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Sample records for agrilife classification description

  1. EPA recognizes Texas AandM Agrilife

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Oct. 13, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently recognized Texas A&M Agrilife Research Extension Center at Dallas during the 2015 WaterSmart Innovations Conference and Exposition in Las Vegas, Nev. The center rec

  2. Descriptive and Functional Classifications of Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Albert S.; Stauss, Fred F.

    1977-01-01

    Polydrug (non-opiate-drug) abusers have previously been classified by a variety of typologies that can be characterized as either descriptive, functional, or a combination of both. This investigation proposes two objective scoring systems that classify polydrug users on a streetwise/straight dimension and on a self-medication/recreational-use…

  3. Venus small volcano classification and description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubele, J. C.

    1993-03-01

    The high resolution and global coverage of the Magellan radar image data set allows detailed study of the smallest volcanoes on the planet. A modified classification scheme for volcanoes less than 20 km in diameter is shown and described. It is based on observations of all members of the 556 significant clusters or fields of small volcanoes located and described by this author during data collection for the Magellan Volcanic and Magmatic Feature Catalog. This global study of approximately 10 exp 4 volcanoes provides new information for refining small volcano classification based on individual characteristics. Total number of these volcanoes was estimated to be 10 exp 5 to 10 exp 6 planetwide based on pre-Magellan analysis of Venera 15/16, and during preparation of the global catalog, small volcanoes were identified individually or in clusters in every C1-MIDR mosaic of the Magellan data set. Basal diameter (based on 1000 measured edifices) generally ranges from 2 to 12 km with a mode of 34 km, and follows an exponential distribution similar to the size frequency distribution of seamounts as measured from GLORIA sonar images. This is a typical distribution for most size-limited natural phenomena unlike impact craters which follow a power law distribution and continue to infinitely increase in number with decreasing size. Using an exponential distribution calculated from measured small volcanoes selected globally at random, we can calculate total number possible given a minimum size. The paucity of edifice diameters less than 2 km may be due to inability to identify very small volcanic edifices in this data set; however, summit pits are recognizable at smaller diameters, and 2 km may represent a significant minimum diameter related to style of volcanic eruption. Guest, et al, discussed four general types of small volcanic edifices on Venus: (1) small lava shields; (2) small volcanic cones; (3) small volcanic domes; and (4) scalloped margin domes ('ticks'). Steep

  4. Venus small volcano classification and description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubele, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    The high resolution and global coverage of the Magellan radar image data set allows detailed study of the smallest volcanoes on the planet. A modified classification scheme for volcanoes less than 20 km in diameter is shown and described. It is based on observations of all members of the 556 significant clusters or fields of small volcanoes located and described by this author during data collection for the Magellan Volcanic and Magmatic Feature Catalog. This global study of approximately 10 exp 4 volcanoes provides new information for refining small volcano classification based on individual characteristics. Total number of these volcanoes was estimated to be 10 exp 5 to 10 exp 6 planetwide based on pre-Magellan analysis of Venera 15/16, and during preparation of the global catalog, small volcanoes were identified individually or in clusters in every C1-MIDR mosaic of the Magellan data set. Basal diameter (based on 1000 measured edifices) generally ranges from 2 to 12 km with a mode of 34 km, and follows an exponential distribution similar to the size frequency distribution of seamounts as measured from GLORIA sonar images. This is a typical distribution for most size-limited natural phenomena unlike impact craters which follow a power law distribution and continue to infinitely increase in number with decreasing size. Using an exponential distribution calculated from measured small volcanoes selected globally at random, we can calculate total number possible given a minimum size. The paucity of edifice diameters less than 2 km may be due to inability to identify very small volcanic edifices in this data set; however, summit pits are recognizable at smaller diameters, and 2 km may represent a significant minimum diameter related to style of volcanic eruption. Guest, et al, discussed four general types of small volcanic edifices on Venus: (1) small lava shields; (2) small volcanic cones; (3) small volcanic domes; and (4) scalloped margin domes ('ticks'). Steep

  5. Applying Descriptive Statistics to Teaching the Regional Classification of Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Peter S.; Hammel, Daniel J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an exercise for college and high school students that relates descriptive statistics to the regional climatic classification. The exercise introduces students to simple calculations of central tendency and dispersion, the construction and interpretation of scatterplots, and the definition of climatic regions. Forces students to engage…

  6. Meeting a Growing Demand: Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Demand for professional development training in the early childhood field has grown substantially in recent years. To meet the demand, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Family Development and Resource Management unit developed the Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program, a professional development system that currently offers…

  7. Three-Class Mammogram Classification Based on Descriptive CNN Features

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianni; Jadoon, Adeel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel classification technique for large data set of mammograms using a deep learning method is proposed. The proposed model targets a three-class classification study (normal, malignant, and benign cases). In our model we have presented two methods, namely, convolutional neural network-discrete wavelet (CNN-DW) and convolutional neural network-curvelet transform (CNN-CT). An augmented data set is generated by using mammogram patches. To enhance the contrast of mammogram images, the data set is filtered by contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE). In the CNN-DW method, enhanced mammogram images are decomposed as its four subbands by means of two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2D-DWT), while in the second method discrete curvelet transform (DCT) is used. In both methods, dense scale invariant feature (DSIFT) for all subbands is extracted. Input data matrix containing these subband features of all the mammogram patches is created that is processed as input to convolutional neural network (CNN). Softmax layer and support vector machine (SVM) layer are used to train CNN for classification. Proposed methods have been compared with existing methods in terms of accuracy rate, error rate, and various validation assessment measures. CNN-DW and CNN-CT have achieved accuracy rate of 81.83% and 83.74%, respectively. Simulation results clearly validate the significance and impact of our proposed model as compared to other well-known existing techniques. PMID:28191461

  8. Research on multi-class classification of support vector data description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Minghua; Xiao, Huaitie; Fu, Qiang

    2007-11-01

    Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) is a one-class classification method developed in recent years. It has been used in many fields because of its good performance and high executive efficiency when there are only one-class training samples. It has been proven that SVDD has less support vector numbers, less optimization time and faster testing speed than those of two-class classifier such as SVM. At present, researches and acquirable literatures about SVDD multi-class classification are little, which restricts the SVDD application. One SVDD multi-class classification algorithm is proposed in the paper. Based on minimum distance classification rule, the misclassification in multi-class classification is well solved and by applying the threshold strategy the rejection in multi-class classification is greatly alleviated. Finally, by classifying range profiles of three targets, the effect of kernel function parameter and SNR on the proposed algorithm is investigated and the effectiveness of the algorithm is testified by quantities of experiments.

  9. A systematic method for clinical description and classification of personality variants. A proposal.

    PubMed

    Cloninger, C R

    1987-06-01

    A systematic method for clinical description and classification of both normal and abnormal personality variants is proposed based on a general biosocial theory of personality. Three dimensions of personality are defined in terms of the basic stimulus-response characteristics of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. The possible underlying genetic and neuroanatomical bases of observed variation in these dimensions are reviewed and considered in relation to adaptive responses to environmental challenge. The functional interaction of these dimensions leads to integrated patterns of differential response to novelty, punishment, and reward. The possible tridimensional combinations of extreme (high or low) variants on these basic stimulus-response characteristics correspond closely to traditional descriptions of personality disorders. This reconciles dimensional and categorical approaches to personality description. It also implies that the underlying structure of normal adaptive traits is the same as that of maladaptive personality traits, except for schizotypal and paranoid disorders.

  10. An Abstract Description Approach to the Discovery and Classification of Bioinformatics Web Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Rocco, D; Critchlow, T J

    2003-05-01

    The World Wide Web provides an incredible resource to genomics researchers in the form of dynamic data sources--e.g. BLAST sequence homology search interfaces. The growth rate of these sources outpaces the speed at which they can be manually classified, meaning that the available data is not being utilized to its full potential. Existing research has not addressed the problems of automatically locating, classifying, and integrating classes of bioinformatics data sources. This paper presents an overview of a system for finding classes of bioinformatics data sources and integrating them behind a unified interface. We examine an approach to classifying these sources automatically that relies on an abstract description format: the service class description. This format allows a domain expert to describe the important features of an entire class of services without tying that description to any particular Web source. We present the features of this description format in the context of BLAST sources to show how the service class description relates to Web sources that are being described. We then show how a service class description can be used to classify an arbitrary Web source to determine if that source is an instance of the described service. To validate the effectiveness of this approach, we have constructed a prototype that can correctly classify approximately two-thirds of the BLAST sources we tested. We then examine these results, consider the factors that affect correct automatic classification, and discuss future work.

  11. A Qualitative Description of Chronic Neck Pain has Implications for Outcome Assessment and Classification

    PubMed Central

    MacDermid, Joy C.; Walton, David M.; Bobos, Pavlos; Lomotan, Margaret; Carlesso, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neck pain is common, but few studies have used qualitative methods to describe it. Purpose: To describe the quality, distribution and behavior of neck pain. Methods: Sixteen people (15 females; mean age = 33 years (range = 20-69)) with neck pain >3 months were interviewed using a semi-structured guide. Interview data were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Descriptive content analysis was performed by two authors. Participants then completed an electronic descriptive pain tool, placing icons (word and icon descriptors to describe quality) on anatomic diagrams to identify location of pain, and intensity ratings at each location. This data was triangulated with interviews. Results: Aching pain and stiffness in the posterior neck and shoulder region were the most common pain complaints. All patients reported more than one pain quality. Associated headache was common (11/16 people); but varied in location and pain quality; 13/16 reported upper extremity symptoms. Neuropathic characteristics (burning) or sensory disturbance (numbness/tingling) occurred in some patients, but were less common. Activities that involved lifting/carrying and psychological stress were factors reported as exacerbating pain. Physical activity was valued as essential to function, but also instigated exacerbations. Concordance between the structured pain tool and interviews enhanced trustworthiness of our results. Integrating qualitative findings with a previous classification system derived a 7-axis neck pain classification: source/context, sample subgroup, distribution, duration, episode pattern, pain/symptom severity, disability/participation restriction. Conclusions: Qualitative assessment and classification should consider the multiple dimensions of neck pain. PMID:28217199

  12. Apollo 15 coarse fines (4-10 mm): Sample classification, description and inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, B. N.

    1972-01-01

    A particle by particle binocular microscopic examination of all of the Apollo 15 4-10 mm fines samples is reported. These particles are classified according to their macroscopic lithologic features in order to provide a basis for sample allocations and future study. The relatively large size of these particles renders them too vaulable to permit treatment along with the other bulk fines, yet they are too small (and numerous) to practically receive full individual descriptive treatment as given the larger rock samples. This examination, classification and description of subgroups represents a compromise treatment. In most cases and for many types of investigation the individual particles should be large enough to permit the application of more than one type of analysis.

  13. A/T/N: An unbiased descriptive classification scheme for Alzheimer disease biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David A.; Blennow, Kaj; Carrillo, Maria C.; Feldman, Howard H.; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Hampel, Harald; Jagust, William J.; Johnson, Keith A.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Scheltens, Philip; Sperling, Reisa A.; Dubois, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers have become an essential component of Alzheimer disease (AD) research and because of the pervasiveness of AD pathology in the elderly, the same biomarkers are used in cognitive aging research. A number of current issues suggest that an unbiased descriptive classification scheme for these biomarkers would be useful. We propose the “A/T/N” system in which 7 major AD biomarkers are divided into 3 binary categories based on the nature of the pathophysiology that each measures. “A” refers to the value of a β-amyloid biomarker (amyloid PET or CSF Aβ42); “T,” the value of a tau biomarker (CSF phospho tau, or tau PET); and “N,” biomarkers of neurodegeneration or neuronal injury ([18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose–PET, structural MRI, or CSF total tau). Each biomarker category is rated as positive or negative. An individual score might appear as A+/T+/N−, or A+/T−/N−, etc. The A/T/N system includes the new modality tau PET. It is agnostic to the temporal ordering of mechanisms underlying AD pathogenesis. It includes all individuals in any population regardless of the mix of biomarker findings and therefore is suited to population studies of cognitive aging. It does not specify disease labels and thus is not a diagnostic classification system. It is a descriptive system for categorizing multidomain biomarker findings at the individual person level in a format that is easy to understand and use. Given the present lack of consensus among AD specialists on terminology across the clinically normal to dementia spectrum, a biomarker classification scheme will have broadest acceptance if it is independent from any one clinically defined diagnostic scheme. PMID:27371494

  14. The descriptive nomenclature and classification of growth fabrics in fossil scleractinian reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insalaco, Enzo

    1998-06-01

    genesis is discussed. A review of the classification of reef fabrics suggests that there is currently no adequate system to describe fossil scleractinian growth fabrics. The most commonly used classification of reefal fabrics is that of Embry and Klovan (1971). [Embry, A.F., Klovan, J.E., 1971. A Late Devonian reef tract on northeastern Banks Island, Northwest Territories. Bull. Can. Pet. Geol. 33, 730-781.] There are a number of shortcomings in this scheme which may be grouped into three categories: (1) the interpretative nature of the classification; (2) problems in interpreting biological effect from form; and (3) insufficient categories to adequately describe Mesozoic and Cenozoic growth fabrics. Moreover, there appears to be a lack of a standardised nomenclature for growth fabrics which has hindered meaningful comparisons of scleractinian growth fabrics through time and space. A descriptive system based on a modification and expansion of the Embry and Klovan system (1971) is proposed and a revised nomenclature for growth fabrics presented. The system is designed to be flexible in its application — it can be used simply to describe a growth fabric, or, through the use of genetic and non-genetic modifiers, to imply types of reef-building processes and growth fabric heterogeneity. Although the concepts and terminology discussed in this paper relate to scleractinian growth fabric, they are equally applicable to fabrics comprising other organisms.

  15. Wheezes, crackles and rhonchi: simplifying description of lung sounds increases the agreement on their classification: a study of 12 physicians' classification of lung sounds from video recordings

    PubMed Central

    Melbye, Hasse; Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Brand, Paul; Everard, Mark; Priftis, Kostas; Pasterkamp, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background The European Respiratory Society (ERS) lung sounds repository contains 20 audiovisual recordings of children and adults. The present study aimed at determining the interobserver variation in the classification of sounds into detailed and broader categories of crackles and wheezes. Methods Recordings from 10 children and 10 adults were classified into 10 predefined sounds by 12 observers, 6 paediatricians and 6 doctors for adult patients. Multirater kappa (Fleiss' κ) was calculated for each of the 10 adventitious sounds and for combined categories of sounds. Results The majority of observers agreed on the presence of at least one adventitious sound in 17 cases. Poor to fair agreement (κ<0.40) was usually found for the detailed descriptions of the adventitious sounds, whereas moderate to good agreement was reached for the combined categories of crackles (κ=0.62) and wheezes (κ=0.59). The paediatricians did not reach better agreement on the child cases than the family physicians and specialists in adult medicine. Conclusions Descriptions of auscultation findings in broader terms were more reliably shared between observers compared to more detailed descriptions. PMID:27158515

  16. Harmonization of terminology in developmental toxicology: the quest for a more precise description and a harmonized classification of fetal observations.

    PubMed

    Paumgartten, Francisco; Solecki, Roland; Buschmann, Jochen; Clark, Ruth; Grote, Konstanze; Rauch, Martina; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Harmonization of terminology in developmental toxicology is a prerequisite to ensure a better risk assessment of chemicals. As part of an international effort of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) to harmonize terminology in developmental toxicology, workshops have taken place in Berlin since 1995. This publication reports the main outcomes of the Fifth and Sixth Berlin Workshops held in 2005 and 2007, respectively. The objective of the Fifth workshop was to discuss a draft international proposal for updating the glossary of descriptive terms for fetal abnormalities put forward by Wise et al. [Wise LD, et al. Terminology of developmental abnormalities in common laboratory mammals (version 1). Teratology 1997;55:249-92]. The participants were asked to classify the new external, visceral and skeletal observations included within this new version 2 of Terminology of Developmental Abnormalities in common Laboratory Mammals according to the two-category scheme (malformation and variation) agreed at previous Berlin workshops. The discussions held during the Sixth Workshop were mainly focused on the causes of uncertainty and low agreement regarding classification of some fetal observations as malformations or variations. Lack of precision in descriptive terms and insufficient knowledge of the postnatal consequences of fetal observations had been identified as major causes of uncertainty and lower agreement among evaluators regarding the classification of "grey zone anomalies", i.e. abnormalities that do not fit readily into one of the two categories (malformation or variation). Imprecise anatomical terms, observation terms that are too broad, lack of information on severity and the use of different terms for the same change or different severities of the same change, were found to be the main reasons that descriptive terms are often not sufficiently precise to allow accurate classification of findings. It was agreed that provision of additional

  17. Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  18. Classification and description of bosonic symmetry protected topological phases with semiclassical nonlinear sigma models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Zhen; Rasmussen, Alex; Slagle, Kevin; Xu, Cenke

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we systematically classify and describe bosonic symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases in all physical spatial dimensions using semiclassical nonlinear sigma model (NLSM) field theories. All the SPT phases on a d -dimensional lattice discussed in this paper can be described by the same NLSM, which is an O(d +2 ) NLSM in (d +1 )-dimensional space-time, with a topological Θ term. The field in the NLSM is a semiclassical Landau order parameter with a unit length constraint. The classification of SPT phases discussed in this paper based on their NLSMs is Completely Identical to the more mathematical classification based on group cohomology given in X. Chen, Z.-C. Gu, Z.-X. Liu, and X.-G. Wen, Phys. Rev. B 87, 155114 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.155114 and Science 338, 1604 (2012), 10.1126/science.1227224. Besides the classification, the formalism used in this paper also allows us to explicitly discuss the physics at the boundary of the SPT phases, and it reveals the relation between SPT phases with different symmetries. For example, it gives many of these SPT states a natural "decorated defect" construction.

  19. A classification based framework for quantitative description of large-scale microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Sangurdekar, Dipen P; Srienc, Friedrich; Khodursky, Arkady B

    2006-01-01

    Genome-wide surveys of transcription depend on gene classifications for the purpose of data interpretation. We propose a new information-theoretical-based method to: assess significance of co-expression within any gene group; quantitatively describe condition-specific gene-class activity; and systematically evaluate conditions in terms of gene-class activity. We applied this technique to describe microarray data tracking Escherichia coli transcriptional responses to more than 30 chemical and physiological perturbations. We correlated the nature and breadth of the responses with the nature of perturbation, identified gene group proxies for the perturbation classes and quantitatively compared closely related physiological conditions. PMID:16626502

  20. Hierarchical description and extensive classification of protein structural changes by Motion Tree.

    PubMed

    Koike, Ryotaro; Ota, Motonori; Kidera, Akinori

    2014-02-06

    The structures of the same protein, determined under different conditions, provide clues toward understanding the role of structural changes in the protein's function. Structural changes are usually identified as rigid-body motions, which are defined using a particular threshold of rigidity, such as domain motions. However, each protein actually undergoes motions with various size and magnitude ranges. In this study, to describe protein structural changes more comprehensively, we propose a method based on hierarchical clustering. This method enables the illustration of a wide range of protein motions in a single tree diagram, named the "Motion Tree". We applied the method to 432 proteins exhibiting large structural changes and classified their Motion Trees in terms of the characteristic indices of the trees. This classification of the Motion Trees revealed clear relationships to their protein functions. Especially, complex structural changes are significantly correlated with multi-step protein functions.

  1. Social Determinants and the Classification of Disease: Descriptive Epidemiology of Selected Socially Mediated Disease Constellations

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert S.; Kilbourne, Barbara A.; Rust, George S.; Langston, Michael A.; Husaini, Baqar A.; Gittner, Lisaann S.; Sanderson, Maureen; Hennekens, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Most major diseases have important social determinants. In this context, classification of disease based on etiologic or anatomic criteria may be neither mutually exclusive nor optimal. Methods and Findings Units of analysis comprised large metropolitan central and fringe metropolitan counties with reliable mortality rates – (n = 416). Participants included infants and adults ages 25 to 64 years with selected causes of death (1999 to 2006). Exposures included that residential segregation and race-specific social deprivation variables. Main outcome measures were obtained via principal components analyses with an orthogonal rotation to identify a common factor. To discern whether the common factor was socially mediated, negative binomial multiple regression models were developed for which the dependent variable was the common factor. Results showed that infant deaths, mortality from assault, and malignant neoplasm of the trachea, bronchus and lung formed a common factor for race-gender groups (black/white and men/women). Regression analyses showed statistically significant, positive associations between low socio-economic status for all race-gender groups and this common factor. Conclusions Between 1999 and 2006, deaths classified as “assault” and “lung cancer”, as well as “infant mortality” formed a socially mediated factor detectable in population but not individual data. Despite limitations related to death certificate data, the results contribute important information to the formulation of several hypotheses: (a) disease classifications based on anatomic or etiologic criteria fail to account for social determinants; (b) social forces produce demographically and possibly geographically distinct population-based disease constellations; and (c) the individual components of population-based disease constellations (e.g., lung cancer) are phenotypically comparable from one population to another but genotypically different, in part, because

  2. Classification.

    PubMed

    Tuxhorn, Ingrid; Kotagal, Prakash

    2008-07-01

    In this article, we review the practical approach and diagnostic relevance of current seizure and epilepsy classification concepts and principles as a basic framework for good management of patients with epileptic seizures and epilepsy. Inaccurate generalizations about terminology, diagnosis, and treatment may be the single most important factor, next to an inadequately obtained history, that determines the misdiagnosis and mismanagement of patients with epilepsy. A stepwise signs and symptoms approach for diagnosis, evaluation, and management along the guidelines of the International League Against Epilepsy and definitions of epileptic seizures and epilepsy syndromes offers a state-of-the-art clinical approach to managing patients with epilepsy.

  3. Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2011-01-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. In supervised learning, a set of training examples---examples with known output values---is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate's measurements. This chapter discusses methods to perform machine learning, with examples involving astronomy.

  4. Patient characteristics in low back pain subgroups based on an existing classification system. A descriptive cohort study in chiropractic practice.

    PubMed

    Eirikstoft, Heidi; Kongsted, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Sub-grouping of low back pain (LBP) is believed to improve prediction of prognosis and treatment effects. The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine whether chiropractic patients could be sub-grouped according to an existing pathoanatomically-based classification system, (2) to describe patient characteristics within each subgroup, and (3) to determine the proportion of patients in whom clinicians considered the classification to be unchanged after approximately 10 days. A cohort of 923 LBP patients was included during their first consultation. Patients completed an extensive questionnaire and were examined according to a standardised protocol. Based on the clinical examination, patients were classified into diagnostic subgroups. After approximately 10 days, chiropractors reported whether they considered the subgroup had changed. The most frequent subgroups were reducible and partly reducible disc syndromes followed by facet joint pain, dysfunction and sacroiliac (SI)-joint pain. Classification was inconclusive in 5% of the patients. Differences in pain, activity limitation, and psychological factors were small across subgroups. Within 10 days, 82% were reported to belong to the same subgroup as at the first visit. In conclusion, LBP patients could be classified according to a standardised protocol, and chiropractors considered most patient classifications to be unchanged within 10 days. Differences in patient characteristics between subgroups were very small, and the clinical relevance of the classification system should be investigated by testing its value as a prognostic factor or a treatment effect modifier. It is recommended that this classification system be combined with psychological and social factors if it is to be useful.

  5. Improvement of the Cramer classification for oral exposure using the database TTC RepDose - A strategy description

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present report describes a strategy to refine the current Cramer classification of the TTC concept using a broad database (DB) termed TTC RepDose. Cramer classes 1-3 overlap to some extent, indicating a need for a better separation of structural classes likely to be toxic, mo...

  6. Molecular phylogeny of the manakins (Aves: Passeriformes: Pipridae), with a new classification and the description of a new genus.

    PubMed

    Ohlson, Jan I; Fjeldså, Jon; Ericson, Per G P

    2013-12-01

    The phylogenetic relationships within the manakin family (Pipridae) were investigated with sequence data from three nuclear introns and one mitochondrial protein-coding gene. This study confirms a sister group relationship between Neopelminae and Piprinae. We also find support for dividing the Piprinae into two principal clades: Ilicurini and Piprini. The genera Pipra and Chloropipo are found to be polyphyletic. Chloropipo species are placed in three different clades, including two species in an unresolved position alongside Ilicurini and Piprini. We propose a new classification of the family, where the most important modifications include recognizing the genus Ceratopipra for five species formerly placed in Pipra and the erection of a new genus for Chloropipo holochlora.

  7. Western Hemisphere Zuphiini: descriptions of Coarazuphium whiteheadi, new species, and Zuphioides, new genus, and classification of the genera (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ball, George E.; Shpeley, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Based on small samples (exemplars) analyzed with morphological methods, including detailed descriptions and illustrations, this study treats primarily the Zuphium genus-group in the Western Hemisphere, which comprises two precinctive genera: Coarazuphium Gnaspini, Vanin & Godoy, 1998 (type species Parazuphium tessai Godoy & Vanin, 1990) and Zuphioides gen. n. (type species Zuphium mexicanum Chaudoir, 1863). The genus Coarazuphium includes six troglobitic species from Brazilian caves, and one probably hypogaeic (troglophilic) species from the mountains of Oaxaca, in Mexico (Coarazuphium whiteheadi, sp. n., type locality, ridge top, in western Oaxaca, Mexico, at 2164 m, 35 km north of San Pedro Juchatengo, 16.462N, 97.010W). The epigaeic genus Zuphioides includes 23 species, with its geographical range extended from Neotropical temperate Argentina in southern South America, northward through the tropics to north temperate southeastern Canada, in the Nearctic Region. Keys are provided to the species of Coarazuphium and to thegenera of Western Hemisphere Zuphiini. PMID:23878508

  8. Characterization and classification of Japanese consumer perceptions for beef tenderness using descriptive texture characteristics assessed by a trained sensory panel.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Kitsunai, Katsuhiro; Saito, Yosuke; Hatori, Hikari; Muroya, Susumu; Nomura, Masaru; Miyaguchi, Yuji; Chikuni, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    Meat tenderness is an important characteristic in terms of consumer preference and satisfaction. However, each consumer may have his/her own criteria to judge meat tenderness, because consumers are neither selected nor trained like an expert sensory panel. This study aimed to characterize consumer tenderness using descriptive texture profiles such as chewiness and hardness assessed by a trained panel. Longissimus muscles cooked at four different end-point temperatures were subjected to a trained sensory panel (n=18) and consumer (n=107) tenderness tests. Multiple regression analysis showed that consumer tenderness was characterized as 'low-chewiness and low hardness texture.' Subsequently, consumers were divided into two groups by cluster analysis according to tenderness perceptions in each participant, and the two groups were characterized as 'tenderness is mainly low-chewiness' and 'tenderness is mainly low-hardness' for tenderness perception, respectively. These results demonstrate objective characteristics and variability of consumer meat tenderness, and provide new information regarding the evaluation and management of meat tenderness for meat manufacturers.

  9. Classification of thermophilic actinobacteria isolated from arid desert soils, including the description of Amycolatopsis deserti sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Busarakam, Kanungnid; Brown, Ros; Bull, Alan T; Tan, Geok Yuan Annie; Zucchi, Tiago D; da Silva, Leonardo José; de Souza, Wallace Rafael; Goodfellow, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The taxonomic position of 26 filamentous actinobacteria isolated from a hyper-arid Atacama Desert soil and 2 from an arid Australian composite soil was established using a polyphasic approach. All of the isolates gave the diagnostic amplification product using 16S rRNA oligonucleotide primers specific for the genus Amycolatopsis. Representative isolates had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties typical of members of the genus Amycolatopsis. 16S rRNA gene analyses showed that all of the isolates belong to the Amycolatopsis methanolica 16S rRNA gene clade. The Atacama Desert isolates were assigned to one or other of two recognised species, namely Amycolatopsis ruanii and Amycolatopsis thermalba, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, DNA:DNA relatedness and phenotypic data; emended descriptions are given for these species. In contrast, the two strains from the arid Australian composite soil, isolates GY024(T) and GY142, formed a distinct branch at the periphery of the A. methanolica 16S rRNA phyletic line, a taxon that was supported by all of the tree-making algorithms and by a 100 % bootstrap value. These strains shared a high degree of DNA:DNA relatedness and have many phenotypic properties in common, some of which distinguished them from all of the constituent species classified in the A. methanolica 16S rRNA clade. Isolates GY024(T) and GY142 merit recognition as a new species within the A. methanolica group of thermophilic strains. The name proposed for the new species is Amycolatopsis deserti sp. nov.; the type strain is GY024(T) (=NCIMB 14972(T) = NRRL B-65266(T)).

  10. Characterisation and classification of phylloplane yeasts from Portugal related to the genus Taphrina and description of five novel Lalaria species.

    PubMed

    Inácio, João; Rodrigues, Manuel G; Sobral, Patrícia; Fonseca, Alvaro

    2004-01-01

    Taphrina Fries is a genus of dimorphic ascomycetes comprising more than 90 species distinguished by the specific infections they produce on different vascular plants. Their filamentous states are restricted to parasitised plant tissue whereas the yeast states are saprobic and can be grown on artificial media. The latter coincide with the anamorphic phases and have been given separate nomenclatural status by the erection of the genus Lalaria R.T. Moore. In its original circumscription Lalaria included only 23 yeast states of known species of Taphrina and its creation was then redundant. Here we describe five novel species in the genus Lalaria to accommodate a total of 44 yeast isolates obtained mainly from leaf surfaces (phylloplane) of different plants in Portugal: Lalaria arrabidae sp. nov. (one strain), L. carpini sp. nov. (one strain), L. inositophila sp. nov. (37 strains), L. kurtzmanii sp. nov. (one strain) and L. veronaerambellii sp. nov. (four strains). L. inositophila was notable for its widespread occurrence since it was recovered during two consecutive years from the leaves of miscellaneous plant species. In the absence of sexual states and of unequivocal associations to particular host plants, the taxonomic relationship of the novel species to the yeast states of Taphrina available from culture collections was verified by the comparative analysis of physiological and molecular characteristics. The latter included PCR fingerprinting using single primers for microsatellite regions, sequencing of the 5' end of the 26S rRNA (LSU) gene (D1/D2 domains) and of the ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA spacer regions, and DNA-DNA hybridisation experiments. An emended description of the genus Lalaria is provided.

  11. Classification Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Geoffrey H.

    Sorting things into groups is a basic intellectual task that allows people to simplify with minimal reduction in information. Classification techniques, which include both clustering and discrimination, provide step-by-step computer-based procedures for sorting things based on notions of generalized similarity and on the "class description"…

  12. Description of leprosy classification at baseline among patients enrolled at the uniform multidrug therapy clinical trial for leprosy patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura, Rodrigo Scaliante; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; de Andrade Pontes, Maria Araci; Cruz, Rossilene; de Sá Gonçalves, Heitor; Fernandes Penna, Maria Lúcia; de Araújo Stefani, Mariane Martins; Bührer-Sékula, Samira

    2015-06-01

    The uniform multidrug therapy clinical trial, Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR), database was used to describe and report the performance of available tools to classify 830 leprosy patients as paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) at baseline. In a modified Ridley and Jopling (R&J) classification, considering clinical features, histopathological results of skin biopsies and the slit-skin smear bacterial load results were used as the gold standard method for classification. Anti-phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) serology by ML Flow test, the slit skin smear bacterial load, and the number of skin lesions were evaluated. Considering the R&J classification system as gold standard, ML Flow tests correctly allocated 70% patients in the PB group and 87% in the MB group. The classification based on counting the number of skin lesions correctly allocated 46% PB patients and 99% MB leprosy cases. Slit skin smears properly classified 91% and 97% of PB and MB patients, respectively. Based on U-MDT/CT-BR results, classification of leprosy patients for treatment purposes is unnecessary because it does not impact clinical and laboratories outcomes. In this context, the identification of new biomarkers to detect patients at a higher risk to develop leprosy reactions or relapse remains an important research challenge.

  13. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) with oral rim ducts; description of a new genus and species from Turkey, and discussion of their higher classification within the Pseudococcidae.

    PubMed

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Szita, Éva

    2017-02-03

    A new monotypic mealybug genus with oral rim ducts, Bromusicoccus Kaydan gen. n. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae: Pseudococcinae), is described from Turkey. The higher classification of mealybug genera with oral rim tubular ducts worldwide is discussed and a key is provided to separate them.

  14. Automatic welding quality classification for the spot welding based on the Hopfield associative memory neural network and Chernoff face description of the electrode displacement signal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongjie; Hou, Yanyan; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Lijing; Xi, Tao; Li, Yafeng

    2017-02-01

    To develop an automatic welding quality classification method for the spot welding based on the Chernoff face image created by the electrode displacement signal features, an effective pattern feature extraction method was proposed by which the Chernoff face images were converted to binary ones, and each binary image could be characterized by a binary matrix. According to expression categories on the Chernoff face images, welding quality was classified into five levels and each level just corresponded to a kind of expression. The Hopfield associative memory neural network was used to build a welding quality classifier in which the pattern feature matrices of some weld samples with different welding quality levels were remembered as the stable states. When the pattern feature matrix of a test weld is input into the classifier, it can be converged to the most similar stable state through associative memory, thus, welding quality corresponding to this finally locked stable state can represent the welding quality of the test weld. The classification performance test results show that the proposed method significantly improves the applicability and efficiency of the Chernoff faces technique for spot welding quality evaluation and it is feasible, effective and reliable.

