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Sample records for agrilus planipennis fairmaire

  1. Agrilus rubensteini, a new species from the Philippines related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species from the Philippines closely related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described: Agrilus rubensteini Chamorro & Jendek, new species. This is the first species in the A. cyaneoniger species-group recorded for the Philippines. Agr...

  2. Progress in the classical biological control of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discovered in North America in 2002, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a phloem-feeding beetle from Asia that attacks and kills ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) populations surveyed for natural enemies in North America reveal low prevalence of native larva...

  3. Preimaginal stages of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): an invasive pest on ash trees (Fraxinus).

    PubMed

    Chamorro, M Lourdes; Volkovitsh, Mark G; Poland, Therese M; Haack, Robert A; Lingafelter, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    This study provides the most detailed description of the immature stages of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire to date and illustrates suites of larval characters useful in distinguishing among Agrilus Curtis species and instars. Immature stages of eight species of Agrilus were examined and imaged using light and scanning electron microscopy. For A. planipennis all preimaginal stages (egg, instars I-IV, prepupa and pupa) were described. A combination of 14 character states were identified that serve to identify larvae of A. planipennis. Our results support the segregation of Agrilus larvae into two informal assemblages based on characters of the mouthparts, prothorax, and abdomen: the A. viridis and A. ater assemblages, with A. planipennis being more similar to the former. Additional evidence is provided in favor of excluding A. planipennis from the subgenus Uragrilus.

  4. Evidence for a volatile sex pheromone in Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) that synergizes attraction to a host foliar volatile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of volatiles from virgin female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, confirmed the emission of (3Z)-lactone [(3Z)-dodecen-12-olide] but not its geometric isomer, (3E)-lactone [(3E)-dodecen-12-olide]. Gas chromatographic/ electroa...

  5. A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Peter J.; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D.; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping

    2009-05-01

    Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with ( n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C25 had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.

  6. A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping

    2009-05-01

    Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C(25)), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with (n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C(25), which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C(25) had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.

  7. Six new species of Agrilus Curtis, 1825 (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Agrilinae) from the Oriental Region related to the emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 and synonymy of Sarawakita Obenberger, 1924.

    PubMed

    Jendek, Eduard; Chamorro, Maria Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    Six new species of Agrilus Curtis, 1825 with affinities to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888, are described from the Oriental Region: Agrilus crepuscularissp. n. (Malaysia); Agrilus pseudolubopetrisp. n. (Laos); Agrilus sapphirinussp. n.(Laos); Agrilus seramensissp. n.(Indonesia); Agrilus spineussp. n. (Malaysia); and Agrilus tomentipennissp. n. (Laos). The genus Sarawakita Obenberger, 1924 syn. nov. is considered a junior synonym of Agrilus.

  8. The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis fairmaire (coleoptera: buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Crosthwaite, Jill C; Sobek, Stephanie; Lyons, D Barry; Bernards, Mark A; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of the emerald ash borer were investigated, and seasonal changes in these mechanisms monitored. The majority of emerald ash borers survive winter as freeze-intolerant prepupae. In winter, A. planipennis prepupae have low supercooling points (approximately -30°C), which they achieve by accumulating high concentrations of glycerol (approximately 4M) in their body fluids and by the synthesis of antifreeze agents. Cuticular waxes reduce inoculation from external ice. This is the first comprehensive study of seasonal changes in cold tolerance in a buprestid beetle.

  9. Behavioral evidence for a contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire.

    PubMed

    Lelito, Jonathan P; Böröczky, Katalin; Jones, Tappey H; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C; Tumlinson, James H; Baker, Thomas C

    2009-01-01

    The cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis, were examined to determine if there are differences in these compounds between the sexes. We also assessed feral male EAB in the field for behavioral changes based on the application of a female-specific compound to dead, solvent-washed beetles. Males in the field spent significantly more time attempting copulation with dead, pinned female beetles coated with a three-beetle-equivalent dose of 3-methyltricosane than with solvent-washed beetles or those coated in 3-methyltricosane at lower concentrations. Males in the field spent the most time investigating pinned dead, unwashed female beetles. In the laboratory, sexually mature males were presented with one of several mixtures applied in hexane to filter paper disks or to the elytra of dead female beetles first washed in solvent. Male EAB also spent more time investigating dead beetles treated with solution applications that contained 3-methyltricosane than dead beetles and filter paper disks treated with male body wash or a straight-chain hydrocarbon not found on the cuticle of EAB.

  10. Six new species of Agrilus Curtis, 1825 (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Agrilinae) from the Oriental region related to the emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 and synonymy of Sarawakita Obenberger, 1924

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six new species of Agrilus Curtis, 1825 with affinities to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888, are described from the Oriental Region: A. crepuscularis sp. n. (Malaysia); A. pseudolubopetri sp. n. (Laos); A. sapphirinus sp. n. (Laos); A. seramensis sp. n. (Indonesia); A. spin...

  11. Host range of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America: results of multiple-choice field experiments.

    PubMed

    Anulewicz, Andrea C; McCullough, Deborah G; Cappaert, David L; Poland, Therese M

    2008-02-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding pest, was identified as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada, in 2002. A. planipennis reportedly colonizes other genera in its native range in Asia, including Ulmus L., Juglans L., and Pterocarya Kunth. Attacks on nonash species have not been observed in North America to date, but there is concern that other genera could be colonized. From 2003 to 2005, we assessed adult A. planipennis landing rates, oviposition, and larval development on North American ash species and congeners of its reported hosts in Asia in multiple-choice field studies conducted at several southeast Michigan sites. Nonash species evaluated included American elm (U. americana L.), hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L.), black walnut (J. nigra L.), shagbark hickory [Carya ovata (Mill.) K.Koch], and Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata Bl.). In studies with freshly cut logs, adult beetles occasionally landed on nonash logs but generally laid fewer eggs than on ash logs. Larvae fed and developed normally on ash logs, which were often heavily infested. No larvae were able to survive, grow, or develop on any nonash logs, although failed first-instar galleries occurred on some walnut logs. High densities of larvae developed on live green ash and white ash nursery trees, but there was no evidence of larval survival or development on Japanese tree lilac and black walnut trees in the same plantation. We felled, debarked, and intensively examined >28 m2 of phloem area on nine American elm trees growing in contact with or adjacent to heavily infested ash trees. We found no sign of A. planipennis feeding on any elm.

  12. Sensilla on the antennae, legs and ovipositor of Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the host-finding mechanisms of Spathius agrili Yang, a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, a highly concealed insect pest of Fraxinus spp. The morphology and ultrastructure of sensilla on the antennae and legs of both sexes and on the ovipositors and ovipositor sheaths of females were observed using SEM. Results showed that abundant sensilla trichodea (ST) are distributed on the antennae of both females and males, with the sharp trichoid with a socket at the base being the most numerous sensillum. There are 6-7 sensilla placodea on each segment of the flagellum, arranged lengthways in parallel rows. There are very few sensilla styloconica on the female antennae. The tibiae have mostly sensilla chaetica, whereas three types of ST and the relatively plentiful sensilla chaetica are present on the tarsi. Besides ST, a mass of sensilla squamiformia and small short spines are distributed on the pulvilli. Basically there are no sensilla on the female ovipositor, only steering mechanisms for drilling bark and a variety of v-shaped grooves. However, a large numbers of short sensilla chaetica and microtrichia are found on the internal surface of ovipositor sheath. The outer surface of the ovipositor sheath also has ST. In addition, a clear spring-like extension structure can be observed on the fore parts of ovipositor sheath. These findings suggest that the main function of sensilla on the antennae is olfaction, while the sensilla on legs and ovipositor sheaths are mechanoreceptors and tactile sensors.

  13. Modeling Agrilus planipennis within-tree colonization patterns and development of a systematic subsampling plan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an insect native to central Asia, was first detected in southeast Michigan in 2002, and has since killed millions of ash trees, Fraxinus spp., throughout eastern North America. Here, we use generalized linear mixed models to predict the presence or a...

  14. Temporal dynamics of woodpecker predation on the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Woodpeckers (Picidae) are among the most prevalent natural enemies attacking the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in North America, but there can be considerable variation in the levels of EAB predation on ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus) within and between sites as wel...

  15. Suitability and accessibility of immature Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) stages to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. The current protocol for rearing T. ...

  16. Leluthia astigma (Ashmead)(Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae)as a parasitoid of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire(Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Agrilinae),with assessment of host associations for Nearctic species of Leluthia Cameron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The validity of host and host plant records are assessed for Leluthia astigma (Ashmead), Leluthia floridensis Marsh, and Leluthia mexicana Cameron, the three known species of Leluthia Cameron in the Nearctic Region. Leluthia astigma is reported from the exotic invasive pest Agrilus planipennis Fairm...

  17. Chemical ecology of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Mastro, Victor C

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a serious invasive pest that has caused devastating mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) since it was first identified in North America in 2002. Shortly after its discovery, surveys were conducted, based on the visual inspection of trees. The shortcomings of visual surveys have led to a critical research need to find an efficient survey method for detecting A. planipennis infestations. Here, we present a review of research that has led to the development of effective trapping methods for A. planipennis. Studies on the insect's biology and behavior have led to the identification of several potential attractants as well as the design of a visually attractive trap. The ongoing challenge in developing an optimally efficient trapping methodology for A. planipennis will involve finding the best combination of variables, such as trap shape, trap color (or other visual properties), trap placement, lure components, as well as the ratios and release rates of those components.

  18. Modeling Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) within-tree colonization patterns and development of a subsampling technique.

    PubMed

    Foelker, C J; Vandenberg, J D; Whitmore, M; Fierke, M K

    2013-06-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an insect native to central Asia, was first detected in southeast Michigan in 2002, and has since killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine an optimal sampling location on girdled ash trap trees for detection of A. planipennis larvae based on measurements of tree characteristics, and 2) develop a whole-tree estimation method for extrapolating larval densities from subsampled heights. We conducted sampling at 1-m increments, recording larval presence, height on tree bole, bolt diameter, and bark roughness for 58 infested ash trees. Analyzing height and diameter separately, generalized linear mixed models indicated the probability of A. planipennis detection was maximized at 17.2 cm for diameter and increased linearly as vertical height increased. There was also a positive relationship between intermediate bark roughness and A. planipennis presence. Stepwise regression indicated the optimal bolts for extrapolating whole tree larval densities were, in order of importance, at heights of 1-2 m, 4-5 m, 7-8 m, and 0-1 m. Subsampling with just one or two bolts explained 70% and 86%, respectively, of the variance in A. planipennis densities. Our results can be used by resource managers to improve efficiency of detection efforts and estimate infestations of A. planipennis. PMID:23726062

  19. Modeling Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) within-tree colonization patterns and development of a subsampling technique.

    PubMed

    Foelker, C J; Vandenberg, J D; Whitmore, M; Fierke, M K

    2013-06-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an insect native to central Asia, was first detected in southeast Michigan in 2002, and has since killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine an optimal sampling location on girdled ash trap trees for detection of A. planipennis larvae based on measurements of tree characteristics, and 2) develop a whole-tree estimation method for extrapolating larval densities from subsampled heights. We conducted sampling at 1-m increments, recording larval presence, height on tree bole, bolt diameter, and bark roughness for 58 infested ash trees. Analyzing height and diameter separately, generalized linear mixed models indicated the probability of A. planipennis detection was maximized at 17.2 cm for diameter and increased linearly as vertical height increased. There was also a positive relationship between intermediate bark roughness and A. planipennis presence. Stepwise regression indicated the optimal bolts for extrapolating whole tree larval densities were, in order of importance, at heights of 1-2 m, 4-5 m, 7-8 m, and 0-1 m. Subsampling with just one or two bolts explained 70% and 86%, respectively, of the variance in A. planipennis densities. Our results can be used by resource managers to improve efficiency of detection efforts and estimate infestations of A. planipennis.

  20. Identification of Odor-Processing Genes in the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis

    PubMed Central

    Mamidala, Praveen; Wijeratne, Asela J.; Wijeratne, Saranga; Poland, Therese; Qazi, Sohail S.; Doucet, Daniel; Cusson, Michel; Beliveau, Catherine; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2013-01-01

    Background Insects rely on olfaction to locate food, mates, and suitable oviposition sites for successful completion of their life cycle. Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (emerald ash borer) is a serious invasive insect pest that has killed tens of millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp) trees and threatens the very existence of the genus Fraxinus. Adult A. planipennis are attracted to host volatiles and conspecifics; however, to date no molecular knowledge exists on olfaction in A. planipennis. Hence, we undertook an antennae-specific transcriptomic study to identify the repertoire of odor processing genes involved in A. planipennis olfaction. Methodology and Principal Findings We acquired 139,085 Roche/454 GS FLX transcriptomic reads that were assembled into 30,615 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs), including 3,249 isotigs and 27,366 non-isotigs (contigs and singletons). Intriguingly, the majority of the A. planipennis antennal transcripts (59.72%) did not show similarity with sequences deposited in the non-redundant database of GenBank, potentially representing novel genes. Functional annotation and KEGG analysis revealed pathways associated with signaling and detoxification. Several odor processing genes (9 odorant binding proteins, 2 odorant receptors, 1 sensory neuron membrane protein and 134 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases; esterases, etc.) putatively involved in olfaction processes were identified. Quantitative PCR of candidate genes in male and female A. planipennis in different developmental stages revealed developmental- and sex-biased expression patterns. Conclusions and Significance The antennal ESTs derived from A. planipennis constitute a rich molecular resource for the identification of genes potentially involved in the olfaction process of A. planipennis. These findings should help in understanding the processing of antennally-active compounds (e.g. 7-epi

  1. Water conservation features of ova of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Rigsby, Chad M; Cipollini, Don; Amstutz, Evan M; Smith, Terrance J; Yoder, Jay A

    2013-04-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, has destroyed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America since first identified in Detroit in 2002. With species of ash distributed throughout North America, it is easy to speculate the extinction of all susceptible species of ash on the continent given a lack of physical, environmental, or climactic barrier for dispersal of the insect. We investigated water balance characteristics of emerald ash borer ova by using gravimetric methods in an effort to measure their response to heat- and water-stress and explore possible influences this stress may have on the ecology and physiology of the ovum. We also explored the possible water balance benefit of a peculiar, "clustering," oviposition behavior, as well as the difference in responses to stress between ova from a laboratory colony and ova from two wild populations. We found no evidence of water vapor absorption as a water balance strategy; rather enhanced water retention, resistance to desiccation, and viability with low water content were important survival strategies for these ova. Surface lipids resist thermal breakdown as indicated by ova having no detectable critical transition temperature, maintaining their water-proofing function as temperature rises. The observed "clustering" behavior had no desiccation-avoidance benefit and ova from the wild populations behaved almost identically to the ova from the lab colony, although the lab ova were slightly larger and more sensitive to dehydration. Given this new information, there appears to be no heat- or water-stress barriers for the dispersal of this devastating pest at the ovum stage. PMID:23575027

  2. Water conservation features of ova of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Rigsby, Chad M; Cipollini, Don; Amstutz, Evan M; Smith, Terrance J; Yoder, Jay A

    2013-04-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, has destroyed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America since first identified in Detroit in 2002. With species of ash distributed throughout North America, it is easy to speculate the extinction of all susceptible species of ash on the continent given a lack of physical, environmental, or climactic barrier for dispersal of the insect. We investigated water balance characteristics of emerald ash borer ova by using gravimetric methods in an effort to measure their response to heat- and water-stress and explore possible influences this stress may have on the ecology and physiology of the ovum. We also explored the possible water balance benefit of a peculiar, "clustering," oviposition behavior, as well as the difference in responses to stress between ova from a laboratory colony and ova from two wild populations. We found no evidence of water vapor absorption as a water balance strategy; rather enhanced water retention, resistance to desiccation, and viability with low water content were important survival strategies for these ova. Surface lipids resist thermal breakdown as indicated by ova having no detectable critical transition temperature, maintaining their water-proofing function as temperature rises. The observed "clustering" behavior had no desiccation-avoidance benefit and ova from the wild populations behaved almost identically to the ova from the lab colony, although the lab ova were slightly larger and more sensitive to dehydration. Given this new information, there appears to be no heat- or water-stress barriers for the dispersal of this devastating pest at the ovum stage.

  3. The biology and ecology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, En-shan

    2010-01-01

    The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed.

  4. The Biology and Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, EnShan

    2010-01-01

    The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed. PMID:20879922

  5. Antioxidant genes of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis): gene characterization and expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mamidala, Praveen; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2011-06-01

    Phytophagous insects frequently encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) from exogenous and endogenous sources. To overcome the effect of ROS, insects have evolved a suite of antioxidant defense genes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive insect pest from Asia has killed millions of ash trees and continues to invade North America at a rapid pace. From an on-going expressed sequence tag (EST) project of A. planipennis larval tissues, we identified ESTs coding for a Cu-Zn SOD (ApSOD1), a CAT (ApCAT1) and a GPX (ApGPX1). A multiple sequence alignment of the derived A. planipennis sequences revealed high homology with other insect sequences at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis of ApSOD1 grouped it with Cu-Zn SODs of other insect taxa. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different larval tissues (midgut, fat body, Malpighian tubule and cuticle) revealed high mRNA levels of ApCAT1 in the midgut. Interestingly, high mRNA levels for both ApSOD1 and ApGPX1 were observed in the Malpighian tubules. Assay of mRNA levels in developmental stages (larva, prepupa and adults) by qRT-PCR indicated high transcript levels of ApCAT1 and ApGPX1 in larval and prepupal stages with a decline in adults. On the other hand, the transcript levels of ApSOD1 were observed to be constitutive in all the developmental stages assayed. Results obtained reflect a plausible role of these A. planipennis antioxidant genes in quenching ROS from both diet (ash allelochemicals) as well as endogenous sources. These studies further help in understanding the adaptation/invasiveness of A. planipennis.

  6. Glutathione-S-transferase profiles in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2013-05-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is a recently discovered invasive insect pest of ash, Fraxinus spp. in North America. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are a multifunctional superfamily of enzymes which function in conjugating toxic compounds to less toxic and excretable forms. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and expression patterns of different classes of GST genes in different tissues and developmental stages plus their specific activity. Multiple sequence alignment of all six A. planipennis GSTs (ApGST-E1, ApGST-E2, ApGST-E3, ApGST-O1, ApGST-S1 and ApGST-μ1) revealed conserved features of insect GSTs and a phylogenetic analysis grouped the GSTs within the epsilon, sigma, omega and microsomal classes of GSTs. Real time quantitative PCR was used to study field collected samples. In larval tissues high mRNA levels for ApGST-E1, ApGST-E3 and ApGST-O1 were obtained in the midgut and Malpighian tubules. On the other hand, ApGST-E2 and ApGST-S1 showed high mRNA levels in fat body and ApGST-μ1 showed constitutive levels in all the tissues assayed. During development, mRNA levels for ApGST-E2 were observed to be the highest in feeding instars, ApGST-S1 in prepupal instars; while the others showed constitutive patterns in all the developmental stages examined. At the enzyme level, total GST activity was similar in all the tissues and developmental stages assayed. Results obtained suggest that A. planipennis is potentially primed with GST-driven detoxification to metabolize ash allelochemicals. To our knowledge this study represents the first report of GSTs in A. planipennis and also in the family of wood boring beetles. PMID:23499941

  7. Glutathione-S-transferase profiles in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2013-05-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is a recently discovered invasive insect pest of ash, Fraxinus spp. in North America. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are a multifunctional superfamily of enzymes which function in conjugating toxic compounds to less toxic and excretable forms. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and expression patterns of different classes of GST genes in different tissues and developmental stages plus their specific activity. Multiple sequence alignment of all six A. planipennis GSTs (ApGST-E1, ApGST-E2, ApGST-E3, ApGST-O1, ApGST-S1 and ApGST-μ1) revealed conserved features of insect GSTs and a phylogenetic analysis grouped the GSTs within the epsilon, sigma, omega and microsomal classes of GSTs. Real time quantitative PCR was used to study field collected samples. In larval tissues high mRNA levels for ApGST-E1, ApGST-E3 and ApGST-O1 were obtained in the midgut and Malpighian tubules. On the other hand, ApGST-E2 and ApGST-S1 showed high mRNA levels in fat body and ApGST-μ1 showed constitutive levels in all the tissues assayed. During development, mRNA levels for ApGST-E2 were observed to be the highest in feeding instars, ApGST-S1 in prepupal instars; while the others showed constitutive patterns in all the developmental stages examined. At the enzyme level, total GST activity was similar in all the tissues and developmental stages assayed. Results obtained suggest that A. planipennis is potentially primed with GST-driven detoxification to metabolize ash allelochemicals. To our knowledge this study represents the first report of GSTs in A. planipennis and also in the family of wood boring beetles.

  8. Host Resistance of Five Fraxinus Species to Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and Effects of Paclobutrazol and Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Tanis, Sara R; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2015-04-01

    Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) has killed millions of Fraxinus spp. trees in North America. While all Fraxinus species assessed to date can be colonized, A. planipennis attraction to host trees varies among species and with tree health. We established a plantation of 105 trees (21 trees each of four North American species Fraxinus americana L., Fraxinus nigra Marshall, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall, Fraxinus quadrangulata Michaux, and the Asian species, Fraxinus mandshurica Ruprecht), and determined whether resistance to A. planipennis could be enhanced by fertilizer or paclobutrazol applications. Differences among species overshadowed most treatment effects. In 2010, A. planipennis survival over 14 d was 53% when beetles were caged with F. nigra, 30-32% when beetles were caged with F. americana, F. pennsylvanica, or F. mandshurica, and only 14% for beetles caged with F. quadrangulata. In 2011, beetle survival was lower for beetles caged with F. quadrangulata (33%) than F. americana (72%) or F. mandshurica (80%). In 2010 and 2011, leaf weight consumed by beetles was the same among Fraxinus species. However, beetles caged on F. quadrangulata consumed less leaf area than that by beetles caged with other ash species. In 2011, when trees were exposed to wild A. planipennis, larval density (per m(2)) was highest on F. nigra (235.9 ± 36.41) and F. pennsylvanica (220.1 ± 39.77), intermediate on F. americana (40.7 ± 11.61), and lowest on F. quadrangulata and F. mandshurica (2.0 ± 0.98 and 1.5 ± 0.67, respectively). Results indicate F. quadrangulata and F. mandshurica were relatively resistant to A. planipennis, F. nigra and F. pennsylvanica were highly vulnerable, and F. americana was intermediate. PMID:26313182

  9. Effects of Pheromone Release Rate and Trap Placement on Trapping of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ryall, Krista L; Silk, Peter J; Fidgen, Jeff; Mayo, Peter; Lavallée, Robert; Guertin, Claude; Scarr, Taylor

    2015-06-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a devastating insect pest in its introduced range. A trapping system that increases trap catches or detection rates in low-density populations would be beneficial for survey programs. Five trapping experiments were conducted to investigate factors influencing capture rates of male beetles on dark green traps baited with the A. planipennis pheromone, (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide ((3Z)-lactone), plus the green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol. Low doses (0.001-1.0 mg) of (3Z)-lactone + (3Z)-hexenol did not consistently increase captures of male A. planipennis. In other experiments, mean captures of males were significantly higher on traps baited with a moderate dose (3.0 mg/septum) of (3Z)-lactone + (3Z)-hexenol, compared with lower doses (0.001, 0.1, and 1.0 mg) or (3Z)-hexenol alone. Next, we demonstrated that addition of (3Z)-lactone to traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol resulted in significantly greater increases in male captures when pairs of traps were placed on the same tree, than when traps were placed on adjacent trees. Moreover, significantly more A. planipennis were captured on pheromone-baited traps placed in the southern versus northern aspect of the crown. These results highlight the importance of experimental set-up for elucidating lure treatment effects and also suggests the (3Z)-lactone may be more active at close range. Our findings increase our understanding of the pheromone ecology of this species and lend support toward the use of dark green traps baited with 3.0 mg (3Z)-lactone + (3Z)-hexenol deployed in the south aspect of the canopy for detection programs for this insect. PMID:26313980

  10. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Woodpeckers are an important source of mortality for EAB in their native range, and understanding their effect on the pop...

  11. Release and recovery of parasitiods of the emerlad ash borer agrilus planipennis in Michigan, Ohio and Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hymenotperan parasitoid species were introduced to the United State from China for biological control of emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis in 2007. These species are Tetrastichus planipennisi (Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid; Oobius agrili (Encyrtidae), a solitary pa...

  12. Effects of chipping, grinding, and heat on survival of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in chips.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Cappaert, David; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor; Smith, Sarah; Pell, Christopher

    2007-08-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect from Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus sp.) mortality in southeastern Michigan and Essex County, Ontario. Most larvae overwinter as nonfeeding prepupae in the outer sapwood or thick bark of large trees. In a series of studies, we evaluated effects of grinding, chipping, and heat treatment on survival of A. planipennis prepupae in ash material. Heavily infested ash bolts containing roughly 8,700 prepupae were processed by a horizontal grinder with either a 2.5- or 10-cm screen. There was no evidence of A. planipennis survival in chips processed with the 2.5-cm screen, but eight viable prepupae were recovered from chips processed with the 10-cm screen. We chiseled additional sentinel chips with prepupae from ash logs and buried 45 in each chip pile. In total, six prepupae in sentinel chips survived the winter, but we found no sign of adult A. planipennis emergence from the processed chips. Subsequently, we assessed prepupal survival in chips processed by a chipper or a horizontal grinder fit with 5-, 10-, or 12.7-cm screens. An estimated 1,565 A. planipennis prepupae were processed by each treatment. Chips from the chipper were shorter than chips from the grinder regardless of the screen size used. No live prepupae were found in chips produced by the chipper, but 21 viable prepupae were found in chips from the grinder. Infested wood and bark chips chiseled from logs were held in ovens at 25, 40, or 60 degrees C for 8, 24, or 48 h. Prepupal survival was consistently higher in wood chips than bark chips at 40 degrees C, whereas no prepupae survived exposure to 60 degrees C for eight or more hours. In a second study, prepupae in wood chips were exposed to 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 degrees C for 20 or 120 min. Some prepupae survived 20 min of exposure to all temperatures. No prepupae survived exposure to 60 degrees C for 120 min, but 17

  13. Antennally active macrolide from the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis emitted predominantly by females.

    PubMed

    Bartelt, Robert J; Cossé, Allard A; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Fraser, Ivich

    2007-07-01

    The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was ca. 10 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by antennae of both males and females. Identification was confirmed by synthesis. The behavioral effects of the lactone remain unstudied in A. planipennis, but a verified pheromonal function could lead to improved monitoring for this invasive pest. The lactone is part of the pheromone of Cryptolestes pusillus, an unrelated beetle species.

  14. Factors affecting the flight capacity of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a classical biological control agent of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Fahrner, Samuel J; Lelito, Jonathan P; Blaedow, Karen; Heimpel, George E; Aukema, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    The dispersal characteristics of a biological control agent can have direct implications on the ability of that agent to control populations of a target host. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a parasitic wasp native to eastern Asia that has been introduced into the United States as part of a classical biological control program against the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). We used computer-monitored flight mills to investigate the role of age, feeding status, mating status, and size on the flight capacity of female T. planipennisi over a 24-h period. We also compared flight capacity between sexes. Flight distance of female T. planipennisi representative of populations released in the biological control program averaged 1.26 km in 24 h with a maximum flight of just over 7 km. Median flight distance, however, was 422 m. The flight capacity of females fed a honey-water solution was 41× that of females provided only water, who flew very little. Larger females were capable of flying farther distances, but age did not affect the flight capacity of females up to 70 d posteclosion. Females dispersed 6× farther than did their smaller, male counterparts. The implications of our findings to host-parasitoid interactions and release protocols for distributing T. planipennisi are discussed. PMID:25479199

  15. Factors affecting the flight capacity of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a classical biological control agent of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Fahrner, Samuel J; Lelito, Jonathan P; Blaedow, Karen; Heimpel, George E; Aukema, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    The dispersal characteristics of a biological control agent can have direct implications on the ability of that agent to control populations of a target host. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a parasitic wasp native to eastern Asia that has been introduced into the United States as part of a classical biological control program against the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). We used computer-monitored flight mills to investigate the role of age, feeding status, mating status, and size on the flight capacity of female T. planipennisi over a 24-h period. We also compared flight capacity between sexes. Flight distance of female T. planipennisi representative of populations released in the biological control program averaged 1.26 km in 24 h with a maximum flight of just over 7 km. Median flight distance, however, was 422 m. The flight capacity of females fed a honey-water solution was 41× that of females provided only water, who flew very little. Larger females were capable of flying farther distances, but age did not affect the flight capacity of females up to 70 d posteclosion. Females dispersed 6× farther than did their smaller, male counterparts. The implications of our findings to host-parasitoid interactions and release protocols for distributing T. planipennisi are discussed.

