Science.gov

Sample records for agro-ecosystems annual progress

  1. Critical pathways of radionuclides to man from agro-ecosystems. Annual progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.H.; Alberts, J.J.; Adriano, D.C.; McLeod, K.W.; Pinder, J.E. III

    1982-04-01

    The research program has as its objectives the description of the fate and behavior of radionuclides released to the environment from nuclear fuel chemical separations facilities. The greenhouse uptake studies designed to examine factors which possibly can alter phytoavailability of radionuclides have shown only slight differences among crop species or soil treatment (lime or lime plus chelate) in Pu or Cm uptake. The temporal effect on Pu and Cm uptake, observed from a partial data set, is inconclusive, with variable effects from different crop species, radionuclides, and soil treatments. Cesium uptake shows variable response with different crop species but generally decreases with time. Broadleaf crops grown in the field hve differing Pu concentrations which appear to be associated with plant morphology, with some species exceeding those concentrations observed for wheat and soybean crops. In crops that tend to trap aerially deposited Pu, washing the leaves removed > 50% of the Pu. Uranium contamination of a wheat crop grown near the F-Area separations facility appears to be strongly affected by root uptake. This is in distinct contrast to the behavior of Pu in agro-ecosystems, where surficial pathways are the dominant modes of contamination, and is probably related to: (1) the ubiquitous presence of naturally occurring U isotopes; and (2) a greater concentration ratio for U than for Pu.

  2. Atmospheric deposition as an important nitrogen load to a typical agro-ecosystem in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. 2. Seasonal and inter-annual variations and their implications (2008-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ping; Zhang, Jiabao; Ma, Donghao; Wen, Zhaofei; Wu, Shengjun; Garland, Gina; Pereira, Engil Isadora Pujol; Zhu, Anning; Xin, Xiuli; Zhang, Congzhi

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, an important N source to agro-ecosystems, has increased intensively in China during recent decades. However, knowledge on temporal variations of total N deposition and their influencing factors is limited due to lack of systematic monitoring data. In this study, total N deposition, including dry and wet components, was monitored using the water surrogate surface method for a typical agro-ecosystem with a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and summer maize (Zea mays L.) rotation system in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain from May 2008 to April 2012. The results indicated that annual total N deposition ranged from 23.8 kg N ha-1 (2009-2010) to 40.3 kg N ha-1 (2008-2009) and averaged 31.8 kg N ha-1. Great inter-annual variations were observed during the sampling period, due to differences in annual rainfall and gaseous N losses from farmlands. Monthly total N deposition varied greatly, from less than 0.6 kg N ha-1 (January, 2010) to over 8.0 kg N ha-1 (August, 2008), with a mean value of 2.6 kg N ha-1. In contrast to wet deposition, dry portions generally contributed more to the total, except in the precipitation-intensive months, accounting for 65% in average. NH4+ -N was the dominant species in N deposition and its contribution to total deposition varied from 6% (December, 2009) to 79% (July, 2008), averaging 53%. The role of organic N (O-N) in both dry and wet deposition was equal to or even greater than that of NO3- -N. Influencing factors such as precipitation and its seasonal distribution, reactive N sources, vegetation status, field management practices, and weather conditions were responsible for the temporal variations of atmospheric N deposition and its components. These results are helpful for reducing the knowledge gaps in the temporal variations of atmospheric N deposition and their influencing factors in different ecosystems, to improve the understandings on N budget in the typical agro-ecosystem, and to provide references

  3. EMTERNALITIES - THE CASE OF AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper deals with the role of ecosystem services prior to crop production and uses this example to introduce emternalites in agro-ecosystems. Emternalities are best viewed as the quasi counterpart of established economic externalities, except that they designate unassessed i...

  4. EMTERNALITIES - THE CASE OF AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper deals with the role of ecosystem services prior to crop production and uses this example to introduce emternalites in agro-ecosystems. Emternalities are best viewed as the quasi counterpart of established economic externalities, except that they designate unassessed i...

  5. [Agro-ecosystem ammonia emission in Sichuan-Chongqing region].

    PubMed

    Li, Fu-chun; Han, Shen-hui; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Xu; Li, Ru-yan; Wei, Yuan-song; Fan, Mao-hong

    2009-10-15

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from agro-ecosystem in the Sichuan-Chongqing region during 1990-2004, was estimated by the regional nitrogen cycling model IAP-N. The county level agricultural activities data were used, and Sichuan-Chongqing region was divided into four sub-areas by the geographical characteristics , environment and local climatic conditions and administrative division. The results showed that average annual ammonia emissions (in nitrogen gauge) in 1990-1994, 1995-1999, 2000-2004 were 626.7, 670.5 and 698.8 Gg x a(-1) respectively. The ammonia emission appeared increasing trend, whereas, the contribution of various ammonia sources presented little change. For instance, in 2000-2004, the contributions of NH3 emission from fertilized cropland, manure management system and field residues burning to the total ammonia emission of agro-ecosystem in the Sichuan-Chongqing region were 53%, 46% and 1%, equals to 374.9, 318.2 and 5.6 Gg x a(-1) respectively. But the contributions were variable in different regions. Ammonia emission was primarily induced by fertilized cropland in Chengdu plain and Chongqing hilly area, whereas, in northwest sub-region of Sichuan province was manure management system. The geographical distribution of ammonia emission from agro-ecosystem in the Sichuan-Chongqing region was generally "east high and west low". Ammonia emissions in sub-regions of Chongqing hilly area, Chengdu plain, southwest and northwest sub-regions were 165.6, 408.8, 85.9 and 38.8 Gg x a(-1), respectively, during 2000-2004. At the same time, ammonia density were 20 and 28 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1) in sub-regions of the Chongqing hilly area and the Chengdu plain, whereas, 9.1 and 1.6 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1) in southwest and northwest sub-regions, respectively. The results will provide a scientific basis for making fertilizer effectively applied and mitigate NH3 and GHG emissions from agro-ecosystem of Sichuan-Chongqing region.

  6. Nitrogen Cycling from Increased Soil Organic Carbon Contributes Both Positively and Negatively to Ecosystem Services in Wheat Agro-Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jeda; Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Dominati, Estelle J; Probert, Merv E; Meier, Elizabeth A; Huth, Neil I; Dodd, Mike; Snow, Val; Larsen, Joshua R; Parton, William J

    2017-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important and manageable property of soils that impacts on multiple ecosystem services through its effect on soil processes such as nitrogen (N) cycling and soil physical properties. There is considerable interest in increasing SOC concentration in agro-ecosystems worldwide. In some agro-ecosystems, increased SOC has been found to enhance the provision of ecosystem services such as the provision of food. However, increased SOC may increase the environmental footprint of some agro-ecosystems, for example by increasing nitrous oxide emissions. Given this uncertainty, progress is needed in quantifying the impact of increased SOC concentration on agro-ecosystems. Increased SOC concentration affects both N cycling and soil physical properties (i.e., water holding capacity). Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the contribution, both positive and negative, of increased SOC concentration on ecosystem services provided by wheat agro-ecosystems. We used the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to represent the effect of increased SOC concentration on N cycling and soil physical properties, and used model outputs as proxies for multiple ecosystem services from wheat production agro-ecosystems at seven locations around the world. Under increased SOC, we found that N cycling had a larger effect on a range of ecosystem services (food provision, filtering of N, and nitrous oxide regulation) than soil physical properties. We predicted that food provision in these agro-ecosystems could be significantly increased by increased SOC concentration when N supply is limiting. Conversely, we predicted no significant benefit to food production from increasing SOC when soil N supply (from fertiliser and soil N stocks) is not limiting. The effect of increasing SOC on N cycling also led to significantly higher nitrous oxide emissions, although the relative increase was small. We also found that N losses via deep drainage were minimally