  15. Using a Delphi Technique to Seek Consensus Regarding Definitions, Descriptions and Classification of Terms Related to Implicit and Explicit Forms of Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Kleynen, Melanie; Braun, Susy M.; Bleijlevens, Michel H.; Lexis, Monique A.; Rasquin, Sascha M.; Halfens, Jos; Wilson, Mark R.; Beurskens, Anna J.; Masters, Rich S. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Motor learning is central to domains such as sports and rehabilitation; however, often terminologies are insufficiently uniform to allow effective sharing of experience or translation of knowledge. A study using a Delphi technique was conducted to ascertain level of agreement between experts from different motor learning domains (i.e., therapists, coaches, researchers) with respect to definitions and descriptions of a fundamental conceptual distinction within motor learning, namely implicit and explicit motor learning. Methods A Delphi technique was embedded in multiple rounds of a survey designed to collect and aggregate informed opinions of 49 international respondents with expertise related to motor learning. The survey was administered via an online survey program and accompanied by feedback after each round. Consensus was considered to be reached if ≥70% of the experts agreed on a topic. Results Consensus was reached with respect to definitions of implicit and explicit motor learning, and seven common primary intervention strategies were identified in the context of implicit and explicit motor learning. Consensus was not reached with respect to whether the strategies promote implicit or explicit forms of learning. Discussion The definitions and descriptions agreed upon may aid translation and transfer of knowledge between domains in the field of motor learning. Empirical and clinical research is required to confirm the accuracy of the definitions and to explore the feasibility of the strategies that were identified in research, everyday practice and education. PMID:24968228

  16. Security classification of information

    SciTech Connect

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  17. Music classification with MPEG-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crysandt, Holger; Wellhausen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Driven by increasing amount of music available electronically the need and possibility of automatic classification systems for music becomes more and more important. Currently most search engines for music are based on textual descriptions like artist or/and title. This paper presents a system for automatic music description, classification and visualization for a set of songs. The system is designed to extract significant features of a piece of music in order to find songs of similar genre or a similar sound characteristics. The description is done with the help of MPEG-7 only. The classification and visualization is done with the self organizing map algorithm.

  18. Description of Cobetia amphilecti sp. nov., Cobetia litoralis sp. nov. and Cobetia pacifica sp. nov., classification of Halomonas halodurans as a later heterotypic synonym of Cobetia marina and emended descriptions of the genus Cobetia and Cobetia marina.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Tanaka, Naoto; Svetashev, Vassilii I; Falsen, Enevold

    2013-01-01

    A group of five Gram-negative, aerobic, halotolerant, non-pigmented bacteria isolated from shallow sediment samples and invertebrate specimens collected from the Gulf of Alaska and the Sea of Japan was subjected to taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the novel isolates were affiliated to the genus Cobetia, sharing the highest sequence similarity of 99.3-99.9 % with Cobetia marina DSM 4741(T). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between and among the novel strains and C. marina DSM 4741(T) and Cobetia crustatorum JCM 15644(T) revealed that the five strains represent three separate genospecies, which could be differentiated in their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Halomonas halodurans NBRC 15607(T) was included in this study as it has recently been reported to exhibit high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to C. marina DSM 4741(T), and it showed a high DNA relatedness value of 96 % with C. marina DSM 4741(T), indicating that they belong to the same species. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic characterization, three novel species are proposed, named Cobetia amphilecti sp. nov. (type strain KMM 1561(T) = NRIC 0815(T) = CCUG 49560(T)), Cobetia litoralis sp. nov. (type strain KMM 3880(T) =NRIC 0814(T) =CCUG 49563(T)) and Cobetia pacifica sp. nov. (type strain KMM 3879(T) = NRIC 0813(T) = CCUG 49562(T)). It is also proposed that Halomonas halodurans is a later heterotypic synonym of Cobetia marina, and emended descriptions of the genus Cobetia and the species Cobetia marina are provided.

  19. Challenges in prosthesis classification.

    PubMed

    Robertsson, Otto; Mendenhall, Stan; Paxton, Elizabeth W; Inacio, Maria C S; Graves, Stephen

    2011-12-21

    Accurate prosthesis classification is critical for total joint arthroplasty surveillance and assessment of comparative effectiveness. Historically, prosthesis classification was based solely on the names of the prosthesis manufacturers. As a result, prosthesis designs changed without corresponding name changes, and other prostheses' names changed over time without substantial design modifications. As the number of prostheses used in total joint arthroplasty on the market increased, catalog and lot numbers associated with prosthesis descriptions were introduced by manufacturers. Currently, these catalog and lot numbers are not standardized, and there is no consensus on categorization of these numbers into brands or subbrands. Classification of the attributes of a prosthesis also varies, limiting comparisons of prostheses across studies and reports. The development of a universal prosthesis classification system would standardize prosthesis classification and enhance total joint arthroplasty research collaboration worldwide. This is a current area of focus for the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries (ICOR).

  20. Repulsive-SVDD Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-22

    Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia dat.tran@canberra.edu.au Abstract. Support vector data description (SVDD) is a well-known ker- nel method that constructs a...for the proposed method . Keywords: Repulsive SVDD · Support vector data description · Sup- port vector machine · Classification 1 Introduction...estimate the support of a high-dimensional distribution. Although this method uses a maximal-margin hyperplane instead of a hypersphere to separate the

  1. Poisson Structures:. Towards a Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, J.; Marmo, G.; Perelomov, A. M.

    In the present note we give an explicit description of certain class of Poisson structures. The methods lead to a classification of Poisson structures in low dimensions and suggest a possible approach for higher dimensions.

  2. AEDS Property Classification Code Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Educational Data Systems, Washington, DC.

    The control and inventory of property items using data processing machines requires a form of numerical description or code which will allow a maximum of description in a minimum of space on the data card. An adaptation of a standard industrial classification system is given to cover any expendable warehouse item or non-expendable piece of…

  3. How To Survive a Classification Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, Shelley

    1998-01-01

    Examines job classification studies in public libraries, focusing on point-factor classification systems. Discusses job descriptions, job auditing biases, preparedness, what not to say to auditors, and the appeals process. Outlines typical factors in a job classification: decision-making, guidelines, education, experience, complexity, supervision,…

  4. Classification of microphthalmos and coloboma.

    PubMed Central

    Warburg, M

    1993-01-01

    A new classification of microphthalmos and coloboma is proposed to bring order to the complexity of clinical and aetiological heterogeneity of these conditions. A phenotypic classification is presented which may help the clinician to give a systematic description of the anomalies. The phenotype does not predict the aetiology but a systematic description of ocular and systemic anomalies improves syndrome identification. There are two major classes, total and partial microphthalmos, and a subclassification which follows the embryology of the anomalies. The aetiological classification consists of three classes: (1) genetic (monogenic and chromosomal), (2) prenatally acquired (teratological agents and intrauterine deformations), and (3) associations. Genetic disorders give rise to malformations; prenatally acquired anomalies are disruptions or deformations. The aetiological classification can be applied to other congenital birth defects and improves counselling of families. Recurrence risks vary considerably between the classes. PMID:8411053

  5. Descriptive statistics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications.

  6. Anaphoric Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…

  7. 7 CFR 1794.31 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... environmental classification of projects based on its evaluation of the project description set forth in the... financial assistance. Each project must be sufficiently described to ensure its proper classification. RUS may require the applicant to provide additional information on a project where appropriate. (b)...

  8. [Descriptive statistics].

    PubMed

    Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Descriptive statistics is the branch of statistics that gives recommendations on how to summarize clearly and simply research data in tables, figures, charts, or graphs. Before performing a descriptive analysis it is paramount to summarize its goal or goals, and to identify the measurement scales of the different variables recorded in the study. Tables or charts aim to provide timely information on the results of an investigation. The graphs show trends and can be histograms, pie charts, "box and whiskers" plots, line graphs, or scatter plots. Images serve as examples to reinforce concepts or facts. The choice of a chart, graph, or image must be based on the study objectives. Usually it is not recommended to use more than seven in an article, also depending on its length.

  9. Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Modeling human decision making... Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning Report Title ABSTRACT Modeling human decision making in strategic problem domains is challenging with...an unknown automated opponent. Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning Roi Ceren Department of Computer Science

  10. Bayesian classification theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Robin; Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass system searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit or share model parameters though a class hierarchy. We summarize the mathematical foundations of AutoClass.

  11. The Transporter Classification Database

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.; Reddy, Vamsee S.; Tamang, Dorjee G.; Västermark, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; http://www.tcdb.org) serves as a common reference point for transport protein research. The database contains more than 10 000 non-redundant proteins that represent all currently recognized families of transmembrane molecular transport systems. Proteins in TCDB are organized in a five level hierarchical system, where the first two levels are the class and subclass, the second two are the family and subfamily, and the last one is the transport system. Superfamilies that contain multiple families are included as hyperlinks to the five tier TC hierarchy. TCDB includes proteins from all types of living organisms and is the only transporter classification system that is both universal and recognized by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It has been expanded by manual curation, contains extensive text descriptions providing structural, functional, mechanistic and evolutionary information, is supported by unique software and is interconnected to many other relevant databases. TCDB is of increasing usefulness to the international scientific community and can serve as a model for the expansion of database technologies. This manuscript describes an update of the database descriptions previously featured in NAR database issues. PMID:24225317

  12. Modeling anatomical spatial relations with description logics.

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, S.; Hahn, U.; Romacker, M.

    2000-01-01

    Although spatial relations are essential for the anatomy domain, spatial reasoning is only weakly supported by medical knowledge representation systems. To remedy this shortcoming we express spatial relations that can intuitively be applied to anatomical objects (such as 'disconnected', 'externally connected', 'partial overlap' and 'proper part') within the formal framework of description logics. A special encoding of concept descriptions (in terms of SEP triplets) allows us to emulate spatial reasoning by classification-based reasoning. PMID:11079990

  13. Descriptive thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David; Huntsman, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Thermodynamics (in concert with its sister discipline, statistical physics) can be regarded as a data reduction scheme based on partitioning a total system into a subsystem and a bath that weakly interact with each other. Whereas conventionally, the systems investigated require this form of data reduction in order to facilitate prediction, a different problem also occurs, in the context of communication networks, markets, etc. Such “empirically accessible” systems typically overwhelm observers with the sort of information that in the case of (say) a gas is effectively unobtainable. What is required for such complex interacting systems is not prediction (this may be impossible when humans besides the observer are responsible for the interactions) but rather, description as a route to understanding. Still, the need for a thermodynamical data reduction scheme remains. In this paper, we show how an empirical temperature can be computed for finite, empirically accessible systems, and further outline how this construction allows the age-old science of thermodynamics to be fruitfully applied to them.

  14. Harmonization of description and classification of fetal observations: achievements and problems still unresolved: report of the 7th Workshop on the Terminology in Developmental Toxicology Berlin, 4-6 May 2011.

    PubMed

    Solecki, Roland; Barbellion, Stephane; Bergmann, Brigitte; Bürgin, Heinrich; Buschmann, Jochen; Clark, Ruth; Comotto, Laura; Fuchs, Antje; Faqi, Ali Said; Gerspach, Ralph; Grote, Konstanze; Hakansson, Helen; Heinrich, Verena; Heinrich-Hirsch, Barbara; Hofmann, Thomas; Hübel, Ulrich; Inazaki, Thelma Helena; Khalil, Samia; Knudsen, Thomas B; Kudicke, Sabine; Lingk, Wolfgang; Makris, Susan; Müller, Simone; Paumgartten, Francisco; Pfeil, Rudolf; Rama, Elkiane Macedo; Schneider, Steffen; Shiota, Kohei; Tamborini, Eva; Tegelenbosch, Mariska; Ulbrich, Beate; van Duijnhoven, E A J; Wise, David; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the 7th Workshop on the Terminology in Developmental Toxicology held in Berlin, May 4-6, 2011. The series of Berlin Workshops has been mainly concerned with the harmonization of terminology and classification of fetal anomalies in developmental toxicity studies. The main topics of the 7th Workshop were knowledge on the fate of anomalies after birth, use of Version 2 terminology for maternal-fetal observations and non-routinely used species, reclassification of "grey zone" anomalies and categorization of fetal observations for human health risk assessment. The paucity of data on health consequences of the postnatal permanence of fetal anomalies is relevant and further studies are needed. The Version 2 terminology is an important step forward and the terms listed in this glossary are considered also to be appropriate for most observations in non-routinely used species. Continuation of the Berlin Workshops was recommended. Topics suggested for the next Workshop were grouping of fetal observations for reporting and statistical analysis.

  15. Description, Recognition and Analysis of Biological Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Donggang; Jin, Jesse S.; Luo Suhuai; Pham, Tuan D.; Lai Wei

    2010-01-25

    Description, recognition and analysis biological images plays an important role for human to describe and understand the related biological information. The color images are separated by color reduction. A new and efficient linearization algorithm is introduced based on some criteria of difference chain code. A series of critical points is got based on the linearized lines. The series of curvature angle, linearity, maximum linearity, convexity, concavity and bend angle of linearized lines are calculated from the starting line to the end line along all smoothed contours. The useful method can be used for shape description and recognition. The analysis, decision, classification of the biological images are based on the description of morphological structures, color information and prior knowledge, which are associated each other. The efficiency of the algorithms is described based on two applications. One application is the description, recognition and analysis of color flower images. Another one is related to the dynamic description, recognition and analysis of cell-cycle images.

  16. Remote sensing/vegetation classification. [California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, I. E.

    1981-01-01

    The CALVEG classification system for identification of vegetation is described. This hierarchical system responds to classification requirements and to interpretation of vegetation at various description levels, from site description to broad identification levels. The system's major strength is its flexibility in application of remote sensing technology to assess, describe and communicate data relative to vegetative resources on a state-wide basis. It is concluded that multilevel remote sensing is a cost effective tool for assessment of the natural resource base. The CLAVEG system is found to be an economically efficient tool for both existing and potential vegetation.

  17. A taxonomic review of the anilline genus Zeanillus Jeannel (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidiini) of New Zealand, with descriptions of seven new species, re-classification of the species, and notes on their biogeography and evolution.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Igor M

    2016-11-20

    Based upon external features of adults of the genus Zeanillus ten species are recognized, seven of which are new to science. Because of significant morphological differences, all species are arranged in four subgenera: the nominotypical subgenus Zeanillus, including Z. phyllobius (Broun), Z. punctigerus (Broun), and Z. nunni, new species (New Zealand, South Island, Otago, Trotters George); the monobasic subgenus Brounanillus, new subgenus, including Z. pallidus (Broun); the monobasic subgenus Nunnanillus, new subgenus, including Z. pellucidus, new species (New Zealand, South Island, Otago, Oamaru); and the most species-rich subgenus Otagonillus, new subgenus, including Z. brouni, new species (New Zealand, South Island, Otago, Oamaru), Z. lescheni, new species (New Zealand, South Island, Southland, Waikaia Forest), Z. carltoni, new species (New Zealand, South Island, Otago, Mount Watkin), Z. montivagus, new species (New Zealand, South Island, Otago, North Rough Ridge), and Z. nanus, new species (New Zealand, South Island, Otago, Waipori River Valley). Based on new morphological data, a redescription of genus, redescriptions of previously described species, and descriptions of all new taxa are given and a taxonomic key for all known species is provided. Maps of species distributions and illustrations of main taxonomic characters used in the text are also included. Some biogeographic/evolutionary aspects of Zeanillus origin and diversification are discussed.

  18. Halobacterium noricense sp. nov., an archaeal isolate from a bore core of an alpine Permian salt deposit, classification of Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 as a strain of H. salinarum and emended description of H. salinarum.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Claudia; Legat, Andrea; Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Radax, Christian; Weidler, Gerhard; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2004-12-01

    Two rod-shaped haloarchaeal strains, A1 and A2, were isolated from a bore core from a salt mine in Austria. The deposition of the salt is thought to have occurred during the Permian period (225-280 million years ago). The 16S rDNA sequences of the strains were 97.1% similar to that of the type species of the genus Halobacterium, which was also determined in this work. Polar lipids consisted of C20-C20 derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol, methylated phosphatidylglycerol phosphate, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, triglycosyl diether and sulfated tetraglycosyl diether. Optimal salinity for growth was 15-17.5% NaCl; Mg++ was tolerated up to a concentration of 1 M. The DNA-DNA reassociation value of strain A1T was 25% with H. salinarum DSM 3754T and 41% with Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, respectively. Based on these results and other properties, e.g. whole cell protein patterns, menaquinone content and restriction patterns of DNA, strains A1 and A2 are members of a single species, for which we propose the name H. noricense. The type strain is A1 (DSM 15987T, ATCC BAA-852T, NCIMB 13967T). Since we present evidence that Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 is a member of H. salinarum, an emended description of H. salinarum is provided.

  19. Online clustering algorithms for radar emitter classification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Lee, Jim P Y; Senior; Li, Lingjie; Luo, Zhi-Quan; Wong, K Max

    2005-08-01

    Radar emitter classification is a special application of data clustering for classifying unknown radar emitters from received radar pulse samples. The main challenges of this task are the high dimensionality of radar pulse samples, small sample group size, and closely located radar pulse clusters. In this paper, two new online clustering algorithms are developed for radar emitter classification: One is model-based using the Minimum Description Length (MDL) criterion and the other is based on competitive learning. Computational complexity is analyzed for each algorithm and then compared. Simulation results show the superior performance of the model-based algorithm over competitive learning in terms of better classification accuracy, flexibility, and stability.

  20. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  1. Classification and knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Automated procedures to classify objects are discussed. The classification problem is reviewed, and the relation of epistemology and classification is considered. The classification of stellar spectra and of resolved images of galaxies is addressed.

  2. 24 CFR 3.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Job classification and structure. 3... Activities Prohibited § 3.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  3. 13 CFR 113.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Job classification and structure... Prohibited § 113.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  4. 34 CFR 106.55 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 106.55 Section 106.55... Prohibited § 106.55 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  5. 34 CFR 106.55 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 106.55 Section 106.55... Prohibited § 106.55 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  6. 32 CFR 196.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 196.520... Activities Prohibited § 196.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  7. 13 CFR 113.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Job classification and structure... Prohibited § 113.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  8. 36 CFR 1211.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Job classification and... Activities Prohibited § 1211.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  9. 36 CFR 1211.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Job classification and... Activities Prohibited § 1211.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  10. 24 CFR 3.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Job classification and structure. 3... Activities Prohibited § 3.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  11. 32 CFR 196.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 196.520... Activities Prohibited § 196.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  12. 38 CFR 23.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job classification and... Prohibited § 23.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  13. 38 CFR 23.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Job classification and... Prohibited § 23.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  14. 24 CFR 3.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Job classification and structure. 3... Activities Prohibited § 3.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  15. 13 CFR 113.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Job classification and structure... Prohibited § 113.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  16. 45 CFR 2555.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Job classification and structure. 2555.520 Section... Activities Prohibited § 2555.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  17. 36 CFR 1211.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job classification and... Activities Prohibited § 1211.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  18. 45 CFR 2555.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Job classification and structure. 2555.520 Section... Activities Prohibited § 2555.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  19. 38 CFR 23.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Job classification and... Prohibited § 23.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  20. 34 CFR 106.55 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 106.55 Section 106.55... Prohibited § 106.55 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  1. 32 CFR 196.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 196.520... Activities Prohibited § 196.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  2. 34 CFR 106.55 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 106.55 Section 106.55... Prohibited § 106.55 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  3. 34 CFR 106.55 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 106.55 Section 106.55... Prohibited § 106.55 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  4. 36 CFR 1211.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Job classification and... Activities Prohibited § 1211.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  5. 38 CFR 23.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Job classification and... Prohibited § 23.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  6. 45 CFR 2555.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Job classification and structure. 2555.520 Section... Activities Prohibited § 2555.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  7. 24 CFR 3.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Job classification and structure. 3... Activities Prohibited § 3.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  8. 45 CFR 2555.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Job classification and structure. 2555.520 Section... Activities Prohibited § 2555.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  9. 24 CFR 3.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Job classification and structure. 3... Activities Prohibited § 3.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  10. 45 CFR 2555.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Job classification and structure. 2555.520 Section... Activities Prohibited § 2555.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  11. 13 CFR 113.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Job classification and structure... Prohibited § 113.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  12. 38 CFR 23.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Job classification and... Prohibited § 23.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  13. 13 CFR 113.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Job classification and structure... Prohibited § 113.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for..., seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or...

  14. 32 CFR 196.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 196.520... Activities Prohibited § 196.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  15. 32 CFR 196.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 196.520... Activities Prohibited § 196.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  16. 36 CFR 1211.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Job classification and... Activities Prohibited § 1211.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job... progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions,...

  17. Classification of Behaviorally Defined Disorders: Biology versus the DSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Three levels of investigation underlie all biologically based attempts at classification of behaviorally defined developmental and psychiatric disorders: Level A, pseudo-categorical classification of mostly dimensional descriptions of behaviors and their disorders included in the 2013 American Psychiatric Association's Fifth Edition of the…

  18. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221... requirements. (a) DHS must develop a methodology for describing and documenting the duties, qualifications, and other requirements of categories of jobs, and DHS must make such descriptions and...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221... requirements. (a) DHS must develop a methodology for describing and documenting the duties, qualifications, and other requirements of categories of jobs, and DHS must make such descriptions and...

  20. An Integrative Dimensional Classification of Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widiger, Thomas A.; Livesley, W. John; Clark, Lee Anna

    2009-01-01

    Psychological assessment research concerns how to describe psychological dysfunction in ways that are both valid and useful. Recent advances in assessment research hold the promise of facilitating significant improvements in description and diagnosis. One such contribution is in the classification of personality disorder symptomatology. The…

  1. The CHAT classification of stroke.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, E F; Browse, N L

    1989-02-01

    Current terminology for clinical episodes relating to stroke is inconsistent and unclear, does not permit inclusion of data regarding the location and magnitude of extracranial and intracerebral arterial disease, does not coincide with existing classifications in Europe, and characterizes a hemispheric entity only, as opposed to a global description including prior symptoms in both hemispheres. A new classification system (CHAT) has been designed to deal with these problems, including the current clinical presentation, historical clinical episodes, the site and pathologic type of arterial disease, and information regarding abnormalities of the brain. Using this system, a retrospective review of 480 consecutive carotid endarterectomies is presented, demonstrating the advantages of the CHAT classification. Data include a significant difference in the probability of survival after carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic stenosis in patients with prior symptoms on the opposite side, as well as a significant difference in the probability of stroke-free survival between patients with amaurosis fugax and those with prior carotid cortical symptoms (TIAs) as the presenting clinical condition. The CHAT classification is suggested as a significant advance in the reporting of all surgical cerebrovascular disease experience, and has particular implications for the current randomized trials between medical and surgical therapy for carotid artery disease.

  2. Regionalization in geology by multivariate classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harff, Jan; Davis, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of multivariate classification of "geological objects" can be combined with the concept of regionalized variables to yield a procedure for typification of geological objects, such as rock units, well records, or samples. Numerical classification is followed by subdivision of the area of investigation, and culminates in a regionalization or mapping of the classification onto the plane. Regions are subdivisions of the map area which are spatially contiguous and relatively homogeneous in their geological properties. The probability of correct classification of each point within a region as being part of that region can be assessed in terms of Bayesian probability as a space-dependent function. The procedure is applied to subsurface data from western Kansas. The geologic properties used are quantitative variables, and relationships are expressed by Mahalanobis' distances. These functions could be replaced by other metrics if qualitative or binary data derived from geological descriptions or appraisals were included in the analysis. ?? 1990 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  3. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  4. Marginal erg facies: A trial approach toward a descriptive classification

    SciTech Connect

    Caputo, M.V. ); Langford, R.P. )

    1991-03-01

    During the late 1970s and early 1980s, sedimentologists began recognizing the margins of eolian sand seas as separate, components which differed from interior sand seas in geometry, extent, and facies. Stratigraphers have now observed these differences in eolian rocks. Erg margins may be grouped in five ways: (1) by associations with extradunal environments-coastal plain, lacustrine, periglacial, marine (tidal flat, coastal sabkha, beach, and lagoon), and arid alluvial (alluvial fan, fluvial, playa, inland sabkha); (2) by allocyclic controls-eustasy, plate tectonism, and climate; (3) by autocyclic controls-local tectonism, topography, vegetation, hydrology, structure, sediment source and supply, and wind regime; (4) by geographic position-upwind, downwind, and along-wind margins; and (5) by sedimentary facies-texture and architecture. In contrast with erg interiors, erg margins are characterized by smaller, less complex dune-forms related to thinner sand accumulation; elementary dune architecture; more vegetation and bioturbation; high occurrence of sand sheet, zibar, and serir facies; expansive, low-relief interdunes with widely distributed dunes; and a greater proportion of interbedded extradunal deposits. Some of the published studies on ancient eolian systems have identified erg margin facies that have been influences by marine and arid alluvial processes. Few reports have described lacustrine-eolian and periglacial-eolian interactions. This study is an attempt to organize known features of modern and ancient erg margins into a scheme based on erg margin controls.

  5. Manifold Learning for 3D Shape Description and Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-09

    combat. Recently finished US Army Anthropometric Survey (ANSUR II) has collected 3D body scan data of soldiers at the Natick Solider Center (NSC), as...sizing of virtually every piece of clothing and equipment that Soldiers wear and use in combat. Recently finished US Army Anthropometric Survey (ANSUR... Anthropometric Survey (ANSUR II) has collected 3D body scan data of soldiers at the Natick Solider Center (NSC), as shown in Figure 1. By applying new

  6. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  7. Classification Shell Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etzold, Carol

    1983-01-01

    Discusses shell classification exercises. Through keying students advanced from the "I know what a shell looks like" stage to become involved in the classification process: observing, labeling, making decisions about categories, and identifying marine animals. (Author/JN)

  8. Statistical classification methods applied to seismic discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, F.M.; Anderson, D.N.; Anderson, K.K.; Hagedorn, D.N.; Higbee, K.T.; Miller, N.E.; Redgate, T.; Rohay, A.C.

    1996-06-11

    To verify compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), low energy seismic activity must be detected and discriminated. Monitoring small-scale activity will require regional (within {approx}2000 km) monitoring capabilities. This report provides background information on various statistical classification methods and discusses the relevance of each method in the CTBT seismic discrimination setting. Criteria for classification method selection are explained and examples are given to illustrate several key issues. This report describes in more detail the issues and analyses that were initially outlined in a poster presentation at a recent American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting. Section 2 of this report describes both the CTBT seismic discrimination setting and the general statistical classification approach to this setting. Seismic data examples illustrate the importance of synergistically using multivariate data as well as the difficulties due to missing observations. Classification method selection criteria are presented and discussed in Section 3. These criteria are grouped into the broad classes of simplicity, robustness, applicability, and performance. Section 4 follows with a description of several statistical classification methods: linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis, variably regularized discriminant analysis, flexible discriminant analysis, logistic discriminant analysis, K-th Nearest Neighbor discrimination, kernel discrimination, and classification and regression tree discrimination. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are summarized in Section 5.

  9. Multimedia content description framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Kim, Michelle Yoonk Yung (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Mohan, Rakesh (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A framework is provided for describing multimedia content and a system in which a plurality of multimedia storage devices employing the content description methods of the present invention can interoperate. In accordance with one form of the present invention, the content description framework is a description scheme (DS) for describing streams or aggregations of multimedia objects, which may comprise audio, images, video, text, time series, and various other modalities. This description scheme can accommodate an essentially limitless number of descriptors in terms of features, semantics or metadata, and facilitate content-based search, index, and retrieval, among other capabilities, for both streamed or aggregated multimedia objects.

  10. Local Histograms for Per-Pixel Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Domain-Knowledge-Inspired Math - ematical Framework for the Description and Classification of H&E Stained Histopathology Images,” Proceedings of SPIE, 8138... computed over discrete images as the number of pixels in a particular bin. In order to obtain a “density” independent of the bin-width, one can divide the...Notes in Computer Science , 5112: 688–696 (2008). [12] van Ginneken, Bram and Bart M. ter Haar Romeny. “Applications of Locally Orderless Images

  11. Personality Theory for Aircrew Selection and Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    EPQ Eysenck Personality Questionnaire GPP-I Gordon Personal Profile - Inventory STDCR Guilford Inventory of Factors GAMIN Guilford-Martin Inventory...in Table 1 . Table 1 . Theories Evaluated. Theory Author/Proponent Description Three-factor Eysenck & Eysenck (1985) Structural - trait Fivc-factor...classification. The development of an operational measure of personality traits should follow a four-step procedure: 1 ) identification of

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR BACKFILL EMPLACEMENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) backfill emplacement system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  13. 29 CFR 1952.320 - Description of the plan as initially approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provide laboratory services and will conduct occupational health inspections as scheduled by the Division... descriptions of the job classifications and personnel who will be carrying out the program. Further, the...

  14. 29 CFR 1952.320 - Description of the plan as initially approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provide laboratory services and will conduct occupational health inspections as scheduled by the Division... descriptions of the job classifications and personnel who will be carrying out the program. Further, the...

  15. 29 CFR 1952.320 - Description of the plan as initially approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provide laboratory services and will conduct occupational health inspections as scheduled by the Division... descriptions of the job classifications and personnel who will be carrying out the program. Further, the...

  16. Physics 3204. Course Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfoundland and Labrador Dept. of Education.

    A description of the physics 3204 course in Newfoundland and Labrador is provided. The description includes: (1) statement of purpose, including general objectives of science education; (2) a list of six course objectives; (3) course content for units on sound, light, optical instruments, electrostatics, current electricity, Michael Faraday and…

  17. Descriptive Metadata: Emerging Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahronheim, Judith R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses metadata, digital resources, cross-disciplinary activity, and standards. Highlights include Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML); Extensible Markup Language (XML); Dublin Core; Resource Description Framework (RDF); Text Encoding Initiative (TEI); Encoded Archival Description (EAD); art and cultural-heritage metadata initiatives;…

  18. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  19. Recursive heuristic classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, David C.

    1994-01-01

    The author will describe a new problem-solving approach called recursive heuristic classification, whereby a subproblem of heuristic classification is itself formulated and solved by heuristic classification. This allows the construction of more knowledge-intensive classification programs in a way that yields a clean organization. Further, standard knowledge acquisition and learning techniques for heuristic classification can be used to create, refine, and maintain the knowledge base associated with the recursively called classification expert system. The method of recursive heuristic classification was used in the Minerva blackboard shell for heuristic classification. Minerva recursively calls itself every problem-solving cycle to solve the important blackboard scheduler task, which involves assigning a desirability rating to alternative problem-solving actions. Knowing these ratings is critical to the use of an expert system as a component of a critiquing or apprenticeship tutoring system. One innovation of this research is a method called dynamic heuristic classification, which allows selection among dynamically generated classification categories instead of requiring them to be prenumerated.

  20. Towards a Bernsteinian Language of Description for Mathematics Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straehler-Pohl, Hauke; Gellert, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at developing an external language of description to investigate the problem of why particular groups of students are systematically not provided access to school mathematical knowledge. Based on Basil Bernstein's conceptualisation of power in classification, we develop a three-dimensional model that operationalises the…

  1. Classification of Stellar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    How does a scientist approach the problem of trying to understand countless billions of objects? One of the first steps is to organize the data and set up a classification scheme which can provide the best insights into the nature of the objects. Perception and insight are the main purposes of classification. In astronomy, where there are `billions and billions' of stars, classification is an ong...

  2. Classiology and soil classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    Classiology can be defined as a science studying the principles and rules of classification of objects of any nature. The development of the theory of classification and the particular methods for classifying objects are the main challenges of classiology; to a certain extent, they are close to the challenges of pattern recognition. The methodology of classiology integrates a wide range of methods and approaches: from expert judgment to formal logic, multivariate statistics, and informatics. Soil classification assumes generalization of available data and practical experience, formalization of our notions about soils, and their representation in the form of an information system. As an information system, soil classification is designed to predict the maximum number of a soil's properties from the position of this soil in the classification space. The existing soil classification systems do not completely satisfy the principles of classiology. The violation of logical basis, poor structuring, low integrity, and inadequate level of formalization make these systems verbal schemes rather than classification systems sensu stricto. The concept of classification as listing (enumeration) of objects makes it possible to introduce the notion of the information base of classification. For soil objects, this is the database of soil indices (properties) that might be applied for generating target-oriented soil classification system. Mathematical methods enlarge the prognostic capacity of classification systems; they can be applied to assess the quality of these systems and to recognize new soil objects to be included in the existing systems. The application of particular principles and rules of classiology for soil classification purposes is discussed in this paper.

  3. Land use classification in Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockmann, C. E.; Brooner, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    The Bolivian LANDSAT Program is an integrated, multidisciplinary project designed to provide thematic analysis of LANDSAT, Skylab, and other remotely sensed data for natural resource management and development in Bolivia, is discussed. Among the first requirements in the program is the development of a legend, and appropriate methodologies, for the analysis and classification of present land use based on landscape cover. The land use legend for Bolivia consists of approximately 80 categories in a hierarchical organization which may be collapsed for generalization, or expanded for greater detail. The categories, and their definitions, provide for both a graphic and textual description of the complex and diverse landscapes found in Bolivia, and are designed for analysis from LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data at scales of 1:1,000,000 and 1:250,000. Procedures and example products developed are described and illustrated, for the systematic analysis and mapping of present land use for all of Bolivia.

  4. Textural features for image classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. M.; Dinstein, I.; Shanmugam, K.

    1973-01-01

    Description of some easily computable textural features based on gray-tone spatial dependances, and illustration of their application in category-identification tasks of three different kinds of image data - namely, photomicrographs of five kinds of sandstones, 1:20,000 panchromatic aerial photographs of eight land-use categories, and ERTS multispectral imagery containing several land-use categories. Two kinds of decision rules are used - one for which the decision regions are convex polyhedra (a piecewise-linear decision rule), and one for which the decision regions are rectangular parallelpipeds (a min-max decision rule). In each experiment the data set was divided into two parts, a training set and a test set. Test set identification accuracy is 89% for the photomicrographs, 82% for the aerial photographic imagery, and 83% for the satellite imagery. These results indicate that the easily computable textural features probably have a general applicability for a wide variety of image-classification applications.