  16. Biology and Behavior of Spathius agrili, a Parasitoid of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhong-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Yi; Gould, Juli R.; Reardon, Richard C.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, En-Shan

    2010-01-01

    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious larval ectoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and is a recently described species. Both pest and parasitoid are native to China. In Tianjin City, China, S. agrili typically exhibited 3–4 generations per year, overwintering as a prepupa in a cocoon inside the host gallery. The multiple generations of S. agrili overlapped with its host, as did the emergence dates of the overwintering generation. From a single host, 1–18 S. agrili successfully developed to the adult stage (average 8.4), but in all cases the host was killed. The sex ratio (female: male) of the parasitoid adults emerging from field-collected cocoons was 2:1, whereas the sex ratio of parasitoids reared from field collected eggs and larvae was greater than 3:1. On average, adult females lived 29.1 d, and males lived 23.6 d when fed with 20% honey solution, significantly longer than without a nutritional supplement. Sexual reproduction is the normal mode of reproduction, but in the laboratory females did reproduce parthenogenetically, producing only males. The average fecundity was 23.3 eggs per female in the laboratory. S. agrili developed through five larval instars, and the larvae fed gregariously on the host hemolymph. The generation time from egg to adult wasp was 27–28 d at 22–26°C. Natural parasitism rates were as high as 60%, and in October they reached over 90% in some stands. This study showed that S. agrili is a promising agent for biocontrol of A. planipennis. PMID:20569125

  17. Biology and behavior of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Yi; Gould, Juli R; Reardon, Richard C; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, En-Shan

    2010-01-01

    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious larval ectoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and is a recently described species. Both pest and parasitoid are native to China. In Tianjin City, China, S. agrili typically exhibited 3-4 generations per year, overwintering as a prepupa in a cocoon inside the host gallery. The multiple generations of S. agrili overlapped with its host, as did the emergence dates of the overwintering generation. From a single host, 1-18 S. agrili successfully developed to the adult stage (average 8.4), but in all cases the host was killed. The sex ratio (female: male) of the parasitoid adults emerging from field-collected cocoons was 2:1, whereas the sex ratio of parasitoids reared from field collected eggs and larvae was greater than 3:1. On average, adult females lived 29.1 d, and males lived 23.6 d when fed with 20% honey solution, significantly longer than without a nutritional supplement. Sexual reproduction is the normal mode of reproduction, but in the laboratory females did reproduce parthenogenetically, producing only males. The average fecundity was 23.3 eggs per female in the laboratory. S. agrili developed through five larval instars, and the larvae fed gregariously on the host hemolymph. The generation time from egg to adult wasp was 27-28 d at 22-26 degrees C. Natural parasitism rates were as high as 60%, and in October they reached over 90% in some stands. This study showed that S. agrili is a promising agent for biocontrol of A. planipennis.

  18. Characterization of horizontally transferred β-fructofuranosidase (ScrB) genes in Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C; Doucet, D; Mittapalli, O

    2014-12-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an important invasive insect pest of Fraxinus spp. that feeds on host tissues containing high levels of sucrose. However, little is known about how it digests sucrose. Here, using larval midgut transcriptome data and preliminary genome sequence efforts, two β-fructofuranosidase-encoding ScrB genes, AplaScrB-1 and AplaScrB-2, were identified, and proved to reside within the A. planipennis genome. Homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that they were acquired by A. planipennis via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria, possibly an event independent from that reported in bark beetles (eg ScrB genes). Microsynteny between A. planipennis DNA scaffold #2042940, which hosts AplaScrB-1, and a region in the Tribolium castaneum chromosome LG4 suggested that A. planipennis gained this gene after the separation of Buprestidae and Tenebrionidae. Although both of the putative AplaScrB proteins have conserved β-fructofuranosidase motifs, only AplaScrB-2 was predicted to be a secretory protein. Expression of AplaScrB-1 seemed constitutive during development and in all tissues examined, whereas AplaScrB-2 showed a peak expression in adults and in the midgut. We propose that acquisition of these genes by A. planipennis from bacteria is adaptive, and specifically AplaScrB-2 is involved in breaking down dietary sucrose to obtain energy for development. PMID:25224649

  19. Core RNAi machinery and gene knockdown in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chaoyang; Alvarez Gonzales, Miguel A; Poland, Therese M; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong RNAi machinery that is capable of degrading target mRNA as a response to exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction, we identified three RNAi pathway core component genes, Dicer-2, Argonaute-2 and R2D2, from the A. planipennis genome sequence. Characterization of these core components revealed that they contain conserved domains essential for the proteins to function in the RNAi pathway. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they are closely related to homologs derived from other coleopteran species. We also delivered the dsRNA fragment of AplaScrB-2, a β-fructofuranosidase-encoding gene horizontally acquired by A. planipennis as we reported previously, into A. planipennis adults through microinjection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis on the dsRNA-treated beetles demonstrated a significantly decreased gene expression level of AplaScrB-2 appearing on day 2 and lasting until at least day 6. This study is the first record of RNAi applied in A. planipennis. PMID:25541004

  20. Core RNAi machinery and gene knockdown in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chaoyang; Alvarez Gonzales, Miguel A; Poland, Therese M; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong RNAi machinery that is capable of degrading target mRNA as a response to exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction, we identified three RNAi pathway core component genes, Dicer-2, Argonaute-2 and R2D2, from the A. planipennis genome sequence. Characterization of these core components revealed that they contain conserved domains essential for the proteins to function in the RNAi pathway. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they are closely related to homologs derived from other coleopteran species. We also delivered the dsRNA fragment of AplaScrB-2, a β-fructofuranosidase-encoding gene horizontally acquired by A. planipennis as we reported previously, into A. planipennis adults through microinjection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis on the dsRNA-treated beetles demonstrated a significantly decreased gene expression level of AplaScrB-2 appearing on day 2 and lasting until at least day 6. This study is the first record of RNAi applied in A. planipennis.

  1. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    PubMed Central

    Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

  2. Interactions between Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: braconidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), larval parasitoids of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hymenopteran parasitoids introduced from China are currently being released in Michigan and surrounding states in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmare, an Asian beetle species responsible for widespread mortality of Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North A...

  3. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990’s. Although host plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources ...

  4. Biology and life history of Balcha indica, an ectoparasitoid attacking the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, in North America.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Taylor, Philip B; Fuester, Roger W

    2011-01-01

    Balcha indica Mani and Kaul (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is a solitary ectoparasitoid attacking larvae, prepupae, and pupae of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae). Its fecundity, oviposition rate, longevity, and development time were determined in the laboratory under standard rearing conditions (25 ± 2° C, 65 ± 10% relative humidity, and 14:10 L:D). Adults lived a mean of 59 days with a maximum of 117 days. Lifetime adult fecundity averaged 36 eggs with a maximum 94 eggs per female. The egg stage lasted for a maximum of four days with ~ 50% eggs hatched within two days. The development time of the first instars lasted for a maximum of nine days; 50% of the first instars completed their development (i.e., molted to the next instar) within five days. Instars of the intermediate and final stage larvae (after molting of the first instars occurred) could not be distinguished until they reached the pupal stage, and 50% of those larvae pupated ~ 62 days after adult oviposition. Under the standard rearing conditions, 50% of B. indica took ~ 83 days to complete the life cycle (from egg to adult emergence) ranging from 47 to 129 days. These results suggest that B. indica may not have more than two generations in the mid-Atlantic and Midwest regions of United States, where normal growing seasons--with average temperature above 25° C--are normally less than six months (May-October). Because of the long life span and oviposition period of adults, however, B. indica is likely to have overlapping generations.

  5. Growth of Larval Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and Fitness of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Blue Ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata) and Green Ash (F. pennsylvanica).

    PubMed

    Peterson, Donnie L; Duan, Jian J; Yaninek, J S; Ginzel, Matthew D; Sadof, Clifford S

    2015-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive primary pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Blue ash (F. quadrangulata) is less susceptible to emerald ash borer infestations in the forest than other species of North American ash. Whereas other studies have examined adult host preferences, we compared the capacity of emerald ash borer larvae reared from emerald ash borer eggs in the field and in the laboratory to survive and grow in blue ash and the more susceptible green ash (F. pennsylvanica). Emerald ash borer larval survivorship was the same on both ash species. Mortality due to wound periderm formation was only observed in living field grown trees, but was low (<4%) in both green and blue ash. No difference in larval mortality in the absence of natural enemies suggests that both green and blue ash can support the development of emerald ash borer. Larvae reared from eggs on blue ash were smaller than on green ash growing in the field and also in bolts that were infested under laboratory conditions. In a laboratory study, parasitism rates of confined Tetrastichus planipennisi were similar on emerald ash borer larvae reared in blue and green ash bolts, as were fitness measures of the parasitoid including brood size, sex ratio, and adult female size. Thus, we postulate that emerald ash borer larvae infesting blue ash could support populations of T. planipennisi and serve as a potential reservoir for this introduced natural enemy after most of the other native ash trees have been killed. PMID:26314024

  6. Growth of Larval Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and Fitness of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Blue Ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata) and Green Ash (F. pennsylvanica).

    PubMed

    Peterson, Donnie L; Duan, Jian J; Yaninek, J S; Ginzel, Matthew D; Sadof, Clifford S

    2015-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive primary pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Blue ash (F. quadrangulata) is less susceptible to emerald ash borer infestations in the forest than other species of North American ash. Whereas other studies have examined adult host preferences, we compared the capacity of emerald ash borer larvae reared from emerald ash borer eggs in the field and in the laboratory to survive and grow in blue ash and the more susceptible green ash (F. pennsylvanica). Emerald ash borer larval survivorship was the same on both ash species. Mortality due to wound periderm formation was only observed in living field grown trees, but was low (<4%) in both green and blue ash. No difference in larval mortality in the absence of natural enemies suggests that both green and blue ash can support the development of emerald ash borer. Larvae reared from eggs on blue ash were smaller than on green ash growing in the field and also in bolts that were infested under laboratory conditions. In a laboratory study, parasitism rates of confined Tetrastichus planipennisi were similar on emerald ash borer larvae reared in blue and green ash bolts, as were fitness measures of the parasitoid including brood size, sex ratio, and adult female size. Thus, we postulate that emerald ash borer larvae infesting blue ash could support populations of T. planipennisi and serve as a potential reservoir for this introduced natural enemy after most of the other native ash trees have been killed.

  7. Molecular characterization of mariner-like elements in emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera, Polyphaga).

    PubMed

    Rivera-Vega, L; Mittapalli, O

    2010-08-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis), an exotic invasive pest, has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America and continues to threaten the very survival of the entire Fraxinus genus. Despite its high-impact status, to date very little knowledge exists for this devastating insect pest at the molecular level. Mariner-like elements (MLEs) are transposable elements, which are ubiquitous in occurrence in insects and other invertebrates. Because of their low specificity and broad host range, they can be used for epitope-tagging, gene mapping, and in vitro mutagenesis. The majority of the known MLEs are inactive due to in-frame shifts and stop codons within the open reading frame (ORF). We report on the cloning and characterization of two MLEs in A. planipennis genome (Apmar1 and Apmar2). Southern analysis indicated a very high copy number for Apmar1 and a moderate copy number for Apmar2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both elements belong to the irritans subfamily. Based on the high copy number for Apmar1, the full-length sequence was obtained using degenerate primers designed to the inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequences of irritans MLEs. The recovered nucleotide sequence for Apmar1 consisted of 1,292 bases with perfect ITRs, and an ORF of 1,050 bases encoding a putative transposase of 349 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Apmar1 contained the conserved regions of mariner transposases including WVPHEL and YSPDLAP, and the D,D(34)D motif. Both Apmar1 and Apmar2 could represent useful genetic tools and provide insights on EAB adaptation.

  8. Analysis of gene expression in emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) using quantitative real time-PCR.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Binny; Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Rivera-Vega, Loren; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2010-05-04

    Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is an exotic invasive pest, which has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp) in North America. EAB continues to spread rapidly and attacks ash trees of different ages, from saplings to mature trees. However, to date very little or no molecular knowledge exists for EAB. We are interested in deciphering the molecular-based physiological processes at the tissue level that aid EAB in successful colonization of ash trees. In this report we show the effective use of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to ascertain mRNA levels in different larval tissues (including midgut, fat bodies and cuticle) and different developmental stages (including 1(st)-, 2(nd)-, 3(rd)-, 4(th)-instars, prepupae and adults) of EAB. As an example, a peritrophin gene (herein named, AP-PERI1) is exemplified as the gene of interest and a ribosomal protein (AP-RP1) as the internal control. Peritrophins are important components of the peritrophic membrane/matrix (PM), which is the lining of the insect gut. The PM has diverse functions including digestion and mechanical protection to the midgut epithelium.

  9. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    PubMed

    Jennings, David E; Gould, Juli R; Vandenberg, John D; Duan, Jian J; Shrewsbury, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers. PMID:24349520

  10. A Biologically Active Analog of the Sex Pheromone of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Silk, P J; Ryall, K; Mayo, P; MaGee, D I; Leclair, G; Fidgen, J; Lavallee, R; Price, J; McConaghy, J

    2015-03-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (EAB), is an invasive species causing unprecedented levels of mortality to ash trees in its introduced range. The female-produced sex pheromone of EAB has been shown to contain the macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide. This compound and its geometrical isomer, (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, have been demonstrated previously to be EAG active and, in combination with a host-derived green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol, to be attractive to male EAB in green prism traps deployed in the ash tree canopy. In the current study, we show that the saturated analog, dodecan-12-olide, is similarly active, eliciting an antennal response and significant attraction of EAB in both olfactometer and trapping bioassays in green traps with (3Z)-hexenol. Conformational modeling of the three lactones reveals that their energies and shapes are very similar, suggesting they might share a common receptor in EAB antennae. These findings provide new insight into the pheromone ecology of this species, highlighting the apparent plasticity in response of adults to the pheromone and its analog. Both of the unsaturated isomers are costly to synthesize, involving multistep, low-yielding processes. The saturated analog can be made cheaply, in high yield, and on large scale via Mitsunobu esterification of a saturated ω-hydroxy acid or more simply by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of commercially available cyclododecanone. The analog can thus provide an inexpensive option as a lure for detection surveys as well as for possible mitigation purposes, such as mating disruption. PMID:25786893

  11. Interaction of Visual and Chemical CUES in Promoting Attraction of Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Domingue, Michael J; Andreadis, Stefanos S; Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista L; Baker, Thomas C

    2016-06-01

    Female emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), emit a macrocyclic lactone, (Z)-3-dodecen-12-olide, that increases field trap captures on large-panel prism traps when co-emitted with the green leaf volatile (Z)-3-hexenol. We assessed attraction to these compounds by using visual decoy-baited branch traps, which attract males by mimicking a living female resting upon a leaf. Pairs of branch traps, with and without visual decoy beetles, were placed on green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, trees, which were assigned different odor treatments: 1) no odor, 2) (Z)-3-hexenol alone, and 3) (Z)-3-hexenol-plus-lactone. Male captures were positively affected by the presence of decoys and the emission of either (Z)-3-hexenol or (Z)-3-hexenol plus lactone. The decoy-baited traps with the combination of (Z)-3-hexenol plus lactone caught more males than any other treatment. Greater male captures were associated with continuing captures later in the season, suggesting that decoy and odor attractants remain attractive throughout the flight period. Female captures were not affected by the visual decoys, but odors did influence captures, with the (Z)-3-hexenol plus lactone treatment catching the greatest number of females. The rare female trap captures were negatively correlated with the more common male captures on the odorless and (Z)-3-hexenol-baited traps, but were not correlated with male captures when the lactone was added. Thus, in the absence of the lactone, the visual signal of other conspecifics can inhibit female attraction. However, the pheromone attracts both sexes independently of the visual signal on the trap. PMID:27234006

  12. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    PubMed

    Jennings, David E; Gould, Juli R; Vandenberg, John D; Duan, Jian J; Shrewsbury, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.

  13. A Biologically Active Analog of the Sex Pheromone of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Silk, P J; Ryall, K; Mayo, P; MaGee, D I; Leclair, G; Fidgen, J; Lavallee, R; Price, J; McConaghy, J

    2015-03-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (EAB), is an invasive species causing unprecedented levels of mortality to ash trees in its introduced range. The female-produced sex pheromone of EAB has been shown to contain the macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide. This compound and its geometrical isomer, (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, have been demonstrated previously to be EAG active and, in combination with a host-derived green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol, to be attractive to male EAB in green prism traps deployed in the ash tree canopy. In the current study, we show that the saturated analog, dodecan-12-olide, is similarly active, eliciting an antennal response and significant attraction of EAB in both olfactometer and trapping bioassays in green traps with (3Z)-hexenol. Conformational modeling of the three lactones reveals that their energies and shapes are very similar, suggesting they might share a common receptor in EAB antennae. These findings provide new insight into the pheromone ecology of this species, highlighting the apparent plasticity in response of adults to the pheromone and its analog. Both of the unsaturated isomers are costly to synthesize, involving multistep, low-yielding processes. The saturated analog can be made cheaply, in high yield, and on large scale via Mitsunobu esterification of a saturated ω-hydroxy acid or more simply by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of commercially available cyclododecanone. The analog can thus provide an inexpensive option as a lure for detection surveys as well as for possible mitigation purposes, such as mating disruption.

  14. Growth of larval agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and fitness of tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in blue ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata) and green ash (F. pennsylvanica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a primary pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Blue ash (F. quadrangulata) is more resistant than other North American ash and able to survive EAB infestation. This tree may affect EAB larvae and T. planipennisi. We compared the capacity ...

  15. Development of a host-based semiochemical lure for trapping emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Francese, Joseph A; Fraser, Ivich; Poland, Therese M; Sawyer, Alan J; Mastro, Victor C

    2008-04-01

    Bark volatiles from green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica were tested for electrophysiological activity by Agrilus planipennis using gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and for behavioral activity using baited purple traps in Michigan. GC-EAD analysis of the headspace volatiles of bark tissue samples from 0- and 24-h-old fully girdled (stressed) ash trees showed that the latter had elevated sesquiterpene levels. Six of the elevated compounds consistently elicited antennal responses by both male and female A. planipennis. Five of the antennally active compounds were identified as alpha-cubebene, alpha-copaene, 7-epi-sesquithujene, trans-beta-caryophyllene, and alpha-humulene (alpha-caryophyllene). The sixth EAD-active compound remains unidentified. We monitored capture of adult A. planipennis on traps baited with several combinations of ash tree volatiles. Treatments included two natural oil distillates (Manuka and Phoebe oil) that were found to contain, respectively, high concentrations of four and five of the six antennally active ash bark volatiles. A four-component leaf lure developed by the USDA Forest Service and Canadian Forest Service was also tested. In three separate field studies, Manuka oil-baited traps caught significantly more adult beetles than unbaited traps. Lures designed to release 5, 50, and 500 mg of Manuka oil per day all caught more insects than unbaited traps. In a field test comparing and combining Phoebe oil with Manuka oil, Phoebe oil-baited traps caught significantly more beetles than either Manuka oil-baited traps or unbaited traps. We hypothesize that the improved attractancy of Phoebe oil to A. planipennis over Manuka oil is caused by the presence of the antennally active sesquiterpene, 7-epi-sesquithujene.

  16. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition.

    PubMed

    Jennings, D E; Duan, J J; Shrewsbury, P M

    2015-10-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990 s. Although host-plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources of mortality for EAB in Asia, less is known about the importance of different sources of mortality at recently colonized sites in the invaded range of EAB, and how these relate to host tree crown condition. To further our understanding of EAB population dynamics, we used a large-scale field experiment and life-table analyses to quantify the fates of EAB larvae and the relative importance of different biotic mortality factors at 12 recently colonized sites in Maryland. We found that the fates of larvae were highly dependent on EAB life stage and host tree crown condition. In relatively healthy trees (i.e., with a low EAB infestation) and for early instars, host tree resistance was the most important mortality factor. Conversely, in more unhealthy trees (i.e., with a moderate to high EAB infestation) and for later instars, parasitism and predation were the major sources of mortality. Life-table analyses also indicated how the lack of sufficient levels of host tree resistance and natural enemies contribute to rapid population growth of EAB at recently colonized sites. Our findings provide further evidence of the mechanisms by which EAB has been able to successfully establish and spread in North America. PMID:26072908

  17. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition.

    PubMed

    Jennings, D E; Duan, J J; Shrewsbury, P M

    2015-10-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990 s. Although host-plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources of mortality for EAB in Asia, less is known about the importance of different sources of mortality at recently colonized sites in the invaded range of EAB, and how these relate to host tree crown condition. To further our understanding of EAB population dynamics, we used a large-scale field experiment and life-table analyses to quantify the fates of EAB larvae and the relative importance of different biotic mortality factors at 12 recently colonized sites in Maryland. We found that the fates of larvae were highly dependent on EAB life stage and host tree crown condition. In relatively healthy trees (i.e., with a low EAB infestation) and for early instars, host tree resistance was the most important mortality factor. Conversely, in more unhealthy trees (i.e., with a moderate to high EAB infestation) and for later instars, parasitism and predation were the major sources of mortality. Life-table analyses also indicated how the lack of sufficient levels of host tree resistance and natural enemies contribute to rapid population growth of EAB at recently colonized sites. Our findings provide further evidence of the mechanisms by which EAB has been able to successfully establish and spread in North America.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis: De Novo Assembly, Functional Annotation and Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jun; Ladd, Tim; Doucet, Daniel; Cusson, Michel; vanFrankenhuyzen, Kees; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Krell, Peter J.; Quan, Guoxing

    2015-01-01

    Background The Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive phloem-feeding insect pest of ash trees. Since its initial discovery near the Detroit, US- Windsor, Canada area in 2002, the spread of EAB has had strong negative economic, social and environmental impacts in both countries. Several transcriptomes from specific tissues including midgut, fat body and antenna have recently been generated. However, the relatively low sequence depth, gene coverage and completeness limited the usefulness of these EAB databases. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput deep RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to obtain 473.9 million pairs of 100 bp length paired-end reads from various life stages and tissues. These reads were assembled into 88,907 contigs using the Trinity strategy and integrated into 38,160 unigenes after redundant sequences were removed. We annotated 11,229 unigenes by searching against the public nr, Swiss-Prot and COG. The EAB transcriptome assembly was compared with 13 other sequenced insect species, resulting in the prediction of 536 unigenes that are Coleoptera-specific. Differential gene expression revealed that 290 unigenes are expressed during larval molting and 3,911 unigenes during metamorphosis from larvae to pupae, respectively (FDR< 0.01 and log2 FC>2). In addition, 1,167 differentially expressed unigenes were identified from larval and adult midguts, 435 unigenes were up-regulated in larval midgut and 732 unigenes were up-regulated in adult midgut. Most of the genes involved in RNA interference (RNAi) pathways were identified, which implies the existence of a system RNAi in EAB. Conclusions and Significance This study provides one of the most fundamental and comprehensive transcriptome resources available for EAB to date. Identification of the tissue- stage- or species- specific unigenes will benefit the further study of gene functions during growth and metamorphosis processes in EAB and other pest insects. PMID:26244979

  19. Male-produced pheromone of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid introduced for the biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Cossé, Allard A; Petroski, Richard J; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Vermillion, Karl; Lelito, Jonathan P; Cooperband, Miriam F; Gould, Juli R

    2012-04-01

    The braconid wasp, Spathius agrili, has been released in the U.S. as a biocontrol agent for the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Agrilus planipennis), a destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). We identified and synthesized seven male-specific volatile compounds. Three of these, dodecanal, (4R,11E)-tetradecen-4-olide, and (Z)-10-heptadecen-2-one, were the key behaviorally active components in flight tunnel bioassays. Male specificity was demonstrated by gas chromatographic comparison of male and female volatile emissions and whole body extracts. Identifications were aided by coupled gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis, microchemical reactions, NMR, chiral GC analysis, and GC and MS comparison with authentic standards. Both the racemic and chiral forms of the γ-lactone, as well as both E- and Z-isomers were synthesized. Flight tunnel behavioral tests showed positive male and female S. agrili responses to both natural pheromone and synthetic blends, with upwind flight and landing on the source. Large field-cage tests, using yellow sticky traps baited with pheromone, captured approximately 50% of the released male and female wasps in 24-h periods. The use of pheromone-baited traps in the field could simplify the current detection method for determining parasitoid establishment (i.e., laboriously felling and peeling ash trees for recovery of S. agrili from infested EAB larvae).

  20. Comparison of Color Attractiveness for Agrilus ruficollis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): Potential for a Simple Trap.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H S; Trammel, C E; Lewis, B A; Johnson, D T

    2016-08-01

    The rednecked cane borer, Agrilus ruficollis (F.), is a pest of cultivated and wild blackberries in the midwestern and eastern parts of the United States. Damage from this pest occurs from larvae girdling primocanes and tunneling in the pith, forming galls that can potentially reduce yields. There is only one registered insecticide and no trap available for monitoring. Paints mimicking the spectral reflectance of blackberry leaves and canes of both primocane and floricane were applied to wooden dowels or corrugated plastic mimicking the shape of blackberry canes and leaves. The dowels or corrugated plastic were covered with sticky Tangletrap, and field was evaluated for attractiveness to A. ruficollis for three years, with modifications to trap design each year. Commercially available emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, funnel traps were evaluated for attractiveness to A. ruficollis in 2014. In 2011, the greatest numbers of A. ruficollis adults were captured on prism-shaped, primocane-mimicking traps that reflected light at a peak wavelength between 540-560 nm. In 2012 and 2013, field tests demonstrated that more A. ruficollis adults were captured on green emerald ash borer traps. Testing in 2014 reinforced the previous findings that A. ruficollis was most attracted to the green emerald ash borer traps. In 2013, it was noted that colored traps usually captured significantly more A. ruficollis males than females. This indicated a need to determine if there was a chemical cue used by A. ruficollis adult females to locate and oviposit on only blackberry primocanes and not floricanes. PMID:27346633

  1. Field-cage evaluation of parasitism, development, and overwintering of two recently introduced biological control agents of the emerald ash borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field-cages were used to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-sea...

  2. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United St...

  3. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  4. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in far eastern Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in southern Khabarovskiy Kray (Khabarovsk area) and Primorskiy Kray (Vladivostok area) to investigate the occurrence of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. Survey findings ind...

  5. Establishment and abundance of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Michigan: potential for success in classical biocontrol of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid native to China, and has been introduced to the United States since 2007 for classical biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash morta...

  6. Biology and life history of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in North America in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental tim...

  7. Developing rearing methods for Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yong, a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid, is one of three hymenopteran parasitoids being released in the U.S. for biological control of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmair, EAB), an invasive beetle from Asia causing mortality of the ash trees (Fraxinus s...

  8. Suitability of immature emerald ash borers to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since first detected in Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a buprestid native to Asia, has killed millions of ash trees in northeastern North America and continues to expand into new areas. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregar...

  9. Effects of the emerald ash borer invasion on the community composition of arthropods associated with ash tree boles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is an invasive non-native wood-boring beetle that has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America, and threatens to extirpate the ecological services provided by the genus. Identifying the arthropod community assoc...

