcanoes on the planet. A modified classification scheme for volcanoes less than 20 km in diameter is shown and described. It is based on observations of all members of the 556 significant clusters or fields of small volcanoes located and described by this author during data collection for the Magellan Volcanic and Magmatic Feature Catalog. This global study of approximately 10 exp 4 volcanoes provides new information for refining small volcano classification based on individual characteristics. Total number of these volcanoes was estimated to be 10 exp 5 to 10 exp 6 planetwide based on pre-Magellan analysis of Venera 15/16, and during preparation of the global catalog, small volcanoes were identified individually or in clusters in every C1-MIDR mosaic of the Magellan data set. Basal diameter (based on 1000 measured edifices) generally ranges from 2 to 12 km with a mode of 34 km, and follows an exponential distribution similar to the size frequency distribution of seamounts as measured from GLORIA sonar images. This is a typical distribution for most size-limited natural phenomena unlike impact craters which follow a power law distribution and continue to infinitely increase in number with decreasing size. Using an exponential distribution calculated from measured small volcanoes selected globally at random, we can calculate total number possible given a minimum size. The paucity of edifice diameters less than 2 km may be due to inability to identify very small volcanic edifices in this data set; however, summit pits are recognizable at smaller diameters, and 2 km may represent a significant minimum diameter related to style of volcanic eruption. Guest, et al, discussed four general types of small volcanic edifices on Venus: (1) small lava shields; (2) small volcanic cones; (3) small volcanic domes; and (4) scalloped margin domes ('ticks'). Steep

  9. 48 CFR 47.305-9 - Commodity description and freight classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... classification and (2) the hazardous material description and hazard class as shown in 49 CFR 172.101. (d) The... the rating applicable to the freight classification description published in the National...

  10. 48 CFR 47.305-9 - Commodity description and freight classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... classification and (2) the hazardous material description and hazard class as shown in 49 CFR 172.101. (d) The... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commodity description and... Commodity description and freight classification. (a) Generally, the freight rate for supplies is based...

  11. Meeting a Growing Demand: Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Demand for professional development training in the early childhood field has grown substantially in recent years. To meet the demand, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Family Development and Resource Management unit developed the Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program, a professional development system that currently…

  12. Research on multi-class classification of support vector data description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Minghua; Xiao, Huaitie; Fu, Qiang

    2007-11-01

    Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) is a one-class classification method developed in recent years. It has been used in many fields because of its good performance and high executive efficiency when there are only one-class training samples. It has been proven that SVDD has less support vector numbers, less optimization time and faster testing speed than those of two-class classifier such as SVM. At present, researches and acquirable literatures about SVDD multi-class classification are little, which restricts the SVDD application. One SVDD multi-class classification algorithm is proposed in the paper. Based on minimum distance classification rule, the misclassification in multi-class classification is well solved and by applying the threshold strategy the rejection in multi-class classification is greatly alleviated. Finally, by classifying range profiles of three targets, the effect of kernel function parameter and SNR on the proposed algorithm is investigated and the effectiveness of the algorithm is testified by quantities of experiments.

  13. An Abstract Description Approach to the Discovery and Classification of Bioinformatics Web Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Rocco, D; Critchlow, T J

    2003-05-01

    The World Wide Web provides an incredible resource to genomics researchers in the form of dynamic data sources--e.g. BLAST sequence homology search interfaces. The growth rate of these sources outpaces the speed at which they can be manually classified, meaning that the available data is not being utilized to its full potential. Existing research has not addressed the problems of automatically locating, classifying, and integrating classes of bioinformatics data sources. This paper presents an overview of a system for finding classes of bioinformatics data sources and integrating them behind a unified interface. We examine an approach to classifying these sources automatically that relies on an abstract description format: the service class description. This format allows a domain expert to describe the important features of an entire class of services without tying that description to any particular Web source. We present the features of this description format in the context of BLAST sources to show how the service class description relates to Web sources that are being described. We then show how a service class description can be used to classify an arbitrary Web source to determine if that source is an instance of the described service. To validate the effectiveness of this approach, we have constructed a prototype that can correctly classify approximately two-thirds of the BLAST sources we tested. We then examine these results, consider the factors that affect correct automatic classification, and discuss future work.

  14. Fascia: a morphological description and classification system based on a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kumka, Myroslava; Bonar, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Fascia is virtually inseparable from all structures in the body and acts to create continuity amongst tissues to enhance function and support. In the past fascia has been difficult to study leading to ambiguities in nomenclature, which have only recently been addressed. Through review of the available literature, advances in fascia research were compiled, and issues related to terminology, descriptions, and clinical relevance of fascia were addressed. Our multimodal search strategy was conducted in Medline and PubMed databases, with other targeted searches in Google Scholar and by hand, utilizing reference lists and conference proceedings. In an effort to organize nomenclature for fascial structures provided by the Federative International Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FICAT), we developed a functional classification system which includes four categories of fascia: i) linking, ii) fascicular, iii) compression, and iv) separating fasciae. Each category was developed from descriptions in the literature on gross anatomy, histology, and biomechanics; the category names reflect the function of the fascia. An up-to-date definition of fascia is provided, as well as descriptions of its function and clinical features. Our classification demonstrates the use of internationally accepted terminology in an ontology which can improve understanding of major terms in each category of fascia. PMID:22997468

  15. Apollo 15 coarse fines (4-10 mm): Sample classification, description and inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, B. N.

    1972-01-01

    A particle by particle binocular microscopic examination of all of the Apollo 15 4-10 mm fines samples is reported. These particles are classified according to their macroscopic lithologic features in order to provide a basis for sample allocations and future study. The relatively large size of these particles renders them too vaulable to permit treatment along with the other bulk fines, yet they are too small (and numerous) to practically receive full individual descriptive treatment as given the larger rock samples. This examination, classification and description of subgroups represents a compromise treatment. In most cases and for many types of investigation the individual particles should be large enough to permit the application of more than one type of analysis.

  16. A/T/N: An unbiased descriptive classification scheme for Alzheimer disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Jack, Clifford R; Bennett, David A; Blennow, Kaj; Carrillo, Maria C; Feldman, Howard H; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Hampel, Harald; Jagust, William J; Johnson, Keith A; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Scheltens, Philip; Sperling, Reisa A; Dubois, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers have become an essential component of Alzheimer disease (AD) research and because of the pervasiveness of AD pathology in the elderly, the same biomarkers are used in cognitive aging research. A number of current issues suggest that an unbiased descriptive classification scheme for these biomarkers would be useful. We propose the "A/T/N" system in which 7 major AD biomarkers are divided into 3 binary categories based on the nature of the pathophysiology that each measures. "A" refers to the value of a β-amyloid biomarker (amyloid PET or CSF Aβ42); "T," the value of a tau biomarker (CSF phospho tau, or tau PET); and "N," biomarkers of neurodegeneration or neuronal injury ([(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, structural MRI, or CSF total tau). Each biomarker category is rated as positive or negative. An individual score might appear as A+/T+/N-, or A+/T-/N-, etc. The A/T/N system includes the new modality tau PET. It is agnostic to the temporal ordering of mechanisms underlying AD pathogenesis. It includes all individuals in any population regardless of the mix of biomarker findings and therefore is suited to population studies of cognitive aging. It does not specify disease labels and thus is not a diagnostic classification system. It is a descriptive system for categorizing multidomain biomarker findings at the individual person level in a format that is easy to understand and use. Given the present lack of consensus among AD specialists on terminology across the clinically normal to dementia spectrum, a biomarker classification scheme will have broadest acceptance if it is independent from any one clinically defined diagnostic scheme. PMID:27371494

  17. A/T/N: An unbiased descriptive classification scheme for Alzheimer disease biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David A.; Blennow, Kaj; Carrillo, Maria C.; Feldman, Howard H.; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Hampel, Harald; Jagust, William J.; Johnson, Keith A.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Scheltens, Philip; Sperling, Reisa A.; Dubois, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers have become an essential component of Alzheimer disease (AD) research and because of the pervasiveness of AD pathology in the elderly, the same biomarkers are used in cognitive aging research. A number of current issues suggest that an unbiased descriptive classification scheme for these biomarkers would be useful. We propose the “A/T/N” system in which 7 major AD biomarkers are divided into 3 binary categories based on the nature of the pathophysiology that each measures. “A” refers to the value of a β-amyloid biomarker (amyloid PET or CSF Aβ42); “T,” the value of a tau biomarker (CSF phospho tau, or tau PET); and “N,” biomarkers of neurodegeneration or neuronal injury ([18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose–PET, structural MRI, or CSF total tau). Each biomarker category is rated as positive or negative. An individual score might appear as A+/T+/N−, or A+/T−/N−, etc. The A/T/N system includes the new modality tau PET. It is agnostic to the temporal ordering of mechanisms underlying AD pathogenesis. It includes all individuals in any population regardless of the mix of biomarker findings and therefore is suited to population studies of cognitive aging. It does not specify disease labels and thus is not a diagnostic classification system. It is a descriptive system for categorizing multidomain biomarker findings at the individual person level in a format that is easy to understand and use. Given the present lack of consensus among AD specialists on terminology across the clinically normal to dementia spectrum, a biomarker classification scheme will have broadest acceptance if it is independent from any one clinically defined diagnostic scheme. PMID:27371494

  18. Mathematical and descriptive classification of variations in dental arch shape in an Australian aborigine population.

    PubMed

    McKee, J K; Molnar, S

    1988-01-01

    The ability to describe dental arch shape is necessary for biomechanical studies of occlusion as well as for anthropological studies of human and primate dental variation. A mathematical method of describing and classifying human dental arch shape was used to assess the nature of individual variability. The method involved the calculation of a series of third-degree polynomials which were fitted to coordinate points along the dental arcade. The slopes of the polynomials, evaluated at these coordinate points, provided a multivariate description of shape, independent of arch size. Graphic representations of arch shape could be constructed from the polynomial equations. These mathematical techniques were used in association with multivariate and univariate statistics to explore the types of variability in dental arch shape among a population of Australian aborigines. The results illustrated the ambiguities of conventional subjective classifications. PMID:3256297

  19. The descriptive nomenclature and classification of growth fabrics in fossil scleractinian reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insalaco, Enzo

    1998-06-01

    genesis is discussed. A review of the classification of reef fabrics suggests that there is currently no adequate system to describe fossil scleractinian growth fabrics. The most commonly used classification of reefal fabrics is that of Embry and Klovan (1971). [Embry, A.F., Klovan, J.E., 1971. A Late Devonian reef tract on northeastern Banks Island, Northwest Territories. Bull. Can. Pet. Geol. 33, 730-781.] There are a number of shortcomings in this scheme which may be grouped into three categories: (1) the interpretative nature of the classification; (2) problems in interpreting biological effect from form; and (3) insufficient categories to adequately describe Mesozoic and Cenozoic growth fabrics. Moreover, there appears to be a lack of a standardised nomenclature for growth fabrics which has hindered meaningful comparisons of scleractinian growth fabrics through time and space. A descriptive system based on a modification and expansion of the Embry and Klovan system (1971) is proposed and a revised nomenclature for growth fabrics presented. The system is designed to be flexible in its application — it can be used simply to describe a growth fabric, or, through the use of genetic and non-genetic modifiers, to imply types of reef-building processes and growth fabric heterogeneity. Although the concepts and terminology discussed in this paper relate to scleractinian growth fabric, they are equally applicable to fabrics comprising other organisms.

  20. Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Nikunj

    2012-03-01

    would represent one sunspot’s classification (y_i) and the corresponding set of measurements (x_i). The output of a supervised learning algorithm is a model h that approximates the unknown mapping from the inputs to the outputs. In our example, h would map from the sunspot measurements to the type of sunspot. We may have a test set S—a set of examples not used in training that we use to test how well the model h predicts the outputs on new examples. Just as with the examples in T, the examples in S are assumed to be independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) draws from the distribution D. We measure the error of h on the test set as the proportion of test cases that h misclassifies: 1/|S| Sigma(x,y union S)[I(h(x)!= y)] where I(v) is the indicator function—it returns 1 if v is true and 0 otherwise. In our sunspot classification example, we would identify additional examples of sunspots that were not used in generating the model, and use these to determine how accurate the model is—the fraction of the test samples that the model classifies correctly. An example of a classification model is the decision tree shown in Figure 23.1. We will discuss the decision tree learning algorithm in more detail later—for now, we assume that, given a training set with examples of sunspots, this decision tree is derived. This can be used to classify previously unseen examples of sunpots. For example, if a new sunspot’s inputs indicate that its "Group Length" is in the range 10-15, then the decision tree would classify the sunspot as being of type “E,” whereas if the "Group Length" is "NULL," the "Magnetic Type" is "bipolar," and the "Penumbra" is "rudimentary," then it would be classified as type "C." In this chapter, we will add to the above description of classification problems. We will discuss decision trees and several other classification models. In particular, we will discuss the learning algorithms that generate these classification models, how to use them to

  1. A fast gene selection method for multi-cancer classification using multiple support vector data description.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jin; Zhang, Li; Wang, Bangjun; Li, Fanzhang; Yang, Jiwen

    2015-02-01

    For cancer classification problems based on gene expression, the data usually has only a few dozen sizes but has thousands to tens of thousands of genes which could contain a large number of irrelevant genes. A robust feature selection algorithm is required to remove irrelevant genes and choose the informative ones. Support vector data description (SVDD) has been applied to gene selection for many years. However, SVDD cannot address the problems with multiple classes since it only considers the target class. In addition, it is time-consuming when applying SVDD to gene selection. This paper proposes a novel fast feature selection method based on multiple SVDD and applies it to multi-class microarray data. A recursive feature elimination (RFE) scheme is introduced to iteratively remove irrelevant features, so the proposed method is called multiple SVDD-RFE (MSVDD-RFE). To make full use of all classes for a given task, MSVDD-RFE independently selects a relevant gene subset for each class. The final selected gene subset is the union of these relevant gene subsets. The effectiveness and accuracy of MSVDD-RFE are validated by experiments on five publicly available microarray datasets. Our proposed method is faster and more effective than other methods. PMID:25549938

  2. Patient Classification Systems in Nursing: A Description and Analysis. Nurse Planning Information Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovannetti, Phyllis

    Patient classification systems in nursing, primarily limited to their application in hospitals, are the topic of this monograph. Following a brief introduction discussing their role and theoretical framework, the various uses of patient classification systems are discussed. Examples of patient classification systems in various settings are…

  3. Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  4. Wheezes, crackles and rhonchi: simplifying description of lung sounds increases the agreement on their classification: a study of 12 physicians' classification of lung sounds from video recordings

    PubMed Central

    Melbye, Hasse; Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Brand, Paul; Everard, Mark; Priftis, Kostas; Pasterkamp, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background The European Respiratory Society (ERS) lung sounds repository contains 20 audiovisual recordings of children and adults. The present study aimed at determining the interobserver variation in the classification of sounds into detailed and broader categories of crackles and wheezes. Methods Recordings from 10 children and 10 adults were classified into 10 predefined sounds by 12 observers, 6 paediatricians and 6 doctors for adult patients. Multirater kappa (Fleiss' κ) was calculated for each of the 10 adventitious sounds and for combined categories of sounds. Results The majority of observers agreed on the presence of at least one adventitious sound in 17 cases. Poor to fair agreement (κ<0.40) was usually found for the detailed descriptions of the adventitious sounds, whereas moderate to good agreement was reached for the combined categories of crackles (κ=0.62) and wheezes (κ=0.59). The paediatricians did not reach better agreement on the child cases than the family physicians and specialists in adult medicine. Conclusions Descriptions of auscultation findings in broader terms were more reliably shared between observers compared to more detailed descriptions. PMID:27158515

  5. Classification and description of bosonic symmetry protected topological phases with semiclassical nonlinear sigma models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Zhen; Rasmussen, Alex; Slagle, Kevin; Xu, Cenke

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we systematically classify and describe bosonic symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases in all physical spatial dimensions using semiclassical nonlinear sigma model (NLSM) field theories. All the SPT phases on a d -dimensional lattice discussed in this paper can be described by the same NLSM, which is an O(d +2 ) NLSM in (d +1 )-dimensional space-time, with a topological Θ term. The field in the NLSM is a semiclassical Landau order parameter with a unit length constraint. The classification of SPT phases discussed in this paper based on their NLSMs is Completely Identical to the more mathematical classification based on group cohomology given in X. Chen, Z.-C. Gu, Z.-X. Liu, and X.-G. Wen, Phys. Rev. B 87, 155114 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.155114 and Science 338, 1604 (2012), 10.1126/science.1227224. Besides the classification, the formalism used in this paper also allows us to explicitly discuss the physics at the boundary of the SPT phases, and it reveals the relation between SPT phases with different symmetries. For example, it gives many of these SPT states a natural "decorated defect" construction.

  6. A Quantitative Approach to the Description and Classification of Primary Social Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayer, F. Francis; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined utility of the Attachment Q-set (AQS) instrument for cross-cultural comparisons of mother-child interactions. Found that interpretations concerning the structure of attachment and other social domains made on the basis of Q-sort descriptions of middle-class English-speaking U.S. children need not be substantially modified when…

  7. Part-whole reasoning in medical ontologies revisited--introducing SEP triplets into classification-based description logics.

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, S.; Romacker, M.; Hahn, U.

    1998-01-01

    The development of powerful and comprehensive medical ontologies that support formal reasoning on a large scale is one of the key requirements for clinical computing in the next millennium. Taxonomic medical knowledge, a major portion of these ontologies, is mainly characterized by generalization and part-whole relations between concepts. While reasoning in generalization hierarchies is quite well understood, no fully conclusive mechanism as yet exists for part-whole reasoning. The approach we take emulates part-whole reasoning via classification-based reasoning using SEP triplets, a special data structure for encoding part-whole relations that is fully embedded in the formal framework of standard description logics. Images Figure 3 PMID:9929335

  8. Social Determinants and the Classification of Disease: Descriptive Epidemiology of Selected Socially Mediated Disease Constellations

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert S.; Kilbourne, Barbara A.; Rust, George S.; Langston, Michael A.; Husaini, Baqar A.; Gittner, Lisaann S.; Sanderson, Maureen; Hennekens, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Most major diseases have important social determinants. In this context, classification of disease based on etiologic or anatomic criteria may be neither mutually exclusive nor optimal. Methods and Findings Units of analysis comprised large metropolitan central and fringe metropolitan counties with reliable mortality rates – (n = 416). Participants included infants and adults ages 25 to 64 years with selected causes of death (1999 to 2006). Exposures included that residential segregation and race-specific social deprivation variables. Main outcome measures were obtained via principal components analyses with an orthogonal rotation to identify a common factor. To discern whether the common factor was socially mediated, negative binomial multiple regression models were developed for which the dependent variable was the common factor. Results showed that infant deaths, mortality from assault, and malignant neoplasm of the trachea, bronchus and lung formed a common factor for race-gender groups (black/white and men/women). Regression analyses showed statistically significant, positive associations between low socio-economic status for all race-gender groups and this common factor. Conclusions Between 1999 and 2006, deaths classified as “assault” and “lung cancer”, as well as “infant mortality” formed a socially mediated factor detectable in population but not individual data. Despite limitations related to death certificate data, the results contribute important information to the formulation of several hypotheses: (a) disease classifications based on anatomic or etiologic criteria fail to account for social determinants; (b) social forces produce demographically and possibly geographically distinct population-based disease constellations; and (c) the individual components of population-based disease constellations (e.g., lung cancer) are phenotypically comparable from one population to another but genotypically different, in part, because

  9. Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2011-01-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. In supervised learning, a set of training examples---examples with known output values---is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate's measurements. This chapter discusses methods to perform machine learning, with examples involving astronomy.

  10. Classification and description of dolomitic fabrics of rocks from the Floridan aquifer, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randazzo, Anthony F.; Zachos, Louis G.

    1984-01-01

    Biozones of the Lake City Formation, Avon Park Formation and Ocala Limestone are characterized by interbedded, massive, fossiliferous carbonate rocks (wackestones to grainstones) and thinly bedded, peloidal and carbonaceous rocks (mudstones and wackestones). Several horizons have been partly or completely dolomitized. A wide range of early to late stages of dolomitic fabrics are recognized. The fabrics are classified descriptively as equigranular (unimodal) or inequigranular (multimodal). Fabrics composed of crystals < 0.002 mm in diameter (unresolvable) are termed aphanotopic. Equigranular fabrics include sutured mosaic and sieve mosaic fabrics, and a somewhat problematic peloidal fabric. Inequigranular fabrics include porphyrotopic, poikilotopic, fogged mosaic and spotted mosaic fabrics. Two processes of dolomitization are suggested: (a) homogeneous dolomitization resulting in a single-stage development of microtextured (groundmass crystals < 0.016 mm in diameter) aphanotopic, peloidal and mosaic fabrics; and (b) heterogeneous dolomitization resulting in multistage development of porphyrotopic and some mosaic fabrics. It is possible to deduce the original depositional fabric and lithofacies from the dolomitic fabric except where extensive neomorphism has occurred.

  11. Description and classification of nonallophanic Andosols in south Ecuadorian alpine grasslands (páramo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Deckers, Jozef; Wyseure, Guido

    2006-02-01

    . Statistical analysis reveals that only topographic location has a slight but significant influence on soil pH as well as the organic matter content, saturated conductivity and water retention at high pressure. Finally, the exceptional properties of these soils provide useful insights to improve classification of the Andosols reference group of the FAO World reference Base for Soil Resources.

  12. Patient characteristics in low back pain subgroups based on an existing classification system. A descriptive cohort study in chiropractic practice.

    PubMed

    Eirikstoft, Heidi; Kongsted, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Sub-grouping of low back pain (LBP) is believed to improve prediction of prognosis and treatment effects. The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine whether chiropractic patients could be sub-grouped according to an existing pathoanatomically-based classification system, (2) to describe patient characteristics within each subgroup, and (3) to determine the proportion of patients in whom clinicians considered the classification to be unchanged after approximately 10 days. A cohort of 923 LBP patients was included during their first consultation. Patients completed an extensive questionnaire and were examined according to a standardised protocol. Based on the clinical examination, patients were classified into diagnostic subgroups. After approximately 10 days, chiropractors reported whether they considered the subgroup had changed. The most frequent subgroups were reducible and partly reducible disc syndromes followed by facet joint pain, dysfunction and sacroiliac (SI)-joint pain. Classification was inconclusive in 5% of the patients. Differences in pain, activity limitation, and psychological factors were small across subgroups. Within 10 days, 82% were reported to belong to the same subgroup as at the first visit. In conclusion, LBP patients could be classified according to a standardised protocol, and chiropractors considered most patient classifications to be unchanged within 10 days. Differences in patient characteristics between subgroups were very small, and the clinical relevance of the classification system should be investigated by testing its value as a prognostic factor or a treatment effect modifier. It is recommended that this classification system be combined with psychological and social factors if it is to be useful. PMID:23932099

  13. Improvement of the Cramer classification for oral exposure using the database TTC RepDose - A strategy description

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present report describes a strategy to refine the current Cramer classification of the TTC concept using a broad database (DB) termed TTC RepDose. Cramer classes 1-3 overlap to some extent, indicating a need for a better separation of structural classes likely to be toxic, mo...

  14. Description and classification of normal and pathological aging processes based on brain magnetic resonance imaging morphology measures.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gonzalez, Jorge Luis; Yanez-Suarez, Oscar; Bribiesca, Ernesto; Cosío, Fernando Arámbula; Jiménez, Juan Ramón; Medina-Bañuelos, Veronica

    2014-10-01

    We present a discrete compactness (DC) index, together with a classification scheme, based both on the size and shape features extracted from brain volumes, to determine different aging stages: healthy controls (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A set of 30 brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes for each group was segmented and two indices were measured for several structures: three-dimensional DC and normalized volumes (NVs). The discrimination power of these indices was determined by means of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic, where the proposed compactness index showed an average AUC of 0.7 for HC versus MCI comparison, 0.9 for HC versus AD separation, and 0.75 for MCI versus AD groups. In all cases, this index outperformed the discrimination capability of the NV. Using selected features from the set of DC and NV measures, three support vector machines were optimized and validated for the pairwise separation of the three classes. Our analysis shows classification rates of up to 98.3% between HC and AD, 85% between HC and MCI, and 93.3% for MCI and AD separation. These results outperform those reported in the literature and demonstrate the viability of the proposed morphological indices to classify different aging stages. PMID:26158061

  15. Classification of nonspecific low back pain. I. Psychological involvement in low back pain. A clinical, descriptive approach.

    PubMed

    Coste, J; Paolaggi, J B; Spira, A

    1992-09-01

    An unselected sample of outpatient subjects (n = 330) with localized nonspecific low back pain (LBP) was studied. Investigation consisted of clinical assessment, physical examination, and psychiatric interview based on the DSM-III classification. A psychiatric disorder, according to the DSM-III criteria (axis I) was found in 41% of the subjects. Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were used to objectively identify clinical subtypes without preconceived theoretical models. Correspondence analyses suggested the existence of a 'psychological pain' syndrome consisting of several of the following symptoms: diffuse back pain, impossibility to assess intensity of pain on a pain scale, aggravation of pain by changing climate, by domestic activities or by psychological factors and dysesthesias in the back. Cluster analysis provided support for a four-group classification of low back pain, which may be interpreted through the relationships between psychological disturbances and the LBP clinical features. The results call for further investigation of the complex relationship between psychological disturbances and back pain. However, clinicians must be aware of the interest of a minimal psychiatric assessment in low back pain patients: psychiatric disorders frequently appear in these patients and an appropriate treatment of the psychiatric syndrome may reduce back pain. PMID:1411753

  16. Description and classification of normal and pathological aging processes based on brain magnetic resonance imaging morphology measures

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Gonzalez, Jorge Luis; Yanez-Suarez, Oscar; Bribiesca, Ernesto; Cosío, Fernando Arámbula; Jiménez, Juan Ramón; Medina-Bañuelos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We present a discrete compactness (DC) index, together with a classification scheme, based both on the size and shape features extracted from brain volumes, to determine different aging stages: healthy controls (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A set of 30 brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes for each group was segmented and two indices were measured for several structures: three-dimensional DC and normalized volumes (NVs). The discrimination power of these indices was determined by means of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic, where the proposed compactness index showed an average AUC of 0.7 for HC versus MCI comparison, 0.9 for HC versus AD separation, and 0.75 for MCI versus AD groups. In all cases, this index outperformed the discrimination capability of the NV. Using selected features from the set of DC and NV measures, three support vector machines were optimized and validated for the pairwise separation of the three classes. Our analysis shows classification rates of up to 98.3% between HC and AD, 85% between HC and MCI, and 93.3% for MCI and AD separation. These results outperform those reported in the literature and demonstrate the viability of the proposed morphological indices to classify different aging stages. PMID:26158061

  17. A robust morphological classification of high-redshift galaxies using support vector machines on seeing limited images. I. Method description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Rouan, D.; Tasca, L.; Soucail, G.; Le Fèvre, O.

    2008-02-01

    Context: Morphology is the most accessible tracer of the physical structure of galaxies, but its interpretation in the framework of galaxy evolution still remains a problem. Its dependence on wavelength renders the comparison between local and high redshift populations difficult. Furthermore, the quality of the measured morphology being strongly dependent on the image resolution, the comparison between different surveys is also a problem. Aims: We present a new non-parametric method to quantify morphologies of galaxies based on a particular family of learning machines called support vector machines. The method, which can be seen as a generalization of the classical C/A classification but with an unlimited number of dimensions and non-linear boundaries between decision regions, is fully automated and thus particularly well adapted to large cosmological surveys. The source code is available for download at http://www.lesia.obspm.fr/~huertas/galsvm.html Methods: To test the method, we use a seeing limited near-infrared (Ks band, 2,16 μm) sample observed with WIRCam at CFHT at a median redshift of z ~ 0.8. The machine is trained with a simulated sample built from a local visually classified sample from the SDSS, chosen in the high-redshift sample's rest-frame (i band, 0.77 μm) and artificially redshifted to match the observing conditions. We use a 12-dimensional volume, including 5 morphological parameters, and other characteristics of galaxies such as luminosity and redshift. A fraction of the simulated sample is used to test the machine and assess its accuracy. Results: We show that a qualitative separation in two main morphological types (late type and early type) can be obtained with an error lower than 20% up to the completeness limit of the sample (KAB ~ 22), which is more than 2 times better that what would be obtained with a classical C/A classification on the same sample and indeed comparable to space data. The method is optimized to solve a specific problem

  18. Western Hemisphere Zuphiini: descriptions of Coarazuphium whiteheadi, new species, and Zuphioides, new genus, and classification of the genera (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ball, George E.; Shpeley, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Based on small samples (exemplars) analyzed with morphological methods, including detailed descriptions and illustrations, this study treats primarily the Zuphium genus-group in the Western Hemisphere, which comprises two precinctive genera: Coarazuphium Gnaspini, Vanin & Godoy, 1998 (type species Parazuphium tessai Godoy & Vanin, 1990) and Zuphioides gen. n. (type species Zuphium mexicanum Chaudoir, 1863). The genus Coarazuphium includes six troglobitic species from Brazilian caves, and one probably hypogaeic (troglophilic) species from the mountains of Oaxaca, in Mexico (Coarazuphium whiteheadi, sp. n., type locality, ridge top, in western Oaxaca, Mexico, at 2164 m, 35 km north of San Pedro Juchatengo, 16.462N, 97.010W). The epigaeic genus Zuphioides includes 23 species, with its geographical range extended from Neotropical temperate Argentina in southern South America, northward through the tropics to north temperate southeastern Canada, in the Nearctic Region. Keys are provided to the species of Coarazuphium and to thegenera of Western Hemisphere Zuphiini. PMID:23878508

  19. Classification of thermophilic actinobacteria isolated from arid desert soils, including the description of Amycolatopsis deserti sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Busarakam, Kanungnid; Brown, Ros; Bull, Alan T; Tan, Geok Yuan Annie; Zucchi, Tiago D; da Silva, Leonardo José; de Souza, Wallace Rafael; Goodfellow, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The taxonomic position of 26 filamentous actinobacteria isolated from a hyper-arid Atacama Desert soil and 2 from an arid Australian composite soil was established using a polyphasic approach. All of the isolates gave the diagnostic amplification product using 16S rRNA oligonucleotide primers specific for the genus Amycolatopsis. Representative isolates had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties typical of members of the genus Amycolatopsis. 16S rRNA gene analyses showed that all of the isolates belong to the Amycolatopsis methanolica 16S rRNA gene clade. The Atacama Desert isolates were assigned to one or other of two recognised species, namely Amycolatopsis ruanii and Amycolatopsis thermalba, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, DNA:DNA relatedness and phenotypic data; emended descriptions are given for these species. In contrast, the two strains from the arid Australian composite soil, isolates GY024(T) and GY142, formed a distinct branch at the periphery of the A. methanolica 16S rRNA phyletic line, a taxon that was supported by all of the tree-making algorithms and by a 100 % bootstrap value. These strains shared a high degree of DNA:DNA relatedness and have many phenotypic properties in common, some of which distinguished them from all of the constituent species classified in the A. methanolica 16S rRNA clade. Isolates GY024(T) and GY142 merit recognition as a new species within the A. methanolica group of thermophilic strains. The name proposed for the new species is Amycolatopsis deserti sp. nov.; the type strain is GY024(T) (=NCIMB 14972(T) = NRRL B-65266(T)). PMID:26809280

  20. Security classification of information

    SciTech Connect

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  1. Description, new reconstruction, comparative anatomy, and classification of the Sterkfontein Stw 53 cranium, with discussions about the taxonomy of other southern African early Homo remains.