  7. Meteorological risks are drivers of environmental innovation in agro-ecosystem management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne; Van de Vyver, Hans; Vanwindekens, Frédéric; Planchon, Viviane; Verspecht, Ann; Frutos de Cachorro, Julia; Buysse, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as droughts, heat waves and rain storms are projected to increase both in frequency and magnitude with climate change. The research hypothesis of the MERINOVA project is that meteorological risks act as drivers of environmental innovation in agro-ecosystem management which is being tested using a chain of risk approach. The project comprises of five major parts that reflect the chain of risks: the hazard, its impact on different agro-ecosystems, vulnerability, risk management and risk communication. Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) theory was used to model annual maxima of meteorological variables based on a location-, scale- and shape-parameter that determine the center of the distribution, the deviation of the location-parameter and the upper tail decay, respectively. Spatial interpolation of GEV-derived return levels has yielded maps of temperature extremes, precipitation deficits and wet periods. The degree of temporal overlap between extreme weather conditions and sensitive periods in the agro-ecosystem was determined using a bio-physically based modelling framework that couples phenological models, a soil water balance, crop growth and environmental models. 20-year return values for frost, heat stress, drought, waterlogging and field access during different crop stages were related to arable yields. The spatial extent of vulnerability is developed on different layers of spatial information that include inter alia meteorology, soil-landscapes, crop cover and management. The level of vulnerability and resilience of an agro-ecosystem is also determined by risk management. The types of agricultural risk and their relative importance differ across sectors and farm types as elucidated by questionnaires and focus groups. Risk types are distinguished according to production, market, institutional, financial and liability risks. A portfolio of potential strategies was identified at farm, market and policy level. In conclusion, MERINOVA

  8. Recent trends of nitrogen flow of typical agro-ecosystems in China--major problems and potential solutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Qinxue; Yang, Yonghui; Wang, Kelin; Ouyang, Zhu; Li, Yan; Lei, Alin; Yasunari, Tetsuzo

    2012-03-30

    To diagnose problems that threaten regional sustainability and to devise appropriate treatment measures in China's agro-ecosystems, a study was carried out to quantify the nitrogen (N) flow in China's typical agro-ecosystems and develop potential solutions to the increasing environmental N load. The analysis showed that owing to human activity in the agro-ecosystems of Changjiang River Basin the mean total input of anthropogenic reactive N (i.e. chemical fertiliser, atmospheric deposition and bio-N fixation) increased from 4.41 × 10(9) kg-N in 1980 to 7.61 × 10(9) kg-N in 1990 and then to 1.43 × 10(10) kg-N in 2000, with chemical fertiliser N being the largest contributor to N load. Field investigation further showed that changes in human behaviour and rural urbanisation have caused rural communities to become more dependent on chemical fertilisers. In rural regions, around 4.17 kg-N of per capita annual potential N load as excrement was returned to farmlands and 1.38 kg-N directly discharged into river systems, while in urbanised regions, around 1.00 kg-N of per capita annual potential N load as excrement was returned to farmlands and 5.62 kg-N discharged into river systems in urban areas. The findings of the study suggest that human activities have significantly altered the N cycle in agro-ecosystems of China. With high population density and scarce per capita water resources, non-point source pollution from agro-ecosystems continues to put pressure on aquatic ecosystems. Increasing the rate of organic matter recycling and fertiliser efficiency with limited reliance on chemical fertilisers might yield tremendous environmental benefits. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Long term agro-ecosystem research: The Southern Plains partnership

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is coordinating ten well-established research sites as a Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network. The goal of the LTAR is to sustain a land-based infrastructure for research, environmental management testing, and education, that enables understan...

  10. Agro-ecosystems impact malaria prevalence: large-scale irrigation drives vector population in western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Development strategies in Ethiopia have largely focused on the expansion of irrigated agriculture in the last decade to reduce poverty and promote economic growth. However, such irrigation schemes can worsen the socio-economic state by aggravating the problem of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study, the effect of agro-ecosystem practices on malaria prevalence and the risk of malaria transmission by the primary vector mosquito, Anopheles arabiensis, in Ethiopia were investigated. Methods In three villages in western Ethiopia practising large-scale sugarcane irrigation, traditional smallholder irrigation and non-irrigated farming, cross-sectional parasitological surveys were conducted during the short rains, after the long rains and during the dry season. Entomological surveys were undertaken monthly (February 2010-January 2011) in each village using light traps, pyrethrum spray collections and artificial pit shelters. Results Malaria prevalence and the risk of transmission by An. arabiensis assessed by the average human biting rate, mean sporozoite rate and estimated annual entomological inoculation rate were significantly higher in the irrigated sugarcane agro-ecosystem compared to the traditionally irrigated and non-irrigated agro-ecosystems. The average human biting rate was significantly elevated by two-fold, while the mean sporozoite rate was 2.5-fold higher, and the annual entomological inoculation rate was 4.6 to 5.7-fold higher in the irrigated sugarcane compared to the traditional and non-irrigated agro-ecosystems. Active irrigation clearly affected malaria prevalence by increasing the abundance of host seeking Anopheles mosquitoes year-round and thus increasing the risk of infective bites. The year-round presence of sporozoite-infected vectors due to irrigation practices was found to strengthen the coupling between rainfall and risk of malaria transmission, both on- and off-season. Conclusion This study demonstrates the negative impact of

  11. Meteorological risks are drivers of environmental innovation in agro-ecosystem management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne; Van de Vijver, Hans; Vanwindekens, Frédéric; de Frutos Cachorro, Julia; Verspecht, Ann; Planchon, Viviane; Buyse, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural crop production is to a great extent determined by weather conditions. The research hypothesis is that meteorological risks act as drivers of environmental innovation in agro-ecosystem management. The methodology comprised five major parts: the hazard, its impact on different agro-ecosystems, vulnerability, risk management and risk communication. Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) theory was used to model annual maxima of meteorological variables based on a location-, scale- and shape-parameter that determine the center of the distribution, the deviation of the location-parameter and the upper tail decay, respectively. Spatial interpolation of GEV-derived return levels resulted in spatial temperature extremes, precipitation deficits and wet periods. The temporal overlap between extreme weather conditions and sensitive periods in the agro-ecosystem was realised using a bio-physically based modelling framework that couples phenology, a soil water balance and crop growth. 20-year return values for drought and waterlogging during different crop stages were related to arable yields. The method helped quantify agricultural production risks and rate both weather and crop-based agricultural insurance. The spatial extent of vulnerability is developed on different layers of geo-information to include meteorology, soil-landscapes, crop cover and management. Vulnerability of agroecosystems was mapped based on rules set by experts' knowledge and implemented by Fuzzy Inference System modelling and Geographical Information System tools. The approach was applied for cropland vulnerability to heavy rain and grassland vulnerability to drought. The level of vulnerability and resilience of an agro-ecosystem was also determined by risk management which differed across sectors and farm types. A calibrated agro-economic model demonstrated a marked influence of climate adapted land allocation and crop management on individual utility. The "chain of risk" approach allowed for

  12. Spatio-temporal variation in malaria transmission intensity in five agro-ecosystems in Mvomero district, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mboera, Leonard E G; Senkoro, Kesheni P; Mayala, Benjamin K; Rumisha, Susan F; Rwegoshora, Rwehumbiza T; Mlozi, Malongo R S; Shayo, Elizabeth H