  10. Monitoring the establishment and abundance of introduced parasitoids of emerald ash borer larvae in Maryland, U.S.A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical biological control can be an important tool for managing invasive species such as emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Emerald ash borer is now widespread throughout the United States, and was first detected in Maryland in 2003. The biological control program to manage emera...

  11. Monitoring the establishment and flight phenology of egg and larval parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan, USA using sentinel logs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an important invasive pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. Two larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang and Spathius agrili Yang, and one egg parasitoid, Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang, were introduced into the United Sta...

  12. A new species of genus Oobius (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from the Russian Far East that parasitizes eggs of Emerald Ash Borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described from the Vladivostok, Russia, Oobius primorskyensis Yao & Duan n. sp. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from t...

  13. A new species of oobius trjapitzin (hymenoptera:encyrtidae) from the russian far east that parasitizes eggs of emerald ash borer (coleoptera:buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the Russian Far East, Oobius primorskyensis Yao et Duan is described. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from the previ...

  14. Natural enemies and their impacts on emerald ash borer populations in its native range, with new records of parasitism by two species of beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the natural enemies of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and their role in regulating the pest population dynamics, we conducted field surveys at multiple forest sites with variable host densities in the pest’s native range (north an...

  15. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the reproductive biology and diapause of oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...

  16. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Atanycolus cappaerti (Hymenoptera:Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atanycolus cappaerti Marsh and Strazanac is a native North American parasitoid that has been found to parasitize the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, which has killed millions of ash trees since it was first detected in Michigan. A native parasitoid like A. cappaerti...

  17. Biology and life history of Atanycolus cappaerti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a North American larval parasitoid newly associated with the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atanycolus cappaerti Marsh and Strazanac is a native North American parasitoid that has been found to parasitize the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, a serious invasive pests of North American ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). To facilitate the development of potential augmentative biocon...

  18. Population dynamics of an invasive forest insect and associated natural enemies in the aftermath of invasion: implications for biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the population dynamics of exotic pests and associated natural enemies is important in developing sound management strategies in invaded forest ecosystems. The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive phloem-feeding beetle that h...

  19. Revision of the Agrilus occipitalis species–group (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Agrilini)

    PubMed Central

    Jendek, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Agrilus occipitalis species–group is redefined and diagnosed. Two species from this group, Agrilus auriventris Saunders, 1873 and Agrilus occipitalis (Eschscholtz, 1822), are known as the serious pests of cultivated Citrus trees. Overall twenty-three taxa are included in the Agrilus occipitalis species–group. A complete list of references, type material, species examined and distribution is given for each taxon. The host plants, adult occurrence and altitude range is cited for most taxa. Habitus of all taxa and aedeagi of available males are pictured. Images of primary type specimens are provided. A character state matrix table for diagnostic characters is given for all taxa to facilitate their determination. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed. New species:eight new species are described: Agrilus mucidus sp. n., Agrilus nebulosus sp. n., Agrilus picturatus sp. n., Agrilus pluvius sp. n., Agrilus pseudoambiguus sp. n., Agrilus tesselatus sp. n., Agrilus trepanatus sp. n. and Agrilus umrongso sp. n. Proposed synonyms: eight synonyms are proposed: celebicola Obenberger, 1924, syn. n. (synonym of occipitalis Eschscholtz, 1822); connexus Kerremans, 1900, syn. n. (synonym of occipitalis Eschscholtz, 1822); cupricauda Saunders, 1867 syn. n. (synonym of occipitalis Eschscholtz, 1822); evinadus Gory & Laporte, 1839, syn. n. (synonym of occipitalis Eschscholtz, 1822); nirius Obenberger, 1924 syn. reconfirmed (synonym of occipitalis Eschscholtz, 1822); oblatus Kerremans, 1900, syn. n. (synonym of occipitalis Eschscholtz, 1822); samoensis Blair, 1928, syn. n. (synonym of auriventris Saunders, 1873); tebinganus Obenberger, 1924, syn. n. (synonym of occipitalis Eschscholtz, 1822). New lectotype designations: six lectotypes are designated: Agrilus celebicola Obenberger, 1924; Agrilus cupricauda Saunders, 1867; Agrilus korenskyi Obenberger, 1923; Agrilus kurandae Obenberger, 1923; Agrilus nirius Obenberger, 1924; Agrilus nitidus

  20. Emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) attraction to stressed or baited ash trees.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Anulewicz, Andrea C; Cappaert, David

    2009-12-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus sp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. Efficient methods to detect low-density A. planipennis populations remain a critical priority for regulatory and resource management agencies. We compared the density of adult A. planipennis captured on sticky bands and larval density among ash trees that were girdled for 1 or 2 yr, wounded, exposed to the stress-elicitor methyl jasmonate, baited with Manuka oil lures, or left untreated. Studies were conducted at four sites in 2006 and 2007, where A. planipennis densities on untreated trees ranged from very low to moderate. In 2006, 1-yr girdled trees captured significantly more adult A. planipennis and had higher larval densities than untreated control trees or trees treated with methyl jasmonate or Manuka oil. Open-grown trees captured significantly more A. planipennis beetles than partially or fully shaded trees. In 2007, A. planipennis population levels and captures of adult A. planipennis were substantially higher than in 2006. The density of adults captured on sticky bands did not differ significantly among canopy exposure classes or treatments in 2007. Larval density was significantly higher in untreated, wounded, and 1-yr girdled trees (girdled in 2007) than in 2-yr girdled trees (girdled in 2006), where most phloem was consumed by A. planipennis larvae the previous year. A total of 36 trees (32 in 2006, 4 in 2007) caught no beetles, but 16 of those trees (13 in 2006, 3 in 2007) had A. planipennis larvae. In 2006, there was a positive linear relationship between the density of adults captured on sticky bands and larval density in trees. Our results show that freshly girdled and open grown trees were most attractive to A. planipennis, especially at low-density sites. If girdled trees are used for A. planipennis detection or survey, debarking trees to locate larval galleries is

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of Aeolesthes oenochrous (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): an endangered and colorful longhorn beetle.

    PubMed

    Chiu, William Chien-Hsien; Yeh, Wen-Bin; Chen, Mei-Er; Yang, Man-Miao

    2016-01-01

    Aeolesthes oenochrous (Fairmaire), a large and colorful longhorn beetle, is an endangered species in Taiwan. Its complete mitogenome, 15,747 bp, shows a typical coleopteran organization, containing 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one A + T rich region. Two protein coding genes, i.e. COI and ND1, have the atypical start codon of AAT and TTG, respectively. The third nucleotide position of codons shows extremely low guanine content. In the A + T rich region, there were two poly-T stretches with 14 and 13 thymine each. These two poly-T stretches were clarified by the cloning method.

  2. Incidence of Infestation and Larval Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) on White Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), Chinese Fringetree (Chionanthus retusus), and Devilwood (Osmanthus americanus).

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M

    2015-10-01

    We compared the incidence of infestation by emerald ash borer (EAB) and lilac borer on white fringetree to that of its Asian congener, Chinese fringetree, Chionanthus retusus, and a North American relative, devilwood, Osmanthus americanus. We also conducted laboratory bioassays to determine the suitability of these hosts for EAB larvae. At Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum in Cincinnati, Ohio, 9 of 28 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB. Most of the white fringetrees had lilac borer infestation, and most of the trees infested by EAB also had lilac borer infestation. None of the 11 Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either EAB or lilac borer. Each of the five devilwood individuals examined was infested by lilac borer, but not EAB. At The Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois, 7 of 16 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB, while none of the seven Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either insect. A 40-d bioassay confirmed that white fringetree was an acceptable host, producing fourth-instar larvae that were smaller than those produced on a highly susceptible cultivar of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica. No larvae survived on Chinese fringetree, and neonates were largely incapable of feeding on it. Two larvae survived on devilwood, reaching the second instar and excavating extensive galleries. Future work should be aimed at biotic and abiotic factors influencing the susceptibility of white fringetree, as well as further examination of close relatives for their vulnerability to EAB. PMID:26314014

  3. Incidence of Infestation and Larval Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) on White Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), Chinese Fringetree (Chionanthus retusus), and Devilwood (Osmanthus americanus).

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M

    2015-10-01

    We compared the incidence of infestation by emerald ash borer (EAB) and lilac borer on white fringetree to that of its Asian congener, Chinese fringetree, Chionanthus retusus, and a North American relative, devilwood, Osmanthus americanus. We also conducted laboratory bioassays to determine the suitability of these hosts for EAB larvae. At Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum in Cincinnati, Ohio, 9 of 28 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB. Most of the white fringetrees had lilac borer infestation, and most of the trees infested by EAB also had lilac borer infestation. None of the 11 Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either EAB or lilac borer. Each of the five devilwood individuals examined was infested by lilac borer, but not EAB. At The Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois, 7 of 16 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB, while none of the seven Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either insect. A 40-d bioassay confirmed that white fringetree was an acceptable host, producing fourth-instar larvae that were smaller than those produced on a highly susceptible cultivar of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica. No larvae survived on Chinese fringetree, and neonates were largely incapable of feeding on it. Two larvae survived on devilwood, reaching the second instar and excavating extensive galleries. Future work should be aimed at biotic and abiotic factors influencing the susceptibility of white fringetree, as well as further examination of close relatives for their vulnerability to EAB.

  4. Estimating potential emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations using ash inventory data.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W

    2007-10-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding pest native to Asia, was identified in June 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.), mortality in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Localized populations of A. planipennis have since been found across lower Michigan and in areas of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, and Ontario. Officials working to contain A. planipennis and managers of forestlands near A. planipennis infestations must be able to compare alternative strategies to allocate limited funds efficiently and effectively. Empirical data from a total of 148 green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., and white ash, Fraxinus americana L., trees were used to develop models to estimate surface area of the trunk and branches by using tree diameter at breast height (dbh). Data collected from 71 additional F. pennsylvanica and F. americana trees killed by A. planipennis showed that on average, 88.9 +/- 4.6 beetles developed and emerged per m2 of surface area. Models were applied to ash inventory data collected at two outlier sites to estimate potential production of A. planipennis beetles at each site. Large trees of merchantable size (dbh > or = 26 cm) accounted for roughly 6% of all ash trees at the two sites, but they could have contributed 55-65% of the total A. planipennis production at both sites. In contrast, 75- 80% of the ash trees at the outlier sites were < or =13 cm dbh, but these small trees could have contributed only < or =12% of the potential A. planipennis production at both sites. Our results, in combination with inventory data, can be used by regulatory officials and resource managers to estimate potential A. planipennis production and to compare options for reducing A. planipennis density and slowing the rate of spread for any area of interest.

  5. Improving detection tools for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of multifunnel traps, prism traps, and lure types at varying population densities.

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Lance, David R; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Mastro, Victor C; Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista L

    2014-08-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) that has caused devastating mortality since it was first identified in North America in 2002. In 2012, we conducted field trapping assays that tested the efficacy of purple prism and fluon-coated green multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps. Traps were baited with combinations of several lures that were previously shown to be attractive to A. planipennis: manuka oil--a sesquiterpene-rich oil, (3Z)-hexenol--a green leaf volatile, or (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide [= (3Z)-lactone], a sex pheromone. Eighty-nine blocks (trap lines) were tested throughout nine states along the outer edges of the currently known A. planipennis infestation in North America. Trap catch was highest on fluon-coated green multifunnel traps, and trap detections at sites with low A. planipennis population density ranged from 72 to 76% for all trap and lure types tested. (3Z)-hexenol and (3Z)-lactone baited traps functioned as well as (3Z)-hexenol and manuka oil-baited traps. Independent of the lure used, detection rates on green fluon-coated multifunnel traps were comparable with glued purple prism traps in areas with low A. planipennis population densities. PMID:25195441

  6. Improving detection tools for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of multifunnel traps, prism traps, and lure types at varying population densities.

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Lance, David R; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Mastro, Victor C; Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista L

    2014-08-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) that has caused devastating mortality since it was first identified in North America in 2002. In 2012, we conducted field trapping assays that tested the efficacy of purple prism and fluon-coated green multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps. Traps were baited with combinations of several lures that were previously shown to be attractive to A. planipennis: manuka oil--a sesquiterpene-rich oil, (3Z)-hexenol--a green leaf volatile, or (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide [= (3Z)-lactone], a sex pheromone. Eighty-nine blocks (trap lines) were tested throughout nine states along the outer edges of the currently known A. planipennis infestation in North America. Trap catch was highest on fluon-coated green multifunnel traps, and trap detections at sites with low A. planipennis population density ranged from 72 to 76% for all trap and lure types tested. (3Z)-hexenol and (3Z)-lactone baited traps functioned as well as (3Z)-hexenol and manuka oil-baited traps. Independent of the lure used, detection rates on green fluon-coated multifunnel traps were comparable with glued purple prism traps in areas with low A. planipennis population densities.

  7. Optimization of trap color for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Francese, Joseph A; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Sawyer, Alan J; Mastro, Victor C

    2010-08-01

    Field assays were performed to determine the optimal color for Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) traps. Previous studies have found that more A. planipennis are caught on purple or green traps than traps of other colors. In three studies, we evaluated various shades of purple, wavelengths of green (500-570 nm), and greens of different reflectance (from 9 to 66%). In all tests, traps of corrugated plastic in standard, commercially available purple (currently used to survey A. planipennis) and a customized green color were used as bases for comparison. Among purple traps, a paint color previously shown to be generally attractive to buprestids caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than traps coated with paints containing more blue or red, or traps constructed of the standard purple plastic. Among traps with maximum reflectance at varying green wavelengths, those ranging in wavelength from 525 to 540 nm caught significantly more adult A. planipennis than traps of other wavelengths. In the 530-540 nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum, there was no significant difference among traps in the 23-66% reflectance range, but traps painted with a peak reflectance of 49% caught more beetles than purple or the custom green plastic traps. Male to female ratio was highest on green traps.

  8. Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2014-02-01

    Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years. PMID:24398125

  9. Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2014-02-01

    Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years.

  10. Evaluation of double-decker traps for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Anulewicz, Andrea C

    2011-04-01

    Improved detection tools are needed for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive forest insect from Asia that has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. We evaluated attraction of adult A. planipennis to artificial traps incorporating visual (e.g., height, color, silhouette) and olfactory cues (e.g., host volatiles) at field sites in Michigan. We developed a double-decker trap consisting of a 3-m-tall polyvinyl pipe with two purple prisms attached near the top. In 2006, we compared A. planipennis attraction to double-decker traps baited with various combinations of manuka oil (containing sesquiterpenes present in ash bark), a blend of four ash leaf volatiles (leaf blend), and a rough texture to simulate bark. Significantly more A. planipennis were captured per trap when traps without the rough texture were baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil lures than on traps with texture and manuka oil but no leaf blend. In 2007, we also tested single prism traps set 1.5 m above ground and tower traps, similar to double-decker traps but 6 m tall. Double-decker traps baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil, with or without the addition of ash leaf and bark extracts, captured significantly more A. planipennis than similarly baited single prism traps, tower traps, or unbaited double-decker traps. A baited double-decker trap captured A. planipennis at a field site that was not previously known to be infested, representing the first detection event using artificial traps and lures. In 2008, we compared purple or green double-decker traps, single prisms suspended 3-5 m above ground in the ash canopy (canopy traps), and large flat purple traps (billboard traps). Significantly more A. planipennis were captured in purple versus green traps, baited traps versus unbaited traps, and double-decker versus canopy traps, whereas billboard traps were intermediate. At sites

  11. Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

    PubMed

    Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality. PMID:24112110

  12. Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

    PubMed

    Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality.

  13. Influence of trap placement and design on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Francese, Joseph A; Oliver, Jason B; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Youssef, Nadeer; Sawyer, Alan J; Mastro, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    The key to an effective pest management program for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera Buprestidae), is a survey program equipped with tools for detecting and delimiting populations. We studied the effects of trap design, color, and placement on the efficacy of sticky traps for capturing the emerald ash borer. There were significant differences in trap catch along a transect gradient from wooded to open field conditions, with most beetles being caught along the edge, or in open fields, 15-25 m outside an ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) (Oleaceae) woodlot. Greater emerald ash borer catch occurred on purple traps than on red or white traps. Traps placed in the mid-canopy of ash trees (13 m) caught significantly more beetles than those placed at ground level. We also describe a new trap design, a three-sided prism trap, which is relatively easy to assemble and deploy.

  14. Laboratory and field response of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to selected regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Francese, Joseph A; Zylstra, Kelley E; Fraser, Ivich; Sawyer, Alan J; Bartels, David W; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    Retinal sensitivity of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) was examined with an aim to improve trap efficacy for the beetle. Electroretinogram (ERG) recordings from dark-adapted compound eyes of male and female were measured at different wavelengths across the spectrum ranging from 300 to 700 nm. The spectral sensitivity curves revealed peaks in the UV (340 nm), the violet/purple (420-430 nm), blue (460 nm), and green (540-560 nm) regions of the spectrum. Females were sensitive to red regions of the spectrum (640-670 nm), whereas males were not. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the wavelength and reflectance for ash foliage, purple corrugated plastic traps, as well as the elytra and abdomen of adult A. planipennis. Traps were painted using colors based on ERG and spectrophotometer measurements and compared with purple corrugated plastic traps currently used by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ-EAB National Survey. In a field assay conducted along the edges of several A. planipennis-infested ash stands, there were no significant differences in trap catch among green, red, or purple treatments. Dark blue traps caught significantly fewer A. planipennis than red, light green, or dark purple traps. In a second assay where purple and green treatments were placed in the mid canopy of ash trees (approximately 13 m in height), trap catch was significantly higher on green treatments. We hypothesize that when placed in the mid-canopy, green traps constitute a foliage-type stimulus that elicits food-seeking and/or host seeking behavior by A. planipennis.

  15. Morphology and Ultrastructure of Antennal Sensilla in Male and Female Agrilus mali (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhihao; Liu, Deguang; Cui, Xiaoning; Shang, Zheming

    2016-01-01

    The apple buprestid beetle, Agrilus mali Matsumura, is an invasive pest causing significant damages to rare wild apple forests of Xinjiang. The morphology, abundance and distribution of antennal sensilla in both sexes of this pest were examined. We found that the antennae of A. mali females were longer than those of males. Five types of antennal sensilla were characterized, including trichodea (subtypes Tr.1, Tr.2, and Tr.3), chaetica (subtypes Sc.1, Sc.2, Sc.3, and Sc.4), basiconica (subtypes Ba. 1, Ba. 2, Ba. 3 and Ba.4), Böhm bristles (subtypes BB. 1, and BB. 2), and multiporous grooved sensilla. The most abundant sensilla of Ba.2 tended to occur mainly on flagellomeres 5-8 in both sexes. The last three flagellomeres tended to have the most abundant Tr.1 in both sexes. Overall, the abundance and distribution of these sensilla appeared to be highly conserved in both sexes, and their olfactory organs seemed to cluster on flagellomeres 6-8. However, some sex dimorphisms were also observed. Tr.3 and BB.2 were found only in females. Sensilla of Sc.2 were found on the pedicel and first two flagellomeres only in males. When compared with males, females showed a higher number of Sc.3, but a lower number of Sc.4 on the pedicel. These results indicate that contact cues could be important in intersexual communication in A. mali. The functional roles of these sensilla and their implications in A. mali behaviors are discussed, and further studies of identified chemosensitive sensilla can provide a foundation for developing semiochemical-based management strategies. PMID:27620559

  16. Morphology and Ultrastructure of Antennal Sensilla in Male and Female Agrilus mali (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Zhihao; Liu, Deguang; Cui, Xiaoning; Shang, Zheming

    2016-01-01

    The apple buprestid beetle, Agrilus mali Matsumura, is an invasive pest causing significant damages to rare wild apple forests of Xinjiang. The morphology, abundance and distribution of antennal sensilla in both sexes of this pest were examined. We found that the antennae of A. mali females were longer than those of males. Five types of antennal sensilla were characterized, including trichodea (subtypes Tr.1, Tr.2, and Tr.3), chaetica (subtypes Sc.1, Sc.2, Sc.3, and Sc.4), basiconica (subtypes Ba. 1, Ba. 2, Ba. 3 and Ba.4), Böhm bristles (subtypes BB. 1, and BB. 2), and multiporous grooved sensilla. The most abundant sensilla of Ba.2 tended to occur mainly on flagellomeres 5–8 in both sexes. The last three flagellomeres tended to have the most abundant Tr.1 in both sexes. Overall, the abundance and distribution of these sensilla appeared to be highly conserved in both sexes, and their olfactory organs seemed to cluster on flagellomeres 6–8. However, some sex dimorphisms were also observed. Tr.3 and BB.2 were found only in females. Sensilla of Sc.2 were found on the pedicel and first two flagellomeres only in males. When compared with males, females showed a higher number of Sc.3, but a lower number of Sc.4 on the pedicel. These results indicate that contact cues could be important in intersexual communication in A. mali. The functional roles of these sensilla and their implications in A. mali behaviors are discussed, and further studies of identified chemosensitive sensilla can provide a foundation for developing semiochemical-based management strategies.

  17. Morphology and Ultrastructure of Antennal Sensilla in Male and Female Agrilus mali (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Zhihao; Liu, Deguang; Cui, Xiaoning; Shang, Zheming

    2016-01-01

    The apple buprestid beetle, Agrilus mali Matsumura, is an invasive pest causing significant damages to rare wild apple forests of Xinjiang. The morphology, abundance and distribution of antennal sensilla in both sexes of this pest were examined. We found that the antennae of A. mali females were longer than those of males. Five types of antennal sensilla were characterized, including trichodea (subtypes Tr.1, Tr.2, and Tr.3), chaetica (subtypes Sc.1, Sc.2, Sc.3, and Sc.4), basiconica (subtypes Ba. 1, Ba. 2, Ba. 3 and Ba.4), Böhm bristles (subtypes BB. 1, and BB. 2), and multiporous grooved sensilla. The most abundant sensilla of Ba.2 tended to occur mainly on flagellomeres 5–8 in both sexes. The last three flagellomeres tended to have the most abundant Tr.1 in both sexes. Overall, the abundance and distribution of these sensilla appeared to be highly conserved in both sexes, and their olfactory organs seemed to cluster on flagellomeres 6–8. However, some sex dimorphisms were also observed. Tr.3 and BB.2 were found only in females. Sensilla of Sc.2 were found on the pedicel and first two flagellomeres only in males. When compared with males, females showed a higher number of Sc.3, but a lower number of Sc.4 on the pedicel. These results indicate that contact cues could be important in intersexual communication in A. mali. The functional roles of these sensilla and their implications in A. mali behaviors are discussed, and further studies of identified chemosensitive sensilla can provide a foundation for developing semiochemical-based management strategies. PMID:27620559

  18. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

    PubMed Central

    Haavik, Laurel J.; Coleman, Tom W.; Flint, Mary Louise; Venette, Robert C.; Seybold, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole) of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae) produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus). On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface), yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2). In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus), exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae) that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative. PMID:26462589

  19. Responses of the two‐spotted oak buprestid, Agrilus biguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to host tree volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Christine M; Sumner, Mary E; Caulfield, John C; Reed, Katy; Inward, Daegan JG; Leather, Simon R; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Denman, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND Agrilus bigutattus (Fabricius) is a forest pest of increasing importance in the United Kingdom. The larvae damage weakened native oaks and are thought to contribute to premature tree death. Suspected links with acute oak decline (AOD) are not yet confirmed, but AOD‐predisposed trees appear to become more susceptible to A. biguttatus attack. Thus, management may be necessary for control of this insect. To explore the possibility of monitoring beetle populations by baited traps, the host tree volatiles regulating A. biguttatus–oak interactions were studied. RESULTS Biologically active volatile organic compounds in dynamic headspace extracts of oak foliage and bark were identified initially by coupled gas chromatography–electroantennography (GC‐EAG) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS), and the structures were confirmed by GC coinjection with authentic compounds. Of two synthetic blends of these compounds comprising the active leaf volatiles, the simpler one containing three components evoked strongly positive behavioural responses in four‐arm olfactometer tests with virgin females and males, although fresh leaf material was more efficient than the blend. The other blend, comprising a five‐component mixture made up of bark volatiles, proved to be as behaviourally active for gravid females as bark tissue. CONCLUSIONS These initial results on A. biguttatus chemical ecology reveal aspects of the role of attractive tree volatiles in the host‐finding of beetles and underpin the development of semiochemically based surveillance strategies for this forest insect. © 2015 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26663022

  20. Two new species of Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) egg parasitoids of Agrilus spp. (Coleoptera, Buprestidae) from the USA, including a key and taxonomic notes on other congeneric Nearctic taxa

    PubMed Central

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V.; Petrice, Toby R.; Gates, Michael W.; Bauer, Leah S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) species are egg parasitoids that are important for the biological control of some Buprestidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera). Two species, Oobius agrili Zhang & Huang and Oobius longoi (Siscaro), were introduced into North America for classical biocontrol and have successfully established. Two new native North American species that parasitize eggs of Agrilus spp. (Buprestidae) are described and illustrated from the USA: Oobius minusculus Triapitsyn & Petrice, sp. n. (Michigan), an egg parasitoid of both Agrilus subcinctus Gory on ash (Fraxinus spp.) and Agrilus egenus Gory on black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) trees, and Oobius whiteorum Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Pennsylvania), an egg parasitoid of Agrilus anxius Gory on European white birch (Betula pendula Roth). A taxonomic key and notes on the Nearctic native and introduced Oobius species are also included. PMID:25931963

  1. Optimization of multifunnel traps for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): influence of size, trap coating, and color.

    PubMed

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    Field assays were conducted in southeastern and south-central Michigan in 2011 and 2012 to optimize green and purple multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps for use as a survey tool for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Larger sized (12- and 16-unit) multifunnel traps caught more beetles than their smaller-sized (4- and 8-unit) counterparts. Green traps coated with untinted (white) fluon caught almost four times as many adult A. planipennis as Rain-X and tinted (green) fluon-coated traps and almost 33 times more beetles than untreated control traps. Purple multifunnel traps generally caught much lower numbers of A. planipennis adults than green traps, and trap catch on them was not affected by differences in the type of coating applied. However, trap coating was necessary as untreated control purple traps caught significantly less beetles than traps treated with Rain-X and untinted or tinted (purple) fluon. Proportions of male beetles captured were generally much higher on green traps than on purple traps, but sex ratios were not affected by trap coating. In 2012, a new shade of purple plastic, based on a better color match to an attractive purple paint than the previously used purple, was used for trapping assays. When multifunnel traps were treated with fluon, green traps caught more A. planipennis adults than both shades of purple and a prism trap that was manufactured based on the same color match. Trap catch was not affected by diluting the fluon concentration applied to traps to 50% (1:1 mixture in water). At 10%, trap catch was significantly lowered. PMID:24498742

  2. Field-cage methodology for evaluating climatic suitability for introduced wood-borer parasitoids: preliminary results from the emerald ash borer system.

    PubMed

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Duan, Jian J; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Taylor, Phil; Bean, Dick; Holko, Carol; Van Driesche, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Field-cage methods were developed to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-season releases at both a northern (Michigan) and a southern (Maryland) location within the current North American range of A. planipennis. In August, September and October of 2009, five young green ash trees were selected at each location. Tetrastichus planipennisi and S. agrili were each randomly assigned to one of two cages attached to each tree, surrounding separate sections of trunk in which late-instar A. planipennis had been inserted. The following April, the caged trunk sections were dissected to determine the fate of each A. planipennis larva and the developmental stages of all recovered parasitoid progeny. At both locations, T. planipennisi and S. agrili were able to parasitize hosts and successfully overwinter (i.e., reach adulthood the following spring). For T. planipennisi, successful parasitism (i.e., parasitoid progeny reached adulthood) occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August and September releases in Michigan. At both locations, percent parasitism by T. planipennisi was higher in August and September than in October. For S. agrili, successful parasitism occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August release in Michigan. In Maryland, percent parasitism by S. agrili in August and September was higher than in October. The caging method described here should be useful in determining the climatic suitability of other regions before proceeding with large-scale releases of either species and may have utility in other wood-borer parasitoid systems as well.