    PubMed

    Curnoe, Darren; Tobias, Phillip V

    2006-01-01

    Specimen Stw 53 was recovered in 1976 from Member 5 of the Sterkfontein Formation. Since its incomplete initial description and comparison, the partial cranium has figured prominently in discussions about the systematics of early Homo. Despite publication of a preliminary reconstruction in 1985, Stw 53 has yet to be compared comprehensively to other Plio-Pleistocene fossils or assessed systematically. In this paper, we report on a new reconstruction of this specimen and provide a detailed description and comparison of its morphology. Our reconstruction differs in important respects from the earlier one, especially in terms of neurocranial length, breadth, and height. However, given that Stw 53 exhibits extensive damage, these dimensions are most likely prone to much error in reconstruction. In areas of well-preserved bone, Stw 53 shares many cranial features with Homo habilis, and we propose retaining it within this species. We also consider the affinities of dental remains from Sterkfontein Member 5, along with those from Swartkrans and Drimolen previously assigned to Homo. We find evidence for sympatry of H. habilis and Australopithecus robustus and possibly Plio-Pleistocene Homo sapiens sensu lato in Sterkfontein Member 5. At Swartkrans and Drimolen, we find evidence of H. habilis. We also compare the morphologies of Stw 53 and SK 847 and find compelling evidence to assign the latter specimen to H. habilis, as has been proposed. PMID:16243378

  2. Using a Delphi Technique to Seek Consensus Regarding Definitions, Descriptions and Classification of Terms Related to Implicit and Explicit Forms of Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Kleynen, Melanie; Braun, Susy M.; Bleijlevens, Michel H.; Lexis, Monique A.; Rasquin, Sascha M.; Halfens, Jos; Wilson, Mark R.; Beurskens, Anna J.; Masters, Rich S. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Motor learning is central to domains such as sports and rehabilitation; however, often terminologies are insufficiently uniform to allow effective sharing of experience or translation of knowledge. A study using a Delphi technique was conducted to ascertain level of agreement between experts from different motor learning domains (i.e., therapists, coaches, researchers) with respect to definitions and descriptions of a fundamental conceptual distinction within motor learning, namely implicit and explicit motor learning. Methods A Delphi technique was embedded in multiple rounds of a survey designed to collect and aggregate informed opinions of 49 international respondents with expertise related to motor learning. The survey was administered via an online survey program and accompanied by feedback after each round. Consensus was considered to be reached if ≥70% of the experts agreed on a topic. Results Consensus was reached with respect to definitions of implicit and explicit motor learning, and seven common primary intervention strategies were identified in the context of implicit and explicit motor learning. Consensus was not reached with respect to whether the strategies promote implicit or explicit forms of learning. Discussion The definitions and descriptions agreed upon may aid translation and transfer of knowledge between domains in the field of motor learning. Empirical and clinical research is required to confirm the accuracy of the definitions and to explore the feasibility of the strategies that were identified in research, everyday practice and education. PMID:24968228

  3. Description of Cobetia amphilecti sp. nov., Cobetia litoralis sp. nov. and Cobetia pacifica sp. nov., classification of Halomonas halodurans as a later heterotypic synonym of Cobetia marina and emended descriptions of the genus Cobetia and Cobetia marina.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Tanaka, Naoto; Svetashev, Vassilii I; Falsen, Enevold

    2013-01-01

    A group of five Gram-negative, aerobic, halotolerant, non-pigmented bacteria isolated from shallow sediment samples and invertebrate specimens collected from the Gulf of Alaska and the Sea of Japan was subjected to taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the novel isolates were affiliated to the genus Cobetia, sharing the highest sequence similarity of 99.3-99.9 % with Cobetia marina DSM 4741(T). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between and among the novel strains and C. marina DSM 4741(T) and Cobetia crustatorum JCM 15644(T) revealed that the five strains represent three separate genospecies, which could be differentiated in their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Halomonas halodurans NBRC 15607(T) was included in this study as it has recently been reported to exhibit high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to C. marina DSM 4741(T), and it showed a high DNA relatedness value of 96 % with C. marina DSM 4741(T), indicating that they belong to the same species. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic characterization, three novel species are proposed, named Cobetia amphilecti sp. nov. (type strain KMM 1561(T) = NRIC 0815(T) = CCUG 49560(T)), Cobetia litoralis sp. nov. (type strain KMM 3880(T) =NRIC 0814(T) =CCUG 49563(T)) and Cobetia pacifica sp. nov. (type strain KMM 3879(T) = NRIC 0813(T) = CCUG 49562(T)). It is also proposed that Halomonas halodurans is a later heterotypic synonym of Cobetia marina, and emended descriptions of the genus Cobetia and the species Cobetia marina are provided. PMID:22427450

  4. A morphological description and statistical classification of dayside diffuse aurora observed at Yellow River Station in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiangcai; Han, Desheng; Hu, Zejun

    2013-04-01

    Ground optical observations are best suited to identify morphological characteristics of the dayside diffuse aurora that usually brightens at the equatorward of the auroral oval. Using 7-winter optical auroral observations, we recognized that the dayside diffuse aurora has a variety of temporal and spatial size scales and forms. Mostly dayside diffuse auroral forms have drawn together in a general classification based on their morphological characteristics and occurrence time. Four primary categories of dayside diffuse aurora are classified: (1) Veiling Diffuse Aurora (VDA), which has no obvious morphological structure and clear boundaries, sometimes like a thick cloud covering the entire sky; (2) Patchy Diffuse Aurora (PDA), which usually occurred accompany by pulsating aurora, mostly in spatial scale of 10-100 km diameter width but occasionally to hundreds kilometer; (3) Diffuse Aurora Arc (DAA), which was obviously different from discrete auroral arcs in morphology; (4) Pulsating Aurora (PA), occurred with sparkling forms. The luminosity of PA commonly showed periodic variation with the oscillating appearance. The occurrence rate of each type shows a parabolic distribution with magnetic local time (MLT), and the occurrence peak is found to be mostly near the cusp region. The duration time of pulsating aurora on cusp region was markedly longer than that on nightside. Dayside diffuse aurora more commonly occurred under quiet geomagnetic condition as measured by the Kp index, which indicates almost 92.2% occurrence at the Kp ≤ 3. To investigate whether the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) controls dayside diffuse aurora occurrence, we present a general bias comparison of IMF three components. Under the IMF condition of negative By accompanied with positive Bz, it could be expected that the dayside diffuse aurora would be easier to observe. We suggest that a negative IMF By associated field-aligned current (FAC) at the lower latitude region in the Northern

  5. 7 CFR 1794.31 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification. 1794.31 Section 1794.31 Agriculture... Classification. (a) Electric and telecommunications programs. RUS will normally determine the proper environmental classification of projects based on its evaluation of the project description set forth in...

  6. 7 CFR 1794.31 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification. 1794.31 Section 1794.31 Agriculture... Classification. (a) Electric and telecommunications programs. RUS will normally determine the proper environmental classification of projects based on its evaluation of the project description set forth in...

  7. 7 CFR 1794.31 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Classification. 1794.31 Section 1794.31 Agriculture... Classification. (a) Electric and telecommunications programs. RUS will normally determine the proper environmental classification of projects based on its evaluation of the project description set forth in...

  8. 7 CFR 1794.31 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification. 1794.31 Section 1794.31 Agriculture... Classification. (a) Electric and telecommunications programs. RUS will normally determine the proper environmental classification of projects based on its evaluation of the project description set forth in...

  9. 7 CFR 1794.31 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 1794.31 Section 1794.31 Agriculture... Classification. (a) Electric and telecommunications programs. RUS will normally determine the proper environmental classification of projects based on its evaluation of the project description set forth in...

  10. 10 CFR 1045.17 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Confidential classification are the amount of high explosives used in nuclear weapons, gaseous diffusion design... classification include designs for specific weapon components (not revealing critical features), key features of... classification include detailed technical descriptions of critical features of a nuclear explosive design...

  11. How To Survive a Classification Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, Shelley

    1998-01-01

    Examines job classification studies in public libraries, focusing on point-factor classification systems. Discusses job descriptions, job auditing biases, preparedness, what not to say to auditors, and the appeals process. Outlines typical factors in a job classification: decision-making, guidelines, education, experience, complexity, supervision,…

  12. AEDS Property Classification Code Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Educational Data Systems, Washington, DC.

    The control and inventory of property items using data processing machines requires a form of numerical description or code which will allow a maximum of description in a minimum of space on the data card. An adaptation of a standard industrial classification system is given to cover any expendable warehouse item or non-expendable piece of…

  13. Classification Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Children, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The interview presents opinions of Nicholas Hobbs on the classification of exceptional children, including topics such as ecologically oriented classification systems, the role of parents, and need for revision of teacher preparation programs. (IM)

  14. Drought description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    What constitutes a comprehensive description of drought, a description forming a basis for answering why a drought occurred is outlined. The description entails two aspects that are "naturally" coupled, named physical and economic, and treats the set of hydrologic measures of droughts in terms of their multivariate distribution, rather than in terms of a collection of the marginal distributions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  15. A Classification and Salary System for Professional Administrative Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Sigmund G.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed description of one institution's approach is offered for a classification system, a starting salary system, a consistent way of treating promotional increases, and a method of avoiding salary inequities. The Classification Questionnaire is included. (LBH)

  16. Endodontic classification.

    PubMed

    Morse, D R; Seltzer, S; Sinai, I; Biron, G

    1977-04-01

    Clinical and histopathologic findings are mixed in current endodontic classifications. A new system, based on symptomatology, may be more useful in clincial practice. The classifications are vital asymptomatic, hypersensitive dentin, inflamed-reversible, inflamed/dengenerating without area-irreversible, inflamed/degenerating with area-irreversible, necrotic without area, and necrotic with area. PMID:265327

  17. Perspectives on Map Cataloging and Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, John R.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the developments and dilemmas related to the cataloging and classification of maps, addressing the areas of online library systems, cooperative cataloging, descriptive cataloging, subject access, and the improvement of network capabilities. Seventeen references are cited. (FM)

  18. Descriptive statistics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications. PMID:19891281

  19. Form classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. V. Umamaheswara; Govindaraju, Venu

    2008-01-01

    The problem of form classification is to assign a single-page form image to one of a set of predefined form types or classes. We classify the form images using low level pixel density information from the binary images of the documents. In this paper, we solve the form classification problem with a classifier based on the k-means algorithm, supported by adaptive boosting. Our classification method is tested on the NIST scanned tax forms data bases (special forms databases 2 and 6) which include machine-typed and handwritten documents. Our method improves the performance over published results on the same databases, while still using a simple set of image features.

  20. Bayesian classification theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Robin; Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass system searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit or share model parameters though a class hierarchy. We summarize the mathematical foundations of AutoClass.

  1. Anaphoric Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…

  2. Classifying Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novakowski, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the experience of a group of first-grade teachers as they tackled the science process of classification, a targeted learning objective for the first grade. While the two-year process was not easy and required teachers to teach in a new, more investigation-oriented way, the benefits were great. The project helped teachers and…

  3. The Transporter Classification Database

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.; Reddy, Vamsee S.; Tamang, Dorjee G.; Västermark, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; http://www.tcdb.org) serves as a common reference point for transport protein research. The database contains more than 10 000 non-redundant proteins that represent all currently recognized families of transmembrane molecular transport systems. Proteins in TCDB are organized in a five level hierarchical system, where the first two levels are the class and subclass, the second two are the family and subfamily, and the last one is the transport system. Superfamilies that contain multiple families are included as hyperlinks to the five tier TC hierarchy. TCDB includes proteins from all types of living organisms and is the only transporter classification system that is both universal and recognized by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It has been expanded by manual curation, contains extensive text descriptions providing structural, functional, mechanistic and evolutionary information, is supported by unique software and is interconnected to many other relevant databases. TCDB is of increasing usefulness to the international scientific community and can serve as a model for the expansion of database technologies. This manuscript describes an update of the database descriptions previously featured in NAR database issues. PMID:24225317

  4. Description Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baader, Franz

    Description Logics (DLs) are a well-investigated family of logic-based knowledge representation formalisms, which can be used to represent the conceptual knowledge of an application domain in a structured and formally well-understood way. They are employed in various application domains, such as natural language processing, configuration, and databases, but their most notable success so far is the adoption of the DL-based language OWL as standard ontology language for the semantic web.

  5. Classification of infantile nystagmus waveforms.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Maria; Clement, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Classification of infantile nystagmus waveforms is an important problem because the characteristic waveforms can be used to distinguish between infantile and acquired nystagmus. A clear description of the nystagmus is also a necessary first stage in understanding its origin. Currently infantile nystagmus waveforms are classified into at least 12 different types. In this study we analyse a database of nystagmus recordings in order to investigate if this classification can be simplified. Application of principal components analysis revealed that 96.9% of the variance of the waveforms is described by a linear sum of two component waveforms. The components consist of sawtooth and pseudocycloid waveforms that account for 78.7% and 18.2% of the variance respectively for the most common single cycle waveforms. This simplified description of infantile nystagmus highlights the importance of identifying the origin of the jerk component and its synchronisation with the pseudocycloid component for the characterisation and treatment of the nystagmus. PMID:27125578

  6. A Description of the Methodology Used in an Overview of Reviews to Evaluate Evidence on the Treatment, Harms, Diagnosis/Classification, Prognosis and Outcomes Used in the Management of Neck Pain

    PubMed Central

    Santaguida, P. Lina; Keshavarz, Homa; Carlesso, Lisa C; Lomotan, Margaret; Gross, Anita; MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, David M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neck Pain (NP) is a common musculoskeletal disorder and the literature provides conflicting evidence about its management. Objective: To describe the methodology used to conduct an overview of reviews (OvR) and to characterize the distribution and risk of bias profiles across the evidence for all areas of NP management. Methods: Standard systematic review (SR) methodology was employed. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ILC, Cochrane CENTRAL, and LILACS were searched from 2000 to March 2012; Narrative and SR and clinical practice guidelines (CPG) evaluating the efficacy of treatment (benefits and harms), diagnosis/classification, prognosis, and outcomes were eligible. For treatment, articles were limited to SRs from 2005 forward. Risk of bias of SR was assessed with the AMSTAR; the AGREE II was used to critically appraise the CPGs. Results: From 2476 articles, 508 were eligible for full text screening. A total of 341 articles were included. Treatment (n=117) had the greatest yield. Other clinical areas had less literature (diagnosis=54, prognosis=16, outcomes=27, harms=16). There were no SR for classification and narrative reviews were problematic for this topic. There was great overlap across different databases within each clinical area except for those for outcome measures. Risk of bias assessment using the AMSTAR of eligible SRs showed a similar trend across different clinical areas. Conclusion: A summary of methods used to review the literature in five clinical areas of NP management have been described. The challenges of selecting and synthesizing eligible articles in an OvR required customized solutions across different areas of clinical focus. PMID:24115970

  7. Featureless classification of light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kügler, S. D.; Gianniotis, N.; Polsterer, K. L.

    2015-08-01

    In the era of rapidly increasing amounts of time series data, classification of variable objects has become the main objective of time-domain astronomy. Classification of irregularly sampled time series is particularly difficult because the data cannot be represented naturally as a vector which can be directly fed into a classifier. In the literature, various statistical features serve as vector representations. In this work, we represent time series by a density model. The density model captures all the information available, including measurement errors. Hence, we view this model as a generalization to the static features which directly can be derived, e.g. as moments from the density. Similarity between each pair of time series is quantified by the distance between their respective models. Classification is performed on the obtained distance matrix. In the numerical experiments, we use data from the OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) and ASAS (All Sky Automated Survey) surveys and demonstrate that the proposed representation performs up to par with the best currently used feature-based approaches. The density representation preserves all static information present in the observational data, in contrast to a less-complete description by features. The density representation is an upper boundary in terms of information made available to the classifier. Consequently, the predictive power of the proposed classification depends on the choice of similarity measure and classifier, only. Due to its principled nature, we advocate that this new approach of representing time series has potential in tasks beyond classification, e.g. unsupervised learning.

  8. Classification in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  9. Descriptive thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David; Huntsman, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Thermodynamics (in concert with its sister discipline, statistical physics) can be regarded as a data reduction scheme based on partitioning a total system into a subsystem and a bath that weakly interact with each other. Whereas conventionally, the systems investigated require this form of data reduction in order to facilitate prediction, a different problem also occurs, in the context of communication networks, markets, etc. Such “empirically accessible” systems typically overwhelm observers with the sort of information that in the case of (say) a gas is effectively unobtainable. What is required for such complex interacting systems is not prediction (this may be impossible when humans besides the observer are responsible for the interactions) but rather, description as a route to understanding. Still, the need for a thermodynamical data reduction scheme remains. In this paper, we show how an empirical temperature can be computed for finite, empirically accessible systems, and further outline how this construction allows the age-old science of thermodynamics to be fruitfully applied to them.

  10. Orientation selectivity based structure for texture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinjian; Lin, Weisi; Shi, Guangming; Zhang, Yazhong; Lu, Liu

    2014-10-01

    Local structure, e.g., local binary pattern (LBP), is widely used in texture classification. However, LBP is too sensitive to disturbance. In this paper, we introduce a novel structure for texture classification. Researches on cognitive neuroscience indicate that the primary visual cortex presents remarkable orientation selectivity for visual information extraction. Inspired by this, we investigate the orientation similarities among neighbor pixels, and propose an orientation selectivity based pattern for local structure description. Experimental results on texture classification demonstrate that the proposed structure descriptor is quite robust to disturbance.

  11. Harmonization of description and classification of fetal observations: achievements and problems still unresolved: report of the 7th Workshop on the Terminology in Developmental Toxicology Berlin, 4-6 May 2011.

    PubMed

    Solecki, Roland; Barbellion, Stephane; Bergmann, Brigitte; Bürgin, Heinrich; Buschmann, Jochen; Clark, Ruth; Comotto, Laura; Fuchs, Antje; Faqi, Ali Said; Gerspach, Ralph; Grote, Konstanze; Hakansson, Helen; Heinrich, Verena; Heinrich-Hirsch, Barbara; Hofmann, Thomas; Hübel, Ulrich; Inazaki, Thelma Helena; Khalil, Samia; Knudsen, Thomas B; Kudicke, Sabine; Lingk, Wolfgang; Makris, Susan; Müller, Simone; Paumgartten, Francisco; Pfeil, Rudolf; Rama, Elkiane Macedo; Schneider, Steffen; Shiota, Kohei; Tamborini, Eva; Tegelenbosch, Mariska; Ulbrich, Beate; van Duijnhoven, E A J; Wise, David; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the 7th Workshop on the Terminology in Developmental Toxicology held in Berlin, May 4-6, 2011. The series of Berlin Workshops has been mainly concerned with the harmonization of terminology and classification of fetal anomalies in developmental toxicity studies. The main topics of the 7th Workshop were knowledge on the fate of anomalies after birth, use of Version 2 terminology for maternal-fetal observations and non-routinely used species, reclassification of "grey zone" anomalies and categorization of fetal observations for human health risk assessment. The paucity of data on health consequences of the postnatal permanence of fetal anomalies is relevant and further studies are needed. The Version 2 terminology is an important step forward and the terms listed in this glossary are considered also to be appropriate for most observations in non-routinely used species. Continuation of the Berlin Workshops was recommended. Topics suggested for the next Workshop were grouping of fetal observations for reporting and statistical analysis. PMID:22781580

  12. Classification and knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Automated procedures to classify objects are discussed. The classification problem is reviewed, and the relation of epistemology and classification is considered. The classification of stellar spectra and of resolved images of galaxies is addressed.

  13. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  14. Halobacterium noricense sp. nov., an archaeal isolate from a bore core of an alpine Permian salt deposit, classification of Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 as a strain of H. salinarum and emended description of H. salinarum.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Claudia; Legat, Andrea; Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Radax, Christian; Weidler, Gerhard; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2004-12-01

    Two rod-shaped haloarchaeal strains, A1 and A2, were isolated from a bore core from a salt mine in Austria. The deposition of the salt is thought to have occurred during the Permian period (225-280 million years ago). The 16S rDNA sequences of the strains were 97.1% similar to that of the type species of the genus Halobacterium, which was also determined in this work. Polar lipids consisted of C20-C20 derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol, methylated phosphatidylglycerol phosphate, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, triglycosyl diether and sulfated tetraglycosyl diether. Optimal salinity for growth was 15-17.5% NaCl; Mg++ was tolerated up to a concentration of 1 M. The DNA-DNA reassociation value of strain A1T was 25% with H. salinarum DSM 3754T and 41% with Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, respectively. Based on these results and other properties, e.g. whole cell protein patterns, menaquinone content and restriction patterns of DNA, strains A1 and A2 are members of a single species, for which we propose the name H. noricense. The type strain is A1 (DSM 15987T, ATCC BAA-852T, NCIMB 13967T). Since we present evidence that Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 is a member of H. salinarum, an emended description of H. salinarum is provided. PMID:15290323

  15. What's in a name? Qualitative description revisited.

    PubMed

    Sandelowski, Margarete

    2010-02-01

    "Whatever Happened to Qualitative Description?" (Sandelowski, 2000) was written to critique the prevailing tendency in qualitative health research to claim the use of methods that were not actually used and to clarify a methodological approach rarely identified as a distinctive method. The article has generated several misconceptions, most notably that qualitative description requires no interpretation of data. At the root of these misconceptions is the persistent challenge of defining qualitative research methods. Qualitative description is a "distributed residual category" (Bowker & Star, 2000). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press) in the classification of these methods. Its value lies not only in the knowledge its use can produce, but also as a vehicle for presenting and treating research methods as living entities that resist simple classification. PMID:20014004

  16. 13 CFR 113.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Job classification and structure... Prohibited § 113.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  17. 36 CFR 1211.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Job classification and... Activities Prohibited § 1211.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  18. 13 CFR 113.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Job classification and structure... Prohibited § 113.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  19. 38 CFR 23.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Job classification and... Prohibited § 23.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  20. 36 CFR 1211.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job classification and... Activities Prohibited § 1211.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  1. 13 CFR 113.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Job classification and structure... Prohibited § 113.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  2. 32 CFR 196.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 196.520... Activities Prohibited § 196.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  3. 38 CFR 23.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Job classification and... Prohibited § 23.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  4. 24 CFR 3.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Job classification and structure. 3... Activities Prohibited § 3.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  5. 32 CFR 196.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 196.520... Activities Prohibited § 196.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  6. 13 CFR 113.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Job classification and structure... Prohibited § 113.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  7. 24 CFR 3.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Job classification and structure. 3... Activities Prohibited § 3.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  8. 32 CFR 196.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 196.520... Activities Prohibited § 196.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  9. 34 CFR 106.55 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 106.55 Section 106.55... Prohibited § 106.55 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  10. 36 CFR 1211.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Job classification and... Activities Prohibited § 1211.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  11. 24 CFR 3.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Job classification and structure. 3... Activities Prohibited § 3.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  12. 45 CFR 2555.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Job classification and structure. 2555.520 Section... Activities Prohibited § 2555.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  13. 34 CFR 106.55 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 106.55 Section 106.55... Prohibited § 106.55 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  14. 45 CFR 2555.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Job classification and structure. 2555.520 Section... Activities Prohibited § 2555.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  15. 38 CFR 23.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Job classification and... Prohibited § 23.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  16. 36 CFR 1211.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Job classification and... Activities Prohibited § 1211.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  17. 32 CFR 196.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 196.520... Activities Prohibited § 196.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  18. 24 CFR 3.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Job classification and structure. 3... Activities Prohibited § 3.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  19. 24 CFR 3.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Job classification and structure. 3... Activities Prohibited § 3.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  20. 38 CFR 23.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Job classification and... Prohibited § 23.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  1. 36 CFR 1211.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Job classification and... Activities Prohibited § 1211.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  2. 45 CFR 2555.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Job classification and structure. 2555.520 Section... Activities Prohibited § 2555.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  3. 34 CFR 106.55 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 106.55 Section 106.55... Prohibited § 106.55 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  4. 34 CFR 106.55 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 106.55 Section 106.55... Prohibited § 106.55 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  5. 38 CFR 23.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job classification and... Prohibited § 23.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  6. 45 CFR 2555.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Job classification and structure. 2555.520 Section... Activities Prohibited § 2555.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  7. 32 CFR 196.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 196.520... Activities Prohibited § 196.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  8. 34 CFR 106.55 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 106.55 Section 106.55... Prohibited § 106.55 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  9. 45 CFR 2555.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Job classification and structure. 2555.520 Section... Activities Prohibited § 2555.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  10. 13 CFR 113.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Job classification and structure... Prohibited § 113.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  11. Classification of Behaviorally Defined Disorders: Biology versus the DSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Three levels of investigation underlie all biologically based attempts at classification of behaviorally defined developmental and psychiatric disorders: Level A, pseudo-categorical classification of mostly dimensional descriptions of behaviors and their disorders included in the 2013 American Psychiatric Association's Fifth Edition of the…

  12. Description, Recognition and Analysis of Biological Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Donggang; Jin, Jesse S.; Luo Suhuai; Pham, Tuan D.; Lai Wei

    2010-01-25

    Description, recognition and analysis biological images plays an important role for human to describe and understand the related biological information. The color images are separated by color reduction. A new and efficient linearization algorithm is introduced based on some criteria of difference chain code. A series of critical points is got based on the linearized lines. The series of curvature angle, linearity, maximum linearity, convexity, concavity and bend angle of linearized lines are calculated from the starting line to the end line along all smoothed contours. The useful method can be used for shape description and recognition. The analysis, decision, classification of the biological images are based on the description of morphological structures, color information and prior knowledge, which are associated each other. The efficiency of the algorithms is described based on two applications. One application is the description, recognition and analysis of color flower images. Another one is related to the dynamic description, recognition and analysis of cell-cycle images.

  13. Safe and Unsafe Performance of Older Drivers: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malfetti, James L.; Winter, Darlene J.

    This document describes a study that used the "critical incident technique" to define and produce a descriptive classification of safe and unsafe driving behavior exhibited by adults and to organize these descriptions for use in older driver improvement courses and other educational activities. An introduction describes the study's purpose and the…

  14. An Integrative Dimensional Classification of Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widiger, Thomas A.; Livesley, W. John; Clark, Lee Anna

    2009-01-01

    Psychological assessment research concerns how to describe psychological dysfunction in ways that are both valid and useful. Recent advances in assessment research hold the promise of facilitating significant improvements in description and diagnosis. One such contribution is in the classification of personality disorder symptomatology. The…

  15. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  16. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  17. New Classification of Headache

    PubMed Central

    Gawel, Marek J.

    1992-01-01

    The Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society has developed a new classification system for headache, cranial neuralgia, and facial pain. The value of the classification for the practising clinician is that it forces him or her to take a more careful history in order to determine the nature of the headache. This article reviews the classification system and gives examples of case histories and subsequent diagnoses. PMID:21221276

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR MUCK HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) muck handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) (DOE 1998). This QA classification incorporates the current MGR design and the results of the ''Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (CRWMS M and O 1998a).

  19. Classification of articulators.

    PubMed

    Rihani, A

    1980-03-01

    A simple classification in familiar terms with definite, clear characteristics can be adopted. This classification system is based on the number of records used and the adjustments necessary for the articulator to accept these records. The classification divides the articulators into nonadjustable, semiadjustable, and fully adjustable articulators (Table I). PMID:6928204

  20. Government Classification: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Karen M.

    Classification of government documents (confidential, secret, top secret) is a system used by the executive branch to, in part, protect national security and foreign policy interests. The systematic use of classification markings with precise definitions was established during World War I, and since 1936 major changes in classification have…

  1. Classification: Something to Think About.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Joan P.; Jacobs, Judith E.