    2010-05-01

    In Africa, malaria is predominantly a rural disease where agriculture forms the backbone of the economy. Various agro-ecosystems and crop production systems have an impact on mosquito productivity, and hence malaria transmission intensity. This study was carried out to determine spatial and temporal variations in anopheline mosquito population and malaria transmission intensity in five villages, representing different agro-ecosystems in Mvomero district, Tanzania, so as to provide baseline information for malaria interventions. The agro-ecosystems consisted of irrigated sugarcane, flooding rice irrigation, non-flooding rice irrigation, wet savannah and dry savannah. In each setting, adult mosquitoes were sampled monthly using light traps recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from August 2004 to July 2005. A total of 35,702 female mosquitoes were collected. Anopheles gambiae sensu lato was the most abundant (58.9%) mosquito species. An. funestus accounted for 12.0% of the mosquitoes collected. There was a substantial village to village variation and seasonality in the density of Anopheles mosquito population, with peaks in May towards the end of the warm and rainy season. Significantly larger numbers of anophelines were collected from traditional flooding rice irrigation ecosystem (70.7%) than in non-flooding rice irrigation (8.6%), sugarcane (7.0%), wet savannah (7.3%) and dry savannah (6.4%). The overall sporozoite rates for An. gambiae and An. funestus were 3.4% and 2.3%, respectively. The combined overall sporozoite rate (An. gambiae+An. funestus) was 3.2%. The mean annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR) for An. gambiae s.l. was 728 infective bites per person per year and this was significantly higher in traditional flooding rice irrigation (1351) than in other agro-ecosystems. The highest EIRs for An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus were observed during May 2005 (long rainy season) and December 2004 (short rainy season

  13. The origins of plant pathogens in agro-ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Stukenbrock, Eva H; McDonald, Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    Plant pathogens can emerge in agricultural ecosystems through several mechanisms, including host-tracking, host jumps, hybridization and horizontal gene transfer. High-throughput DNA sequencing coupled with new analytical approaches make it possible to differentiate among these mechanisms and to infer the time and place where pathogens first emerged. We present several examples to illustrate the different mechanisms and timescales associated with the origins of important plant pathogens. In some cases pathogens were domesticated along with their hosts during the invention of agriculture approximately 10,000 years ago. In other cases pathogens appear to have emerged very recently and almost instantaneously following horizontal gene transfer or hybridization. The predominant unifying feature in these examples is the environmental and genetic uniformity of the agricultural ecosystem in which the pathogens emerged. We conclude that agro-ecosystems will continue to select for new pathogens unless they are re-engineered to make them less conducive to pathogen emergence.

  14. Methane uptake in forest and agro-ecosystems in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, S. K.; Livesley, S. J.; Fest, B. J.; Weston, C. J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2007-12-01

    Oxidation of methane by methanotrophic bacteria in aerated soils does provide a considerable global sink for greenhouse gases (-30 Tg CH4/yr). The form of land-use can have a significant impact on the methane uptake capacity of a soil. We investigated the sink strength for methane uptake of forest ecosystems and agro- ecosystems in Australia using automated measurement systems and manual chamber methods. Our results demonstrate large differences in the methane uptake capacity of Australian soils. Data from Western Australia showed that CH4 uptake rates increased with stand age of plantations and were greatest in an undisturbed native forest and lowest in an improved pasture. Measurements in differently aged forest ecosystems indicated that sites with the most recent fire disturbance had the lowest methane uptake rates. Generally, native forest ecosystems showed the greatest methane uptake rates (up to 130 kg CO2-e ha yr). Plantations (eucalyptus/pine) showed significantly lower methane uptake rates (around 15 kg CO2-e ha yr). Grazed pastures in Australia had the lowest uptake rates (6 kg CO2-e ha yr) and were occasional methane sources. The methane uptake rates of soils were only marginally influenced by environmental parameters over the course of a year. Between sites the methane uptake rates were not related to soil parameters such as soil bulk density. Experiments with excavated soil cores demonstrated that diffusivity of methane through the upper soil layer was the rate limiting step. Our results indicate that the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria and substrate diffusivity are the most important factor influencing methane uptake rates in soils. Disturbance events such as change of land-use or vegetation structure can have significant impacts on the capacity of soils to take up methane.

  15. [Quantitative input of atmospheric nitrogen to an agro-ecosystem in a typical red soil region].

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Zhou, Jing; Yang, Hao; Liang, Jia-ni; Liu, Xiao-li

    2009-08-15

    The atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition flux and dry deposition N velocities (Vd) were estimated using big leaf resistance analogy model by observations of onflow and factors of farmland microclimate, analysis of nitrides from the atmosphere and rain in an agro-ecosystem, a typical red soil region on Experiment Station of Red Earth Ecology, Chinese Academy (Yingtan, Jiangxi) of Sciences in 2005. The results showed that the dry deposition N was 82.63 kg x hm(-2), accounting for 67.94% of the total N, which was 132.6 kg x hm(-2) in the whole year (2005). In N dry deposition progress, NH3-N and NO3- -N were the main settlement for gas and particle, respectively. NH3-N was made up 43.02% to 89.89% (mean value, 71.05%) of the gaseous N deposition while NO3- -N was accounted for 33.67% to 94.54% (mean value, 61.01%) of the particle N deposition. The N wet deposition fluxes were 0.50-8.45 kg x hm(-2) per month and reached the higher value in July and November.

  16. Annual Progress Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-20

    AD-AIO6 983 ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA COORDINATEO SCIENCE LAB F/0 12/1 ANNUAL PROGRESS REPOMT ,(U1 OCT 81 H V POOR NOOOII-81-K-O014 UNCLASSIFIED T-111...34 University of Illinois at Urbana -Chaimpaign Urbana , Illinois 61801 I ~~ ~ ~ ~ I I7 CONROLINOFIC______NDADDES Office of Naval Research - Octe--mm...Unclassified Approved for public release; dis tribu tion ’anlimi ted. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the aboeet onfored a Weak 20. 1# Offrmoaw Repeol

  17. Scaling-up from plot to watershed for agro-ecosystem services appraisal under climate change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The highly diverse soils in the Chippewa River Watershed (CRW) in west central Minnesota are increasingly the focus of conservation efforts. Land use in CRW has a major impact on the status of soil conservation and on agro-ecosystem services (AES), including provisioning, supporting, regulating and ...

  18. Climate Change Vulnerability of Agro-Ecosystems: Does socio-economic factors matters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surendran Nair, S.; Preston, B. L.; King, A. W.; Mei, R.; Post, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    Climate variability and change has direct impacts on agriculture. Despite continual adaptation to climate as well as gains in technology innovation and adoption, agriculture is still vulnerable to changes in temperature and precipitation expected in coming decades. Generally, researchers use two major methodologies to understand the vulnerability of agro-ecosystems to climate change: process-based crop models and empirical models. However, these models are not yet designed to capture the influence of socioeconomic systems on agro-ecosystem processes and outcomes.. However, socioeconomic processes are an important factor driving agro-ecological responses to biophysical processes (climate, topography and soil), because of the role of human agency in mediating the response of agro-ecosystems to climate. We have developed a framework that integrates socioeconomic and biophysical characteristics of agro-ecosystems using cluster analysis and GIS tools. This framework has been applied to the U.S. Southeast to define unique socio-ecological domains for agriculture. The results demonstrate that socioeconomic characteristics are an important factor influencing agriculture production. These results suggest that the lack of attention to socioeconomic conditions and human agency in agro-ecological modeling creates a potential bias with respect to the representation of climate change impacts.