  3. Effects of trap type, placement and ash distribution on emerald ash borer captures in a low density site.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W; Poland, Therese M; Pierce, Steven J; Ahn, Su Zie

    2011-10-01

    Effective methods for early detection of newly established, low density emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestations are critically needed in North America. We assessed adult A. planipennis captures on four types of traps in a 16-ha site in central Michigan. The site was divided into 16 blocks, each comprised of four 50- by 50-m cells. Green ash trees (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) were inventoried by diameter class and ash phloem area was estimated for each cell. One trap type was randomly assigned to each cell in each block. Because initial sampling showed that A. planipennis density was extremely low, infested ash logs were introduced into the center of the site. In total, 87 beetles were captured during the summer. Purple double-decker traps baited with a blend of ash leaf volatiles, Manuka oil, and ethanol captured 65% of all A. planipennis beetles. Similarly baited, green double-decker traps captured 18% of the beetles, whereas sticky bands on girdled trees captured 11% of the beetles. Purple traps baited with Manuka oil and suspended in the canopies of live ash trees captured only 5% of the beetles. At least one beetle was captured on 81% of the purple double-decker traps, 56% of the green double-decker traps, 42% of sticky bands, and 25% of the canopy traps. Abundance of ash phloem near traps had no effect on captures and trap location and sun exposure had only weak effects on captures. Twelve girdled and 29 nongirdled trees were felled and sampled in winter. Current-year larvae were present in 100% of the girdled trees and 72% of the nongirdled trees, but larval density was five times higher on girdled than nongirdled trees.

  4. Optimization of multifunnel traps for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): influence of size, trap coating, and color.

    PubMed

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    Field assays were conducted in southeastern and south-central Michigan in 2011 and 2012 to optimize green and purple multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps for use as a survey tool for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Larger sized (12- and 16-unit) multifunnel traps caught more beetles than their smaller-sized (4- and 8-unit) counterparts. Green traps coated with untinted (white) fluon caught almost four times as many adult A. planipennis as Rain-X and tinted (green) fluon-coated traps and almost 33 times more beetles than untreated control traps. Purple multifunnel traps generally caught much lower numbers of A. planipennis adults than green traps, and trap catch on them was not affected by differences in the type of coating applied. However, trap coating was necessary as untreated control purple traps caught significantly less beetles than traps treated with Rain-X and untinted or tinted (purple) fluon. Proportions of male beetles captured were generally much higher on green traps than on purple traps, but sex ratios were not affected by trap coating. In 2012, a new shade of purple plastic, based on a better color match to an attractive purple paint than the previously used purple, was used for trapping assays. When multifunnel traps were treated with fluon, green traps caught more A. planipennis adults than both shades of purple and a prism trap that was manufactured based on the same color match. Trap catch was not affected by diluting the fluon concentration applied to traps to 50% (1:1 mixture in water). At 10%, trap catch was significantly lowered.

  5. Efficacy of multifunnel traps for capturing emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): effect of color, glue, and other trap coatings.

    PubMed

    Francese, Joseph A; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2011-06-01

    Tens of thousands of adhesive-coated purple prism traps are deployed annually in the United States to survey for the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). A reusable, more user-friendly trap is desired by program managers, surveyors, and researchers. Field assays were conducted in southeastern Michigan to ascertain the feasibility of using nonsticky traps as survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer. Three nonsticky trap designs, including multifunnel (Lindgren), modified intercept panel, and drainpipe (all painted purple) were compared with the standard purple prism trap; no statistical differences in capture of emerald ash borer adults were detected between the multifunnel design and the prism. In subsequent color comparison assays, both green- and purple-painted multifunnel traps (and later, plastic versions of these colors) performed as well or better than the prism traps. Multifunnel traps coated with spray-on adhesive caught more beetles than untreated traps. The increased catch, however, occurred in the traps' collection cups and not on the trap surface. In a separate assay, there was no significant difference detected between glue-coated traps and Rain-X (normally a glass treatment)-coated traps, but both caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than untreated traps.

  6. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Timothy J; Larson, Kristi

    2014-06-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazanac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the United States. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus spp.) sticks, we investigated the biology, life cycle, and rearing of S. galinae in the laboratory under normal rearing conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h). Our study showed that S. galinae took approximately 1 mo (29 d) to complete a single generation (from egg to adult) under the laboratory rearing conditions. After eclosion from eggs, larvae of S. galinae molted four times to reach the fifth instar, which then spun cocoons for pupation and development to adults. Adult female wasps had a median survival time of 7 wk with fecundity peaking 3 wk after emergence when reared in groups (of five females and five males) and 2 wk in single pairs. Throughout the life span, a single female S. galinae produced a mean (+/- SE) of 31 (+/- 3.0) progeny when reared in groups, and a mean (+/- SE) of 47 (+/- 5.3) progeny when reared in single pairs. Results from our study also showed that S. galinae could be effectively reared with A. planipennis larvae reared in both green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh] ash sticks. However, the abortion (unemergence) rate of S. galinae progeny was much higher (20%) when reared with host larvae in green ash sticks than that (2.1%) in tropical ash sticks. PMID:25026651

  7. Effects of host plant and larval density on intraspecific competition in larvae of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Larson, Kristi; Watt, Tim; Gould, Juli; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-12-01

    Competition for food, mates, and space among different individuals of the same insect species can affect density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees, with its larvae feeding in serpentine galleries between the interface of sapwood and phloem tissues of ash trees. Using artificial infestation of freshly cut logs of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical ash (Fraxinus uhdei [Wenzig] Lingelsh) with a series of egg densities, we evaluated the mechanism and outcome of intraspecific competition in larvae of A. planipennis in relation to larval density and host plant species. Results from our study showed that as the egg densities on each log (1.5-6.5 cm in diameter and 22-25 cm in length) increased from 200 to 1,600 eggs per square meter of surface area, larval survivorship declined from ≍68 to 10% for the green ash logs, and 86 to 55% for tropical ash logs. Accordingly, larval mortality resulting from cannibalism, starvation, or both, significantly increased as egg density increased, and the biomass of surviving larvae significantly decreased on both ash species. When larval density was adjusted to the same level, however, larval mortality from intraspecific competition was significantly higher and mean biomasses of surviving larvae was significantly lower in green ash than in tropical ash. The role of intraspecific competition of A. planipennis larvae in density-dependent regulation of its natural population dynamics is discussed. PMID:24280666

  8. Sulfuryl fluoride as a quarantine treatment for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in ash logs.

    PubMed

    Barak, Alan V; Messenger, Matthew; Neese, Paul; Thoms, Ellen; Fraser, Ivich

    2010-06-01

    Fraxinus spp. logs infested with Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) were fumigated with sulfuryl fluoride (SF) in 432-liter chambers at 15.6 and 21.1 degrees C for 24 and 48 h. Concentration x time (CxT) exposures (g-h/m3) of SF obtained were 3,382 (24-h exposure) and 5,466 (48-h exposure) at 15.6 degrees C and 3,329 (24 h) and 4,385 (48-h exposure) at 21.1 degrees C after doses of 144, 128, 128, and 104 g/m3, respectively. After aeration, logs were placed in modified fiber drums for 8 wk to capture emerging beetles. No adults emerged from any of the fumigated logs, whereas 933 adults emerged from control logs. Eggs were fumigated at CxT exposures similar to log fumigations (3,240 and 4,262 g-h/m3, respectively) and again at doses 16 g/m3 lower, at 21.1 degrees C for 24 and 48 h. No hatch was observed at CxT dosages > 4,262 g-h/m3. No larvae continued development on artificial diet after hatching from eggs fumigated at all tested dosages, whereas 10 control larvae developed to instar I or II. Chamber fumigations with 31 and 46% load factors provided additional sorption and concentration data. A. planipennis-infested logs in tarped, 149.1-m3 cargo containers were fumigated at dosages used in successful trials. Logs were monitored for 8 wk for adult emergence. There was no adult emergence, but 621 adults emerged from a similar quantity of control logs. CxT dosages of SF for 100% control of A. planipennis at 15.6 and 21.1 degrees C for 24- and 48-h exposure can be obtained under commercial fumigation conditions. A quarantine treatment schedule for SF is proposed.

  9. Effects of host plant and larval density on intraspecific competition in larvae of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Larson, Kristi; Watt, Tim; Gould, Juli; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-12-01

    Competition for food, mates, and space among different individuals of the same insect species can affect density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees, with its larvae feeding in serpentine galleries between the interface of sapwood and phloem tissues of ash trees. Using artificial infestation of freshly cut logs of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical ash (Fraxinus uhdei [Wenzig] Lingelsh) with a series of egg densities, we evaluated the mechanism and outcome of intraspecific competition in larvae of A. planipennis in relation to larval density and host plant species. Results from our study showed that as the egg densities on each log (1.5-6.5 cm in diameter and 22-25 cm in length) increased from 200 to 1,600 eggs per square meter of surface area, larval survivorship declined from ≍68 to 10% for the green ash logs, and 86 to 55% for tropical ash logs. Accordingly, larval mortality resulting from cannibalism, starvation, or both, significantly increased as egg density increased, and the biomass of surviving larvae significantly decreased on both ash species. When larval density was adjusted to the same level, however, larval mortality from intraspecific competition was significantly higher and mean biomasses of surviving larvae was significantly lower in green ash than in tropical ash. The role of intraspecific competition of A. planipennis larvae in density-dependent regulation of its natural population dynamics is discussed.

  10. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Timothy J; Larson, Kristi

    2014-06-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazanac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the United States. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus spp.) sticks, we investigated the biology, life cycle, and rearing of S. galinae in the laboratory under normal rearing conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h). Our study showed that S. galinae took approximately 1 mo (29 d) to complete a single generation (from egg to adult) under the laboratory rearing conditions. After eclosion from eggs, larvae of S. galinae molted four times to reach the fifth instar, which then spun cocoons for pupation and development to adults. Adult female wasps had a median survival time of 7 wk with fecundity peaking 3 wk after emergence when reared in groups (of five females and five males) and 2 wk in single pairs. Throughout the life span, a single female S. galinae produced a mean (+/- SE) of 31 (+/- 3.0) progeny when reared in groups, and a mean (+/- SE) of 47 (+/- 5.3) progeny when reared in single pairs. Results from our study also showed that S. galinae could be effectively reared with A. planipennis larvae reared in both green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh] ash sticks. However, the abortion (unemergence) rate of S. galinae progeny was much higher (20%) when reared with host larvae in green ash sticks than that (2.1%) in tropical ash sticks.

  11. Comparison of male and female emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) responses to phoebe oil and (Z)-3-hexenol lures in light green prism traps.

    PubMed

    Grant, Gary G; Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina; Lyons, D Barry; Jones, Gene C

    2011-02-01

    We conducted trapping experiments for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan, U.S.A., and Ontario, Canada, to compare unbaited light green sticky prism traps with traps baited with phoebe oil, (Z)-3-hexenol (Z3-6:OH), or blends of other green leaf volatiles (GLVs) with Z3-6:OH. Traps were placed in the lower canopy of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Catches with Z3-6:OH-baited traps showed a significant male bias and these traps caught significantly more males than the unbaited controls at both sites. They were also superior to phoebe oil-baited traps and those baited with GLV blends. Catches with phoebe oil showed a significant female bias but there was no difference in the number of females captured between traps baited with phoebe oil or Z3-6:OH lures. Catches were analyzed at regular time intervals to examine the response of A. planipennis to the lures over the course of the flight season. Z3-6:OH-baited traps consistently caught more males than the controls at each interval throughout the flight season. Catches of females with Z3-6:OH and phoebe oil were significantly better than the controls early in the flight season but declined to control levels by midseason. Our results suggest that Z3-6:OH-baited green traps placed in the ash canopy would be a superior lure for detecting and monitoring A. planipennis throughout the flight season.

  12. Detectability of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in asymptomatic urban trees by using branch samples.

    PubMed

    Ryall, Krista L; Fidgen, Jeffrey G; Turgeon, Jean J

    2011-06-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an exotic invasive insect causing extensive mortality to ash trees, Fraxinus spp., in Canada and the United States. Detection of incipient populations of this pest is difficult because of its cryptic life stages and a multiyear time lag between initial attack and the appearance of signs or symptoms of infestation. We sampled branches from open-grown urban ash trees to develop a sample unit suitable for detecting low density A. planipennis infestation before any signs or symptoms are evident. The sample unit that maximized detection rates consisted of one 50-cm-long piece from the base of a branch ≥6 cm diameter in the midcrown. The optimal sample size was two such branches per tree. This sampling method detected ≈75% of asymptomatic trees known to be infested by using more intensive sampling and ≈3 times more trees than sampling one-fourth of the circumference of the trunk at breast height. The method is less conspicuous and esthetically damaging to a tree than the removal of bark from the main stem or the use of trap trees, and could be incorporated into routine sanitation or maintenance of city-owned trees to identify and delineate infested areas. This research indicates that branch sampling greatly reduces false negatives associated with visual surveys and window sampling at breast height. Detection of A. planipennis-infested asymptomatic trees through branch sampling in urban centers would provide landowners and urban foresters with more time to develop and implement management tactics.

  13. The History of Attack and Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on White Fringetree in Southwestern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Thiemann, Danielle; Lopez, Vanessa; Ray, Ann M; Cipollini, Don

    2016-08-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive insect that has caused widespread mortality of ash species in North America. The ability of emerald ash borer to utilize white fringetree as an alternate host was reported recently. We aimed to determine how long white fringetree has been under attack from emerald ash borer, the degree of attack, and the overall success of this beetle on this novel host. Stems from three of nine infested white fringetrees collected from the Dayton and Cincinnati, OH, areas in the winter of 2015 yielded four live adult emerald ash borers after being held in rearing containers, and numerous older exit holes were observed. Measurement and aging of feeding galleries on these stems indicated that emerald ash borer has been using this species since 2011, at least, with peak gallery densities reached in 2012 and 2013 on most of the harvested trees. On average, 32 galleries per square meter were found in these stems with about one-third of them being indicative of fourth-instar larvae. This supports the assertion that emerald ash borer has been using white fringetree as a host plant with moderate to good success for as long as ash species in these particular areas have been utilized. PMID:27325628

  14. Decreased emergence of emerald ash borer from ash treated with methyl jasmonate is associated with induction of general defense traits and the toxic phenolic compound verbascoside.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Rigsby, Chad; Cipollini, Don; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2014-12-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is causing widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. To date, no mechanisms of host resistance have been identified against this pest. Methyl jasmonate was applied to susceptible North American and resistant Asian ash species to determine if it can elicit induced responses in bark that enhance resistance to EAB. In particular, phenolic compounds, lignin, and defense-related proteins were quantified, and compounds associated with resistance were subsequently tested directly against EAB larvae in bioassays with artificial diet. MeJA application decreased adult emergence in susceptible ash species, comparable to levels achieved by insecticide application. Concentration of the phenolic compound verbascoside sharply increased after MeJA application to green and white ash. When incorporated in an artificial diet, verbascoside decreased survival and growth of EAB neonates in a dose-dependent fashion. Lignin and trypsin inhibitors were also induced by MeJA, and analogs of both compounds reduced growth of EAB larvae in artificial diets. We conclude that the application of MeJA prior to EAB attack has the ability to enhance resistance of susceptible ash trees by inducing endogenous plant defenses, and report evidence that induction of verbascoside is a mechanism of resistance to EAB. PMID:25231373

  15. Efficacy of Soil-Applied Neonicotinoid Insecticides for Long-term Protection Against Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Smitley, David R; Herms, Daniel A; Davis, Terrance W

    2015-10-01

    Protection of green ash trees (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) from the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, by soil applications of neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and dinotefuran) was tested at five locations between 2005 and 2013. Application rate and spring versus fall application dates were evaluated in tests with neighborhood street trees and in one plantation of 65 ash trees. Insecticide treatments of ash trees at all five sites were initiated as the leading edge of the EAB invasion began to kill the first ash trees at each location. Trees were treated and evaluated at each site for 4 to 7 yr. Spring applications of imidacloprid were more efficacious than fall applications. Application rates of 0.8 g a.i./cm dbh or greater per year gave a higher level of protection and were more consistent than rates of 0.56 g a.i./cm dbh per year or less. The number of years between the first observation of canopy loss due to EAB and death of most of the control trees varied from three to seven years among test sites, depending on how many non-treated ash trees were nearby. PMID:26453723

  16. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing.

    PubMed

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J; Tallamy, Douglas W; Hough-Goldstein, Judith

    2015-06-01

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a newly described ectoparasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is currently being evaluated for environmental introduction in the United States to provide biological control of this invasive pest. To improve mass-rearing outcomes for S. galinae, we investigated the effects of parasitoid: host ratio and parasitoid and host group size (density) on parasitoid fitness. Our results showed that when 1 emerald ash borer larva was exposed to 1, 2, 4, or 8 female parasitoids, parasitism rate was positively associated with increasing parasitoid: host ratio, while brood size, sex ratio, and fitness estimates of progeny were not affected. When a constant 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio was used, but group size varied from 1 female parasitoid and 1 host, 5 parasitoids and 5 hosts, 10 of each, and 20 of each in same size rearing cages, parasitism rates were highest when at least 5 females were exposed to 5 host larvae. Moreover, the number of progeny produced per female parasitoid was greatest when group size was 10 parasitoids and 10 hosts. These findings demonstrate that S. galinae may be reared most efficiently in moderately high-density groups (10 parasitoids and hosts) and with a 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio. PMID:26470215

  17. Protection of individual ash trees from emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with basal soil applications of imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Smitley, D R; Rebek, E J; Royalty, R N; Davis, T W; Newhouse, K F

    2010-02-01

    We conducted field trials at five different locations over a period of 6 yr to investigate the efficacy of imidacloprid applied each spring as a basal soil drench for protection against emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Canopy thinning and emerald ash borer larval density were used to evaluate efficacy for 3-4 yr at each location while treatments continued. Test sites included small urban trees (5-15 cm diameter at breast height [dbh]), medium to large (15-65 cm dbh) trees at golf courses, and medium to large street trees. Annual basal drenches with imidacloprid gave complete protection of small ash trees for three years. At three sites where the size of trees ranged from 23 to 37 cm dbh, we successfully protected all ash trees beginning the test with <60% canopy thinning. Regression analysis of data from two sites reveals that tree size explains 46% of the variation in efficacy of imidacloprid drenches. The smallest trees (<30 cm dbh) remained in excellent condition for 3 yr, whereas most of the largest trees (>38 cm dbh) declined to a weakened state and undesirable appearance. The five-fold increase in trunk and branch surface area of ash trees as the tree dbh doubles may account for reduced efficacy on larger trees, and suggests a need to increase treatment rates for larger trees.

  18. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  19. Influence of Mortality Factors and Host Resistance on the Population Dynamics of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Urban Forests.

    PubMed

    Macquarrie, Chris J K; Scharbach, Roger

    2015-02-01

    The success of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America is hypothesized to be due to both the lack of significant natural enemies permitting easy establishment and a population of trees that lack the ability to defend themselves, which allows populations to grow unchecked. Since its discovery in 2002, a number of studies have examined mortality factors of the insect in forests, but none have examined the role of natural enemies and other mortality agents in the urban forest. This is significant because it is in the urban forest where the emerald ash borer has had the most significant economic impacts. We studied populations in urban forests in three municipalities in Ontario, Canada, between 2010 and 2012 using life tables and stage-specific survivorship to analyze data from a split-rearing manipulative experiment. We found that there was little overall mortality caused by natural enemies; most mortality we did observe was caused by disease. Stage-specific survivorship was lowest in small and large larvae, supporting previous observations of high mortality in these two stages. We also used our data to test the hypothesis that mortality and density in emerald ash borer are linked. Our results support the prediction of a negative relationship between mortality and density. However, the relationship varies between insects developing in the crown and those in the trunk of the tree. This relationship was significant because when incorporated with previous findings, it suggests a mechanism and hypothesis to explain the outbreak dynamics of the emerald ash borer.

  20. Spectral analysis of white ash response to emerald ash borer infestations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calandra, Laura

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.

  1. Decreased emergence of emerald ash borer from ash treated with methyl jasmonate is associated with induction of general defense traits and the toxic phenolic compound verbascoside.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Rigsby, Chad; Cipollini, Don; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2014-12-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is causing widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. To date, no mechanisms of host resistance have been identified against this pest. Methyl jasmonate was applied to susceptible North American and resistant Asian ash species to determine if it can elicit induced responses in bark that enhance resistance to EAB. In particular, phenolic compounds, lignin, and defense-related proteins were quantified, and compounds associated with resistance were subsequently tested directly against EAB larvae in bioassays with artificial diet. MeJA application decreased adult emergence in susceptible ash species, comparable to levels achieved by insecticide application. Concentration of the phenolic compound verbascoside sharply increased after MeJA application to green and white ash. When incorporated in an artificial diet, verbascoside decreased survival and growth of EAB neonates in a dose-dependent fashion. Lignin and trypsin inhibitors were also induced by MeJA, and analogs of both compounds reduced growth of EAB larvae in artificial diets. We conclude that the application of MeJA prior to EAB attack has the ability to enhance resistance of susceptible ash trees by inducing endogenous plant defenses, and report evidence that induction of verbascoside is a mechanism of resistance to EAB.

  2. Thermal constraints on the emerald ash borer invasion of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.

  3. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.

  4. The History of Attack and Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on White Fringetree in Southwestern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Thiemann, Danielle; Lopez, Vanessa; Ray, Ann M; Cipollini, Don

    2016-08-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive insect that has caused widespread mortality of ash species in North America. The ability of emerald ash borer to utilize white fringetree as an alternate host was reported recently. We aimed to determine how long white fringetree has been under attack from emerald ash borer, the degree of attack, and the overall success of this beetle on this novel host. Stems from three of nine infested white fringetrees collected from the Dayton and Cincinnati, OH, areas in the winter of 2015 yielded four live adult emerald ash borers after being held in rearing containers, and numerous older exit holes were observed. Measurement and aging of feeding galleries on these stems indicated that emerald ash borer has been using this species since 2011, at least, with peak gallery densities reached in 2012 and 2013 on most of the harvested trees. On average, 32 galleries per square meter were found in these stems with about one-third of them being indicative of fourth-instar larvae. This supports the assertion that emerald ash borer has been using white fringetree as a host plant with moderate to good success for as long as ash species in these particular areas have been utilized.

  5. Interspecific variation in resistance to emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) among North American and Asian ash (Fraxinus spp.).

    PubMed

    Rebek, Eric J; Herms, Daniel A; Smitley, David R

    2008-02-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study to compare the susceptibility of selected North American ash and an Asian ash species to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive wood-boring beetle introduced to North America from Asia. Because of a coevolutionary relationship between Asian ashes and emerald ash borer, we hypothesized an Asian ash species, Manchurian ash, is more resistant to the beetle than its North American congeners. Consistent with our hypothesis, Manchurian ash experienced far less mortality and yielded far fewer adult beetles than several cultivars of North American green and white ash. Surprisingly, a black ash (North American) x Manchurian ash hybrid was highly susceptible to emerald ash borer, indicating this cultivar did not inherit emerald ash borer resistance from its Asian parent. A corollary study investigated the efficacy of soil-applied imidacloprid, a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide, for controlling emerald ash borer in each of the five cultivars. Imidacloprid had no effect on emerald ash borer colonization of Manchurian ash, which was low in untreated and treated trees. In contrast, imidacloprid did enhance survival of the North American and hybrid cultivars and significantly reduced the number of emerald ash borer adults emerging from green and white ash cultivars. We identify a possible mechanism of resistance of Manchurian ash to emerald ash borer, which may prove useful for screening, selecting, and breeding emerald ash borer-resistant ash trees.

  6. Efficacy of Soil-Applied Neonicotinoid Insecticides for Long-term Protection Against Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Smitley, David R; Herms, Daniel A; Davis, Terrance W

    2015-10-01

    Protection of green ash trees (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) from the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, by soil applications of neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and dinotefuran) was tested at five locations between 2005 and 2013. Application rate and spring versus fall application dates were evaluated in tests with neighborhood street trees and in one plantation of 65 ash trees. Insecticide treatments of ash trees at all five sites were initiated as the leading edge of the EAB invasion began to kill the first ash trees at each location. Trees were treated and evaluated at each site for 4 to 7 yr. Spring applications of imidacloprid were more efficacious than fall applications. Application rates of 0.8 g a.i./cm dbh or greater per year gave a higher level of protection and were more consistent than rates of 0.56 g a.i./cm dbh per year or less. The number of years between the first observation of canopy loss due to EAB and death of most of the control trees varied from three to seven years among test sites, depending on how many non-treated ash trees were nearby.

  7. Managing outbreaks of invasive species--a new method to prioritize preemptive quarantine efforts across large geographic regions.

    PubMed

    Withrow, J R; Smith, E L; Koch, F H; Yemshanov, D

    2015-03-01

    In pest risk assessment it is frequently necessary to make time-critical decisions regarding management of expanding pest populations. When an invasive pest outbreak is expanding rapidly, preemptive quarantine of areas that are under imminent threat of infestation is one of only a few available management tools that can be implemented quickly to help control the expansion. The preemptive quarantine of locations that surround an infested area also acts as a safeguard to counteract the risk of failed detections of the pest in field surveys. In this paper, we present a method that assesses the suitability of preemptive quarantine measures at the level of small geographical subdivisions (U.S. counties). The cost of a preemptive quarantine in a given county is weighed against the protective benefit of delaying the spread of an outbreak to other neighboring counties. We demonstrate the approach with a decision support model that estimates the suitability of preemptive quarantine across multiple counties that surround areas infested with the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB), Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an emerging major threat to ash tree species (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. The model identifies the U.S. counties where the installation of preemptive quarantine would most effectively slow the spread of EAB populations and reduce risk to high-value areas. PMID:25560653

  8. Low-temperature methyl bromide fumigation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in ash logs.

    PubMed

    Barak, Alan V; Elder, Peggy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-02-01

    Ash (Fraxinus spp.) logs, infested with fully developed, cold-acclimated larval and prepupal emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were fumigated with methyl bromide (MeBr) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C for 24 h. Concentrations X time dosages of MeBr obtained were 1579 and 1273 g-h/m3 (24-h exposure) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C after applied doses of 112 and 96 g/m3, respectively. MeBr concentrations were simultaneously measured with a ContainIR infrared monitor and Fumiscope thermal conductivity meter calibrated for MeBr to measure the effect of CO2 on Fumiscope concentration readings compared with the infrared (IR) instrument. The presence of CO2 caused false high MeBr readings. With the thermal conductivity meter, CO2 measured 11.36 g/m3 MeBr per 1% CO2 in clean air, whereas the gas-specific infrared ContainIR instrument measured 9.55% CO2 as 4.2 g/m3 MeBr (0.44 g/m3 per 1% CO2). The IR instrument was 0.4% as sensitive to CO2 as the thermal conductivity meter. After aeration, fumigated and control logs were held for 8 wk to capture emerging beetles. No A. planipennis adults emerged from any of the fumigated logs, whereas 262 emerged from control logs (139 and 123/m2 at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C, respectively). An effective fumigation dose and minimum periodic MeBr concentrations are proposed. The use of a CO2 scrubber in conjunction with nonspecific thermal conductivity instruments is necessary to more accurately measure MeBr concentrations.

  9. Two new species of Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) egg parasitoids of Agrilus spp. (Coleoptera, Buprestidae) from the USA, including a key and taxonomic notes on other congeneric Nearctic taxa.