    1981-01-01

    Advocates the use of classification activities in the elementary school curriculum as a means of developing thinking skills in children. Critical preclassification skills, classification activities (including simple and multiple classification), and classification tasks and materials are discussed. (Author/RH)

  2. Classifications of Acute Scaphoid Fractures: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ten Berg, Paul W; Drijkoningen, Tessa; Strackee, Simon D; Buijze, Geert A

    2016-05-01

    Background In the lack of consensus, surgeon-based preference determines how acute scaphoid fractures are classified. There is a great variety of classification systems with considerable controversies. Purposes The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the different classification systems, clarifying their subgroups and analyzing their popularity by comparing citation indexes. The intention was to improve data comparison between studies using heterogeneous fracture descriptions. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature based on a search of medical literature from 1950 to 2015, and a manual search using the reference lists in relevant book chapters. Only original descriptions of classifications of acute scaphoid fractures in adults were included. Popularity was based on citation index as reported in the databases of Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar. Articles that were cited <10 times in WoS were excluded. Results Our literature search resulted in 308 potentially eligible descriptive reports of which 12 reports met the inclusion criteria. We distinguished 13 different (sub) classification systems based on (1) fracture location, (2) fracture plane orientation, and (3) fracture stability/displacement. Based on citations numbers, the Herbert classification was most popular, followed by the Russe and Mayo classifications. All classification systems were based on plain radiography. Conclusions Most classification systems were based on fracture location, displacement, or stability. Based on the controversy and limited reliability of current classification systems, suggested research areas for an updated classification include three-dimensional fracture pattern etiology and fracture fragment mobility assessed by dynamic imaging. PMID:27104083

  3. Classification of wounds of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D G; Peters, E J

    2001-12-01

    A classification system should be thought of as a diagnostic language. Ideally, this language should be used by a large, diverse population of clinicians to guide therapy and ultimately predict outcome. The diabetic foot ulcer is widely known to be the prime precipitant of lower extremity amputations. Its description and classification is the first step toward widespread standardization of treatment and prevention. This article chronologically describes the major diabetic foot wound classification systems devised over the previous generation, discussing each of their attributes and their shortcomings, with an emphasis on an evidence basis for care. It is our hope that discussions such as this one will ultimately lead to a diagnostic and therapeutic lingua franca for diabetic foot wounds and a commensurate reduction in the unconscionably high prevalence of amputations, which we now currently face. PMID:12643204

  4. Recursive heuristic classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, David C.

    1994-01-01

    The author will describe a new problem-solving approach called recursive heuristic classification, whereby a subproblem of heuristic classification is itself formulated and solved by heuristic classification. This allows the construction of more knowledge-intensive classification programs in a way that yields a clean organization. Further, standard knowledge acquisition and learning techniques for heuristic classification can be used to create, refine, and maintain the knowledge base associated with the recursively called classification expert system. The method of recursive heuristic classification was used in the Minerva blackboard shell for heuristic classification. Minerva recursively calls itself every problem-solving cycle to solve the important blackboard scheduler task, which involves assigning a desirability rating to alternative problem-solving actions. Knowing these ratings is critical to the use of an expert system as a component of a critiquing or apprenticeship tutoring system. One innovation of this research is a method called dynamic heuristic classification, which allows selection among dynamically generated classification categories instead of requiring them to be prenumerated.

  5. Acquisition of teleological descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David W.

    1992-03-01

    Teleology descriptions capture the purpose of an entity, mechanism, or activity with which they are associated. These descriptions can be used in explanation, diagnosis, and design reuse. We describe a technique for acquiring teleological descriptions expressed in the teleology language TeD. Acquisition occurs during design by observing design modifications and design verification. We demonstrate the acquisition technique in an electronic circuit design.

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site communications system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR HEALTH SAFETY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) health safety system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  8. Classification of the MGR Administration System

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) administration system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/9O-55Qy Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  9. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site water system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE EXCAVATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface excavation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE OPERATIONS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site operations system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR BACKFILL EMPLACEMENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) backfill emplacement system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR CANISTER TRANSFER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) canister transfer system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  15. Classification of the MGR Assembly Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) assembly transfer system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  16. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  17. Classification images: A review.

    PubMed

    Murray, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    Classification images have recently become a widely used tool in visual psychophysics. Here, I review the development of classification image methods over the past fifteen years. I provide some historical background, describing how classification images and related methods grew out of established statistical and mathematical frameworks and became common tools for studying biological systems. I describe key developments in classification image methods: use of optimal weighted sums based on the linear observer model, formulation of classification images in terms of the generalized linear model, development of statistical tests, use of priors to reduce dimensionality, methods for experiments with more than two response alternatives, a variant using multiplicative noise, and related methods for examining nonlinearities in visual processing, including second-order Volterra kernels and principal component analysis. I conclude with a selective review of how classification image methods have led to substantive findings in three representative areas of vision research, namely, spatial vision, perceptual organization, and visual search. PMID:21536726

  18. Classification of Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Oudiz, Ronald J

    2016-08-01

    The classification of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an attempt to define subtypes of PH based on clinical presentation, underlying physiology, and treatment implications. Five groups of PH have been defined, and the classification scheme has been refined over the years to guide clinicians in the diagnosis and management of PH. Understanding the classification of PH is paramount before embarking on a work-up of patients with PH or suspected PH because treatment and outcome can vary greatly. PMID:27443133

  19. Classiology and soil classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    Classiology can be defined as a science studying the principles and rules of classification of objects of any nature. The development of the theory of classification and the particular methods for classifying objects are the main challenges of classiology; to a certain extent, they are close to the challenges of pattern recognition. The methodology of classiology integrates a wide range of methods and approaches: from expert judgment to formal logic, multivariate statistics, and informatics. Soil classification assumes generalization of available data and practical experience, formalization of our notions about soils, and their representation in the form of an information system. As an information system, soil classification is designed to predict the maximum number of a soil's properties from the position of this soil in the classification space. The existing soil classification systems do not completely satisfy the principles of classiology. The violation of logical basis, poor structuring, low integrity, and inadequate level of formalization make these systems verbal schemes rather than classification systems sensu stricto. The concept of classification as listing (enumeration) of objects makes it possible to introduce the notion of the information base of classification. For soil objects, this is the database of soil indices (properties) that might be applied for generating target-oriented soil classification system. Mathematical methods enlarge the prognostic capacity of classification systems; they can be applied to assess the quality of these systems and to recognize new soil objects to be included in the existing systems. The application of particular principles and rules of classiology for soil classification purposes is discussed in this paper.

  20. Classification of Stellar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    How does a scientist approach the problem of trying to understand countless billions of objects? One of the first steps is to organize the data and set up a classification scheme which can provide the best insights into the nature of the objects. Perception and insight are the main purposes of classification. In astronomy, where there are `billions and billions' of stars, classification is an ong...

  1. Classification of Itch.

    PubMed

    Ständer, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pruritus has diverse forms of presentation and can appear not only on normal skin [International Forum for the Study of Itch (IFSI) classification group II], but also in the company of dermatoses (IFSI classification group I). Scratching, a natural reflex, begins in response to itch. Enough damage can be done to the skin by scratching to cause changes in the primary clinical picture, often leading to a clinical picture predominated by the development of chronic scratch lesions (IFSI classification group III). An internationally recognized, standardized classification system was created by the IFSI to not only aid in clarifying terms and definitions, but also to harmonize the global nomenclature for itch. PMID:27578063

  2. Classifications for Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy (PVR): An Analysis of Their Use in Publications over the Last 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kadhim, Mustafa R.; Charteris, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the current and suitable use of current proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) classifications in clinical publications related to treatment. Methods. A PubMed search was undertaken using the term “proliferative vitreoretinopathy therapy”. Outcome parameters were the reported PVR classification and PVR grades. The way the classifications were used in comparison to the original description was analyzed. Classification errors were also included. It was also noted whether classifications were used for comparison before and after pharmacological or surgical treatment. Results. 138 papers were included. 35 of them (25.4%) presented no classification reference or did not use any one. 103 publications (74.6%) used a standardized classification. The updated Retina Society Classification, the first Retina Society Classification, and the Silicone Study Classification were cited in 56.3%, 33.9%, and 3.8% papers, respectively. Furthermore, 3 authors (2.9%) used modified-customized classifications and 4 (3.8%) classification errors were identified. When the updated Retina Society Classification was used, only 10.4% of authors used a full C grade description. Finally, only 2 authors reported PVR grade before and after treatment. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that current classifications are of limited value in clinical practice due to the inconsistent and limited use and that it may be of benefit to produce a revised classification. PMID:27429798

  3. Neural network technologies for image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korikov, A. M.; Tungusova, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    We analyze the classes of problems with an objective necessity to use neural network technologies, i.e. representation and resolution problems in the neural network logical basis. Among these problems, image recognition takes an important place, in particular the classification of multi-dimensional data based on information about textural characteristics. These problems occur in aerospace and seismic monitoring, materials science, medicine and other. We reviewed different approaches for the texture description: statistical, structural, and spectral. We developed a neural network technology for resolving a practical problem of cloud image classification for satellite snapshots from the spectroradiometer MODIS. The cloud texture is described by the statistical characteristics of the GLCM (Gray Level Co- Occurrence Matrix) method. From the range of neural network models that might be applied for image classification, we chose the probabilistic neural network model (PNN) and developed an implementation which performs the classification of the main types and subtypes of clouds. Also, we chose experimentally the optimal architecture and parameters for the PNN model which is used for image classification.

  4. Land use classification in Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockmann, C. E.; Brooner, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    The Bolivian LANDSAT Program is an integrated, multidisciplinary project designed to provide thematic analysis of LANDSAT, Skylab, and other remotely sensed data for natural resource management and development in Bolivia, is discussed. Among the first requirements in the program is the development of a legend, and appropriate methodologies, for the analysis and classification of present land use based on landscape cover. The land use legend for Bolivia consists of approximately 80 categories in a hierarchical organization which may be collapsed for generalization, or expanded for greater detail. The categories, and their definitions, provide for both a graphic and textual description of the complex and diverse landscapes found in Bolivia, and are designed for analysis from LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data at scales of 1:1,000,000 and 1:250,000. Procedures and example products developed are described and illustrated, for the systematic analysis and mapping of present land use for all of Bolivia.

  5. Textural features for image classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. M.; Dinstein, I.; Shanmugam, K.

    1973-01-01

    Description of some easily computable textural features based on gray-tone spatial dependances, and illustration of their application in category-identification tasks of three different kinds of image data - namely, photomicrographs of five kinds of sandstones, 1:20,000 panchromatic aerial photographs of eight land-use categories, and ERTS multispectral imagery containing several land-use categories. Two kinds of decision rules are used - one for which the decision regions are convex polyhedra (a piecewise-linear decision rule), and one for which the decision regions are rectangular parallelpipeds (a min-max decision rule). In each experiment the data set was divided into two parts, a training set and a test set. Test set identification accuracy is 89% for the photomicrographs, 82% for the aerial photographic imagery, and 83% for the satellite imagery. These results indicate that the easily computable textural features probably have a general applicability for a wide variety of image-classification applications.

  6. Photometric Supernova Classification with Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochner, Michelle; McEwen, Jason D.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Lahav, Ofer; Winter, Max K.

    2016-08-01

    Automated photometric supernova classification has become an active area of research in recent years in light of current and upcoming imaging surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, given that spectroscopic confirmation of type for all supernovae discovered will be impossible. Here, we develop a multi-faceted classification pipeline, combining existing and new approaches. Our pipeline consists of two stages: extracting descriptive features from the light curves and classification using a machine learning algorithm. Our feature extraction methods vary from model-dependent techniques, namely SALT2 fits, to more independent techniques that fit parametric models to curves, to a completely model-independent wavelet approach. We cover a range of representative machine learning algorithms, including naive Bayes, k-nearest neighbors, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and boosted decision trees (BDTs). We test the pipeline on simulated multi-band DES light curves from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. Using the commonly used area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characteristic as a metric, we find that the SALT2 fits and the wavelet approach, with the BDTs algorithm, each achieve an AUC of 0.98, where 1 represents perfect classification. We find that a representative training set is essential for good classification, whatever the feature set or algorithm, with implications for spectroscopic follow-up. Importantly, we find that by using either the SALT2 or the wavelet feature sets with a BDT algorithm, accurate classification is possible purely from light curve data, without the need for any redshift information.

  7. Tensor Modeling Based for Airborne LiDAR Data Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, N.; Liu, C.; Pfeifer, N.; Yin, J. F.; Liao, Z. Y.; Zhou, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Feature selection and description is a key factor in classification of Earth observation data. In this paper a classification method based on tensor decomposition is proposed. First, multiple features are extracted from raw LiDAR point cloud, and raster LiDAR images are derived by accumulating features or the "raw" data attributes. Then, the feature rasters of LiDAR data are stored as a tensor, and tensor decomposition is used to select component features. This tensor representation could keep the initial spatial structure and insure the consideration of the neighborhood. Based on a small number of component features a k nearest neighborhood classification is applied.

  8. Library Classification 2020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  9. Linear Classification Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Carl J.; Smith, Jerry D.

    Linear classification functions (LCFs) arise in a predictive discriminant analysis for the purpose of classifying experimental units into criterion groups. The relative contribution of the response variables to classification accuracy may be based on LCF-variable correlations for each group. It is proved that, if the raw response measures are…

  10. Improving classification of psychoses.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Stephen M; O'Donovan, Michael C; Saks, Elyn; Burns, Tom; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2016-04-01

    Psychosis has been recognised as an abnormal state in need of care throughout history and by diverse cultures. Present classifications of psychotic disorder remain based on the presence of specific psychotic symptoms, relative to affective and other symptoms, and their sequence and duration. Although extant diagnostic classifications have restricted validity, they have proven reliability and most clinicians and some patients find them useful. Moreover, these classifications have yet to be replaced by anything better. We propose that an expansion of the subgrouping approach inherent to classification will provide incremental improvement to present diagnostic constructs-as has worked in the rest of medicine. We also propose that subgroups could be created both within and across present diagnostic classifications, taking into consideration the potential value of continuous measures (eg, duration of psychotic symptoms and intelligence quotient). Health-care workers also need to work with service users and carers to develop and adapt approaches to diagnosis that are seen as helpful. PMID:27063387

  11. 2-Stage Classification Modeling

    1994-11-01

    CIRCUIT2.4 is used to design optimum two-stage classification configurations and operating conditions for energy conservation. It permits simulation of five basic grinding-classification circuits, including one single-stage and four two-stage classification arrangements. Hydrocyclones, spiral classifiers, and sieve band screens can be simulated, and the user may choose the combination of devices for the flowsheet simulation. In addition, the user may select from four classification modeling methods to achieve the goals of a simulation project using themore » most familiar concepts. Circuit performance is modeled based on classification parameters or equipment operating conditions. A modular approach was taken in designing the program, which allows future addition of other models with relatively minor changes.« less

  12. Multimedia content description framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Kim, Michelle Yoonk Yung (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Mohan, Rakesh (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A framework is provided for describing multimedia content and a system in which a plurality of multimedia storage devices employing the content description methods of the present invention can interoperate. In accordance with one form of the present invention, the content description framework is a description scheme (DS) for describing streams or aggregations of multimedia objects, which may comprise audio, images, video, text, time series, and various other modalities. This description scheme can accommodate an essentially limitless number of descriptors in terms of features, semantics or metadata, and facilitate content-based search, index, and retrieval, among other capabilities, for both streamed or aggregated multimedia objects.

  13. Classification of Moscow soils and parent materials and its possible inclusion in the classification system of Russian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokofyeva, T. V.; Martynenko, I. A.; Ivannikov, F. A.

    2011-05-01

    The Law on Urban Soils was adopted by the Moscow Government in 2007. In the course of working out by-laws for its implementation, the systematization of Moscow soils was developed aimed at providing scientific grounds for the urban soils' inventory, mapping, and evaluation. The classification of Moscow soils comprises a description of the diagnostic horizons and soil types with the subtype subdivision fitting the principles of the new All-Russia soil classification. The authors hope that the developed system may trigger new discussions about the place of anthropogenically transformed soils and soil-like bodies in the Classification and Diagnostics of the Soils of Russia.

  14. Towards a Bernsteinian Language of Description for Mathematics Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straehler-Pohl, Hauke; Gellert, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at developing an external language of description to investigate the problem of why particular groups of students are systematically not provided access to school mathematical knowledge. Based on Basil Bernstein's conceptualisation of power in classification, we develop a three-dimensional model that operationalises the…

  15. 77 FR 48168 - Correction for Notice of Realty Action; Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... published in the Federal Register on February 10, 2012 (75 FR 6702), The erroneous legal land description is... Classification; California AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Correction SUMMARY: This...

  16. Classification of a class of minimal semi-Einstein submanifolds with an integrable conullity distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzoyan, V A

    2008-04-30

    A full local classification and a geometric description of normally flat minimal semi-Einstein submanifolds of Euclidean spaces having multiple principal curvature vectors and an integrable conullity distribution are presented. Bibliography: 30 titles.

  17. Descriptive and dynamic psychiatry: a perspective on DSM-III.

    PubMed

    Frances, A; Cooper, A M

    1981-09-01

    The APA Task Force on Nomenclature and Statistics attempted to make DSM-III a descriptive nosology that is atheoretical in regard to etiology. The authors believe that a sharp polarity between morphological classification and explanatory formulation is artificial and misleading, and they critically review DSM-III from a psychodynamic perspective. They compare and contrast the descriptive orientation in psychiatry with the psychodynamic orientation and conclude that the two approaches overlap, that they are complementary and necessary to each other, and that there is a descriptive data base underlying dynamic psychiatry which may be usefully included in future nomenclatures. PMID:7023255

  18. Physics 3204. Course Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfoundland and Labrador Dept. of Education.

    A description of the physics 3204 course in Newfoundland and Labrador is provided. The description includes: (1) statement of purpose, including general objectives of science education; (2) a list of six course objectives; (3) course content for units on sound, light, optical instruments, electrostatics, current electricity, Michael Faraday and…

  19. Descriptive Metadata: Emerging Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahronheim, Judith R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses metadata, digital resources, cross-disciplinary activity, and standards. Highlights include Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML); Extensible Markup Language (XML); Dublin Core; Resource Description Framework (RDF); Text Encoding Initiative (TEI); Encoded Archival Description (EAD); art and cultural-heritage metadata initiatives;…

  20. A Philosophical Approach to Describing Science Content: An Example From Geologic Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Fred N.

    1981-01-01

    Examines how research of philosophers of science may be useful to science education researchers and curriculum developers in the development of descriptions of science content related to classification schemes. Provides examples of concept analysis of two igneous rock classification schemes. (DS)

  1. IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Bibliographic Control. Cataloguing, Classification and Indexing Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The papers in this compilation focus on cataloging, classification, and indexing: (1) "Bibliographic Relationships in Library Catalogs" (Barbara B. Tillett, United States); (2) "Bibliographic Description: Past, Present, and Future" (Michael Gorman, United States); (3) "The Dewey Decimal Classification Enters the Computer Era: Developing the DDC…

  2. Delaware Alternative Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the species designation and taxonomies of Delaware and Algonkian and presents eight classifications of taxa by form, habitat, color, movement, sound, use, relationship, and appearance. Relevant research is also reviewed. (CLK)

  3. Classification and Cataloging of Slides Using Color Photocopying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Catherine R.; Rankowski, Charles A.

    1978-01-01

    The classification and cataloging of slides pose unique and critical problems in every field where they are used. A brief overview of the literature is presented, along with observations on local area slide systems and a description of a slide system developed for use in C-E Refractories' Research and Development Library utilizing color…

  4. Classification of almost toric singularities of Lagrangian foliations

    SciTech Connect

    Izosimov, Anton M

    2011-07-31

    The topological classification is given of almost toric singularities of integrable Hamiltonian systems with a large number of degrees of freedom, that is, of nondegenerate singularities without hyperbolic components. A descriptive geometric model is constructed, which makes it possible to perform effective calculations. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  5. Inferring heuristic classification hierarchies from natural language input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Richard; Gomez, Fernando

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for inferring hierarchies representing heuristic knowledge about the check out, control, and monitoring sub-system (CCMS) of the space shuttle launch processing system from natural language input is explained. Our method identifies failures explicitly and implicitly described in natural language by domain experts and uses those descriptions to recommend classifications for inclusion in the experts' heuristic hierarchies.

  6. PADMA: PArallel Data Mining Agents for scalable text classification

    SciTech Connect

    Kargupta, H.; Hamzaoglu, I.; Stafford, B.

    1997-03-01

    This paper introduces PADMA (PArallel Data Mining Agents), a parallel agent based system for scalable text classification. PADMA contains modules for (1) parallel data accessing operations, (2) parallel hierarchical clustering, and (3) web-based data visualization. This paper introduces the general architecture of PADMA and presents a detailed description of its different modules.

  7. Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham

    2016-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  8. [The psychosomatics of chronic back pain. Classification, aetiology and therapy].

    PubMed

    Henningsen, P

    2004-05-01

    An overview is given on the current classification, description and treatment of chronic pain with causally relevant psychological factors. It is based on the "practice guidelines on somatoform disorders" and on a thematically related meta-analysis. The classificatory problems, especially of the demarcation of somatoform and other chronic pain, are presented. Additional descriptive dimensions of the relevant psychosocial factors are: pain description, other organically unexplained pain- and non-pain-symptoms, anxiety and depression, disease conviction and illness behaviour, personality and childhood abuse. A modified psychotherapy for (somatoform) chronic pain is outlined. Finally, this aetiologically oriented psychosomatic-psychiatric approach is compared to psychological coping models for chronic pain. PMID:15138684

  9. Hardware description languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  10. Beyond statistical descriptions of variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew; Catalina Real-time Transient Survey Team

    2016-01-01

    The first generation of large synoptic survey archives, such as CRTS, PTF and Pan-STARRs, are now (or soon will be) available to the community, enabling unprecedented systematic searches and studies of variable astrophysical phenomena. These range from moving objects in the Solar System to extreme quasars in the distant universe. However, much of the analyses of these data sets conducted so far have aimed at providing statistical descriptions of the variability. Whilst such parameterizations are useful for feeding classification algorithms, they are not effective at describing the underlying type of variability in the sources or the physical mechanism(s) for it. In this talk, we will discuss new approaches, such as wavelet variance, random matrix theory and echo state networks, that can provide insight into the science of variability rather than just statistically characterizing it. We will pay particular attention to sources exhibiting stochastic variation and how much information about the host system can be determined from their time series. For example, characteristic restframe timescales have been identified in quasars, potentially related to the size of coherent noise fields in the accretion disk. Finally, we will also consider the potential limitations of the next generation surveys, such as LSST and SKA.

  11. SCOP: a structural classification of proteins database.

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, T J; Murzin, A G; Brenner, S E; Chothia, C

    1997-01-01

    The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database provides a detailed and comprehensive description of the relationships of all known proteins structures. The classification is on hierarchical levels: the first two levels, family and superfamily, describe near and far evolutionary relationships; the third, fold, describes geometrical relationships. The distinction between evolutionary relationships and those that arise from the physics and chemistry of proteins is a feature that is unique to this database, so far. SCOP also provides for each structure links to atomic co-ordinates, images of the structures, interactive viewers, sequence data, data on any conformational changes related to function and literature references. The database is freely accessible on the World Wide Web (WWW) with an entry point at URL http://scop.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/scop/ PMID:9016544

  12. Surface parametrization and shape description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brechbuehler, Christian; Gerig, Guido; Kuebler, Olaf

    1992-09-01

    Procedures for the parameterization and description of the surface of simply connected 3-D objects are presented. Critical issues for shape-based categorization and comparison of 3-D objects are addressed, which are generality with respect to object complexity, invariance to standard transformations, and descriptive power in terms of object geometry. Starting from segmented volume data, a relational data structure describing the adjacency of local surface elements is generated. The representation is used to parametrize the surface by defining a continuous, one-to-one mapping from the surface of the original object to the surface of a unit sphere. The mapping is constrained by two requirements, minimization of distortions and preservation of area. The former is formulated as the goal function of a nonlinear optimization problem and the latter as its constraints. Practicable starting values are obtained by an initial mapping based on a heat conduction model. In contract to earlier approaches, the novel parameterization method provides a mapping of arbitrarily shaped simply connected objects, i.e., it performs an unfolding of convoluted surface structures. This global parameterization allows the systematical scanning of the object surface by the variation of two parameters. As one possible approach to shape analysis, it enables us to expand the object surface into a series of spherical harmonic functions, extending the concept of elliptical Fourier descriptors for 2-D closed curves. The novel parameterization overcomes the traditional limitations of expressing an object surface in polar coordinates, which restricts such descriptions to star-shaped objects. The numerical coefficients in the Fourier series form an object-centered, surface-oriented descriptor of the object''s form. Rotating the coefficients in parameter space and object space puts the object into a standard position and yields a spherical harmonic descriptor which is invariant to translations, rotations

  13. Acute colonic diverticulitis: an update on clinical classification and management with MDCT correlation.

    PubMed

    Barat, Maxime; Dohan, Anthony; Pautrat, Karine; Boudiaf, Mourad; Dautry, Raphael; Guerrache, Youcef; Pocard, Marc; Hoeffel, Christine; Eveno, Clarisse; Soyer, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Currently, the most commonly used classification of acute colonic diverticulitis (ACD) is the modified Hinchey classification, which corresponds to a slightly more complex classification by comparison with the original description. This modified classification allows to categorize patients with ACD into four major categories (I, II, III, IV) and two additional subcategories (Ia and Ib), depending on the severity of the disease. Several studies have clearly demonstrated the impact of this classification for determining the best therapeutic approach and predicting perioperative complications for patients who need surgery. This review provides an update on the classification of ACD along with a special emphasis on the corresponding MDCT features of the different categories and subcategories. This modified Hinchey classification should be known by emergency physicians, radiologists, and surgeons in order to improve patient care and management because each category has a specific therapeutic approach. PMID:27138434

  14. Catchment classification by means of hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellebrand, Hugo; Ley, Rita; Casper, Markus

    2013-04-01

    for catchment description and clustering. Hence, the classes do not only represent a distinctive hydrological regime, but also provide information on specific quantitative aspects that are directly linked to a certain model structure. The clustering that is based on model structures or model parameters are validated by the classifications based on SOM and are thus related to physiographic and climatic catchment properties and runoff behaviour, which provides insight into catchment functioning. Clustering based on model structures can be a fast and simple way of catchment classification. A database consistently relates input data and output data; model structures and model performance and allows formulating distinctive processes that are attached to a class. Thus, the final result of the study is a powerful classification tool that helps to formulate generalizations based on observations and testable hypotheses (i.e. model structures).

  15. A Classification System for Peri-implant Diseases and Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Hector L; Norton, Michael R; Fiorellini, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    Peri-implant bone levels are influenced by pathologic and nonpathologic conditions. The understanding of peri-implant disease has evolved over the past several decades, and the classification of peri-implantitis has been limited to descriptions of disease progression or those involving soft and/or hard tissues (peri-implant mucositis or peri-implantitis). However, no classification system has been established based on etiology. The objective of this study was to identify various etiologies for peri-implantitis and to establish a classification system based on the pathogenesis. The results indicate that the majority of bone loss was related to biofilm, followed by iatrogenic factors, exogenous irritants, absence of keratinized tissue, and extrinsic pathology. The proposed classification system will allow the clinician to properly diagnose peri-implant diseases in relation to etiology. These conditions may respond differently to applied therapies. PMID:27560674

  16. On a production system using default reasoning for pattern classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Lowe, Carlyle M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses an unconventional application of a production system to a problem involving belief specialization. The production system reduces a large quantity of low-level descriptions into just a few higher-level descriptions that encompass the problem space in a more tractable fashion. This classification process utilizes a set of descriptions generated by combining the component hierarchy of a physical system with the semantics of the terminology employed in its operation. The paper describes an application of this process in a program, constructed in C and CLIPS, that classifies signatures of electromechanical system configurations. The program compares two independent classifications, describing the actual and expected system configurations, in order to generate a set of contradictions between the two.

  17. Concepts of Classification and Taxonomy Phylogenetic Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraix-Burnet, D.

    2016-05-01

    Phylogenetic approaches to classification have been heavily developed in biology by bioinformaticians. But these techniques have applications in other fields, in particular in linguistics. Their main characteristics is to search for relationships between the objects or species in study, instead of grouping them by similarity. They are thus rather well suited for any kind of evolutionary objects. For nearly fifteen years, astrocladistics has explored the use of Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) for astronomical objects like galaxies or globular clusters. In this lesson we will learn how it works.