  5. Neural network technologies for image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korikov, A. M.; Tungusova, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    We analyze the classes of problems with an objective necessity to use neural network technologies, i.e. representation and resolution problems in the neural network logical basis. Among these problems, image recognition takes an important place, in particular the classification of multi-dimensional data based on information about textural characteristics. These problems occur in aerospace and seismic monitoring, materials science, medicine and other. We reviewed different approaches for the texture description: statistical, structural, and spectral. We developed a neural network technology for resolving a practical problem of cloud image classification for satellite snapshots from the spectroradiometer MODIS. The cloud texture is described by the statistical characteristics of the GLCM (Gray Level Co- Occurrence Matrix) method. From the range of neural network models that might be applied for image classification, we chose the probabilistic neural network model (PNN) and developed an implementation which performs the classification of the main types and subtypes of clouds. Also, we chose experimentally the optimal architecture and parameters for the PNN model which is used for image classification.

  6. Classifications for Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy (PVR): An Analysis of Their Use in Publications over the Last 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kadhim, Mustafa R.; Charteris, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the current and suitable use of current proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) classifications in clinical publications related to treatment. Methods. A PubMed search was undertaken using the term “proliferative vitreoretinopathy therapy”. Outcome parameters were the reported PVR classification and PVR grades. The way the classifications were used in comparison to the original description was analyzed. Classification errors were also included. It was also noted whether classifications were used for comparison before and after pharmacological or surgical treatment. Results. 138 papers were included. 35 of them (25.4%) presented no classification reference or did not use any one. 103 publications (74.6%) used a standardized classification. The updated Retina Society Classification, the first Retina Society Classification, and the Silicone Study Classification were cited in 56.3%, 33.9%, and 3.8% papers, respectively. Furthermore, 3 authors (2.9%) used modified-customized classifications and 4 (3.8%) classification errors were identified. When the updated Retina Society Classification was used, only 10.4% of authors used a full C grade description. Finally, only 2 authors reported PVR grade before and after treatment. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that current classifications are of limited value in clinical practice due to the inconsistent and limited use and that it may be of benefit to produce a revised classification. PMID:27429798

  7. Tensor Modeling Based for Airborne LiDAR Data Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, N.; Liu, C.; Pfeifer, N.; Yin, J. F.; Liao, Z. Y.; Zhou, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Feature selection and description is a key factor in classification of Earth observation data. In this paper a classification method based on tensor decomposition is proposed. First, multiple features are extracted from raw LiDAR point cloud, and raster LiDAR images are derived by accumulating features or the "raw" data attributes. Then, the feature rasters of LiDAR data are stored as a tensor, and tensor decomposition is used to select component features. This tensor representation could keep the initial spatial structure and insure the consideration of the neighborhood. Based on a small number of component features a k nearest neighborhood classification is applied.

  8. An unsupervised classification technique for multispectral remote sensing data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, M. Y.; Cummings, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a two-part clustering technique consisting of (a) a sequential statistical clustering, which is essentially a sequential variance analysis, and (b) a generalized K-means clustering. In this composite clustering technique, the output of (a) is a set of initial clusters which are input to (b) for further improvement by an iterative scheme. This unsupervised composite technique was employed for automatic classification of two sets of remote multispectral earth resource observations. The classification accuracy by the unsupervised technique is found to be comparable to that by traditional supervised maximum-likelihood classification techniques.

  9. Hardware description languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  10. Classification of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Game, Frances

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the relative importance of factors involved in the development of diabetic foot problems can vary in both their presence and severity between patients and lesions. This may be one of the reasons why outcomes seem to vary centre to centre and why some treatments may seem more effective in some people than others. There is a need therefore to classify and describe lesions of the foot in patients with diabetes in a manner that is agreed across all communities but is simple to use in clinical practice. No single system is currently in widespread use, although a number have been published. Not all are well validated outside the system from which they were derived, and it has not always been made clear the clinical purposes to which such classifications should be put to use, whether that be for research, clinical description in routine clinical care or audit. Here the currently published classification systems, their validation in clinical practice, whether they were designed for research, audit or clinical care, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are explored.

  11. Photometric Supernova Classification with Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochner, Michelle; McEwen, Jason D.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Lahav, Ofer; Winter, Max K.

    2016-08-01

    Automated photometric supernova classification has become an active area of research in recent years in light of current and upcoming imaging surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, given that spectroscopic confirmation of type for all supernovae discovered will be impossible. Here, we develop a multi-faceted classification pipeline, combining existing and new approaches. Our pipeline consists of two stages: extracting descriptive features from the light curves and classification using a machine learning algorithm. Our feature extraction methods vary from model-dependent techniques, namely SALT2 fits, to more independent techniques that fit parametric models to curves, to a completely model-independent wavelet approach. We cover a range of representative machine learning algorithms, including naive Bayes, k-nearest neighbors, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and boosted decision trees (BDTs). We test the pipeline on simulated multi-band DES light curves from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. Using the commonly used area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characteristic as a metric, we find that the SALT2 fits and the wavelet approach, with the BDTs algorithm, each achieve an AUC of 0.98, where 1 represents perfect classification. We find that a representative training set is essential for good classification, whatever the feature set or algorithm, with implications for spectroscopic follow-up. Importantly, we find that by using either the SALT2 or the wavelet feature sets with a BDT algorithm, accurate classification is possible purely from light curve data, without the need for any redshift information.

  12. A new surgical classification for temporomandibular joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Dimitroulis, G

    2013-02-01

    The role of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgery is ill-defined, so a universal classification is needed to collate the evidence required to justify the surgical interventions undertaken to treat TMJ disorders. The aim of this article is to introduce a new classification that divides TMJ disorders into 5 categories of escalating degrees of joint disease that can be applied to TMJ surgery. Using a category scale from 1 to 5, with category 1 being normal, and category 5 referring to catastrophic changes to the joint, the new classification will provide the basis for enhanced quantitative and descriptive data collection that can be used in the field of TMJ surgery research and clinical practice. It is hoped that this new classification will form the basis of what will eventually become the universal standard surgical classification of TMJ disorders that will be adopted by both researchers and clinicians so that ultimately, the role of TMJ surgery will be based on evidence rather than conjecture.

  13. Classification of a class of minimal semi-Einstein submanifolds with an integrable conullity distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzoyan, V A

    2008-04-30

    A full local classification and a geometric description of normally flat minimal semi-Einstein submanifolds of Euclidean spaces having multiple principal curvature vectors and an integrable conullity distribution are presented. Bibliography: 30 titles.

  14. Multilayer Perceptrons for Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    retention/ separation rates fu, input to force projection models. The second application concerns the classification of Armor Piercing Incendiary (API...Air Force pilot reten- tion/ separation rates for input to force projection models. The second application concerns the classification of Armor...methodologies for predicting pilot retention/ separation rates for input to personnel inventory projection models were e::plored. Specifically, the multilayer

  15. [Classification of mood disorders in adults].

    PubMed

    Guelfi, J D

    1995-12-01

    The two main classifications of mood disorders currently used are the American system, DSM, the fourth edition of which came out in 1994, and the International Classification of Diseases, the tenth edition of which was published in 1993. These classifications are based on the following broad principles: simple description with no hypothetical aetio-pathogenic discussion, distinction between the various clinical forms in accordance with variety and intensity of symptoms, co-existence of other more or less serious somatic disorders, individual identification of bipolar forms, etc. The key changes made in the classification of mood disorders between the revised version of DSMIII published in 1987 and DSM-IV published in 1994 suggest that a greater degree of concordance in diagnosis between different practitioners may be expected in future. In addition, certain changes such as the therapeutic decision-trees will most likely have an impact on practice. In this way, further details are added to the clinical criteria of duration or description of the clinical features seen, thereby allowing a clearer distinction to be made between normality and the onset of the pathology in question. Regarding bipolar disorders, the general organisation of the classification and the terminology used have been extensively revised, with the distinction between types I and II becoming official. Furthermore, differentiation between certain aspects of depression emphasises the frequency of certain clinical particularities, either in the onset or during the course of these disorders. This is true of melancholic, catatonic and atypical features specifiers (i.e. with mood reactivity and interpersonal rejection sensitivity), post-partum onset specifier, seasonal pattern specifier and rapid-cycling specifier. Finally, a certain number of specifications are proposed allowing the postulation of notions of complete or partial cure between episodes in case of recurrence.

  16. DOE LLW classification rationale

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, A.Y.

    1991-09-16

    This report was about the rationale which the US Department of Energy had with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) classification. It is based on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s classification system. DOE site operators met to review the qualifications and characteristics of the classification systems. They evaluated performance objectives, developed waste classification tables, and compiled dose limits on the waste. A goal of the LLW classification system was to allow each disposal site the freedom to develop limits to radionuclide inventories and concentrations according to its own site-specific characteristics. This goal was achieved with the adoption of a performance objectives system based on a performance assessment, with site-specific environmental conditions and engineered disposal systems.

  17. DOE LLW classification rationale

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, A.Y.

    1991-09-16

    This report was about the rationale which the US Department of Energy had with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) classification. It is based on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's classification system. DOE site operators met to review the qualifications and characteristics of the classification systems. They evaluated performance objectives, developed waste classification tables, and compiled dose limits on the waste. A goal of the LLW classification system was to allow each disposal site the freedom to develop limits to radionuclide inventories and concentrations according to its own site-specific characteristics. This goal was achieved with the adoption of a performance objectives system based on a performance assessment, with site-specific environmental conditions and engineered disposal systems.

  18. A Philosophical Approach to Describing Science Content: An Example From Geologic Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Fred N.

    1981-01-01

    Examines how research of philosophers of science may be useful to science education researchers and curriculum developers in the development of descriptions of science content related to classification schemes. Provides examples of concept analysis of two igneous rock classification schemes. (DS)

  19. Levels of Deficits or Supports in the Classification of Mental Retardation: Implementation Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polloway, Edward A.; Chamberlain, Jolie; Denning, Christopher B.; Smith, J. David; Smith, Tom E. C.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the application of levels of deficits or supports in the classification of mental retardation in published research. Analysis of data from three professional journals indicated that the supports model of classification has had no significant impact in subject descriptions reported in mental-retardation research. Implications for teacher…

  20. Classification of almost toric singularities of Lagrangian foliations

    SciTech Connect

    Izosimov, Anton M

    2011-07-31

    The topological classification is given of almost toric singularities of integrable Hamiltonian systems with a large number of degrees of freedom, that is, of nondegenerate singularities without hyperbolic components. A descriptive geometric model is constructed, which makes it possible to perform effective calculations. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  1. Inferring heuristic classification hierarchies from natural language input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Richard; Gomez, Fernando

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for inferring hierarchies representing heuristic knowledge about the check out, control, and monitoring sub-system (CCMS) of the space shuttle launch processing system from natural language input is explained. Our method identifies failures explicitly and implicitly described in natural language by domain experts and uses those descriptions to recommend classifications for inclusion in the experts' heuristic hierarchies.

  2. PADMA: PArallel Data Mining Agents for scalable text classification

    SciTech Connect

    Kargupta, H.; Hamzaoglu, I.; Stafford, B.

    1997-03-01

    This paper introduces PADMA (PArallel Data Mining Agents), a parallel agent based system for scalable text classification. PADMA contains modules for (1) parallel data accessing operations, (2) parallel hierarchical clustering, and (3) web-based data visualization. This paper introduces the general architecture of PADMA and presents a detailed description of its different modules.

  3. Teaching Descriptive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashers, H. C.

    1968-01-01

    As the inexperienced writer becomes aware of the issues involved in the composition of effective descriptive prose, he also develops a consistent control over his materials. The persona he chooses, if coherently thought out, can function as an index of many choices, helping him to manipulate the tone, intent, and mood of this style; to regulate…

  4. Andrew integrated reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Andrew field is an oil and gas accumulation in Palaeocene deep marine sands in the Central North Sea. It is currently being developed with mainly horizontal oil producers. Because of the field`s relatively small reserves (mean 118 mmbbls), the performance of each of the 10 or so horizontal wells is highly important. Reservoir description work at sanction time concentrated on supporting the case that the field could be developed commercially with the minimum number of wells. The present Integrated Reservoir Description (IRD) is focussed on delivering the next level of detail that will impact the understanding of the local reservoir architecture and dynamic performance of each well. Highlights of Andrew IRD Include: (1) Use of a Reservoir Uncertainty Statement (RUS) developed at sanction time to focus the descriptive effort of both asset, support and contract petrotechnical staff, (2) High resolution biostratigraphic correlation to support confident zonation of the reservoir, (3) Detailed sedimentological analysis of the core including the use of dipmeter to interpret channel/sheet architecture to provide new insights into reservoir heterogeneity; (4) Integrated petrographical and petrophysical investigation of the controls on Sw-Height and relative permeability of water; (5) Fluids description using oil geochemistry and Residual Salt Analysis Sr isotope studies. Andrew IRD has highlighted several important risks to well performance, including the influence of more heterolithic intervals on gas breakthrough and the controls on water coning exerted by suppressed water relative permeability in the transition zone.

  5. Andrew integrated reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Andrew field is an oil and gas accumulation in Palaeocene deep marine sands in the Central North Sea. It is currently being developed with mainly horizontal oil producers. Because of the field's relatively small reserves (mean 118 mmbbls), the performance of each of the 10 or so horizontal wells is highly important. Reservoir description work at sanction time concentrated on supporting the case that the field could be developed commercially with the minimum number of wells. The present Integrated Reservoir Description (IRD) is focussed on delivering the next level of detail that will impact the understanding of the local reservoir architecture and dynamic performance of each well. Highlights of Andrew IRD Include: (1) Use of a Reservoir Uncertainty Statement (RUS) developed at sanction time to focus the descriptive effort of both asset, support and contract petrotechnical staff, (2) High resolution biostratigraphic correlation to support confident zonation of the reservoir, (3) Detailed sedimentological analysis of the core including the use of dipmeter to interpret channel/sheet architecture to provide new insights into reservoir heterogeneity; (4) Integrated petrographical and petrophysical investigation of the controls on Sw-Height and relative permeability of water; (5) Fluids description using oil geochemistry and Residual Salt Analysis Sr isotope studies. Andrew IRD has highlighted several important risks to well performance, including the influence of more heterolithic intervals on gas breakthrough and the controls on water coning exerted by suppressed water relative permeability in the transition zone.

  6. [Classification of cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Asakura, Masanori; Kitakaze, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a group of cardiovascular diseases with poor prognosis. Some patients with dilated cardiomyopathy need heart transplantations due to severe heart failure. Some patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy die unexpectedly due to malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Various phenotypes of cardiomyopathies are due to the heterogeneous group of diseases. The classification of cardiomyopathies is important and indispensable in the clinical situation. However, their classification has not been established, because the causes of cardiomyopathies have not been fully elucidated. We usually use definition and classification offered by WHO/ISFC task force in 1995. Recently, several new definitions and classifications of the cardiomyopathies have been published by American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology and Japanese Circulation Society.

  7. Delaware Alternative Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the species designation and taxonomies of Delaware and Algonkian and presents eight classifications of taxa by form, habitat, color, movement, sound, use, relationship, and appearance. Relevant research is also reviewed. (CLK)

  8. Postprocessing classification images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, E. P.

    1979-01-01

    Program cleans up remote-sensing maps. It can be used with existing image-processing software. Remapped images closely resemble familiar resource information maps and can replace or supplement classification images not postprocessed by this program.

  9. A simplistic approach to structural dysplasia assessment: description and validation.

    PubMed Central

    Battinelli, T.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate a simplistic method of assessing human structural dysplasia and to validate a classification system that would objectively categorize the type and extent of such dysplasia through the use of indices. Anthropometric measurements were taken from a sample of 222 male college students, length/breadth ratios were formulated, and upper/lower body classifications were made in terms of type and subtype dysplasia. Correlation validation results were highly significant. Body composition data information was also provided for descriptive purposes. Images p23-a PMID:6722420

  10. What should an ideal spinal injury classification system consist of? A methodological review and conceptual proposal for future classifications

    PubMed Central

    Audigé, Laurent; Hanson, Beate; Chapman, Jens R.; Hosman, Allard J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Since Böhler published the first categorization of spinal injuries based on plain radiographic examinations in 1929, numerous classifications have been proposed. Despite all these efforts, however, only a few have been tested for reliability and validity. This methodological, conceptual review summarizes that a spinal injury classification system should be clinically relevant, reliable and accurate. The clinical relevance of a classification is directly related to its content validity. The ideal content of a spinal injury classification should only include injury characteristics of the vertebral column, is primarily based on the increasingly routinely performed CT imaging, and is clearly distinctive from severity scales and treatment algorithms. Clearly defined observation and conversion criteria are crucial determinants of classification systems’ reliability and accuracy. Ideally, two principle spinal injury characteristics should be easy to discern on diagnostic images: the specific location and morphology of the injured spinal structure. Given the current evidence and diagnostic imaging technology, descriptions of the mechanisms of injury and ligamentous injury should not be included in a spinal injury classification. The presence of concomitant neurologic deficits can be integrated in a spinal injury severity scale, which in turn can be considered in a spinal injury treatment algorithm. Ideally, a validation pathway of a spinal injury classification system should be completed prior to its clinical and scientific implementation. This review provides a methodological concept which might be considered prior to the synthesis of new or modified spinal injury classifications. PMID:20464432

  11. Adaptive Gaussian Pattern Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    redundant model of the data to be used in classification . There are two classes of learning, or adaptation schemes. The first, unsupervised learning...37, No. 3, pp. 242-247, 1983. [2] E. F. Codd, Cellular Automata , Academic Press, 1968. [31 H. Everett, G. Gilbreath, S. Alderson, D. J. Marchette...Na al Oca aytm aete !JTI FL E COPY AD-A 199 030 Technical Document 1335 August 1988 Adaptive Gaussian Pattern Classif ication C. E. Priebe D. J

  12. Toward mechanistic classification of enzyme functions.

    PubMed

    Almonacid, Daniel E; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2011-06-01

    Classification of enzyme function should be quantitative, computationally accessible, and informed by sequences and structures to enable use of genomic information for functional inference and other applications. Large-scale studies have established that divergently evolved enzymes share conserved elements of structure and common mechanistic steps and that convergently evolved enzymes often converge to similar mechanisms too, suggesting that reaction mechanisms could be used to develop finer-grained functional descriptions than provided by the Enzyme Commission (EC) system currently in use. Here we describe how evolution informs these structure-function mappings and review the databases that store mechanisms of enzyme reactions along with recent developments to measure ligand and mechanistic similarities. Together, these provide a foundation for new classifications of enzyme function.

  13. Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham

    2016-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  14. Classification and prioritization of usability problems using an augmented classification scheme.

    PubMed

    Khajouei, R; Peute, L W P; Hasman, A; Jaspers, M W M

    2011-12-01

    Various methods exist for conducting usability evaluation studies in health care. But although the methodology is clear, no usability evaluation method provides a framework by which the usability reporting activities are fully standardized. Despite the frequent use of forms to report the usability problems and their context-information, this reporting is often hindered by information losses. This is due to the fact that evaluators' problem descriptions are based on individual judgments of what they find salient about a usability problem at a certain moment in time. Moreover, usability problems are typically classified in terms of their type, number, and severity. These classes are usually devised by the evaluator for the purpose at hand and the used problem types often are not mutually exclusive, complete and distinct. Also the impact of usability problems on the task outcome is usually not taken into account. Consequently, problem descriptions are often vague and even when combined with their classification in type or severity leave room for multiple interpretations when discussed with system designers afterwards. Correct interpretation of these problem descriptions is then highly dependent upon the extent to which the evaluators can retrieve relevant details from memory. To remedy this situation a framework is needed guiding usability evaluators in high quality reporting and unique classification of usability problems. Such a framework should allow the disclosure of the underlying essence of problem causes, the severity rating and the classification of the impact of usability problems on the task outcome. The User Action Framework (UAF) is an existing validated classification framework that allows the unique classification of usability problems, but it does not include a severity rating nor does it contain an assessment of the potential impact of usability flaws on the final task outcomes. We therefore augmented the UAF with a severity rating based on Nielsen

  15. On a production system using default reasoning for pattern classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Lowe, Carlyle M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses an unconventional application of a production system to a problem involving belief specialization. The production system reduces a large quantity of low-level descriptions into just a few higher-level descriptions that encompass the problem space in a more tractable fashion. This classification process utilizes a set of descriptions generated by combining the component hierarchy of a physical system with the semantics of the terminology employed in its operation. The paper describes an application of this process in a program, constructed in C and CLIPS, that classifies signatures of electromechanical system configurations. The program compares two independent classifications, describing the actual and expected system configurations, in order to generate a set of contradictions between the two.

  16. Classification of TTV and related viruses (anelloviruses).

    PubMed

    Biagini, P

    2009-01-01

    Ten years after the identification of the first partial sequences of Torque teno virus (TTV), more than 200 full-length related genomes have been characterized in humans and in several animal species. As suspected in the earlier stages of their description, a considerable genetic variability characterizes TTV and related viruses, the current members of the floating genus Anellovirous. Since information related to anelloviruses diversity is in constant evolution, the challenge in their taxonomic classification is to take into account all pertinent parameters, along with the taxonomic situation of other viruses having circular single-stranded DNA genomes. Past, present and future phylogenetic and taxonomic considerations are exposed.

  17. Bosniak classification for complex renal cysts: history and critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Muglia, Valdair F; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The Bosniak classification for renal cysts was developed in the late 1980s in an attempt to standardize the description and management of complex cystic renal lesions. Alterations were made to such a classification in the 1990s and, the last one, in 2005. Currently, five categories of cystic renal lesions are defined - namely, I, II, II-F, III and IV -, according to their degree of complexity and likelihood of malignancy. Despite being initially described for computed tomography, this classification has been also utilized with some advantages also for magnetic resonance imaging. The present article reviews the different phases of this classification, its diagnostic efficacy and the most controversial features of its use.

  18. Catchment classification by means of hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellebrand, Hugo; Ley, Rita; Casper, Markus

    2013-04-01

    for catchment description and clustering. Hence, the classes do not only represent a distinctive hydrological regime, but also provide information on specific quantitative aspects that are directly linked to a certain model structure. The clustering that is based on model structures or model parameters are validated by the classifications based on SOM and are thus related to physiographic and climatic catchment properties and runoff behaviour, which provides insight into catchment functioning. Clustering based on model structures can be a fast and simple way of catchment classification. A database consistently relates input data and output data; model structures and model performance and allows formulating distinctive processes that are attached to a class. Thus, the final result of the study is a powerful classification tool that helps to formulate generalizations based on observations and testable hypotheses (i.e. model structures).

  19. Reasoning about scene descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    DiManzo, M.; Adorni, G.; Giunchiglia, F.

    1986-07-01

    When a scene is described by means of natural language sentences, many details are usually omitted, because they are not in the focus of the conversation. Moreover, natural language is not the best tool to define precisely positions and spatial relationships. The process of interpreting ambiguous statements and inferring missing details involves many types of knowledge, from linguistics to physics. This paper is mainly concerned with the problem of modeling the process of understanding descriptions of static scenes. The specific topics covered by this work are the analysis of the meaning of spatial prepositions, the problem of the reference system and dimensionality, the activation of expectations about unmentioned objects, the role of default knowledge about object positions and its integration with contextual information sources, and the problem of space representation. The issue of understanding dynamic scenes descriptions is briefly approached in the last section.

  20. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.Y.

    1993-08-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  1. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Teresa Y. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm.

  2. Management control system description

    SciTech Connect

    Bence, P. J.

    1990-10-01

    This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Concepts of Classification and Taxonomy Phylogenetic Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraix-Burnet, D.

    2016-05-01

    Phylogenetic approaches to classification have been heavily developed in biology by bioinformaticians. But these techniques have applications in other fields, in particular in linguistics. Their main characteristics is to search for relationships between the objects or species in study, instead of grouping them by similarity. They are thus rather well suited for any kind of evolutionary objects. For nearly fifteen years, astrocladistics has explored the use of Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) for astronomical objects like galaxies or globular clusters. In this lesson we will learn how it works.

  4. The repeatability of vegetation classification and mapping.

    PubMed

    Hearn, S M; Healey, J R; McDonald, M A; Turner, A J; Wong, J L G; Stewart, G B

    2011-04-01

    The mapping of habitats as defined by plant communities is a common component of the planning and monitoring of conservation management. However, there are major concerns about the subjectivity and risk of observer bias in most commonly used plant community mapping protocols. This study provides the first test of the consistency of habitat maps based on the mapping units defined by the National Vegetation Classification (NVC), the most widely used classification of plant communities used for habitat mapping on conservation sites in the UK. Seven surveyors mapped the same upland site within five weeks in summer 2008 and the spatial correspondence of the resulting maps was assessed. The NVC is a hierarchical classification and pair-wise spatial agreement between maps decreased with lower levels of sub-classification. The average area of agreement between maps was 77.6% at the habitat level, 34.2% at the community level and 18.5% at the sub-community level. Spatial disparity in the location of mapped boundaries between vegetation types only made a small contribution to overall differences; the majority of variation between maps was due to discrepancies in classification, with vegetation types containing similar species composition most often confused. Factors relating to surveyor effort (cost, time taken and length of route) were not able to explain the substantial differences between maps. However, the methods used to assign areas to vegetation type did seem to have an effect, with surveyors who relied primarily on their own experience having the highest levels of mean agreement with other maps. The study raises serious concerns with current practice of using the NVC for site description and monitoring/surveillance. Since this is just a single case study, we recommend that further work is carried out with the aim of determining the degree and source of variation between surveyors and how consistency can be increased.

  5. Appropriate medical data categorization for data mining classification techniques.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shang-Chih; Lee, I-Nong

    2002-03-01

    Some data mining (DM) methods, or software tools, require normalized data, others rely on categorized data, and some can accommodate multiple data scales. Each DM technique has a specific background theory; therefore, different results are expected when applying multiple methods. The purpose of this study is to find the data format appropriate for each DM classification technique for wider applications, and efficiently to obtain trustworthy results. Considering the nature of medical data, categorical variables are sometimes useful for making decisions and can make it easier to extrapolate knowledge. In this study, three mathematical data categorization methods (Fusinter, minimum description length principle [MDLPC] and Chi-merge) were applied to accommodate five data mining classification techniques (statistics discriminant analysis, supervised classification with Neural Networks, Decision trees, Genetic supervised clustering and Bayesian classification [probability neural networks; PNN]) using a heart disease database with four types of data (continuous data, binary data, nominal data, and ordinal data). Compared with original or normalized data, data categorized by the MDLPC categorization method was found to perform better in most of the DM classification techniques used in this study. Categorical data is good for most DM classification techniques (e.g. classification of disease and non-disease groups) and is relatively easy to use for extracting medical knowledge.

  6. Commission 45: Spectral Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giridhar, Sunetra; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.; Eyer, Laurent; Irwin, Michael J.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Majewski, Steven; Minniti, Dante; Nordström, Birgitta

    This report gives an update of developments (since the last General Assembly at Prague) in the areas that are of relevance to the commission. In addition to numerous papers, a new monograph entitled Stellar Spectral Classification with Richard Gray and Chris Corbally as leading authors will be published by Princeton University Press as part of their Princeton Series in Astrophysics in April 2009. This book is an up-to-date and encyclopedic review of stellar spectral classification across the H-R diagram, including the traditional MK system in the blue-violet, recent extensions into the ultraviolet and infrared, the newly defined L-type and T-type spectral classes, as well as spectral classification of carbon stars, S-type stars, white dwarfs, novae, supernovae and Wolf-Rayet stars.

  7. Information gathering for CLP classification.

    PubMed

    Marcello, Ida; Giordano, Felice; Costamagna, Francesca Marina

    2011-01-01

    Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP). If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requirements of Annex I of the CLP Regulation. CLP appoints that the harmonised classification will be performed for carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction substances (CMR substances) and for respiratory sensitisers category 1 and for other hazard classes on a case-by-case basis. The first step of classification is the gathering of available and relevant information. This paper presents the procedure for gathering information and to obtain data. The data quality is also discussed.

  8. The Genre of Technical Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michael P.

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes recent research into systems of lexical and grammatical cohesion in technical description. Discusses various methods by which technical writers "re-enter" the topic of description back into the text in successive sentences. (HTH)

  9. MCO Monitoring activity description

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-11-09

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description.

  10. Hybrid Classification of Pulmonary Nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. L. A.; Kouzani, A. Z.; Hu, E. J.

    Automated classification of lung nodules is challenging because of the variation in shape and size of lung nodules, as well as their associated differences in their images. Ensemble based learners have demonstrated the potentialof good performance. Random forests are employed for pulmonary nodule classification where each tree in the forest produces a classification decision, and an integrated output is calculated. A classification aided by clustering approach is proposed to improve the lung nodule classification performance. Three experiments are performed using the LIDC lung image database of 32 cases. The classification performance and execution times are presented and discussed.

  11. Flotation classification of ultrafine particles -- A novel classification approach

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Guanzhou; Luo Lin; Hu Yuehua; Xu Jin; Wang Dianzuo

    1995-12-31

    This paper introduces a novel classification approach named the flotation classification approach which works by controlling interactions between particles. It differs considerably from the conventional classification processes operating on mechanical forces. In the present test, the micro-bubble flotation technology is grafted onto hydro-classification. Selective aggregation and dispersion of ultrafine particles are achieved through governing the interactions in the classification process. A series of laboratory classification tests for {minus}44 gm kaolin have been conducted on a classification column. As a result, about 92% recovery for minus 2 {micro}m size fraction Kaolin in the final product is obtained. In addition, two criteria for the classification are set up. Finally, a principle of classifying and controlling the interactions between particles is discussed in terms of surface thermodynamics and hydrodynamics.

  12. Three Approaches to Descriptive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart

    This report compares three approaches to descriptive research, focusing on the kinds of descriptions developed and on the methods used to develop the descriptions. The main emphasis in all three approaches is on verbal data. In these approaches the importance of interpretation and its intuitive nature are emphasized. The three approaches, however,…

  13. Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

  14. Shark Teeth Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tom; Creel, Sally; Lee, Velda

    2009-01-01

    On a recent autumn afternoon at Harmony Leland Elementary in Mableton, Georgia, students in a fifth-grade science class investigated the essential process of classification--the act of putting things into groups according to some common characteristics or attributes. While they may have honed these skills earlier in the week by grouping their own…

  15. The Classification Conundrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    Argues against the five-kingdom scheme of classification as using inconsistent criteria, ending up with divisions that are forced, not natural. Advocates an approach using cell type/complexity and modification of the metabolic machinery, recommending the five-kingdom scheme as starting point for class discussion on taxonomy and its conceptual…

  16. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  17. Soil Classification and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This instructional unit was designed to enable students, primarily at the secondary level, to (1) classify soils according to current capability classifications of the Soil Conservation Service, (2) select treatments needed for a given soil class according to current recommendations provided by the Soil Conservation Service, and (3) interpret a…

  18. The Biglan Classification Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoecker, Judith L.

    This study replicated previous research that tested the validity of A. Biglan's classification scheme, a theoretical framework for empirically examining the differences among academic disciplines and classifying them according to three dimensions (hard-soft, pure-applied, life-nonlife). In addition, new data were used to attempt continued…

  19. The new revised classification of acute pancreatitis 2012.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Michael G; Banks, Peter A; Bollen, Thomas L; Dervenis, Christos; Gooszen, Hein G; Johnson, Colin D; Tsiotos, Gregory G; Vege, Santhi Swaroop

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to update the 1991 Atlanta Classification of acute pancreatitis, to standardize the reporting of and terminology of the disease and its complications. Important features of this classification have incorporated new insights into the disease learned over the last 20 years, including the recognition that acute pancreatitis and its complications involve a dynamic process involving two phases, early and late. The accurate and consistent description of acute pancreatitis will help to improve the stratification and reporting of new methods of care of acute pancreatitis across different practices, geographic areas, and countries.

  20. Texture classification of lung computed tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pheng, Hang See; Shamsuddin, Siti M.

    2013-03-01

    Current development of algorithms in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme is growing rapidly to assist the radiologist in medical image interpretation. Texture analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans is one of important preliminary stage in the computerized detection system and classification for lung cancer. Among different types of images features analysis, Haralick texture with variety of statistical measures has been used widely in image texture description. The extraction of texture feature values is essential to be used by a CAD especially in classification of the normal and abnormal tissue on the cross sectional CT images. This paper aims to compare experimental results using texture extraction and different machine leaning methods in the classification normal and abnormal tissues through lung CT images. The machine learning methods involve in this assessment are Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS), Naive Bayes, Decision Tree (J48) and Backpropagation Neural Network. AIRS is found to provide high accuracy (99.2%) and sensitivity (98.0%) in the assessment. For experiments and testing purpose, publicly available datasets in the Reference Image Database to Evaluate Therapy Response (RIDER) are used as study cases.

  1. Fast Image Texture Classification Using Decision Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Texture analysis would permit improved autonomous, onboard science data interpretation for adaptive navigation, sampling, and downlink decisions. These analyses would assist with terrain analysis and instrument placement in both macroscopic and microscopic image data products. Unfortunately, most state-of-the-art texture analysis demands computationally expensive convolutions of filters involving many floating-point operations. This makes them infeasible for radiation- hardened computers and spaceflight hardware. A new method approximates traditional texture classification of each image pixel with a fast decision-tree classifier. The classifier uses image features derived from simple filtering operations involving integer arithmetic. The texture analysis method is therefore amenable to implementation on FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware. Image features based on the "integral image" transform produce descriptive and efficient texture descriptors. Training the decision tree on a set of training data yields a classification scheme that produces reasonable approximations of optimal "texton" analysis at a fraction of the computational cost. A decision-tree learning algorithm employing the traditional k-means criterion of inter-cluster variance is used to learn tree structure from training data. The result is an efficient and accurate summary of surface morphology in images. This work is an evolutionary advance that unites several previous algorithms (k-means clustering, integral images, decision trees) and applies them to a new problem domain (morphology analysis for autonomous science during remote exploration). Advantages include order-of-magnitude improvements in runtime, feasibility for FPGA hardware, and significant improvements in texture classification accuracy.