    PubMed

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Petrice, Toby R; Gates, Michael W; Bauer, Leah S

    2015-01-01

    Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) species are egg parasitoids that are important for the biological control of some Buprestidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera). Two species, Oobiusagrili Zhang & Huang and Oobiuslongoi (Siscaro), were introduced into North America for classical biocontrol and have successfully established. Two new native North American species that parasitize eggs of Agrilus spp. (Buprestidae) are described and illustrated from the USA: Oobiusminusculus Triapitsyn & Petrice, sp. n. (Michigan), an egg parasitoid of both Agrilussubcinctus Gory on ash (Fraxinus spp.) and Agrilusegenus Gory on black locust (Robiniapseudoacacia L.) trees, and Oobiuswhiteorum Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Pennsylvania), an egg parasitoid of Agrilusanxius Gory on European white birch (Betulapendula Roth). A taxonomic key and notes on the Nearctic native and introduced Oobius species are also included. PMID:25931963

  10. Evaluating a new method for monitoring the field establishment and parasitism of Oobius agrili, an egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius agrili is a solitary egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and can be responsible for 50-60% of EAB egg mortality in its native range. O. agrili has been released for biological control of EAB in the US since 2007; however, current methods to monitor its establishme...

  11. The impact of biotic factors on populations of the emerald ash borer: a comparison between its native northeast asian and newly invaded north american ranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Between its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002 and 2010, the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), spread to 15 US states and two provinces in Canada. Understanding population dynamics in both the pest’s native range of northeast Asia and the newly invaded r...

  12. 7 CFR 301.53-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Emerald Ash Borer § 301.53-1 Definitions. Administrator... subpart and any conditions imposed under this subpart. Emerald ash borer. The insect known as emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis ) in any stage of development. Infestation. The presence of the emerald......

  13. 7 CFR 301.53-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Emerald Ash Borer § 301.53-1 Definitions. Administrator... subpart and any conditions imposed under this subpart. Emerald ash borer. The insect known as emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis ) in any stage of development. Infestation. The presence of the emerald......

  14. 7 CFR 301.53-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Emerald Ash Borer § 301.53-1 Definitions. Administrator... subpart and any conditions imposed under this subpart. Emerald ash borer. The insect known as emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis ) in any stage of development. Infestation. The presence of the emerald......

  15. 7 CFR 301.53-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Emerald Ash Borer § 301.53-1 Definitions. Administrator... subpart and any conditions imposed under this subpart. Emerald ash borer. The insect known as emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis ) in any stage of development. Infestation. The presence of the emerald......

  16. 7 CFR 301.53-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Emerald Ash Borer § 301.53-1 Definitions. Administrator... subpart and any conditions imposed under this subpart. Emerald ash borer. The insect known as emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis ) in any stage of development. Infestation. The presence of the emerald......

  17. Differences in the reproductive biology and diapause of two congeneric species of egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from northeast Asia: implications for biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) constitute a cryptic species complex of egg parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleotpera: Buprestidae) in their native range of northeast Asia. While O. primorskyensis is c...

  18. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

    2014-08-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae. PMID:25195418

  19. Establishment and abundance of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Michigan: potential for success in classical biocontrol of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Bauer, Leah S; Abell, Kristopher J; Lelito, Jonathan P; Van Driesche, Roy

    2013-06-01

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid native to China and has been introduced to the United States since 2007 for classical biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. Between 2007-2010, T. planipennisi adults (3,311-4,597 females and approximately 1,500 males per site) were released into each of six forest sites in three counties (Ingham, Gratiot, and Shiawassee) of southern Michigan. By the fall of 2012, the proportion of sampled trees with one or more broods of T. planipennisi increased to 92 and 83% in the parasitoid-release and control plots, respectively, from 33 and 4% in the first year after parasitoid releases (2009 fall for Ingham county sites and 2010 for other sites). Similarly, the mean number of T. planipennisi broods observed from sampled trees increased from less than one brood per tree in the first year after parasitoid releases to 2.46 (at control plots) to 3.08 (at release plots) broods by the fall of 2012. The rates of emerald ash borer larval parasitism by T. planipennisi also increased from 1.2% in the first year after parasitoid releases to 21.2% in the parasitoid-release plots, and from 0.2 to 12.8% for the control plots by the fall of 2012. These results demonstrate that T. planipennisi is established in southern Michigan and that its populations are increasing and expanding. This suggests that T. planipennisi will likely play a critical role in suppressing emerald ash borer populations in Michigan. PMID:23865178

  20. Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close. PMID:24690169

  1. Physiological responses of emerald ash borer larvae to feeding on different ash species reveal putative resistance mechanisms and insect counter-adaptations.

    PubMed

    Rigsby, C M; Showalter, D N; Herms, D A; Koch, J L; Bonello, P; Cipollini, D

    2015-07-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an Asian wood-boring beetle, has devastated ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North American forests and landscapes since its discovery there in 2002. In this study, we collected living larvae from EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandschurica), and susceptible white (Fraxinus americana) and green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) ash hosts, and quantified the activity and production of selected detoxification, digestive, and antioxidant enzymes. We hypothesized that differences in larval physiology could be used to infer resistance mechanisms of ash. We found no differences in cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, carboxylesterase, sulfotransferase, and tryptic BApNAase activities between larvae feeding on different hosts. Despite this, Manchurian ash-fed larvae produced a single isozyme of low electrophoretic mobility that was not produced in white or green ash-fed larvae. Additionally, larvae feeding on white and green ash produced two serine protease isozymes of high electrophoretic mobility that were not observed in Manchurian ash-fed larvae. We also found lower activity of β-glucosidase and higher activities of monoamine oxidase, ortho-quinone reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase in Manchurian ash-fed larvae compared to larvae that had fed on susceptible ash. A single isozyme was detected for both catalase and superoxide dismutase in all larval groups. The activities of the quinone-protective and antioxidant enzymes are consistent with the resistance phenotype of the host species, with the highest activities measured in larvae feeding on resistant Manchurian ash. We conclude that larvae feeding on Manchurian ash could be under quinone and oxidative stress, suggesting these may be potential mechanisms of resistance of Manchurian ash to EAB larvae, and that quinone-protective and antioxidant enzymes are important counter-adaptations of larvae for dealing with these resistance

  2. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range. PMID:24224252

  3. Influence of Mortality Factors and Host Resistance on the Population Dynamics of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Urban Forests.

    PubMed

    Macquarrie, Chris J K; Scharbach, Roger

    2015-02-01

    The success of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America is hypothesized to be due to both the lack of significant natural enemies permitting easy establishment and a population of trees that lack the ability to defend themselves, which allows populations to grow unchecked. Since its discovery in 2002, a number of studies have examined mortality factors of the insect in forests, but none have examined the role of natural enemies and other mortality agents in the urban forest. This is significant because it is in the urban forest where the emerald ash borer has had the most significant economic impacts. We studied populations in urban forests in three municipalities in Ontario, Canada, between 2010 and 2012 using life tables and stage-specific survivorship to analyze data from a split-rearing manipulative experiment. We found that there was little overall mortality caused by natural enemies; most mortality we did observe was caused by disease. Stage-specific survivorship was lowest in small and large larvae, supporting previous observations of high mortality in these two stages. We also used our data to test the hypothesis that mortality and density in emerald ash borer are linked. Our results support the prediction of a negative relationship between mortality and density. However, the relationship varies between insects developing in the crown and those in the trunk of the tree. This relationship was significant because when incorporated with previous findings, it suggests a mechanism and hypothesis to explain the outbreak dynamics of the emerald ash borer. PMID:26308819

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Systemic Insecticides to Emerald Ash Borer Larvae.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2016-04-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues. PMID:26721288

  5. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.

    PubMed

    Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood.

  6. Abundance of volatile organic compounds in white ash phloem and emerald ash borer larval frass does not attract Tetrastichus planipennisi in a Y-tube olfactometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Ulyshen, Michael D; Poland, Therese M

    2016-10-01

    Many natural enemies employ plant- and/or herbivore-derived signals for host/prey location. The larval parasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is 1 of 3 biocontrol agents currently being released in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coloeptera: Burprestidae) in North America. To enhance its efficiency, allelochemicals that attract it need to be assessed. In this study, ash phloem volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of black, green, and white ash, and EAB larval frass were compared. Foraging behavior of T. planipennisi females in response to VOCs of white ash or frass from EAB larvae feeding on white ash phloem was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer. Results indicated that the 3 ash species had similar VOC profiles. EAB larval frass generally contained greater levels of VOCs than phloem. Factor analysis indicated that the 11 VOCs could be broadly divided into 2 groups, with α-bisabolol, β-caryophyllene, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenal, limonene, methyl benzoate, methyl indole-3-acetic acid, methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate as the first group and the rest (i.e., methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate) as a second. Abundance of VOCs in white ash phloem tissue and frass, nevertheless, did not attract T. planipennisi females. The concealed feeding of EAB larvae might explain the selection for detectable and reliable virbrational signals, instead of undetectable and relatively unreliable VOC cues from phloem and frass, in short-range foraging by T. planipennisi. Alternatively, it is possible that T. planipennisi is not amenable to the Y-tube olfactometer assay employed. PMID:25879864

  7. Critical rearing parameters of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as affected by host plant substrate and host-parasitoid group structure.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Oppel, Craig

    2012-06-01

    In laboratory assays, we evaluated the potential impact of host plant substrate types, host-parasitoid group sizes (densities), and parasitoid-to-host ratios on select fitness parameters of the larval endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), newly introduced for biological control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in the United States. Results from our study showed that offspring production and critical fitness parameters (body size and sex ratio) of T. planipennisi from parasitized emerald ash borer larvae are significantly influenced by host plant substrate type, host-parasitoid group size, parasitoid-to-host ratio, or a combination in the primary exposure assay. The number of both female and male T. planipennisi progeny was significantly greater when emerald ash borer larvae were inserted into tropical ash [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh.] logs rather than green ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica Marshall). When maintained at a constant 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio, assays with larger host-parasitoid group sizes (3:3-12:12) produced significantly greater numbers of both male and female offspring per parental wasp compared with those with the single host-parasitoid (1:1) group treatment. As the parasitoid-to-host ratio increased from 1:1 to 8:1 in the assay, the average brood size (number of offspring per parasitized emerald ash borer larva) increased significantly, whereas the average brood sex ratio (female to male) changed from being female-biased (6:1) to male-biased (1:2); body size of female offspring as measured by the length of ovipositor and left hind tibia also was reduced significantly. Based on these findings, we suggest that the current method of rearing T. planipennisi with artificially infested-emerald ash borer larvae use the tropical ash logs for emerald ash borer insertion, a larger (> or = 3:3) host-parasitoid group size and 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio in the primary

  8. Nutritional attributes of ash (Fraxinus spp.) outer bark and phloem and their relationships to resistance against the emerald ash borer.

    PubMed

    Hill, Amy L; Whitehill, Justin G A; Opiyo, Stephen O; Phelan, P Larry; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2012-12-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB) is an alien, invasive wood-boring insect that is responsible for killing millions of ash trees since its discovery in North America in 2002. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that EAB has encountered have shown various degrees of susceptibility, while Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica Ruprecht), which shares a co-evolutionary history with this insect, is resistant. Recent studies have looked into constitutive resistance mechanisms in Manchurian ash, concentrating on the secondary phloem, which is the feeding substrate for the insect. In addition to specialized metabolism and defense-related components, primary metabolites and nutritional summaries can also be important to understand the feeding behavior of insect herbivores. Here, we have compared the nutritional characteristics (water content, total protein, free amino acids, total soluble sugars and starch, percent carbon and nitrogen, and macro- and micronutrients) of outer bark and phloem from black, green, white and Manchurian ash to determine their relevance to resistance or susceptibility to EAB. Water content and concentrations of Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, K, Li, tryptophan and an unknown compound were found to separate black and Manchurian ash from green and white ash in a principal component analysis (PCA), confirming their phylogenetic placements into two distinct clades. The traits that distinguished Manchurian ash from black ash in the PCA were water content and concentrations of total soluble sugars, histidine, lysine, methionine, ornithine, proline, sarcosine, tyramine, tyrosol, Al, Fe, K, Na, V and an unknown compound. However, only proline, tyramine and tyrosol were significantly different, and higher, in Manchurian ash than in black ash.

  9. Physiological responses of emerald ash borer larvae to feeding on different ash species reveal putative resistance mechanisms and insect counter-adaptations.

    PubMed

    Rigsby, C M; Showalter, D N; Herms, D A; Koch, J L; Bonello, P; Cipollini, D

    2015-07-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an Asian wood-boring beetle, has devastated ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North American forests and landscapes since its discovery there in 2002. In this study, we collected living larvae from EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandschurica), and susceptible white (Fraxinus americana) and green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) ash hosts, and quantified the activity and production of selected detoxification, digestive, and antioxidant enzymes. We hypothesized that differences in larval physiology could be used to infer resistance mechanisms of ash. We found no differences in cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, carboxylesterase, sulfotransferase, and tryptic BApNAase activities between larvae feeding on different hosts. Despite this, Manchurian ash-fed larvae produced a single isozyme of low electrophoretic mobility that was not produced in white or green ash-fed larvae. Additionally, larvae feeding on white and green ash produced two serine protease isozymes of high electrophoretic mobility that were not observed in Manchurian ash-fed larvae. We also found lower activity of β-glucosidase and higher activities of monoamine oxidase, ortho-quinone reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase in Manchurian ash-fed larvae compared to larvae that had fed on susceptible ash. A single isozyme was detected for both catalase and superoxide dismutase in all larval groups. The activities of the quinone-protective and antioxidant enzymes are consistent with the resistance phenotype of the host species, with the highest activities measured in larvae feeding on resistant Manchurian ash. We conclude that larvae feeding on Manchurian ash could be under quinone and oxidative stress, suggesting these may be potential mechanisms of resistance of Manchurian ash to EAB larvae, and that quinone-protective and antioxidant enzymes are important counter-adaptations of larvae for dealing with these resistance

  10. Effectiveness of differing trap types for the detection of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-08-01

    The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies.

  11. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (<1%) parasitism of emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed.

  12. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions.

  13. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Systemic Insecticides to Emerald Ash Borer Larvae.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2016-04-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues.

  14. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

    2011-02-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important.

  15. Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close.

  16. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

    2014-08-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae.

  17. Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood.

  18. Differential response in foliar chemistry of three ash species to emerald ash borer adult feeding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Poland, Therese M

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic wood-boring beetle that has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources since its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In this study, we investigated the phytochemical responses of the three most common North American ash species (black, green, and white ash) in northeastern USA to EAB adult feeding. Black ash was the least responsive to EAB adult feeding in terms of the induction of volatile compounds, and levels of only two (indole and benzyl cyanide) of the 11 compounds studied increased. In green ash, levels of two [(E)-β-ocimene and indole] of the 11 volatile compounds studied were elevated, while the levels of two green leaf volatiles [hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal] decreased. White ash showed the greatest response with an increase in levels of seven of the 11 compounds studied. Qualitative differences among ash species were detected. Among the phenolic compounds detected, ligustroside was the only one detected in all three species. Oleuropein aglycone and 2 unidentified compounds were found only in black ash; coumaroylquinic acid and feruloylquinic acid were detected only in green ash; and verbascoside hexoside was detected only in white ash. EAB adult feeding did not elicit or decrease concentrations of any selected individual phenolic compounds. However, although levels of total phenolics from black and green ash foliage were not affected by EAB adult feeding, they decreased significantly in white ash. EAB adult feeding elevated chymotrypsin inhibitors in black ash. The possible ecological implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Progression of ash canopy thinning and dieback outward from the initial infestation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southeastern Michigan.

    PubMed

    Smitley, David; Davis, Terrance; Rebek, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Our objective was to characterize the rate at which ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees decline in areas adjacent to the leading edge of visible ash canopy thinning due to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Trees in southeastern Michigan were surveyed from 2003 to 2006 for canopy thinning and dieback by comparing survey trees with a set of 11 standard photographs. Freeways stemming from Detroit in all directions were used as survey transects. Between 750 and 1,100 trees were surveyed each year. A rapid method of sampling populations of emerald ash borer was developed by counting emerald ash borer emergence holes with binoculars and then felling trees to validate binocular counts. Approximately 25% of the trees surveyed for canopy thinning in 2005 and 2006 also were sampled for emerald ash borer emergence holes using binoculars. Regression analysis indicates that 41-53% of the variation in ash canopy thinning can be explained by the number of emerald ash borer emergence holes per tree. Emerald ash borer emergence holes were found at every site where ash canopy thinning averaged > 40%. In 2003, ash canopy thinning averaged 40% at a distance of 19.3 km from the epicenter of the emerald ash borer infestation in Canton. By 2006, the point at which ash trees averaged 40% canopy thinning had increased to a distance of 51.2 km away from Canton. Therefore, the point at which ash trees averaged 40% canopy thinning, a state of decline clearly visible to the average person, moved outward at a rate of 10.6 km/yr during this period.

  20. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range.

  1. Establishment and abundance of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Michigan: potential for success in classical biocontrol of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Bauer, Leah S; Abell, Kristopher J; Lelito, Jonathan P; Van Driesche, Roy

    2013-06-01

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid native to China and has been introduced to the United States since 2007 for classical biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. Between 2007-2010, T. planipennisi adults (3,311-4,597 females and approximately 1,500 males per site) were released into each of six forest sites in three counties (Ingham, Gratiot, and Shiawassee) of southern Michigan. By the fall of 2012, the proportion of sampled trees with one or more broods of T. planipennisi increased to 92 and 83% in the parasitoid-release and control plots, respectively, from 33 and 4% in the first year after parasitoid releases (2009 fall for Ingham county sites and 2010 for other sites). Similarly, the mean number of T. planipennisi broods observed from sampled trees increased from less than one brood per tree in the first year after parasitoid releases to 2.46 (at control plots) to 3.08 (at release plots) broods by the fall of 2012. The rates of emerald ash borer larval parasitism by T. planipennisi also increased from 1.2% in the first year after parasitoid releases to 21.2% in the parasitoid-release plots, and from 0.2 to 12.8% for the control plots by the fall of 2012. These results demonstrate that T. planipennisi is established in southern Michigan and that its populations are increasing and expanding. This suggests that T. planipennisi will likely play a critical role in suppressing emerald ash borer populations in Michigan.

  2. The influence of satellite populations of emerald ash borer on projected economic costs in U.S. communities, 2010-2020.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Kent F; Mercader, Rodrigo J; Haight, Robert G; Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Liebhold, Andrew M

    2011-09-01

    The invasion spread of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is characterized by the formation of satellite populations that expand and coalesce with the continuously invading population front. As of January 2010, satellite infestations have been detected in 13 states and two Canadian provinces. Understanding how newly established satellite populations may affect economic costs can help program managers to justify and design prevention and control strategies. We estimate the economic costs caused by EAB for the 10-yr period from 2010 to 2020 for scenarios of fewer EAB satellite populations than those found from 2005 to 2010 and slower expansion of satellite populations found in 2009. We measure the projected discounted cost of treatment, removal, and replacement of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) growing in managed landscapes in U.S. communities. Estimated costs for the base scenario with the full complement of satellites in 2005-2010 and no program to mitigate spread is $12.5 billion. Fewer EAB satellites from 2005 to 2010 delay economic costs of $1.0 to 7.4 billion. Slower expansion of 2009 satellite populations delays economic costs of $0.1 to 0.7 billion. Satellite populations that are both distant from the core EAB infestation and close to large urban areas caused more economic costs in our simulations than did other satellites. Our estimates of delayed economic costs suggest that spending on activities that prevent establishment of new satellite EAB populations or slow expansion of existing populations can be cost-effective and that continued research on the cost and effectiveness of prevention and control activities is warranted.

  3. Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Poland, Therese M

    2011-11-01

    The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study, changes in volatile and non-volatile foliar phytochemicals of potted 2-yr-old black ash, Fraxinus nigra Marshall, seedlings were observed in response to EAB larval feeding in the main stem. EAB larval feeding affected levels of six compounds [hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-β-ocimene, methyl salicylate, and (Z,E)-α-farnesene] with patterns of interaction depending upon compounds of interest and time of observation. Increased methyl salicylate emission suggests similarity in responses induced by EAB larval feeding and other phloem-feeding herbivores. Overall, EAB larval feeding suppressed (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate emission, elevated (E)-β-ocimene emission in the first 30days, but emissions leveled off thereafter, and generally increased the emission of (Z,E)-α-farnesene. Levels of carbohydrates and phenolics increased overall, while levels of proteins and most amino acids decreased in response to larval feeding. Twenty-three amino acids were consistently detected in the foliage of black ash. The three most abundant amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, while the four least abundant were α-aminobutyric acid, β-aminoisobutyric acid, methionine, and sarcosine. Most (16) foliar free amino acids and 6 of the 9 detected essential amino acids decreased with EAB larval feeding. The ecological consequences of these dynamic phytochemical changes on herbivores harbored by ash trees and potential natural enemies of these herbivores are discussed.

  4. Abundance of volatile organic compounds in white ash phloem and emerald ash borer larval frass does not attract Tetrastichus planipennisi in a Y-tube olfactometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Ulyshen, Michael D; Poland, Therese M

    2016-10-01

    Many natural enemies employ plant- and/or herbivore-derived signals for host/prey location. The larval parasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is 1 of 3 biocontrol agents currently being released in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coloeptera: Burprestidae) in North America. To enhance its efficiency, allelochemicals that attract it need to be assessed. In this study, ash phloem volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of black, green, and white ash, and EAB larval frass were compared. Foraging behavior of T. planipennisi females in response to VOCs of white ash or frass from EAB larvae feeding on white ash phloem was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer. Results indicated that the 3 ash species had similar VOC profiles. EAB larval frass generally contained greater levels of VOCs than phloem. Factor analysis indicated that the 11 VOCs could be broadly divided into 2 groups, with α-bisabolol, β-caryophyllene, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenal, limonene, methyl benzoate, methyl indole-3-acetic acid, methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate as the first group and the rest (i.e., methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate) as a second. Abundance of VOCs in white ash phloem tissue and frass, nevertheless, did not attract T. planipennisi females. The concealed feeding of EAB larvae might explain the selection for detectable and reliable virbrational signals, instead of undetectable and relatively unreliable VOC cues from phloem and frass, in short-range foraging by T. planipennisi. Alternatively, it is possible that T. planipennisi is not amenable to the Y-tube olfactometer assay employed.

  5. Simulated Impacts of Emerald Ash Borer on Throughfall and Stemflow Inputs of Water and Nitrogen in Black Ash Wetlands in Northern Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pypker, T. G.; Davis, J.; Van Grinsven, M. J.; Bolton, N. W.; Shannon, J.; Kolka, R. K.; Nelson, J.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB)) is an invasive insect that effectively kills ash trees (genus: Fraxinus) greater than 2.5 cm in diameter, resulting in near-complete stand mortality within 3-4 years. Black ash wetlands occupy approximately 270,000 ha in Michigan, and have 40 to 90% of the basal area occupied by black ash (F. nigra Marshall); hence the loss of black ash may result in dramatic changes in the canopy hydrology and nutrient deposition. We assessed the impact of a simulated EAB invasion on throughfall and stemflow quantity and nitrogen (N) content in 9 uninfected black ash wetlands located in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Within the 9 stands, 3 stands were left untreated ('Control'), 3 stands had all the black ash trees manually girdled ('Girdled') and 3 had all the black ash trees felled by chainsaw ('Clearcut'). We measured the quantity and inorganic-N content of throughfall using an array of randomly placed collectors (n = 16 per site). Stemflow was monitored at 2 sites (n = 12 trees) on the 3 most common tree species (black ash, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) and red maple (Acer rubra L.)). Preliminary results indicate that relative to the Control, average monthly throughfall was 25% and 1% greater in the Clearcut and Girdled sites, respectively. While the loss of the ash trees resulted in greater throughfall inputs in the Clearcut sites, water table heights did not significantly change as a result of the treatments. Stemflow from live black ash trees was lower than from the yellow birch and red maple trees. As a result, we predict stemflow will increase over time as species with smoother bark and less upright branching begin replacing the black ash. Hence, the change in tree species may result in a greater concentration of inorganic-N inputs to the base of the trees, thereby altering the distribution of inorganic-N inputs into the wetland. Our preliminary results show no significant change in the total

  6. Effects of rearing conditions on reproduction of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Gould, Juli R; Ayer, Tracy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-04-01

    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) can be successfully reared on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), larvae feeding in chambers drilled in small ash twigs that are wrapped with floral tape. Females maintained in groups with males for one week can receive enough sperm for production of female progeny throughout their lives. Volatiles released by emerald ash borer adults feeding on ash foliage increased parasitoid fecundity over ash foliage alone or no stimulus. The temperature at which the parasitoids were reared ranged from 20 to 25 degrees C in a daily cycle; however, raising the daily maximum temperature to 28 degrees C did not affect parasitoid longevity or fecundity. Adult females lived between 12 and 127 d, with an average of 60.8 +/- 4.5 d. Males lived slightly longer, with an average of 66 +/- 4.5 d. The first clutch of eggs was laid when the female was between 2 and 42 d old, with the average preoviposition period lasting 11.4 +/- 1.4 or 19.5 +/- 2.0 d in 2007 and 2009 trials, respectively. A higher proportion of the emerald ash borer larvae were feeding and thus attractive to parasitoids in the 2009 trial, and female S. agrili laid an average of 9.5 +/- 1.0 clutches containing 5.4 +/- 0.2 eggs, for an average of 51.2 eggs per female. Approximately three quarters of the progeny were female. The number of eggs per clutch was significantly greater when deposited on larger emerald ash borer larvae, further highlighting the need for quality larvae in rearing. Chilling S. agrili pupae at 10 degrees C to stockpile them for summer release was not successful; chilling resulted in lower survival and lower fecundity of emerging progeny. Female S. agrili proved capable of attacking emerald ash borer larvae through even the thickest bark of an ash tree that was 30-cm diameter at breast height. Even emerald ash borer larvae that were creating overwintering chambers in the outer sapwood of the tree were successfully

  7. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

    2010-10-01

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (<3%) in both the spring and fall sample periods. In the fall 2009 samples, ≈ 1.5% of experimental cohorts and 0.8% of the wild emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the

  8. Towards the development of an autocontamination trap system to manage populations of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with the native entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Lyons, D Barry; Iavallée, Robert; Kyei-Poku, George; Van Frankenhuyzen, Kees; Johny, Shajahan; Guertin, Claude; Francese, Joseph A; Jones, Gene C; Blais, Martine

    2012-12-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive species from Asia that was discovered in North America Canada, in 2002. Herein, we describe studies to develop an autocontamination trapping system to disseminate Beauveria bassiana to control beetle populations. The standard trap for emerald ash borer in Canada is a light green prism trap covered in an insect adhesive and baited with (Z)-3-hexenol. We compared of green multifunnel traps, green intercept panel traps (both with and without fluon coating) and green prism traps for capturing emerald ash borer in a green ash plantation. The coated green multifunnel traps captured significantly more males and more females than any other trap design. We examined the efficacy of two native B. bassiana isolates, INRS-CFL and L49-1AA. In a field experiment the INRS-CFL isolate attached to multifunnel traps in autocontamination chambers retained its pathogenicity to emerald ash borer adults for up to 43 d of outdoor exposure. Conidia germination of the INRS-CFL isolate was >69% after outdoor exposure in the traps for up to 57 d. The L49-1AA isolate was not pathogenic in simulated trap exposures and the germination rate was extremely low (<5.3%). Mean (+/- SEM) conidia loads on ash borer adults after being autocontaminated in the laboratory using pouches that had been exposed in traps out of doors for 29 d were 579,200 (+/- 86,181) and 2,400 (+/- 681) for the INRS-CFL and the LA9-1AA isolates, respectively. We also examined the fungal dissemination process under field conditions using the L49-1AA isolate in a green ash plantation. Beetles were lured to baited green multifunnel traps with attached autocontamination chambers. Beetles acquired fungal conidia from cultures growing on pouches in the chambers and were recaptured on Pestick-coated traps. In total, 2,532 beetles were captured of which 165 (6.5%) had fungal growth that resembled B. bassiana. Of these 25 beetles were positive for

  9. Transcriptomic Signatures of Ash (Fraxinus spp.) Phloem

    PubMed Central

    Mamidala, Praveen; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2011-01-01

    Background Ash (Fraxinus spp.) is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA). The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra), green (F. pennsylvannica) and white (F. americana) are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica) is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem. Methodology and Principal Findings Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3) revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species. Conclusions and Significance The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future

  10. Toward pest control via mass production of realistic decoys of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.

    2012-04-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive species of beetles threatening the ash trees of North America. The species exhibits a mating behavior in which a flying male will first spot a stationary female at rest and then execute a pouncing maneuver to dive sharply onto her. The pouncing behavior appears to be cued by some visual signal from the top surface of the female's body. We have adopted bioreplication techniques to fabricate artificial visual decoys that could be used to detect, monitor, and slow the spread of EAB populations across North America. Using a negative die made of nickel and a positive die made of a hard polymer, we have stamped a polymer sheet to produce these decoys. Our bioreplication procedure is industrially scalable.