  18. Insomnia: I. Classification, assessment and pharmaceutical treatment.

    PubMed

    Cleghorn, J M; Kaplan, R D; Bellissimo, A; Szatmari, P

    1983-08-01

    Insomnia is a public health problem because of its high prevalence, the risk of hypnotic drug abuse, and self medication combined with alcohol and other nonprescription chemicals. Clinical experience has given rise to a descriptive classification of the insomnias many of which are secondary to medical disease. The information now available allows us to suggest a systematic approach to the assessment of insomnia emphasizing its history, events associated with sleep onset, observable behaviour and experience associated with interruptions in sleep. This paper attempts to organize the present state of knowledge in a format that can be taught to general physicians who deal with the most insomnia patients. PMID:6627189

  19. Public Document Room file classification system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This listing contains detailed descriptions of the file classification system for documents available from the Public Document Room (PDR) of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. As a public service branch of the agency, the PDR maintains facilities for receiving, processing, storing, and retrieving documents which NRC generates or receives in performing its regulatory function. Unlike a library, the PDR does not maintain collections of formally published materials, such as books, monographs, serials, periodicals, or general indexes. The documents on file at the PDR can be reports, written records of meetings (transcripts), existing or proposed regulations, the text of licenses or their amendments, and correspondence.

  20. Classification based on full decision trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genrikhov, I. E.; Djukova, E. V.

    2012-04-01

    The ideas underlying a series of the authors' studies dealing with the design of classification algorithms based on full decision trees are further developed. It is shown that the decision tree construction under consideration takes into account all the features satisfying a branching criterion. Full decision trees with an entropy branching criterion are studied as applied to precedent-based pattern recognition problems with real-valued data. Recognition procedures are constructed for solving problems with incomplete data (gaps in the feature descriptions of the objects) in the case when the learning objects are nonuniformly distributed over the classes. The authors' basic results previously obtained in this area are overviewed.

  1. Vertebral fracture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, Paola C.; Tankó, László B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2007-03-01

    A novel method for classification and quantification of vertebral fractures from X-ray images is presented. Using pairwise conditional shape models trained on a set of healthy spines, the most likely unfractured shape is estimated for each of the vertebrae in the image. The difference between the true shape and the reconstructed normal shape is an indicator for the shape abnormality. A statistical classification scheme with the two shapes as features is applied to detect, classify, and grade various types of deformities. In contrast with the current (semi-)quantitative grading strategies this method takes the full shape into account, it uses a patient-specific reference by combining population-based information on biological variation in vertebra shape and vertebra interrelations, and it provides a continuous measure of deformity. Good agreement with manual classification and grading is demonstrated on 204 lateral spine radiographs with in total 89 fractures.

  2. Commission 45: Spectral Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giridhar, Sunetra; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.; Eyer, Laurent; Irwin, Michael J.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Majewski, Steven; Minniti, Dante; Nordström, Birgitta

    This report gives an update of developments (since the last General Assembly at Prague) in the areas that are of relevance to the commission. In addition to numerous papers, a new monograph entitled Stellar Spectral Classification with Richard Gray and Chris Corbally as leading authors will be published by Princeton University Press as part of their Princeton Series in Astrophysics in April 2009. This book is an up-to-date and encyclopedic review of stellar spectral classification across the H-R diagram, including the traditional MK system in the blue-violet, recent extensions into the ultraviolet and infrared, the newly defined L-type and T-type spectral classes, as well as spectral classification of carbon stars, S-type stars, white dwarfs, novae, supernovae and Wolf-Rayet stars.

  3. Classification images with uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Tjan, Bosco S.; Nandy, Anirvan S.

    2009-01-01

    Classification image and other similar noise-driven linear methods have found increasingly wider applications in revealing psychophysical receptive field structures or perceptual templates. These techniques are relatively easy to deploy, and the results are simple to interpret. However, being a linear technique, the utility of the classification-image method is believed to be limited. Uncertainty about the target stimuli on the part of an observer will result in a classification image that is the superposition of all possible templates for all the possible signals. In the context of a well-established uncertainty model, which pools the outputs of a large set of linear frontends with a max operator, we show analytically, in simulations, and with human experiments that the effect of intrinsic uncertainty can be limited or even eliminated by presenting a signal at a relatively high contrast in a classification-image experiment. We further argue that the subimages from different stimulus-response categories should not be combined, as is conventionally done. We show that when the signal contrast is high, the subimages from the error trials contain a clear high-contrast image that is negatively correlated with the perceptual template associated with the presented signal, relatively unaffected by uncertainty. The subimages also contain a “haze” that is of a much lower contrast and is positively correlated with the superposition of all the templates associated with the erroneous response. In the case of spatial uncertainty, we show that the spatial extent of the uncertainty can be estimated from the classification subimages. We link intrinsic uncertainty to invariance and suggest that this signal-clamped classification-image method will find general applications in uncovering the underlying representations of high-level neural and psychophysical mechanisms. PMID:16889477

  4. Trichromatic opponent color classification.

    PubMed

    Chichilnisky, E J; Wandell, B A

    1999-10-01

    Stimuli varying in intensity and chromaticity, presented on numerous backgrounds, were classified into red/green, blue/yellow and white/black opponent color categories. These measurements revealed the shapes of the boundaries that separate opponent colors in three-dimensional color space. Opponent color classification boundaries were generally not planar, but their shapes could be summarized by a piecewise linear model in which increment and decrement color signals are combined with different weights at two stages to produce opponent color sensations. The effect of background light on classification was largely explained by separate gain changes in increment and decrement cone signals. PMID:10615508

  5. Classification of syringomyelia.

    PubMed

    Milhorat, T H

    2000-01-01

    Syringomyelia poses special challenges for the clinician because of its complex symptomatology, uncertain pathogenesis, and multiple options of treatment. The purpose of this study was to classify intramedullary cavities according to their most salient pathological and clinical features. Pathological findings obtained in 175 individuals with tubular cavitations of the spinal cord were correlated with clinical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a database of 927 patients. A classification system was developed in which the morbid anatomy, cause, and pathogenesis of these lesions are emphasized. The use of a disease-based classification of syringomyelia facilitates diagnosis and the interpretation of MR imaging findings and provides a guide to treatment. PMID:16676921

  6. CRAC2 model description

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions.

  7. a Diversified Deep Belief Network for Hyperspectral Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, P.; Gong, Z. Q.; Schönlieb, C.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, researches in remote sensing demonstrated that deep architectures with multiple layers can potentially extract abstract and invariant features for better hyperspectral image classification. Since the usual real-world hyperspectral image classification task cannot provide enough training samples for a supervised deep model, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), this work turns to investigate the deep belief networks (DBNs), which allow unsupervised training. The DBN trained over limited training samples usually has many "dead" (never responding) or "potential over-tolerant" (always responding) latent factors (neurons), which decrease the DBN's description ability and thus finally decrease the hyperspectral image classification performance. This work proposes a new diversified DBN through introducing a diversity promoting prior over the latent factors during the DBN pre-training and fine-tuning procedures. The diversity promoting prior in the training procedures will encourage the latent factors to be uncorrelated, such that each latent factor focuses on modelling unique information, and all factors will be summed up to capture a large proportion of information and thus increase description ability and classification performance of the diversified DBNs. The proposed method was evaluated over the well-known real-world hyperspectral image dataset. The experiments demonstrate that the diversified DBNs can obtain much better results than original DBNs and comparable or even better performances compared with other recent hyperspectral image classification methods.

  8. Teaching Descriptive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashers, H. C.

    1968-01-01

    As the inexperienced writer becomes aware of the issues involved in the composition of effective descriptive prose, he also develops a consistent control over his materials. The persona he chooses, if coherently thought out, can function as an index of many choices, helping him to manipulate the tone, intent, and mood of this style; to regulate…

  9. Soil Classification and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This instructional unit was designed to enable students, primarily at the secondary level, to (1) classify soils according to current capability classifications of the Soil Conservation Service, (2) select treatments needed for a given soil class according to current recommendations provided by the Soil Conservation Service, and (3) interpret a…

  10. The Biglan Classification Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoecker, Judith L.

    This study replicated previous research that tested the validity of A. Biglan's classification scheme, a theoretical framework for empirically examining the differences among academic disciplines and classifying them according to three dimensions (hard-soft, pure-applied, life-nonlife). In addition, new data were used to attempt continued…

  11. The Classification Conundrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    Argues against the five-kingdom scheme of classification as using inconsistent criteria, ending up with divisions that are forced, not natural. Advocates an approach using cell type/complexity and modification of the metabolic machinery, recommending the five-kingdom scheme as starting point for class discussion on taxonomy and its conceptual…

  12. Homographs: Classification and Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacak, M.; Henisz, Bozena

    1968-01-01

    Homographs are defined in this study as sets of word forms which are spelled alike but which have entirely or partially different meanings and which may have different syntactic functions (that is, they belong to more than one form class or to more than one subclass of a form class). This report deals with the classification and identification of…

  13. Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

  14. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  15. Revisiting Classification and Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Barbara K.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses issues of classification and identification, while evaluating some of the continuing controversies about learning disabilities (LD) related to those topics. The author suggests that many problems have to do with confusion between the two. Despite years of effort and an extraordinary increase in the number of individuals…

  16. Shark Teeth Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tom; Creel, Sally; Lee, Velda

    2009-01-01

    On a recent autumn afternoon at Harmony Leland Elementary in Mableton, Georgia, students in a fifth-grade science class investigated the essential process of classification--the act of putting things into groups according to some common characteristics or attributes. While they may have honed these skills earlier in the week by grouping their own…

  17. [Classification of primary bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Dominok, G W; Frege, J

    1986-01-01

    An expanded classification for bone tumors is presented based on the well known international classification as well as earlier systems. The current status and future trends in this area are discussed. PMID:3461626

  18. ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION ISSUES AND RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purposes and need for ecological classification will be discussed. Some brief examples will highlight regional and watershed approaches, general issues of extrapolation and classification helpful to monitoring/assessment design for larger aquatic systems, and some specific concep...

  19. Efficient Fingercode Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong-Wei; Law, Kwok-Yan; Gollmann, Dieter; Chung, Siu-Leung; Li, Jian-Bin; Sun, Jia-Guang

    In this paper, we present an efficient fingerprint classification algorithm which is an essential component in many critical security application systems e. g. systems in the e-government and e-finance domains. Fingerprint identification is one of the most important security requirements in homeland security systems such as personnel screening and anti-money laundering. The problem of fingerprint identification involves searching (matching) the fingerprint of a person against each of the fingerprints of all registered persons. To enhance performance and reliability, a common approach is to reduce the search space by firstly classifying the fingerprints and then performing the search in the respective class. Jain et al. proposed a fingerprint classification algorithm based on a two-stage classifier, which uses a K-nearest neighbor classifier in its first stage. The fingerprint classification algorithm is based on the fingercode representation which is an encoding of fingerprints that has been demonstrated to be an effective fingerprint biometric scheme because of its ability to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint image. We enhance this approach by improving the efficiency of the K-nearest neighbor classifier for fingercode-based fingerprint classification. Our research firstly investigates the various fast search algorithms in vector quantization (VQ) and the potential application in fingerprint classification, and then proposes two efficient algorithms based on the pyramid-based search algorithms in VQ. Experimental results on DB1 of FVC 2004 demonstrate that our algorithms can outperform the full search algorithm and the original pyramid-based search algorithms in terms of computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy.

  20. Occupational classification in the South African census before ISCO-58.

    PubMed

    Christopher, A J

    2010-01-01

    The population census is one of the major statistics gathering exercises undertaken by the state, when information on a wide range of personal attributes is demanded. None is more problematic than occupation, which, for clarity, requires the subsequent simplification and classification of the myriad of self-descriptions collected. Nowhere is this more evident than in South Africa before 1958. Conflict between British imperial directives and local peculiarities, notably the issue of race, resulted in the adoption of widely fluctuating classification schemes. Consequently, direct comparisons between the published occupational statistics of successive enumerations are highly problematic, if not impossible. PMID:20939133

  1. Onychomycosis: a proposed revision of the clinical classification.

    PubMed

    Hay, Roderick J; Baran, Robert

    2011-12-01

    The classification of onychomycosis, infection of the nail apparatus caused by fungi, has changed over time with the recognition of new pathways of nail infection, new organisms, and new variations in the appearance of diseased infected nail. Taking into account published descriptions of nail morphology in fungal infection, the following forms of onychomycosis are recognized: distal and lateral subungual, superficial, endonyx, proximal subungual, mixed, totally dystrophic, and secondary onychomycosis. These can be subdivided, where appropriate, by color and pattern of nail plate change. The purpose of the revised classification is to provide a framework to assist selection of treatment, estimate prognosis, and evaluate new diagnostic methods. PMID:21501889

  2. Texture classification of lung computed tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pheng, Hang See; Shamsuddin, Siti M.

    2013-03-01

    Current development of algorithms in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme is growing rapidly to assist the radiologist in medical image interpretation. Texture analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans is one of important preliminary stage in the computerized detection system and classification for lung cancer. Among different types of images features analysis, Haralick texture with variety of statistical measures has been used widely in image texture description. The extraction of texture feature values is essential to be used by a CAD especially in classification of the normal and abnormal tissue on the cross sectional CT images. This paper aims to compare experimental results using texture extraction and different machine leaning methods in the classification normal and abnormal tissues through lung CT images. The machine learning methods involve in this assessment are Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS), Naive Bayes, Decision Tree (J48) and Backpropagation Neural Network. AIRS is found to provide high accuracy (99.2%) and sensitivity (98.0%) in the assessment. For experiments and testing purpose, publicly available datasets in the Reference Image Database to Evaluate Therapy Response (RIDER) are used as study cases.

  3. Fast Image Texture Classification Using Decision Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Texture analysis would permit improved autonomous, onboard science data interpretation for adaptive navigation, sampling, and downlink decisions. These analyses would assist with terrain analysis and instrument placement in both macroscopic and microscopic image data products. Unfortunately, most state-of-the-art texture analysis demands computationally expensive convolutions of filters involving many floating-point operations. This makes them infeasible for radiation- hardened computers and spaceflight hardware. A new method approximates traditional texture classification of each image pixel with a fast decision-tree classifier. The classifier uses image features derived from simple filtering operations involving integer arithmetic. The texture analysis method is therefore amenable to implementation on FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware. Image features based on the "integral image" transform produce descriptive and efficient texture descriptors. Training the decision tree on a set of training data yields a classification scheme that produces reasonable approximations of optimal "texton" analysis at a fraction of the computational cost. A decision-tree learning algorithm employing the traditional k-means criterion of inter-cluster variance is used to learn tree structure from training data. The result is an efficient and accurate summary of surface morphology in images. This work is an evolutionary advance that unites several previous algorithms (k-means clustering, integral images, decision trees) and applies them to a new problem domain (morphology analysis for autonomous science during remote exploration). Advantages include order-of-magnitude improvements in runtime, feasibility for FPGA hardware, and significant improvements in texture classification accuracy.

  4. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-08-25

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler.

  5. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.Y.

    1993-08-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  6. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Teresa Y. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm.

  7. TMACS system description

    SciTech Connect

    Scaief, C.C.

    1995-10-17

    This document provides a description of the Tank Monitor and Control System (TMACS). It is intended as an introduction for those persons unfamiliar with the system as well as a reference document for the users, maintenance personnel, and system designers. In addition to describing the system, the document outlines the associated drawing documentation, provides maintenance and spare parts information, and discusses other TMACS documents that provide additional detail

  8. Management control system description

    SciTech Connect

    Bence, P. J.

    1990-10-01

    This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  9. SCOR: Structural classification of RNA, Version 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Makio; Hendrix, Donna K.; Klosterman, Peter

    2003-10-03

    SCOR (http://scor.lbl.gov), the Structural Classification of RNA, is a database designed to provide a comprehensive perspective and understanding of RNA motif three-dimensional structure, function, tertiary interactions, and their relationships. SCOR 2.0 represents a major expansion and introduces a wholly new classification system. The new version represents the classification as a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), which allows a classification node to have multiple parents, in contrast to the strictly hierarchical classification used in SCOR 1.2. SCOR 2.0 supports three types of query terms in the updated search engine: PDB or NDB identifier, nucleotide sequence, and keyword. We also provide parseable XML files for all information. This new release contains 511RNA entries from the PDB as of 15 May 2003. A total of 5,880 secondary structural elements are classified; 2,104 hairpin loops and 3,776 internal loops. RNA motifs reported in the literature, such as ''Kinkturn'' and ''GNRA loops,'' are now incorporated into the structural classification along with definitions and descriptions.

  10. Cancer Etiology and Selected Aspects of Cancer Pathology: A Decimal Classification, (Categories 51.4 and 51.5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, John H.

    This is a hierarchical decimal classification of information related to various types of carcinogenesis (Chemical, viral, hormonal, radiation), cancer demography, and selected descriptive and "in vitro" aspects of cancer pathology. It is a working draft of categories taken from an extensive classification of many fields of biomedical information.…

  11. Prior-to-Secondary School Course Classification System: School Codes for the Exchange of Data (SCED). NFES 2011-801

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this handbook, "Prior-to-Secondary School Course Classification System: School Codes for the Exchange of Data" (SCED), the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the National Forum on Education Statistics have extended the existing secondary course classification system with codes and descriptions for courses offered at lower grade…

  12. 34 CFR 222.8 - What action must an applicant take upon a change in its boundary, classification, control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? 222.8 Section 222.8 Education... in its boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? (a) Any applicant that is... information to the Secretary as soon as practicable: (1) A description of the character and extent of...

  13. 34 CFR 222.8 - What action must an applicant take upon a change in its boundary, classification, control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? 222.8 Section 222.8 Education... in its boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? (a) Any applicant that is... information to the Secretary as soon as practicable: (1) A description of the character and extent of...

  14. 34 CFR 222.8 - What action must an applicant take upon a change in its boundary, classification, control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? 222.8 Section 222.8 Education... in its boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? (a) Any applicant that is... information to the Secretary as soon as practicable: (1) A description of the character and extent of...

  15. 34 CFR 222.8 - What action must an applicant take upon a change in its boundary, classification, control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? 222.8 Section 222.8 Education... in its boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? (a) Any applicant that is... information to the Secretary as soon as practicable: (1) A description of the character and extent of...

  16. Automated Defect Classification (ADC)

    1998-01-01

    The ADC Software System is designed to provide semiconductor defect feature analysis and defect classification capabilities. Defect classification is an important software method used by semiconductor wafer manufacturers to automate the analysis of defect data collected by a wide range of microscopy techniques in semiconductor wafer manufacturing today. These microscopies (e.g., optical bright and dark field, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, etc.) generate images of anomalies that are induced or otherwise appear on wafermore » surfaces as a result of errant manufacturing processes or simple atmospheric contamination (e.g., airborne particles). This software provides methods for analyzing these images, extracting statistical features from the anomalous regions, and applying supervised classifiers to label the anomalies into user-defined categories.« less

  17. Tree Classification Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the IND Tree Package to prospective users. IND does supervised learning using classification trees. This learning task is a basic tool used in the development of diagnosis, monitoring and expert systems. The IND Tree Package was developed as part of a NASA project to semi-automate the development of data analysis and modelling algorithms using artificial intelligence techniques. The IND Tree Package integrates features from CART and C4 with newer Bayesian and minimum encoding methods for growing classification trees and graphs. The IND Tree Package also provides an experimental control suite on top. The newer features give improved probability estimates often required in diagnostic and screening tasks. The package comes with a manual, Unix 'man' entries, and a guide to tree methods and research. The IND Tree Package is implemented in C under Unix and was beta-tested at university and commercial research laboratories in the United States.

  18. Granular loess classification based

    SciTech Connect

    Browzin, B.S.

    1985-05-01

    This paper discusses how loess might be identified by two index properties: the granulometric composition and the dry unit weight. These two indices are necessary but not always sufficient for identification of loess. On the basis of analyses of samples from three continents, it was concluded that the 0.01-0.5-mm fraction deserves the name loessial fraction. Based on the loessial fraction concept, a granulometric classification of loess is proposed. A triangular chart is used to classify loess.

  19. Histologic classification of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arie; Wesseling, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas form a heterogeneous group of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and are traditionally classified based on histologic type and malignancy grade. Most gliomas, the diffuse gliomas, show extensive infiltration in the CNS parenchyma. Diffuse gliomas can be further typed as astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or rare mixed oligodendroglial-astrocytic of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), III (anaplastic), or IV (glioblastoma). Other gliomas generally have a more circumscribed growth pattern, with pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I) and ependymal tumors (WHO grade I, II, or III) as the most frequent representatives. This chapter provides an overview of the histology of all glial neoplasms listed in the WHO 2016 classification, including the less frequent "nondiffuse" gliomas and mixed neuronal-glial tumors. For multiple decades the histologic diagnosis of these tumors formed a useful basis for assessment of prognosis and therapeutic management. However, it is now fully clear that information on the molecular underpinnings often allows for a more robust classification of (glial) neoplasms. Indeed, in the WHO 2016 classification, histologic and molecular findings are integrated in the definition of several gliomas. As such, this chapter and Chapter 6 are highly interrelated and neither should be considered in isolation. PMID:26948349

  20. Classification of mental disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, E.

    1959-01-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in devising a classification of mental disorders is the lack of agreement among psychiatrists regarding the concepts upon which it should be based: diagnoses can rarely be verified objectively and the same or similar conditions are described under a confusing variety of names. This situation militates against the ready exchange of ideas and experiences and hampers progress. As a first step towards remedying this state of affairs, the author of the article below has undertaken a critical survey of existing classifications. He shows how some of the difficulties created by lack of knowledge regarding pathology and etiology may be overcome by the use of “operational definitions” and outlines the basic principles on which he believes a generally acceptable international classification might be constructed. If this can be done it should lead to a greater measure of agreement regarding the value of specific treatments for mental disorders and greatly facilitate a broad epidemiological approach to psychiatric research. PMID:13834299

  1. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  2. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  3. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  4. Molecular classification of myeloproliferative neoplasms-pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Moosa; Harrison, Claire

    2013-12-01

    Dameshek first postulated a common myeloproliferative heritage for the myeloproliferative disorders, now termed neoplasms. This prescient observation was validated by the description of a common mutation in exon 14 of JAK2 for patients with essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis. In recent years, our knowledge of the molecular abnormalities underpinning these disorders has expanded significantly. At the same time, we have continued to use a classification based largely upon the first clinical descriptions of these entities, which sometimes proves problematic in differentiating between these conditions and normal reactive processes, myelodysplasia and between the myeloproliferative neoplasm entities themselves. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of a molecular classification and its potential utility in diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics. PMID:24091831

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    2000-11-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste handling building ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Preclosure Safety and Systems Engineering Section. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 2000). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2000). This QA classification incorporates the current MGR design and the results of the ''Design Basis Event Frequency and Dose Calculation for Site Recommendation'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a) and ''Bounding Individual Category 1 Design Basis Event Dose Calculation to Support Quality Assurance Classification'' (Gwyn 2000).

  6. Using ecological zones to increase the detail of Landsat classifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, L., III; Mayer, K. E.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in classification detail of forest species descriptions were made for Landsat data on 2.2 million acres in northwestern California. Because basic forest canopy structures may exhibit very similar E-M energy reflectance patterns in different environmental regions, classification labels based on Landsat spectral signatures alone become very generalized when mapping large heterogeneous ecological regions. By adding a seven ecological zone stratification, a 167% improvement in classification detail was made over the results achieved without it. The seven zone stratification is a less costly alternative to the inclusion of complex collateral information, such as terrain data and soil type, into the Landsat data base when making inventories of areas greater than 500,000 acres.

  7. SAR target classification based on multiscale sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Huaiyu; Zhang, Rong; Li, Jingge; Zhan, Yibing

    2016-03-01

    We propose a novel multiscale sparse representation approach for SAR target classification. It firstly extracts the dense SIFT descriptors on multiple scales, then trains a global multiscale dictionary by sparse coding algorithm. After obtaining the sparse representation, the method applies spatial pyramid matching (SPM) and max pooling to summarize the features for each image. The proposed method can provide more information and descriptive ability than single-scale ones. Moreover, it costs less extra computation than existing multiscale methods which compute a dictionary for each scale. The MSTAR database and ship database collected from TerraSAR-X images are used in classification setup. Results show that the best overall classification rate of the proposed approach can achieve 98.83% on the MSTAR database and 92.67% on the TerraSAR-X ship database.

  8. Formal descriptions for formulation.

    PubMed

    This, Hervé

    2007-11-01

    Two formalisms used to describe the physical microstructure and the organization of formulated products are given. The first, called "complex disperse systems formalism" (CDS formalism) is useful for the description of the physical nature of disperse matter. The second, called "non periodical organizational space formalism" (NPOS formalism) has the same operators as the CDS formalism, but different elements; it is useful to describe the arrangement of any objects in space. Both formalisms can be viewed as the same, applied to different orders of magnitude for spatial size. PMID:17875375

  9. MCO Monitoring activity description

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-11-09

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description.

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  11. AMOEBA clustering revisited. [cluster analysis, classification, and image display program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Jack

    1990-01-01

    A description of the clustering, classification, and image display program AMOEBA is presented. Using a difficult high resolution aircraft-acquired MSS image, the steps the program takes in forming clusters are traced. A number of new features are described here for the first time. Usage of the program is discussed. The theoretical foundation (the underlying mathematical model) is briefly presented. The program can handle images of any size and dimensionality.

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE WATER COLLECTION/REMOVAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface water collection/removal system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE CLOSURE AND SEAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface closure and seal system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOERW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR GENERAL SITE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) general site transportation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR MAINTENANCE AND SUPPLY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) maintenance and supply system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR CANISTERED SNF DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) canistered spent nuclear fuel disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR NON-FUEL COMPONENTS DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) non-fuel components disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) safeguards and security system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface water distribution system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface emplacement transportation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR OPERATIONS MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE DEVELOPMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface development transportation structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  4. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste treatment building system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR NAVAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) naval spent nuclear fuel disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMF 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR OFF-SITE UTILITIES SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) offsite utilities system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  7. On the Classification of Psychology in General Library Classification Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudek, Miluse

    1980-01-01

    Holds that traditional library classification systems are inadequate to handle psychological literature, and advocates the establishment of new theoretical approaches to bibliographic organization. (FM)

  8. Remote Sensing Classification Uncertainty: Validating Probabilistic Pixel Level Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrettas, Michail; Cornford, Dan; Bastin, Lucy; Pons, Xavier; Sevillano, Eva; Moré, Gerard; Serra, Pere; Ninyerola, Miquel

    2013-04-01

    There already exists an extensive literature on classification of remotely sensed imagery, and indeed classification more widely, that considers a wide range of probabilistic and non-probabilistic classification methodologies. Although for many probabilistic classification methodologies posterior class probabilities are produced per pixel (observation) these are often not communicated at the pixel level, and typically not validated at the pixel level. Most often the probabilistic classification in converted into a hard classification (of the most probable class) and the accuracy of the resulting classification is reported in terms of a global confusion matrix, or some score derived from this. For applications where classification accuracy is spatially variable and where pixel level estimates of uncertainty can be meaningfully exploited in workflows that propagate uncertainty validating and communicating the pixel level uncertainty opens opportunities for more refined and accountable modelling. In this work we describe our recent work applying and validation of a range of probabilistic classifiers. Using a multi-temporal Landsat data set of the Ebro Delta in Catalonia, which has been carefully radiometrically and geometrically corrected, we present a range of Bayesian classifiers from simple Bayesian linear discriminant analysis to a complex variational Gaussian process based classifier. Field study derived labelled data, classified into 8 classes, which primarily consider land use and the degree of flooding in what is a rice growing region, are used to train the pixel level classifiers. Our focus is not so much on the classification accuracy, but rather the validation of the probabilistic classification made by all methods. We present a range of validation plots and scores, many of which are used for probabilistic weather forecast verification, but are new to remote sensing classification including of course the standard measures of misclassification, but also

  9. Development of soil taxation and soil classification as furthered by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Soil taxation and soil classification are important drivers of soil science in Austria. However, the tasks are quite different: whereas soil taxation aims at the evaluation of the productivity potential of the soil, soil classification focusses on the natural development and - especially nowadays - on functionality of the soil. Since the foundation of the Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), representatives both directions of the description of the soil have been involved in the common actions of the society. In the first years it was a main target to improve and standardize field descriptions of the soil. Although both systems differ in the general layout, the experts should comply with identical approaches. According to this work, a lot of effort has been put into the standardization of the soil classification system, thus ensuring a common basis. The development, state of the art and further development of both classification and taxation systems initiated and carried out by the ASSS will be shown.

  10. Interactive Classification Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBessonet, Cary

    2000-01-01

    The investigators upgraded a knowledge representation language called SL (Symbolic Language) and an automated reasoning system called SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) to enable the more effective use of the technologies in automated reasoning and interactive classification systems. The overall goals of the project were: 1) the enhancement of the representation language SL to accommodate a wider range of meaning; 2) the development of a default inference scheme to operate over SL notation as it is encoded; and 3) the development of an interpreter for SL that would handle representations of some basic cognitive acts and perspectives.

  11. Learning classification trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

  12. Evaluating LANDSAT wildland classification accuracies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures to evaluate the accuracy of LANDSAT derived wildland cover classifications are described. The evaluation procedures include: (1) implementing a stratified random sample for obtaining unbiased verification data; (2) performing area by area comparisons between verification and LANDSAT data for both heterogeneous and homogeneous fields; (3) providing overall and individual classification accuracies with confidence limits; (4) displaying results within contingency tables for analysis of confusion between classes; and (5) quantifying the amount of information (bits/square kilometer) conveyed in the LANDSAT classification.