  19. Keeping N in its place: Legumes and N cycling in agro-ecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The extent to which legumes add and retain N in agro-ecosystems depends on plant, rhizobial, soil, and weather conditions and on crop management. In some regions, deeply rooted alfalfa removes subsoil nitrate and water, reducing nitrogen (N) losses through leaching and tile drainage, fixes the remai...

  20. Surface water and shallow groundwater interactions in semiarid agro-ecosystems of western USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surface water and groundwater interactions in agro-ecosystems of semiarid regions can translate into multiple hydrological benefits including aquifer recharge, temporary storage, and delayed return flow. Our ongoing research effort aimed to better understand surface water and shallow groundwater int...

  1. Modelling Mediterranean agro-ecosystems by including agricultural trees in the LPJmL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, M.; von Bloh, W.; Shi, S.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-11-01

    In the Mediterranean region, climate and land use change are expected to impact on natural and agricultural ecosystems by warming, reduced rainfall, direct degradation of ecosystems and biodiversity loss. Human population growth and socioeconomic changes, notably on the eastern and southern shores, will require increases in food production and put additional pressure on agro-ecosystems and water resources. Coping with these challenges requires informed decisions that, in turn, require assessments by means of a comprehensive agro-ecosystem and hydrological model. This study presents the inclusion of 10 Mediterranean agricultural plants, mainly perennial crops, in an agro-ecosystem model (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land - LPJmL): nut trees, date palms, citrus trees, orchards, olive trees, grapes, cotton, potatoes, vegetables and fodder grasses. The model was successfully tested in three model outputs: agricultural yields, irrigation requirements and soil carbon density. With the development presented in this study, LPJmL is now able to simulate in good detail and mechanistically the functioning of Mediterranean agriculture with a comprehensive representation of ecophysiological processes for all vegetation types (natural and agricultural) and in a consistent framework that produces estimates of carbon, agricultural and hydrological variables for the entire Mediterranean basin. This development paves the way for further model extensions aiming at the representation of alternative agro-ecosystems (e.g. agroforestry), and opens the door for a large number of applications in the Mediterranean region, for example assessments of the consequences of land use transitions, the influence of management practices and climate change impacts.

  2. Modelling Mediterranean agro-ecosystems by including agricultural trees in the LPJmL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, M.; von Bloh, W.; Shi, S.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-06-01

    Climate and land use change in the Mediterranean region is expected to affect natural and agricultural ecosystems by decreases in precipitation, increases in temperature as well as biodiversity loss and anthropogenic degradation of natural resources. Demographic growth in the Eastern and Southern shores will require increases in food production and put additional pressure on agro-ecosystems and water resources. Coping with these challenges requires informed decisions that, in turn, require assessments by means of a comprehensive agro-ecosystem and hydrological model. This study presents the inclusion of 10 Mediterranean agricultural plants, mainly perennial crops, in an agro-ecosystem model (LPJmL): nut trees, date palms, citrus trees, orchards, olive trees, grapes, cotton, potatoes, vegetables and fodder grasses. The model was successfully tested in three model outputs: agricultural yields, irrigation requirements and soil carbon density. With the development presented in this study, LPJmL is now able to simulate in good detail and mechanistically the functioning of Mediterranean agriculture with a comprehensive representation of ecophysiological processes for all vegetation types (natural and agricultural) and in a consistent framework that produces estimates of carbon, agricultural and hydrological variables for the entire Mediterranean basin. This development pave the way for further model extensions aiming at the representation of alternative agro-ecosystems (e.g. agroforestry), and opens the door for a large number of applications in the Mediterranean region, for example assessments on the consequences of land use transitions, the influence of management practices and climate change impacts.

  3. Long-term micrometeorological measurements of nitrous oxide fluxes from agro-ecosystems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner-Riddle, C.; Brown, S.; Snider, D.

    2013-12-01

    Year-round measurements of nitrous oxide fluxes are needed in order to better characterize emissions from agro-ecosystems, and devise mitigation strategies for emission reduction. This is particularly the case for agroecosystems in cold regions where freezing and thawing of soil often results in enhanced fluxes. In addition, nitrogen fertilizer application at crop planting in the spring will also result in emission events with high temporal variability. Micrometeorological methods do not interfere with soil conditions and hence, can be used quasi-continuously (at hourly to half-hourly intervals) to capture the highly intermittent nature of N2O emission episodes. Simultaneous flux measurements on multiple plots is desirable so that the effect of soil management practices on N2O emissions can be characterized. We have conducted several studies deploying the flux-gradient technique to measure surface N2O fluxes at a long-term in Elora, ON, Canada, a site established in 2000 with the objective of improving our understanding of how management affects N2O emissions. The experimental area consists of four 1.5-4 ha plots within a level and aerodynamically homogeneous 30-ha area, and half-hourly flux is measured sequentially providing up to 12 values per plot per day. A total of 521 monthly N2O emission rates were measured over the 2000-2013 period for a range of crops (e.g. soybeans, corn, wheat) and management (e.g. no-tillage, conventional). The aggregated analysis shows that extreme flux events tend to be concentrated in February/March and May/Jun/Jul (Fig. 1). The main thaw events tend to occur in February and March, and they events contribute on average 30% to the annual nitrous oxide emission total. Timely rains after fertilizer application at crop planting in May provide high soil water content for denitrification to take place and also lead to high emission events. Sixty-six percent of the annual emission occurred from Jan to Jun on average at this site. Emissions

  4. The value of producing food, energy, and ecosystem services within an agro-ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Porter, John; Costanza, Robert; Sandhu, Harpinder; Sigsgaard, Lene; Wratten, Steve

    2009-06-01

    Agricultural ecosystems produce food, fiber, and non-marketed ecosystem services (ES). Agriculture also typically involves high negative external costs associated with, for example, fossil fuel use. We estimated, via field-scale ecological monitoring and economic value-transfer methods, the market and nonmarket ES value of a combined food and energy (CFE) agro-ecosystem that simultaneously produces food, fodder, and bioenergy. Such novel CFE agro-ecosystems can provide a significantly increased net crop, energy, and nonmarketed ES compared with conventional agriculture, and require markedly less fossil-based inputs. Extrapolated to the European scale, the value of nonmarket ES from the CFE system exceeds current European farm subsidy payments. Such integrated food and bioenergy systems can thus provide environmental value for money for European Union farming and nonfarming communities.

  5. Identifying the public health benefits of livestock-dependent, agro-ecosystems under climate change.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Shana

    2013-12-01

    As the demand for meat continues to grow in South Asia and Africa and access to communal sources of water and forage shrinks, intensification of small-scale livestock systems in peri-urban areas is expected to expand. In South East Asia, smallholder transition to livestock intensification has been transformative, increasing economic opportunities while also introducing new disease risks. While we have an understanding of the emerging disease burden from livestock intensification; we have just begun to understand the possible public health benefits of sustainable landscapes and the potential health savings accrued from disease avoidance. To date, few studies have attempted to quantify the health benefits attributable to sustainable agro-ecosystems, especially in regard to livestock systems. In this paper, I will examine what is needed to measure and communicate the public health benefits and cost-savings (from disease avoidance) of sustainable agro-ecosystems.