  11. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap.

  12. Review of Afraustraloderes rassei Bouyer, 2012: description of its female and a new species of Pixodarus Fairmaire, 1887 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae)

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnstad, Anders; Grobbelaar, Elizabeth; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The original description of Afraustraloderes rassei Bouyer, 2012 included a female that is now recognized as a separate species belonging to the genus Pixodarus and here described as Pixodarus spiniscapus sp. n. The true female of Afraustraloderes rassei has also been obtained recently and is, therefore, here described. The synonymy of Pixodarus exasperatus with Pixodarus nyassae, proposed earlier by Santos Ferreira (1980), is here supported. Conversely, the earlier inclusion of Afraustraloderes rassei in the tribe Hopliderini is rejected, on the basis of a key set of characters established by Quentin and Villiers (1972, 1975). Afraustraloderes rassei appears to be restricted to the Cape Floral Region, exhibiting larval development in trunks and roots of dead Proteaceae plants. Conversely, Pixodarus spiniscapus has so far only been recorded in the eastern part of South Africa and appears to be associated with bushveld vegetation. PMID:27006596

  13. Structure-Based Analysis of the Ligand-Binding Mechanism for DhelOBP21, a C-minus Odorant Binding Protein, from Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Bothrideridae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong-Zhen; Yu, Guang-Qiang; Yi, Shan-Cheng; Zhang, Yinan; Kong, De-Xin; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) transport hydrophobic odor molecules across the sensillar lymph to trigger a neuronal response. Herein, the Minus-C OBP (DhelOBP21) was characterized from Dastarcus helophoroides, the most important natural parasitic enemy insect that targets Monochamus alternatus. Homology modeling and molecular docking were conducted on the interaction between DhelOBP21 and 17 volatile molecules (including volatiles from pine bark, the larva of M. alternatus, and the faeces of the larva). The predicted three-dimensional structure showed only two disulfide bridges and a hydrophobic binding cavity with a short C-terminus. Ligand-binding experiments using N-phenylnaphthylamine (1-NPN) as a fluorescent probe showed that DhelOBP21 exhibited better binding affinities against those ligands with a molecular volume between 100 and 125 ų compared with ligands with a molecular volume between 160 and 185 ų. Molecules that are too big or too small are not conducive for binding. We mutated the amino acid residues of the binding cavity to increase either hydrophobicity or hydrophilia. Ligand-binding experiments and cyber molecular docking assays indicated that hydrophobic interactions are more significant than hydrogen-bonding interactions. Although hydrogen-bond interactions could be predicted for some binding complexes, the hydrophobic interactions had more influence on binding following hydrophobic changes that affected the cavity. The orientation of ligands affects binding by influencing hydrophobic interactions. The binding process is controlled by multiple factors. This study provides a basis to explore the ligand-binding mechanisms of Minus-C OBP. PMID:26435694

  14. Structure-Based Analysis of the Ligand-Binding Mechanism for DhelOBP21, a C-minus Odorant Binding Protein, from Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Bothrideridae).

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Zhen; Yu, Guang-Qiang; Yi, Shan-Cheng; Zhang, Yinan; Kong, De-Xin; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) transport hydrophobic odor molecules across the sensillar lymph to trigger a neuronal response. Herein, the Minus-C OBP (DhelOBP21) was characterized from Dastarcus helophoroides, the most important natural parasitic enemy insect that targets Monochamus alternatus. Homology modeling and molecular docking were conducted on the interaction between DhelOBP21 and 17 volatile molecules (including volatiles from pine bark, the larva of M. alternatus, and the faeces of the larva). The predicted three-dimensional structure showed only two disulfide bridges and a hydrophobic binding cavity with a short C-terminus. Ligand-binding experiments using N-phenylnaphthylamine (1-NPN) as a fluorescent probe showed that DhelOBP21 exhibited better binding affinities against those ligands with a molecular volume between 100 and 125 Å(³) compared with ligands with a molecular volume between 160 and 185 Å(³). Molecules that are too big or too small are not conducive for binding. We mutated the amino acid residues of the binding cavity to increase either hydrophobicity or hydrophilia. Ligand-binding experiments and cyber molecular docking assays indicated that hydrophobic interactions are more significant than hydrogen-bonding interactions. Although hydrogen-bond interactions could be predicted for some binding complexes, the hydrophobic interactions had more influence on binding following hydrophobic changes that affected the cavity. The orientation of ligands affects binding by influencing hydrophobic interactions. The binding process is controlled by multiple factors. This study provides a basis to explore the ligand-binding mechanisms of Minus-C OBP. PMID:26435694

  15. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights.

    PubMed

    Domingue, Michael J; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P; Hall, Loyal P; Badding, John V; Bischof, Jesse L; Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C

    2014-09-30

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle's wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  16. Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-03-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

  17. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, Michael J.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Hall, Loyal P.; Badding, John V.; Bischof, Jesse L.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C.; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle’s wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  18. Progress and gaps in understanding mechanisms of ash tree resistance to emerald ash borer, a model for wood-boring insects that kill angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Villari, Caterina; Herms, Daniel A; Whitehill, Justin G A; Cipollini, Don; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    We review the literature on host resistance of ash to emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis), an invasive species that causes widespread mortality of ash. Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica), which coevolved with EAB, is more resistant than evolutionarily naïve North American and European congeners. Manchurian ash was less preferred for adult feeding and oviposition than susceptible hosts, more resistant to larval feeding, had higher constitutive concentrations of bark lignans, coumarins, proline, tyramine and defensive proteins, and was characterized by faster oxidation of phenolics. Consistent with EAB being a secondary colonizer of coevolved hosts, drought stress decreased the resistance of Manchurian ash, but had no effect on constitutive bark phenolics, suggesting that they do not contribute to increased susceptibility in response to drought stress. The induced resistance of North American species to EAB in response to the exogenous application of methyl jasmonate was associated with increased bark concentrations of verbascoside, lignin and/or trypsin inhibitors, which decreased larval survival and/or growth in bioassays. This finding suggests that these inherently susceptible species possess latent defenses that are not induced naturally by larval colonization, perhaps because they fail to recognize larval cues or respond quickly enough. Finally, we propose future research directions that would address some critical knowledge gaps. PMID:26268949

  19. Progress and gaps in understanding mechanisms of ash tree resistance to emerald ash borer, a model for wood-boring insects that kill angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Villari, Caterina; Herms, Daniel A; Whitehill, Justin G A; Cipollini, Don; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    We review the literature on host resistance of ash to emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis), an invasive species that causes widespread mortality of ash. Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica), which coevolved with EAB, is more resistant than evolutionarily naïve North American and European congeners. Manchurian ash was less preferred for adult feeding and oviposition than susceptible hosts, more resistant to larval feeding, had higher constitutive concentrations of bark lignans, coumarins, proline, tyramine and defensive proteins, and was characterized by faster oxidation of phenolics. Consistent with EAB being a secondary colonizer of coevolved hosts, drought stress decreased the resistance of Manchurian ash, but had no effect on constitutive bark phenolics, suggesting that they do not contribute to increased susceptibility in response to drought stress. The induced resistance of North American species to EAB in response to the exogenous application of methyl jasmonate was associated with increased bark concentrations of verbascoside, lignin and/or trypsin inhibitors, which decreased larval survival and/or growth in bioassays. This finding suggests that these inherently susceptible species possess latent defenses that are not induced naturally by larval colonization, perhaps because they fail to recognize larval cues or respond quickly enough. Finally, we propose future research directions that would address some critical knowledge gaps.

  20. Interspecific comparison of constitutive ash phloem phenolic chemistry reveals compounds unique to manchurian ash, a species resistant to emerald ash borer.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Opiyo, Stephen O; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Cipollini, Donald F; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2012-05-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, EAB) is an invasive wood-borer indigenous to Asia and is responsible for widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in the U.S. and Canada. Resistance and susceptibility to EAB varies among Fraxinus spp., which is a result of their co-evolutionary history with the pest. We characterized constitutive phenolic profiles and lignin levels in the phloem of green, white, black, blue, European, and Manchurian ash. Phloem was sampled twice during the growing season, coinciding with phenology of early and late instar EAB. We identified 66 metabolites that displayed a pattern of variation, which corresponded strongly with phylogeny. Previously identified lignans and lignan derivatives were confirmed to be unique to Manchurian ash, and may contribute to its high level of resistance to EAB. Other compounds that had been considered unique to Manchurian ash, including hydroxycoumarins and the phenylethanoids calceolarioside A and B, were detected in closely related, but susceptible species, and thus are unlikely to contribute to EAB resistance of Manchurian ash. The distinct phenolic profile of blue ash may contribute to its relatively high resistance to EAB.

  1. Electrophysiological response and attraction of emerald ash borer to green leaf volatiles (GLVs) emitted by host foliage.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Peter; Grant, Gary G; Poland, Therese M; Scharbach, Roger; Buchan, Linda; Nott, Reginald W; Macdonald, Linda; Pitt, Doug

    2008-09-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) function as host attractants, pheromone synergists, or sexual kairomones for a number of coleopteran folivores. Hence, we focused on host GLVs to determine if they were attractive to adults of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), which feeds on ash (Fraxinus) foliage. Eight GLVs were identified by chromatography-electroantennogram (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry in foliar headspace volatiles collected in traps containing Super-Q from white ash, Fraxinus americana, and green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, trees. GLVs in the aeration extracts elicited antennal responses from both male and female adults in gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection bioassays. Male antennae were more responsive than female antennae and showed the strongest response to (Z)-3-hexenol. Six field experiments were conducted in Canada and the USA from 2004 to 2006 to evaluate the attractiveness of candidate GLVs, in various lure combinations and dosages. Field experiments demonstrated that lures containing (Z)-3-hexenol were the most effective in increasing trap catch when placed on purple traps in open areas or along the edges of woodlots containing ash. Lures with (Z)-3-hexenol were more attractive to males than females, and dosage may be a factor determining its effectiveness.

  2. Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer

    PubMed Central

    Whitehill, Justin G. A.; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B.; Koch, Jennifer L.; Herms, Daniel A.; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion. PMID:21949771

  3. Water Table and Soil Gas Emission Responses to Disturbance in Northern Forested Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pypker, T. G.; Van Grinsven, M. J.; Bolton, N. W.; Shannon, J.; Davis, J.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Kolka, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Exotic pest infestations are increasingly common throughout North American forests. In forested wetlands, disturbance events may alter nutrient, carbon, and hydrologic pathways. Recently, ash (Fraxinus spp.) forests in North Central and Eastern North America have been exposed to the exotic emerald ash borer (EAB) (Burprestidae: Agrilus planipennis), and the rapid and extensive expansion of EAB populations since 2001 may soon eliminate most existing ash stands. Limited research has focused on post-establishment ecosystem impacts of an EAB disturbance, and to our knowledge, there are no studies that have evaluated the coupled response of black ash (Fraxinus nigra) wetland water tables, soil temperatures, and soil gas emissions to an EAB infestation. We present preliminary results that detail those responses to a simulated EAB disturbance. Water table position, soil temperature, and soil gas emissions (CO2 and CH4) were monitored in nine black ash wetlands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan for three years, including one year of pre-treatment and two years of post-treatment data-collection. An EAB disturbance was simulated by girdling (Girdle) or felling (Clearcut) all black ash trees with diameters of 2.5 cm or greater within the wetland, and each treatment was applied to three sites. The results indicate that wetland water tables were insensitive to treatment effects, soil temperatures were significantly higher in the Clearcut treatment, soil gas flux was significantly higher in the Clearcut treatment, and the rate of soil gas flux was strongly regulated by water table position and temperature. No significant treatment effects were detected in the Girdle treatment during the first post-treatment year. Because water tables were insensitive to treatment, we concluded that water tables did not independently generate a soil gas flux response despite their strong regulatory influence. Furthermore, we concluded that the response of soil temperature to disturbance was

  4. Phenologically informed re-ordering of Landsat to account for inter-annual variability: a method to map Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) using remotely sensed imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, B. N.; Singh, A.; Serbin, S. P.; Townsend, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Rapid ecosystem invasion by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairemaire) is forcing resource managers to make decisions regarding how best to manage the pest, but a detailed map of abundance of the host, ash trees of the genus Fraxinus, does not exist, frustrating fully informed management decisions. We have developed methods to map ash tree abundance across a broad spatial extent in Wisconsin using their unique phenology (late leaf-out, early leaf-fall) and the rich dataset of Landsat imagery that can be used to characterize ash senescence with respect to other deciduous species. However, across environmental gradients in Wisconsin, senescence can vary by days or even weeks such that leaf-drop within one species can temporally vary even within a single Landsat footprint. To address this issue, we used phenology products from NASA’s MODIS for North American Carbon Program (NACP) coupled with vegetation indices derived from a time series of Landsat imagery across multiple years to determine the phenological position of each Landsat pixel within a single idealized growing season. Pixels within Landsat images collected in different years were re-arranged in a phenologically-informed time series that described autumn senescence. This characterization of leaf-drop was then related to the abundance of ash trees, producing a spatially-generalizable model of moderate resolution capable of predicting ash abundance across the state using multiple Landsat scenes. Empirical models predicting ash abundance for two Landsat footprints in Wisconsin indicate model fits for ash abundance of R^2=0.65 in north-central WI, and R^2>0.70 in southeastern WI.

  5. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  6. An Assessment of Worldview-2 Imagery for the Classification Of a Mixed Deciduous Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Nahid

    Remote sensing provides a variety of methods for classifying forest communities and can be a valuable tool for the impact assessment of invasive species. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) infestation of ash trees (Fraxinus) in the United States has resulted in the mortality of large stands of ash throughout the Northeast. This study assessed the suitability of multi-temporal Worldview-2 multispectral satellite imagery for classifying a mixed deciduous forest in Upstate New York. Training sites were collected using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, with each training site consisting of a single tree of a corresponding class. Six classes were collected; Ash, Maple, Oak, Beech, Evergreen, and Other. Three different classifications were investigated on four data sets. A six class classification (6C), a two class classification consisting of ash and all other classes combined (2C), and a merging of the ash and maple classes for a five class classification (5C). The four data sets included Worldview-2 multispectral data collection from June 2010 (J-WV2) and September 2010 (S-WV2), a layer stacked data set using J-WV2 and S-WV2 (LS-WV2), and a reduced data set (RD-WV2). RD-WV2 was created using a statistical analysis of the processed and unprocessed imagery. Statistical analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the data and identify key bands to create a fourth data set (RD-WV2). Overall accuracy varied considerably depending upon the classification type, but results indicated that ash was confused with maple in a majority of the classifications. Ash was most accurately identified using the 2C classification and RD-WV2 data set (81.48%). A combination of the ash and maple classes yielded an accuracy of 89.41%. Future work should focus on separating the ash and maple classifiers by using data sources such as hyperspectral imagery, LiDAR, or extensive forest surveys.

  7. Characterization and virulence of Beauveria spp. recovered from emerald ash borer in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George; Gauthier, Debbie; Frankenhuyzen, Kees van; Krell, Peter J

    2012-09-15

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive wood boring beetle that is decimating North America's ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). To find effective and safe indigenous biocontrol agents to manage EAB, we conducted a survey in 2008-2009 of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) infecting EAB in five outbreak sites in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A total of 78 Beauveria spp. isolates were retrieved from dead and mycosed EAB cadavers residing in the phloem tissues of dead ash barks, larval frass extracted from feeding galleries under the bark of dead trees. Molecular characterization using sequences of the ITS, 5' end of EF1-α and intergenic Bloc region fragments revealed that Beauveria bassiana and Beauveria pseudobassiana were commonly associated with EAB in the sampled sites. Based on phylogenetic analysis inferred from ITS sequences, 17 of these isolates clustered with B. bassiana, which further grouped into three different sub-clades. However, the combined EF1-α and Bloc sequences detected five genotypes among the three sub-clades. The remaining 61 isolates clustered with B. pseudobassiana, which had identical ITS sequences but were further subdivided into two genotypes by variation in the EF1-α and Bloc regions. Initial virulence screening against EAB adults of 23 isolates representing the different clades yielded 8 that produced more than 90% mortality in a single concentration assay. These isolates differed in virulence based on LC(50) values estimated from multiple concentration bioassay and based on mean survival times at a conidia concentration of 2×10(6) conidia/ml. B. bassiana isolate L49-1AA was significantly more virulent and produced more conidia on EAB cadavers compared to the other indigenous isolates and the commercial strain B. bassiana GHA suggesting that L49-1AA may have potential as a microbiological control agent against EAB.

  8. Antennal Transcriptome Analysis of Odorant Reception Genes in the Red Turpentine Beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shuang-Lin; Zhang, Long-Wa

    2015-01-01

    Background The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is a destructive invasive pest of conifers which has become the second most important forest pest nationwide in China. Dendroctonus valens is known to use host odors and aggregation pheromones, as well as non-host volatiles, in host location and mass-attack modulation, and thus antennal olfaction is of the utmost importance for the beetles’ survival and fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfaction has been lacking in D. valens. Here, we report the antennal transcriptome of D. valens from next-generation sequencing, with the goal of identifying the olfaction gene repertoire that is involved in D. valens odor-processing. Results We obtained 51 million reads that were assembled into 61,889 genes, including 39,831 contigs and 22,058 unigenes. In total, we identified 68 novel putative odorant reception genes, including 21 transcripts encoding for putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), six chemosensory proteins (CSP), four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 22 odorant receptors (OR), four gustatory receptors (GR), three ionotropic receptors (IR), and eight ionotropic glutamate receptors. We also identified 155 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes from the antennal transcriptome, putatively identified to be involved in olfaction processes including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in Tribolium castaneum, Megacyllene caryae, Ips typographus, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and Agrilus planipennis. Conclusion The antennal transcriptome described here represents the first study of the repertoire of odor processing genes in D. valens. The genes reported here provide a significant addition to the pool of identified olfactory genes in Coleoptera, which might represent novel targets for insect management. The results from our study also will

  9. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Buprestidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Nine species of Buprestidae; Agrilus bilineatus (Weber), Agrilus crinicornis Horn, Agrilus obsoletoguttatus Gory, Agrilus putillus putillus Say, Brachys ovatus (Weber), Buprestis sulcicollis (LeConte), Chalcophora liberta (Germar), Phaenops aeneola (Melsheimer), and Taphrocerus gracilis (Say) are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada. Agrilus bilineatus, A. crinicornis, A. obsoletoguttatus,and B. ovatus are also newly reported for the Maritime provinces. Lindgren 12-funnel traps do not appear to be an effective tool for sampling the Bupresidae. Collection, habitat notes, and distribution maps are presented for each species. PMID:22539885

  10. Use of isotopic and hydrometric monitoring methods to partition hydrologic contributions to forested wetlands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Grinsven, M. J.; Pypker, T. G.; Kolka, R. K.

    2012-12-01

    As a result of their landscape position and physical soil properties, northern forested wetlands are capable of retaining springtime snowmelt, rain and near surface groundwater inputs into the growing season. Hydrological conditions such as source water chemistry, duration of inundation, and magnitude of water table fluctuations are affected by the relative contribution of snow, rain, and groundwater sources, and in turn these hydrological conditions strongly influence the structure and function of northern forested wetlands. Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is a facultative wet tree species, and is known to occur in 23 U.S. states and 7 Canadian provinces in northeastern North America. Black ash trees have ecological, economic, and cultural significance, and are currently threatened by the rapid expansion of the exotic emerald ash borer (Burprestidae: Agrilus planipennis). Since its initial detection in 2002 near Detroit, MI, the emerald ash borer has killed millions of ash trees in 15 U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces. There is very little known about black ash wetland hydrology and ecology, and as a result of the looming infestation, there is a critical need to gain a better understanding of the hydrology in undisturbed ecosystems. The main objective of this study is to partition source water contributions in black ash wetlands in the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan. We hypothesize that snowmelt and near surface groundwater supply the majority of water to these wetlands annually, and summer rain is readily removed from the system through the evapotranspiration pathway. Hydrometric monitoring methods were used in conjunction with isotopic analysis using a linear mixing model to characterize source water contributions in nine black ash wetlands. The results suggest a connection with near surface groundwater during spring and early summer, and a short residence time for rain water following summer storm events. The outcome of this research aims to inform land

  11. A cladistically based reinterpretation of the taxonomy of two Afrotropical tenebrionid genera Ectateus Koch, 1956 and Selinus Mulsant & Rey, 1853 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Platynotina).

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Marcin Jan

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of a newly performed cladistic analysis a new classification of the representatives of two Afrotropical tenebrionid genera, Ectateus Koch, 1956 and Selinus Mulsant & Rey, 1853 sensu Iwan 2002a, is provided. Eleoselinus is described as a new genus. The genus Monodius, previously synonymized with Selinus by Iwan (2002), is redescribed and considered as a separate genus. Following new combinations are proposed: Ectateus calcaripes (Gebien, 1904), Monodius laevistriatus (Fairmaire, 1897), Monodius lamottei (Gridelli, 1954), Monodius plicicollis (Fairmaire, 1897), Eleoselinus villiersi (Ardoin, 1965) and Eleoselinus ursynowiensis (Kamiński, 2011). Neotype for Ectateus calcaripes and lectotypes for E. crenatus (Fairmaire, 1897), E. ghesquierei Koch, 1956 and Monodius malaisei malaisei Koch, 1956 are designated to fix the taxonomic status of these taxa. The following synonymies are proposed: Selinus monardi Kaszab, 1951 and Ectateus latipennis Koch, 1956 with E. crenatus (Fairmaire, 1897). Identification keys are provided to all known species of Ectateus sensu novum, Eleoselinus, Monodius and Selinus sensu novum. PMID:25009425

  12. Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) tawangensis new species (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devanshu; Chandra, Kailash; Hillert, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Odontotrypes Fairmaire, 1887 (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae) belonging to the subgenus Odontotrupes Boucomont, 1905 is described from the Tawang district, State of Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India): Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) tawangensis new species. Relevant diagnostic characters (pronotum, head, elytra, profemur, scutellar shield, and external male genitalia) are illustrated and compared with closely related species of this subgenus, in particular Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) orichalceus (Fairmaire, 1895). The distribution of the new species is mapped. PMID:27615859

  13. A new species group of the genus Epicauta Dejean of southern South America, the bella group (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Soldini, María P

    2011-10-01

    Epicauta includes two subgenera, and within the nominotypical subgenus several species groups. Analyzing species of southern South America, a set of species of Epicauta has the particularity to present two distinctive characters which separates this group from the other species groups of American Epicauta: color pattern of pubescence in elytra is not coincident with color pattern of tegument and endophalic hook robust. Based on these characters I propose a new group of species herein named bella group. This group includes the Neotropical species Epicauta bella Mäklin, E. brunneipennis (Haag-Rutemberg), E. diagramma (Burmeister), E. griseonigra (Fairmaire), E. luctifera (Fairmaire), E. riojana (Fairmaire) (new status), and E. zebra (Dohrn). This group is endemic of southern South America, inhabiting the Chaco biogeographical subregion, mainly in the arid northern areas of Argentina. Here we redefine the species of the bella group, consider new characters, illustrate the species in the group, provide maps of their distribution, and a key to identify them.

  14. A checklist of comb-clawed beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Alleculinae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Novák, Vladimir; Ghahari, Hassan

    2015-10-01

    The fauna of Iranian Alleculinae is summarized in this paper. Seventy species from 12 genera are reported: the subtribe Alleculina Laporte with 4 genera and 18 species: Hymenalia Mulsant (7 species), Hymenophorus Mulsant (3 species), Mycetocharina Seidlitz (6 species), Prionychus Solier (2 species); the subtribe Gonoderina Seidlitz with 3 genera and 6 species: Gonodera Mulsant (1 species), Isomira Mulsant (4 species), Pseudocistela Crotch (1 species), the subtribe Mycetocharina Gistel with a single genus and 3 species: Mycetochara Berthold (3 species) and the tribe Cteniopodini Solier with 4 genera and 43 species: Cteniopus Solier (5 species), Omophlina Reitter (2 species), Omophlus Dejean (32 species) and Podonta Solier (4 species). Nine species are newly recorded for the fauna of Iran: Hymenalia atronitens (Fairmaire, 1892), Mycetocharina rufotestacea Reitter, 1898, Prionychus asiatica (Fairmaire, 1892), Isomira nitidula (Kiesenwetter, 1861), Mycetochara ocularis Reitter, 1884, Cteniopus impressicolis Fairmaire, 1892, Omophlus afghanus Muche, 1965, Omophlus schmidi Muche, 1965 and Podonta elongata Ménétriés, 1832.

  15. Review of the genus Saprinus Erichson, 1834 from Madagascar and adjacent islands with description of a new species (Coleoptera: Histeridae: Saprininae) Third contribution to the knowledge of the Histeridae of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Tomáš; Gomy, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Clown beetles belonging to the genus Saprinus Erichson, 1834 from Madagascar and adjacent islands are reviewed. The Malagasy fauna of Saprinus consists of seven species: Saprinus (Saprinus) erichsonii Marseul, 1855; Saprinus (Saprinus) fulgidicollis Marseul, 1855; Saprinus (Saprinus) basalis Fairmaire, 1898; Saprinus (Saprinus) cupreus Erichson, 1834; Saprinus (Saprinus) chalcites (Illiger, 1807); Saprinus (Saprinus) splendens (Paykull, 1811); one species S. (Saprinus) labordei sp. nov., is described as new. Saprinus erichsonii Marseul, 1855 is transferred from the subgenus Phaonius Reichardt, 1941 into the nominotypical subgenus based on the morphological evidence. Lectotypes of the following species are designated: Saprinus erichsonii Marseul, 1855; Saprinus basalis Fairmaire, 1898 and Saprinus fulgidicollis Marseul, 1855. Saprinus (Saprinus) cupreus Erichson, 1834 is newly reported from Madagascar and Saprinus (Saprinus) basalis Fairmaire, 1898 is newly reported from the following countries: Congo, Gambia, Central African Republic, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Republic of South Africa. PMID:27394225

  16. A new species group of the genus Epicauta Dejean of southern South America, the bella group (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Soldini, María P

    2011-10-01

    Epicauta includes two subgenera, and within the nominotypical subgenus several species groups. Analyzing species of southern South America, a set of species of Epicauta has the particularity to present two distinctive characters which separates this group from the other species groups of American Epicauta: color pattern of pubescence in elytra is not coincident with color pattern of tegument and endophalic hook robust. Based on these characters I propose a new group of species herein named bella group. This group includes the Neotropical species Epicauta bella Mäklin, E. brunneipennis (Haag-Rutemberg), E. diagramma (Burmeister), E. griseonigra (Fairmaire), E. luctifera (Fairmaire), E. riojana (Fairmaire) (new status), and E. zebra (Dohrn). This group is endemic of southern South America, inhabiting the Chaco biogeographical subregion, mainly in the arid northern areas of Argentina. Here we redefine the species of the bella group, consider new characters, illustrate the species in the group, provide maps of their distribution, and a key to identify them. PMID:22068944

  17. Review of the genus Saprinus Erichson, 1834 from Madagascar and adjacent islands with description of a new species (Coleoptera: Histeridae: Saprininae) Third contribution to the knowledge of the Histeridae of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Tomáš; Gomy, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Clown beetles belonging to the genus Saprinus Erichson, 1834 from Madagascar and adjacent islands are reviewed. The Malagasy fauna of Saprinus consists of seven species: Saprinus (Saprinus) erichsonii Marseul, 1855; Saprinus (Saprinus) fulgidicollis Marseul, 1855; Saprinus (Saprinus) basalis Fairmaire, 1898; Saprinus (Saprinus) cupreus Erichson, 1834; Saprinus (Saprinus) chalcites (Illiger, 1807); Saprinus (Saprinus) splendens (Paykull, 1811); one species S. (Saprinus) labordei sp. nov., is described as new. Saprinus erichsonii Marseul, 1855 is transferred from the subgenus Phaonius Reichardt, 1941 into the nominotypical subgenus based on the morphological evidence. Lectotypes of the following species are designated: Saprinus erichsonii Marseul, 1855; Saprinus basalis Fairmaire, 1898 and Saprinus fulgidicollis Marseul, 1855. Saprinus (Saprinus) cupreus Erichson, 1834 is newly reported from Madagascar and Saprinus (Saprinus) basalis Fairmaire, 1898 is newly reported from the following countries: Congo, Gambia, Central African Republic, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Republic of South Africa.