  2. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    PubMed Central

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and

  3. Efficient Fingercode Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong-Wei; Law, Kwok-Yan; Gollmann, Dieter; Chung, Siu-Leung; Li, Jian-Bin; Sun, Jia-Guang

    In this paper, we present an efficient fingerprint classification algorithm which is an essential component in many critical security application systems e. g. systems in the e-government and e-finance domains. Fingerprint identification is one of the most important security requirements in homeland security systems such as personnel screening and anti-money laundering. The problem of fingerprint identification involves searching (matching) the fingerprint of a person against each of the fingerprints of all registered persons. To enhance performance and reliability, a common approach is to reduce the search space by firstly classifying the fingerprints and then performing the search in the respective class. Jain et al. proposed a fingerprint classification algorithm based on a two-stage classifier, which uses a K-nearest neighbor classifier in its first stage. The fingerprint classification algorithm is based on the fingercode representation which is an encoding of fingerprints that has been demonstrated to be an effective fingerprint biometric scheme because of its ability to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint image. We enhance this approach by improving the efficiency of the K-nearest neighbor classifier for fingercode-based fingerprint classification. Our research firstly investigates the various fast search algorithms in vector quantization (VQ) and the potential application in fingerprint classification, and then proposes two efficient algorithms based on the pyramid-based search algorithms in VQ. Experimental results on DB1 of FVC 2004 demonstrate that our algorithms can outperform the full search algorithm and the original pyramid-based search algorithms in terms of computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy.

  4. [Classification of primary bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Dominok, G W; Frege, J

    1986-01-01

    An expanded classification for bone tumors is presented based on the well known international classification as well as earlier systems. The current status and future trends in this area are discussed.

  5. Automatic Classification in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsbergen, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Addresses the application of automatic classification methods to the problems associated with computerized document retrieval. Different kinds of classifications are described, and both document and term clustering methods are discussed. References and notes are provided. (Author/JD)

  6. Classification: Purposes, Principles, Progress, Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokal, Robert R.

    1974-01-01

    Clustering and other new techniques have changed classificatory principles and practice in many sciences. Discussed are defintions, purposes of classification, principles of classification, and recent trends. (Author/RH)

  7. Genome-Based Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    Hahnke, Richard L; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; García-López, Marina; Mukherjee, Supratim; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Göker, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes, characterized by a distinct gliding motility, occurs in a broad variety of ecosystems, habitats, life styles, and physiologies. Accordingly, taxonomic classification of the phylum, based on a limited number of features, proved difficult and controversial in the past, for example, when decisions were based on unresolved phylogenetic trees of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Here we use a large collection of type-strain genomes from Bacteroidetes and closely related phyla for assessing their taxonomy based on the principles of phylogenetic classification and trees inferred from genome-scale data. No significant conflict between 16S rRNA gene and whole-genome phylogenetic analysis is found, whereas many but not all of the involved taxa are supported as monophyletic groups, particularly in the genome-scale trees. Phenotypic and phylogenomic features support the separation of Balneolaceae as new phylum Balneolaeota from Rhodothermaeota and of Saprospiraceae as new class Saprospiria from Chitinophagia. Epilithonimonas is nested within the older genus Chryseobacterium and without significant phenotypic differences; thus merging the two genera is proposed. Similarly, Vitellibacter is proposed to be included in Aequorivita. Flexibacter is confirmed as being heterogeneous and dissected, yielding six distinct genera. Hallella seregens is a later heterotypic synonym of Prevotella dentalis. Compared to values directly calculated from genome sequences, the G+C content mentioned in many species descriptions is too imprecise; moreover, corrected G+C content values have a significantly better fit to the phylogeny. Corresponding emendations of species descriptions are provided where necessary. Whereas most observed conflict with the current classification of Bacteroidetes is already visible in 16S rRNA gene trees, as expected whole-genome phylogenies are much better resolved.

  8. Genome-Based Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Hahnke, Richard L.; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; García-López, Marina; Mukherjee, Supratim; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Göker, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes, characterized by a distinct gliding motility, occurs in a broad variety of ecosystems, habitats, life styles, and physiologies. Accordingly, taxonomic classification of the phylum, based on a limited number of features, proved difficult and controversial in the past, for example, when decisions were based on unresolved phylogenetic trees of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Here we use a large collection of type-strain genomes from Bacteroidetes and closely related phyla for assessing their taxonomy based on the principles of phylogenetic classification and trees inferred from genome-scale data. No significant conflict between 16S rRNA gene and whole-genome phylogenetic analysis is found, whereas many but not all of the involved taxa are supported as monophyletic groups, particularly in the genome-scale trees. Phenotypic and phylogenomic features support the separation of Balneolaceae as new phylum Balneolaeota from Rhodothermaeota and of Saprospiraceae as new class Saprospiria from Chitinophagia. Epilithonimonas is nested within the older genus Chryseobacterium and without significant phenotypic differences; thus merging the two genera is proposed. Similarly, Vitellibacter is proposed to be included in Aequorivita. Flexibacter is confirmed as being heterogeneous and dissected, yielding six distinct genera. Hallella seregens is a later heterotypic synonym of Prevotella dentalis. Compared to values directly calculated from genome sequences, the G+C content mentioned in many species descriptions is too imprecise; moreover, corrected G+C content values have a significantly better fit to the phylogeny. Corresponding emendations of species descriptions are provided where necessary. Whereas most observed conflict with the current classification of Bacteroidetes is already visible in 16S rRNA gene trees, as expected whole-genome phylogenies are much better resolved. PMID:28066339

  9. Description of Jet Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.

    1996-01-01

    In this article we review recent results on the breakup of cylindrical jets of a Newtonian fluid. Capillary forces provide the main driving mechanism and our interest is in the description of the flow as the jet pinches to form drops. The approach is to describe such topological singularities by constructing local (in time and space) similarity solutions from the governing equations. This is described for breakup according to the Euler, Stokes or Navier-Stokes equations. It is found that slender jet theories can be applied when viscosity is present, but for inviscid jets the local shape of the jet at breakup is most likely of a non-slender geometry. Systems of one-dimensional models of the governing equations are solved numerically in order to illustrate these differences.

  10. Task Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  11. Symmetrical gait descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunajewski, Adam; Dusza, Jacek J.; Rosado Muñoz, Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    The article presents a proposal for the description of human gait as a periodic and symmetric process. Firstly, the data for researches was obtained in the Laboratory of Group SATI in the School of Engineering of University of Valencia. Then, the periodical model - Mean Double Step (MDS) was made. Finally, on the basis of MDS, the symmetrical models - Left Mean Double Step and Right Mean Double Step (LMDS and RMDS) could be created. The method of various functional extensions was used. Symmetrical gait models can be used to calculate the coefficients of asymmetry at any time or phase of the gait. In this way it is possible to create asymmetry, function which better describes human gait dysfunction. The paper also describes an algorithm for calculating symmetric models, and shows exemplary results based on the experimental data.

  12. Reading List in Classification Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Phyllis A.

    The reading list contains 180 references and serves as an introduction to classification research literature. While the list includes major viewpoints on basic work in the field of classification as well as related areas, it excludes critical literature. The major divisions of the reading list are: (1) Definition: What is Classification, (2)…

  13. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  14. Older Adults’ Pain Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Deborah Dillon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the types of pain information described by older adults with chronic osteoarthritis pain. Pain descriptions were obtained from older adults’ who participated in a posttest only double blind study testing how the phrasing of healthcare practitioners’ pain questions affected the amount of communicated pain information. The 207 community dwelling older adults were randomized to respond to either the open-ended or closed-ended pain question. They viewed and orally responded to a computer displayed videotape of a practitioner asking them the respective pain question. All then viewed and responded to the general follow up question, ““What else can you tell me?” and lastly, “What else can you tell me about your pain, aches, soreness or discomfort?” Audio-taped responses were transcribed and content analyzed by trained, independent raters using 16 a priori criteria from the American Pain Society (2002) Guidelines for the Management of Pain in Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Juvenile Chronic Arthritis. Older adults described important but limited types of information primarily about pain location, timing, and intensity. Pain treatment information was elicited after repeated questioning. Therefore, practitioners need to follow up older adults’ initial pain descriptions with pain questions that promote a more complete pain management discussion. Routine use of a multidimensional pain assessment instrument that measures information such as functional interference, current pain treatments, treatment effects, and side effects would be one way of insuring a more complete pain management discussion with older adults. PMID:19706351

  15. Family Traits of Galaxies: From the Tuning Fork to a Physical Classification in a Multi-Wavelength Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampazzo, Roberto; D'Onofrio, Mauro; Zaggia, Simone; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Laurikainen, Eija; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Gallart, Carme; Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    At the time of the Great Debate nebulæ where recognized to have different morphologies and first classifications, sometimes only descriptive, have been attempted. A review of these early classification systems are well documented by the Allan Sandage's review in 2005 (Sandage 2005). This review emphasized the debt, in term of continuity of forms of spiral galaxies, due by the Hubble's classification scheme to the Reynold's systems proposed in 1920 (Reynolds, 1920).

  16. SCOR: Structural classification of RNA, Version 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Makio; Hendrix, Donna K.; Klosterman, Peter

    2003-10-03

    SCOR (http://scor.lbl.gov), the Structural Classification of RNA, is a database designed to provide a comprehensive perspective and understanding of RNA motif three-dimensional structure, function, tertiary interactions, and their relationships. SCOR 2.0 represents a major expansion and introduces a wholly new classification system. The new version represents the classification as a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), which allows a classification node to have multiple parents, in contrast to the strictly hierarchical classification used in SCOR 1.2. SCOR 2.0 supports three types of query terms in the updated search engine: PDB or NDB identifier, nucleotide sequence, and keyword. We also provide parseable XML files for all information. This new release contains 511RNA entries from the PDB as of 15 May 2003. A total of 5,880 secondary structural elements are classified; 2,104 hairpin loops and 3,776 internal loops. RNA motifs reported in the literature, such as ''Kinkturn'' and ''GNRA loops,'' are now incorporated into the structural classification along with definitions and descriptions.

  17. Tree Classification Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the IND Tree Package to prospective users. IND does supervised learning using classification trees. This learning task is a basic tool used in the development of diagnosis, monitoring and expert systems. The IND Tree Package was developed as part of a NASA project to semi-automate the development of data analysis and modelling algorithms using artificial intelligence techniques. The IND Tree Package integrates features from CART and C4 with newer Bayesian and minimum encoding methods for growing classification trees and graphs. The IND Tree Package also provides an experimental control suite on top. The newer features give improved probability estimates often required in diagnostic and screening tasks. The package comes with a manual, Unix 'man' entries, and a guide to tree methods and research. The IND Tree Package is implemented in C under Unix and was beta-tested at university and commercial research laboratories in the United States.

  18. Ectoparasites and classification.

    PubMed

    Hopla, C E; Durden, L A; Keirans, J E

    1994-12-01

    The authors present an introductory overview of the principal groups of ectoparasites (flukes, leeches, crustaceans, insects, arachnids, lampreys and vampire bats) associated with domestic animals. Currently-accepted higher-level classifications are outlined for these parasites. Almost all significant ectoparasites of domestic animals are invertebrates, the majority being arthropods (crustaceans, insects and arachnids). Some of these ectoparasites are of particular importance as vectors of pathogens. Many ectoparasite species are host-specific, and vector species typically transmit characteristic pathogens.

  19. Granular loess classification based

    SciTech Connect

    Browzin, B.S.

    1985-05-01

    This paper discusses how loess might be identified by two index properties: the granulometric composition and the dry unit weight. These two indices are necessary but not always sufficient for identification of loess. On the basis of analyses of samples from three continents, it was concluded that the 0.01-0.5-mm fraction deserves the name loessial fraction. Based on the loessial fraction concept, a granulometric classification of loess is proposed. A triangular chart is used to classify loess.

  20. Cautious Collective Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    topics ). c©2009 Luke K. McDowell, Kalyan Moy Gupta, and David W. Aha. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13 ...classification tasks, such 2779 MCDOWELL, GUPTA AND AHA as predicting the topic of a publication or the group membership of a person (Koller et al., 2007

  1. Functional classifications for cerebral palsy: correlations between the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), the manual ability classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS).

    PubMed

    Compagnone, Eliana; Maniglio, Jlenia; Camposeo, Serena; Vespino, Teresa; Losito, Luciana; De Rinaldis, Marta; Gennaro, Leonarda; Trabacca, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate a possible correlation between the gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R), the manual abilities classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS) functional levels in children with cerebral palsy (CP) by CP subtype. It was also geared to verify whether there is a correlation between these classification systems and intellectual functioning (IF) and parental socio-economic status (SES). A total of 87 children (47 males and 40 females, age range 4-18 years, mean age 8.9±4.2) were included in the study. A strong correlation was found between the three classifications: Level V of the GMFCS-E&R corresponds to Level V of the MACS (rs=0.67, p=0.001); the same relationship was found for the CFCS and the MACS (rs=0.73, p<0.001) and for the GMFCS-E&R and the CFCS (rs=0.61, p=0.001). The correlations between the IQ and the global functional disability profile were strong or moderate (GMFCS and IQ: rs=0.66, p=0.001; MACS and IQ: rs=0.58, p=0.001; CFCS and MACS: rs=0.65, p=0.001). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine if there were differences between the GMFCS-E&R, the CFCS and the MACS by CP type. CP types showed different scores for the IQ level (Chi-square=8.59, df=2, p=0.014), the GMFCS-E&R (Chi-square=36.46, df=2, p<0.001), the CFCS (Chi-square=12.87, df=2, p=0.002), and the MACS Level (Chi-square=13.96, df=2, p<0.001) but no significant differences emerged for the SES (Chi-square=1.19, df=2, p=0.554). This study shows how the three functional classifications (GMFCS-E&R, CFCS and MACS) complement each other to provide a better description of the functional profile of CP. The systematic evaluation of the IQ can provide useful information about a possible future outcome for every functional level. The SES does not appear to affect functional profiles.

  2. Classification of mental disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, E.

    1959-01-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in devising a classification of mental disorders is the lack of agreement among psychiatrists regarding the concepts upon which it should be based: diagnoses can rarely be verified objectively and the same or similar conditions are described under a confusing variety of names. This situation militates against the ready exchange of ideas and experiences and hampers progress. As a first step towards remedying this state of affairs, the author of the article below has undertaken a critical survey of existing classifications. He shows how some of the difficulties created by lack of knowledge regarding pathology and etiology may be overcome by the use of “operational definitions” and outlines the basic principles on which he believes a generally acceptable international classification might be constructed. If this can be done it should lead to a greater measure of agreement regarding the value of specific treatments for mental disorders and greatly facilitate a broad epidemiological approach to psychiatric research. PMID:13834299

  3. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  4. Histologic classification of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arie; Wesseling, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas form a heterogeneous group of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and are traditionally classified based on histologic type and malignancy grade. Most gliomas, the diffuse gliomas, show extensive infiltration in the CNS parenchyma. Diffuse gliomas can be further typed as astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or rare mixed oligodendroglial-astrocytic of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), III (anaplastic), or IV (glioblastoma). Other gliomas generally have a more circumscribed growth pattern, with pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I) and ependymal tumors (WHO grade I, II, or III) as the most frequent representatives. This chapter provides an overview of the histology of all glial neoplasms listed in the WHO 2016 classification, including the less frequent "nondiffuse" gliomas and mixed neuronal-glial tumors. For multiple decades the histologic diagnosis of these tumors formed a useful basis for assessment of prognosis and therapeutic management. However, it is now fully clear that information on the molecular underpinnings often allows for a more robust classification of (glial) neoplasms. Indeed, in the WHO 2016 classification, histologic and molecular findings are integrated in the definition of several gliomas. As such, this chapter and Chapter 6 are highly interrelated and neither should be considered in isolation.

  5. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  6. Algorithm for reaction classification.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Hans; Eiblmaier, Josef; Grethe, Guenter; Löw, Peter; Matuszczyk, Heinz; Saller, Heinz

    2013-11-25

    Reaction classification has important applications, and many approaches to classification have been applied. Our own algorithm tests all maximum common substructures (MCS) between all reactant and product molecules in order to find an atom mapping containing the minimum chemical distance (MCD). Recent publications have concluded that new MCS algorithms need to be compared with existing methods in a reproducible environment, preferably on a generalized test set, yet the number of test sets available is small, and they are not truly representative of the range of reactions that occur in real reaction databases. We have designed a challenging test set of reactions and are making it publicly available and usable with InfoChem's software or other classification algorithms. We supply a representative set of example reactions, grouped into different levels of difficulty, from a large number of reaction databases that chemists actually encounter in practice, in order to demonstrate the basic requirements for a mapping algorithm to detect the reaction centers in a consistent way. We invite the scientific community to contribute to the future extension and improvement of this data set, to achieve the goal of a common standard.

  7. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  8. Microgravity Environment Description Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; McPherson, Kevin; Hrovat, Kenneth; Moskowitz, Milton; Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Reckart, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Measurement and Analysis Project (MMAP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) manages the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) instruments to measure the microgravity environment on orbiting space laboratories. These laboratories include the Spacelab payloads on the shuttle, the SPACEHAB module on the shuttle, the middeck area of the shuttle, and Russia's Mir space station. Experiments are performed in these laboratories to investigate scientific principles in the near-absence of gravity. The microgravity environment desired for most experiments would have zero acceleration across all frequency bands or a true weightless condition. This is not possible due to the nature of spaceflight where there are numerous factors which introduce accelerations to the environment. This handbook presents an overview of the major microgravity environment disturbances of these laboratories. These disturbances are characterized by their source (where known), their magnitude, frequency and duration, and their effect on the microgravity environment. Each disturbance is characterized on a single page for ease in understanding the effect of a particular disturbance. The handbook also contains a brief description of each laboratory.

  9. AMOEBA clustering revisited. [cluster analysis, classification, and image display program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Jack

    1990-01-01

    A description of the clustering, classification, and image display program AMOEBA is presented. Using a difficult high resolution aircraft-acquired MSS image, the steps the program takes in forming clusters are traced. A number of new features are described here for the first time. Usage of the program is discussed. The theoretical foundation (the underlying mathematical model) is briefly presented. The program can handle images of any size and dimensionality.

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  11. Using ecological zones to increase the detail of Landsat classifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, L., III; Mayer, K. E.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in classification detail of forest species descriptions were made for Landsat data on 2.2 million acres in northwestern California. Because basic forest canopy structures may exhibit very similar E-M energy reflectance patterns in different environmental regions, classification labels based on Landsat spectral signatures alone become very generalized when mapping large heterogeneous ecological regions. By adding a seven ecological zone stratification, a 167% improvement in classification detail was made over the results achieved without it. The seven zone stratification is a less costly alternative to the inclusion of complex collateral information, such as terrain data and soil type, into the Landsat data base when making inventories of areas greater than 500,000 acres.

  12. The clinical utility of pain classification in non-specific arm pain.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Niamh A; Hall, Toby M; Leaver, Andrew M; Doody, Catherine M

    2015-02-01

    Mechanisms-based pain classification has received considerable attention recently for its potential use in clinical decision making. A number of algorithms for pain classification have been proposed. Non-specific arm pain (NSAP) is a poorly defined condition, which could benefit from classification according to pain mechanisms to improve treatment selection. This study used three published classification algorithms (hereafter called NeuPSIG, Smart, Schafer) to investigate the frequency of different pain classifications in NSAP and the clinical utility of these systems in assessing NSAP. Forty people with NSAP underwent a clinical examination and quantitative sensory testing. Findings were used to classify participants according to three classification algorithms. Frequency of pain classification including number unclassified was analysed using descriptive statistics. Inter-rater agreement was analysed using kappa coefficients. NSAP was primarily classified as 'unlikely neuropathic pain' using NeuPSIG criteria, 'peripheral neuropathic pain' using the Smart classification and 'peripheral nerve sensitisation' using the Schafer algorithm. Two of the three algorithms allowed classification of all but one participant; up to 45% of participants (n = 18) were categorised as mixed by the Smart classification. Inter-rater agreement was good for the Schafer algorithm (к = 0.78) and moderate for the Smart classification (к = 0.40). A kappa value was unattainable for the NeuPSIG algorithm but agreement was high. Pain classification was achievable with high inter-rater agreement for two of the three algorithms assessed. The Smart classification may be useful but requires further direction regarding the use of clinical criteria included. The impact of adding a pain classification to clinical assessment on patient outcomes needs to be evaluated.

  13. Trusting Description: Authenticity, Accountability, and Archival Description Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeil, Heather

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that one of the purposes of archival description is to establish grounds for presuming the authenticity of the records being described. The article examines the implications of this statement by examining the relationship between and among authenticity, archival description, and archival accountability, assessing how this…

  14. Development of soil taxation and soil classification as furthered by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Soil taxation and soil classification are important drivers of soil science in Austria. However, the tasks are quite different: whereas soil taxation aims at the evaluation of the productivity potential of the soil, soil classification focusses on the natural development and - especially nowadays - on functionality of the soil. Since the foundation of the Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), representatives both directions of the description of the soil have been involved in the common actions of the society. In the first years it was a main target to improve and standardize field descriptions of the soil. Although both systems differ in the general layout, the experts should comply with identical approaches. According to this work, a lot of effort has been put into the standardization of the soil classification system, thus ensuring a common basis. The development, state of the art and further development of both classification and taxation systems initiated and carried out by the ASSS will be shown.

  15. Customer Credit Scoring Method Based on the SVDD Classification Model with Imbalanced Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Bo; Nan, Lin; Zheng, Qin; Yang, Lei

    Customer credit scoring is a typical class of pattern classification problem with imbalanced dataset. A new customer credit scoring method based on the support vector domain description (SVDD) classification model was proposed in this paper. Main techniques of customer credit scoring were reviewed. The SVDD model with imbalanced dataset was analyzed and the predication method of customer credit scoring based on the SVDD model was proposed. Our experimental results confirm that our approach is effective in ranking and classifying customer credit.

  16. Logic synthesis from DDL description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of DDLTRN and DDLSIM programs on SEL-2 computer system is reported. These programs were tested with DDL descriptions of various complexity. An algorithm to synthesize the combinational logic using the cells available in the standard IC cell library was formulated. The algorithm is implemented as a FORTRAN program and a description of the program is given.

  17. Mission data system framework description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, K.; Rinker, G.; Dvorak, D.; Rosmussen, R.; Reinholttz, K.

    2002-01-01

    This document provides an overall description of the MDS Framework technology. Since the purpose is to provide a general reference for the frameworks, the descriptions are organized as compendium. This document does not provide guidance for how the MDS technology should be used.

  18. Learning classification trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

  19. Interactive Classification Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBessonet, Cary

    2000-01-01

    The investigators upgraded a knowledge representation language called SL (Symbolic Language) and an automated reasoning system called SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) to enable the more effective use of the technologies in automated reasoning and interactive classification systems. The overall goals of the project were: 1) the enhancement of the representation language SL to accommodate a wider range of meaning; 2) the development of a default inference scheme to operate over SL notation as it is encoded; and 3) the development of an interpreter for SL that would handle representations of some basic cognitive acts and perspectives.

  20. Classification of degenerative arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, N. S.; Cruess, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the former division of degenerative arthritis into idiopathic types and those secondary to some disease process is no longer valid. Recent studies have indicated that abnormal concentrations of force on cartilage lead to the development of this disease. A classification is presented that is based on the assumption that the process is initiated by abnormal concentrations of force on normal cartilage matrix, normal concentrations of force on abnormal cartilage matrix or normal concentrations of force on normal cartilage matrix that is supported by bone of abnormal consistency. PMID:907947

  1. Atmospheric circulation classification comparison based on wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation classifications are not a simple description of atmospheric states but a tool to understand and interpret the atmospheric processes and to model the relation between atmospheric circulation and surface climate and other related variables (Radan Huth et al., 2008). Classifications were initially developed with weather forecasting purposes, however with the progress in computer processing capability, new and more robust objective methods were developed and applied to large datasets prompting atmospheric circulation classification methods to one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Classification studies have been extensively used in climate change studies (e.g. reconstructed past climates, recent observed changes and future climates), in bioclimatological research (e.g. relating human mortality to climatic factors) and in a wide variety of synoptic climatological applications (e.g. comparison between datasets, air pollution, snow avalanches, wine quality, fish captures and forest fires). Likewise, atmospheric circulation classifications are important for the study of the role of weather in wildfire occurrence in Portugal because the daily synoptic variability is the most important driver of local weather conditions (Pereira et al., 2005). In particular, the objective classification scheme developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000) to classify the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal have proved to be quite useful in discriminating the occurrence and development of wildfires as well as the distribution over Portugal of surface climatic variables with impact in wildfire activity such as maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. This work aims to present: (i) an overview the existing circulation classification for the Iberian Peninsula, and (ii) the results of a comparison study between these atmospheric circulation classifications based on its relation with wildfires and relevant meteorological

  2. [Histological and molecular classification of gliomas].

    PubMed

    Figarella-Branger, D; Colin, C; Coulibaly, B; Quilichini, B; Maues De Paula, A; Fernandez, C; Bouvier, C

    2008-01-01

    Gliomas are the most frequent tumors of the central nervous system. The WHO classification, based on the presumed cell origin, distinguishes astrocytic, oligodendrocytic and mixed gliomas. A grading system is based on the presence of the following criteria: increased cellular density, nuclear atypias, mitosis, vascular proliferation and necrosis. The main histological subtype of grade I gliomas are pilocytic astrocytomas, which are benign. Diffuse astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas are low-grade (II) or high-grade (III and IV) tumors. Glioblastomas correspond to grade IV astrocytomas. C. Daumas-Duport et al. have proposed another classification based on histology and imaging data, which distinguishes oligodendrogliomas and mixed gliomas of grade A (without endothelial proliferation and/or contrast enhancement), oligodendrogliomas and mixed gliomas of grade B (with endothelial proliferation or contrast enhancement), glioblastomas and glioneuronal malignant tumors. Both classifications lack reproducibility. Many studies have searched for a molecular classification. Recurrent abnormalities in gliomas have been found. They encompassed recurrent chromosomal alterations, such as lost of chromosome 10, gain of chromosome 7, deletion of chromosome 1p and 19q, but also activation of the Akt pathway (amplification of EGFR), dysregulation of the cell cycle (deletion of p16, p53). These studies have enabled the description of two molecular subtypes for glioblastomas. De novo glioblastomas, which occur in young patients without of a prior history of brain tumor and harbor frequent amplification of EGFR, deletion of p16 and mutation of PTEN while mutation of p53 is infrequent. Secondary glioblastomas occur in the context of a preexisting low-grade glioma and are characterized by more frequent mutation of p53. On the other side, combined complete deletion of 1p and 19q as the result of the translocation t(1;19)(q10;p10) is highly specific of oligodendrogliomas

  3. Classification of nodal stations in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Guido; Doglietto, Giovanni Battista; Alfieri, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The lymphatic drainage from the stomach is anatomically elaborate and it is very hard to predict the pattern of lymph node (LN) metastases from gastric cancer (GC). However, there are LN stations metastases that are more frequently observed depending on the tumor location. Furthermore, the incidence of metastasis to various regional LN stations depends on the depth of gastric-wall invasion. The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA) classifies the regional LNs draining the stomach into 33 regional lymphatic stations. These are distinguished into three (N1–N3) groups with respect to the location of the primary tumor. The aim of this classification is to provide a common language for the clinical, surgical, and pathological description of GC. PMID:28217752

  4. Holistic facial expression classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, John; McDonald, J.

    2005-06-01

    This paper details a procedure for classifying facial expressions. This is a growing and relatively new type of problem within computer vision. One of the fundamental problems when classifying facial expressions in previous approaches is the lack of a consistent method of measuring expression. This paper solves this problem by the computation of the Facial Expression Shape Model (FESM). This statistical model of facial expression is based on an anatomical analysis of facial expression called the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We use the term Action Unit (AU) to describe a movement of one or more muscles of the face and all expressions can be described using the AU's described by FACS. The shape model is calculated by marking the face with 122 landmark points. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to analyse how the landmark points move with respect to each other and to lower the dimensionality of the problem. Using the FESM in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVM) we classify facial expressions. SVMs are a powerful machine learning technique based on optimisation theory. This project is largely concerned with statistical models, machine learning techniques and psychological tools used in the classification of facial expression. This holistic approach to expression classification provides a means for a level of interaction with a computer that is a significant step forward in human-computer interaction.

  5. Supply chain planning classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  6. Molecular classification of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Masui, Kenta; Mischel, Paul S; Reifenberger, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The identification of distinct genetic and epigenetic profiles in different types of gliomas has revealed novel diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive molecular biomarkers for refinement of glioma classification and improved prediction of therapy response and outcome. Therefore, the new (2016) World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system breaks with the traditional principle of diagnosis based on histologic criteria only and incorporates molecular markers. This will involve a multilayered approach combining histologic features and molecular information in an "integrated diagnosis". We review the current state of diagnostic molecular markers for gliomas, focusing on isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/IDH2) gene mutation, α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) gene mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation in adult tumors, as well as v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) and H3 histone family 3A (H3F3A) aberrations in pediatric gliomas. We also outline prognostic and predictive molecular markers, including O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, and discuss the potential clinical relevance of biologic glioblastoma subtypes defined by integration of multiomics data. Commonly used methods for individual marker detection as well as novel large-scale DNA methylation profiling and next-generation sequencing approaches are discussed. Finally, we illustrate how advances in molecular diagnostics affect novel strategies of targeted therapy, thereby raising new challenges and identifying new leads for personalized treatment of glioma patients.

  7. Classification of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Paulino, Thiago Marques Luz; Zaharieva, Dessi P.; Yavelberg, Loren; Jamnik, Veronica; Riddell, Michael C.; Cinar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency. We developed a classification system that identifies, in real time, the exercise intensity and its reliance on aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and tested this approach using clinical data collected from 5 persons with T1D and 3 individuals without T1D in a controlled laboratory setting using a variety of common types of physical activity. The classifier had an average sensitivity of 98.7% for physiological data collected over a range of exercise modalities and intensities in these subjects. The classifier will be added as a new module to the integrated multivariable adaptive AP system to enable the detection of aerobic and anaerobic exercise for enhancing the accuracy of insulin infusion strategies during and after exercise. PMID:26443291

  8. "Interactive Classification Technology"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBessonet, Cary

    1999-01-01

    The investigators are upgrading a knowledge representation language called SL (Symbolic Language) and an automated reasoning system called SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) to enable the technologies to be used in automated reasoning and interactive classification systems. The overall goals of the project are: a) the enhancement of the representation language SL to accommodate multiple perspectives and a wider range of meaning; b) the development of a sufficient set of operators to enable the interpreter of SL to handle representations of basic cognitive acts; and c) the development of a default inference scheme to operate over SL notation as it is encoded. As to particular goals the first-year work plan focused on inferencing and.representation issues, including: 1) the development of higher level cognitive/ classification functions and conceptual models for use in inferencing and decision making; 2) the specification of a more detailed scheme of defaults and the enrichment of SL notation to accommodate the scheme; and 3) the adoption of additional perspectives for inferencing.

  9. Waste classification sampling plan

    SciTech Connect

    Landsman, S.D.

    1998-05-27

    The purpose of this sampling is to explain the method used to collect and analyze data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream so that the correct waste classification for the waste stream can be made, and to collect samples for studies of decontamination methods that could be used to remove fixed contamination present on the waste. The scope of this plan is to establish the technical basis for collecting samples and compiling quantitative data on the radioactive constituents present in waste generated during deactivation activities in B-Cell. Sampling and radioisotopic analysis will be performed on the fixed layers of contamination present on structural material and internal surfaces of process piping and tanks. In addition, dose rate measurements on existing waste material will be performed to determine the fraction of dose rate attributable to both removable and fixed contamination. Samples will also be collected to support studies of decontamination methods that are effective in removing the fixed contamination present on the waste. Sampling performed under this plan will meet criteria established in BNF-2596, Data Quality Objectives for the B-Cell Waste Stream Classification Sampling, J. M. Barnett, May 1998.

  10. Multimodal MRI classification in vascular mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Diciotti, Stefano; Ciulli, Stefano; Ginestroni, Andrea; Salvadori, Emilia; Poggesi, Anna; Pantoni, Leonardo; Inzitari, Domenico; Mascalchi, Mario; Toschi, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VMCI) is a disorder in which multimodal MRI can add significant value by combining diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with brain morphometry. In this study we implemented and compared machine learning techniques for multimodal classification between 58 VMCI patients and 29 healthy subjects as well as for discrimination (within the VMCI group) between patients with different cognitive performances. For each subject, a cortical feature vector was constructed based on cortical parcellation and cortical and subcortical volumetric segmentation and a DTI feature vector was formed by combining descriptive statistical metrics related to the distribution of DTI invariants within white matter. We employed both a sequential minimal optimization and a functional tree classifier, using feature selection and 10-fold cross-validation, and compared their performances in monomodal and multimodal classification for both classification problems (healthy subjects vs VMCI and prediction of cognitive performance). While monomodal classification resulted in satisfactory performance in most cases, turning from monomodal to multimodal classification resulted in an improvement of the performance in the discrimination between VMCI patients with low cognitive performance and healthy subjects by up to 10% in sensitivity (leaving specificity unchanged). We therefore are able to confirm the usefulness of machine learning techniques in discriminating diseased states based on neuroimaging data.