  6. Rapid emergence of pathogens in agro-ecosystems: global threats to agricultural sustainability and food security.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Bruce A; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2016-12-05

    Agricultural ecosystems are composed of genetically depauperate populations of crop plants grown at a high density and over large spatial scales, with the regional composition of crop species changing little from year to year. These environments are highly conducive for the emergence and dissemination of pathogens. The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. Population genetic and genomic studies have shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying speciation processes, adaptive evolution and long-distance dispersal of highly damaging pathogens in agro-ecosystems. These studies document the speed with which pathogens evolve to overcome crop resistance genes and pesticides. They also show that crop pathogens can be disseminated very quickly across and among continents through human activities. In this review, we discuss how the peculiar architecture of agro-ecosystems facilitates pathogen emergence, evolution and dispersal. We present four example pathosystems that illustrate both pathogen specialization and pathogen speciation, including different time frames for emergence and different mechanisms underlying the emergence process. Lastly, we argue for a re-design of agro-ecosystems that embraces the concept of dynamic diversity to improve their resilience to pathogens. This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  7. Irrigation and Soil Salinization in Mediterranean agro-ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Angelo; Viola, Francesco; Valerio Noto, Leonardo; Mau, Yair; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-04-01

    During the warm and dry growing season of Mediterranean climates, the availability of good quality water for primary production in agriculture tends to be limited. This aspect makes the use of saline and brackish water appealing, given the potential of natural flushing of the soils by deep percolation during the wet and colder dormant season. Thus the cyclic alternation between the two different phases in the cold and warm season gives rise to a delicate equilibrium that can lead to long term secondary salinization if the mean salt input from irrigation overpasses the average annual natural leakage amount. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the long term salt mass balance in the presence of irrigation and possible changes in seasonality. An elevated concentration of salt in the soil may in turn lead to both a decrease of its fertility and to osmotic stress reducing plant productivity. To this purpose, a stochastic soil and water balance salinity model is developed to quantify the balance between salt accumulation phases during the growing season and leaching phases during the wet season. We provide the numerical and the analytical representation of secondary long-term salinization process, highlighting the role of soil depth, plant and climate together with the impact of shifts in the seasonal vs. interannual rainfall fluctuations. An application to a test case in the Southern part of Sicily (ITALY) is also presented, highlighting the strong relationship between salt dynamics, water management and climatic conditions.

  8. Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehuger, S.; Gabrielle, B.; Chaumartin, F.

    2009-04-01

    Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases contributing to the global warming potential (GWP) of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate requires a capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in an integrated manner, as related to pedo-climatic conditions and crop management. The biophysical crop model CERES-EGC is designed to predict the productivity and GWP of agro-ecosystems at the plot-scale. Here we applied a Bayesian calibration to its both sub-models of N2O emissions and CO2 fluxes to deal with parameterization and uncertainty analysis. The N2O emission module of CERES-EGC was calibrated against chamber measurements from 7 arable sites in France and the CO2 flux module was calibrated against eddy-covariance measurements from 3 sites in Europe. Measurements from the various sites were assimilated in the posterior probability density functions for the different parameters, using a Bayesian calibration method based on the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. The model was subsequently extrapolated to predict CO2 and N2O fluxes over entire crop rotations of 3 European experimental sites of the NitroEurope-IP network. Indirect GHG emissions arising from the production of agricultural inputs and from cropping operations were also added to the final GWP. Such modelling approach makes it possible to test various agronomic management scenarios, in order to design productive agro-ecosystems with low global warming potential. The model would be extrapolated from plot- to regional-scale, with the ultimate goal of generating spatialized GHG inventories. Differentiating the emissions in space would thus make it possible to target critical zones in mitigation scenarios at regional scale.

  9. Prunus persica crop management differentially promotes arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in a tropical agro-ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Torres, Maria Pilar; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Due to the important role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in ecosystem functioning, determination of the effect of management practices on the AMF diversity in agricultural soils is essential for the sustainability of these agro-ecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare the AMF diversity in Prunus persica roots under two types of fertilisation (inorganic, with or without manure) combined with integrated or chemical pest management in a Venezuelan agro-ecosystem. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified: 15 belonged to the genus Glomus, one to Claroideoglomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. The distribution of the AMF community composition differed as a consequence of the treatment effects. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control had the highest AMF richness and the treatment combining inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest had the lowest. The real causes and effects of these differences in the AMF community are very difficult to establish, since the crop management regimes tested were composed of several interacting factors. In conclusion, the crop management practices can exert a significant influence on the populations of AMF. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable agricultural management strategy with respect to improving the AMF diversity in this crop under tropical conditions, and thus for maintaining the agricultural and environmental sustainability of this agro-ecosystem.

  10. Prunus persica Crop Management Differentially Promotes Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Diversity in a Tropical Agro-Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Torres, Maria Pilar; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Due to the important role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in ecosystem functioning, determination of the effect of management practices on the AMF diversity in agricultural soils is essential for the sustainability of these agro-ecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare the AMF diversity in Prunus persica roots under two types of fertilisation (inorganic, with or without manure) combined with integrated or chemical pest management in a Venezuelan agro-ecosystem. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified: 15 belonged to the genus Glomus, one to Claroideoglomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. The distribution of the AMF community composition differed as a consequence of the treatment effects. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control had the highest AMF richness and the treatment combining inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest had the lowest. The real causes and effects of these differences in the AMF community are very difficult to establish, since the crop management regimes tested were composed of several interacting factors. In conclusion, the crop management practices can exert a significant influence on the populations of AMF. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable agricultural management strategy with respect to improving the AMF diversity in this crop under tropical conditions, and thus for maintaining the agricultural and environmental sustainability of this agro-ecosystem. PMID:24520389

  11. MERINOVA: Meteorological risks as drivers of environmental innovation in agro-ecosystem management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne; Oger, Robert; Marlier, Catherine; Van De Vijver, Hans; Vandermeulen, Valerie; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Zamani, Sepideh; Curnel, Yannick; Mettepenningen, Evi

    2013-04-01

    The BELSPO funded project 'MERINOVA' deals with risks associated with extreme weather phenomena and with risks of biological origin such as pests and diseases. The major objectives of the proposed project are to characterise extreme meteorological events, assess the impact on Belgian agro-ecosystems, characterise their vulnerability and resilience to these events, and explore innovative adaptation options to agricultural risk management. The project comprises of five major parts that reflect the chain of risks: (i) Hazard: Assessing the likely frequency and magnitude of extreme meteorological events by means of probability density functions; (ii) Impact: Analysing the potential bio-physical and socio-economic impact of extreme weather events on agro-ecosystems in Belgium using process-based modelling techniques commensurate with the regional scale; (iii) Vulnerability: Identifying the most vulnerable agro-ecosystems using fuzzy multi-criteria and spatial analysis; (iv) Risk Management: Uncovering innovative risk management and adaptation options using actor-network theory and fuzzy cognitive mapping techniques; and, (v) Communication: Communicating to research, policy and practitioner communities using web-based techniques. The different tasks of the MERINOVA project require expertise in several scientific disciplines: meteorology, statistics, spatial database management, agronomy, bio-physical impact modelling, socio-economic modelling, actor-network theory, fuzzy cognitive mapping techniques. These expertises are shared by the four scientific partners who each lead one work package. The MERINOVA project will concentrate on promoting a robust and flexible framework by demonstrating its performance across Belgian agro-ecosystems, and by ensuring its relevance to policy makers and practitioners. Impacts developed from physically based models will not only provide information on the state of the damage at any given time, but also assist in understanding the links