  18. Thermally evaporated conformal thin films on non-traditional/non-planar substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulsifer, Drew Patrick

    Conformal thin films have a wide variety of uses in the microelectronics, optics, and coatings industries. The ever-increasing capabilities of these conformal thin films have enabled tremendous technological advancement in the last half century. During this period, new thin-film deposition techniques have been developed and refined. While these techniques have remarkable performance for traditional applications which utilize planar substrates such as silicon wafers, they are not suitable for the conformal coating of non-traditional substrates such as biological material. The process of thermally evaporating a material under vacuum conditions is one of the oldest thin-film deposition techniques which is able to produce functional film morphologies. A drawback of thermally evaporated thin films is that they are not intrinsically conformal. To overcome this, while maintaining the advantages of thermal evaporation, a procedure for varying the substrates orientation with respect to the incident vapor flux during deposition was developed immediately prior to the research undertaken for this doctoral dissertation. This process was shown to greatly improve the conformality of thermally evaporated thin films. This development allows for several applications of thermally evaporated conformal thin films on non-planar/non-traditional substrates. Three settings in which to evaluate the improved conformal deposition of thermally evaporated thin films were investigated for this dissertation. In these settings the thin-film morphologies are of different types. In the first setting, a bioreplication approach was used to fabricate artificial visual decoys for the invasive species Agrilus planipennis, commonly known as the emerald ash borer (EAB). The mating behavior of this species involves an overflying EAB male pouncing on an EAB female at rest on an ash leaflet before copulation. The male spots the female on the leaflet by visually detecting the iridescent green color of the

  19. A checklist of the Ukrainian Xoridinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Ukrainian Xoridinae list containing 28 species is reviewed. Four species, Xorides flavotibialis Hilszczanski, 2000, X. hedwigi Clement, 1938, Xorides rufipes (Gravenhorst, 1829), and X. rusticus (Desvignes, 1856) are recorded in the Ukrainian fauna for the first time. Agrilus biguttatus F. is recorded as a host of Ischnoceros caligatus (Gravenhorst, 1829) for the first time. PMID:26491391

  20. First record of Stephanidae (Hymenoptera, Stephanoidea) for the fauna of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Edmardash, Yusuf A

    2015-01-01

    The family Stephanidae (Hymenoptera, Stephanoidea) is recorded for the first time for the Egyptian fauna, with one species, Foenatopus bisignatus Aguiar & Jennings, 2010. A single specimen was collected among Acacia raddiana trees infested with Agrilus roscidus Kiesenwetter (Coleoptera, Buprestidae), which represents a likely new host record. PMID:26249945

  1. A new species of Pseudopyrochroa Pic, 1906 (Coleoptera: Pyrochroidae: Pyrochroinae) from the Mae Chaem District, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Young, Daniel K

    2014-04-02

    A new species of the fire-colored beetle genus Pseudopyrochroa Pic, 1906, is described from the Mae Chaem District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The new species, Pseudopyrochroa inthanonensis sp. nov., is superficially similar to Pseudopyrochroa basalis (Pic), Pseudopyrochroa cardoni (Fairmaire) and Pseudopyrochroa fainanensis (Pic) by virtue of body color, antennal form and prothoracic shape. It is the second species of the genus known from Thailand, the other being Pseudopyrochroa diversicornis (Blair).

  2. Review of the southern South American Macrodactylini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) with descriptions of new genera and species.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew B T; Mondaca, José

    2015-12-08

    The tribe Macrodactylini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) is reviewed from southern South America.  A total of 13 genera and 33 species were found in the study area consisting of Argentina from Neuquén south and Chile from IV Región de Coquimbo south. The following three new genera are described: Extenuoptyophis, Insimuloissacaris, and Neuquenodactylus.  The following 11 new species are described: Ampliodactylus elguetai, Ampliodactylus guinezi, Ampliodactylus inusitus, Ampliodactylus panguipullensis, Extenuoptyophis horridulus, Extenuoptyophis metropolitensis, Insimuloissacaris nahuelbutensis, Issacaris falsa, Issacaris sola, Neuquenodactylus ramus, and Phytholaema fenestra. The species Schizochelus modestus Philippi, 1861 is transferred to the genus Ampliodactylus. Lectotypes are designated for the following five species-group names (species names given in their original combination): Dicrania aeneobrunnea Philippi, 1861, Modialis prasinella Fairmaire & Germain, 1860, Phytholaema elaphocera Redtenbacher, 1868, Phytholaema herrmanni Germain, 1901, and Schizochelus modestus Philippi, 1861.  Neotypes are designated for the following four species-group names (species names given in their original combination): Acanthosternum splendens Philippi, 1861, Areoda mutabilis Solier, 1851, Issacaris petalophora Fairmaire, 1889, and Phytholaema flavipes Philippi, 1861. The genera Modialis Fairmaire & Germain, 1860 and Phytholaema Blanchard, 1851 are here transferred to the tribe Macrodactylini. The species-group names Phytholaema pallida Saylor, 1937 and Phytholaema peccans Blackwelder, 1944 are placed in synonymy with Phytholaema herrmanni Germain, 1901. Descriptions or diagnoses, keys, and distributional data are given for all species.

  3. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. I. Select beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Carabidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionoidea excluding Scolytinae)

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Danielle M.; Schnepp, Kyle E.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Ozark Mountains are a region with high endemism and biodiversity, yet few invertebrate inventories have been made and few sites extensively studied. We surveyed a site near Steel Creek Campground, along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas, using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction for eight and half months. New information We provide collection records of beetle species belonging to eight families collected at the site. Thirty one species represent new state records: (Buprestidae) Actenodes acornis, Agrilus cephalicus, Agrilus ohioensis, Agrilus paracelti, Taphrocerus nicolayi; (Carabidae) Agonum punctiforme, Synuchus impunctatus; (Curculionidae) Acalles clavatus, Acalles minutissimus, Acoptus suturalis, Anthonomus juniperinus, Anametis granulata, Idiostethus subcalvus, Eudociminus mannerheimii, Madarellus undulatus, Magdalis armicollis, Magdalis barbita, Mecinus pascuorum, Myrmex chevrolatii, Myrmex myrmex, Nicentrus lecontei, Otiorhynchus rugosostriatus, Piazorhinus pictus, Phyllotrox ferrugineus, Plocamus hispidulus, Pseudobaris nigrina, Pseudopentarthrum simplex, Rhinoncus pericarpius, Sitona lineatus, Stenoscelis brevis, Tomolips quericola. Additionally, three endemic carabids, two of which are known only from the type series, were collected. PMID:26752967

  4. A review of Drilini (Coleoptera: Elateridae: Agrypninae) of the Northern Levant, with description of a new species from Syria and a key to Levantine species.

    PubMed

    Kundrata, Robin; Kobieluszova, Lucie; Bocak, Ladislav

    2014-01-24

    The species of the elaterid soft-bodied tribe Drilini from the Levant are reviewed. All known species are redescribed and Drilus nemethi sp. nov. is described. Drilus adustus (Chevrolat, 1854), comb. nov. and D. akbesianus (Fairmaire, 1895), comb. nov. are transferred from Malacogaster Bassi, 1834 to Drilus Olivier, 1790. Drilus posticus Schaufuss, 1867, syn. nov. is a junior subjective synonym of Drilus adustus (Chevrolat, 1854). All Levantine species are keyed and diagnostic characters are illustrated. Their distribution, morphological diversity and the statuses of type specimens of Drilus reitteri Bourgeois, 1908 and Cydistus reitteri Bourgeois, 1885 are discussed.

  5. Morphometry and redescription of Parahelichus granulosus (Delève, 1974) with description of P. pseudogranulosus, a new cryptic species of Long-toed Water Beetles (Coleoptera: Dryopidae) from Indochinese peninsula, and proposal of a new synonym for Praehelichus sericatus (Waterhouse, 1881) from China.

    PubMed

    Lojková, Soňa; Degma, Peter; Kodada, Ján

    2014-08-18

    A new species of Parahelichus Löbl & Smetana, 2006 is described from Laos and Thailand: P. pseudogranulosus. A similar species, P. granulosus Delève, 1974, which was originally described only from a single specimen, is redescribed and morphometric data are provided from 442 specimens from Vietnam and Laos. Habitus views, illustrations of important characters as well as results of morphometric analyses are presented and discussed. Praehelichus sinensis (Fairmaire, 1888) is proposed as a new junior synonym of P. sericatus (Waterhouse, 1881). 

  6. Morphometry and redescription of Parahelichus granulosus (Delève, 1974) with description of P. pseudogranulosus, a new cryptic species of Long-toed Water Beetles (Coleoptera: Dryopidae) from Indochinese peninsula, and proposal of a new synonym for Praehelichus sericatus (Waterhouse, 1881) from China.

    PubMed

    Lojková, Soňa; Degma, Peter; Kodada, Ján

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Parahelichus Löbl & Smetana, 2006 is described from Laos and Thailand: P. pseudogranulosus. A similar species, P. granulosus Delève, 1974, which was originally described only from a single specimen, is redescribed and morphometric data are provided from 442 specimens from Vietnam and Laos. Habitus views, illustrations of important characters as well as results of morphometric analyses are presented and discussed. Praehelichus sinensis (Fairmaire, 1888) is proposed as a new junior synonym of P. sericatus (Waterhouse, 1881).  PMID:25284412

  7. Taxonomy of Fissocantharis Pic (Coleoptera, Cantharidae) from Guangxi, China, with descriptions of six new species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuxia; Li, Limei; Guan, Kaile; Yang, Xingke

    2015-01-01

    A total of 17 species of Fissocantharis Pic is recorded from Guangxi, China. Six species are described new to science, Fissocantharissinensomima sp. n., Fissocantharissexcostata sp. n., Fissocantharisbasilaris sp. n., Fissocanthariseschara sp. n., Fissocantharislatipalpa sp. n. and Fissocantharisbiprojicientis sp. n., and two previously known species are redescribed, Fissocantharisgracilipes (Pic, 1927) and Fissocantharissinensis (Wittmer, 1988). These species are presented with habitus of males, abdominal sternites VIII of females and genitalia of both sexes. Fissocantharisflavofacialis (Pic, 1926) is synonymized with Fissocantharisangusta (Fairmaire, 1900); both were originally described in the genus Podabrus Westwood. Additionally, a key and a checklist of all the species of Fissocantharis from Guangxi are provided.

  8. Onciderini Thomson, 1860 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) types of The Natural History Museum (BMNH).

    PubMed

    Nearns, Eugenio H; Barclay, Maxwell V L; Tavakilian, Gérard L

    2014-08-28

    The primary types of Onciderini Thomson, 1860 deposited at The Natural History Museum (BMNH), London, United Kingdom, are catalogued and illustrated. Data on the original combination, current name, and type locality are verified and presented. There are 39 primary types of Onciderini including 11 in Oncideres Lacordaire, 1830; and three each in Hesycha Fairmaire & Germain, 1859; Hypselomus Perty, 1832; Lamia Fabricius, 1775; and Tybalmia Thomson, 1868. Of the 39 primary types, 17 were described by H. W. Bates and seven by F. P. Pascoe. Five lectotypes are designated. Notes on additional Onciderini types once believed to be deposited at the BMNH are presented. 

  9. Molecular phylogeny of the Trechus brucki group, with description of two new species from the Pyreneo-Cantabrian area (France, Spain) (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae)

    PubMed Central

    Faille, Arnaud; Bourdeau, Charles; Fresneda, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A molecular phylogeny of the species from the Trechus brucki clade (previously Trechus uhagoni group)based on fragments of four mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene is given. We describe Trechus (Trechus) bouilloni sp. n. from the western pre–Pyrenees: Sierras de Urbasa–Andía, Navarra, Spain. The species was collected in mesovoid shallow substratum (mss), a subterranean environment. Molecular as well as morphological evidences demonstrate that the new species belongs to the Trechus brucki clade. A narrow endemic species of high altitude in western French Pyrenees merged with Trechus brucki Fairmaire, 1862a, Trechus bruckoides sp. n., is described. A lectotype is designated for Trechus brucki and Trechus planiusculus Fairmaire, 1862b (junior synonym of Trechus brucki). The species group is redefined based on molecular and morphological characters, and renamed as the brucki group, as Trechus brucki was the first described species of the clade. A unique synapomorphy of the male genitalia, a characteristic secondary sclerotization of the sperm duct, which is shared by all the species of the brucki group sensu novo, is described and illustrated. The Trechus brucki group sensu novo is composed of Trechus beusti (Schaufuss, 1863), Trechus bouilloni sp. n., Trechus brucki, Trechus bruckoides sp. n., Trechus grenieri Pandellé, 1867, T. uhagoni uhagoni Crotch, 1869, T. uhagoni ruteri Colas, 1935 and Trechus pieltaini Jeannel, 1920. We discuss the taxonomy of the group and provide illustrations of structures showing the differences between the species, along with distribution data and biogeographical comments. PMID:22977341

  10. Irradiation as a methyl bromide alternative for postharvest control of Omphisa anastomosalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Euscepes postfasciatus and Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A

    2006-02-01

    Irradiation studies were conducted with three sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., pests to determine an effective dose for quarantine control. Dose-response tests indicated that the most radiotolerant stage occurring in roots was the pupa of sweetpotato vine borer, Omphisa anastomosalis (Guenee), and the adult of West Indian sweetpotato weevil, Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), and sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers). In large-scale confirmatory tests, irradiation of 60,000 C. formicarius elegantulus adults, 62,323 E. postfasciatus adults, and 30,282 O. anastomosalis pupae at a dose of 150 Gy resulted in no production of F1 adults, demonstrating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security.

  11. Taxonomic changes in the treehopper genera Helonica Ball, Telamona Fitch, and Palonica Ball (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae: Telamonini).

    PubMed

    Wallace, Matthew S

    2015-08-28

    Nomenclatural changes within the treehopper tribe Telamonini are made as follows based on an examination of the type material of several species: the genus Helonica Ball is a junior synonym of Telamona Fitch, n. syn.; Telamona excelsa (Fairmaire), n. comb., with n. syn. T. unicolor Fitch; T. projecta Butler is reinstated from synonymy as a valid taxon for the North American taxa historically placed in Helonica; and Palonica albidorsata (Fowler) from Mexico, n. comb., is reinstated from synonymy based on morphological differences with T. excelsa and T. projecta. Lectotype designations are clarified for T. fasciata and T. unicolor based on specimens in the New York State Museum (NYSM). As a result of this work, the tribe Telamonini contains 68 species in 10 genera, the genus Palonica contains 7 species, and the genus Telamona contains 29 species.

  12. A Revision of the Argentinean Endemic Genus Eucranium Brulléé (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) with Description of one New Species and New Synonymies

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo, Federico C.

    2010-01-01

    The South American genus Eucranium Brulléé has been revised and now includes six species: E. arachnoides Brulléé, E. belenae Ocampo new species, E. cyclosoma Burmeister, E. dentifrons Guéérin-Mééneville, E. planicolle Burmeister, and E. simplicifrons Fairmaire. Eucranium pulvinatum Burmeister is a new junior synonym of Eucranium arachnoides Brulléé, and Eucranium lepidum Burmeister is a new junior synonym of E. dentifrons Guéérin-Mééneville. The following lectotypes and neotypes are designated: Eucranium pulvinatum Burmeister, lectotype; Eucranium planicolle Burmeister, lectotype; Psammotrupes dentifrons Guéérin-Mééneville, neotype; and Eucranium lepidum Burmeister, neotype. Description of the genus and new species, diagnosis and illustrations, and distribution maps are provided for all species. A key to the species of this genus is provided, and the biology and conservation status of the species are discussed. PMID:21265622

  13. Evaluating buprestid preference and sampling efficiency of the digger wasp, Cerceris fumipennis, using morphometric predictors.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Warren E; Fierke, Melissa K

    2014-01-01

    In-ground colonies of the native digger wasp, Cerceris fumipennis Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae), were sampled over two years in four New York State counties to characterize prey range, primarily their preying on beetles in the metallic wood-boring family, Buprestidae. These records were also used to evaluate beetle sampling efficiency by comparing collected beetles to historic county records and to identify limitations of wasp-mediated sampling in study areas. Overall, 1,530 beetles representing three families and 44 beetle species were collected from C. fumipennis. Five of these species (Agrilus cuprescens (Ménétriés) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), A. pensus Horn, Buprestis nutalli Kirby, Chrysobothris scabripennis Gory and Laporte, Dicerca pugionata (Germar)) were new prey records for C. fumipennis. The wasps exhibited a strong preference for larger beetle genera (e.g., Dicerca, Buprestis), which accounted for 68% of beetles caught. Agrilus and Chrysobothris were the next dominant genera, accounting for 16% and 11%, respectively. A 4-19 mm prey size range is proposed, as all beetles collected were within this range despite the availability of prey outside of this range. Cerceris fumipennis caught 43% of the 42 buprestids species present in museum records from the four census counties as well as an additional 23 buprestid species that were not represented in museum records. Of the 22 buprestid species identified in museum collections that were not caught by C. fumipennis in the census counties, only one was within the proposed size range and active during the C. fumipennis flight season (late June through August). Overall, sampling C. fumipennis colonies over two summers at five sites resulted in 32% of the recorded buprestid species in New York State being caught, indicating that monitoring colonies is an efficient and viable means of quantifying buprestid assemblages.

  14. Evaluating Buprestid Preference and Sampling Efficiency of the Digger Wasp, Cerceris fumipennis, Using Morphometric Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Hellman, Warren E.; Fierke, Melissa K.

    2014-01-01

    In-ground colonies of the native digger wasp, Cerceris fumipennis Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae), were sampled over two years in four New York State counties to characterize prey range, primarily their preying on beetles in the metallic wood-boring family, Buprestidae. These records were also used to evaluate beetle sampling efficiency by comparing collected beetles to historic county records and to identify limitations of wasp-mediated sampling in study areas. Overall, 1,530 beetles representing three families and 44 beetle species were collected from C. fumipennis. Five of these species (Agrilus cuprescens (Ménétriés) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), A. pensus Horn, Buprestis nutalli Kirby, Chrysobothris scabripennis Gory and Laporte, Dicerca pugionata (Germar)) were new prey records for C. fumipennis. The wasps exhibited a strong preference for larger beetle genera (e.g., Dicerca, Buprestis), which accounted for 68% of beetles caught. Agrilus and Chrysobothris were the next dominant genera, accounting for 16% and 11%, respectively. A 4–19 mm prey size range is proposed, as all beetles collected were within this range despite the availability of prey outside of this range. Cerceris fumipennis caught 43% of the 42 buprestids species present in museum records from the four census counties as well as an additional 23 buprestid species that were not represented in museum records. Of the 22 buprestid species identified in museum collections that were not caught by C. fumipennis in the census counties, only one was within the proposed size range and active during the C. fumipennis flight season (late June through August). Overall, sampling C. fumipennis colonies over two summers at five sites resulted in 32% of the recorded buprestid species in New York State being caught, indicating that monitoring colonies is an efficient and viable means of quantifying buprestid assemblages. PMID:25373151

  15. Variation in C:N:S stoichiometry and nutrient storage related to body size in a holometabolous insect (Curculio davidi) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larva.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Small, Gaston E; Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Donger; Li, Hongwang; Liu, Chunjiang

    2015-01-01

    Body size can be an important factor controlling consumer stoichiometry. In holometabolous insects, body size is typically associated with nutrient storage. Consumer stoichiometry is known to vary within species across a range of body sizes; however, the contribution of nutrient storage to this variation is not well understood. We used the fifth-instar larvae of the oak weevil (Coleoptera: Curculio davidi Fairmaire), which is characterized by a high capacity for nutrient storage, to investigate the effect of shifts in nutrient storage with body mass on variations in larva stoichiometry. Our results showed that weevil larvae with larger body mass had a lower carbon (C) content, reflecting decreases in the sequestration rate of C-rich lipids. Larger larvae had elevated concentrations of nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and protein. The similar patterns of variation in elemental composition and macromolecule storage with body weight indicate that the shift in nutrient storage is the main factor causing the variation in larval stoichiometry with body weight. This finding was further supported by the low variation in residual larval biomass C, N, and S concentrations after lipid extraction. These results help decipher the physiological mechanism of stoichiometric regulation in growing organisms.

  16. Likely Aggregation-Sex Pheromones of the Invasive Beetle Callidiellum villosulum, and the Related Asian Species Allotraeus asiaticus, Semanotus bifasciatus, and Xylotrechus buqueti (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Wickham, Jacob D; Lu, Wen; Zhang, Long-Wa; Chen, Yi; Zou, Yunfan; Hanks, Lawrence M; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2016-10-01

    During field trials of the two known cerambycid beetle pheromone components 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and 1-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-1,2-propanedione (henceforth "pyrrole") in Guangxi and Anhui provinces in China, four species in the subfamily Cerambycinae were attracted to lures containing one of the two components, or the blend of the two. Thus, the invasive species Callidiellum villosulum (Fairmaire) (tribe Callidiini) and a second species, Xylotrechus buqueti (Castelnau & Gory) (tribe Clytini), were specifically attracted to the blend of 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and the pyrrole. In contrast, Allotreus asiaticus (Schwarzer) (tribe Phoracanthini) and Semanotus bifasciatus Motschulsky (tribe Callidiini) were specifically attracted to the pyrrole as a single component. In most cases, both males and females were attracted, indicating that the compounds are likely to be aggregation-sex pheromones. The results indicate that the two compounds are conserved as pheromone components among species within at least three tribes within the subfamily Cerambycinae. For practical purposes, the attractants could find immediate use in surveillance programs aimed at detecting incursions of these species into new areas of the world, including the United States.

  17. Comparative analysis of the composition of intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

  18. Analysis of intestinal bacterial community diversity of adult Dastarcus helophoroides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Q; He, C; Li, M L

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and a culturedependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae). Universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16S rDNA gene were used in the PCR-DGGE assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. The intestinal bacteria detected by PCR-DGGE were classified to Enterococcus (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), Bacillus (Bacillales: Bacillaceae), Cellvibrio (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Caulobacter (Caulobacterales: Caulobacteraceae), and uncultured bacteria, whereas those isolated by the culture-dependent technique belonged to Staphylococcus (Bacillales: Staphylococcaceae), Pectobacterium Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Enterobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). These intestinal bacteria represented the groups Lactobacillales (Enterococcus), Pseudomonadales (Cellvibrio), Caulobacterales (Caulobacter), Bacilli (Bacillus and Staphylococcus), and Gammaproteobacteria (Pectobacterium and Enterobacter). Our results demonstrated that PCR-DGGE analysis and the culture-dependent technique were useful in determining the intestinal bacteria of D. helophoroides and the two methods should be integrated to characterize the microbial community and diversity. PMID:25200108

  19. Analysis of intestinal bacterial community diversity of adult Dastarcus helophoroides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Q; He, C; Li, M L

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and a culture-dependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae). Universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16S rDNA gene were used in the PCR-DGGE assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. The intestinal bacteria detected by PCR-DGGE were classified to Enterococcus (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), Bacillus (Bacillales: Bacillaceae), Cellvibrio (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Caulobacter (Caulobacterales: Caulobacteraceae), and uncultured bacteria, whereas those isolated by the culture-dependent technique belonged to Staphylococcus (Bacillales: Staphylococcaceae), Pectobacterium Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Enterobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). These intestinal bacteria represented the groups Lactobacillales (Enterococcus), Pseudomonadales (Cellvibrio), Caulobacterales (Caulobacter), Bacilli (Bacillus and Staphylococcus), and Gammaproteobacteria (Pectobacterium and Enterobacter). Our results demonstrated that PCR-DGGE analysis and the culture-dependent technique were useful in determining the intestinal bacteria of D. helophoroides and the two methods should be integrated to characterize the microbial community and diversity. PMID:25373236

  20. Taxonomic revision of Madagascan Rhantus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Colymbetinae) with an emphasis on Manjakatompo as a conservation priority

    PubMed Central

    Hjalmarsson, Anna Emilia; Bukontaite, Rasa; Ranarilalatiana, Tolotra; Randriamihaja, Jacquelin Herisahala; Bergsten, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We review the diving-beetle genus Rhantus Dejean of Madagascar (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Colymbetinae) based on museum collection holdings and recently collected expedition material. Both morphology and DNA is used to test species boundaries, in particular whether newly collected material from the Tsaratanana mountains in the north represent a new species or are conspecific with Rhantus manjakatompo Pederzani and Rocchi 2009, described based on a single male specimen from the central Ankaratra mountains. DNA of the holotype of R. manjakatompo was successfully extracted in a non-destructive way and sequenced. The general mixed Yule coalescent model applied to an ultrametric tree constructed from mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence data delimited three species. Morphological characters supported the same species unambiguously. We therefore recognise three species of Rhantus to occur in Madagascar: R. latus (Fairmaire, 1869), R. bouvieri Régimbart, 1900 and R. manjakatompo Pederzani and Rocchi, 2009. All three species are endemic to Madagascar and restricted to the highlands of the island. Rhantusstenonychus Régimbart, 1895, syn. n., is considered a junior synonym of R. latus. We designate lectotypes for R. bouvieri and R. goudoti Sharp, 1882, the latter a junior synonym of R. latus. We provide descriptions, a determination key, SEM-images of fine pronotal and elytral structures, distribution maps, habitus photos, and illustrations of male genitalia and pro- and mesotarsal claws. We discuss the role of the Manjakatompo forest as a refugium for Madagascan Rhantus diversity and other endemics of the montane central high plateau. PMID:24294082

  1. Variation in C:N:S Stoichiometry and Nutrient Storage Related to Body Size in a Holometabolous Insect (Curculio davidi) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larva

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao; Small, Gaston E.; Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Donger; Li, Hongwang; Liu, Chunjiang

    2015-01-01

    Body size can be an important factor controlling consumer stoichiometry. In holometabolous insects, body size is typically associated with nutrient storage. Consumer stoichiometry is known to vary within species across a range of body sizes; however, the contribution of nutrient storage to this variation is not well understood. We used the fifth-instar larvae of the oak weevil (Coleoptera: Curculio davidi Fairmaire), which is characterized by a high capacity for nutrient storage, to investigate the effect of shifts in nutrient storage with body mass on variations in larva stoichiometry. Our results showed that weevil larvae with larger body mass had a lower carbon (C) content, reflecting decreases in the sequestration rate of C-rich lipids. Larger larvae had elevated concentrations of nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and protein. The similar patterns of variation in elemental composition and macromolecule storage with body weight indicate that the shift in nutrient storage is the main factor causing the variation in larval stoichiometry with body weight. This finding was further supported by the low variation in residual larval biomass C, N, and S concentrations after lipid extraction. These results help decipher the physiological mechanism of stoichiometric regulation in growing organisms. PMID:25843579

  2. Monoterpenes from larval frass of two Cerambycids as chemical cues for a parasitoid, Dastarcus helophoroides.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian-Rong; Lu, Xi-Ping; Jiang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Anopiophora glabripennis (Motsch.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a destructive woodborer, attacking many species of deciduous hardwood trees. Apriona swainsoni (Hope) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a woodborer of Sophora japonica L. (Angiospermae: Fabaceae). Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) is an important natural enemy of both Cerambycid species in China. Kairomones for two populations of D. helophoroides that parasitize A. glabripennis and A. swainsoni respectively were studied. Based on identification and quantification of volatiles from larval frass produced by A. glabripennis and A. swainsoni, monoterpenes were selected to test their kairomonal activity to both populations of D. helophoroides adults using a Y-tube olfactometer. The results indicated that (S)-(-)-limonene served as a kairomone for the population of D. helophoroides parasitized A. glabripennis. α-pinene, (IR)-(+)-αpinene and (+)-β-pinene were attractive to the population of D. helophoroides parasitized A. swainsoni. The results provide information about the co-evolution of D. helophoroides, its host, and host-food trees. PMID:23906184

  3. Contribution to the taxonomy of the family Membracidae Rafinesque (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Flórez-V, Camilo; Wolff, Marta I; Cardona-Duque, Juliana

    2015-01-15

    The Membracidae are a relatively diverse group with nearly 400 genera and 3200 species. For Colombia 93 genera and 394 species were previously known. Study of the literature and 3744 specimens deposited in ten colections in Colombia, as well as non-systematic collections and field observations done in Colombia between 2011 and 2014, led us to record 116 genera and 474 species grouped in 9 subfamilies and 23 tribes, distributed in 24 departments. Thirteen genera were new country records. In addition, 1449 records of host plants and 262 records of associated Hymenoptera were obtained from literature, the examined collections and new, non-systematic field trips. For each genus a differential diagnosis is presented, as well as notes on biology, distribution and some taxonomic comments. Illustrated keys for the genera of Colombian Membracidae and known distributional maps are given. After examination of several Anobilia species, we propose the new combinations Stilbophora flava (Tode, 1966) n. comb., Stilbophora luteimaculata (Funkhouser, 1914) n. comb., Stilbophora sagitatta (Tode, 1966) n. comb., Stilbophora silvana (Tode, 1966) n. comb., Stilbophora tripartita (Fairmaire, 1846) n. comb., and Stilbophora variabilis (Tode, 1966) n. comb. The male of Sakakibarella sinuosa Creão-Duarte is described.