  13. Simplified classification of spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, D I

    1978-01-01

    A simple classification of products of conception aborted in early pregnancy is described. This classification bears a closer relation to the aetiology of the abortions and the timing of the teratological insult in those conceptuses with morphological abnormalities than have previous classifications. It is hoped it may be of value in counselling patients who abort recurrently and also in the assessment of some environmental hazards purported to cause early pregnancy wastage and congenital malformations. Images PMID:564967

  14. Atmospheric circulation classification comparison based on wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation classifications are not a simple description of atmospheric states but a tool to understand and interpret the atmospheric processes and to model the relation between atmospheric circulation and surface climate and other related variables (Radan Huth et al., 2008). Classifications were initially developed with weather forecasting purposes, however with the progress in computer processing capability, new and more robust objective methods were developed and applied to large datasets prompting atmospheric circulation classification methods to one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Classification studies have been extensively used in climate change studies (e.g. reconstructed past climates, recent observed changes and future climates), in bioclimatological research (e.g. relating human mortality to climatic factors) and in a wide variety of synoptic climatological applications (e.g. comparison between datasets, air pollution, snow avalanches, wine quality, fish captures and forest fires). Likewise, atmospheric circulation classifications are important for the study of the role of weather in wildfire occurrence in Portugal because the daily synoptic variability is the most important driver of local weather conditions (Pereira et al., 2005). In particular, the objective classification scheme developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000) to classify the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal have proved to be quite useful in discriminating the occurrence and development of wildfires as well as the distribution over Portugal of surface climatic variables with impact in wildfire activity such as maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. This work aims to present: (i) an overview the existing circulation classification for the Iberian Peninsula, and (ii) the results of a comparison study between these atmospheric circulation classifications based on its relation with wildfires and relevant meteorological

  15. Customer Credit Scoring Method Based on the SVDD Classification Model with Imbalanced Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Bo; Nan, Lin; Zheng, Qin; Yang, Lei

    Customer credit scoring is a typical class of pattern classification problem with imbalanced dataset. A new customer credit scoring method based on the support vector domain description (SVDD) classification model was proposed in this paper. Main techniques of customer credit scoring were reviewed. The SVDD model with imbalanced dataset was analyzed and the predication method of customer credit scoring based on the SVDD model was proposed. Our experimental results confirm that our approach is effective in ranking and classifying customer credit.

  16. Classification of Liver Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Rizoli, Sandro B.; Brenneman, Frederick D.; Hanna, Sherif S.; Kahnamoui, Kamyar

    1996-01-01

    The classification of liver injuries is important for clinical practice, clinical research and quality assurance activities. The Organ Injury Scaling (OIS) Committee of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma proposed the OIS for liver trauma in 1989. The purpose ofthe present study was to apply this scale to a cohort ofliver trauma patients managed at a single Canadian trauma centre from January 1987 to June 1992.170 study patients were identified and reviewed. The mean age was 30, with 69% male and a mean ISS of 33.90% had a blunt mechanism ofinjury. The 170 patients were categorized into the 60IS grades ofliver injury. The number of units of blood transfused, the magnitude of the operative treatment required, the liver-related complications and the liver-related mortality correlated well with the OIS grade. The OIS grade was unable to predict the need for laparotomy or the length of stay in hospital. We conclude that the OIS is a useful, practical and important tool for the categorization of liver injuries, and it may prove to be the universally accepted classification scheme in liver trauma. PMID:8809585

  17. "Interactive Classification Technology"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBessonet, Cary

    1999-01-01

    The investigators are upgrading a knowledge representation language called SL (Symbolic Language) and an automated reasoning system called SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) to enable the technologies to be used in automated reasoning and interactive classification systems. The overall goals of the project are: a) the enhancement of the representation language SL to accommodate multiple perspectives and a wider range of meaning; b) the development of a sufficient set of operators to enable the interpreter of SL to handle representations of basic cognitive acts; and c) the development of a default inference scheme to operate over SL notation as it is encoded. As to particular goals the first-year work plan focused on inferencing and.representation issues, including: 1) the development of higher level cognitive/ classification functions and conceptual models for use in inferencing and decision making; 2) the specification of a more detailed scheme of defaults and the enrichment of SL notation to accommodate the scheme; and 3) the adoption of additional perspectives for inferencing.

  18. Holistic facial expression classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, John; McDonald, J.

    2005-06-01

    This paper details a procedure for classifying facial expressions. This is a growing and relatively new type of problem within computer vision. One of the fundamental problems when classifying facial expressions in previous approaches is the lack of a consistent method of measuring expression. This paper solves this problem by the computation of the Facial Expression Shape Model (FESM). This statistical model of facial expression is based on an anatomical analysis of facial expression called the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We use the term Action Unit (AU) to describe a movement of one or more muscles of the face and all expressions can be described using the AU's described by FACS. The shape model is calculated by marking the face with 122 landmark points. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to analyse how the landmark points move with respect to each other and to lower the dimensionality of the problem. Using the FESM in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVM) we classify facial expressions. SVMs are a powerful machine learning technique based on optimisation theory. This project is largely concerned with statistical models, machine learning techniques and psychological tools used in the classification of facial expression. This holistic approach to expression classification provides a means for a level of interaction with a computer that is a significant step forward in human-computer interaction.

  19. Waste classification sampling plan

    SciTech Connect

    Landsman, S.D.

    1998-05-27

    The purpose of this sampling is to explain the method used to collect and analyze data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream so that the correct waste classification for the waste stream can be made, and to collect samples for studies of decontamination methods that could be used to remove fixed contamination present on the waste. The scope of this plan is to establish the technical basis for collecting samples and compiling quantitative data on the radioactive constituents present in waste generated during deactivation activities in B-Cell. Sampling and radioisotopic analysis will be performed on the fixed layers of contamination present on structural material and internal surfaces of process piping and tanks. In addition, dose rate measurements on existing waste material will be performed to determine the fraction of dose rate attributable to both removable and fixed contamination. Samples will also be collected to support studies of decontamination methods that are effective in removing the fixed contamination present on the waste. Sampling performed under this plan will meet criteria established in BNF-2596, Data Quality Objectives for the B-Cell Waste Stream Classification Sampling, J. M. Barnett, May 1998.

  20. PSC: protein surface classification

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yan Yuan; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    We recently proposed to classify proteins by their functional surfaces. Using the structural attributes of functional surfaces, we inferred the pairwise relationships of proteins and constructed an expandable database of protein surface classification (PSC). As the functional surface(s) of a protein is the local region where the protein performs its function, our classification may reflect the functional relationships among proteins. Currently, PSC contains a library of 1974 surface types that include 25 857 functional surfaces identified from 24 170 bound structures. The search tool in PSC empowers users to explore related surfaces that share similar local structures and core functions. Each functional surface is characterized by structural attributes, which are geometric, physicochemical or evolutionary features. The attributes have been normalized as descriptors and integrated to produce a profile for each functional surface in PSC. In addition, binding ligands are recorded for comparisons among homologs. PSC allows users to exploit related binding surfaces to reveal the changes in functionally important residues on homologs that have led to functional divergence during evolution. The substitutions at the key residues of a spatial pattern may determine the functional evolution of a protein. In PSC (http://pocket.uchicago.edu/psc/), a pool of changes in residues on similar functional surfaces is provided. PMID:22669905

  1. Molecular classification of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Masui, Kenta; Mischel, Paul S; Reifenberger, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The identification of distinct genetic and epigenetic profiles in different types of gliomas has revealed novel diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive molecular biomarkers for refinement of glioma classification and improved prediction of therapy response and outcome. Therefore, the new (2016) World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system breaks with the traditional principle of diagnosis based on histologic criteria only and incorporates molecular markers. This will involve a multilayered approach combining histologic features and molecular information in an "integrated diagnosis". We review the current state of diagnostic molecular markers for gliomas, focusing on isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/IDH2) gene mutation, α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) gene mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation in adult tumors, as well as v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) and H3 histone family 3A (H3F3A) aberrations in pediatric gliomas. We also outline prognostic and predictive molecular markers, including O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, and discuss the potential clinical relevance of biologic glioblastoma subtypes defined by integration of multiomics data. Commonly used methods for individual marker detection as well as novel large-scale DNA methylation profiling and next-generation sequencing approaches are discussed. Finally, we illustrate how advances in molecular diagnostics affect novel strategies of targeted therapy, thereby raising new challenges and identifying new leads for personalized treatment of glioma patients. PMID:26948350

  2. Description of Jet Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.

    1996-01-01

    In this article we review recent results on the breakup of cylindrical jets of a Newtonian fluid. Capillary forces provide the main driving mechanism and our interest is in the description of the flow as the jet pinches to form drops. The approach is to describe such topological singularities by constructing local (in time and space) similarity solutions from the governing equations. This is described for breakup according to the Euler, Stokes or Navier-Stokes equations. It is found that slender jet theories can be applied when viscosity is present, but for inviscid jets the local shape of the jet at breakup is most likely of a non-slender geometry. Systems of one-dimensional models of the governing equations are solved numerically in order to illustrate these differences.

  3. Task Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  4. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  5. 7 CFR 27.34 - Classification procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification procedure. 27.34 Section 27.34... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.34 Classification procedure. Classification shall proceed as rapidly as possible, but...

  6. 5 CFR 9901.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Classification Classification Process § 9901.221 Classification... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9901.221... jobs as he or she considers necessary for the purpose of this section. (d) A classification action...

  7. Perspectives on next steps in classification of oro-facial pain - part 1: role of ontology.

    PubMed

    Ceusters, W; Michelotti, A; Raphael, K G; Durham, J; Ohrbach, R

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to review existing principles of oro-facial pain classifications and to specify design recommendations for a new system that would reflect recent insights in biomedical classification systems, terminologies and ontologies. The study was initiated by a symposium organised by the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network in March 2013, to which the present authors contributed. The following areas are addressed: problems with current classification approaches, status of the ontological basis of pain disorders, insufficient diagnostic aids and biomarkers for pain disorders, exploratory nature of current pain terminology and classification systems, and problems with prevailing classification methods from an ontological perspective. Four recommendations for addressing these problems are as follows: (i) develop a hypothesis-driven classification structure built on principles that ensure to our best understanding an accurate description of the relations among all entities involved in oro-facial pain disorders; (ii) take into account the physiology and phenomenology of oro-facial pain disorders to adequately represent both domains including psychosocial entities in a classification system; (iii) plan at the beginning for field-testing at strategic development stages; and (iv) consider how the classification system will be implemented. Implications in relation to the specific domains of psychosocial factors and biomarkers for inclusion into an oro-facial pain classification system are described in two separate papers. PMID:26212927

  8. A preliminary classification of wetland plant communities in north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Johnson, D.H.

    1973-01-01

    A classification of wetland plant communities was developed for a study area in north-central Minnesota in order to analyze data on waterfowl use of habitat that were gathered by radio telemetry. The classification employs features of several earlier classifications in addition to new classes for bogs and lakeshore communities. Brief descriptions are given for each community, and the important plant species are listed. Discriminant function analysis was used for 40 plant species. Seventy-five percent of the stands studied were classified correctly by this technique. Average probabilities of assignment to communities were calculated and helped to identify distinct and poorly defined communities as well as the relationship among communities.

  9. 14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings... classification decisions: (b) Verify the information's current level of classification so far as...

  10. Automated otolith image classification with multiple views: an evaluation on Sciaenidae.

    PubMed

    Wong, J Y; Chu, C; Chong, V C; Dhillon, S K; Loh, K H

    2016-08-01

    Combined multiple 2D views (proximal, anterior and ventral aspects) of the sagittal otolith are proposed here as a method to capture shape information for fish classification. Classification performance of single view compared with combined 2D views show improved classification accuracy of the latter, for nine species of Sciaenidae. The effects of shape description methods (shape indices, Procrustes analysis and elliptical Fourier analysis) on classification performance were evaluated. Procrustes analysis and elliptical Fourier analysis perform better than shape indices when single view is considered, but all perform equally well with combined views. A generic content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system that ranks dissimilarity (Procrustes distance) of otolith images was built to search query images without the need for detailed information of side (left or right), aspect (proximal or distal) and direction (positive or negative) of the otolith. Methods for the development of this automated classification system are discussed. PMID:27364089

  11. ALHAMBRA survey: morphological classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pović, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Aguerri, J. A. López; Husillos, C.; Molino, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey is a photometric survey designed to study systematically cosmic evolution and cosmic variance (Moles et al. 2008). It employs 20 continuous medium-band filters (3500 - 9700 Å), plus JHK near-infrared (NIR) bands, which enable measurements of photometric redshifts with good accuracy. ALHAMBRA covers > 4 deg2 in eight discontinuous regions (~ 0.5 deg2 per region), of theseseven fields overlap with other extragalactic, multiwavelength surveys (DEEP2, SDSS, COSMOS, HDF-N, Groth, ELAIS-N1). We detect > 600.000 sources, reaching the depth of R(AB) ~ 25.0, and photometric accuracy of 2-4% (Husillos et al., in prep.). Photometric redshifts are measured using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code (Benítez et al. 2000), reaching one of the best accuracies up to date of δz/z <= 1.2% (Molino et al., in prep.). To deal with the morphological classification of galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey (Pović et al., in prep.), we used the galaxy Support Vector Machine code (galSVM; Huertas-Company 2008, 2009), one of the new non-parametric methods for morphological classification, specially useful when dealing with low resolution and high-redshift data. To test the accuracy of our morphological classification we used a sample of 3000 local, visually classified galaxies (Nair & Abraham 2010), moving them to conditions typical of our ALHAMBRA data (taking into account the background, redshift and magnitude distributions, etc.), and measuring their morphology using galSVM. Finally, we measured the morphology of ALHAMBRA galaxies, obtaining for each source seven morphological parameters (two concentration indexes, asymmetry, Gini, M20 moment of light, smoothness, and elongation), probability if the source belongs to early- or late-type, and its error. Comparing ALHAMBRA morph COSMOS/ACS morphology (obtained with the same method) we expect to have qualitative separation in two main morphological

  12. Semi-automatic approach for music classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong

    2003-11-01

    Audio categorization is essential when managing a music database, either a professional library or a personal collection. However, a complete automation in categorizing music into proper classes for browsing and searching is not yet supported by today"s technology. Also, the issue of music classification is subjective to some extent as each user may have his own criteria for categorizing music. In this paper, we propose the idea of semi-automatic music classification. With this approach, a music browsing system is set up which contains a set of tools for separating music into a number of broad types (e.g. male solo, female solo, string instruments performance, etc.) using existing music analysis methods. With results of the automatic process, the user may further cluster music pieces in the database into finer classes and/or adjust misclassifications manually according to his own preferences and definitions. Such a system may greatly improve the efficiency of music browsing and retrieval, while at the same time guarantee accuracy and user"s satisfaction of the results. Since this semi-automatic system has two parts, i.e. the automatic part and the manual part, they are described separately in the paper, with detailed descriptions and examples of each step of the two parts included.

  13. Explosives Classifications Tracking System User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Genoni, R.P.

    1993-10-01

    The Explosives Classification Tracking System (ECTS) presents information and data for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) explosives classifications of interest to EM-561, Transportation Management Division, other DOE facilities, and contractors. It is intended to be useful to the scientist, engineer, and transportation professional, who needs to classify or transport explosives. This release of the ECTS reflects upgrading of the software which provides the user with an environment that makes comprehensive retrieval of explosives related information quick and easy. Quarterly updates will be provided to the ECTS throughout its development in FY 1993 and thereafter. The ECTS is a stand alone, single user system that contains unclassified, publicly available information, and administrative information (contractor names, product descriptions, transmittal dates, EX-Numbers, etc.) information from many sources for non-decisional engineering and shipping activities. The data is the most up-to-date and accurate available to the knowledge of the system developer. The system is designed to permit easy revision and updating as new information and data become available. These, additions and corrections are welcomed by the developer. This user manual is intended to help the user install, understand, and operate the system so that the desired information may be readily obtained, reviewed, and reported.

  14. A Functional Classification of Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinlay, Donald Bruce

    The need for more and better manpower information is hampered by the lack of adequate occupational data classification systems. The diversity of interests in occupations probably accounts for the absence of consensus regarding either the general outlines or the specific details of a standardized occupational classification system which would…

  15. A New Classification of Sandstone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Roger Clay; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Introduced is a sandstone classification scheme intended for use with thin-sections and hand specimens. Detailed is a step-by-step classification scheme. A graphic presentation of the scheme is presented. This method is compared with other existing schemes. (CW)

  16. [Descriptive epidemiology of urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Kodama, H; Ohno, Y

    1989-06-01

    In this paper, urolithiasis is remarked from the standpoint of descriptive epidemiology, which examines the frequency distribution of a given disease in a population in terms of time, place and personal characteristics with an aim of identifying risk factors or some clues to the etiology. Some descriptive epidemiological features of urolithiasis are summarized. Prevalence rate is around 4% (4-15% in males and 4-8% in females), and incidence rate varies from area to area: 53.2 per 100,000 population in 1975 in Japan, 364 in 1976 in Malaysia, and 540 in 1979 in West Germany. Prevalence and/or incidence rates have, in general, increased in the developed countries since World War II and in the developing countries as well, where upward trends are quite analogous to the trends observed in the nineteenth century in Europe. Recurrence rate, which is much higher in males than in females, ranges from 31% to 75%, depending on the follow-up periods. In the industrialized countries, upper urinary (renal and ureteral) stones account for more than 90% of total stones, which are ordinarily calcium complexes in composition. More common in the developing countries are lower urinary (bladder and urethral) stones, frequently composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate, which indicates a close association with urinary tract infections. Variations in frequency are evident by season and by region within a country. Age and sex differentials in urinary stone formers are substantial: more common in males 30-40 years old in the industrialized countries and in children under 10 years old in the developing countries. Racial differentials are also noted; blacks appear to suffer less frequently than whites. Stone formers experience more frequent episodes of stone formation in their family members, particularly father and brothers, than non-stone formers. These findings on racial differentials and family preponderance suggest the possible relevance of genetic factors in stone formation. Stone

  17. Predictive Classification Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugosz, Stephan; Müller-Funk, Ulrich

    CART (Breiman et al., Classification and Regression Trees, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1984) and (exhaustive) CHAID (Kass, Appl Stat 29:119-127, 1980) figure prominently among the procedures actually used in data based management, etc. CART is a well-established procedure that produces binary trees. CHAID, in contrast, admits multiple splittings, a feature that allows to exploit the splitting variable more extensively. On the other hand, that procedure depends on premises that are questionable in practical applications. This can be put down to the fact that CHAID relies on simultaneous Chi-Square- resp. F-tests. The null-distribution of the second test statistic, for instance, relies on the normality assumption that is not plausible in a data mining context. Moreover, none of these procedures - as implemented in SPSS, for instance - take ordinal dependent variables into account. In the paper we suggest an alternative tree-algorithm that: Requires explanatory categorical variables

  18. Classification-based reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Fernando; Segami, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    A representation formalism for N-ary relations, quantification, and definition of concepts is described. Three types of conditions are associated with the concepts: (1) necessary and sufficient properties, (2) contingent properties, and (3) necessary properties. Also explained is how complex chains of inferences can be accomplished by representing existentially quantified sentences, and concepts denoted by restrictive relative clauses as classification hierarchies. The representation structures that make possible the inferences are explained first, followed by the reasoning algorithms that draw the inferences from the knowledge structures. All the ideas explained have been implemented and are part of the information retrieval component of a program called Snowy. An appendix contains a brief session with the program.

  19. Classification of personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, P; Alexander, J

    1979-08-01

    An interview schedule was used to record the personality traits of 130 psychiatric patients, 65 with a primary clinical diagnosis of personality disorder and 65 with other diagnoses. The results were analysed by factor analysis and three types of cluster analysis. Factor analysis showed a similar structure of personality variables in both groups of patients, supporting the notion that personality disorders differ only in degree from the personalities of other psychiatric patients. Cluster analysis revealed five discrete categories; sociopathic, passive-dependent, anankastic, schizoid and a non-personality-disordered group. Of all the personality-disordered patients 63 per cent fell into the passive-dependent or sociopathic category. The results suggest that the current classification of personality disorder could be simplified. PMID:497619

  20. Robust Vertex Classification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Shen, Cencheng; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Priebe, Carey E

    2016-03-01

    For random graphs distributed according to stochastic blockmodels, a special case of latent position graphs, adjacency spectral embedding followed by appropriate vertex classification is asymptotically Bayes optimal; but this approach requires knowledge of and critically depends on the model dimension. In this paper, we propose a sparse representation vertex classifier which does not require information about the model dimension. This classifier represents a test vertex as a sparse combination of the vertices in the training set and uses the recovered coefficients to classify the test vertex. We prove consistency of our proposed classifier for stochastic blockmodels, and demonstrate that the sparse representation classifier can predict vertex labels with higher accuracy than adjacency spectral embedding approaches via both simulation studies and real data experiments. Our results demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of our proposed vertex classifier when the model dimension is unknown. PMID:26340770

  1. Unsupervised hyperspectral image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xiaoli; Chang, Chein-I.

    2007-09-01

    Two major issues encountered in unsupervised hyperspectral image classification are (1) how to determine the number of spectral classes in the image and (2) how to find training samples that well represent each of spectral classes without prior knowledge. A recently developed concept, Virtual dimensionality (VD) is used to estimate the number of spectral classes of interest in the image data. This paper proposes an effective algorithm to generate an appropriate training set via a recently developed Prioritized Independent Component Analysis (PICA). Two sets of hyperspectral data, Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Cuprite data and HYperspectral Digital Image Collection Experiment (HYDICE) data are used for experiments and performance analysis for the proposed method.

  2. Robotic Rock Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Martial

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a three-month research program undertook jointly by the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University and Ames Research Center as part of the Ames' Joint Research Initiative (JRI.) The work was conducted at the Ames Research Center by Mr. Liam Pedersen, a graduate student in the CMU Ph.D. program in Robotics under the supervision Dr. Ted Roush at the Space Science Division of the Ames Research Center from May 15 1999 to August 15, 1999. Dr. Martial Hebert is Mr. Pedersen's research adviser at CMU and is Principal Investigator of this Grant. The goal of this project is to investigate and implement methods suitable for a robotic rover to autonomously identify rocks and minerals in its vicinity, and to statistically characterize the local geological environment. Although primary sensors for these tasks are a reflection spectrometer and color camera, the goal is to create a framework under which data from multiple sensors, and multiple readings on the same object, can be combined in a principled manner. Furthermore, it is envisioned that knowledge of the local area, either a priori or gathered by the robot, will be used to improve classification accuracy. The key results obtained during this project are: The continuation of the development of a rock classifier; development of theoretical statistical methods; development of methods for evaluating and selecting sensors; and experimentation with data mining techniques on the Ames spectral library. The results of this work are being applied at CMU, in particular in the context of the Winter 99 Antarctica expedition in which the classification techniques will be used on the Nomad robot. Conversely, the software developed based on those techniques will continue to be made available to NASA Ames and the data collected from the Nomad experiments will also be made available.

  3. Classification of Rainbows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, J. L.; Peter, A. L.; Barckicke, J.

    2015-12-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF RAINBOWS Jean Louis Ricard,1,2,* Peter Adams ,2 and Jean Barckicke 2,3 1CNRM, Météo-France,42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse, France 2CEPAL, 148 Himley Road, Dudley, West Midlands DY1 2QH, United Kingdom 3DP/Compas,Météo-France,42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse, France *Corresponding author: Dr_Jean_Ricard@yahoo,co,ukRainbows are the most beautiful and most spectacular optical atmospheric phenomenon. Humphreys (1964) pointedly noted that "the "explanations" generally given of the rainbow [ in textbooks] may well be said to explain beautifully that which does not occur, and to leave unexplained which does" . . . "The records of close observations of rainbows soon show that not even the colors are always the same". Textbooks stress that the main factor affecting the aspect of the rainbow is the radius of the water droplets. In his well-known textbook entitled "the nature of light & colour in the open air", Minnaert (1954) gives the chief features of the rainbow depending on the diameter of the drops producing it. For this study, we have gathered hundreds of pictures of primary bows. We sort out the pictures into classes. The classes are defined in a such way that rainbows belonging to the same class look similar. Our results are surprising and do not confirm Minnaert's classification. In practice, the size of the water droplets is only a minor factor controlling the overall aspect of the rainbow. The main factor appears to be the height of the sun above the horizon. At sunset, the width of the red band increases, while the width of the other bands of colours decreases. The orange, the violet, the blue and the green bands disappear completely in this order. At the end, the primary bow is mainly red and slightly yellow. Picture = Contrast-enhanced photograph of a primary bow picture (prepared by Andrew Dunn).

  4. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  5. Microgravity Environment Description Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; McPherson, Kevin; Hrovat, Kenneth; Moskowitz, Milton; Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Reckart, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Measurement and Analysis Project (MMAP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) manages the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) instruments to measure the microgravity environment on orbiting space laboratories. These laboratories include the Spacelab payloads on the shuttle, the SPACEHAB module on the shuttle, the middeck area of the shuttle, and Russia's Mir space station. Experiments are performed in these laboratories to investigate scientific principles in the near-absence of gravity. The microgravity environment desired for most experiments would have zero acceleration across all frequency bands or a true weightless condition. This is not possible due to the nature of spaceflight where there are numerous factors which introduce accelerations to the environment. This handbook presents an overview of the major microgravity environment disturbances of these laboratories. These disturbances are characterized by their source (where known), their magnitude, frequency and duration, and their effect on the microgravity environment. Each disturbance is characterized on a single page for ease in understanding the effect of a particular disturbance. The handbook also contains a brief description of each laboratory.

  6. CGL description revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Goldstein, M. L.; Webb, G. M.; Adhikari, L.

    2016-03-01

    Solar wind observational studies have emphasized that the solar wind plasma data is bounded by the mirror and firehose instabilities, and it is often believed that these instabilities are of a purely kinetic nature. The simplest fluid model that generalizes magnetohydrodynamics with anisotropic temperatures is the Chew-Goldberger-Low model (CGL). Here we briefly revisit the CGL description and discuss its (otherwise well-documented) linear firehose and mirror instability thresholds; namely that the firehose instability threshold is identical to the one found from linear kinetic theory and that the mirror threshold contains a factor of 6 error. We consider a simple higher-order fluid model with time dependent heat flux equations and show that the mirror instability threshold is correctly reproduced. We also present fully nonlinear three-dimensional simulations of freely decaying turbulence for the Hall-CGL model with isothermal electrons. The spatial resolution of these simulations is 5123 and the formation of a spectral break in magnetic and velocity field spectra around the proton inertial length is found.

  7. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification means that the information is in substance the same information that is currently classified, usually...

  8. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification means that the information is in substance the same information that is currently classified, usually...

  9. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification means that the information is in substance the same information that is currently classified, usually...

  10. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification means that the information is in substance the same information that is currently classified, usually...

  11. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification means that the information is in substance the same information that is currently classified, usually...

  12. Classification software technique assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R., Jr.; Atkinson, R.; Dasarathy, B. V.; Lybanon, M.; Ramapryian, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    A catalog of software options is presented for the use of local user communities to obtain software for analyzing remotely sensed multispectral imagery. The resources required to utilize a particular software program are described. Descriptions of how a particular program analyzes data and the performance of that program for an application and data set provided by the user are shown. An effort is made to establish a statistical performance base for various software programs with regard to different data sets and analysis applications, to determine the status of the state-of-the-art.

  13. Trusting Description: Authenticity, Accountability, and Archival Description Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeil, Heather

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that one of the purposes of archival description is to establish grounds for presuming the authenticity of the records being described. The article examines the implications of this statement by examining the relationship between and among authenticity, archival description, and archival accountability, assessing how this…

  14. Automatic Classification of Marine Mammals with Speaker Classification Methods.

    PubMed

    Kreimeyer, Roman; Ludwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals based on human speaker classification methods as an element of a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool. This work is part of the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project under the framework of the European Defense Agency (EDA) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and Kiel University. The automatic classification should support sonar operators in the risk mitigation process before and during sonar exercises with a reliable automatic classification result. PMID:26611006

  15. A three-tiered approach for coupled vegetation and soil sampling to develop ecological descriptions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecological site descriptions (ESDs), alongside similar land classification systems, are used to describe the breadth of plant community types, community changes, and soil surface conditions that can occur within a particular land area. Vegetation dynamic processes and management may change the ident...