  12. Annual Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ayman I. Hawari

    2002-10-02

    This report describes the results generated during phase 1 of this project. During this phase, the main tools that are used to compute the thermal neutron scattering kernels for graphite, beryllium, beryllium oxide, zirconium hydride, light water, polyethylene were implemented and tested. This includes a modified NJOY/LEAPR code system, the GASKET code, and the ab initio condensed matter codes VASP and PHONON. Thermal neutron scattering kernels were generated for graphite, beryllium, beryllium oxide. In the case of graphite, new phonon spectra were examined. The first is a spectrum based on experiments performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the early seventies, and the second is generated using the ab initio methods. In the case of beryllium, and beryllium oxide, a synthetic approach for generating the phonon spectra was implemented. In addition, significant progress was made on an experiment to benchmark the graphite scattering kernels was made. The simulations of this experiment show that differences on the order of a few percent, in Pu-239 detector responses, can be expected due to the use of different scattering kernels. (B204) NOT A FINAL REPORT

  13. Irrigation and Maize Cultivation Erode Plant Diversity Within Crops in Mediterranean Dry Cereal Agro-Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagúndez, Jaime; Olea, Pedro P.; Tejedo, Pablo; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Gómez, David

    2016-07-01

    The intensification of agriculture has increased production at the cost of environment and biodiversity worldwide. To increase crop yield in dry cereal systems, vast farmland areas of high conservation value are being converted into irrigation, especially in Mediterranean countries. We analyze the effect of irrigation-driven changes on the farm biota by comparing species diversity, community composition, and species traits of arable plants within crop fields from two contrasting farming systems (dry and irrigated) in Spain. We sampled plant species within 80 fields of dry wheat, irrigated wheat, and maize (only cultivated under irrigation). Wheat crops held higher landscape and per field species richness, and beta diversity than maize. Within the same type of crop, irrigated wheat hosted lower plant diversity than dry wheat at both field and landscape scales. Floristic composition differed between crop types, with higher frequencies of perennials, cosmopolitan, exotic, wind-pollinated and C4 species in maize. Our results suggest that irrigation projects, that transform large areas of dry cereal agro-ecosystems into irrigated crop systems dominated by maize, erode plant diversity. An adequate planning on the type and proportion of crops used in the irrigated agro-ecosystems is needed in order to balance agriculture production and biodiversity conservation.

  14. Land Use and Environmental Variability Impacts on the Phenology of Arid Agro-Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo-Leon, Jose Raul; van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.; Castellanos-Villegas, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    The overexploitation of water resources in arid environments often results in abandonment of large extensions of agricultural lands, which may (1) modify phenological trends, and (2) alter the sensitivity of specific phenophases to environmental triggers. In Mexico, current governmental policies subsidize restoration efforts, to address ecological degradation caused by abandonments; however, there is a need for new approaches to assess their effectiveness. Addressing this, we explore a method to monitor and assess (1) land surface phenology trends in arid agro-ecosystems, and (2) the effect of climatic factors and restoration treatments on the phenology of abandoned agricultural fields. We used 16-day normalized difference vegetation index composites from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer from 2000 to 2009 to derive seasonal phenometrics. We then derived phenoclimatic variables and land cover thematic maps, to serve as a set of independent factors that influence vegetation phenology. We conducted a multivariate analysis of variance to analyze phenological trends among land cover types, and developed multiple linear regression models to assess influential climatic factors driving phenology per land cover analyzed. Our results suggest that the start and length of the growing season had different responses to environmental factors depending on land cover type. Our analysis also suggests possible establishment of arid adapted species (from surrounding ecosystems) in abandoned fields with longer times since abandonment. Using this approach, we were able increase our understanding on how climatic factors influence phenology on degraded arid agro-ecosystems, and how this systems evolve after disturbance.

  15. Irrigation and Maize Cultivation Erode Plant Diversity Within Crops in Mediterranean Dry Cereal Agro-Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Fagúndez, Jaime; Olea, Pedro P; Tejedo, Pablo; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Gómez, David

    2016-07-01

    The intensification of agriculture has increased production at the cost of environment and biodiversity worldwide. To increase crop yield in dry cereal systems, vast farmland areas of high conservation value are being converted into irrigation, especially in Mediterranean countries. We analyze the effect of irrigation-driven changes on the farm biota by comparing species diversity, community composition, and species traits of arable plants within crop fields from two contrasting farming systems (dry and irrigated) in Spain. We sampled plant species within 80 fields of dry wheat, irrigated wheat, and maize (only cultivated under irrigation). Wheat crops held higher landscape and per field species richness, and beta diversity than maize. Within the same type of crop, irrigated wheat hosted lower plant diversity than dry wheat at both field and landscape scales. Floristic composition differed between crop types, with higher frequencies of perennials, cosmopolitan, exotic, wind-pollinated and C4 species in maize. Our results suggest that irrigation projects, that transform large areas of dry cereal agro-ecosystems into irrigated crop systems dominated by maize, erode plant diversity. An adequate planning on the type and proportion of crops used in the irrigated agro-ecosystems is needed in order to balance agriculture production and biodiversity conservation.

  16. Land Use and Environmental Variability Impacts on the Phenology of Arid Agro-Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Romo-Leon, Jose Raul; van Leeuwen, Willem J D; Castellanos-Villegas, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    The overexploitation of water resources in arid environments often results in abandonment of large extensions of agricultural lands, which may (1) modify phenological trends, and (2) alter the sensitivity of specific phenophases to environmental triggers. In Mexico, current governmental policies subsidize restoration efforts, to address ecological degradation caused by abandonments; however, there is a need for new approaches to assess their effectiveness. Addressing this, we explore a method to monitor and assess (1) land surface phenology trends in arid agro-ecosystems, and (2) the effect of climatic factors and restoration treatments on the phenology of abandoned agricultural fields. We used 16-day normalized difference vegetation index composites from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer from 2000 to 2009 to derive seasonal phenometrics. We then derived phenoclimatic variables and land cover thematic maps, to serve as a set of independent factors that influence vegetation phenology. We conducted a multivariate analysis of variance to analyze phenological trends among land cover types, and developed multiple linear regression models to assess influential climatic factors driving phenology per land cover analyzed. Our results suggest that the start and length of the growing season had different responses to environmental factors depending on land cover type. Our analysis also suggests possible establishment of arid adapted species (from surrounding ecosystems) in abandoned fields with longer times since abandonment. Using this approach, we were able increase our understanding on how climatic factors influence phenology on degraded arid agro-ecosystems, and how this systems evolve after disturbance.

  17. Earth observation based assessment of the water production and water consumption of Nile Basin agro-ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bastiaanssen, Wim G.M.; Karimi, Poolad; Rebelo, Lisa-Maria; Duan, Zheng; Senay, Gabriel; Muthuwatte, Lal; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The increasing competition for water resources requires a better understanding of flows, fluxes, stocks, and the services and benefits related to water consumption. This paper explains how public domain Earth Observation data based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Second Generation Meteosat (MSG), Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and various altimeter measurements can be used to estimate net water production (rainfall (P) > evapotranspiration (ET)) and net water consumption (ET > P) of Nile Basin agro-ecosystems. Rainfall data from TRMM and the Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS-NET) RainFall Estimates (RFE) products were used in conjunction with actual evapotranspiration from the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) and ETLook models. Water flows laterally between net water production and net water consumption areas as a result of runoff and withdrawals. This lateral flow between the 15 sub-basins of the Nile was estimated, and partitioned into stream flow and non-stream flow using the discharge data. A series of essential water metrics necessary for successful integrated water management are explained and computed. Net water withdrawal estimates (natural and humanly instigated) were assumed to be the difference between net rainfall (Pnet) and actual evapotranspiration (ET) and some first estimates of withdrawals—without flow meters—are provided. Groundwater-dependent ecosystems withdraw large volumes of groundwater, which exceed water withdrawals for the irrigation sector. There is a strong need for the development of more open-access Earth Observation databases, especially for information related to actual ET. The fluxes, flows and storage changes presented form the basis for a global framework to describe monthly and annual water accounts in ungauged river basins.