  11. The Comprehensive AOCMF Classification System: Midface Fractures - Level 2 Tutorial

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Christoph; Audigé, Laurent; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Buitrago-Téllez, Carlos H.; Frodel, John; Rudderman, Randal; Prein, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The AOCMF Classification Group developed a hierarchical three-level craniomaxillofacial classification system with increasing level of complexity and details. The highest level 1 system distinguish four major anatomical units including the mandible (code 91), midface (code 92), skull base (code 93), and cranial vault (code 94). This tutorial presents the level 2 system for the midface unit that concentrates on the location of the fractures within defined regions in the central (upper, intermediate, and lower) and lateral (zygoma, pterygoid) midface, as well as the internal orbit and palate. The level 2 midface fracture location outlines the topographic boundaries of the anatomical regions. The common nasoorbitoethmoidal and zygoma en bloc fracture patterns, as well as the time-honored Le Fort classification are taken into account. This tutorial is organized in a sequence of sections dealing with the description of the classification system with illustrations of the topographical cranial midface regions along with rules for fracture location and coding, a series of case examples with clinical imaging and a general discussion on the design of this classification. Individual fracture mapping in these regions regarding severity, fragmentation, displacement of the fragment or bone defect is addressed in a more detailed level 3 system in the subsequent articles. PMID:25489391

  12. Cheese Classification, Characterization, and Categorization: A Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Almena-Aliste, Montserrat; Mietton, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Cheese is one of the most fascinating, complex, and diverse foods enjoyed today. Three elements constitute the cheese ecosystem: ripening agents, consisting of enzymes and microorganisms; the composition of the fresh cheese; and the environmental conditions during aging. These factors determine and define not only the sensory quality of the final cheese product but also the vast diversity of cheeses produced worldwide. How we define and categorize cheese is a complicated matter. There are various approaches to cheese classification, and a global approach for classification and characterization is needed. We review current cheese classification schemes and the limitations inherent in each of the schemes described. While some classification schemes are based on microbiological criteria, others rely on descriptions of the technologies used for cheese production. The goal of this review is to present an overview of comprehensive and practical integrative classification models in order to better describe cheese diversity and the fundamental differences within cheeses, as well as to connect fundamental technological, microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics to contribute to an overall characterization of the main families of cheese, including the expanding world of American artisanal cheeses.

  13. A preliminary classification of wetland plant communities in north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Johnson, D.H.

    1973-01-01

    A classification of wetland plant communities was developed for a study area in north-central Minnesota in order to analyze data on waterfowl use of habitat that were gathered by radio telemetry. The classification employs features of several earlier classifications in addition to new classes for bogs and lakeshore communities. Brief descriptions are given for each community, and the important plant species are listed. Discriminant function analysis was used for 40 plant species. Seventy-five percent of the stands studied were classified correctly by this technique. Average probabilities of assignment to communities were calculated and helped to identify distinct and poorly defined communities as well as the relationship among communities.

  14. Automated otolith image classification with multiple views: an evaluation on Sciaenidae.

    PubMed

    Wong, J Y; Chu, C; Chong, V C; Dhillon, S K; Loh, K H

    2016-08-01

    Combined multiple 2D views (proximal, anterior and ventral aspects) of the sagittal otolith are proposed here as a method to capture shape information for fish classification. Classification performance of single view compared with combined 2D views show improved classification accuracy of the latter, for nine species of Sciaenidae. The effects of shape description methods (shape indices, Procrustes analysis and elliptical Fourier analysis) on classification performance were evaluated. Procrustes analysis and elliptical Fourier analysis perform better than shape indices when single view is considered, but all perform equally well with combined views. A generic content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system that ranks dissimilarity (Procrustes distance) of otolith images was built to search query images without the need for detailed information of side (left or right), aspect (proximal or distal) and direction (positive or negative) of the otolith. Methods for the development of this automated classification system are discussed.

  15. Perspectives on next steps in classification of oro-facial pain - part 1: role of ontology.

    PubMed

    Ceusters, W; Michelotti, A; Raphael, K G; Durham, J; Ohrbach, R

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to review existing principles of oro-facial pain classifications and to specify design recommendations for a new system that would reflect recent insights in biomedical classification systems, terminologies and ontologies. The study was initiated by a symposium organised by the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network in March 2013, to which the present authors contributed. The following areas are addressed: problems with current classification approaches, status of the ontological basis of pain disorders, insufficient diagnostic aids and biomarkers for pain disorders, exploratory nature of current pain terminology and classification systems, and problems with prevailing classification methods from an ontological perspective. Four recommendations for addressing these problems are as follows: (i) develop a hypothesis-driven classification structure built on principles that ensure to our best understanding an accurate description of the relations among all entities involved in oro-facial pain disorders; (ii) take into account the physiology and phenomenology of oro-facial pain disorders to adequately represent both domains including psychosocial entities in a classification system; (iii) plan at the beginning for field-testing at strategic development stages; and (iv) consider how the classification system will be implemented. Implications in relation to the specific domains of psychosocial factors and biomarkers for inclusion into an oro-facial pain classification system are described in two separate papers.

  16. Magnetosphere power budget role in the task of classification of magnetospheric activity sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhatov, N. A.; Dremukhina, L. A.; Gromova, L. I.; Levitin, A. E.; Revunov, S. E.; Ulibina, R. I.

    The self-training artificial neural networks ANN of self-organizing Cohonen map type permitting classification of complexes of perturbed space weather parameters is created In outcome eight basic classes - complexes of perturbed parameters including parameters of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field power budget of the magnetosphere and Dst-index dynamics adequate to different global magnetospheric situations are determined Validation of the announced number of classes of complexes of perturbed parameters is confirmed by different samplings of studied events The classification of types of solar plasma flows is executed and the basic classification parameters of events corresponding to the physical essence of the task of classification defining the disturbed flow type are determined The revision of classification reliability is executed using the experimental references data on events with known type of disturbing flow and solar source The approach designed here allows to consider the classification of disturbing flows as both space and physical as within the framework of classification the space origin of different types of disturbances is considered The given classification can be used for creation of new standards of space weather phenomena description using ANN technique The ANN method allows to computerize the process of classification and make the magnetic storms prediction possible The work was executed under the financial support of the RFBR

  17. Perspectives on Next Steps in Classification of Orofacial Pain – Part 1: Role of Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Ceusters, Werner; Michelotti, Ambra; Raphael, Karen G.; Durham, Justin; Ohrbach, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review existing principles of orofacial pain classifications and to specify design recommendations for a new system that would reflect recent insights in biomedical classification systems, terminologies and ontologies. The paper was initiated by a symposium organized by the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network in March 2013, to which the present authors contributed. The following areas are addressed: problems with current classification approaches, status of the ontological basis of pain disorders, insufficient diagnostic aids and biomarkers for pain disorders, exploratory nature of current pain terminology and classification systems, and problems with prevailing classification methods from an ontological perspective. Four recommendations for addressing these problems are: 1) develop a hypothesis-driven classification structure built on principles that ensure to our best understanding an accurate description of the relations among all entities involved in orofacial pain disorders; 2) take into account the physiology and phenomenology of orofacial pain disorders in order to adequately represent both domains including psychosocial entities in a classification system; 3) plan at the beginning for field-testing at strategic development stages; and 4) consider how the classification system will be implemented. Implications in relation to the specific domains of psychosocial factors and biomarkers for inclusion into an orofacial pain classification system are described in two separate papers. PMID:26212927

  18. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct... classification guide, need not possess original classification authority. (a) If a person who applies...

  19. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section 503.55... Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance with Part 2 of Executive Order 12958... derivative classification. (1) Derivative classification includes the classification of information based...

  20. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct... classification guide, need not possess original classification authority. (a) If a person who applies...

  1. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Derivative classification. 1312.7 Section... Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification... another agency or classification authority. The application of derivative classification markings is...

  2. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is defined... classification guides. (c) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall observe...

  3. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct... classification guide, need not possess original classification authority. (a) If a person who applies...

  4. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is defined... classification guides. (c) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall observe...

  5. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section 503.55... Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance with Part 2 of Executive Order 13526... derivative classification. (1) Derivative classification includes the classification of information based...

  6. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is defined... classification guides. (c) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall observe...

  7. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is defined... classification guides. (c) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall observe...

  8. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section 503.55... Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance with Part 2 of Executive Order 13526... derivative classification. (1) Derivative classification includes the classification of information based...

  9. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 1312.7 Section... Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification... another agency or classification authority. The application of derivative classification markings is...

  10. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section 503.55... Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance with Part 2 of Executive Order 13526... derivative classification. (1) Derivative classification includes the classification of information based...

  11. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section 503.55... Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance with Part 2 of Executive Order 13526... derivative classification. (1) Derivative classification includes the classification of information based...

  12. Classification software technique assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R., Jr.; Atkinson, R.; Dasarathy, B. V.; Lybanon, M.; Ramapryian, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    A catalog of software options is presented for the use of local user communities to obtain software for analyzing remotely sensed multispectral imagery. The resources required to utilize a particular software program are described. Descriptions of how a particular program analyzes data and the performance of that program for an application and data set provided by the user are shown. An effort is made to establish a statistical performance base for various software programs with regard to different data sets and analysis applications, to determine the status of the state-of-the-art.

  13. Classification-based reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Fernando; Segami, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    A representation formalism for N-ary relations, quantification, and definition of concepts is described. Three types of conditions are associated with the concepts: (1) necessary and sufficient properties, (2) contingent properties, and (3) necessary properties. Also explained is how complex chains of inferences can be accomplished by representing existentially quantified sentences, and concepts denoted by restrictive relative clauses as classification hierarchies. The representation structures that make possible the inferences are explained first, followed by the reasoning algorithms that draw the inferences from the knowledge structures. All the ideas explained have been implemented and are part of the information retrieval component of a program called Snowy. An appendix contains a brief session with the program.

  14. Classification of extraterrestrial civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tong B.; Chang, Grace

    1991-06-01

    A scheme of classification of extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) communities based on the scope of energy accessible to the civilization in question is proposed as an alternative to the Kardeshev (1964) scheme that includes three types of civilization, as determined by their levels of energy expenditure. The proposed scheme includes six classes: (1) a civilization that runs essentially on energy exerted by individual beings or by domesticated lower life forms, (2) harnessing of natural sources on planetary surface with artificial constructions, like water wheels and wind sails, (3) energy from fossils and fissionable isotopes, mined beneath the planet surface, (4) exploitation of nuclear fusion on a large scale, whether on the planet, in space, or from primary solar energy, (5) extensive use of antimatter for energy storage, and (6) energy from spacetime, perhaps via the action of naked singularities.

  15. Subspace ensembles for classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shiliang; Zhang, Changshui

    2007-11-01

    Ensemble learning constitutes one of the principal current directions in machine learning and data mining. In this paper, we explore subspace ensembles for classification by manipulating different feature subspaces. Commencing with the nature of ensemble efficacy, we probe into the microcosmic meaning of ensemble diversity, and propose to use region partitioning and region weighting to implement effective subspace ensembles. Individual classifiers possessing eminent performance on a partitioned region reflected by high neighborhood accuracies are deemed to contribute largely to this region, and are assigned large weights in determining the labels of instances in this area. A robust algorithm “Sena” that incarnates the mechanism is presented, which is insensitive to the number of nearest neighbors chosen to calculate neighborhood accuracies. The algorithm exhibits improved performance over the well-known ensembles of bagging, AdaBoost and random subspace. The difference of its effectivity with varying base classifiers is also investigated.

  16. [Classification of lymphedema].

    PubMed

    Lazareth, I

    2002-06-01

    Classification of lymphedema is debated, because authors don't agree with the disordered physiology. Kinmonth divided all cases into primary and secondary lymphedema. Three types of primary lymphedema have been recognized: congenital, precox and tarda. Secondary lymphedema develops as a consequence of disruption or obstruction of the lymphatic pathways. Iatrogenic lymphedema are caused by surgery and/or radiation therapy. Post-infectious lymphedema are mainly caused by filariasis in tropical areas, and by cellulitis in occidental areas. Neoplastic disease (breast, prostatic cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma) are a major cause of secondary lymphedema. Less frequent etiologies are rheumatoid lymphedema, pathomimic lymphedema, pretibial myxoedema. Reduced lymphatic drainage is associated with severe chronic venous insufficiency and contributes to the leg swelling and the risk of infection.

  17. Robotic Rock Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Martial

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a three-month research program undertook jointly by the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University and Ames Research Center as part of the Ames' Joint Research Initiative (JRI.) The work was conducted at the Ames Research Center by Mr. Liam Pedersen, a graduate student in the CMU Ph.D. program in Robotics under the supervision Dr. Ted Roush at the Space Science Division of the Ames Research Center from May 15 1999 to August 15, 1999. Dr. Martial Hebert is Mr. Pedersen's research adviser at CMU and is Principal Investigator of this Grant. The goal of this project is to investigate and implement methods suitable for a robotic rover to autonomously identify rocks and minerals in its vicinity, and to statistically characterize the local geological environment. Although primary sensors for these tasks are a reflection spectrometer and color camera, the goal is to create a framework under which data from multiple sensors, and multiple readings on the same object, can be combined in a principled manner. Furthermore, it is envisioned that knowledge of the local area, either a priori or gathered by the robot, will be used to improve classification accuracy. The key results obtained during this project are: The continuation of the development of a rock classifier; development of theoretical statistical methods; development of methods for evaluating and selecting sensors; and experimentation with data mining techniques on the Ames spectral library. The results of this work are being applied at CMU, in particular in the context of the Winter 99 Antarctica expedition in which the classification techniques will be used on the Nomad robot. Conversely, the software developed based on those techniques will continue to be made available to NASA Ames and the data collected from the Nomad experiments will also be made available.

  18. Classification of Rainbows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, J. L.; Peter, A. L.; Barckicke, J.

    2015-12-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF RAINBOWS Jean Louis Ricard,1,2,* Peter Adams ,2 and Jean Barckicke 2,3 1CNRM, Météo-France,42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse, France 2CEPAL, 148 Himley Road, Dudley, West Midlands DY1 2QH, United Kingdom 3DP/Compas,Météo-France,42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse, France *Corresponding author: Dr_Jean_Ricard@yahoo,co,ukRainbows are the most beautiful and most spectacular optical atmospheric phenomenon. Humphreys (1964) pointedly noted that "the "explanations" generally given of the rainbow [ in textbooks] may well be said to explain beautifully that which does not occur, and to leave unexplained which does" . . . "The records of close observations of rainbows soon show that not even the colors are always the same". Textbooks stress that the main factor affecting the aspect of the rainbow is the radius of the water droplets. In his well-known textbook entitled "the nature of light & colour in the open air", Minnaert (1954) gives the chief features of the rainbow depending on the diameter of the drops producing it. For this study, we have gathered hundreds of pictures of primary bows. We sort out the pictures into classes. The classes are defined in a such way that rainbows belonging to the same class look similar. Our results are surprising and do not confirm Minnaert's classification. In practice, the size of the water droplets is only a minor factor controlling the overall aspect of the rainbow. The main factor appears to be the height of the sun above the horizon. At sunset, the width of the red band increases, while the width of the other bands of colours decreases. The orange, the violet, the blue and the green bands disappear completely in this order. At the end, the primary bow is mainly red and slightly yellow. Picture = Contrast-enhanced photograph of a primary bow picture (prepared by Andrew Dunn).

  19. Standardized descriptive method for the anthropological evaluation of pediatric skull fractures.

    PubMed

    Wiersema, Jason M; Love, Jennifer C; Derrick, Sharon M; Pinto, Deborrah C; Donaruma-Kwoh, Marcella; Greeley, Christopher S

    2014-11-01

    The literature pertaining to pediatric skull fracture is primarily clinically based and thus motivated by the need for effective assessment of both fracture characteristics (type, frequency, location, and mechanics) and context (severity of injury, associated soft tissue damage, and prognosis). From a strictly descriptive standpoint, these schemas employ overlapping levels of detail that confound the nonclinical description of fractures in the forensic context. For this reason, application of these schemas in the forensic anthropological interpretation of skull fractures is inappropriate. We argue that forensic anthropological interpretation of skull fractures requires a standard classification system that reflects fracture morphology alone, and we suggest a three-stepped classification system that conveys increasing detail with each additional step. A retrospective application of the method to a sample of 31 children aged 1 month to 2 years demonstrated its efficacy in the description of pediatric skull fractures.

  20. Tactical Planning Workstation Software Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Tactical Planning Workstation Software Description 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Packard, Bruce R. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year...3-7 3-2. Unit type codes....................................3-7 3-3. Battle function codes ................................ 3-8 3-4...3-9 3-7. Control measure types ...............................3-11 3-8. Product description files

  1. Geometric descriptions of entangled states by auxiliary varieties

    SciTech Connect

    Holweck, Frederic; Luque, Jean-Gabriel; Thibon, Jean-Yves

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the paper is to propose geometric descriptions of multipartite entangled states using algebraic geometry. In the context of this paper, geometric means each stratum of the Hilbert space, corresponding to an entangled state, is an open subset of an algebraic variety built by classical geometric constructions (tangent lines, secant lines) from the set of separable states. In this setting, we describe well-known classifications of multipartite entanglement such as 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign (n+ 1), for n Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 1, quantum systems and a new description with the 2 Multiplication-Sign 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 quantum system. Our results complete the approach of Miyake and make stronger connections with recent work of algebraic geometers. Moreover, for the quantum systems detailed in this paper, we propose an algorithm, based on the classical theory of invariants, to decide to which subvariety of the Hilbert space a given state belongs.

  2. Classification of seizures and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Riviello, James J

    2003-07-01

    The management of seizures and epilepsy begins with forming a differential diagnosis, making the diagnosis, and then classifying seizure type and epileptic syndrome. Classification guides treatment, including ancillary testing, management, prognosis, and if needed, selection of the appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED). Many AEDs are available, and certain seizure types or epilepsy syndromes respond to specific AEDs. The identification of the genetics, molecular basis, and pathophysiologic mechanisms of epilepsy has resulted from classification of specific epileptic syndromes. The classification system used by the International League Against Epilepsy is periodically revised. The proposed revision changes the classification emphasis from the anatomic origin of seizures (focal vs generalized) to seizure semiology (ie, the signs or clinical manifestations). Modified systems have been developed for specific circumstances (eg, neonatal seizures, infantile seizures, status epilepticus, and epilepsy surgery). This article reviews seizure and epilepsy classification, emphasizing new data.

  3. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  4. 45 CFR 601.2 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.2 Classification authority. The... a Foundation employee develops information that appears to warrant classification because of...

  5. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is the determination that information is in substance the same...

  6. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is the determination that information is in substance the same...

  7. 45 CFR 601.2 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.2 Classification authority. The... a Foundation employee develops information that appears to warrant classification because of...

  8. Automatic Classification of Marine Mammals with Speaker Classification Methods.

    PubMed

    Kreimeyer, Roman; Ludwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals based on human speaker classification methods as an element of a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool. This work is part of the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project under the framework of the European Defense Agency (EDA) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and Kiel University. The automatic classification should support sonar operators in the risk mitigation process before and during sonar exercises with a reliable automatic classification result.

  9. Class II malocclusion occlusal severity description

    PubMed Central

    JANSON, Guilherme; SATHLER, Renata; FERNANDES, Thais Maria Freire; ZANDA, Marcelo; PINZAN, Arnaldo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives It is well known that the efficacy and the efficiency of a Class II malocclusion treatment are aspects closely related to the severity of the dental anteroposterior discrepancy. Even though, sample selection based on cephalometric variables without considering the severity of the occlusal anteroposterior discrepancy is still common in current papers. In some of them, when occlusal parameters are chosen, the severity is often neglected. The purpose of this study is to verify the importance given to the classification of Class II malocclusion, based on the criteria used for sample selection in a great number of papers published in the orthodontic journal with the highest impact factor. Material and Methods A search was performed in PubMed database for full-text research papers referencing Class II malocclusion in the history of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO). Results A total of 359 papers were retrieved, among which only 72 (20.06%) papers described the occlusal severity of the Class II malocclusion sample. In the other 287 (79.94%) papers that did not specify the anteroposterior discrepancy severity, description was considered to be crucial in 159 (55.40%) of them. Conclusions Omission in describing the occlusal severity demands a cautious interpretation of 44.29% of the papers retrieved in this study. PMID:20835576

  10. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative...

  11. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative...

  12. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative...

  13. Classification of protein crystallization imagery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqing; Sun, Shaohua; Bern, Marshall

    2004-01-01

    We investigate automatic classification of protein crystallization imagery, and evaluate the performance of several modern mathematical tools when applied to the problem. For feature extraction, we try a combination of geometric and texture features; for classification algorithms, the support vector machine (SVM) is compared with an automatic decision-tree classifier. Experimental results from 520 images are presented for the binary classification problem: separating successful trials from failed attempts. The best false positive and false negative rates are at 14.6% and 9.6% respectively, achieved by feeding both sets of features to the decision-tree classifier with boosting.

  14. Towards Automatic Classification of Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Armañanzas, Rubén; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2015-01-01

    The classification of neurons into types has been much debated since the inception of modern neuroscience. Recent experimental advances are accelerating the pace of data collection. The resulting information growth of morphological, physiological, and molecular properties encourages efforts to automate neuronal classification by powerful machine learning techniques. We review state-of-the-art analysis approaches and availability of suitable data and resources, highlighting prominent challenges and opportunities. The effective solution of the neuronal classification problem will require continuous development of computational methods, high-throughput data production, and systematic metadata organization to enable cross-lab integration. PMID:25765323

  15. Absolute classification with unsupervised clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeon, Byeungwoo; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    An absolute classification algorithm is proposed in which the class definition through training samples or otherwise is required only for a particular class of interest. The absolute classification is considered as a problem of unsupervised clustering when one cluster is known initially. The definitions and statistics of the other classes are automatically developed through the weighted unsupervised clustering procedure, which is developed to keep the cluster corresponding to the class of interest from losing its identity as the class of interest. Once all the classes are developed, a conventional relative classifier such as the maximum-likelihood classifier is used in the classification.

  16. Classification of Rainbows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Peter; Ricard, Jean; Barckicke, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Rainbows are the most beautiful and most spectacular optical atmospheric phenomenon. Humphreys (1964) pointedly noted that "the "explanations" generally given of the rainbow [ in textbooks] may well be said to explain beautifully that which does not occur, and to leave unexplained which does" . . . "The records of close observations of rainbows soon show that not even the colors are always the same". Textbooks stress that the main factor affecting the aspect of the rainbow is the radius of the water droplets. In his well-known textbook entitled "the nature of light & colour in the open air", Minnaert (1954) gives the chief features of the rainbow depending on the diameter of the drops producing it. For this study, we have gathered hundreds of pictures of primary bows. We sort out the pictures into classes. The classes are defined in a such way that rainbows belonging to the same class look similar. Our results are surprising and do not confirm Minnaert's classification. In practice, the size of the water droplets is only a minor factor controlling the overall aspect of the rainbow. The main factor appears to be the height of the sun above the horizon. At sunset, the width of the red band increases, while the width of the other bands of colours decreases. The orange, the violet, the blue and the green bands disappear completely in this order. At the end, the primary bow is mainly red and slightly yellow. Picture = taken from the CNRM in Toulouse after a summer storm (Jean Ricard)

  17. Radar clutter classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehwien, Wolfgang

    1989-11-01

    The problem of classifying radar clutter as found on air traffic control radar systems is studied. An algorithm based on Bayes decision theory and the parametric maximum a posteriori probability classifier is developed to perform this classification automatically. This classifier employs a quadratic discriminant function and is optimum for feature vectors that are distributed according to the multivariate normal density. Separable clutter classes are most likely to arise from the analysis of the Doppler spectrum. Specifically, a feature set based on the complex reflection coefficients of the lattice prediction error filter is proposed. The classifier is tested using data recorded from L-band air traffic control radars. The Doppler spectra of these data are examined; the properties of the feature set computed using these data are studied in terms of both the marginal and multivariate statistics. Several strategies involving different numbers of features, class assignments, and data set pretesting according to Doppler frequency and signal to noise ratio were evaluated before settling on a workable algorithm. Final results are presented in terms of experimental misclassification rates and simulated and classified plane position indicator displays.

  18. Molecular Classification of Medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    KIJIMA, Noriyuki; KANEMURA, Yonehiro

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is one of the most frequent malignant brain tumors in children. The current standard treatment regimen consists of surgical resection, craniospinal irradiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Although these treatments have the potential to increase the survival of 70–80% of patients with MB, they are also associated with serious treatment-induced morbidity. The current risk stratification of MB is based on clinical factors, including age at presentation, metastatic status, and the presence of residual tumor following resection. In addition, recent genomic studies indicate that MB consists of at least four distinct molecular subgroups: WNT, sonic hedgehog (SHH), Group 3, and Group 4. WNT and SHH MBs are characterized by aberrations in the WNT and SHH signaling pathways, respectively. WNT MB has the best prognosis compared to the other MBs, while SHH MB has an intermediate prognosis. The underlying signaling pathways associated with Group 3 and 4 MBs have not been identified. Group 3 MB is frequently associated with metastasis, resulting in a poor prognosis, while Group 4 is sometimes associated with metastasis and has an intermediate prognosis. Group 4 is the most frequent MB and represents 35% of all MBs. These findings suggest that MB is a heterogeneous disease, and that MB subgroups have distinct molecular, demographic, and clinical characteristics. The molecular classification of MBs is redefining the risk stratification of patients with MB, and has the potential to identify new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of MB. PMID:27238212

  19. Applications of Location Similarity Measures and Conceptual Spaces to Event Coreference and Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConky, Katie Theresa

    2013-01-01

    This work covers topics in event coreference and event classification from spoken conversation. Event coreference is the process of identifying descriptions of the same event across sentences, documents, or structured databases. Existing event coreference work focuses on sentence similarity models or feature based similarity models requiring slot…

  20. A Pilot Standard National Course Classification System for Secondary Education, 1995. [Diskette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malitz, Gerald; And Others

    Presents an "infobase" version of "A Pilot Standard National Course Classification System for Secondary Education" to allow users to browse, search, annotate, print, and export information electronically. This publication is the culmination of a major effort to help establish common terminology, descriptions, and a coding…

  1. SCOWLP classification: Structural comparison and analysis of protein binding regions

    PubMed Central

    Teyra, Joan; Paszkowski-Rogacz, Maciej; Anders, Gerd; Pisabarro, M Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Background Detailed information about protein interactions is critical for our understanding of the principles governing protein recognition mechanisms. The structures of many proteins have been experimentally determined in complex with different ligands bound either in the same or different binding regions. Thus, the structural interactome requires the development of tools to classify protein binding regions. A proper classification may provide a general view of the regions that a protein uses to bind others and also facilitate a detailed comparative analysis of the interacting information for specific protein binding regions at atomic level. Such classification might be of potential use for deciphering protein interaction networks, understanding protein function, rational engineering and design. Description Protein binding regions (PBRs) might be ideally described as well-defined separated regions that share no interacting residues one another. However, PBRs are often irregular, discontinuous and can share a wide range of interacting residues among them. The criteria to define an individual binding region can be often arbitrary and may differ from other binding regions within a protein family. Therefore, the rational behind protein interface classification should aim to fulfil the requirements of the analysis to be performed. We extract detailed interaction information of protein domains, peptides and interfacial solvent from the SCOWLP database and we classify the PBRs of each domain family. For this purpose, we define a similarity index based on the overlapping of interacting residues mapped in pair-wise structural alignments. We perform our classification with agglomerative hierarchical clustering using the complete-linkage method. Our classification is calculated at different similarity cut-offs to allow flexibility in the analysis of PBRs, feature especially interesting for those protein families with conflictive binding regions. The hierarchical

  2. MeMoVolc report on classification and dynamics of volcanic explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonadonna, C.; Cioni, R.; Costa, A.; Druitt, T.; Phillips, J.; Pioli, L.; Andronico, D.; Harris, A.; Scollo, S.; Bachmann, O.; Bagheri, G.; Biass, S.; Brogi, F.; Cashman, K.; Dominguez, L.; Dürig, T.; Galland, O.; Giordano, G.; Gudmundsson, M.; Hort, M.; Höskuldsson, A.; Houghton, B.; Komorowski, J. C.; Küppers, U.; Lacanna, G.; Le Pennec, J. L.; Macedonio, G.; Manga, M.; Manzella, I.; Vitturi, M. de'Michieli; Neri, A.; Pistolesi, M.; Polacci, M.; Ripepe, M.; Rossi, E.; Scheu, B.; Sulpizio, R.; Tripoli, B.; Valade, S.; Valentine, G.; Vidal, C.; Wallenstein, N.

    2016-11-01

    Classifications of volcanic eruptions were first introduced in the early twentieth century mostly based on qualitative observations of eruptive activity, and over time, they have gradually been developed to incorporate more quantitative descriptions of the eruptive products from both deposits and observations of active volcanoes. Progress in physical volcanology, and increased capability in monitoring, measuring and modelling of explosive eruptions, has highlighted shortcomings in the way we classify eruptions and triggered a debate around the need for eruption classification and the advantages and disadvantages of existing classification schemes. Here, we (i) review and assess existing classification schemes, focussing on subaerial eruptions; (ii) summarize the fundamental processes that drive and parameters that characterize explosive volcanism; (iii) identify and prioritize the main research that will improve the understanding, characterization and classification of volcanic eruptions and (iv) provide a roadmap for producing a rational and comprehensive classification scheme. In particular, classification schemes need to be objective-driven and simple enough to permit scientific exchange and promote transfer of knowledge beyond the scientific community. Schemes should be comprehensive and encompass a variety of products, eruptive styles and processes, including for example, lava flows, pyroclastic density currents, gas emissions and cinder cone or caldera formation. Open questions, processes and parameters that need to be addressed and better characterized in order to develop more comprehensive classification schemes and to advance our understanding of volcanic eruptions include conduit processes and dynamics, abrupt transitions in eruption regime, unsteadiness, eruption energy and energy balance.

  3. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Beesley

    2005-04-21

    The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  4. Micropolar continuum in spatial description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Elena A.; Vilchevskaya, Elena N.

    2016-11-01

    Within the spatial description, it is customary to refer thermodynamic state quantities to an elementary volume fixed in space containing an ensemble of particles. During its evolution, the elementary volume is occupied by different particles, each having its own mass, tensor of inertia, angular and linear velocities. The aim of the present paper is to answer the question of how to determine the inertial and kinematic characteristics of the elementary volume. In order to model structural transformations due to the consolidation or defragmentation of particles or anisotropic changes, one should consider the fact that the tensor of inertia of the elementary volume may change. This means that an additional constitutive equation must be formulated. The paper suggests kinetic equations for the tensor of inertia of the elementary volume. It also discusses the specificity of the inelastic polar continuum description within the framework of the spatial description.

  5. Description du langage scientifique (Description of Scientific Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widdowson, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    A description of scientific language using three approaches: text, textualization, and discourse. Scientific discourse is analogous to universal deep structure; text, to surface variations in diverse languages; and textualization, to transformational processes. The relationship of the primary and secondary (scientific) cultures and their languages…

  6. Auteur Description: From the Director's Creative Vision to Audio Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szarkowska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the author follows the suggestion that a film director's creative vision should be incorporated into Audio description (AD), a major technique for making films, theater performances, operas, and other events accessible to people who are blind or have low vision. The author presents a new type of AD for auteur and artistic films:…

  7. Classification of spacetimes with symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Jesse W.

    Spacetimes with symmetry play a critical role in Einstein's Theory of General Relativity. Missing from the literature is a correct, usable, and computer accessible classification of such spacetimes. This dissertation fills this gap; specifically, we. i) give a new and different approach to the classification of spacetimes with symmetry using modern methods and tools such as the Schmidt method and computer algebra systems, resulting in ninety-two spacetimes; ii) create digital databases of the classification for easy access and use for researchers; iii) create software to classify any spacetime metric with symmetry against the new database; iv) compare results of our classification with those of Petrov and find that Petrov missed six cases and incorrectly normalized a significant number of metrics; v) classify spacetimes with symmetry in the book Exact Solutions to Einstein's Field Equations Second Edition by Stephani, Kramer, Macallum, Hoenselaers, and Herlt and in Komrakov's paper Einstein-Maxwell equation on four-dimensional homogeneous spaces using the new software.

  8. Spectroscopic classification of supernova candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkin, S. T.; Hall, A.; Fraser, M.; Campbell, H.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Pietro, N.

    2014-09-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of four supernovae at the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph and the R300V grating (3500-8000 Ang; ~6 Ang resolution).

  9. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Classification Framework for Coastal Systems. EPA/600/R-04/061. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Bree...

  10. Critical Evaluation of Headache Classifications

    PubMed Central

    ÖZGE, Aynur

    2013-01-01

    Transforming a subjective sense like headache into an objective state and establishing a common language for this complaint which can be both a symptom and a disease all by itself have kept the investigators busy for years. Each recommendation proposed has brought along a set of patients who do not meet the criteria. While almost the most ideal and most comprehensive classification studies continued at this point, this time criticisims about withdrawing from daily practice came to the fore. In this article, the classification adventure of scientists who work in the area of headache will be summarized. More specifically, 2 classifications made by the International Headache Society (IHS) and the point reached in relation with the 3rd classification which is still being worked on will be discussed together with headache subtypes. It has been presented with the wish and belief that it will contribute to the readers and young investigators who are interested in this subject.

  11. Handwriting Classification in Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansell, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Considers systems for the classification of handwriting features, discusses computer storage of information about handwriting features, and summarizes recent studies that give an idea of the range of forensic handwriting research. (GT)

  12. Terminology and classification of seizures and epilepsy in veterinary patients.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Christopher L

    2013-05-01

    The classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsy is a controversial and dynamic topic that has undergone many iterations in human medicine. The International League against Epilepsy is a multinational organization that has formed a number of task forces and subcommittees to study this issue, and has ratified several reports outlining recommended terminology and classification schemes for human patients. Veterinary publications on this issue have generally adapted these schemes to fit small animal patients, but a formally endorsed system to classify seizures and epilepsy has never been developed for veterinary patients. This review outlines the classification systems that have been published for human patients and summarizes previous efforts by veterinary authors to utilize these methods. Finally, a set of definitions and terminology for use in veterinary patients is proposed, which includes a glossary of descriptive terminology for ictal semiology and a diagnostic scheme for classification of individual patients. This document is intended as a starting point of discussion, which will hopefully eventually result in a formally ratified document that will be useful for communication between health professionals, the design of clinical trials and for guiding treatment decisions and prognostication for veterinary patients with seizures.