  16. The Effects of Job Title vs. Job Description on Occupational Sex Typing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessell, John C.; Beymer, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    Studies differences in sex-typing of occupations based on job title (JT) versus job description (JD), school classification, and gender, using 1,601 female and 1,344 male seventh graders and eighth graders viewing 2 videotapes of 18 occupations' JDs or JTs. JT elicited more sex typing than JD. Males had more sex-typed occupational attitudes. (RLC)

  17. Descriptive Writing: A Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joanna J.

    This thematic unit for teaching descriptive writing is organized around 10 days of lesson plans. The unit begins by asking key questions about descriptive writing and providing information on grade level, ability level, number of lessons and length of classes, and prior knowledge students should have. It also offers a unit rationale and key…

  18. Target Decomposition Techniques & Role of Classification Methods for Landcover Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dharmendra; Mittal, Gunjan

    Target decomposition techniques aims at analyzing the received scattering matrix from polari-metric data to extract information about the scattering processes. Incoherent techniques have been modeled in recent years for providing more general approach for decomposition of natural targets. Therefore, there is a need to study and critically analyze the developing models for their suitability in classification of land covers. Moreover, the classification methods used for the segmentation of various landcovers from the decomposition techniques need to be examined as the appropriate selection of these methods affect the performance of the decomposition tech-niques for landcover classification. Therefore in the present paper, it is attempted to check the performance of various model based and an eigen vector based decomposition techniques for decomposition of Polarimetric PALSAR (Phased array type L band SAR) data. Few generic supervised classifiers were used for classification of decomposed images into three broad classes of water, urban and agriculture lands. For the purpose, algorithms had been applied twice on pre-processed PALSAR raw data once on spatial averaged (mean filtering on 33 window) data and the other on data, multilooked in azimuth direction by six looks and then filtered using Wishart Gamma MAP on 55 window. Classification of the decomposed images from each of the methods had been done using four supervised classifiers (parallelepiped, minimum distance, Mahalanobis and maximum likelihood). Ground truth data generated with the help of ground survey points, topographic sheet and google earth was used for the computation of classification accuracy. Parallelepiped classifier gave better classification accuracy of water class for all the models excluding H/A/Alpha. Minimum distance classifier gave better classification results for urban class. Maximum likelihood classifier performed well as compared to other classifiers for classification of vegetation class

  19. Towards Automatic Classification of Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Armañanzas, Rubén; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2015-01-01

    The classification of neurons into types has been much debated since the inception of modern neuroscience. Recent experimental advances are accelerating the pace of data collection. The resulting information growth of morphological, physiological, and molecular properties encourages efforts to automate neuronal classification by powerful machine learning techniques. We review state-of-the-art analysis approaches and availability of suitable data and resources, highlighting prominent challenges and opportunities. The effective solution of the neuronal classification problem will require continuous development of computational methods, high-throughput data production, and systematic metadata organization to enable cross-lab integration. PMID:25765323

  20. CASP9 Target Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kinch, Lisa N.; Shi, Shuoyong; Cheng, Hua; Cong, Qian; Pei, Jimin; Mariani, Valerio; Schwede, Torsten; Grishin, Nick V.

    2011-01-01

    The Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction round 9 (CASP9) aimed to evaluate predictions for 129 experimentally determined protein structures. To assess tertiary structure predictions, these target structures were divided into domain-based evaluation units that were then classified into two assessment categories: template based modeling (TBM) and template free modeling (FM). CASP9 targets were split into domains of structurally compact evolutionary modules. For the targets with more than one defined domain, the decision to split structures into domains for evaluation was based on server performance. Target domains were categorized based on their evolutionary relatedness to existing templates as well as their difficulty levels indicated by server performance. Those target domains with sequence-related templates and high server prediction performance were classified as TMB, while those targets without identifiable templates and low server performance were classified as FM. However, using these generalizations for classification resulted in a blurred boundary between CASP9 assessment categories. Thus, the FM category included those domains without sequence detectable templates (25 target domains) as well as some domains with difficult to detect templates whose predictions were as poor as those without templates (5 target domains). Several interesting examples are discussed, including targets with sequence related templates that exhibit unusual structural differences, targets with homologous or analogous structure templates that are not detectable by sequence, and targets with new folds. PMID:21997778

  1. Classification of Rainbows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Peter; Ricard, Jean; Barckicke, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Rainbows are the most beautiful and most spectacular optical atmospheric phenomenon. Humphreys (1964) pointedly noted that "the "explanations" generally given of the rainbow [ in textbooks] may well be said to explain beautifully that which does not occur, and to leave unexplained which does" . . . "The records of close observations of rainbows soon show that not even the colors are always the same". Textbooks stress that the main factor affecting the aspect of the rainbow is the radius of the water droplets. In his well-known textbook entitled "the nature of light & colour in the open air", Minnaert (1954) gives the chief features of the rainbow depending on the diameter of the drops producing it. For this study, we have gathered hundreds of pictures of primary bows. We sort out the pictures into classes. The classes are defined in a such way that rainbows belonging to the same class look similar. Our results are surprising and do not confirm Minnaert's classification. In practice, the size of the water droplets is only a minor factor controlling the overall aspect of the rainbow. The main factor appears to be the height of the sun above the horizon. At sunset, the width of the red band increases, while the width of the other bands of colours decreases. The orange, the violet, the blue and the green bands disappear completely in this order. At the end, the primary bow is mainly red and slightly yellow. Picture = taken from the CNRM in Toulouse after a summer storm (Jean Ricard)

  2. Inter- and intraobserver reliability of the MTM-classification for proximal humeral fractures: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bahrs, Christian; Schmal, Hagen; Lingenfelter, Erich; Rolauffs, Bernd; Weise, Kuno; Dietz, Klaus; Helwig, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background A precise modular topographic-morphological (MTM) classification for proximal humeral fractures may address current classification problems. The classification was developed to evaluate whether a very detailed classification exceeding the analysis of fractured parts may be a valuable tool. Methods Three observers classified plain radiographs of 22 fractures using both a simple version (fracture displacement, number of parts) and an extensive version (individual topographic fracture type and morphology) of the MTM classification. Kappa-statistics were used to determine reliability. Results An acceptable reliability was found for the simple version classifying fracture displacement and fractured main parts. Fair interobserver agreement was found for the extensive version with individual topographic fracture type and morphology. Conclusion Although the MTM-classification covers a wide spectrum of fracture types, our results indicate that the precise topographic and morphological description is not delivering reproducible results. Therefore, simplicity in fracture classification may be more useful than extensive approaches, which are not adequately reliable to address current classification problems. PMID:18279527

  3. Spectroscopic classification of supernova candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkin, S. T.; Hall, A.; Fraser, M.; Campbell, H.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Pietro, N.

    2014-09-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of four supernovae at the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph and the R300V grating (3500-8000 Ang; ~6 Ang resolution).

  4. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Classification Framework for Coastal Systems. EPA/600/R-04/061. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Bree...

  5. Classification Schemes: Developments and Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocock, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the growth, survival and future of library classification schemes. Concludes that to survive, a scheme must constantly update its policies, and readily adapt itself to accommodate growing disciplines and changing terminology. (AEF)

  6. A new classification of necrophilia.

    PubMed

    Aggrawal, Anil

    2009-08-01

    Necrophilia is a paraphilia whereby the perpetrator gets sexual pleasure in having sex with the dead. Most jurisdictions and nations have laws against this practice. Necrophilia exists in many variations, and some authors have attempted to classify necrophilia. However many related terms such as pseudonecrophilia continue being used differently by different authors, necessitating the introduction of a new classification system. The classification system suggested by the author attempts to put all different shades of necrophilia under 10 classes. PMID:19573840

  7. Applications of Location Similarity Measures and Conceptual Spaces to Event Coreference and Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConky, Katie Theresa

    2013-01-01

    This work covers topics in event coreference and event classification from spoken conversation. Event coreference is the process of identifying descriptions of the same event across sentences, documents, or structured databases. Existing event coreference work focuses on sentence similarity models or feature based similarity models requiring slot…

  8. Lesson Plans for Teaching Basic Vocational Agriculture. Section III. Introduction to Soil Management and Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCully, James S., Jr., Comp.

    This publication, one of five sections, was developed for use in first and second year basic agriculture courses in secondary schools in Mississippi. The five lessons focus on the measurement and description of property and the classification of land. The purposes of the lessons are to (1) introduce the units and methods used to measure distance…

  9. An Efficient Optimization Method for Solving Unsupervised Data Classification Problems

    PubMed Central

    Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh; Yusof, Rubiyah

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised data classification (or clustering) analysis is one of the most useful tools and a descriptive task in data mining that seeks to classify homogeneous groups of objects based on similarity and is used in many medical disciplines and various applications. In general, there is no single algorithm that is suitable for all types of data, conditions, and applications. Each algorithm has its own advantages, limitations, and deficiencies. Hence, research for novel and effective approaches for unsupervised data classification is still active. In this paper a heuristic algorithm, Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO) algorithm, was adapted for data clustering problems by modifying the main operators of BBO algorithm, which is inspired from the natural biogeography distribution of different species. Similar to other population-based algorithms, BBO algorithm starts with an initial population of candidate solutions to an optimization problem and an objective function that is calculated for them. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm assessment was carried on six medical and real life datasets and was compared with eight well known and recent unsupervised data classification algorithms. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary optimization algorithm is efficient for unsupervised data classification. PMID:26336509

  10. An Efficient Optimization Method for Solving Unsupervised Data Classification Problems.

    PubMed

    Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh; Yusof, Rubiyah

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised data classification (or clustering) analysis is one of the most useful tools and a descriptive task in data mining that seeks to classify homogeneous groups of objects based on similarity and is used in many medical disciplines and various applications. In general, there is no single algorithm that is suitable for all types of data, conditions, and applications. Each algorithm has its own advantages, limitations, and deficiencies. Hence, research for novel and effective approaches for unsupervised data classification is still active. In this paper a heuristic algorithm, Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO) algorithm, was adapted for data clustering problems by modifying the main operators of BBO algorithm, which is inspired from the natural biogeography distribution of different species. Similar to other population-based algorithms, BBO algorithm starts with an initial population of candidate solutions to an optimization problem and an objective function that is calculated for them. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm assessment was carried on six medical and real life datasets and was compared with eight well known and recent unsupervised data classification algorithms. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary optimization algorithm is efficient for unsupervised data classification. PMID:26336509

  11. Terminology and classification of seizures and epilepsy in veterinary patients.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Christopher L

    2013-05-01

    The classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsy is a controversial and dynamic topic that has undergone many iterations in human medicine. The International League against Epilepsy is a multinational organization that has formed a number of task forces and subcommittees to study this issue, and has ratified several reports outlining recommended terminology and classification schemes for human patients. Veterinary publications on this issue have generally adapted these schemes to fit small animal patients, but a formally endorsed system to classify seizures and epilepsy has never been developed for veterinary patients. This review outlines the classification systems that have been published for human patients and summarizes previous efforts by veterinary authors to utilize these methods. Finally, a set of definitions and terminology for use in veterinary patients is proposed, which includes a glossary of descriptive terminology for ictal semiology and a diagnostic scheme for classification of individual patients. This document is intended as a starting point of discussion, which will hopefully eventually result in a formally ratified document that will be useful for communication between health professionals, the design of clinical trials and for guiding treatment decisions and prognostication for veterinary patients with seizures. PMID:24070679

  12. The WHO classification of tumors of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kleihues, Paul; Louis, David N; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Rorke, Lucy B; Reifenberger, Guido; Burger, Peter C; Cavenee, Webster K

    2002-03-01

    The new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of nervous system tumors, published in 2000, emerged from a 1999 international consensus conference of neuropathologists. New entities include chordoid glioma of the third ventricle, cerebellar liponeurocytoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, and perineurioma. Several histological variants were added, including tanycytic ependymoma, large cell medulloblastoma, and rhabdoid meningioma. The WHO grading scheme was updated and, for meningiomas, extensively revised. In recognition of the emerging role of molecular diagnostic approaches to tumor classification, genetic profiles have been emphasized, as in the distinct subtypes of glioblastoma and the already clinically useful 1p and 19q markers for oligodendroglioma and 22q/INI1 for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors. In accord with the new WHO Blue Book series, the actual classification is accompanied by extensive descriptions and illustrations of clinicopathological characteristics of each tumor type, including molecular genetic features, predictive factors, and separate chapters on inherited tumor syndromes. The 2000 WHO classification of nervous system tumors aims at being used and implemented by the neuro-oncology and biomedical research communities worldwide. PMID:11895036

  13. Multisensor classification of sedimentary rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane

    1988-01-01

    A comparison is made between linear discriminant analysis and supervised classification results based on signatures from the Landsat TM, the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and airborne SAR, alone and combined into extended spectral signatures for seven sedimentary rock units exposed on the margin of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. Results from a linear discriminant analysis showed that training-area classification accuracies based on the multisensor data were improved an average of 15 percent over TM alone, 24 percent over TIMS alone, and 46 percent over SAR alone, with similar improvement resulting when supervised multisensor classification maps were compared to supervised, individual sensor classification maps. When training area signatures were used to map spectrally similar materials in an adjacent area, the average classification accuracy improved 19 percent using the multisensor data over TM alone, 2 percent over TIMS alone, and 11 percent over SAR alone. It is concluded that certain sedimentary lithologies may be accurately mapped using a single sensor, but classification of a variety of rock types can be improved using multisensor data sets that are sensitive to different characteristics such as mineralogy and surface roughness.

  14. Classification of the acanthocephala.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M

    2013-09-01

    In 1985, Amin presented a new system for the classification of the Acanthocephala in Crompton and Nickol's (1985) book 'Biology of the Acanthocephala' and recognized the concepts of Meyer (1931, 1932, 1933) and Van Cleave (1936, 1941, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1952). This system became the standard for the taxonomy of this group and remains so to date. Many changes have taken place and many new genera and species, as well as higher taxa, have been described since. An updated version of the 1985 scheme incorporating new concepts in molecular taxonomy, gene sequencing and phylogenetic studies is presented. The hierarchy has undergone a total face lift with Amin's (1987) addition of a new class, Polyacanthocephala (and a new order and family) to remove inconsistencies in the class Palaeacanthocephala. Amin and Ha (2008) added a third order (and a new family) to the Palaeacanthocephala, Heteramorphida, which combines features from the palaeacanthocephalan families Polymorphidae and Heteracanthocephalidae. Other families and subfamilies have been added but some have been eliminated, e.g. the three subfamilies of Arythmacanthidae: Arhythmacanthinae Yamaguti, 1935; Neoacanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1960; and Paracanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1969. Amin (1985) listed 22 families, 122 genera and 903 species (4, 4 and 14 families; 13, 28 and 81 genera; 167, 167 and 569 species in Archiacanthocephala, Eoacanthocephala and Palaeacanthocephala, respectively). The number of taxa listed in the present treatment is 26 families (18% increase), 157 genera (29%), and 1298 species (44%) (4, 4 and 16; 18, 29 and 106; 189, 255 and 845, in the same order), which also includes 1 family, 1 genus and 4 species in the class Polyacanthocephala Amin, 1987, and 3 genera and 5 species in the fossil family Zhijinitidae. PMID:24261131

  15. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification schedules. 2.85 Section 2.85 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.85 Classification schedules. (a) International classification system....

  16. 12 CFR 1777.20 - Capital classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Capital classifications. 1777.20 Section 1777... DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Capital Classifications and Orders Under Section 1366 of the 1992 Act § 1777.20 Capital classifications. (a) Capital classifications after the...

  17. 10 CFR 1045.17 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 1045.17 Section 1045.17 Energy... Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Information § 1045.17 Classification levels. (a) Restricted Data. The Director of Classification shall assign one of the following classification levels to...

  18. 5 CFR 9901.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of time following the effective date of the position classification action. For classification... of the reason for the reclassification, the right to appeal the classification decision, and the time... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification requirements....

  19. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a) Inmate... the objectives and principles of pay classification as a part of the routine orientation of new...

  20. 12 CFR 1777.20 - Capital classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital classifications. 1777.20 Section 1777... DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Capital Classifications and Orders Under Section 1366 of the 1992 Act § 1777.20 Capital classifications. (a) Capital classifications after the...

  1. 32 CFR 2700.22 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification guides. 2700.22 Section 2700.22... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Derivative Classification § 2700.22 Classification guides. OMSN shall issue classification guides pursuant to section 2-2 of E.O. 12065. These guides, which shall be used...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2284 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.2284 Section 51.2284... Size classification. The following classifications are provided to describe the size of any lot... shall conform to the requirements of the specified classification as defined below: (a) Halves....

  3. 7 CFR 28.911 - Review classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review classification. 28.911 Section 28.911... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Classification § 28.911 Review classification. (a) A producer may request one...

  4. 32 CFR 2001.10 - Classification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification standards. 2001.10 Section 2001... Classification § 2001.10 Classification standards. Identifying or describing damage to the national security. Section 1.1(a) of the Order specifies the conditions that must be met when making classification...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2836 - Size classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classifications. 51.2836 Section 51.2836...) Size Classifications § 51.2836 Size classifications. The size of onions may be specified in accordance with one of the following classifications. Size designation Minimum diameter Inches Millimeters...

  6. 49 CFR 8.17 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification challenges. 8.17 Section 8.17 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CLASSIFIED INFORMATION: CLASSIFICATION/DECLASSIFICATION/ACCESS Classification/Declassification of Information § 8.17 Classification challenges. (a)...

  7. 32 CFR 2400.9 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification requirements. 2400.9 Section 2400... PROGRAM Original Classification § 2400.9 Classification requirements. (a) Information may be classified... below, and an official having original classification authority determines that its...

  8. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) International classification system. Section 6.1 of this chapter sets forth the international system of classification for goods and services, which applies for all statutory purposes to: (1... international classification pursuant to § 2.85(e)(3). (b) Prior United States classification system. Section...

  9. Classification of wheat: Badhwar profile similarity technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Badwar profile similarity classification technique used successfully for classification of corn was applied to spring wheat classifications. The software programs and the procedures used to generate full-scene classifications are presented, and numerical results of the acreage estimations are given.

  10. 43 CFR 2461.4 - Changing classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changing classifications. 2461.4 Section 2461.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Multiple-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.4 Changing classifications. Classifications may be...

  11. 43 CFR 2461.4 - Changing classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Changing classifications. 2461.4 Section 2461.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Multiple-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.4 Changing classifications. Classifications may be...

  12. 43 CFR 2461.4 - Changing classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changing classifications. 2461.4 Section 2461.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Multiple-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.4 Changing classifications. Classifications may be...

  13. 43 CFR 2461.4 - Changing classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changing classifications. 2461.4 Section 2461.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Multiple-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.4 Changing classifications. Classifications may be...

  14. 32 CFR 2700.22 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Derivative Classification § 2700.22 Classification guides. OMSN shall... direct derivative classification, shall identify the information to be protected in specific and uniform terms so that the information involved can be readily identified. The classification guides shall...

  15. 32 CFR 2700.22 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Derivative Classification § 2700.22 Classification guides. OMSN shall... direct derivative classification, shall identify the information to be protected in specific and uniform terms so that the information involved can be readily identified. The classification guides shall...

  16. Geometric descriptions of entangled states by auxiliary varieties

    SciTech Connect

    Holweck, Frederic; Luque, Jean-Gabriel; Thibon, Jean-Yves

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the paper is to propose geometric descriptions of multipartite entangled states using algebraic geometry. In the context of this paper, geometric means each stratum of the Hilbert space, corresponding to an entangled state, is an open subset of an algebraic variety built by classical geometric constructions (tangent lines, secant lines) from the set of separable states. In this setting, we describe well-known classifications of multipartite entanglement such as 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign (n+ 1), for n Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 1, quantum systems and a new description with the 2 Multiplication-Sign 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 quantum system. Our results complete the approach of Miyake and make stronger connections with recent work of algebraic geometers. Moreover, for the quantum systems detailed in this paper, we propose an algorithm, based on the classical theory of invariants, to decide to which subvariety of the Hilbert space a given state belongs.

  17. Scene classification based on spatial pyramid representation by superpixel lattices and contextual visual features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Guanghua; Li, Fengcai; Zhao, Yao; Zhu, Zhenfeng

    2012-01-01

    Natural scene classification is a challenging open problem in computer vision. We present a novel spatial pyramid representation scheme for recognizing scene category. Initially, each image is partitioned into sub-blocks, applying the technology of superpixel lattices segmentation according to a boosted edge learning boundary map, which makes the objects in each sub-block have the integrity--that is, the features in each sub-block are relatively consistent. Then, we extract the dense scale-invariant feature transform features of the images and form the contextual visual feature description. Finally, the image representations are performed by following the methodology of spatial pyramid. The feature descriptions we present include both local structural information and global spatial structural information; therefore, they are more discriminative for scene classification. Experiments demonstrate that the classification rate can achieve about 87.13% on a set of 15 categories of complex scenes.

  18. Cell-based therapy technology classifications and translational challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mount, Natalie M.; Ward, Stephen J.; Kefalas, Panos; Hyllner, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapies offer the promise of treating and altering the course of diseases which cannot be addressed adequately by existing pharmaceuticals. Cell therapies are a diverse group across cell types and therapeutic indications and have been an active area of research for many years but are now strongly emerging through translation and towards successful commercial development and patient access. In this article, we present a description of a classification of cell therapies on the basis of their underlying technologies rather than the more commonly used classification by cell type because the regulatory path and manufacturing solutions are often similar within a technology area due to the nature of the methods used. We analyse the progress of new cell therapies towards clinical translation, examine how they are addressing the clinical, regulatory, manufacturing and reimbursement requirements, describe some of the remaining challenges and provide perspectives on how the field may progress for the future. PMID:26416686

  19. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming; Letiner, Thomas K; Korber, Bette T

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our

  20. 7 CFR 27.80 - Fees; review classification, futures classification and supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fees; review classification, futures classification... COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Costs of Classification and Micronaire § 27.80 Fees; review classification,...

  1. 7 CFR 27.80 - Fees; review classification, futures classification and supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fees; review classification, futures classification... COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Costs of Classification and Micronaire § 27.80 Fees; review classification,...

  2. Classification of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kroemer, G; Galluzzi, L; Vandenabeele, P; Abrams, J; Alnemri, ES; Baehrecke, EH; Blagosklonny, MV; El-Deiry, WS; Golstein, P; Green, DR; Hengartner, M; Knight, RA; Kumar, S; Lipton, SA; Malorni, W; Nuñez, G; Peter, ME; Tschopp, J; Yuan, J; Piacentini, M; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G

    2009-01-01

    Different types of cell death are often defined by morphological criteria, without a clear reference to precise biochemical mechanisms. The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposes unified criteria for the definition of cell death and of its different morphologies, while formulating several caveats against the misuse of words and concepts that slow down progress in the area of cell death research. Authors, reviewers and editors of scientific periodicals are invited to abandon expressions like ‘percentage apoptosis’ and to replace them with more accurate descriptions of the biochemical and cellular parameters that are actually measured. Moreover, at the present stage, it should be accepted that caspase-independent mechanisms can cooperate with (or substitute for) caspases in the execution of lethal signaling pathways and that ‘autophagic cell death’ is a type of cell death occurring together with (but not necessarily by) autophagic vacuolization. This study details the 2009 recommendations of the NCCD on the use of cell death-related terminology including ‘entosis’, ‘mitotic catastrophe’, ‘necrosis’, ‘necroptosis’ and ‘pyroptosis’. PMID:18846107

  3. Satellite image classification using convolutional learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thao; Han, Jiho; Park, Dong-Chul

    2013-10-01

    A satellite image classification method using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture is proposed in this paper. As a special case of deep learning, CNN classifies classes of images without any feature extraction step while other existing classification methods utilize rather complex feature extraction processes. Experiments on a set of satellite image data and the preliminary results show that the proposed classification method can be a promising alternative over existing feature extraction-based schemes in terms of classification accuracy and classification speed.

  4. The Dilemma of Descriptive Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boleslavski, Moshe

    1977-01-01

    Proposes that engineering students undergo a preparatory summer school training program in fundamentals of engineering drawing, descriptive geometry, and mathematics prior to being admitted to regular engineering studies. (SL)

  5. Classification and Counter-Classification of Language on Saint Barthelemy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressman, Jon F.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the use of metapragmatic description in the ethnoclassification of language by native speakers on the Franco-Antillean island of Saint Barthelemy. A prevalent technique for metapragmatic description based on honorific pronouns that reflects the varied geolinguistic and generational attributes of the speakers is described. (Author/MSE)

  6. Classification of communication disabilities in children: contribution of the International Classification on Functioning, Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Simeonsson, Rune J

    2003-07-01

    Problems in communication serve as frequent markers of developmental delay and disability in childhood. Documentation of delayed or atypical receptive or expressive communication is one of the key diagnostic factors in the identification of children for intervention and support. This paper (1) reviews issues in classification and measurement of communication disabilities, (2) presents an overview of the development and publication of the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and (3) identifies the implications of the ICF for children and youths with communication disabilities. As a conceptual framework, the ICF may be used productively to define the focus for different efforts to address children's language and communication difficulties. Impairments of a physical or mental nature can be covered in the Body Function and Body Structure components, complementing the information provided by the ICD-10 with descriptive documentation. The component of Activities, encompassing performance aspects of communication, lends itself to functional assessment and intervention in habilitation and education programs. The component of Participation provides an operational basis for policy initiatives focusing on social integration and community life Finally, the Environmental Factors component serves as a framework for identifying the nature and extent of access and opportunity for individuals and populations. PMID:12918604

  7. FPGA Coprocessor for Accelerated Classification of Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Scharenbroich, Lucas J.; Werne, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    An effort related to that described in the preceding article focuses on developing a spaceborne processing platform for fast and accurate onboard classification of image data, a critical part of modern satellite image processing. The approach again has been to exploit the versatility of recently developed hybrid Virtex-4FX field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to run diverse science applications on embedded processors while taking advantage of the reconfigurable hardware resources of the FPGAs. In this case, the FPGA serves as a coprocessor that implements legacy C-language support-vector-machine (SVM) image-classification algorithms to detect and identify natural phenomena such as flooding, volcanic eruptions, and sea-ice break-up. The FPGA provides hardware acceleration for increased onboard processing capability than previously demonstrated in software. The original C-language program demonstrated on an imaging instrument aboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite implements a linear-kernel SVM algorithm for classifying parts of the images as snow, water, ice, land, or cloud or unclassified. Current onboard processors, such as on EO-1, have limited computing power, extremely limited active storage capability and are no longer considered state-of-the-art. Using commercially available software that translates C-language programs into hardware description language (HDL) files, the legacy C-language program, and two newly formulated programs for a more capable expanded-linear-kernel and a more accurate polynomial-kernel SVM algorithm, have been implemented in the Virtex-4FX FPGA. In tests, the FPGA implementations have exhibited significant speedups over conventional software implementations running on general-purpose hardware.

  8. A Proposal to Develop Interactive Classification Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBessonet, Cary

    1998-01-01

    Research for the first year was oriented towards: 1) the design of an interactive classification tool (ICT); and 2) the development of an appropriate theory of inference for use in ICT technology. The general objective was to develop a theory of classification that could accommodate a diverse array of objects, including events and their constituent objects. Throughout this report, the term "object" is to be interpreted in a broad sense to cover any kind of object, including living beings, non-living physical things, events, even ideas and concepts. The idea was to produce a theory that could serve as the uniting fabric of a base technology capable of being implemented in a variety of automated systems. The decision was made to employ two technologies under development by the principal investigator, namely, SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) and SL (Symbolic Language) [see debessonet, 1991, for detailed descriptions of SMS and SL]. The plan was to enhance and modify these technologies for use in an ICT environment. As a means of giving focus and direction to the proposed research, the investigators decided to design an interactive, classificatory tool for use in building accessible knowledge bases for selected domains. Accordingly, the proposed research was divisible into tasks that included: 1) the design of technology for classifying domain objects and for building knowledge bases from the results automatically; 2) the development of a scheme of inference capable of drawing upon previously processed classificatory schemes and knowledge bases; and 3) the design of a query/ search module for accessing the knowledge bases built by the inclusive system. The interactive tool for classifying domain objects was to be designed initially for textual corpora with a view to having the technology eventually be used in robots to build sentential knowledge bases that would be supported by inference engines specially designed for the natural or man-made environments in which the

  9. Data-Driven Multimodal Sleep Apnea Events Detection : Synchrosquezing Transform Processing and Riemannian Geometry Classification Approaches.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Tomasz M

    2016-07-01

    A novel multimodal and bio-inspired approach to biomedical signal processing and classification is presented in the paper. This approach allows for an automatic semantic labeling (interpretation) of sleep apnea events based the proposed data-driven biomedical signal processing and classification. The presented signal processing and classification methods have been already successfully applied to real-time unimodal brainwaves (EEG only) decoding in brain-computer interfaces developed by the author. In the current project the very encouraging results are obtained using multimodal biomedical (brainwaves and peripheral physiological) signals in a unified processing approach allowing for the automatic semantic data description. The results thus support a hypothesis of the data-driven and bio-inspired signal processing approach validity for medical data semantic interpretation based on the sleep apnea events machine-learning-related classification. PMID:27194241

  10. A systematic literature review of automated clinical coding and classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Margaret; Fenton, Susan H; Jenders, Robert A; Hersh, William R

    2010-01-01

    Clinical coding and classification processes transform natural language descriptions in clinical text into data that can subsequently be used for clinical care, research, and other purposes. This systematic literature review examined studies that evaluated all types of automated coding and classification systems to determine the performance of such systems. Studies indexed in Medline or other relevant databases prior to March 2009 were considered. The 113 studies included in this review show that automated tools exist for a variety of coding and classification purposes, focus on various healthcare specialties, and handle a wide variety of clinical document types. Automated coding and classification systems themselves are not generalizable, nor are the results of the studies evaluating them. Published research shows these systems hold promise, but these data must be considered in context, with performance relative to the complexity of the task and the desired outcome. PMID:20962126

  11. A review on ultrasound-based thyroid cancer tissue characterization and automated classification.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U R; Swapna, G; Sree, S V; Molinari, F; Gupta, S; Bardales, R H; Witkowska, A; Suri, J S

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we review the different studies that developed Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) for automated classification of thyroid cancer into benign and malignant types. Specifically, we discuss the different types of features that are used to study and analyze the differences between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. These features can be broadly categorized into (a) the sonographic features from the ultrasound images, and (b) the non-clinical features extracted from the ultrasound images using statistical and data mining techniques. We also present a brief description of the commonly used classifiers in ultrasound based CAD systems. We then review the studies that used features based on the ultrasound images for thyroid nodule classification and highlight the limitations of such studies. We also discuss and review the techniques used in studies that used the non-clinical features for thyroid nodule classification and report the classification accuracies obtained in these studies. PMID:24206204

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR UNCANISTERED SNF DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) uncanistered spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTIANER

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) defense high-level waste disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR DOE SPENT NUCLEAR DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  15. Modified cooperative immune algorithm for solving classification problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, Waldemar; Lytvynenko, Volodymyr; Smailova, Saule

    2013-01-01

    The way of the decision of a problem of classification by means of immune algorithm which is based on a principle of cooperation of antibodies of a population is offered. The formal description of structure of an antibody and ways of their association within the limits of a population in the computer network functioning as a unit is given. The way of an estimation of antibodies as elements of a network is considered. The basic phases of work of algorithm, such as are considered: growth of a network, a mutation of cells, compression of a network.