  18. Long-term agro-ecosystem research or the southern great plains: The USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory partnership

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is coordinating ten well-established research sites as a Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network. The goal of the LTAR is to sustain a land-based infrastructure for research, environmental management testing, and education, that enables understan...

  19. Considerations in miniaturizing simplified agro-ecosystems for advanced life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, T.

    1996-01-01

    Miniaturizing the Earth's biogeochemical cycles to support human life during future space missions is the goal of the NASA research and engineering program in advanced life support. Mission requirements to reduce mass, volume, and power have focused efforts on (1) a maximally simplified agro-ecosystem of humans, food crops, and microbes; and, (2) a design for optimized productivity of food crops with high light levels over long days, with hydroponics, with elevated carbon dioxide and other controlled environmental factors, as well as with genetic selection for desirable crop properties. Mathematical modeling contributes to the goals by establishing trade-offs, by analyzing the growth and development of experimental crops, and by pointing to the possibilities of directed phasic control using modified field crop models to increase the harvest index.

  20. Considerations in miniaturizing simplified agro-ecosystems for advanced life support.

    PubMed

    Volk, T

    1996-01-01

    Miniaturizing the Earth's biogeochemical cycles to support human life during future space missions is the goal of the NASA research and engineering program in advanced life support. Mission requirements to reduce mass, volume, and power have focused efforts on (1) a maximally simplified agro-ecosystem of humans, food crops, and microbes; and, (2) a design for optimized productivity of food crops with high light levels over long days, with hydroponics, with elevated carbon dioxide and other controlled environmental factors, as well as with genetic selection for desirable crop properties. Mathematical modeling contributes to the goals by establishing trade-offs, by analyzing the growth and development of experimental crops, and by pointing to the possibilities of directed phasic control using modified field crop models to increase the harvest index.

  1. Agro-Ecosystem Research Results with Big Data and a Modified Scientific Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, M. S.; Heilman, P.; Peters, D. P. C.; Holifield Collins, C.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term studies of agro-ecosystems at the continental scale are providing an extraordinary understanding of regional environmental dynamics. The new Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network (established in 2013) has designed an explicit research program with multiple USDA experimental watersheds, ranges and forests for cross-site studies. Here, we report results from studies using a modified scientific method implemented over the past five years with long-term data from USDA experimental sites in coordination with other networks. The method provides a flexible structure to transform an idea to a hypothesis and come to conclusion with the valuable expertise and full participation of the data providers. The results offer a compelling argument for the LTAR concept of combining bottom-up site-based expertise and top-down network-wide coordination to arrive at more accurate scientific conclusions. Simply put, without site-based expertise and cross-site communication, the interpretations and conclusions of these studies would have been incomplete, if not incorrect. Further, the up-front time commitment to data processing and analytics above the time dedicated to place-based studies increased the productivity of the team and the impact of the research, unlike the common perception that cross-site research might be less efficient. In turn, this supported a non-traditional system of credit for co-authors based on publication impact with less regard for author order. The LTAR network has embraced this modified scientific method in its Shared Research Strategy and Common Experiment to address the problematic issues of data quality, co-author credit, research efficiency, and scientific impact in data intensive research. The initial success expressed here with USDA experimental sites bodes well for the LTAR and other such networks going forward.

  2. The MERINOVA project: MEteorological RIsks as drivers of environmental inNOvation in Agro-ecosystem management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne; Van de vijver, Hans; Zamani, Sepideh; Curnel, Yannick; Planchon, Viviane; Verspecht, Ann; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2014-05-01

    Devastating weather-related events have captured the interest of the general public in Belgium. Extreme weather events such as droughts, heat waves and rain storms are projected to increase both in frequency and magnitude with climate change. Since more than half of the Belgian territory is managed by the agricultural sector, extreme events may have significant impacts on agro-ecosystem services and pose severe limitations to sustainable agricultural land management. The research hypothesis of the MERINOVA project is that meteorological risks act as drivers of environmental innovation in agro-ecosystem management. The major objectives are to characterise extreme meteorological events, assess the impact on Belgian agro-ecosystems, characterise their vulnerability and resilience to these events, and explore innovative adaptation options to agricultural risk management. The project comprises of five major parts that reflect the chain of risks: the hazard, its impact on different agro-ecosystems, vulnerability, risk management and risk communication. Impacts developed from physically based models not only provide information on the state of the damage at any given time, but also assist in understanding the links between different factors causing damage and determining bio-physical vulnerability. Socio-economic impacts enlarge the basis for vulnerability mapping, risk management and adaptation options. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by more limits to aid received for agricultural damage and an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers. The main findings of each of these project building blocks will be communicated. MERINOVA provides for a robust and flexible framework by demonstrating its performance across Belgian agro-ecosystems, and by ensuring its relevance to policy makers and practitioners. A strong expert and end-user network is established to help disseminating and exploiting project results to meet user needs. The

  3. Surface water and shallow groundwater interactions in semiarid agro-ecosystems of the western USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Carlos; Guldan, Steve; Fernald, Alexander; Tidwell, Vince; Elias, Emile; Gutierrez, Karina; Borman, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Surface water and groundwater interactions in agro-ecosystems of semiarid regions can translate into multiple hydrological benefits including aquifer recharge, temporary storage, and delayed return flow. Our ongoing research effort aimed to better understand surface water and shallow groundwater interactions and their contribution to aquifer recharge and stream flow is being conducted in five relatively narrow floodplains in the semiarid western United States. Over the last several years, we have monitored multiple hydrologic parameters in three flood-irrigated valleys of northern New Mexico. This year we are monitoring two sprinkler-irrigated floodplain valleys in semiarid landscapes of eastern Oregon. At all locations, we measure multiple hydrologic parameters including irrigation diversions, soil moisture, shallow groundwater fluctuations, and weather variables. Data collected are being used to quantify different water budget components such as deep percolation, waterway seepage, evapotranspiration, and aquifer recharge. Results from one of our study sites in New Mexico showed that on average, canal seepage was 12%, and deep percolation ranged from 9 to 32% out of total canal inflow during the irrigation season. Also, shallow aquifer recharge ranged from 1044 to 1350 mm yr-1 during a 3-year evaluation period. At a second study site, canal seepage was 59% and deep percolation averaged 30% of total water diverted. Timing and magnitude of surface water and shallow groundwater interactions is also being evaluated. Results show that replenishment of the shallow aquifer follows a seasonal pattern, driven primarily by canal seepage and irrigation percolation contributions. At one of our study sites, each year the water table reaches a peak of up to 0.8 m within three to five weeks after the onset of irrigation; this increase in water table levels is maintained throughout most of the irrigation season that ends in October. After the end of irrigation season, in the

  4. The Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network: A New In-Situ Data Network For Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walbridge, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture in the 21st Century faces significant challenges due to increases in the demand for agricultural products from a global population expected to reach 9.5 billion by 2050, changes in land use that are reducing the area of arable land worldwide, and the uncertainties associated with increasing climate variability and change. There is broad agreement that meeting these challenges will require significant changes in agro-ecosystem management at the landscape scale. In 2012, the USDA/ARS announced the reorganization of 10 existing benchmark watersheds, experimental ranges, and research farms into a Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network. Earlier this year, the LTAR network expanded to 18 sites, including 3 led by land grant universities and/or private foundations. The central question addressed by the LTAR network is, "How do we sustain or enhance productivity, profitability, and ecosystem services in agro-ecosystems and agricultural landscapes"? All 18 LTAR sites possess rich historical databases that extend up to 100 years into the past. However as LTAR moves forward, the focus is on collecting a core set of common measurements over the next 30-50 years that can be used to draw inferences regarding the nature of agricultural sustainability and how it varies across regional and continental-scale gradients. As such, LTAR is part long-term research network and part observatory network. Rather than focusing on a single site, each LTAR has developed regional partnerships that allow it to address agro-ecosystem function in the large basins and eco-climatic zones that underpin regional food production systems. Partners include other long-term in-situ data networks (e.g., Ameriflux, CZO, GRACEnet, LTER, NEON). 'Next steps' include designing and implementing a cross-site experiment addressing LTAR's central question.