  13. An Efficient Optimization Method for Solving Unsupervised Data Classification Problems

    PubMed Central

    Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh; Yusof, Rubiyah

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised data classification (or clustering) analysis is one of the most useful tools and a descriptive task in data mining that seeks to classify homogeneous groups of objects based on similarity and is used in many medical disciplines and various applications. In general, there is no single algorithm that is suitable for all types of data, conditions, and applications. Each algorithm has its own advantages, limitations, and deficiencies. Hence, research for novel and effective approaches for unsupervised data classification is still active. In this paper a heuristic algorithm, Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO) algorithm, was adapted for data clustering problems by modifying the main operators of BBO algorithm, which is inspired from the natural biogeography distribution of different species. Similar to other population-based algorithms, BBO algorithm starts with an initial population of candidate solutions to an optimization problem and an objective function that is calculated for them. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm assessment was carried on six medical and real life datasets and was compared with eight well known and recent unsupervised data classification algorithms. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary optimization algorithm is efficient for unsupervised data classification. PMID:26336509

  14. An Efficient Optimization Method for Solving Unsupervised Data Classification Problems.

    PubMed

    Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh; Yusof, Rubiyah

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised data classification (or clustering) analysis is one of the most useful tools and a descriptive task in data mining that seeks to classify homogeneous groups of objects based on similarity and is used in many medical disciplines and various applications. In general, there is no single algorithm that is suitable for all types of data, conditions, and applications. Each algorithm has its own advantages, limitations, and deficiencies. Hence, research for novel and effective approaches for unsupervised data classification is still active. In this paper a heuristic algorithm, Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO) algorithm, was adapted for data clustering problems by modifying the main operators of BBO algorithm, which is inspired from the natural biogeography distribution of different species. Similar to other population-based algorithms, BBO algorithm starts with an initial population of candidate solutions to an optimization problem and an objective function that is calculated for them. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm assessment was carried on six medical and real life datasets and was compared with eight well known and recent unsupervised data classification algorithms. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary optimization algorithm is efficient for unsupervised data classification.

  15. Lung image patch classification with automatic feature learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Cai, Weidong; Feng, David Dagan

    2013-01-01

    Image patch classification is an important task in many different medical imaging applications. The classification performance is usually highly dependent on the effectiveness of image feature vectors. While many feature descriptors have been proposed over the past years, they can be quite complicated and domain-specific. Automatic feature learning from image data has thus emerged as a different trend recently, to capture the intrinsic image features without manual feature design. In this paper, we propose to create multi-scale feature extractors based on an unsupervised learning algorithm; and obtain the image feature vectors by convolving the feature extractors with the image patches. The auto-generated image features are data-adaptive and highly descriptive. A simple classification scheme is then used to classify the image patches. The proposed method is generic in nature and can be applied to different imaging domains. For evaluation, we perform image patch classification to differentiate various lung tissue patterns commonly seen in interstitial lung disease (ILD), and demonstrate promising results.

  16. The classification of glomerulonephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus revisited.

    PubMed

    Weening, Jan J; D'Agati, Vivette D; Schwartz, Melvin M; Seshan, Surya V; Alpers, Charles E; Appel, Gerald B; Balow, James E; Bruijn, Jan A; Cook, Terence; Ferrario, Franco; Fogo, Agnes B; Ginzler, Ellen M; Hebert, Lee; Hill, Gary; Hill, Prue; Jennette, J Charles; Kong, Norella C; Lesavre, Philippe; Lockshin, Michael; Looi, Lai-Meng; Makino, Hirofumi; Moura, Luiz A; Nagata, Michio

    2004-02-01

    The currently used classification reflects our understanding of the pathogenesis of the various forms of lupus nephritis, but clinicopathologic studies have revealed the need for improved categorization and terminology. Based on the 1982 classification published under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO) and subsequent clinicopathologic data, we propose that class I and II be used for purely mesangial involvement (I, mesangial immune deposits without mesangial hypercellularity; II, mesangial immune deposits with mesangial hypercellularity); class III for focal glomerulonephritis (involving <50% of total number of glomeruli) with subdivisions for active and sclerotic lesions; class IV for diffuse glomerulonephritis (involving > or = 50% of total number of glomeruli) either with segmental (class IV-S) or global (class IV-G) involvement, and also with subdivisions for active and sclerotic lesions; class V for membranous lupus nephritis; and class VI for advanced sclerosing lesions]. Combinations of membranous and proliferative glomerulonephritis (i.e., class III and V or class IV and V) should be reported individually in the diagnostic line. The diagnosis should also include entries for any concomitant vascular or tubulointerstitial lesions. One of the main advantages of the current revised classification is that it provides a clear and unequivocal description of the various lesions and classes of lupus nephritis, allowing a better standardization and lending a basis for further clinicopathologic studies. We hope that this revision, which evolved under the auspices of the International Society of Nephrology and the Renal Pathology Society, will contribute to further advancement of the WHO classification.

  17. The classification of glomerulonephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus revisited.

    PubMed

    Weening, Jan J; D'Agati, Vivette D; Schwartz, Melvin M; Seshan, Surya V; Alpers, Charles E; Appel, Gerald B; Balow, James E; Bruijn, Jan A; Cook, Terence; Ferrario, Franco; Fogo, Agnes B; Ginzler, Ellen M; Hebert, Lee; Hill, Gary; Hill, Prue; Jennette, J Charles; Kong, Norella C; Lesavre, Philippe; Lockshin, Michael; Looi, Lai-Meng; Makino, Hirofumi; Moura, Luiz A; Nagata, Michio

    2004-02-01

    The currently used classification reflects our understanding of the pathogenesis of the various forms of lupus nephritis, but clinicopathologic studies have revealed the need for improved categorization and terminology. Based on the 1982 classification published under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO) and subsequent clinicopathologic data, we propose that class I and II be used for purely mesangial involvement (I, mesangial immune deposits without mesangial hypercellularity; II, mesangial immune deposits with mesangial hypercellularity); class III for focal glomerulonephritis (involving <50% of total number of glomeruli) with subdivisions for active and sclerotic lesions; class IV for diffuse glomerulonephritis (involving > or =50% of total number of glomeruli) either with segmental (class IV-S) or global (class IV-G) involvement, and also with subdivisions for active and sclerotic lesions; class V for membranous lupus nephritis; and class VI for advanced sclerosing lesions. Combinations of membranous and proliferative glomerulonephritis (i.e., class III and V or class IV and V) should be reported individually in the diagnostic line. The diagnosis should also include entries for any concomitant vascular or tubulointerstitial lesions. One of the main advantages of the current revised classification is that it provides a clear and unequivocal description of the various lesions and classes of lupus nephritis, allowing a better standardization and lending a basis for further clinicopathologic studies. We hope that this revision, which evolved under the auspices of the International Society of Nephrology and the Renal Pathology Society, will contribute to further advancement of the WHO classification.

  18. Classification and Counter-Classification of Language on Saint Barthelemy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressman, Jon F.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the use of metapragmatic description in the ethnoclassification of language by native speakers on the Franco-Antillean island of Saint Barthelemy. A prevalent technique for metapragmatic description based on honorific pronouns that reflects the varied geolinguistic and generational attributes of the speakers is described. (Author/MSE)

  19. Cholangiocarcinoma: increasing burden of classifications

    PubMed Central

    Cardinale, Vincenzo; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Carpino, Guido; Torrice, Alessia; Fraveto, Alice; Gentile, Raffaele; Pasqualino, Vincenzo; Melandro, Fabio; Aliberti, Camilla; Bastianelli, Carlo; Brunelli, Roberto; Berloco, Pasquale Bartolomeo; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a very heterogeneous cancer from any point of view, including epidemiology, risk factors, morphology, pathology, molecular pathology, modalities of growth and clinical features. Given this heterogeneity, a uniform classification respecting the epidemiologic, pathologic and clinical needs is currently lacking. In this manuscript we discussed the different proposed classifications of CCA in relation with recent advances in pathophysiology and biology of this cancer. PMID:24570958

  20. Integrated classification of inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Allenbach, Y; Benveniste, O; Goebel, H-H; Stenzel, W

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory myopathies comprise a multitude of diverse diseases, most often occurring in complex clinical settings. To ensure accurate diagnosis, multidisciplinary expertise is required. Here, we propose a comprehensive myositis classification that incorporates clinical, morphological and molecular data as well as autoantibody profile. This review focuses on recent advances in myositis research, in particular, the correlation between autoantibodies and morphological or clinical phenotypes that can be used as the basis for an 'integrated' classification system.

  1. Product Work Classification and Coding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    detail is much more useful in planning steel welding processes. In this regard remember that mild steel , HSLA steel , and high-yield steel (e.g. HY80 ...manufacturing facility. In Figure 2.3-2, a classification and coding system for steel parts is shown. This classification and coding system sorts steel parts...system would provide a shop which produced steel parts with a means of organizing parts. Rather than attempting to manage all of its parts as a single

  2. Classification of the acanthocephala.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M

    2013-09-01

    In 1985, Amin presented a new system for the classification of the Acanthocephala in Crompton and Nickol's (1985) book 'Biology of the Acanthocephala' and recognized the concepts of Meyer (1931, 1932, 1933) and Van Cleave (1936, 1941, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1952). This system became the standard for the taxonomy of this group and remains so to date. Many changes have taken place and many new genera and species, as well as higher taxa, have been described since. An updated version of the 1985 scheme incorporating new concepts in molecular taxonomy, gene sequencing and phylogenetic studies is presented. The hierarchy has undergone a total face lift with Amin's (1987) addition of a new class, Polyacanthocephala (and a new order and family) to remove inconsistencies in the class Palaeacanthocephala. Amin and Ha (2008) added a third order (and a new family) to the Palaeacanthocephala, Heteramorphida, which combines features from the palaeacanthocephalan families Polymorphidae and Heteracanthocephalidae. Other families and subfamilies have been added but some have been eliminated, e.g. the three subfamilies of Arythmacanthidae: Arhythmacanthinae Yamaguti, 1935; Neoacanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1960; and Paracanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1969. Amin (1985) listed 22 families, 122 genera and 903 species (4, 4 and 14 families; 13, 28 and 81 genera; 167, 167 and 569 species in Archiacanthocephala, Eoacanthocephala and Palaeacanthocephala, respectively). The number of taxa listed in the present treatment is 26 families (18% increase), 157 genera (29%), and 1298 species (44%) (4, 4 and 16; 18, 29 and 106; 189, 255 and 845, in the same order), which also includes 1 family, 1 genus and 4 species in the class Polyacanthocephala Amin, 1987, and 3 genera and 5 species in the fossil family Zhijinitidae.

  3. ISPRM discussion paper: Proposing a conceptual description of health-related rehabilitation services.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Thorsten; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Kiekens, Carlotte; Skempes, Dimitrios; Melvin, John L; Schedler, Kuno; Imamura, Marta; Stucki, Gerold

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for a comprehensive classification system of health-related rehabilitation services. For conceptual clarity our aim is to provide a health-related conceptual description of the term "rehabilitation service". First, we introduce a common understanding of the term "rehabilitation", based on the current definition in the World Health Organization's World Report on Disability, and a conceptual description of rehabilitation agreed upon by international Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine organizations. From a health perspective, rehabilitation can be regarded as a general health strategy with the aim of enabling persons with health conditions experiencing or likely to experience disability to achieve and maintain optimal functioning. Secondly, we distinguish different meanings of the term "service", that have originated in management literature. It is important to distinguish between micro, meso and macro level uses of the term "service". On a meso level, which is central for the classification of rehabilitation services, 2 aspects of a service, i.e. an offer of an intangible product and an organizational setting in which the offer is upheld, are both essential. The results of this conceptual analysis are used to develop a conceptual description of health-related rehabilitation, which is set out at the end of this paper. This conceptual description may provide the basis of a classification of health-related rehabilitation services, and is open for comments and discussion.

  4. Lung nodule classification with multilevel patch-based context analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Song, Yang; Cai, Weidong; Lee, Min-Zhao; Zhou, Yun; Huang, Heng; Shan, Shimin; Fulham, Michael J; Feng, Dagan D

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel classification method for the four types of lung nodules, i.e., well-circumscribed, vascularized, juxta-pleural, and pleural-tail, in low dose computed tomography scans. The proposed method is based on contextual analysis by combining the lung nodule and surrounding anatomical structures, and has three main stages: an adaptive patch-based division is used to construct concentric multilevel partition; then, a new feature set is designed to incorporate intensity, texture, and gradient information for image patch feature description, and then a contextual latent semantic analysis-based classifier is designed to calculate the probabilistic estimations for the relevant images. Our proposed method was evaluated on a publicly available dataset and clearly demonstrated promising classification performance.

  5. Cell-based therapy technology classifications and translational challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mount, Natalie M.; Ward, Stephen J.; Kefalas, Panos; Hyllner, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapies offer the promise of treating and altering the course of diseases which cannot be addressed adequately by existing pharmaceuticals. Cell therapies are a diverse group across cell types and therapeutic indications and have been an active area of research for many years but are now strongly emerging through translation and towards successful commercial development and patient access. In this article, we present a description of a classification of cell therapies on the basis of their underlying technologies rather than the more commonly used classification by cell type because the regulatory path and manufacturing solutions are often similar within a technology area due to the nature of the methods used. We analyse the progress of new cell therapies towards clinical translation, examine how they are addressing the clinical, regulatory, manufacturing and reimbursement requirements, describe some of the remaining challenges and provide perspectives on how the field may progress for the future. PMID:26416686

  6. Multisensor classification of sedimentary rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane

    1988-01-01

    A comparison is made between linear discriminant analysis and supervised classification results based on signatures from the Landsat TM, the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and airborne SAR, alone and combined into extended spectral signatures for seven sedimentary rock units exposed on the margin of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. Results from a linear discriminant analysis showed that training-area classification accuracies based on the multisensor data were improved an average of 15 percent over TM alone, 24 percent over TIMS alone, and 46 percent over SAR alone, with similar improvement resulting when supervised multisensor classification maps were compared to supervised, individual sensor classification maps. When training area signatures were used to map spectrally similar materials in an adjacent area, the average classification accuracy improved 19 percent using the multisensor data over TM alone, 2 percent over TIMS alone, and 11 percent over SAR alone. It is concluded that certain sedimentary lithologies may be accurately mapped using a single sensor, but classification of a variety of rock types can be improved using multisensor data sets that are sensitive to different characteristics such as mineralogy and surface roughness.

  7. Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is no universal 'working' classification system acceptable to all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with salivary gland neoplasms. The most recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours (Salivary Glands) (2005) for benign and malignant neoplasms represents the consensus of current knowledge and is considered the standard pathological classification based on which series should be reported. The TNM classification of salivary gland malignancies has stood the test of time, and using the stage groupings remains the current standard for reporting treated patients' outcomes. Many developments in molecular and genetic methods in the meantime have identified a number of new entities, and new findings for several of the well-established salivary malignancies need to be considered for inclusion in any new classification system. All clinicians involved in the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of patients with salivary gland neoplasms must understand and respect the need for the various classification systems, enabling them to work within a multidisciplinary clinical team environment.

  8. Classification of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kroemer, G; Galluzzi, L; Vandenabeele, P; Abrams, J; Alnemri, ES; Baehrecke, EH; Blagosklonny, MV; El-Deiry, WS; Golstein, P; Green, DR; Hengartner, M; Knight, RA; Kumar, S; Lipton, SA; Malorni, W; Nuñez, G; Peter, ME; Tschopp, J; Yuan, J; Piacentini, M; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G

    2009-01-01

    Different types of cell death are often defined by morphological criteria, without a clear reference to precise biochemical mechanisms. The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposes unified criteria for the definition of cell death and of its different morphologies, while formulating several caveats against the misuse of words and concepts that slow down progress in the area of cell death research. Authors, reviewers and editors of scientific periodicals are invited to abandon expressions like ‘percentage apoptosis’ and to replace them with more accurate descriptions of the biochemical and cellular parameters that are actually measured. Moreover, at the present stage, it should be accepted that caspase-independent mechanisms can cooperate with (or substitute for) caspases in the execution of lethal signaling pathways and that ‘autophagic cell death’ is a type of cell death occurring together with (but not necessarily by) autophagic vacuolization. This study details the 2009 recommendations of the NCCD on the use of cell death-related terminology including ‘entosis’, ‘mitotic catastrophe’, ‘necrosis’, ‘necroptosis’ and ‘pyroptosis’. PMID:18846107

  9. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... international classification pursuant to § 2.85(e)(3). (b) Prior United States classification system. Section 6... pursuant to § 2.85(e)(3); or (2) The registration was issued under a classification system prior to that... application. (e) Changes to Nice Agreement. The international classification system changes...

  10. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons... documents or classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

  11. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4... SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of derivative classification. (1) Unlike original classification which is an initial determination, derivative...

  12. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons... documents or classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

  13. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons... documents or classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

  14. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4... SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of derivative classification. (1) Unlike original classification which is an initial determination, derivative...

  15. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4... SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of derivative classification. (1) Unlike original classification which is an initial determination, derivative...

  16. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4... SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of derivative classification. (1) Unlike original classification which is an initial determination, derivative...

  17. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons... documents or classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

  18. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons... documents or classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

  19. Prototype Expert System for Climate Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Clay

    Many students find climate classification laborious and time-consuming, and through their lack of repetition fail to grasp the details of classification. This paper describes an expert system for climate classification that is being developed at Middle Tennessee State University. Topics include: (1) an introduction to the nature of classification,…

  20. Current terminology and diagnostic classification schemes.

    PubMed

    Okeson, J P

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the current terminology and classification schemes available for temporomandibular disorders. The origin of each term is presented, and the classification schemes that have been offered for temporomandibular disorders are briefly reviewed. Several important classifications are presented in more detail, with mention of advantages and disadvantages. Final recommendations are provided for future direction in the area of classification schemes.

  1. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders,...

  2. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders,...

  3. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders,...

  4. 32 CFR 2001.21 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Original classification. 2001.21 Section 2001.21... Markings § 2001.21 Original classification. (a) Primary markings. At the time of original classification... classification markings. See § 2001.24(j) for specific guidance. (e) Date of origin of document. The date...

  5. 32 CFR 2001.21 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Original classification. 2001.21 Section 2001.21... Markings § 2001.21 Original classification. (a) Primary markings. At the time of original classification... classification markings. See § 2001.24(j) for specific guidance. (e) Date of origin of document. The date...

  6. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders,...

  7. 32 CFR 2001.21 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Original classification. 2001.21 Section 2001.21... Markings § 2001.21 Original classification. (a) Primary markings. At the time of original classification... classification markings. See § 2001.24(j) for specific guidance. (e) Date of origin of document. The date...

  8. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders,...

  9. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…

  10. Developmental Kindergarten: Definition and Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This paper sets forth a definition and operational description of a developmental program that should be of use as a guide, especially to Virginia's teachers and administrators. Also included in the paper are kindergarten curriculum objectives in the areas of language arts, mathematics, science, art, social studies, family life, health, mental…

  11. Model-based object classification using unification grammars and abstract representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liburdy, Kathleen A.; Schalkoff, Robert J.

    1993-04-01

    The design and implementation of a high level computer vision system which performs object classification is described. General object labelling and functional analysis require models of classes which display a wide range of geometric variations. A large representational gap exists between abstract criteria such as `graspable' and current geometric image descriptions. The vision system developed and described in this work addresses this problem and implements solutions based on a fusion of semantics, unification, and formal language theory. Object models are represented using unification grammars, which provide a framework for the integration of structure and semantics. A methodology for the derivation of symbolic image descriptions capable of interacting with the grammar-based models is described and implemented. A unification-based parser developed for this system achieves object classification by determining if the symbolic image description can be unified with the abstract criteria of an object model. Future research directions are indicated.

  12. Nomenclature and systems of classification for cardiomyopathy in children.

    PubMed

    Konta, Laura; Franklin, Rodney C G; Kaski, Juan P

    2015-08-01

    There has been a progressive evolution in systems of classification for cardiomyopathy, driven by advances in imaging modalities, disease recognition, and genetics, following initial clinical descriptions in the 1960s. A pathophysiological classification emerged and was endorsed by World Health Organisation Task Forces in 1980 and 1995: dilated, hypertrophic, restrictive, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies; subdivided into idiopathic and disease-specific cardiomyopathies. Genetic advances have increasingly linked "idiopathic" phenotypes to specific mutations, although most linkages exhibit highly variable or little genotype-phenotype correlation, confounded by age-dependent changes and varying penetrance. The following two dominant classification systems are currently in use, with advocates in both continents. First, American Heart Association (2006): "A heterogeneous group of diseases of the myocardium associated with mechanical and/or electrical dysfunction that usually exhibit inappropriate ventricular hypertrophy or dilatation due to a variety of causes that frequently are genetic". These are subdivided to those predominantly involving the heart - primary - due to genetic mutation, including ion channelopathies, acquired disease, or mixed; and those with systemic involvement in other organ systems - secondary. Second, European Society of Cardiology (2008): "A myocardial disorder in which heart muscle is structurally and functionally abnormal… sufficient to cause the observed myocardial abnormality", with subdivision to familial and non-familial, excluding ion channelopathies, and split to specific disease subtypes and idiopathic. Further differences exist in the definitions for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; however, whichever high-level classification is used, the clinical reality remains phenotype driven. Clinical evaluation and diagnostic imaging dominate initial patient contact, revealing diagnostic red flags that determine further

  13. Pornography classification: The hidden clues in video space-time.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel; Avila, Sandra; Perez, Mauricio; Moraes, Daniel; Testoni, Vanessa; Valle, Eduardo; Goldenstein, Siome; Rocha, Anderson

    2016-11-01

    As web technologies and social networks become part of the general public's life, the problem of automatically detecting pornography is into every parent's mind - nobody feels completely safe when their children go online. In this paper, we focus on video-pornography classification, a hard problem in which traditional methods often employ still-image techniques - labeling frames individually prior to a global decision. Frame-based approaches, however, ignore significant cogent information brought by motion. Here, we introduce a space-temporal interest point detector and descriptor called Temporal Robust Features (TRoF). TRoF was custom-tailored for efficient (low processing time and memory footprint) and effective (high classification accuracy and low false negative rate) motion description, particularly suited to the task at hand. We aggregate local information extracted by TRoF into a mid-level representation using Fisher Vectors, the state-of-the-art model of Bags of Visual Words (BoVW). We evaluate our original strategy, contrasting it both to commercial pornography detection solutions, and to BoVW solutions based upon other space-temporal features from the scientific literature. The performance is assessed using the Pornography-2k dataset, a new challenging pornographic benchmark, comprising 2000 web videos and 140h of video footage. The dataset is also a contribution of this work and is very assorted, including both professional and amateur content, and it depicts several genres of pornography, from cartoon to live action, with diverse behavior and ethnicity. The best approach, based on a dense application of TRoF, yields a classification error reduction of almost 79% when compared to the best commercial classifier. A sparse description relying on TRoF detector is also noteworthy, for yielding a classification error reduction of over 69%, with 19× less memory footprint than the dense solution, and yet can also be implemented to meet real-time requirements.

  14. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming; Letiner, Thomas K; Korber, Bette T

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our

  15. Classification of iris colour: review and refinement of a classification schema.

    PubMed

    Mackey, David A; Wilkinson, Colleen H; Kearns, Lisa S; Hewitt, Alex W

    2011-07-01

    Eye colour or, more accurately, iris colour is one of the most obvious physical characteristics of a person. European parents frequently ask the colour of their newborn's eyes, only to see the iris change dramatically during their child's first year of life. Genetic and epidemiological findings have uncovered further details about the basis for iris colour, which may have important implications for further research and treatment of some eye diseases and ocular characteristics. Surprisingly there is no widely recognized classification system for eye colour. An added difficulty when trying to devise an international system is that subtle differences in colour description exist between languages (e.g. hazel vs. auburn). We reviewed the recent and very early literature pertaining to eye colour classification. Recent genetic investigations of eye colour have tended to either use simple (three-category grading systems) or more complex digital colour grading. We present a nine-category grading system. Categories in this novel schema include: (i) light blue; (ii) darker blue; (iii) blue with brown peripupillary ring; (iv) green; (v) green with brown iris ring; (vi) peripheral green central brown; (vii) brown with some peripheral green; (viii) brown; and (ix) dark brown. Although different observers may categorize a person's eye colour differently, it is generally only by an adjacent category. We also describe a continuum of iris pigmentation from a small ring of brown around the pupil to almost complete brown with small peripheral flecks. Digital publishing and assessment of iris colour will result in more standardized classification of iris colour and investigation of its role in eye disease.

  16. FPGA Coprocessor for Accelerated Classification of Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Scharenbroich, Lucas J.; Werne, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    An effort related to that described in the preceding article focuses on developing a spaceborne processing platform for fast and accurate onboard classification of image data, a critical part of modern satellite image processing. The approach again has been to exploit the versatility of recently developed hybrid Virtex-4FX field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to run diverse science applications on embedded processors while taking advantage of the reconfigurable hardware resources of the FPGAs. In this case, the FPGA serves as a coprocessor that implements legacy C-language support-vector-machine (SVM) image-classification algorithms to detect and identify natural phenomena such as flooding, volcanic eruptions, and sea-ice break-up. The FPGA provides hardware acceleration for increased onboard processing capability than previously demonstrated in software. The original C-language program demonstrated on an imaging instrument aboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite implements a linear-kernel SVM algorithm for classifying parts of the images as snow, water, ice, land, or cloud or unclassified. Current onboard processors, such as on EO-1, have limited computing power, extremely limited active storage capability and are no longer considered state-of-the-art. Using commercially available software that translates C-language programs into hardware description language (HDL) files, the legacy C-language program, and two newly formulated programs for a more capable expanded-linear-kernel and a more accurate polynomial-kernel SVM algorithm, have been implemented in the Virtex-4FX FPGA. In tests, the FPGA implementations have exhibited significant speedups over conventional software implementations running on general-purpose hardware.

  17. A Proposal to Develop Interactive Classification Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBessonet, Cary

    1998-01-01

    Research for the first year was oriented towards: 1) the design of an interactive classification tool (ICT); and 2) the development of an appropriate theory of inference for use in ICT technology. The general objective was to develop a theory of classification that could accommodate a diverse array of objects, including events and their constituent objects. Throughout this report, the term "object" is to be interpreted in a broad sense to cover any kind of object, including living beings, non-living physical things, events, even ideas and concepts. The idea was to produce a theory that could serve as the uniting fabric of a base technology capable of being implemented in a variety of automated systems. The decision was made to employ two technologies under development by the principal investigator, namely, SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) and SL (Symbolic Language) [see debessonet, 1991, for detailed descriptions of SMS and SL]. The plan was to enhance and modify these technologies for use in an ICT environment. As a means of giving focus and direction to the proposed research, the investigators decided to design an interactive, classificatory tool for use in building accessible knowledge bases for selected domains. Accordingly, the proposed research was divisible into tasks that included: 1) the design of technology for classifying domain objects and for building knowledge bases from the results automatically; 2) the development of a scheme of inference capable of drawing upon previously processed classificatory schemes and knowledge bases; and 3) the design of a query/ search module for accessing the knowledge bases built by the inclusive system. The interactive tool for classifying domain objects was to be designed initially for textual corpora with a view to having the technology eventually be used in robots to build sentential knowledge bases that would be supported by inference engines specially designed for the natural or man-made environments in which the

  18. Magnetic classification of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, P.; Sagnotti, L.; Consolmagno, G.; Denise, M.; Folco, L.; Gattacceca, J.; Osete, M.; Pesonen, L.

    2003-04-01

    either a different type of meteorite or with even terrestrial rock. In the collections studied several percent of the specimens appeared misidentified. Moreover magnetic measurements can be performed directly on the field, by hand or by a robot, opening new possibility for screening meteorites on cold or hot desert surface. P. Rochette et al., Magnetic Classification of stony meteorites: 1. Ordinary chondrites. Met. Planet. Sci., in press.

  19. Classification of human carcinoma cells using multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćinar, Umut; Y. Ćetin, Yasemin; Ćetin-Atalay, Rengul; Ćetin, Enis

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a technique for automatically classifying human carcinoma cell images using textural features. An image dataset containing microscopy biopsy images from different patients for 14 distinct cancer cell line type is studied. The images are captured using a RGB camera attached to an inverted microscopy device. Texture based Gabor features are extracted from multispectral input images. SVM classifier is used to generate a descriptive model for the purpose of cell line classification. The experimental results depict satisfactory performance, and the proposed method is versatile for various microscopy magnification options.

  20. Hemicrania continua: major shortcomings in the new classification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hemicrania continua ( HC) was described and coined by Sjaastad and Spierings in 1984. Later cases, carrying this appellation should, grossly, conform to this original description. The proposed classification criteria (ICHD, 3rd edition beta version) for HC has major shortcomings, and ordinary HC cases do not fulfill the proposed criteria. Relatively rare symptoms and signs are e.g. made obligatory (point C 1). And the recommended dosage of indomethacin- both test and long-term dosages-is unallowably high. In this way, bogus HC cases are systematically created. This irrational diagnostic system is in urgent need of a major revision. PMID:25216994

  1. [ABC supplies classification: a managment tool of costs in nursing].

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Karina Gomes; Castilho, Valéria

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of costs management systems has been extremely helpful to healthcare area owing to their efficacy in cutting expenditures as well as improving service quality. The ABC classification is an applied strategy to stocktaking and control. The research, which consists of an exploratory/descriptive quantitative analysis, has been carried out in order to identify, in a year time period, the demand for supplies at Universidade de Sao Paulo's Hospital. Of 1938 classified materials, 67 itens had been classified that they correspond to the materials with bigger costs for the hospital. 31.3% of these A-Class supplies catalogued items are the nursing materials, more used for the nursing team.

  2. Improving SVDD classification performance on hyperspectral images via correlation based ensemble technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uslu, Faruk Sukru; Binol, Hamidullah; Ilarslan, Mustafa; Bal, Abdullah

    2017-02-01

    Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) is a nonparametric and powerful method for target detection and classification. The SVDD constructs a minimum hypersphere enclosing the target objects as much as possible. It has advantages of sparsity, good generalization and using kernel machines. In many studies, different methods have been offered in order to improve the performance of the SVDD. In this paper, we have presented ensemble methods to improve classification performance of the SVDD in remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery (HSI) data. Among various ensemble approaches we have selected bagging technique for training data set with different combinations. As a novel technique for weighting we have proposed a correlation based weight coefficients assignment. In this technique, correlation between each bagged classifier is calculated to give coefficients to weighted combinators. To verify the improvement performance, two hyperspectral images are processed for classification purpose. The obtained results show that the ensemble SVDD has been found to be significantly better than conventional SVDD in terms of classification accuracy.

  3. A systematic literature review of automated clinical coding and classification systems.

    PubMed

    Stanfill, Mary H; Williams, Margaret; Fenton, Susan H; Jenders, Robert A; Hersh, William R

    2010-01-01

    Clinical coding and classification processes transform natural language descriptions in clinical text into data that can subsequently be used for clinical care, research, and other purposes. This systematic literature review examined studies that evaluated all types of automated coding and classification systems to determine the performance of such systems. Studies indexed in Medline or other relevant databases prior to March 2009 were considered. The 113 studies included in this review show that automated tools exist for a variety of coding and classification purposes, focus on various healthcare specialties, and handle a wide variety of clinical document types. Automated coding and classification systems themselves are not generalizable, nor are the results of the studies evaluating them. Published research shows these systems hold promise, but these data must be considered in context, with performance relative to the complexity of the task and the desired outcome.

  4. Data-Driven Multimodal Sleep Apnea Events Detection : Synchrosquezing Transform Processing and Riemannian Geometry Classification Approaches.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Tomasz M

    2016-07-01

    A novel multimodal and bio-inspired approach to biomedical signal processing and classification is presented in the paper. This approach allows for an automatic semantic labeling (interpretation) of sleep apnea events based the proposed data-driven biomedical signal processing and classification. The presented signal processing and classification methods have been already successfully applied to real-time unimodal brainwaves (EEG only) decoding in brain-computer interfaces developed by the author. In the current project the very encouraging results are obtained using multimodal biomedical (brainwaves and peripheral physiological) signals in a unified processing approach allowing for the automatic semantic data description. The results thus support a hypothesis of the data-driven and bio-inspired signal processing approach validity for medical data semantic interpretation based on the sleep apnea events machine-learning-related classification.

  5. A review on ultrasound-based thyroid cancer tissue characterization and automated classification.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U R; Swapna, G; Sree, S V; Molinari, F; Gupta, S; Bardales, R H; Witkowska, A; Suri, J S

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we review the different studies that developed Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) for automated classification of thyroid cancer into benign and malignant types. Specifically, we discuss the different types of features that are used to study and analyze the differences between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. These features can be broadly categorized into (a) the sonographic features from the ultrasound images, and (b) the non-clinical features extracted from the ultrasound images using statistical and data mining techniques. We also present a brief description of the commonly used classifiers in ultrasound based CAD systems. We then review the studies that used features based on the ultrasound images for thyroid nodule classification and highlight the limitations of such studies. We also discuss and review the techniques used in studies that used the non-clinical features for thyroid nodule classification and report the classification accuracies obtained in these studies.