  16. Comparative study of texture detection and classification algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltsov, P. P.

    2011-08-01

    A description and results of application of the computer system PETRA (performance evaluation of texture recognition algorithms) are given. This system is designed for the comparative study of texture analysis algorithms; it includes a database of textured images and a collection of software implementations of texture analysis algorithms. The functional capabilities of the system are illustrated using texture classification examples. Test examples are taken from the Brodatz album, MeasTech database, and a set of aerospace images. Results of a comparative evaluation of five well-known texture analysis methods are described—Gabor filters, Laws masks, ring/wedge filters, gray-level cooccurrence matrices (GLCMs), and autoregression image model.

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality As.surance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998b).

  18. A Dynamic Classification Approach for Nursing

    PubMed Central

    Hardiker, Nicholas R.; Kim, Tae Youn; Coenen, Amy M.; Jansen, Kay R.

    2011-01-01

    Nursing has a long tradition of classification, stretching back at least 150 years. The introduction of computers into health care towards the end of the 20th Century helped to focus efforts, culminating in the development of a range of standardized classifications. Many of these classifications are still in use today and, while content is periodically updated, the underlying classification structures remain relatively static. In this paper an approach to classification that is relatively new to nursing is presented; an approach that uses formal Web Ontology Language definitions for classes, and computer-based reasoning on those classes, to determine automatically classification structures that more flexibly meet the needs of users. A new proposed classification structure for the International Classification for Nursing Practice is derived under the new approach to provide a new view on the next release of the classification and to contribute to broader quality improvement processes. PMID:22195109

  19. Ligamentum teres injuries - an observational study of a proposed new arthroscopic classification.

    PubMed

    Porthos Salas, Antonio; O'Donnell, John M

    2015-10-01

    Ligamentum teres (LT) Injuries or tears have been said to be a common cause of groin discomfort and pain, and they have been identified in 8-51% of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Currently, in the literature there exist three arthroscopic classifications for LT injuries and tears: the first classification was established by Gray and Villar, Botser and Domb proposed the second one which they called a descriptive classification according to the degree of partial thickness LT tears and more recently the last classification by Cerezal et al. (RadioGraphics 2010; 30:1637-51), where they take into account the one by Gray and Villar but adding an avulsion fracture and absence of the LT. We propose a new classification, which also takes into account, observed LT pathologies, as well as the possible pathological mechanism of LT tears, and offer a guide to treatment. This classification is based on direct arthroscopic observation and dynamic rotational maneuvers of the hip under distraction. This classification incorporates those pathologies, which have been observed as a result of this more focused examination of the LT. PMID:27011847

  20. Incisional Hernia Classification Predicts Wound Complications Two Years after Repair.

    PubMed

    Baucom, Rebeccah B; Ousley, Jenny M; Oyefule, Omobolanle O; Stewart, Melissa K; Holzman, Michael D; Sharp, Kenneth W; Poulose, Benjamin K

    2015-07-01

    Classification of ventral hernias (VHs) into categories that impact surgical outcome is not well defined. The European Hernia Society (EHS) classification divides ventral incisional hernias by midline or lateral location. This study aimed to determine whether EHS classification is associated with wound complications after VH repair, indicated by surgical site occurrences (SSOs). A retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent VH repair at a tertiary referral center between July 1, 2005 and May 30, 2012, was performed. EHS classification, comorbidities, and operative details were determined. Primary outcome was SSO within two years, defined as an infection, wound dehiscence, seroma, or enterocutaneous fistula. There were 538 patients included, and 51.5 per cent were female, with a mean age of 54.2 ± 12.4 years and a mean body mass index of 32.4 ± 8.6 kg/m(2). Most patients had midline hernias (87.0%, n = 468). There were 47 patients (8.7%) who had a lateral hernia, and 23 patients (4.3%) whose repair included both midline and lateral components. Overall rate of SSO was 39 per cent (n = 211) within two years. The rate of SSO by VH location was: 39 per cent (n = 183) for midline, 23 per cent (n = 11) for lateral, and 74 per cent (n = 17) for VHs with midline and lateral components (P = <0.001). Patients whose midline hernia spanned more than one EHS category also had a higher rate of SSOs (P = 0.001). VHs are often described by transverse dimension alone, but a more descriptive classification system offers a richness that correlates with outcomes. PMID:26140887

  1. The revised classification of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair. G.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matt; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; leGall, Line; Lynn, Denis H.; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E.; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W.

    2012-01-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. (2005), retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information. PMID:23020233

  2. Classification of road surface profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

  3. Galaxy Classification without Feature Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsterer, K. L.; Gieseke, F.; Kramer, O.

    2012-09-01

    The automatic classification of galaxies according to the different Hubble types is a widely studied problem in the field of astronomy. The complexity of this task led to projects like Galaxy Zoo which try to obtain labeled data based on visual inspection by humans. Many automatic classification frameworks are based on artificial neural networks (ANN) in combination with a feature extraction step in the pre-processing phase. These approaches rely on labeled catalogs for training the models. The small size of the typically used training sets, however, limits the generalization performance of the resulting models. In this work, we present a straightforward application of support vector machines (SVM) for this type of classification tasks. The conducted experiments indicate that using a sufficient number of labeled objects provided by the EFIGI catalog leads to high-quality models. In contrast to standard approaches no additional feature extraction is required.

  4. Classification systems for stalking behavior.

    PubMed

    Racine, Christopher; Billick, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Stalking is a complex behavioral phenomenon that is unique in that it necessarily involves a prolonged dyadic relationship between both a perpetrator and a victim. Since criminalization of stalking behavior in the 1990s, different conceptual typologies have attempted to classify this behavior to assess risk and aid in management decisions. The authors reviewed the current literature regarding the most recent and accepted stalking classification systems. The three predominant stalker typologies currently in use include Zona's stalker-victim types, Mullen's stalker typology, and the RECON stalker typology. Of these, the RECON classification system alone was developed in an attempt to separate stalkers into groups based on previously known risk factors for behaviorally based phenomenon such as propensity for violence. Understanding and simplifying these classification systems may enhance the potential that new research will lead to evidence-based management and treatment strategies in the stalking situation. PMID:23980606

  5. Machine learning in soil classification.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, B; Solomatine, D P

    2006-03-01

    In a number of engineering problems, e.g. in geotechnics, petroleum engineering, etc. intervals of measured series data (signals) are to be attributed a class maintaining the constraint of contiguity and standard classification methods could be inadequate. Classification in this case needs involvement of an expert who observes the magnitude and trends of the signals in addition to any a priori information that might be available. In this paper, an approach for automating this classification procedure is presented. Firstly, a segmentation algorithm is developed and applied to segment the measured signals. Secondly, the salient features of these segments are extracted using boundary energy method. Based on the measured data and extracted features to assign classes to the segments classifiers are built; they employ Decision Trees, ANN and Support Vector Machines. The methodology was tested in classifying sub-surface soil using measured data from Cone Penetration Testing and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:16530382

  6. Classification of hyperlipidaemias and hyperlipoproteinaemias*

    PubMed Central

    1970-01-01

    Many studies of atherosclerosis have indicated hyperlipidaemia as a predisposing factor to vascular disease. The relationship holds even for mild degrees of hyperlipidaemia, a fact that underlines the importance of this category of disorders. Both primary and secondary hyperlipidaemias represent such a variety of abnormalities that an internationally acceptable provisional classification is highly desirable in order to facilitate communication between scientists with different backgrounds. The present memorandum presents such a classification; it briefly describes the criteria for diagnosis of the main types of hyperlipidaemia as well as the methods of their determination. Because lipoproteins offer more information than analysis of plasma lipids (most of the plasma lipids being bound to various proteins), the classification is based on lipoprotein analyses by electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. Simpler methods, however, such as the observation of plasma and measurements of cholesterol and triglycerides, are used to the fullest possible extent in determining the lipoprotein patterns. PMID:4930042

  7. [Classification of periprosthetic shoulder fractures].

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, C; Kirchhoff, S; Biberthaler, P

    2016-04-01

    The key targets in the treatment of periprosthetic humeral fractures (PHF) are the preservation of bone, successful bony consolidation and provision of a stable anchoring of the prosthesis with the major goal of restoring the shoulder-arm function. A substantial problem of periprosthetic shoulder fractures is the fact that treatment is determined not only by the fracture itself but also by the implanted prosthesis and its function. Consequently, the exact preoperative shoulder function and, in the case of an implanted anatomical prosthesis, the status and function of the rotator cuff need to be assessed in order to clarify the possibility of a secondarily occurring malfunction. Of equal importance in this context is the type of implanted prosthesis. The existing classification systems of Wright and Cofield, Campbell et al., Groh et al. and Worland et al. have several drawbacks from a shoulder surgeon's point of view, such as a missing reference to the great variability of the available prostheses and the lack of an evaluation of rotator cuff function. The presented 6‑stage classification for the evaluation of periprosthetic fractures of the shoulder can be considered just as simple or complex to understand as the classification of the working group for osteosynthesis problems (AO, Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen), depending on the viewpoint. From our point of view the classification presented here encompasses the essential points of the existing classification systems and also covers the otherwise missing points, which should be considered in the assessment of such periprosthetic fractures. The classification presented here should provide helpful assistance in the daily routine to find the most convenient form of therapy. PMID:26992712

  8. Semantic classification of business images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Berna; Hull, Jonathan J.

    2006-01-01

    Digital cameras are becoming increasingly common for capturing information in business settings. In this paper, we describe a novel method for classifying images into the following semantic classes: document, whiteboard, business card, slide, and regular images. Our method is based on combining low-level image features, such as text color, layout, and handwriting features with high-level OCR output analysis. Several Support Vector Machine Classifiers are combined for multi-class classification of input images. The system yields 95% accuracy in classification.

  9. Deep learning for image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoppin, Ryan; Rizki, Mateen

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of deep learning and introduces the several subfields of deep learning including a specific tutorial of convolutional neural networks. Traditional methods for learning image features are compared to deep learning techniques. In addition, we present our preliminary classification results, our basic implementation of a convolutional restricted Boltzmann machine on the Mixed National Institute of Standards and Technology database (MNIST), and we explain how to use deep learning networks to assist in our development of a robust gender classification system.

  10. Automated Classification of Pathology Reports.

    PubMed

    Oleynik, Michel; Finger, Marcelo; Patrão, Diogo F C

    2015-01-01

    This work develops an automated classifier of pathology reports which infers the topography and the morphology classes of a tumor using codes from the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O). Data from 94,980 patients of the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center was used for training and validation of Naive Bayes classifiers, evaluated by the F1-score. Measures greater than 74% in the topographic group and 61% in the morphologic group are reported. Our work provides a successful baseline for future research for the classification of medical documents written in Portuguese and in other domains. PMID:26262339

  11. A classification of ecological boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strayer, D.L.; Power, M.E.; Fagan, W.F.; Pickett, S.T.A.; Belnap, J.

    2003-01-01

    Ecologists use the term boundary to refer to a wide range of real and conceptual structures. Because imprecise terminology may impede the search for general patterns and theories about ecological boundaries, we present a classification of the attributes of ecological boundaries to aid in communication and theory development. Ecological boundaries may differ in their origin and maintenance, their spatial structure, their function, and their temporal dynamics. A classification system based on these attributes should help ecologists determine whether boundaries are truly comparable. This system can be applied when comparing empirical studies, comparing theories, and testing theoretical predictions against empirical results.

  12. Supervised ensemble classification of Kepler variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, G.; Borne, K.

    2016-07-01

    Variable star analysis and classification is an important task in the understanding of stellar features and processes. While historically classifications have been done manually by highly skilled experts, the recent and rapid expansion in the quantity and quality of data has demanded new techniques, most notably automatic classification through supervised machine learning. We present an expansion of existing work on the field by analysing variable stars in the Kepler field using an ensemble approach, combining multiple characterization and classification techniques to produce improved classification rates. Classifications for each of the roughly 150 000 stars observed by Kepler are produced separating the stars into one of 14 variable star classes.

  13. Supervised Ensemble Classification of Kepler Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, G.; Borne, K.

    2016-04-01

    Variable star analysis and classification is an important task in the understanding of stellar features and processes. While historically classifications have been done manually by highly skilled experts, the recent and rapid expansion in the quantity and quality of data has demanded new techniques, most notably automatic classification through supervised machine learning. We present an expansion of existing work on the field by analyzing variable stars in the Kepler field using an ensemble approach, combining multiple characterization and classification techniques to produce improved classification rates. Classifications for each of the roughly 150,000 stars observed by Kepler are produced separating the stars into one of 14 variable star classes.

  14. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Beesley

    2005-04-21

    The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  15. Micropolar continuum in spatial description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Elena A.; Vilchevskaya, Elena N.

    2016-06-01

    Within the spatial description, it is customary to refer thermodynamic state quantities to an elementary volume fixed in space containing an ensemble of particles. During its evolution, the elementary volume is occupied by different particles, each having its own mass, tensor of inertia, angular and linear velocities. The aim of the present paper is to answer the question of how to determine the inertial and kinematic characteristics of the elementary volume. In order to model structural transformations due to the consolidation or defragmentation of particles or anisotropic changes, one should consider the fact that the tensor of inertia of the elementary volume may change. This means that an additional constitutive equation must be formulated. The paper suggests kinetic equations for the tensor of inertia of the elementary volume. It also discusses the specificity of the inelastic polar continuum description within the framework of the spatial description.

  16. Continuum descriptions of cytoskeletal dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial presents an introduction into continuum descriptions of cytoskeletal dynamics. In contrast to discrete models in which each molecule keeps its identity, such descriptions are given in terms of averaged quantities per unit volume like the number density of a certain molecule. Starting with a discrete description for the assembly dynamics of cytoskeletal filaments, we derive the continuity equation, which serves as the basis of many continuum theories. We illustrate the use of this approach with an investigation of spontaneous cytoskeletal polymerization waves. Such waves have by now been observed in various cell types and might help to orchestrate cytoskeletal dynamics during cell spreading and locomotion. Our analysis shows how processes at the scale of single molecules, namely, the nucleation of new filaments and filament treadmilling, can lead to the spontaneous appearance of coherent traveling waves on scales spanning many filament lengths. For readers less familiar with calculus, we include an informal introduction to the Taylor expansion. PMID:24565412

  17. 32 CFR 2001.16 - Fundamental classification guidance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a minimum, the fundamental classification guidance review shall focus on: (1) Evaluation of content... recent classification decisions that focuses on ensuring that classification decisions reflect the...

  18. A generic classification for the morphological and spatial complexity of volcanic (and other) landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Mark A.

    2009-10-01

    Landform studies require that morphological identification, description and classification use an accurate and precise taxonomy. This communication offers taxonomic criteria useful for landform classification, as well as spatial statistical investigations of landform patterns. The spatial statistical modeling of landform patterns poses new challenges concerning the systematic characterization of landforms for study within a GIS (geographical information system). For example, the sundry descriptions and non-diagnostic descriptors for volcanoes are many, and appear to have promoted the adoption of somewhat imprecise and confusing classes. This communication presents a generic three-tiered classification as a basic description of the complexity of the landform regardless of scale, tectonic and petrologic setting, climatic regime, state of degradation, or local definition. Importantly, it offers a taxonomy that is useful to the geographical analysis of point pattern fields using spatial statistical techniques. The scheme offered here was used to characterize mostly monogenetic volcanoes; however the classification scheme may also be usable for other landscape features. For instance, such features may include; landslide scars, thermokarst, dolines, kettle and kame topography, drumlins, dome, crescentic and star dunes, pingos, rootless cones, lava domes and coulees, and impact craters.

  19. Osteoarthritis Classification Scales: Interobserver Reliability and Arthroscopic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rick W.; Ross, James R.; Haas, Amanda K.; Huston, Laura J.; Garofoli, Elizabeth A.; Harris, David; Patel, Kushal; Pearson, David; Schutzman, Jake; Tarabichi, Majd; Ying, David; Albright, John P.; Allen, Christina R.; Amendola, Annunziato; Anderson, Allen F.; Andrish, Jack T.; Annunziata, Christopher C.; Arciero, Robert A.; Bach, Bernard R.; Baker, Champ L.; Bartolozzi, Arthur R.; Baumgarten, Keith M.; Bechler, Jeffery R.; Berg, Jeffrey H.; Bernas, Geoffrey A.; Brockmeier, Stephen F.; Brophy, Robert H.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Butler V, J. Brad; Campbell, John D.; Carpenter, James E.; Cole, Brian J.; Cooper, Daniel E.; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Cox, Charles L.; Creighton, R. Alexander; Dahm, Diane L.; David, Tal S.; DeBerardino, Thomas M.; Dunn, Warren R.; Flanigan, David C.; Frederick, Robert W.; Ganley, Theodore J.; Gatt, Charles J.; Gecha, Steven R.; Giffin, James Robert; Hame, Sharon L.; Hannafin, Jo A.; Harner, Christopher D.; Harris, Norman Lindsay; Hechtman, Keith S.; Hershman, Elliott B.; Hoellrich, Rudolf G.; Hosea, Timothy M.; Johnson, David C.; Johnson, Timothy S.; Jones, Morgan H.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Kamath, Ganesh V.; Klootwyk, Thomas E.; Lantz, Brett A.; Levy, Bruce A.; Ma, C. Benjamin; Maiers, G. Peter; Mann, Barton; Marx, Robert G.; Matava, Matthew J.; Mathien, Gregory M.; McAllister, David R.; McCarty, Eric C.; McCormack, Robert G.; Miller, Bruce S.; Nissen, Carl W.; O’Neill, Daniel F.; Owens, LTC Brett D.; Parker, Richard D.; Purnell, Mark L.; Ramappa, Arun J.; Rauh, Michael A.; Rettig, Arthur; Sekiya, Jon K.; Shea, Kevin G.; Sherman, Orrin H.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Smith, Matthew V.; Spang, Jeffrey T.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Stuart, Michael J.; Svoboda, LTC Steven J.; Taft, Timothy N.; Tenuta, COL Joachim J.; Tingstad, Edwin M.; Vidal, Armando F.; Viskontas, Darius G.; White, Richard A.; Williams, James S.; Wolcott, Michelle L.; Wolf, Brian R.; York, James J.; Carey, James L.

    2014-01-01

    % confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.32). With respect to standards for the magnitude of the reliability coefficient and correlation coefficient (Spearman rho), the International Knee Documentation Committee classification demonstrated the best combination of good interobserver reliability and medium correlation with arthroscopic findings. Conclusions: The overall estimates with the six radiographic classification systems demonstrated moderate (anteroposterior radiographs) to good (45° posteroanterior flexion weight-bearing radiographs) interobserver reliability and medium correlation with arthroscopic findings. The International Knee Documentation Committee classification assessed with use of 45° posteroanterior flexion weight-bearing radiographs had the most favorable combination of reliability and correlation. Level of Evidence: Diagnostic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:25031368

  20. History of epilepsy: nosological concepts and classification.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide insight into the development of the nosological views of the epilepsies, from prehistoric times to the present, and highlight how these views are reflected by terminology and classification. Even the earliest written documents reveal awareness that there are multiple forms of epilepsy, and it is surprising that they should be included under the same disease concept, perhaps because the generalised tonic-clonic seizure served as a common denominator. The Hippocratic doctrine that the seat of epilepsy is in the brain may be rooted in earlier knowledge of traumatic seizures. Galenus differentiated cases where the brain was the primary site of origin from others where epilepsy was concomitant with illness in other parts of the body. This laid the fundament for the distinction between idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsies, the definition of which changed considerably over time. The description of the multiple seizure types as they are known at present started in the late 18th century. Attempts to classify seizure types began in the late 19th century, when Jackson formulated a comprehensive pathophysiological definition of epilepsy. Electroencephalography supported a second dichotomy, between seizures with localised onset and others with immediate involvement of both hemispheres which became known as "generalised". In recent years, advanced methods of studying brain function in vivo, including the generation of both spontaneous and reflex epileptic seizures, have revolutionised our understanding of focal and "generalised" human ictogenesis. Both involve complex neuronal networks which are currently being investigated. PMID:25256654

  1. Label-Embedding for Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Akata, Zeynep; Perronnin, Florent; Harchaoui, Zaid; Schmid, Cordelia

    2016-07-01

    Attributes act as intermediate representations that enable parameter sharing between classes, a must when training data is scarce. We propose to view attribute-based image classification as a label-embedding problem: each class is embedded in the space of attribute vectors. We introduce a function that measures the compatibility between an image and a label embedding. The parameters of this function are learned on a training set of labeled samples to ensure that, given an image, the correct classes rank higher than the incorrect ones. Results on the Animals With Attributes and Caltech-UCSD-Birds datasets show that the proposed framework outperforms the standard Direct Attribute Prediction baseline in a zero-shot learning scenario. Label embedding enjoys a built-in ability to leverage alternative sources of information instead of or in addition to attributes, such as, e.g., class hierarchies or textual descriptions. Moreover, label embedding encompasses the whole range of learning settings from zero-shot learning to regular learning with a large number of labeled examples. PMID:26452251

  2. Measures of voiced frication for automatic classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Philip J. B.; Jesus, Luis M. T.; Shadle, Christine H.; Pincas, Jonathan

    2001-05-01

    As an approach to understanding the characteristics of the acoustic sources in voiced fricatives, it seems apt to draw on knowledge of vowels and voiceless fricatives, which have been relatively well studied. However, the presence of both phonation and frication in these mixed-source sounds offers the possibility of mutual interaction effects, with variations across place of articulation. This paper examines the acoustic and articulatory consequences of these interactions and explores automatic techniques for finding parametric and statistical descriptions of these phenomena. A reliable and consistent set of such acoustic cues could be used for phonetic classification or speech recognition. Following work on devoicing of European Portuguese voiced fricatives [Jesus and Shadle, in Mamede et al. (eds.) (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), pp. 1-8]. and the modulating effect of voicing on frication [Jackson and Shadle, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1421-1434 (2000)], the present study focuses on three types of information: (i) sequences and durations of acoustic events in VC transitions, (ii) temporal, spectral and modulation measures from the periodic and aperiodic components of the acoustic signal, and (iii) voicing activity derived from simultaneous EGG data. Analysis of interactions observed in British/American English and European Portuguese speech corpora will be compared, and the principal findings discussed.

  3. Santa Ana Forecasting and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolinski, T.; Eichhorn, D.; D'Agostino, B. J.; Vanderburg, S.; Means, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Southern California experiences wildfires every year, but under certain circumstances these fires grow into extremely large and destructive fires, such as the Cedar Fire of 2003 and the Witch Fire of 2007. The Cedar Fire burned over 1100 km2 , destroyed more than 2200 homes and killed 15 people; the Witch fire burned more than 800 km2, destroyed more than 1000 homes and killed 2 people. Fires can quickly become too large and dangerous to fight if they are accompanied by a very strong "Santa Ana" condition, which is a foehn-like wind that may bring strong winds and very low humidities. However there is an entire range of specific weather conditions that fall into the broad category of Santa Anas, from cold and blustery to hot with very little wind. All types are characterized by clear skies and low humidity. Since the potential for destructive fire is dependent on the characteristics of Santa Anas, as well as the level of fuel moisture, there exists a need for further classification, such as is done with tropical cyclones and after-the-fact with tornadoes. We use surface data and fuel moisture combined with reanalysis to diagnose those conditions that result in Santa Anas with the greatest potential for destructive fires. We use this data to produce a new classification system for Santa Anas. This classification system should be useful for informing the relevant agencies for mitigation and response planning. In the future this same classification may be made available to the general public.

  4. Terrain classification for a UGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwal, Alok; Baker, Chris; Rosenblum, Mark

    2005-05-01

    This work addresses the issue of Terrain Classification that can be applied for path planning for an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform. We are interested in classification of features such as rocks, bushes, trees and dirt roads. Currently, the data is acquired from a color camera mounted on the UGV as we can add range data from a second sensor in the future. The classification is accomplished by first, coarse segmenting a frame and then refining the initial segmentations through a convenient user interface. After the first frame, temporal information is exploited to improve the quality of the image segmentation and help classification adapt to changes due to ambient lighting, shadows, and scene changes as the platform moves. The Mean Shift Classifier algorithm provides segmentation of the current frame data. We have tested the above algorithms with four sequence of frames acquired in an environment with terrain representative of the type we expect to see in the field. A comparison of the results from this algorithm was done with accurate manually-segmented (ground-truth) data, for each frame in the sequence.

  5. CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes polygons for GA, GAA, GAAs, GB, GC and other related ground water quality classes. Each polygon is assigned a ground water quality class, which is s...

  6. CONNECTICUT SURFACE WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Surface Water Quality Classifications for Connecticut. It is comprised of two 0Shapefiles with line and polygon features. Both Shapefiles must be used together with the Hydrography datalayer. The polygon Shapefile includes surface water qual...

  7. Classification of spatially unresolved objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Horwitz, H. M.; Hyde, P. D.; Morgenstern, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A proportion estimation technique for classification of multispectral scanner images is reported that uses data point averaging to extract and compute estimated proportions for a single average data point to classify spatial unresolved areas. Example extraction calculations of spectral signatures for bare soil, weeds, alfalfa, and barley prove quite accurate.

  8. A new classification of zoophilia.

    PubMed

    Aggrawal, Anil

    2011-02-01

    Zoophilia is a paraphilia whereby the perpetrator gets sexual pleasure in having sex with animals. Most jurisdictions and nations have laws against this practice. Zoophilia exists in many variations, and some authors have attempted to classify zoophilia previously. However unanimity does not exist among various classifications. In addition, sexual contact between humans and animals has been given several names such as zoophilia, zoophilism, bestiality, zooerasty and zoorasty. These terms continue to be used in different senses by different authors, creating some amount of confusion. A mathematical classification of zoophilia, which could group all shades of zoophilia under various numerical classes, could be a way to end this confusion. Recently a ten-tier classification of necrophilia has been proposed to bring an end to a similar confusion extant among various terms referring to necrophilia. It is our proposition that various shades of zoophilia exist on a similar continuum. Thus, each proposed class of zoophilia can be "mapped" to a similar class of necrophilia already proposed. This classification has an intuitive appeal, as it grades all shades of zoophilia from the least innocuous behavior to the most criminal. It is hoped that it would also bring an end to the existing confusion among several zoophilia related terms. In addition, since each proposed class of zoophilia can be exactly "mapped" to classes of another paraphilia (necrophilia), it may point to an "equivalence" among all paraphilias not yet explored fully. This area needs further exploration. PMID:21315301

  9. Nomenclature and classification, principles of

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nomenclature is critical for precise communications. Scientific names must be unique and attached to defined concepts. Classifications provide a means of encoding information into scientific nomenclature, so the use of scientific names provides the effective and efficient means for communicating abo...

  10. Gaming Simulation: A General Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecchini, Arnaldo; Frisenna, Adriana

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of classifying gaming techniques and suggests a heuristic approach as one solution. Definitions of simulation, models, role, and game and play are discussed to help develop a classification based on a technique called gaming simulation. (Author/LRW)

  11. THE CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS OCCUPATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Hayhurst, E. R.

    1916-01-01

    In this paper Doctor Hayhurst describes the six classifications for hazardous occupations which were employed in a survey made in Ohio. He also explains, by text and diagram, the process of analyzing, upon a standard formula, the hazard of an individual case. PMID:18009453

  12. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  13. Optimal Infomation-based Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Baro

    Classification is the allocation of an object to an existing category among several based on uncertain measurements. Since information is used to quantify uncertainty, it is natural to consider classification and information as complementary subjects. This dissertation touches upon several topics that relate to the problem of classification, such as information, classification, and team classification. Motivated by the U.S. Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance missions, we investigate the aforementioned topics for classifiers that follow two models: classifiers with workload-independent and workload-dependent performance. We adopt workload-independence and dependence as "first-order" models to capture the features of machines and humans, respectively. We first investigate the relationship between information in the sense of Shannon and classification performance, which is defined as the probability of misclassification. We show that while there is a predominant congruence between them, there are cases when such congruence is violated. We show the phenomenon for both workload-independent and workload-dependent classifiers and investigate the cause of such phenomena analytically. One way of making classification decisions is by setting a threshold on a measured quantity. For instance, if a measurement falls on one side of the threshold, the object that provided the measurement is classified as one type, otherwise, it is of another type. Exploiting thresholding, we formalize a classifier with dichotomous decisions (i.e., with two options, such as true or false) given a single variable measurement. We further extend the formalization to classifiers with trichotomy (i.e., with three options, such as true, false or unknown) and with multivariate measurements. When a team of classifiers is considered, issues on how to exploit redundant numbers of classifiers arise. We analyze these classifiers under different architectures, such as parallel or nested

  14. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... classification guides with RD or FRD information topics. (d) Originators of classification guides with RD or FRD topics shall review such guides at least every five years and make revisions as necessary. (e)...

  15. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... classification guides with RD or FRD information topics. (d) Originators of classification guides with RD or FRD topics shall review such guides at least every five years and make revisions as necessary. (e)...