  4. Biology and Ecology of Alchisme grossa in a Cloud Forest of the Bolivian Yungas

    PubMed Central

    Torrico-Bazoberry, Daniel; Caceres-Sanchez, Liliana; Saavedra-Ulloa, Daniela; Flores-Prado, Luis; Niemeyer, Hermann M.; Pinto, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    Treehoppers (Membracidae) exhibit different levels of sociality, from solitary to presocial. Although they are one of the best biological systems to study the evolution of maternal care in insects, information on the biology of species in this group is scarce. This work describes the biology and ecology of Alchisme grossa (Fairmaire) (Hemiptera: Membracidae) in a rain cloud forest of Bolivia. This subsocial membracid utilizes two host-plant species, Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Wild) Bercht. & J.Presl and Solanum ursinum (Rusby) (both Solanaceae), the first one being used during the whole year and the second one almost exclusively during the wet season. The development of A. grossa from egg to adult occurred on the plant where eggs were laid. Maternal care was observed during the complete nymphal development, and involved behavioral traits such as food facilitation and antidepredatory defense. Life cycle was longer on B. suaveolens during the dry season and shorter on S. ursinum during the wet season. Mortality was similar on both host plants during the wet season but was lower on B. suaveolens during the dry season. The presence of a secondary female companion to the egg-guarding female individual and occasional iteropary is also reported. PMID:25368084

  5. Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Dastarcus helophoroides Fed Different Diets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

  6. Review of the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892 and Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    PubMed Central

    Rojkoff, Sébastien; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New material collected recently throughout the Afrotropical region has led to a major reassessment of taxa within the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892, Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 and other closely related genera. As a result, the name Megalleucosma Antoine, 1989 is here synonymised with Anelaphinis and a lectotype is designated for the type species, Cetonia dominula Harold, 1879. The genus Atrichelaphinis is redefined and a new subgenus, Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis), is proposed for Elaphinis simillima Ancey, 1883, Elaphinis vermiculata Fairmaire, 1894, Niphetophora rhodesiana Péringuey, 1907, Atrichelaphinis deplanata Moser, 1907 (with Anelaphinis kwangensis Burgeon, 1931 as junior synonym) and Anelaphinis sternalis Moser, 1914. Additionally, three new species and one new subspecies are recognised and described in this new subgenus: Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) bomboesbergica sp. n. from South Africa; Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) bjornstadi sp. n. from Tanzania; Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) garnieri sp. n. from south–east Africa (Tanzania, Zimbabwe); and Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) deplanata minettii ssp. n. from central Africa (Malawi, Mozambique, Congo-Kinshasa, Congo-Brazzaville, South Africa, Rwanda, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The genus Atrichelaphinis is compared to its closest relatives and two separate keys are proposed, one for Atrichelaphinis and one for the sub-Saharan genera exhibiting completely or partially fused parameres. PMID:25709532

  7. Modelling Interactions between forest pest invasions and human decisions regarding firewood transport restrictions.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Lee-Ann; Cecile, Jacob; Bauch, Chris T; Anand, Madhur

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of nonnative, wood-boring insects such as the Asian longhorned beetle (A. glabripennis) and the emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) is a serious ecological and economic threat to Canadian deciduous and mixed-wood forests. Humans act as a major vector for the spread of these pests via firewood transport, although existing models do not explicitly capture human decision-making regarding firewood transport. In this paper we present a two-patch coupled human-environment system model that includes social influence and long-distance firewood transport and examines potential strategies for mitigating pest spread. We found that increasing concern regarding infestations (f) significantly reduced infestation. Additionally it resulted in multiple thresholds at which the intensity of infestation in a patch was decreased. It was also found that a decrease in the cost of firewood purchased in the area where it is supposed to be burned (Cl) resulted in an increased proportion of local-firewood strategists, and a 67% decrease in Cl from $6.75 to $4.50 was sufficient to eliminate crosspatch infestation. These effects are synergistic: increasing concern through awareness and education campaigns acts together with reduced firewood costs, thereby reducing the required threshold of both awareness and economic incentives. Our results indicate that the best management strategy includes a combination of public education paired with firewood subsidization. PMID:24736497

  8. Modelling Interactions between Forest Pest Invasions and Human Decisions Regarding Firewood Transport Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Lee-Ann; Cecile, Jacob; Bauch, Chris T.; Anand, Madhur

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of nonnative, wood-boring insects such as the Asian longhorned beetle (A. glabripennis) and the emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) is a serious ecological and economic threat to Canadian deciduous and mixed-wood forests. Humans act as a major vector for the spread of these pests via firewood transport, although existing models do not explicitly capture human decision-making regarding firewood transport. In this paper we present a two-patch coupled human-environment system model that includes social influence and long-distance firewood transport and examines potential strategies for mitigating pest spread. We found that increasing concern regarding infestations (f) significantly reduced infestation. Additionally it resulted in multiple thresholds at which the intensity of infestation in a patch was decreased. It was also found that a decrease in the cost of firewood purchased in the area where it is supposed to be burned (Cl) resulted in an increased proportion of local-firewood strategists, and a 67% decrease in Cl from $6.75 to $4.50 was sufficient to eliminate crosspatch infestation. These effects are synergistic: increasing concern through awareness and education campaigns acts together with reduced firewood costs, thereby reducing the required threshold of both awareness and economic incentives. Our results indicate that the best management strategy includes a combination of public education paired with firewood subsidization. PMID:24736497

  9. Modelling Interactions between forest pest invasions and human decisions regarding firewood transport restrictions.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Lee-Ann; Cecile, Jacob; Bauch, Chris T; Anand, Madhur

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of nonnative, wood-boring insects such as the Asian longhorned beetle (A. glabripennis) and the emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) is a serious ecological and economic threat to Canadian deciduous and mixed-wood forests. Humans act as a major vector for the spread of these pests via firewood transport, although existing models do not explicitly capture human decision-making regarding firewood transport. In this paper we present a two-patch coupled human-environment system model that includes social influence and long-distance firewood transport and examines potential strategies for mitigating pest spread. We found that increasing concern regarding infestations (f) significantly reduced infestation. Additionally it resulted in multiple thresholds at which the intensity of infestation in a patch was decreased. It was also found that a decrease in the cost of firewood purchased in the area where it is supposed to be burned (Cl) resulted in an increased proportion of local-firewood strategists, and a 67% decrease in Cl from $6.75 to $4.50 was sufficient to eliminate crosspatch infestation. These effects are synergistic: increasing concern through awareness and education campaigns acts together with reduced firewood costs, thereby reducing the required threshold of both awareness and economic incentives. Our results indicate that the best management strategy includes a combination of public education paired with firewood subsidization.

  10. A new multicriteria risk mapping approach based on a multiattribute frontier concept.

    PubMed

    Yemshanov, Denys; Koch, Frank H; Ben-Haim, Yakov; Downing, Marla; Sapio, Frank; Siltanen, Marty

    2013-09-01

    Invasive species risk maps provide broad guidance on where to allocate resources for pest monitoring and regulation, but they often present individual risk components (such as climatic suitability, host abundance, or introduction potential) as independent entities. These independent risk components are integrated using various multicriteria analysis techniques that typically require prior knowledge of the risk components' importance. Such information is often nonexistent for many invasive pests. This study proposes a new approach for building integrated risk maps using the principle of a multiattribute efficient frontier and analyzing the partial order of elements of a risk map as distributed in multidimensional criteria space. The integrated risks are estimated as subsequent multiattribute frontiers in dimensions of individual risk criteria. We demonstrate the approach with the example of Agrilus biguttatus Fabricius, a high-risk pest that may threaten North American oak forests in the near future. Drawing on U.S. and Canadian data, we compare the performance of the multiattribute ranking against a multicriteria linear weighted averaging technique in the presence of uncertainties, using the concept of robustness from info-gap decision theory. The results show major geographic hotspots where the consideration of tradeoffs between multiple risk components changes integrated risk rankings. Both methods delineate similar geographical regions of high and low risks. Overall, aggregation based on a delineation of multiattribute efficient frontiers can be a useful tool to prioritize risks for anticipated invasive pests, which usually have an extremely poor prior knowledge base. PMID:23339716

  11. A new species of Synchroa Newman from China (Coleoptera: Synchroidae).

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yun; Li, Yun; Liu, Zhenhua; Pang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The family Synchroidae Lacordaire, 1859 is a small group of beetles with an elongate, tapered, and slightly flattened body and brownish to black coloration. Members exhibit morphological similarity to some genera of Melandryidae, but can be distinguished based on larval morphology and the unmodified apical maxillary palpomeres. They are widely distributed throughout the Oriental, Palaearctic and Nearctic regions and possess the highest species diversity in Eastern Asia (Nikitsky 1999; Hsiao 2015). Synchroa bark beetles had been viewed as members of the Melandryidae for a long time, but were treated as an independent family in Böving & Craighead (1931). Crowson (1966) followed Böving & Craighead's treatment and suggested close relatives among the members of Zopheridae and Stenotrachelidae based on both larval and adult characters. Currently, only 8 species distributed amongst three genera have been described in this family: Mallodrya Horn, 1888 is a monotypical genus from North America; Synchroa Newman, 1838, the nominal genus and the largest genus widely distributed in North America, east Palearctic region and the Oriental region, including 5 species; Synchroina Fairmaire, 1898 is from the Oriental region and includes two species. (Nikitsky 1999; Hsiao 2015).Recently, the first author had the opportunity to examine the collection of the Museum of Biology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (SYSBM) discovering one remarkable species of Synchroa with dark coloration and a narrow prothorax, which are very different from previously described species of this genus. After careful examination and comparisons to other described species it is described here as new. In addition, an updated key to the world species of Synchroa is provided. PMID:27394519

  12. A karyosystematic analysis of some water beetles related to Deronectes Sharp (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae)

    PubMed Central

    Angus, R.B.; Tatton, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract An account is given of the karyotypes of five species and one additional subspecies of Deronectes Sharp, 1882, three species of Stictotarsus Zimmermann, 1919, one species of Trichonectes Guignot, 1941, four species of Scarodytes Gozis, 1914 and 17 species of Nebrioporus Régimbart, 1906. Deronectes species are characterised by a neo-Xy system of sex chromosomes and autosome numbers ranging from 60 (Deronectes ferrugineus Fery et Brancucci, 1987 and Deronectes wewalkai Fery et Fresneda, 1988) through 48 (Deronectes latus (Stephens, 1829), Deronectes angusi Fery et Brancucci, 1990) to 28 (Deronectes costipennis Brancucci, 1983, Deronectes costipennis gignouxi Fery et Brancucci, 1989 and Deronectes platynotus (Germar, 1834)). The three species of Stictotarsus, Stictotarsus duodecimpustulatus (Fabricius, 1792), Stictotarsus procerus (Aubé, 1838) and Stictotarsus bertrandi (Legros, 1956), all belonging to the Stictotarsus duodecimpustulatus group of species, have karyotypes comprising 54 autosomes and neo-Xy sex chromosomes. Trichonectes otini Guignot, 1941 has 48 autosomes and an X0 system of sex chromosomes, an arrangement shared with the 17 species of Nebrioporus Régimbart. The four Scarodytes species, Scarodytes halensis (Fabricius, 1787), Scarodytes nigriventris (Zimmermann, 1919), Scarodytes fuscitarsis (Aubé, 1838) and Scarodytes malickyi Wewalka, 1997, all have 54 autosomes and X0 sex chromosomes. The karyotypes of the various species are found to be distinctive and to support separation of these species from one another. In two cases (Nebrioporus martinii (Fairmaire, 1858) and Nebrioporus sardus (Gemminger et Harold, 1868), and Scarodytes halensis and Scarodytes fuscitarsis) the karyotypes require the recognition of the taxa as full species, not subspecies. The implications of these data for the generic classification are considered. The data are found to be compatible with the DNA-based phylogeny proposed by Ribera (2003), where the enlarged

  13. Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini)

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Maurizio; D’Alessandro, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A revision of the Alticini genera from the Afrotropical region is reported. The paper includes the following for the flea beetle fauna occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: a key to their identification; habitus photos of all the genera; microscope and scanning electron micrographs of many diagnostic morphological characters; and an updated annotated catalogue with biogeographical notes that include new distributional data. The following new synonymies are proposed: Aphthona Chevrolat, 1836 = Ethiopia Scherer, 1972 syn. n.; Sanckia Duvivier, 1891 = Eugonotes Jacoby, 1897 syn. n.; Eurylegna Weise, 1910a = Eurylegniella Scherer, 1972 syn. n.; Kimongona Bechyné, 1959a = Mesocrepis Scherer, 1963 syn. n.; Diphaulacosoma Jacoby, 1892a = Neoderina Bechyné, 1952 syn. n.; Sesquiphaera Bechyné, 1958a = Paropsiderma Bechyné, 1958a syn. n.; Podagrica Chevrolat, 1836 = Podagricina Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940 syn. n.; Amphimela Chapuis, 1875 = Sphaerophysa Baly, 1876a syn. n. The following new combinations are proposed: Blepharida insignis Brancsik, 1897 = Xanthophysca insignis (Brancsik, 1897) comb. n.; Blepharida multiguttata Duvivier, 1891 = Xanthophysca multiguttata (Duvivier, 1891) comb. n.; Hemipyxis balyana (Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940) = Pseudadorium balyanum (Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki, 1940) comb. n.; Hemipyxis brevicornis (Jacoby, 1892a) = Pseudadorium brevicornis (Jacoby, 1892a) comb. n.; Hemipyxis cyanea (Weise, 1910b) = Pseudadorium cyaneum (Weise, 1910b) comb. n.; Hemipyxis gynandromorpha Bechyné, 1958c = Pseudadorium gynandromorphum (Bechyné, 1958c) comb. n.; Hemipyxis latiuscula Bechyné, 1958c = Pseudadorium latiusculum (Bechyné, 1958c) comb. n.; Hemipyxis soror (Weise, 1910b) = Pseudadorium soror (Weise, 1910b) comb. n. The genera Buphonella Jacoby, 1903aand Halticopsis Fairmaire, 1883a are transferred to the tribe Galerucini; the genus Biodontocnema Biondi, 2000 stat. prom. is considered to be valid and

  14. Italian Dermestidae: notes on some species and an updated checklist (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Nardi, Gianluca; Háva, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An up-to-date checklist of the Italian Dermestidae is provided. The presence of 95 species in Italy is confirmed, while further 5 species (Dermestes (Dermestes) vorax Motschulsky, 1860, Thorictuspilosus Peyron, 1857, T. wasmanni Reitter, 1895, Attagenus (Attagenus) simonis Reitter, 1881 and Globicornis (G.) breviclavis (Reitter, 1878)) and 1 subspecies (A. (A.) tigrinus pulcher Faldermann, 1835) are excluded from the Italian fauna. Attagenus (Attagenus) calabricus Reitter, 1881 and A. (A.) lobatus Rosenhauer, 1856 are for the first time recorded from Abruzzi and Tuscany respectively; A. (A.) silvaticus Zhantiev, 1976 is recorded for the first time from mainland Italy (Apulia); Anthrenus (Anthrenus) angustefasciatus Ganglbauer, 1904 is new to northern Italy (Friuli-Venezia Giulia), central Italy (Tuscany), Apulia and Basilicata; A. (A.) munroi Hinton, 1943 is new to central Italy (Elba Island); A. (A.) delicatus Kiesenwetter, 1851 is for the first time recorded from Apulia; Globicornis (Globicornis) fasciata (Fairmaire & Brisout de Barneville, 1859) is new to southern Italy (Basilicata); G. (Hadrotoma) sulcata (C.N.F. Brisout de Barneville, 1866) is for the first time recorded from central Italy (Abruzzi), Campania and Sicily, whileTrogoderma inclusum LeConte, 1854 is new to Apulia. Seven species (Dermestes (Dermestes) peruvianus Laporte de Castelnau, 1840, D. (Dermestinus) carnivorus Fabricius, 1775, D. (Dermestinus) hankae Háva, 1999, D. (Dermestinus) intermedius intermedius Kalík, 1951, D. (Dermestinus) szekessyi Kalík, 1950, Anthrenus (Anthrenops) coloratus Reitter, 1881 and Trogodermaangustum (Solier, 1849)) recently recorded from Italy (without further details) are discussed. The lectotype and a paralectotype are designated forAttagenus (A.) calabricus Reitter, 1881 from Calabria. Attagenus pellio (Linnaeus, 1758) var. pilosissimus Roubal, 1932 is removed from synonymy with A. (A.) pellio and recognized as a valid species (stat. prom.); it is known

  15. Testing the 'island rule' for a tenebrionid beetle (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Miquel

    2002-05-01

    Insular populations and their closest mainland counterparts commonly display body size differences that are considered to fit the island rule, a theoretical framework to explain both dwarfism and gigantism in isolated animal populations. The island rule is used to explain the pattern of change of body size at the inter-specific level. But the model implicitly makes also a prediction for the body size of isolated populations of a single species. It suggests that, for a hypothetical species covering a wide range of island sizes, there exists a specific island size where this species reaches the largest body size. Body size would be small (in relative terms) in the smallest islets of the species range. It would increase with island size, and reach a maximum at some specific island size. However, additional increases from such a specific island size would instead promote body size reduction, and small (in relative terms) body sizes would be found again on the largest islands. The biogeographical patterns predicted by the island rule have been described and analysed for vertebrates only (mainly mammals), but remain largely untested for insects or other invertebrates. I analyse here the pattern of body size variation between seven isolated insular populations of a flightless beetle, Asida planipennis (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). This is an endemic species of Mallorca, Menorca and a number of islands and islets in the Balearic archipelago (western Mediterranean). The study covers seven of the 15 known populations (i.e., there are only 15 islands or islets inhabited by the species). The populations studied fit the pattern advanced above and we could, therefore, extrapolate the island rule to a very different kind of organism. However, the small sample size of some of the populations invites some caution at this early stage.

  16. Sanitation options for managing oak wood infested with the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southern California.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael I; Coleman, Tom W; Graves, Andrew D; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    Movement of invasive wood-boring insects in wood products presents a threat to forest health and a management challenge for public and private land managers. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new pest in San Diego and Riverside Cos., CA, believed to have been introduced on firewood. This beetle has caused elevated levels of oak mortality since 2002. From 2009-2011, we tested several sanitation methods, applicable to large and small land parcels, to reduce or prevent goldspotted oak borer emergence from infested oak wood. In most experiments, emergence of goldspotted oak borer adults from the positive controls demonstrated that the beetle could complete development in firewood-sized pieces of cut oak wood. In 2009, adult emergence from sun-exposed oak wood began and peaked 2- to 4-wks earlier at a low elevation site than at a high elevation site (late May to late June). However, there were no significant effects of elevation or host species on the emergence response of goldspotted oak borer by solarization treatment in this study. Solarization of infested wood with thick (6 mil) and thin (1 mil) plastic tarpaulins (tarps) did not significantly reduce emergence of adults despite recordings of greater mean and maximum daily temperatures in both tarped treatments and greater relative humidity in the thick-tarped treatment (all compared with nontarped controls). Grinding wood with a 3"-minus screen (< or = 7.6 cm) significantly reduced goldspotted oak borer emergence compared with control treatments, and this was the best method for reducing adult emergence among those tested. In a separate grinding study, no adults emerged when wood was ground to 9"-minus (22.9 cm), 2"-minus (5.1 cm), or 1"-minus (2.5 cm) screen sizes, but a low level of adult emergence from the positive controls limited any inferences from this experiment. Debarking cut wood pieces eliminated goldspotted oak borer emergence from the wood fraction

  17. The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation

    PubMed Central

    Liebherr, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Mecyclothorax carabid beetle fauna of Haleakalā volcano, Maui Island, Hawai‘i is taxonomically revised, with 116 species precinctive to Haleakalā recognized, 74 newly described. Species are classified into 14 species groups, with the newly described species arrayed as follows: 1, Mecyclothorax constrictus group with Mecyclothorax perseveratus sp. n.; 2, Mecyclothorax obscuricornis group with Mecyclothorax notobscuricornis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordax sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordicus sp. n., Mecyclothorax manducus sp. n., Mecyclothorax ambulatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax montanus sp. n., Mecyclothorax waikamoi sp. n., Mecyclothorax poouli sp. n., and Mecyclothorax ahulili sp. n.; 3, Mecyclothorax robustus group with Mecyclothorax affinis sp. n., Mecyclothorax anchisteus sp. n., Mecyclothorax consanguineus sp. n., Mecyclothorax antaeus sp. n., Mecyclothorax cymindulus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax haydeni sp. n.; 4, Mecyclothorax interruptus group with Mecyclothorax bradycelloides sp. n., Mecyclothorax anthracinus sp. n., Mecyclothorax arthuri sp. n., Mecyclothorax medeirosi sp. n., Mecyclothorax inconscriptus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax foveolatus sp. n.; 5, Mecyclothorax sobrinus group with Mecyclothorax foveopunctatus sp. n.; 6, Mecyclothorax ovipennis group with Mecyclothorax subtilis Britton & Liebherr, sp. n., Mecyclothorax patulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax patagiatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax strigosus sp. n., Mecyclothorax takumiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax parapicalis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mauiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax subternus sp. n., Mecyclothorax flaviventris sp. n., Mecyclothorax cordaticollaris sp. n., and Mecyclothorax krushelnyckyi sp. n.; 7, Mecyclothorax argutor group with Mecyclothorax ommatoplax sp. n., Mecyclothorax semistriatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax refulgens sp. n., Mecyclothorax argutulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax planipennis sp. n., Mecyclothorax planatus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax argutuloides sp. n.; 8, Mecyclothorax microps group with Mecyclothorax

  18. The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation.

    PubMed

    Liebherr, James K

    2015-01-01

    The Mecyclothorax carabid beetle fauna of Haleakalā volcano, Maui Island, Hawai'i is taxonomically revised, with 116 species precinctive to Haleakalā recognized, 74 newly described. Species are classified into 14 species groups, with the newly described species arrayed as follows: 1, Mecyclothorax constrictus group with Mecyclothorax perseveratus sp. n.; 2, Mecyclothorax obscuricornis group with Mecyclothorax notobscuricornis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordax sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordicus sp. n., Mecyclothorax manducus sp. n., Mecyclothorax ambulatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax montanus sp. n., Mecyclothorax waikamoi sp. n., Mecyclothorax poouli sp. n., and Mecyclothorax ahulili sp. n.; 3, Mecyclothorax robustus group with Mecyclothorax affinis sp. n., Mecyclothorax anchisteus sp. n., Mecyclothorax consanguineus sp. n., Mecyclothorax antaeus sp. n., Mecyclothorax cymindulus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax haydeni sp. n.; 4, Mecyclothorax interruptus group with Mecyclothorax bradycelloides sp. n., Mecyclothorax anthracinus sp. n., Mecyclothorax arthuri sp. n., Mecyclothorax medeirosi sp. n., Mecyclothorax inconscriptus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax foveolatus sp. n.; 5, Mecyclothorax sobrinus group with Mecyclothorax foveopunctatus sp. n.; 6, Mecyclothorax ovipennis group with Mecyclothorax subtilis Britton & Liebherr, sp. n., Mecyclothorax patulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax patagiatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax strigosus sp. n., Mecyclothorax takumiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax parapicalis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mauiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax subternus sp. n., Mecyclothorax flaviventris sp. n., Mecyclothorax cordaticollaris sp. n., and Mecyclothorax krushelnyckyi sp. n.; 7, Mecyclothorax argutor group with Mecyclothorax ommatoplax sp. n., Mecyclothorax semistriatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax refulgens sp. n., Mecyclothorax argutulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax planipennis sp. n., Mecyclothorax planatus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax argutuloides sp. n.; 8, Mecyclothorax microps group with Mecyclothorax major sp. n

  19. The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation

    PubMed Central

    Liebherr, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Mecyclothorax carabid beetle fauna of Haleakalā volcano, Maui Island, Hawai‘i is taxonomically revised, with 116 species precinctive to Haleakalā recognized, 74 newly described. Species are classified into 14 species groups, with the newly described species arrayed as follows: 1, Mecyclothorax constrictus group with Mecyclothorax perseveratus sp. n.; 2, Mecyclothorax obscuricornis group with Mecyclothorax notobscuricornis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordax sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordicus sp. n., Mecyclothorax manducus sp. n., Mecyclothorax ambulatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax montanus sp. n., Mecyclothorax waikamoi sp. n., Mecyclothorax poouli sp. n., and Mecyclothorax ahulili sp. n.; 3, Mecyclothorax robustus group with Mecyclothorax affinis sp. n., Mecyclothorax anchisteus sp. n., Mecyclothorax consanguineus sp. n., Mecyclothorax antaeus sp. n., Mecyclothorax cymindulus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax haydeni sp. n.; 4, Mecyclothorax interruptus group with Mecyclothorax bradycelloides sp. n., Mecyclothorax anthracinus sp. n., Mecyclothorax arthuri sp. n., Mecyclothorax medeirosi sp. n., Mecyclothorax inconscriptus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax foveolatus sp. n.; 5, Mecyclothorax sobrinus group with Mecyclothorax foveopunctatus sp. n.; 6, Mecyclothorax ovipennis group with Mecyclothorax subtilis Britton & Liebherr, sp. n., Mecyclothorax patulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax patagiatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax strigosus sp. n., Mecyclothorax takumiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax parapicalis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mauiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax subternus sp. n., Mecyclothorax flaviventris sp. n., Mecyclothorax cordaticollaris sp. n., and Mecyclothorax krushelnyckyi sp. n.; 7, Mecyclothorax argutor group with Mecyclothorax ommatoplax sp. n., Mecyclothorax semistriatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax refulgens sp. n., Mecyclothorax argutulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax planipennis sp. n., Mecyclothorax planatus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax argutuloides sp. n.; 8, Mecyclothorax microps group with Mecyclothorax