  6. Pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tervaert, Thijs W Cohen; Mooyaart, Antien L; Amann, Kerstin; Cohen, Arthur H; Cook, H Terence; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Ferrario, Franco; Fogo, Agnes B; Haas, Mark; de Heer, Emile; Joh, Kensuke; Noël, Laure H; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Seshan, Surya V; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Bruijn, Jan A

    2010-04-01

    Although pathologic classifications exist for several renal diseases, including IgA nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and lupus nephritis, a uniform classification for diabetic nephropathy is lacking. Our aim, commissioned by the Research Committee of the Renal Pathology Society, was to develop a consensus classification combining type1 and type 2 diabetic nephropathies. Such a classification should discriminate lesions by various degrees of severity that would be easy to use internationally in clinical practice. We divide diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions with a separate evaluation for degrees of interstitial and vascular involvement. Biopsies diagnosed as diabetic nephropathy are classified as follows: Class I, glomerular basement membrane thickening: isolated glomerular basement membrane thickening and only mild, nonspecific changes by light microscopy that do not meet the criteria of classes II through IV. Class II, mesangial expansion, mild (IIa) or severe (IIb): glomeruli classified as mild or severe mesangial expansion but without nodular sclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions) or global glomerulosclerosis in more than 50% of glomeruli. Class III, nodular sclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions): at least one glomerulus with nodular increase in mesangial matrix (Kimmelstiel-Wilson) without changes described in class IV. Class IV, advanced diabetic glomerulosclerosis: more than 50% global glomerulosclerosis with other clinical or pathologic evidence that sclerosis is attributable to diabetic nephropathy. A good interobserver reproducibility for the four classes of DN was shown (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84) in a test of this classification.

  7. Plant species classification using flower images-A comparative study of local feature representations.

    PubMed

    Seeland, Marco; Rzanny, Michael; Alaqraa, Nedal; Wäldchen, Jana; Mäder, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Steady improvements of image description methods induced a growing interest in image-based plant species classification, a task vital to the study of biodiversity and ecological sensitivity. Various techniques have been proposed for general object classification over the past years and several of them have already been studied for plant species classification. However, results of these studies are selective in the evaluated steps of a classification pipeline, in the utilized datasets for evaluation, and in the compared baseline methods. No study is available that evaluates the main competing methods for building an image representation on the same datasets allowing for generalized findings regarding flower-based plant species classification. The aim of this paper is to comparatively evaluate methods, method combinations, and their parameters towards classification accuracy. The investigated methods span from detection, extraction, fusion, pooling, to encoding of local features for quantifying shape and color information of flower images. We selected the flower image datasets Oxford Flower 17 and Oxford Flower 102 as well as our own Jena Flower 30 dataset for our experiments. Findings show large differences among the various studied techniques and that their wisely chosen orchestration allows for high accuracies in species classification. We further found that true local feature detectors in combination with advanced encoding methods yield higher classification results at lower computational costs compared to commonly used dense sampling and spatial pooling methods. Color was found to be an indispensable feature for high classification results, especially while preserving spatial correspondence to gray-level features. In result, our study provides a comprehensive overview of competing techniques and the implications of their main parameters for flower-based plant species classification.

  8. Plant species classification using flower images—A comparative study of local feature representations

    PubMed Central

    Seeland, Marco; Rzanny, Michael; Alaqraa, Nedal; Wäldchen, Jana; Mäder, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Steady improvements of image description methods induced a growing interest in image-based plant species classification, a task vital to the study of biodiversity and ecological sensitivity. Various techniques have been proposed for general object classification over the past years and several of them have already been studied for plant species classification. However, results of these studies are selective in the evaluated steps of a classification pipeline, in the utilized datasets for evaluation, and in the compared baseline methods. No study is available that evaluates the main competing methods for building an image representation on the same datasets allowing for generalized findings regarding flower-based plant species classification. The aim of this paper is to comparatively evaluate methods, method combinations, and their parameters towards classification accuracy. The investigated methods span from detection, extraction, fusion, pooling, to encoding of local features for quantifying shape and color information of flower images. We selected the flower image datasets Oxford Flower 17 and Oxford Flower 102 as well as our own Jena Flower 30 dataset for our experiments. Findings show large differences among the various studied techniques and that their wisely chosen orchestration allows for high accuracies in species classification. We further found that true local feature detectors in combination with advanced encoding methods yield higher classification results at lower computational costs compared to commonly used dense sampling and spatial pooling methods. Color was found to be an indispensable feature for high classification results, especially while preserving spatial correspondence to gray-level features. In result, our study provides a comprehensive overview of competing techniques and the implications of their main parameters for flower-based plant species classification. PMID:28234999

  9. Continuum description for jointed media

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.K.

    1982-04-01

    A general three-dimensional continuum description is presented for a material containing regularly spaced and approximately parallel jointing planes within a representative elementary volume. Constitutive relationships are introduced for linear behavior of the base material and nonlinear normal and shear behavior across jointing planes. Furthermore, a fracture permeability tensor is calculated so that deformation induced alterations to the in-situ values can be measured. Examples for several strain-controlled loading paths are presented.

  10. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    SciTech Connect

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  11. Spacelab Mission 3 experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. K. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The Spacelab 3 mission is the first operational flight of Spacelab aboard the shuttle transportation system. The primary objectives of this mission are to conduct application, science, and technology experimentation that requires the low gravity environment of Earth orbit and an extended duration, stable vehicle attitude with emphasis on materials processing. This document provides descriptions of the experiments to be performed during the Spacelab 3 mission.

  12. Classification of road surface profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

  13. The revised classification of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair. G.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matt; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; leGall, Line; Lynn, Denis H.; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E.; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W.

    2012-01-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. (2005), retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information. PMID:23020233

  14. Galaxy Classification without Feature Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsterer, K. L.; Gieseke, F.; Kramer, O.

    2012-09-01

    The automatic classification of galaxies according to the different Hubble types is a widely studied problem in the field of astronomy. The complexity of this task led to projects like Galaxy Zoo which try to obtain labeled data based on visual inspection by humans. Many automatic classification frameworks are based on artificial neural networks (ANN) in combination with a feature extraction step in the pre-processing phase. These approaches rely on labeled catalogs for training the models. The small size of the typically used training sets, however, limits the generalization performance of the resulting models. In this work, we present a straightforward application of support vector machines (SVM) for this type of classification tasks. The conducted experiments indicate that using a sufficient number of labeled objects provided by the EFIGI catalog leads to high-quality models. In contrast to standard approaches no additional feature extraction is required.

  15. Classification systems for stalking behavior.

    PubMed

    Racine, Christopher; Billick, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Stalking is a complex behavioral phenomenon that is unique in that it necessarily involves a prolonged dyadic relationship between both a perpetrator and a victim. Since criminalization of stalking behavior in the 1990s, different conceptual typologies have attempted to classify this behavior to assess risk and aid in management decisions. The authors reviewed the current literature regarding the most recent and accepted stalking classification systems. The three predominant stalker typologies currently in use include Zona's stalker-victim types, Mullen's stalker typology, and the RECON stalker typology. Of these, the RECON classification system alone was developed in an attempt to separate stalkers into groups based on previously known risk factors for behaviorally based phenomenon such as propensity for violence. Understanding and simplifying these classification systems may enhance the potential that new research will lead to evidence-based management and treatment strategies in the stalking situation.

  16. Hierarchical modeling for image classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likens, W.; Maw, K.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the California Integrated Remote Sensing System's (CIRSS) San Bernardino County Project, the use of data layers from a geographic information system (GIS) as an integral part of the Landsat image classification process was investigated. Through a hierarchical modeling technique, elevation, aspect, land use, vegetation, and growth management data from the project's data base were used to guide class labeling decisions in a 1976 Landsat MSS land cover classification. A similar model, incorporating 1976-1979 Landsat spectral change data in addition to other data base elements, was used in the classification of a 1979 Landsat image. The resultant Landsat products were integrated as additional layers into the data base for use in growth management, fire hazard, and hydrological modeling.

  17. Corpus Callosum MR Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, A.; Coenen, F.; Jiang, C.; García-Fiñana, M.; Sluming, V.

    An approach to classifying Magnetic Resonance (MR) image data is described. The specific application is the classification of MRI scan data according to the nature of the corpus callosum, however the approach has more general applicability. A variation of the “spectral segmentation with multi-scale graph decomposition” mechanism is introduced. The result of the segmentation is stored in a quad-tree data structure to which a weighted variation (also developed by the authors) of the gSpan algorithm is applied to identify frequent sub-trees. As a result the images are expressed as a set frequent sub-trees. There may be a great many of these and thus a decision tree based feature reduction technique is applied before classification takes place. The results show that the proposed approach performs both efficiently and effectively, obtaining a classification accuracy of over 95% in the case of the given application.

  18. Classification of hyperlipidaemias and hyperlipoproteinaemias*

    PubMed Central

    1970-01-01

    Many studies of atherosclerosis have indicated hyperlipidaemia as a predisposing factor to vascular disease. The relationship holds even for mild degrees of hyperlipidaemia, a fact that underlines the importance of this category of disorders. Both primary and secondary hyperlipidaemias represent such a variety of abnormalities that an internationally acceptable provisional classification is highly desirable in order to facilitate communication between scientists with different backgrounds. The present memorandum presents such a classification; it briefly describes the criteria for diagnosis of the main types of hyperlipidaemia as well as the methods of their determination. Because lipoproteins offer more information than analysis of plasma lipids (most of the plasma lipids being bound to various proteins), the classification is based on lipoprotein analyses by electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. Simpler methods, however, such as the observation of plasma and measurements of cholesterol and triglycerides, are used to the fullest possible extent in determining the lipoprotein patterns. PMID:4930042

  19. The revised classification of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Adl, Sina M; Simpson, Alastair G B; Lane, Christopher E; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S; Brown, Matthew W; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; Le Gall, Line; Lynn, Denis H; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A D; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E; Parfrey, Laura W; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Laura; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad L; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W

    2012-09-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. [J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 52 (2005) 399], retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information.

  20. A generic classification for the morphological and spatial complexity of volcanic (and other) landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Mark A.

    2009-10-01

    Landform studies require that morphological identification, description and classification use an accurate and precise taxonomy. This communication offers taxonomic criteria useful for landform classification, as well as spatial statistical investigations of landform patterns. The spatial statistical modeling of landform patterns poses new challenges concerning the systematic characterization of landforms for study within a GIS (geographical information system). For example, the sundry descriptions and non-diagnostic descriptors for volcanoes are many, and appear to have promoted the adoption of somewhat imprecise and confusing classes. This communication presents a generic three-tiered classification as a basic description of the complexity of the landform regardless of scale, tectonic and petrologic setting, climatic regime, state of degradation, or local definition. Importantly, it offers a taxonomy that is useful to the geographical analysis of point pattern fields using spatial statistical techniques. The scheme offered here was used to characterize mostly monogenetic volcanoes; however the classification scheme may also be usable for other landscape features. For instance, such features may include; landslide scars, thermokarst, dolines, kettle and kame topography, drumlins, dome, crescentic and star dunes, pingos, rootless cones, lava domes and coulees, and impact craters.

  1. A classification of ecological boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strayer, D.L.; Power, M.E.; Fagan, W.F.; Pickett, S.T.A.; Belnap, J.

    2003-01-01

    Ecologists use the term boundary to refer to a wide range of real and conceptual structures. Because imprecise terminology may impede the search for general patterns and theories about ecological boundaries, we present a classification of the attributes of ecological boundaries to aid in communication and theory development. Ecological boundaries may differ in their origin and maintenance, their spatial structure, their function, and their temporal dynamics. A classification system based on these attributes should help ecologists determine whether boundaries are truly comparable. This system can be applied when comparing empirical studies, comparing theories, and testing theoretical predictions against empirical results.

  2. Deep learning for image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoppin, Ryan; Rizki, Mateen

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of deep learning and introduces the several subfields of deep learning including a specific tutorial of convolutional neural networks. Traditional methods for learning image features are compared to deep learning techniques. In addition, we present our preliminary classification results, our basic implementation of a convolutional restricted Boltzmann machine on the Mixed National Institute of Standards and Technology database (MNIST), and we explain how to use deep learning networks to assist in our development of a robust gender classification system.

  3. 78 FR 54970 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... submitted for quality verification meet more restrictive quality requirements and age parameters set by ICE... ``registration'' by the U.S. cotton industry and the Intercontinental Exchange (ICE). In response to requests from the U.S. cotton industry and ICE, AMS proposes to offer a futures classification option...

  4. Supervised ensemble classification of Kepler variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, G.; Borne, K.

    2016-07-01

    Variable star analysis and classification is an important task in the understanding of stellar features and processes. While historically classifications have been done manually by highly skilled experts, the recent and rapid expansion in the quantity and quality of data has demanded new techniques, most notably automatic classification through supervised machine learning. We present an expansion of existing work on the field by analysing variable stars in the Kepler field using an ensemble approach, combining multiple characterization and classification techniques to produce improved classification rates. Classifications for each of the roughly 150 000 stars observed by Kepler are produced separating the stars into one of 14 variable star classes.

  5. Context-based automated defect classification system using multiple morphological masks

    DOEpatents

    Gleason, Shaun S.; Hunt, Martin A.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed

    2002-01-01

    Automatic detection of defects during the fabrication of semiconductor wafers is largely automated, but the classification of those defects is still performed manually by technicians. This invention includes novel digital image analysis techniques that generate unique feature vector descriptions of semiconductor defects as well as classifiers that use these descriptions to automatically categorize the defects into one of a set of pre-defined classes. Feature extraction techniques based on multiple-focus images, multiple-defect mask images, and segmented semiconductor wafer images are used to create unique feature-based descriptions of the semiconductor defects. These feature-based defect descriptions are subsequently classified by a defect classifier into categories that depend on defect characteristics and defect contextual information, that is, the semiconductor process layer(s) with which the defect comes in contact. At the heart of the system is a knowledge database that stores and distributes historical semiconductor wafer and defect data to guide the feature extraction and classification processes. In summary, this invention takes as its input a set of images containing semiconductor defect information, and generates as its output a classification for the defect that describes not only the defect itself, but also the location of that defect with respect to the semiconductor process layers.

  6. Persistent maritime surveillance using multi-sensor feature association and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; Schwering, Piet B. W.; Liem, Kwan D.; Schleijpen, Ric

    2012-06-01

    In maritime operational scenarios, such as smuggling, piracy, or terrorist threats, it is not only relevant who or what an observed object is, but also where it is now and in the past in relation to other (geographical) objects. In situation and impact assessment, this information is used to determine whether an object is a threat. Single platform (ship, harbor) or single sensor information will not provide all this information. The work presented in this paper focuses on the sensor and object levels that provide a description of currently observed objects to situation assessment. For use of information of objects at higher information levels, it is necessary to have not only a good description of observed objects at this moment, but also from its past. Therefore, currently observed objects have to be linked to previous occurrences. Kinematic features, as used in tracking, are of limited use, as uncertainties over longer time intervals are so large that no unique associations can be made. Features extracted from different sensors (e.g., ESM, EO/IR) can be used for both association and classification. Features and classifications are used to associate current objects to previous object descriptions, allowing objects to be described better, and provide position history. In this paper a description of a high level architecture in which such a multi-sensor association is used is described. Results of an assessment of the usability of several features from ESM (from spectrum), EO and IR (shape, contour, keypoints) data for association and classification are shown.

  7. Galeata: chronic migraine independently considered in a medieval headache classification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic migraine is a quite recent concept. However, there are descriptions suggestive of episodic migraine since the beginning of scientific medicine. We aim to review main headache classifications during Classical antiquity and compared them with that proposed in the 11th century by Constantine the African in his Liber Pantegni, one of the most influential texts in medieval medicine. Method We have carried out a descriptive review of Henricum Petrum's Latin edition, year 1539. Results Headache classifications proposed by Aretaeus of Cappadocia, Galen of Pergamun and Alexander of Tralles, all of them classifying headaches into three main types, considered an entity (called Heterocrania or Hemicrania), comparable to contemporary episodic migraine. In ninth book of Liber Pantegni, headaches were also classified into three types and one of them, Galeata, consisted on a chronic pain of mild intensity with occasional superimposed exacerbations. Conclusion In Liber Pantegni we have firstly identified, as a separate entity, a headache comparable to that we currently define as chronic migraine: Galeata. PMID:24655582

  8. The flower fly genus Allograpta: Classification with description of a new subgenus and species (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new subgenus and one species of flower flies are described from the Neotropical biotic region (Allograpta (Costarica Mengual, Rojo, Ruiz, Ståhls & Thompson), type Allograpta zumbadoi Thompson & Allograpta (Costarica) nishida Thompson, type-locality: Costa Rica, type-depository: Instituto Nacional ...

  9. 77 FR 45611 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Freight Classification Description

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... (DOD), General Services Administration (GSA), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA... submitting to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of...

  10. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  11. Discriminant Analysis for Content Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John H., Jr.

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate the effectiveness and utility of automatically classifying documents through the use of multiple discriminant functions. Classification is accomplished by computing the distance from the mean vector of each category to the vector of observed frequencies of a document and assigning the document…

  12. Value of Personnel Classification Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abellera, James W.; And Others

    The study outlines the development of a methodology for meaningfully estimating the value of classification information used by the Air Force to make selection and job assignment decisions which lead to the satisfaction of first-term enlisted manpower requirements. The methodology, called the optimal allocation strategy, is employed to solve a…

  13. Classification from PRECIS: Some Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Phyllis A.

    1976-01-01

    The PREserved Context Index System (PRECIS) developed for subject indexing for the British National Bibliography is discussed as a basis for various studies relating to classification which could be made from its initial phrases, strings, entries, and back-up structure. (Author)

  14. Santa Ana Forecasting and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolinski, T.; Eichhorn, D.; D'Agostino, B. J.; Vanderburg, S.; Means, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Southern California experiences wildfires every year, but under certain circumstances these fires grow into extremely large and destructive fires, such as the Cedar Fire of 2003 and the Witch Fire of 2007. The Cedar Fire burned over 1100 km2 , destroyed more than 2200 homes and killed 15 people; the Witch fire burned more than 800 km2, destroyed more than 1000 homes and killed 2 people. Fires can quickly become too large and dangerous to fight if they are accompanied by a very strong "Santa Ana" condition, which is a foehn-like wind that may bring strong winds and very low humidities. However there is an entire range of specific weather conditions that fall into the broad category of Santa Anas, from cold and blustery to hot with very little wind. All types are characterized by clear skies and low humidity. Since the potential for destructive fire is dependent on the characteristics of Santa Anas, as well as the level of fuel moisture, there exists a need for further classification, such as is done with tropical cyclones and after-the-fact with tornadoes. We use surface data and fuel moisture combined with reanalysis to diagnose those conditions that result in Santa Anas with the greatest potential for destructive fires. We use this data to produce a new classification system for Santa Anas. This classification system should be useful for informing the relevant agencies for mitigation and response planning. In the future this same classification may be made available to the general public.

  15. Classification of spatially unresolved objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Horwitz, H. M.; Hyde, P. D.; Morgenstern, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A proportion estimation technique for classification of multispectral scanner images is reported that uses data point averaging to extract and compute estimated proportions for a single average data point to classify spatial unresolved areas. Example extraction calculations of spectral signatures for bare soil, weeds, alfalfa, and barley prove quite accurate.

  16. The classification of orofacial pains.

    PubMed

    Okeson, Jeffrey P

    2008-05-01

    This article highlights the process of making the proper orofacial pain diagnosis. A classification is presented based on the clinical characteristics of the pain complaint and the structure by which it emanates. It is meant to serve as a road map for the clinician, which will help him or her establish the correct diagnosis, thereby allowing the selection of the proper treatment.

  17. THE CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS OCCUPATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Hayhurst, E. R.

    1916-01-01

    In this paper Doctor Hayhurst describes the six classifications for hazardous occupations which were employed in a survey made in Ohio. He also explains, by text and diagram, the process of analyzing, upon a standard formula, the hazard of an individual case. PMID:18009453

  18. Optimizing Classification in Intelligence Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    ACC Classification Accuracy AUC Area Under the ROC Curve CI Competitive Intelligence COMINT Communications Intelligence DoD Department of...indispensible tool to support a national leader’s decision making process, competitive intelligence (CI) has emerged in recent decades as an environment meant...effectiveness for the intelligence product in competitive intelligence environment: accuracy, objectivity, usability, relevance, readiness, and timeliness

  19. Orbiter active thermal control system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    A brief description of the Orbiter Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) including (1) major functional requirements of heat load, temperature control and heat sink utilization, (2) the overall system arrangement, and (3) detailed description of the elements of the ATCS.

  20. Standardizing the microsystems technology description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liateni, Karim; Thomas, Gabriel; Hui Bon Hoa, Christophe; Bensaude, David

    2002-04-01

    The microsystems industry is promising a rapid and widespread growth for the coming years. The automotive, network, telecom and electronics industries take advantage of this technology by including it in their products; thus, getting better integration and high energetic performances. Microsystems related software and data exchange have inherited from the IC technology experience or standards, which appear not to fit the advanced level of conception currently needed by microsystems designers. A typical design flow to validate a microsystem device involves several software from disconnected areas like layout editors, FEM simulators, HDL modeling and simulation tools. However, and fabricated microsystem is obtained through execution of a layered process. Process characteristics will be used at each level of the design and analysis. Basically, the designer will have to customize each of his tools after the process. The project introduced here intends to unify the process description language and speed up the critical and tedious CAD customization task. We gather all the information related to the technology of a microsystem process in a single file. It is based on the XML standard format to receive worldwide attention. This format is called XML-MTD, standing for XML Microsystems Technology Description. Built around XML, it is an ASCII format which gives the ability to handle a comprehensive database for technology data. This format is open, given under general public license, but the aim is to manage the format withing a XML-MTD consortium of leader and well-established EDA companies and Foundries. In this way, it will take profit of their experience. For automated configuration of design and analysis tools regarding process-dependant information, we ship the Technology Manger software. Technology Manager links foundries with a large panel of standard EDA and FEA packages used by design teams relying on the Microsystems Technology Description in XML-MTD format.

  1. SNF AGING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    L.L. Swanson

    2005-04-06

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) aging system and associated bases, which will allow the design effort to proceed. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD reflects the current results of the design process. Throughout this SDD, the term aging cask applies to vertical site-specific casks and to horizontal aging modules. The term overpack is a vertical site-specific cask that contains a dual-purpose canister (DPC) or a disposable canister. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system were obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557]). Other requirements that support the design process were taken from documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (BSC 2004 [DES 171599]), ''Site Fire Hazards Analyses'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172174]), and ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171512]). The documents address requirements in the ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275]). This SDD includes several appendices. Appendix A is a Glossary; Appendix B is a list of key system charts, diagrams, drawings, lists and additional supporting information; and Appendix C is a list of

  2. Woody hardness - a novel classification for the radiotherapy-treated neck.

    PubMed

    Colbert, S D; Mitchell, D A; Brennan, P A

    2015-04-01

    The term 'woody neck' is widely used by surgeons and oncologists to describe the fibrosis that can occur following radiotherapy for head and neck malignancy. These soft tissue and skin changes can be compounded by neck dissection, either before or after radiotherapy. To our knowledge, there is no classification published in the literature to describe the degree of woody hardness following treatment. We propose a simple ABC classification for varying degrees of indurated oedema and neck fibrosis secondary to radiotherapy or long-standing pathology, using the hardness of different woods to enable a suitable description to be made of severity.

  3. The FIGO classification of causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in the reproductive years.

    PubMed

    Munro, Malcolm G; Critchley, Hilary O D; Fraser, Ian S

    2011-06-01

    At this juncture, clinical management, education for medical providers, and the design and interpretation of clinical trials have been hampered by the absence of a consensus system for nomenclature for the description of symptoms as well as classification of causes or potential causes of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). To address this issue, the Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) has designed the PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy and Hyperplasia, Coagulopathy, Ovulatory Disorders, Endometrial Disorders, Iatrogenic Causes, and Not Classified) classification system for causes of AUB in the reproductive years.

  4. Hadl: HUMS Architectural Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Adavi, V.; Agarwal, N.; Gullapalli, S.; Kumar, P.; Sundaram, P.

    2004-01-01

    Specification of architectures is an important prerequisite for evaluation of architectures. With the increase m the growth of health usage and monitoring systems (HUMS) in commercial and military domains, the need far the design and evaluation of HUMS architectures has also been on the increase. In this paper, we describe HADL, HUMS Architectural Description Language, that we have designed for this purpose. In particular, we describe the features of the language, illustrate them with examples, and show how we use it in designing domain-specific HUMS architectures. A companion paper contains details on our design methodology of HUMS architectures.

  5. IUE/IRA system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, J.

    1977-01-01

    The IUE/IRA rate sensor system designed to meet the requirements of the International Ultraviolet Explorer spacecraft mission is described. The system consists of the sensor unit containing six rate sensor modules and the electronic control unit containing the rate sensor support electronics and the command/control circuitry. The inertial reference assembly formed by the combined units will provide spacecraft rate information for use in the stabilization and control system. The system is described in terms of functional description, operation redundancy performance, mechanical interface, and electrical interface. Test data obtained from the flight unit are summarized.

  6. Descriptive Model of Generic WAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, John F.; DeSteese, John G.

    2007-06-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Transmission Reliability Program is supporting the research, deployment, and demonstration of various wide area measurement system (WAMS) technologies to enhance the reliability of the Nation’s electrical power grid. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program to conduct a study of WAMS security. This report represents achievement of the milestone to develop a generic WAMS model description that will provide a basis for the security analysis planned in the next phase of this study.

  7. The MUNU experiment, general description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsler, C.; Avenier, M.; Bagieu, G.; Barnoux, C.; Becker, H.-W.; Brissot, R.; Broggini, C.; Busto, J.; Cavaignac, J.-F.; Farine, J.; Filippi, D.; Gervasio, G.; Giarritta, P.; Grgić, G.; Guerre Chaley, B.; Joergens, V.; Koang, D. H.; Lebrun, D.; Luescher, R.; Mattioli, F.; Negrello, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Paić, A.; Piovan, O.; Puglierin, G.; Schenker, D.; Stutz, A.; Tadsen, A.; Treichel, M.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; MUNU Collaboration

    1997-02-01

    We are building a low background detector based on a gas time projection chamber surrounded by an active anti-Compton shielding. The detector will be installed near a nuclear reactor in Bugey for the experimental study of overlineνee- scattering. We give here a general description of the experiment, and an estimate of the expected counting rate and background. The construction of the time projection chamber is described in details. Results of first test measurements concerning the attenuation length and the spatial as well as energy resolution in the CF 4 fill gas are reported.

  8. Descriptive analyses of caregiver reprimands.

    PubMed

    Sloman, Kimberly N; Vollmer, Timothy R; Cotnoir, Nicole M; Borrero, Carrie S W; Borrero, John C; Samaha, Andrew L; St Peter, Claire C

    2005-01-01

    We conducted descriptive observations of 5 individuals with developmental disabilities and severe problem behavior while they interacted with their caregivers in either simulated environments (an inpatient hospital facility) or in their homes. The focus of the study was on caregiver reprimands and child problem behavior. Thus, we compared the frequency of problem behavior that immediately preceded a caregiver reprimand to that immediately following a caregiver reprimand, and the results showed that the frequency of problem behavior decreased following a reprimand. It is possible that caregiver reprimands are negatively reinforced by the momentary attenuation of problem behavior, and the implications for long- and short-term effects on caregiver behavior are discussed.

  9. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T; Camacho, Macario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research.

  10. Imbalanced Protein Data Classification Using Ensemble FTM-SVM.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hong-Liang

    2015-05-08

    Classification of protein sequences into functional and structural families based on machine learning methods is a hot research topic in machine learning and Bioinformatics. In fact, the underlying protein classification problem is a huge multiclass problem. Generally, the multiclass problem can be reduced to a set of binary classification problems. The protein in one class are seen as positive examples while those outside the class are seen as negative examples. However, the class imbalance problem will arise in this case because the number of protein in one class is usually much smaller than that of the protein outside the class. To handle the challenge, we propose a novel framework to classify the protein. We firstly use free scores (FS) to perform feature extraction for protein; then, the inverse random under sampling (IRUS) is used to create a large number of distinct training sets; next, we use a new ensemble approach to combine these distinct training sets with a new fuzzy total margin support vector machine (FTM-SVM) that we have constructed. we call the novel ensemble classifier as ensemble fuzzy total margin support vector machine (EnFTM-SVM). We then give a full description of our method, including the details of its derivation. Finally, experimental results on fourteen benchmark protein data sets indicate that the proposed method outperforms many state-ofthe- art protein classifying methods.

  11. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O; Vogel, Timothy M; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-08-01

    Correctly identifying nearest "neighbors" of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned with

  12. Discovery and Classification in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Three decades after Martin Harwit's pioneering Cosmic Discovery (1981), and following on the recent IAU Symposium "Accelerating the Rate of Astronomical Discovery,” we have revisited the problem of discovery in astronomy, emphasizing new classes of objects. 82 such classes have been identified and analyzed, including 22 in the realm of the planets, 36 in the realm of the stars, and 24 in the realm of the galaxies. We find an extended structure of discovery, consisting of detection, interpretation and understanding, each with its own nuances and a microstructure including conceptual, technological and social roles. This is true with a remarkable degree of consistency over the last 400 years of telescopic astronomy, ranging from Galileo's discovery of satellites, planetary rings and star clusters, to the discovery of quasars and pulsars. Telescopes have served as "engines of discovery” in several ways, ranging from telescope size and sensitivity (planetary nebulae and spiral galaxies), to specialized detectors (TNOs) and the opening of the electromagnetic spectrum for astronomy (pulsars, pulsar planets, and most active galaxies). A few classes (radiation belts, the solar wind and cosmic rays), were initially discovered without the telescope. Classification also plays an important role in discovery. While it might seem that classification marks the end of discovery, or a post-discovery phase, in fact it often marks the beginning, even a pre-discovery phase. Nowhere is this more clearly seen than in the classification of stellar spectra, long before dwarfs, giants and supergiants were known, or their evolutionary sequence recognized. Classification may also be part of a post-discovery phase, as in the MK system of stellar classification, constructed after the discovery of stellar luminosity classes. Some classes are declared rather than discovered, as in the case of gas and ice giant planets, and, infamously, Pluto as a dwarf planet.

  13. River Sinuosity Classification - The method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, J.; Székely, B.; Timár, G.

    2012-04-01

    We introduced a new evaluation method, the classification of multiple window-size based sinuosity spectrum. If the river is long enough for the analysis, the classification could be as useful, as the sinuosity spectrum, but sometimes it is more straightforward. Furthermore, for the classification, we did not need the main parameters of the river, e.g. the bankfull discharge. Each sinuosity calculation that was performed for a given window size, has been considered as one band (one channel) of a multichannel "image". Then, the sinuosity spectrums became multichannel images are of size 1 X N where N represents the length of the actual river in pixels. Using this multichannel input unsupervised ISOCLASS classification was carried out on these data, using ER Mapper software. The requested number of classes was set to 5. The results of the sinuosity calculations are scalars. Earlier, it was a subjective decision to divide the sinuosity values into the categories (low, medium-low, medium, medium-high, and high), while the new method provides integer numbers (1 to 5) itself. These numbers are calculated from the sinuosity values, but are not equal to them. Analysing the results of the classification, it is important to note that the method typically splits the river course into contiguous sections that belong to the same class. Boundaries of these classes can be considered as points of considerable change in the river course, because the method uses statistically relevant amount of data of the river course in a robust way to detect changes. Some specific classes or their boundaries seem to be correlated to tectonically active zones. The research is made in the frame of project OTKA-NK83400 (SourceSink Hungary). The European Union and the European Social Fund also have provided financial support to the project under the grant agreement no. TÁMOP 4.2.1./B-09/1/KMR-2010-0003.

  14. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... classification guides with RD or FRD information topics. (d) Originators of classification guides with RD or FRD topics shall review such guides at least every five years and make revisions as necessary. (e)...

  15. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... classification guides with RD or FRD information topics. (d) Originators of classification guides with RD or FRD topics shall review such guides at least every five years and make revisions as necessary. (e)...

  16. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... classification guides with RD or FRD information topics. (d) Originators of classification guides with RD or FRD topics shall review such guides at least every five years and make revisions as necessary. (e)...

  17. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2500.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information....

  18. TRACE spectroscopic classification of optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Childress, M.; Sullivan, M.; Kotak, R.; Maguire, K.; Young, D.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.; Mazzali, P.; Tonry, J.; Chambers, K.; Stalder, B.; Denneau, L.; Heinze, A.; Huber, M.; Weiland, H.; Rest, A.

    2017-03-01

    TRACE, the Transient RApid Classification Experiment (PI: Inserra, ATel #10055), reports the following supernova classifications. The targets were supplied by ATLAS survey, see Tonry et al. (2011, PASP, 123, 58) and Tonry et al. (ATel #8680).

  19. Screening and classification of ceramic powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miwa, S.

    1983-01-01

    A summary is given of the classification technology of ceramic powders. Advantages and disadvantages of the wet and dry screening and classification methods are discussed. Improvements of wind force screening devices are described.

  20. TRACE spectroscopic classification of optical transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Childress, M.; Sullivan, M.; Kotak, R.; Maguire, K.; Young, D.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.; Mazzali, P.; Tonry, J.; Chambers, K.; Stalder, B.; Huber, M.; Denneau, L.; Heinze, A.; Weiland, H.; Rest, A.

    2017-02-01

    TRACE, the Transient RApid Classification Experiment (PI: Inserra), reports the following supernova classification. The target was supplied by ATLAS survey, see Tonry et al. (2011, PASP, 123, 58) and Tonry et al. (ATel #8680).

  1. TRACE spectroscopic classification of optical transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Childress, M.; Sullivan, M.; Kotak, R.; Maguire, K.; Young, D.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.; Mazzali, P.; Tonry, J.; Chambers, K.; Stalder, B.; Denneau, L.; Heinze, A.; Huber, M.; Weiland, H.; Rest, A.