  16. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2500.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information....

  17. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Intellectual Property Organization, unless the International Bureau corrects the classification. Classes cannot... Intellectual Property Organization. (1) If international classification changes pursuant to the Nice Agreement... registered extensions of protection. (d) Section 66(a) applications and registered extensions of...

  18. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Intellectual Property Organization, unless the International Bureau corrects the classification. Classes cannot... Intellectual Property Organization. (1) If international classification changes pursuant to the Nice Agreement... registered extensions of protection. (d) Section 66(a) applications and registered extensions of...

  19. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Intellectual Property Organization, unless the International Bureau corrects the classification. Classes cannot... Intellectual Property Organization. (1) If international classification changes pursuant to the Nice Agreement... registered extensions of protection. (d) Section 66(a) applications and registered extensions of...

  20. An Expanded Classification of the Plant Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, B. S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an expanded classification of the plant kingdom, emphasizing major evolutionary steps and differences in levels of complexity. Describes subdivisions and suggests that this classification, reflecting unity and diversity, may be logical, understandable, and useful to students. (JN)

  1. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR 2001.22. (c) Department of State Classification Guide. The Department of State Classification... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.6 Derivative...'s classified Web site....

  2. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 2001.22. (c) Department of State Classification Guide. The Department of State Classification... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.6 Derivative...'s classified Web site....

  3. Screening and classification of ceramic powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miwa, S.

    1983-01-01

    A summary is given of the classification technology of ceramic powders. Advantages and disadvantages of the wet and dry screening and classification methods are discussed. Improvements of wind force screening devices are described.

  4. Asiago spectroscopic classification of AT2016bry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochner, P.; Tinella, V.; Righetti, G. L.; Belligoli, R.; Castellani, F.; Pastorello, A.; Cappellaro, E.; Benetti, S.; Tomasella, L.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2016-05-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of AT2016bry, discovered by V. Tinella in UGC 11635, and preliminary photometric follow-up.

  5. Asiago spectroscopic classification of AT2016ajo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terreran, G.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Tartaglia, L.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.

    2016-03-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of AT2016ajo, discovered by Y. Ding, W. Gao and X. Gao in an anonymous galaxy near UGC 11344.

  6. 5 CFR 1312.3 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.3 Classification requirements. United States citizens must... security, certain official information must be subject to constraints on its dissemination or release....

  7. 5 CFR 1312.3 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.3 Classification requirements. United States citizens must... security, certain official information must be subject to constraints on its dissemination or release....

  8. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2500.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information....

  9. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O.; Vogel, Timothy M.; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-01-01

    Correctly identifying nearest “neighbors” of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned

  10. Discovery and Classification in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Three decades after Martin Harwit's pioneering Cosmic Discovery (1981), and following on the recent IAU Symposium "Accelerating the Rate of Astronomical Discovery,” we have revisited the problem of discovery in astronomy, emphasizing new classes of objects. 82 such classes have been identified and analyzed, including 22 in the realm of the planets, 36 in the realm of the stars, and 24 in the realm of the galaxies. We find an extended structure of discovery, consisting of detection, interpretation and understanding, each with its own nuances and a microstructure including conceptual, technological and social roles. This is true with a remarkable degree of consistency over the last 400 years of telescopic astronomy, ranging from Galileo's discovery of satellites, planetary rings and star clusters, to the discovery of quasars and pulsars. Telescopes have served as "engines of discovery” in several ways, ranging from telescope size and sensitivity (planetary nebulae and spiral galaxies), to specialized detectors (TNOs) and the opening of the electromagnetic spectrum for astronomy (pulsars, pulsar planets, and most active galaxies). A few classes (radiation belts, the solar wind and cosmic rays), were initially discovered without the telescope. Classification also plays an important role in discovery. While it might seem that classification marks the end of discovery, or a post-discovery phase, in fact it often marks the beginning, even a pre-discovery phase. Nowhere is this more clearly seen than in the classification of stellar spectra, long before dwarfs, giants and supergiants were known, or their evolutionary sequence recognized. Classification may also be part of a post-discovery phase, as in the MK system of stellar classification, constructed after the discovery of stellar luminosity classes. Some classes are declared rather than discovered, as in the case of gas and ice giant planets, and, infamously, Pluto as a dwarf planet.

  11. River Sinuosity Classification - The method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, J.; Székely, B.; Timár, G.

    2012-04-01

    We introduced a new evaluation method, the classification of multiple window-size based sinuosity spectrum. If the river is long enough for the analysis, the classification could be as useful, as the sinuosity spectrum, but sometimes it is more straightforward. Furthermore, for the classification, we did not need the main parameters of the river, e.g. the bankfull discharge. Each sinuosity calculation that was performed for a given window size, has been considered as one band (one channel) of a multichannel "image". Then, the sinuosity spectrums became multichannel images are of size 1 X N where N represents the length of the actual river in pixels. Using this multichannel input unsupervised ISOCLASS classification was carried out on these data, using ER Mapper software. The requested number of classes was set to 5. The results of the sinuosity calculations are scalars. Earlier, it was a subjective decision to divide the sinuosity values into the categories (low, medium-low, medium, medium-high, and high), while the new method provides integer numbers (1 to 5) itself. These numbers are calculated from the sinuosity values, but are not equal to them. Analysing the results of the classification, it is important to note that the method typically splits the river course into contiguous sections that belong to the same class. Boundaries of these classes can be considered as points of considerable change in the river course, because the method uses statistically relevant amount of data of the river course in a robust way to detect changes. Some specific classes or their boundaries seem to be correlated to tectonically active zones. The research is made in the frame of project OTKA-NK83400 (SourceSink Hungary). The European Union and the European Social Fund also have provided financial support to the project under the grant agreement no. TÁMOP 4.2.1./B-09/1/KMR-2010-0003.

  12. A Microcomputer Descriptive Geometry Tutorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zongyi, Zuo

    1990-01-01

    A software package which can aid descriptive geometry instruction is described. Included are the features of the software and the software configuration. This software has been honored as the best and most advanced software of its kind in the People's Republic of China. (KR)

  13. Spatial Mental Models from Descriptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tversky, Barbara; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reviews two projects studying the nature of mental representations of space induced entirely by language. The first project investigates perspective in descriptions of large-scale (e.g., convention center, town) space. The second project investigates mental representations of objects located immediately around the body. (37 references) (KRN)

  14. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…

  15. Interferometric SAR coherence classification utility assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, D.A.

    1998-03-01

    The classification utility of a dual-antenna interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) is explored by comparison of maximum likelihood classification results for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) intensity images and IPSAR intensity and coherence images. The addition of IFSAR coherence improves the overall classification accuracy for classes of trees, water, and fields. A threshold intensity-coherence classifier is also compared to the intensity-only classification results.

  16. Evaluation of TNM Classification of Carcinoma of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Sicher, K.; Waterhouse, J. A. H.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of the records of almost 2000 cases of carcinoma of the breast in the years 1960-67, since acceptance of the principles of the TNM system of classification, found only 9·2% lacking description. Although the TNM staging was not always allocated by the surgeon making the initial examination, the survey demonstrated that acceptance of the system has resulted in the inclusion of a much more detailed clinical description by the surgeon in the patient's record, from which it was generally possible to assess the TNM staging in the Radiotherapy Department. The more detailed survival rates available in the case of the TNM system, in comparison with the Manchester staging system, is cited as a further recommendation for its wider use. Although detailed localization of the tumour to subsites within the breast appears to have little influence on prognosis, the addition of a supplementary histological classification of node involvement is a valuable adjunct to the assessment of likely survival. PMID:4783159

  17. Protein secondary structure classification revisited: processing DSSP information with PSSC.

    PubMed

    Zacharias, Jan; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2014-07-28

    A first step toward three-dimensional protein structure description is the characterization of secondary structure. The most widely used program for secondary structure assignment remains DSSP, introduced in 1983, with currently more than 400 citations per year. DSSP output is in a one-letter representation, where much of the information on DSSP's internal description is lost. Recently it became evident that DSSP overlooks most π-helical structures, which are more prevalent and important than anticipated before. We introduce an alternative concept, representing the internal structure characterization of DSSP as an eight-character string that is human-interpretable and easy to parse by software. We demonstrate how our protein secondary structure characterization (PSSC) code allows for inspection of complicated structural features. It recognizes ten times more π-helical residues than does the standard DSSP. The plausibility of introduced changes in interpreting DSSP information is demonstrated by better clustering of secondary structures in (φ, ψ) dihedral angle space. With a sliding sequence window (SSW), helical assignments with PSSC remain invariant compared with an assignment based on the complete structure. In contrast, assignment with DSSP can be changed by residues in the neighborhood that are in fact not interacting with the residue under consideration. We demonstrate how one can easily define new secondary structure classification schemes with PSSC and perform the classifications. Our approach works without changing the DSSP source code and allows for more detailed protein characterization. PMID:24866861

  18. Galeata: chronic migraine independently considered in a medieval headache classification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic migraine is a quite recent concept. However, there are descriptions suggestive of episodic migraine since the beginning of scientific medicine. We aim to review main headache classifications during Classical antiquity and compared them with that proposed in the 11th century by Constantine the African in his Liber Pantegni, one of the most influential texts in medieval medicine. Method We have carried out a descriptive review of Henricum Petrum's Latin edition, year 1539. Results Headache classifications proposed by Aretaeus of Cappadocia, Galen of Pergamun and Alexander of Tralles, all of them classifying headaches into three main types, considered an entity (called Heterocrania or Hemicrania), comparable to contemporary episodic migraine. In ninth book of Liber Pantegni, headaches were also classified into three types and one of them, Galeata, consisted on a chronic pain of mild intensity with occasional superimposed exacerbations. Conclusion In Liber Pantegni we have firstly identified, as a separate entity, a headache comparable to that we currently define as chronic migraine: Galeata. PMID:24655582

  19. Context-based automated defect classification system using multiple morphological masks

    DOEpatents

    Gleason, Shaun S.; Hunt, Martin A.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed

    2002-01-01

    Automatic detection of defects during the fabrication of semiconductor wafers is largely automated, but the classification of those defects is still performed manually by technicians. This invention includes novel digital image analysis techniques that generate unique feature vector descriptions of semiconductor defects as well as classifiers that use these descriptions to automatically categorize the defects into one of a set of pre-defined classes. Feature extraction techniques based on multiple-focus images, multiple-defect mask images, and segmented semiconductor wafer images are used to create unique feature-based descriptions of the semiconductor defects. These feature-based defect descriptions are subsequently classified by a defect classifier into categories that depend on defect characteristics and defect contextual information, that is, the semiconductor process layer(s) with which the defect comes in contact. At the heart of the system is a knowledge database that stores and distributes historical semiconductor wafer and defect data to guide the feature extraction and classification processes. In summary, this invention takes as its input a set of images containing semiconductor defect information, and generates as its output a classification for the defect that describes not only the defect itself, but also the location of that defect with respect to the semiconductor process layers.

  20. Persistent maritime surveillance using multi-sensor feature association and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; Schwering, Piet B. W.; Liem, Kwan D.; Schleijpen, Ric

    2012-06-01

    In maritime operational scenarios, such as smuggling, piracy, or terrorist threats, it is not only relevant who or what an observed object is, but also where it is now and in the past in relation to other (geographical) objects. In situation and impact assessment, this information is used to determine whether an object is a threat. Single platform (ship, harbor) or single sensor information will not provide all this information. The work presented in this paper focuses on the sensor and object levels that provide a description of currently observed objects to situation assessment. For use of information of objects at higher information levels, it is necessary to have not only a good description of observed objects at this moment, but also from its past. Therefore, currently observed objects have to be linked to previous occurrences. Kinematic features, as used in tracking, are of limited use, as uncertainties over longer time intervals are so large that no unique associations can be made. Features extracted from different sensors (e.g., ESM, EO/IR) can be used for both association and classification. Features and classifications are used to associate current objects to previous object descriptions, allowing objects to be described better, and provide position history. In this paper a description of a high level architecture in which such a multi-sensor association is used is described. Results of an assessment of the usability of several features from ESM (from spectrum), EO and IR (shape, contour, keypoints) data for association and classification are shown.

  1. Compound classification by computer treatment of low resolution mass spectra - Application to geochemical and environmental problems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. H.; Eglinton, G.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of a development of computer analysis of low-resolution chromatographic-mass spectrometric data, which provides a preliminary classification of an unknown spectrum as a listing of candidate classes of compounds. This procedure, referred to as COMSOC (Classification of Mass Spectra on Computers), operates by converting an incoming unknown mass spectrum into a simplified key word which is then compared with each of the key words held in its reference file. The advantages of COMSOC in characterizing complex mixtures are emphasized.

  2. Catchment classification and model parameter transfer with a view to regionalisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Rita; Hellebrand, Hugo; Casper, Markus C.

    2013-04-01

    strong connection between runoff behaviour, catchment properties and model parameter sets within the classes. The next step is the classification of the catchments based on calibrated model parameters with SOM. If the parameter sets show significant relation to the previous classification, model parameters may be used as an easy accessible start for catchment description. Physiographic and climatic properties can now be related directly to model parameters, corroborating a quantitative approach to basin classification. Furthermore, one representative parameter set for each class of catchments can describe the runoff behaviour for a whole class. The description of runoff behaviour by calibrated model parameters of a conceptual model in relation to classes of physically and climatically similar catchments can facilitates catchment description, classification and regionalisation and provides insight into the processes and functioning of catchments. The use of calibrated model parameters for classification instead of time-consuming description of the runoff behaviour with event runoff coefficients offers an attractive alternative for regionalisation.

  3. Cell nuclear features for classification from fluorescence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynen, Susanne; Hunter, Edward; Price, Jeffrey H.

    2000-04-01

    In clinical cytology, nuclear features play an important role in cell and tissue classification. To increase efficiency and decrease subjectivity of cytological results, automation of the analytic process has been proposed and discussed by many authors. This automation can be achieved by estimating the probability of occurrence of a certain class given particular features of a microscope specimen. In this paper, feature sets that might be used as inputs for mathematical cytological classification algorithms are reviewer. The primary goal was to determine the important properties of these features sets, i.e., are there mathematically efficient features that provide a more or less compete description of the cell. Under what conditions will these feature then result in optimal classification of the cells using quantitative fluorescence staining. And how would these mathematical features relate to conventional features that a human observer understands. Example human observer features are size, shape, and chromaticity o the cell nucleus while example mathematical features are image moments. If the cell image can be completely reconstructed from the feature set, then it should be possible to derive the conventional features used by human observers from the mathematical feature set for presentation to clinicians. Finally, the suitability of different mathematical decision making algorithms like probabilistic reasoning, clustering or neural networks are also briefly evaluated in the context of a mathematically complete feature set.

  4. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T.; Camacho, Macario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research. PMID:26933510

  5. Classification of primary progressive aphasia and its variants

    PubMed Central

    Hillis, A.E.; Weintraub, S.; Kertesz, A.; Mendez, M.; Cappa, S.F.; Ogar, J.M.; Rohrer, J.D.; Black, S.; Boeve, B.F.; Manes, F.; Dronkers, N.F.; Vandenberghe, R.; Rascovsky, K.; Patterson, K.; Miller, B.L.; Knopman, D.S.; Hodges, J.R.; Mesulam, M.M.; Grossman, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and its 3 main variants to improve the uniformity of case reporting and the reliability of research results. Criteria for the 3 variants of PPA—nonfluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic—were developed by an international group of PPA investigators who convened on 3 occasions to operationalize earlier published clinical descriptions for PPA subtypes. Patients are first diagnosed with PPA and are then divided into clinical variants based on specific speech and language features characteristic of each subtype. Classification can then be further specified as “imaging-supported” if the expected pattern of atrophy is found and “with definite pathology” if pathologic or genetic data are available. The working recommendations are presented in lists of features, and suggested assessment tasks are also provided. These recommendations have been widely agreed upon by a large group of experts and should be used to ensure consistency of PPA classification in future studies. Future collaborations will collect prospective data to identify relationships between each of these syndromes and specific biomarkers for a more detailed understanding of clinicopathologic correlations. PMID:21325651

  6. Job Descriptions for Cooperative and Distributive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricci, Frederick A.

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines for writing job descriptions (with consideration given to cooperative and distributive education) are presented. Areas of discussion are procedure for job analysis, questions that gather information for job descriptions, writing the job description, and validity. A sample job description is included. (TA)

  7. 15 CFR 4a.3 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification levels. 4a.3 Section 4a.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.3 Classification levels. Information may be classified as national security...

  8. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to originally classify information as Secret...

  9. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 154. (c) Classification procedures. (1) If the Agency determines that a product or one or... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164...

  10. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 154. (c) Classification procedures. (1) If the Agency determines that a product or one or... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164...

  11. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 154. (c) Classification procedures. (1) If the Agency determines that a product or one or... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164...

  12. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 154. (c) Classification procedures. (1) If the Agency determines that a product or one or... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2284 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Size classification. 51.2284 Section 51.2284... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Size Requirements § 51.2284 Size classification. The following classifications are provided to describe the size of any...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2284 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Size classification. 51.2284 Section 51.2284...) Size Requirements § 51.2284 Size classification. The following classifications are provided to describe the size of any lot: “Halves”, “Pieces and Halves”, “Pieces” or “Small Pieces”. The size of...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2284 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Size classification. 51.2284 Section 51.2284...) Size Requirements § 51.2284 Size classification. The following classifications are provided to describe the size of any lot: “Halves”, “Pieces and Halves”, “Pieces” or “Small Pieces”. The size of...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2284 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Size classification. 51.2284 Section 51.2284... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Size Requirements § 51.2284 Size classification. The following classifications are provided to describe the size of any...

  17. 46 CFR 193.50-5 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Classification Type Size Soda-acid and water, gals. Foam, gals. Carbon dioxide, lbs. Dry chemical, lbs. A II 21/2... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Classification. 193.50-5 Section 193.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 193.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  18. 46 CFR 193.50-5 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Classification Type Size Soda-acid and water, gals. Foam, gals. Carbon dioxide, lbs. Dry chemical, lbs. A II 21/2... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Classification. 193.50-5 Section 193.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 193.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  19. 46 CFR 193.50-5 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Classification Type Size Soda-acid and water, gals. Foam, gals. Carbon dioxide, lbs. Dry chemical, lbs. A II 21/2... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Classification. 193.50-5 Section 193.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 193.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  20. 5 CFR 1312.3 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification requirements. 1312.3 Section 1312.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION, DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information...

  1. 32 CFR 2001.10 - Classification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification standards. 2001.10 Section 2001.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.10 Classification standards. Identifying or describing damage to the national...

  2. 77 FR 47544 - Approval of Classification Societies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... procedures by which classification societies could apply for approval with the Coast Guard. See 69 FR 63548... ``Approval of Classification Societies'' (75 FR 21212), outlined the procedures and criteria we would use to... FR page 21215), we will ``annually reevaluate the records of approved classification societies...

  3. 5 CFR 1312.3 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification requirements. 1312.3 Section 1312.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION, DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information...

  4. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 154. (c) Classification procedures. (1) If the Agency determines that a product or one or... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164...

  5. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6... Original Classification § 2400.6 Classification levels. (a) National security information (hereinafter “classified information”) shall be classified at one of the following three levels: (1) “Top Secret” shall...

  6. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges....

  7. 32 CFR 2001.15 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification guides. 2001.15 Section 2001.15 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.15 Classification guides....

  8. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges....

  9. 32 CFR 2001.15 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification guides. 2001.15 Section 2001.15 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.15 Classification guides....

  10. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges....

  11. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges....

  12. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges....

  13. 32 CFR 2001.15 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification guides. 2001.15 Section 2001.15 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.15 Classification guides....

  14. 32 CFR 2001.15 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification guides. 2001.15 Section 2001.15 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.15 Classification guides....

  15. 32 CFR 2001.15 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification guides. 2001.15 Section 2001.15 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.15 Classification guides....

  16. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  17. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  18. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  19. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  20. 10 CFR 110.122 - Classification assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification assistance. 110.122 Section 110.122 Energy... Procedures for Classified Information in Hearings § 110.122 Classification assistance. On the request of any... security classification of information and the protective requirements to be observed....

  1. 32 CFR 644.426 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Classification. 644.426 Section 644.426 National... HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.426 Classification... required by the special acts, classification will be coordinated with the interested Federal agency....

  2. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of...

  3. 7 CFR 1951.885 - Loan classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Loan classifications. 1951.885 Section 1951.885... classifications. All loans to intermediaries in the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354... again whenever there is a change in the loan which would impact on the original classification. No...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1903 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.1903 Section 51.1903... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1903 Size classification. The following terms may be used for describing the size of the tomatoes in any...

  5. 17 CFR 200.505 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.505 Original classification. (a) No Commission Member or employee has...

  6. 10 CFR 2.904 - Classification assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification assistance. 2.904 Section 2.904 Energy... Security Information § 2.904 Classification assistance. On request of any party to a proceeding or of the... and the parties with respect to security classification of information and the safeguards to...

  7. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  8. 17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...

  9. 7 CFR 51.3198 - Size classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classifications. 51.3198 Section 51.3198... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Size Classifications § 51.3198 Size classifications. Size shall be specified in connection with the grade in terms of...

  10. 46 CFR 132.210 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 132.210 Section 132.210 Shipping COAST... Portable and Semiportable Fire Extinguishers § 132.210 Classification. (a) Each portable fire extinguisher... Classification Type Size Halon 1211, 1301, and 1211-1301 mixtures kgs. (lbs.) Foam, liters (gallons)...

  11. 32 CFR 2400.34 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification. 2400.34 Section 2400.34 National... Government Information § 2400.34 Classification. (a) Foreign government information classified by a foreign government or international organization of governments shall retain its original classification...

  12. 14 CFR 298.3 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 298.3 Section 298.3... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General § 298.3 Classification. (a) There is hereby established a classification of air carriers, designated as “air taxi operators,”...

  13. 10 CFR 1045.13 - Classification prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification prohibitions. 1045.13 Section 1045.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Information § 1045.13 Classification...

  14. Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as "animal" or "leaf". We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their parameters within each…

  15. 10 CFR 61.55 - Waste classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waste classification. 61.55 Section 61.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.55 Waste classification. (a) Classification of waste for...

  16. 46 CFR 95.50-5 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 95.50-5 Section 95.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 95.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing... extinguishing systems are set forth in Table 95.50-5(c). Table 95.50-5(c) Classification Type Size Soda-acid...

  17. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim...

  18. 32 CFR 1602.7 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification. 1602.7 Section 1602.7 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.7 Classification. Classification is the exercise of the power to determine claims or questions with respect...

  19. 32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001... Identification and Markings § 2001.22 Derivative classification. (a) General. Information classified derivatively on the basis of source documents or classification guides shall bear all markings prescribed...

  20. 46 CFR 76.50-5 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 76.50-5 Section 76.50-5 Shipping COAST... Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be... extinguishing systems are set forth in table 76.50-5(c). Table 76.50-5(c) Classification Type Size Soda acid...

  1. 46 CFR 193.50-5 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 193.50-5 Section 193.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 193.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire...) Classification Type Size Soda-acid and water, gals. Foam, gals. Carbon dioxide, lbs. Dry chemical, lbs. A II...

  2. Teaching Classification and Seriation to Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciancio, Dennis; Sadovsky, Adrienne; Malabonga, Valerie; Trueblood, Linda; Pasnak, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Studied use of games to teach simple classification and seriation constructs to 3-1/2-year-old children. Found substantial and maintained improvement on classification and seriation. Found that children generalized their new understanding of classification and seriation to different problems, and found that evidence for a more general cognitive…

  3. 22 CFR 9.4 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Original classification. 9.4 Section 9.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.4 Original classification. (a) Definition. Original classification is the initial determination that certain information requires protection against unauthorized...

  4. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification guides. 1045.37 Section 1045.37 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.37 Classification...

  5. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification guides. 1045.37 Section 1045.37 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.37 Classification...

  6. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification guides. 1045.37 Section 1045.37 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.37 Classification...

  7. The Classification of Romanian High-Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivan, Ion; Milodin, Daniel; Naie, Lucian

    2006-01-01

    The article tries to tackle the issue of high-schools classification from one city, district or from Romania. The classification criteria are presented. The National Database of Education is also presented and the application of criteria is illustrated. An algorithm for high-school multi-rang classification is proposed in order to build classes of…

  8. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221 Section 9701.221 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Process § 9701.221...

  9. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classification symbols. 42.11 Section 42.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Classification and Foreign State Chargeability § 42.11 Classification symbols. A visa issued to an immigrant...

  10. The Road Ahead for Library Classification Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Joan S.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses knowledge organization tools in the context of seven challenges facing library classification systems. Highlights include revisions to the Dewey Decimal Classification, the Windows-based CD-ROM version of Dewey, support for machine-assisted classification, multilingual use of Dewey, use of Dewey as a general knowledge organization and…

  11. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221 Section 9701.221 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Process § 9701.221...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221 Section 9701.221 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Process § 9701.221...

  13. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221 Section 9701.221 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Process § 9701.221...

  14. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221 Section 9701.221 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Process § 9701.221...

  15. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... developed material consistent with the classification markings that apply to the source information, is... markings prescribed by 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23 and shall otherwise conform to the requirements of 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23. (1) Classification authority. The authority for classification shall...

  16. Automatic classification of animal vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemins, Patrick J.

    2005-11-01

    Bioacoustics, the study of animal vocalizations, has begun to use increasingly sophisticated analysis techniques in recent years. Some common tasks in bioacoustics are repertoire determination, call detection, individual identification, stress detection, and behavior correlation. Each research study, however, uses a wide variety of different measured variables, called features, and classification systems to accomplish these tasks. The well-established field of human speech processing has developed a number of different techniques to perform many of the aforementioned bioacoustics tasks. Melfrequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) coefficients are two popular feature sets. The hidden Markov model (HMM), a statistical model similar to a finite autonoma machine, is the most commonly used supervised classification model and is capable of modeling both temporal and spectral variations. This research designs a framework that applies models from human speech processing for bioacoustic analysis tasks. The development of the generalized perceptual linear prediction (gPLP) feature extraction model is one of the more important novel contributions of the framework. Perceptual information from the species under study can be incorporated into the gPLP feature extraction model to represent the vocalizations as the animals might perceive them. By including this perceptual information and modifying parameters of the HMM classification system, this framework can be applied to a wide range of species. The effectiveness of the framework is shown by analyzing African elephant and beluga whale vocalizations. The features extracted from the African elephant data are used as input to a supervised classification system and compared to results from traditional statistical tests. The gPLP features extracted from the beluga whale data are used in an unsupervised classification system and the results are compared to labels assigned by experts. The

  17. The minimum distance approach to classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    The work to advance the state-of-the-art of miminum distance classification is reportd. This is accomplished through a combination of theoretical and comprehensive experimental investigations based on multispectral scanner data. A survey of the literature for suitable distance measures was conducted and the results of this survey are presented. It is shown that minimum distance classification, using density estimators and Kullback-Leibler numbers as the distance measure, is equivalent to a form of maximum likelihood sample classification. It is also shown that for the parametric case, minimum distance classification is equivalent to nearest neighbor classification in the parameter space.

  18. The rationale behind Pierre Duhem's natural classification.

    PubMed

    Bhakthavatsalam, Sindhuja

    2015-06-01

    The central concern of this paper is the interpretation of Duhem's attitude towards physical theory. Based on his view that the classification of experimental laws yielded by theory progressively approaches a natural classification-a classification reflecting that of underlying realities-Duhem has been construed as a realist of sorts in recent literature. Here I argue that his positive attitude towards the theoretic classification of laws had rather to do with the pragmatic rationality of the physicist. Duhem's idea of natural classification was an intuitive idea in the mind of the physicist that had to be affirmed in order to justify the physicist's pursuit of theory. PMID:26227227

  19. The Concept of Evolution of Thoracolumbar Fracture Classifications Helps in Surgical Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Md Quamar

    2015-01-01

    Since Boehler's sentinel description, a universally acceptable thoracolumber fracture classification has eluded spine surgeons. The concept of the stability of a thoracolumbar injury changed continuously from the two column concept of Holdsworth to the three column theory of Denis. With the advent of sophisticated imaging techniques, improved biomechanical understanding, and in order to meet the high expectations of patients, several classification systems have been forwarded by the stalwarts in the field. Each successive system has contributed significantly to the understanding and prediction of treatment outcome. Load sharing classification by McCormack attempted to rationalize the use of short segment posterior instrumentation. Magerl et al. developed a comprehensive classification system based on progressive morphological damage determined by three fundamental forces: compression, distraction, and axial torque. Vaccaro et al. devised the thoracolumbar injury severity score based on three independent variables: the morphology of the injury, posterior ligamentous complex (PLC) integrity, and neurological status at the time of injury. But, there are limitations to the classification system, especially when magnetic resonance imaging yields a PLC status as indeterminant. In the absence of a universally acceptable classification system, it is important to understand the underlying concepts of the fractures. The author concisely reviews the subject from its inception in the year 1929 to the present day. PMID:26713135

  20. The flower fly genus Allograpta: Classification with description of a new subgenus and species (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new subgenus and one species of flower flies are described from the Neotropical biotic region (Allograpta (Costarica Mengual, Rojo, Ruiz, Ståhls & Thompson), type Allograpta zumbadoi Thompson & Allograpta (Costarica) nishida Thompson, type-locality: Costa Rica, type-depository: Instituto Nacional ...