    2017-02-01

    TRACE, the Transient RApid Classification Experiment (PI: Inserra, ATel #10055), reports the following supernova classification. The target was supplied by ATLAS survey, see Tonry et al. (2011, PASP, 123, 58) and Tonry et al. (ATel #8680).

  2. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... classification guides with RD or FRD information topics. (d) Originators of classification guides with RD or FRD topics shall review such guides at least every five years and make revisions as necessary. (e)...

  3. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... classification guides with RD or FRD information topics. (d) Originators of classification guides with RD or FRD topics shall review such guides at least every five years and make revisions as necessary. (e)...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1402 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Size Classification § 51.1402 Size classification. Size of pecans may be specified in connection with the grade...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1402 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Size Classification § 51.1402 Size classification. Size of pecans may be specified in connection with the grade in accordance with one of...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1402 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Size Classification § 51.1402 Size classification. Size of pecans may be specified in connection with the grade...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1402 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Size Classification § 51.1402 Size classification. Size of pecans may be specified in connection with the grade in accordance with one of...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1402 - Size classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Size Classification § 51.1402 Size classification. Size of pecans may be specified in connection with the grade in accordance with one of...

  9. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2500.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information....

  10. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2500.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information....

  11. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2500.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information....

  12. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2500.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information....

  13. Between Traditional Classification and Coordinate Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghose, Amitabha; Dhawle, Anand S.

    1979-01-01

    Describes MANIS, an information system for retrieval of interdisciplinary information in management, which maintains traditional classification but allows the user to combine terms of his choice, where choice is restricted to terms belonging to the systems of traditional classification. (CWM)

  14. An Expanded Classification of the Plant Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, B. S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an expanded classification of the plant kingdom, emphasizing major evolutionary steps and differences in levels of complexity. Describes subdivisions and suggests that this classification, reflecting unity and diversity, may be logical, understandable, and useful to students. (JN)

  15. 5 CFR 1312.3 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.3 Classification requirements. United States citizens must...; (5) Scientific, technological, or economic matters relating to the national security; (6)...

  16. 45 CFR 601.2 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.2 Classification authority. The... national security character, the material will be afforded protection and sent to the Division...

  17. 45 CFR 601.2 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.2 Classification authority. The... national security character, the material will be afforded protection and sent to the Division...

  18. 45 CFR 601.2 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.2 Classification authority. The... national security character, the material will be afforded protection and sent to the Division...

  19. Staged description of the Finkelstein test.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Courtney; Mudgal, Chaitanya S

    2010-09-01

    We have revisited the original description of the Finkelstein test and review the reasons for its subsequent erroneous description. We have also outlined a staged description of this test, which we have found to be reliable and minimally painful for the diagnosis of de Quervain's tendonitis within our clinical practice.

  20. Pathways to Provenance: "DACS" and Creator Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Larry

    2007-01-01

    "Describing Archives: A Content Standard" breaks important ground for American archivists in its distinction between creator descriptions and archival material descriptions. Implementations of creator descriptions, many using Encoded Archival Context (EAC), are found internationally. "DACS"'s optional approach of describing…

  1. Model Experiments and Model Descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra; Scott, Courtney J.; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose; Sze, N. D.; Vohralik, Peter; Randeniya, Lakshman; Plumb, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The Second Workshop on Stratospheric Models and Measurements Workshop (M&M II) is the continuation of the effort previously started in the first Workshop (M&M I, Prather and Remsberg [1993]) held in 1992. As originally stated, the aim of M&M is to provide a foundation for establishing the credibility of stratospheric models used in environmental assessments of the ozone response to chlorofluorocarbons, aircraft emissions, and other climate-chemistry interactions. To accomplish this, a set of measurements of the present day atmosphere was selected. The intent was that successful simulations of the set of measurements should become the prerequisite for the acceptance of these models as having a reliable prediction for future ozone behavior. This section is divided into two: model experiment and model descriptions. In the model experiment, participant were given the charge to design a number of experiments that would use observations to test whether models are using the correct mechanisms to simulate the distributions of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. The purpose is closely tied to the needs to reduce the uncertainties in the model predicted responses of stratospheric ozone to perturbations. The specifications for the experiments were sent out to the modeling community in June 1997. Twenty eight modeling groups responded to the requests for input. The first part of this section discusses the different modeling group, along with the experiments performed. Part two of this section, gives brief descriptions of each model as provided by the individual modeling groups.

  2. Classification of the PALMS single particle mass spectral data from Atlanta by regression tree analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middlebrook, A. M.; Murphy, D. M.; Lee, S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S.; Thomson, D. S.; Thomson, D. S.

    2001-12-01

    During the Atlanta Supersites project in August 1999, the PALMS (Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry) instrument collected over 500,000 individual particle spectra. The Atlanta data were originally analyzed by examining combinations of peaks and relative peak areas [Lee et al., 2001a,b], and a wide range of particle components such as sulfate, nitrate, mineral species, metals, organic species, and elemental carbon were detected. To further study the dataset, a classification program using regression tree analysis was developed and applied. Spectral data were compressed into a lower resolution spectrum (every 0.25 mass units) of the raw data and a list of peak areas (every mass unit). Each spectrum started as a normalized classification vector by itself. If the dot product of two classification vectors was within a certain threshold, they were combined into a new classification. The new classification vector was a normalized running average of the classifications being combined. In subsequent steps, the threshold for combining classifications was continuously lowered until a reasonable number of classifications remained. After the final iteration, each spectrum was compared individually with the entire set of classification vectors. Classifications were also combined manually. The classification results from the Atlanta data are generally consistent with those determined by peak identification. However, the classification program identified specific patterns in the mass spectra that were not found by peak identification and generated new particle types. Furthermore, rare particle types that may affect human health were studied in more detail. A description of the classification program as well as the results for the Atlanta data will be presented. Lee, S.-H., D. M. Murphy, D. S. Thomson, and A. M. Middlebrook, Chemical components of single particles measured with particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry (PALMS) during the Atlanta Supersites Project

  3. 7 CFR 51.2281 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.2281 Section 51.2281... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Color Requirements § 51.2281 Color classifications. The following classifications are provided to describe the color of any...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification... describing the color as an indication of the stage of ripeness of any lot of mature tomatoes of a red...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification. (a) The following terms may be used, when specified in connection...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2281 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.2281 Section 51.2281... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Color Requirements § 51.2281 Color classifications. The following classifications are provided to describe the color of any...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2281 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.2281 Section 51.2281...) Color Requirements § 51.2281 Color classifications. The following classifications are provided to describe the color of any lot: “Extra Light”, “Light”, “Light Amber” or “Amber”. The portions of kernels...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2281 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.2281 Section 51.2281... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Color Requirements § 51.2281 Color classifications. The following classifications are provided to describe the color of any...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2281 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.2281 Section 51.2281...) Color Requirements § 51.2281 Color classifications. The following classifications are provided to describe the color of any lot: “Extra Light”, “Light”, “Light Amber” or “Amber”. The portions of kernels...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification. (a) The following terms may be used, when specified in connection...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification... describing the color as an indication of the stage of ripeness of any lot of mature tomatoes of a red...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification... describing the color as an indication of the stage of ripeness of any lot of mature tomatoes of a red...

  18. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164 Classification... and classify products at any time, if it determines that a restriction on the use of a...

  19. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164 Classification... and classify products at any time, if it determines that a restriction on the use of a...

  20. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164 Classification... and classify products at any time, if it determines that a restriction on the use of a...

  1. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164 Classification... and classify products at any time, if it determines that a restriction on the use of a...

  2. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 152.164 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164 Classification... and classify products at any time, if it determines that a restriction on the use of a...

  3. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221 Section 9701.221 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Process § 9701.221...

  4. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  5. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  6. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  7. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  8. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  9. 12 CFR 1777.20 - Capital classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... notice of proposed capital classification, holds core capital equaling or exceeding the minimum capital... classification, holds core capital equaling or exceeding the minimum capital level. (3) Significantly... the date specified in the notice of proposed capital classification, holds core capital less than...

  10. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.6 Derivative classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...

  11. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.6 Derivative classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...

  12. 18 CFR 1301.65 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Derivative... PROCEDURES Protection of National Security Classified Information § 1301.65 Derivative classification. (a) In... apply to the source information, is derivative classification. (1) Derivative classification...

  13. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.6 Derivative classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...

  14. 18 CFR 1301.65 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Derivative... PROCEDURES Protection of National Security Classified Information § 1301.65 Derivative classification. (a) In... apply to the source information, is derivative classification. (1) Derivative classification...

  15. 18 CFR 1301.65 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Derivative... PROCEDURES Protection of National Security Classified Information § 1301.65 Derivative classification. (a) In... apply to the source information, is derivative classification. (1) Derivative classification...

  16. 7 CFR 28.911 - Review classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review classification. 28.911 Section 28.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Producers Classification § 28.911 Review classification. (a) A producer may request one...

  17. 7 CFR 28.911 - Review classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review classification. 28.911 Section 28.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Producers Classification § 28.911 Review classification. (a) A producer may request one...

  18. 7 CFR 28.911 - Review classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review classification. 28.911 Section 28.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Producers Classification § 28.911 Review classification. (a) A producer may request one...

  19. 7 CFR 28.911 - Review classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review classification. 28.911 Section 28.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Producers Classification § 28.911 Review classification. (a) A producer may request one...

  20. 7 CFR 28.911 - Review classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review classification. 28.911 Section 28.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Producers Classification § 28.911 Review classification. (a) A producer may request one...

  1. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221 Section 9701.221 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Process § 9701.221...

  2. 76 FR 47531 - Approval of Classification Societies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 2 RIN 1625-AB35 Approval of Classification Societies AGENCY: Coast Guard... comment period before issuing a final rule regarding the Approval of Classification Societies (USCG- 2007... and performance standards that classification societies must meet in order to obtain approval by...

  3. 32 CFR 2001.10 - Classification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification standards. 2001.10 Section 2001.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.10 Classification standards. Identifying or describing damage to the national...

  4. 32 CFR 2001.10 - Classification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification standards. 2001.10 Section 2001.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.10 Classification standards. Identifying or describing damage to the national...

  5. 32 CFR 2001.10 - Classification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification standards. 2001.10 Section 2001.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.10 Classification standards. Identifying or describing damage to the national...

  6. 32 CFR 2001.10 - Classification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification standards. 2001.10 Section 2001.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.10 Classification standards. Identifying or describing damage to the national...

  7. 32 CFR 2001.10 - Classification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification standards. 2001.10 Section 2001.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.10 Classification standards. Identifying or describing damage to the national...

  8. The Classification of Romanian High-Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivan, Ion; Milodin, Daniel; Naie, Lucian

    2006-01-01

    The article tries to tackle the issue of high-schools classification from one city, district or from Romania. The classification criteria are presented. The National Database of Education is also presented and the application of criteria is illustrated. An algorithm for high-school multi-rang classification is proposed in order to build classes of…

  9. 75 FR 39710 - Postal Classification Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... Postal Classification Change AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request concerning two classification changes to... filed a notice pursuant to 39 CFR 3020.90 and 3020.91 concerning two classification changes to...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.221 - Classification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification requirements. 9701.221 Section 9701.221 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Process § 9701.221...

  11. Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as "animal" or "leaf". We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their…

  12. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim...

  13. 32 CFR 1602.7 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification. 1602.7 Section 1602.7 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.7 Classification. Classification is the exercise of the power to determine claims or questions with respect...

  14. An Algebro-Topological Description of Protein Domain Structure

    PubMed Central

    Penner, Robert Clark; Knudsen, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard

    2011-01-01

    The space of possible protein structures appears vast and continuous, and the relationship between primary, secondary and tertiary structure levels is complex. Protein structure comparison and classification is therefore a difficult but important task since structure is a determinant for molecular interaction and function. We introduce a novel mathematical abstraction based on geometric topology to describe protein domain structure. Using the locations of the backbone atoms and the hydrogen bonds, we build a combinatorial object – a so-called fatgraph. The description is discrete yet gives rise to a 2-dimensional mathematical surface. Thus, each protein domain corresponds to a particular mathematical surface with characteristic topological invariants, such as the genus (number of holes) and the number of boundary components. Both invariants are global fatgraph features reflecting the interconnectivity of the domain by hydrogen bonds. We introduce the notion of robust variables, that is variables that are robust towards minor changes in the structure/fatgraph, and show that the genus and the number of boundary components are robust. Further, we invesigate the distribution of different fatgraph variables and show how only four variables are capable of distinguishing different folds. We use local (secondary) and global (tertiary) fatgraph features to describe domain structures and illustrate that they are useful for classification of domains in CATH. In addition, we combine our method with two other methods thereby using primary, secondary, and tertiary structure information, and show that we can identify a large percentage of new and unclassified structures in CATH. PMID:21629687

  15. Improved spectral descriptions of planetary nebulae central stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Méndez, R. H.; Gamen, R.

    2015-07-01

    Context. At least 492 central stars of Galactic planetary nebulae (CSPNs) have been assigned spectral types. Since many CSPNs are faint, these classification efforts are frequently made at low spectral resolution. However, the stellar Balmer absorption lines are contaminated with nebular emission; therefore in many cases a low-resolution spectrum does not enable the determination of the H abundance in the CSPN photosphere. Whether or not the photosphere is H deficient is arguably the most important fact we should expect to extract from the CSPN spectrum, and should be the basis for an adequate spectral classification system. Aims: Our purpose is to provide accurate spectral classifications and contribute to the knowledge of central stars of planetary nebulae and stellar evolution. Methods: We have obtained and studied higher quality spectra of CSPNs described in the literature as weak emission-line star (WELS). We provide descriptions of 19 CSPN spectra. These stars had been previously classified at low spectral resolution. We used medium-resolution spectra taken with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS). We provide spectral types in the Morgan-Keenan (MK) system whenever possible. Results: Twelve stars in our sample appear to have normal H rich photospheric abundances, and five stars remain unclassified. The rest (two) are most probably H deficient. Of all central stars described by other authors as WELS, we find that at least 26% of them are, in fact, H rich O stars, and at least 3% are H deficient. This supports the suggestion that the denomination WELS should not be taken as a spectral type, because, as a WELS is based on low-resolution spectra, it cannot provide enough information about the photospheric H abundance.

  16. Proposition of a new classification of the cerebral veins based on their termination.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L

    2012-03-01

    The existing classifications of cerebral veins have certain problems, including limited adequacy to uniquely describe neurovascular networks in three dimensions (3D), mixture of deep and superficial veins, and ambiguity of territories-based parcellations as veins may course on multiple territories. Classification discrepancies exist in subdivision, region drained, and parcellation criteria. Recent developments in diagnostic imaging and computers enable to acquire, create, and manipulate complete vascular networks, which also call for a new classification of cerebral veins. We propose a new classification suitable for the description of the complete cerebral veins, providing a clear separation of the superficial cortical veins from deep veins, and facilitating presentation and exploration of cerebral veins in 3D with respect to surrounding neuroanatomy. It is based on terminating vascular subsystems (rather than draining regions). It divides the cerebral veins into cortical, deep, and posterior fossa veins. The cortical veins are subdivided into two groups: terminating in dural sinuses and terminating in deep veins. The posterior fossa veins are subdivided also into two groups: terminating in dural sinuses and terminating in deep veins. This classification was illustrated with a cerebrovascular model containing over 1,300 vessels. This new classification has many advantages. It is simple, clear and didactically useful; avoids mixture of superficial and deep veins; shows overall hierarchical structure and topographical relationships including tributaries; is useful in analysis of 3D vascular trees extracted from imaging; and may be used in conjunction with the existing parcellations.

  17. The Concept of Evolution of Thoracolumbar Fracture Classifications Helps in Surgical Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Md Quamar

    2015-01-01

    Since Boehler's sentinel description, a universally acceptable thoracolumber fracture classification has eluded spine surgeons. The concept of the stability of a thoracolumbar injury changed continuously from the two column concept of Holdsworth to the three column theory of Denis. With the advent of sophisticated imaging techniques, improved biomechanical understanding, and in order to meet the high expectations of patients, several classification systems have been forwarded by the stalwarts in the field. Each successive system has contributed significantly to the understanding and prediction of treatment outcome. Load sharing classification by McCormack attempted to rationalize the use of short segment posterior instrumentation. Magerl et al. developed a comprehensive classification system based on progressive morphological damage determined by three fundamental forces: compression, distraction, and axial torque. Vaccaro et al. devised the thoracolumbar injury severity score based on three independent variables: the morphology of the injury, posterior ligamentous complex (PLC) integrity, and neurological status at the time of injury. But, there are limitations to the classification system, especially when magnetic resonance imaging yields a PLC status as indeterminant. In the absence of a universally acceptable classification system, it is important to understand the underlying concepts of the fractures. The author concisely reviews the subject from its inception in the year 1929 to the present day. PMID:26713135

  18. JOURNAL SCOPE GUIDELINES: Paper classification scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    This scheme is used to clarify the journal's scope and enable authors and readers to more easily locate the appropriate section for their work. For each of the sections listed in the scope statement we suggest some more detailed subject areas which help define that subject area. These lists are by no means exhaustive and are intended only as a guide to the type of papers we envisage appearing in each section. We acknowledge that no classification scheme can be perfect and that there are some papers which might be placed in more than one section. We are happy to provide further advice on paper classification to authors upon request (please email jphysa@iop.org). 1. Statistical physics numerical and computational methods statistical mechanics, phase transitions and critical phenomena quantum condensed matter theory Bose-Einstein condensation strongly correlated electron systems exactly solvable models in statistical mechanics lattice models, random walks and combinatorics field-theoretical models in statistical mechanics disordered systems, spin glasses and neural networks nonequilibrium systems network theory 2. Chaotic and complex systems nonlinear dynamics and classical chaos fractals and multifractals quantum chaos classical and quantum transport cellular automata granular systems and self-organization pattern formation biophysical models 3. Mathematical physics combinatorics algebraic structures and number theory matrix theory classical and quantum groups, symmetry and representation theory Lie algebras, special functions and orthogonal polynomials ordinary and partial differential equations difference and functional equations integrable systems soliton theory functional analysis and operator theory inverse problems geometry, differential geometry and topology numerical approximation and analysis geometric integration computational methods 4. Quantum mechanics and quantum information theory coherent states eigenvalue problems supersymmetric quantum mechanics

  19. FLOWTRAN-TF code description

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    1990-12-01

    FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This report provides a brief description of the physical models in the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit. This document is viewed as an interim report and should ultimately be superseded by a comprehensive user/programmer manual. In general, only high level discussions of governing equations and constitutive laws are presented. Numerical implementation of these models, code architecture and user information are not generally covered. A companion document describing code benchmarking is available.

  20. FLOWTRAN-TF code description

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This report provides a brief description of the physical models in the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit. This document is viewed as an interim report and should ultimately be superseded by a comprehensive user/programmer manual. In general, only high level discussions of governing equations and constitutive laws are presented. Numerical implementation of these models, code architecture and user information are not generally covered. A companion document describing code benchmarking is available.

  1. Lagrangian description of warm plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H.

    1970-01-01

    Efforts are described to extend the averaged Lagrangian method of describing small signal wave propagation and nonlinear wave interaction, developed by earlier workers for cold plasmas, to the more general conditions of warm collisionless plasmas, and to demonstrate particularly the effectiveness of the method in analyzing wave-wave interactions. The theory is developed for both the microscopic description and the hydrodynamic approximation to plasma behavior. First, a microscopic Lagrangian is formulated rigorously, and expanded in terms of perturbations about equilibrium. Two methods are then described for deriving a hydrodynamic Lagrangian. In the first of these, the Lagrangian is obtained by velocity integration of the exact microscopic Lagrangian. In the second, the expanded hydrodynamic Lagrangian is obtained directly from the expanded microscopic Lagrangian. As applications of the microscopic Lagrangian, the small-signal dispersion relations and the coupled mode equations are derived for all possible waves in a warm infinite, weakly inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, and their interactions are examined.

  2. Statistical description for survival data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Statistical description is always the first step in data analysis. It gives investigator a general impression of the data at hand. Traditionally, data are described as central tendency and deviation. However, this framework does not fit to the survival data (also termed time-to-event data). Such data type contains two components. One is the survival time and the other is the status. Researchers are usually interested in the probability of event at a given survival time point. Hazard function, cumulative hazard function and survival function are commonly used to describe survival data. Survival function can be estimated using Kaplan-Meier estimator, which is also the default method in most statistical packages. Alternatively, Nelson-Aalen estimator is available to estimate survival function. Survival functions of subgroups can be compared using log-rank test. Furthermore, the article also introduces how to describe time-to-event data with parametric modeling. PMID:27867953

  3. [Classification of altitude decompression sickness].

    PubMed

    Katuntsev, V P

    2000-01-01

    The article is devoted to the discussion of principles of and approaches to classification of altitude decompression sickness (DCS), one of the most methodically formidable aspects of the problem. Based on his own multiyear experience in altitude DCS investigations and critical review of literature, the author reasons his concept of clinical classification of altitude DCS. The author's concept places emphasis on obligatory consideration of three stages in DCS development: A--pre-disease (the premorbid syndrome), B--uncomplicated (light) and C--complicated (severe) forms. The objective sign of the premorbid state is "silent" gas bubbles in organism detectable by ultrasonic devices. Signs of uncomplicated altitude DCS are musculoarticular pains, local edema and skin itching. Complicated altitude DCS is diagnosed by systemic (respiratory, neurological and cardiovascular) disorders.

  4. Investigation of correlation classification techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    A two-step classification algorithm for processing multispectral scanner data was developed and tested. The first step is a single pass clustering algorithm that assigns each pixel, based on its spectral signature, to a particular cluster. The output of that step is a cluster tape in which a single integer is associated with each pixel. The cluster tape is used as the input to the second step, where ground truth information is used to classify each cluster using an iterative method of potentials. Once the clusters have been assigned to classes the cluster tape is read pixel-by-pixel and an output tape is produced in which each pixel is assigned to its proper class. In addition to the digital classification programs, a method of using correlation clustering to process multispectral scanner data in real time by means of an interactive color video display is also described.

  5. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  6. Local fat treatments: classification proposal

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The poor understanding of the real, intimate action mechanisms behind any aesthetic procedures is a huge problem for many Aesthetic physicians. In addition, nomenclature of and regarding any procedure has become a true barrier when speaking about medical knowledge in the Aesthetic Medicine field since marketing and science often collide one another. Medical procedures for localized fat reduction are very different from each other and it is, at least, inaccurate to refer to all of them plainly as “fat reduction methods.” A specific classification has become urgent and its categories should be able to imply what each method entails. For this classification proposal, “reversibility,” “membrane disruption or inflammation,” and “action selectivity,” have been the selected criteria. PMID:27144093

  7. Classification of Health Related Applications.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Matthias; von Jan, Ute; Framke, Theodor; Albrecht, Urs-Vito

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a large number of health related apps available in the stores of the major mobile platforms, the stores do not really offer clear definitions of what health related apps are and how they can be categorized. A similar picture is found in literature. Here, many proposals covering different app related aspects have been published, but often, these only cover a narrow field. There is no common terminology describing what health apps are and neither is there a common classification. In order to alleviate the situation, we developed a proposal for categorization that can be used as a basis for discussing aspects related to health applications and for describing the unclear situation on the market. In this paper, the function related aspects are covered, although the scheme itself covers many other aspects related to users of health apps, technical aspects and so on. This initial classification was applied to a sample of health apps available for iOS and Android.

  8. French perspectives on psychiatric classification.

    PubMed

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11.

  9. The rationale behind Pierre Duhem's natural classification.

    PubMed

    Bhakthavatsalam, Sindhuja

    2015-06-01

    The central concern of this paper is the interpretation of Duhem's attitude towards physical theory. Based on his view that the classification of experimental laws yielded by theory progressively approaches a natural classification-a classification reflecting that of underlying realities-Duhem has been construed as a realist of sorts in recent literature. Here I argue that his positive attitude towards the theoretic classification of laws had rather to do with the pragmatic rationality of the physicist. Duhem's idea of natural classification was an intuitive idea in the mind of the physicist that had to be affirmed in order to justify the physicist's pursuit of theory.

  10. Classification and nomenclature of retrotransposable elements.

    PubMed

    Capy, P

    2005-01-01

    The classification and nomenclature of retrotransposable elements is reviewed. A comparison is made between the initial classification summarized in Capy et al. (1997b), and the more recent proposal based on the classification of the viruses (Hull, 2001). Several problems, mainly relating to the position of elements belonging to the DIRS-like or Bel-like groups, are discussed. The first classification is now out of date, and must be revisited to take account of the discovery of new elements, however the second cannot be extended to the DNA elements. There is therefore, clear evidence of the need to adopt a general and a common classification.

  11. The minimum distance approach to classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    The work to advance the state-of-the-art of miminum distance classification is reportd. This is accomplished through a combination of theoretical and comprehensive experimental investigations based on multispectral scanner data. A survey of the literature for suitable distance measures was conducted and the results of this survey are presented. It is shown that minimum distance classification, using density estimators and Kullback-Leibler numbers as the distance measure, is equivalent to a form of maximum likelihood sample classification. It is also shown that for the parametric case, minimum distance classification is equivalent to nearest neighbor classification in the parameter space.

  12. Texture classification using autoregressive filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, W. M.; Lee, M.

    1984-01-01

    A general theory of image texture models is proposed and its applicability to the problem of scene segmentation using texture classification is discussed. An algorithm, based on half-plane autoregressive filtering, which optimally utilizes second order statistics to discriminate between texture classes represented by arbitrary wide sense stationary random fields is described. Empirical results of applying this algorithm to natural and sysnthesized scenes are presented and future research is outlined.

  13. Objective classification of air quality monitoring sites over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Mathieu; Peuch, Vincent-Henri

    2012-02-01

    The observation sites that make up air quality monitoring networks can have very different characteristics (topography, climatology, distance to emission sources, etc), which are partially described in the meta-information provided with data sets. At the scale of Europe, the description of the sites depends on the institute(s) in charge of the air quality monitoring in each country, and is based on specific criteria that can be sometimes rather subjective. The purpose of this study is to build an objective, homogeneous, and pollutant-specific classification of European air quality monitoring sites, primarily for the purpose of model verification and chemical data assimilation. Most studies that tackled this issue so far were based on limited data sets, and often took into account additional external data such as population density, emission estimates, or land cover maps. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of a classification only based on the past time series of measured pollutants. The underlying idea is that the true fingerprint of a given monitoring site lies within its past observation values. On each site to be categorized, eight indicators are defined to characterize each pollutant time series (O 3, NO 2, NO, SO 2, or PM 10) of the European AirBase and the French BDQA (Base de Données de Qualité de l'Air) reference sets of validated data over the period 2002-2009. A Linear Discriminant Analysis is used to best discriminate the rural and urban sites. After projection on the Fisher axis, ten classes are finally determined on the basis of fixed thresholds, for each molecule. The method is validated by cross-validation and by direct comparison with the existing meta-data. The link between the classes obtained and the meta-data is strongest with NO, NO 2, and PM 10. Across Europe, the classification exhibits interesting large-scale features: some contrasts between different regions depend on the pollutant considered. Comparing the classes obtained

  14. Enhancement classification of galaxy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkinson, John

    With the advent of astronomical imaging technology developments, and the increased capacity of digital storage, the production of photographic atlases of the night sky have begun to generate volumes of data which need to be processed autonomously. As part of the Tonantzintla Digital Sky Survey construction, the present work involves software development for the digital image processing of astronomical images, in particular operations that preface feature extraction and classification. Recognition of galaxies in these images is the primary objective of the present work. Many galaxy images have poor resolution or contain faint galaxy features, resulting in the misclassification of galaxies. An enhancement of these images by the method of the Heap transform is proposed, and experimental results are provided which demonstrate the image enhancement to improve the presence of faint galaxy features thereby improving classification accuracy. The feature extraction was performed using morphological features that have been widely used in previous automated galaxy investigations. Principal component analysis was applied to the original and enhanced data sets for a performance comparison between the original and reduced features spaces. Classification was performed by the Support Vector Machine learning algorithm.

  15. A Classification Table for Achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chennaoui-Aoudjehane, H.; Larouci, N.; Jambon, A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    Classifying chondrites is relatively easy and the criteria are well documented. It is based on mineral compositions, textural characteristics and more recently, magnetic susceptibility. It can be more difficult to classify achondrites, especially those that are very similar to terrestrial igneous rocks, because mineralogical, textural and compositional properties can be quite variable. Achondrites contain essentially olivine, pyroxenes, plagioclases, oxides, sulphides and accessory minerals. Their origin is attributed to differentiated parents bodies: large asteroids (Vesta); planets (Mars); a satellite (the Moon); and numerous asteroids of unknown size. In most cases, achondrites are not eye witnessed falls and some do not have fusion crust. Because of the mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility similarity with terrestrial igneous rocks for some achondrites, it can be difficult for classifiers to confirm their extra-terrestrial origin. We -as classifiers of meteorites- are confronted with this problem with every suspected achondrite we receive for identification. We are developing a "grid" of classification to provide an easier approach for initial classification. We use simple but reproducible criteria based on mineralogical, petrological and geochemical studies. We presented the classes: acapulcoites, lodranites, winonaites and Martian meteorites (shergottite, chassignites, nakhlites). In this work we are completing the classification table by including the groups: angrites, aubrites, brachinites, ureilites, HED (howardites, eucrites, and diogenites), lunar meteorites, pallasites and mesosiderites. Iron meteorites are not presented in this abstract.

  16. Classification of anemia for gastroenterologists

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Chulilla, Jose Antonio; Romero Colás, Maria Soledad; Gutiérrez Martín, Martín

    2009-01-01

    Most anemia is related to the digestive system by dietary deficiency, malabsorption, or chronic bleeding. We review the World Health Organization definition of anemia, its morphological classification (microcytic, macrocytic and normocytic) and pathogenic classification (regenerative and hypo regenerative), and integration of these classifications. Interpretation of laboratory tests is included, from the simplest (blood count, routine biochemistry) to the more specific (iron metabolism, vitamin B12, folic acid, reticulocytes, erythropoietin, bone marrow examination and Schilling test). In the text and various algorithms, we propose a hierarchical and logical way to reach a diagnosis as quickly as possible, by properly managing the medical interview, physical examination, appropriate laboratory tests, bone marrow examination, and other complementary tests. The prevalence is emphasized in all sections so that the gastroenterologist can direct the diagnosis to the most common diseases, although the tables also include rare diseases. Digestive diseases potentially causing anemia have been studied in preference, but other causes of anemia have been included in the text and tables. Primitive hematological diseases that cause anemia are only listed, but are not discussed in depth. The last section is dedicated to simplifying all items discussed above, using practical rules to guide diagnosis and medical care with the greatest economy of resources and time. PMID:19787825

  17. Fuzzy description of skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskaris, Nikolaos; Ballerini, Lucia; Fisher, Robert B.; Aldridge, Ben; Rees, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    We propose a system for describing skin lesions images based on a human perception model. Pigmented skin lesions including melanoma and other types of skin cancer as well as non-malignant lesions are used. Works on classification of skin lesions already exist but they mainly concentrate on melanoma. The novelty of our work is that our system gives to skin lesion images a semantic label in a manner similar to humans. This work consists of two parts: first we capture they way users perceive each lesion, second we train a machine learning system that simulates how people describe images. For the first part, we choose 5 attributes: colour (light to dark), colour uniformity (uniform to non-uniform), symmetry (symmetric to non-symmetric), border (regular to irregular), texture (smooth to rough). Using a web based form we asked people to pick a value of each attribute for each lesion. In the second part, we extract 93 features from each lesions and we trained a machine learning algorithm using such features as input and the values of the human attributes as output. Results are quite promising, especially for the colour related attributes, where our system classifies over 80% of the lesions into the same semantic classes as humans.

  18. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  19. An edit script for taxonomic classifications

    PubMed Central

    Page, Roderic DM; Valiente, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Background The NCBI taxonomy provides one of the most powerful ways to navigate sequence data bases but currently users are forced to formulate queries according to a single taxonomic classification. Given that there is not universal agreement on the classification of organisms, providing a single classification places constraints on the questions biologists can ask. However, maintaining multiple classifications is burdensome in the face of a constantly growing NCBI classification. Results In this paper, we present a solution to the problem of generating modifications of the NCBI taxonomy, based on the computation of an edit script that summarises the differences between two classification trees. Our algorithms find the shortest possible edit script based on the identification of all shared subtrees, and only take time quasi linear in the size of the trees because classification trees have unique node labels. Conclusion These algorithms have been recently implemented, and the software is freely available for download from . PMID:16122379

  20. Description and recognition of faces from 3D data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombes, Anne M.; Richards, Robin; Linney, Alfred D.; Bruce, Vicki; Fright, Rick

    1992-12-01

    A method based on differential geometry, is presented for mathematically describing the shape of the facial surface. Three-dimensional data for the face are collected by optical surface scanning. The method allows the segmentation of the face into regions of a particular `surface type,' according to the surface curvature. Eight different surface types are produced which all have perceptually meaningful interpretations. The correspondence of the surface type regions to the facial features are easily visualized, allowing a qualitative assessment of the face. A quantitative description of the face in terms of the surface type regions can be produced and the variation of the description between faces is demonstrated. A set of optical surface scans can be registered together and averages to produce an average male and average female face. Thus an assessment of how individuals vary from the average can be made as well as a general statement about the differences between male and female faces. This method will enable an investigation to be made as to how reliably faces can be individuated by their surface shape which, if feasible, may be the basis of an automatic system for recognizing faces. It also has applications in physical anthropology, for classification of the face, facial reconstructive surgery, to quantify the changes in a face altered by reconstructive surgery and growth, and in visual perception, to assess the recognizability of faces. Examples of some of these applications are presented.