  5. Evolution in agriculture: the application of evolutionary approaches to the management of biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Thrall, Peter H; Oakeshott, John G; Fitt, Gary; Southerton, Simon; Burdon, Jeremy J; Sheppard, Andy; Russell, Robyn J; Zalucki, Myron; Heino, Mikko; Ford Denison, R

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts increasingly drive ecological and evolutionary processes at many spatio-temporal scales, demanding greater capacity to predict and manage their consequences. This is particularly true for agro-ecosystems, which not only comprise a significant proportion of land use, but which also involve conflicting imperatives to expand or intensify production while simultaneously reducing environmental impacts. These imperatives reinforce the likelihood of further major changes in agriculture over the next 30–40 years. Key transformations include genetic technologies as well as changes in land use. The use of evolutionary principles is not new in agriculture (e.g. crop breeding, domestication of animals, management of selection for pest resistance), but given land-use trends and other transformative processes in production landscapes, ecological and evolutionary research in agro-ecosystems must consider such issues in a broader systems context. Here, we focus on biotic interactions involving pests and pathogens as exemplars of situations where integration of agronomic, ecological and evolutionary perspectives has practical value. Although their presence in agro-ecosystems may be new, many traits involved in these associations evolved in natural settings. We advocate the use of predictive frameworks based on evolutionary models as pre-emptive management tools and identify some specific research opportunities to facilitate this. We conclude with a brief discussion of multidisciplinary approaches in applied evolutionary problems. PMID:25567968

  6. PROFILE: Tourism Contribution to Agro-Ecosystems Conservation: The Case of Lesbos Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Loumou; Giourga; Dimitrakopoulos; Koukoulas

    2000-10-01

    / The modernization of agriculture and the development of other economic sectors have prompted the abandonment of cultivated areas, which are marginally productive. Specifically, olive groves in Greece are transformed into pastures due to their location in inaccessible mountainous regions where breeding and raising of sheep and goats are the main economic activities. Overgrazing degrades the environment, exhausts natural resources, and prevents natural regeneration. The Greek islands have limited possibilities of development, except for their coastal areas where the growth of tourism is possible.The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of tourism activities on olive tree cultivation and the human population of the island of Lesbos. The presence or absence of tourism is related with the maintenance or abandonment of olive tree cultivation and population changes for each community. A spatial segregation of the island is evident, related to tourist development, olive tree cultivation, and population change. The results of the study demonstrate that in communities where tourism plays an important role olive tree cultivation is preserved and the population is stable. The preservation of the agro-ecosystem is assured while the olive groves remain productive. Simultaneously, the landscape, which provides specific attractions for tourism, is not altered.

  7. [Emergy of agro-ecosystem in Hunan Province: evolution and trend].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Lin; Li, Ming-Jie

    2012-02-01

    By using emergy analysis method, a trend analysis was made on the total emergy, its input-output structure, and emergy indices of the agro-ecosystem in Hunan Province of South-central China from 1999 to 2008. In the study period, the available total emergy input of the ecosystem was basically maintained at a stable level, but the input structure changed with the input of non-renewable industrial auxiliary emergy increased from 4.00E+22 sej in 1999 to 5.53E+22 sej in 2008, while that of renewable organic emergy decreased from 1.32E+23 sej to 1.20E+23 sej. Both the total emergy output and the output efficiency of the ecosystem had a great increase, with the total output reached 1.69E+23 sej in 2008, which was 23.8% higher than that in 1999, and the net output ratio increased from 0.79 to 0.96. Owing to the ever-increasing trend of the environmental loading ratio which was from 1.12 to 1.79, the sustainable development index of the ecosystem presented a decreasing trend, from 0.71 to 0.54, indicating that the agriculture in Hunan Province was overall belonged to the type of ecosystem driven by high consumption, and had relatively apparent extensive development characteristics.

  8. A modelling methodology to assess the effect of insect pest control on agro-ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Li, Bo

    2015-04-23

    The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been applied to the design of pest-controlling strategies for pesticide pollution management. However, catastrophe theory has not been initially applied to this approach. Thus, we used an approach of integrating ecological two-sidedness with a multi-criterion evaluation method of catastrophe theory to analyze the complexity of agro-ecosystems disturbed by the insecticides and screen out the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production. The results showed that the order of the values of evaluation index (RCC/CP) for three strategies in cabbage production was "applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times" (0.80) < "applying trap devices and environment-friendly insecticides 9 times" (0.83) < "applying common insecticides 14 times" (1.08). The treatment "applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times" was considered as the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production in Shanghai, China.

  9. A modelling methodology to assess the effect of insect pest control on agro-ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been applied to the design of pest-controlling strategies for pesticide pollution management. However, catastrophe theory has not been initially applied to this approach. Thus, we used an approach of integrating ecological two-sidedness with a multi-criterion evaluation method of catastrophe theory to analyze the complexity of agro-ecosystems disturbed by the insecticides and screen out the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production. The results showed that the order of the values of evaluation index (RCC/CP) for three strategies in cabbage production was “applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times” (0.80) < “applying trap devices and environment-friendly insecticides 9 times” (0.83) < “applying common insecticides 14 times” (1.08). The treatment “applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times” was considered as the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production in Shanghai, China. PMID:25906199

  10. Building a framework to explore water-human interaction for sustainable agro ecosystems in US Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Ding, D.; Rapolu, U.

    2012-12-01

    Human activity is intricately linked to the quality and quantity of water resources. Although many studies have examined water-human interaction, the complexity of such coupled systems is not well understood largely because of gaps in our knowledge of water-cycle processes which are heavily influenced by socio-economic drivers. On this context, this team has investigated connections among agriculture, policy, climate, land use/land cover, and water quality in Iowa over the past couple of years. To help explore these connections the team is developing a variety of cyber infrastructure tools that facilitate the collection, analysis and visualization of data, and the simulation of system dynamics. In an ongoing effort, the prototype system is applied to Clear Creek watershed, an agricultural dominating catchment in Iowa in the US Midwest, to understand water-human processes relevant to management decisions by farmers regarding agro ecosystems. The primary aim of this research is to understand the connections that exist among the agricultural and biofuel economy, land use/land cover change, and water quality. To help explore these connections an agent-based model (ABM) of land use change has been developed that simulates the decisions made by farmers given alternative assumptions about market forces, farmer characteristics, and water quality regulations. The SWAT model was used to simulate the impact of these decisions on the movement of sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus across the landscape. The paper also demonstrate how through the use of this system researchers can, for example, search for scenarios that lead to desirable socio-economic outcomes as well as preserve water quantity and quality.

  11. Mass balance approaches to characterizing the leaching potential of trenbolone acetate metabolites in agro-ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gerrad D; Benchetler, Peter V; Tate, Kenneth W; Kolodziej, Edward P

    2014-04-01

    Several studies have documented the occurrence and fate of trenbolone acetate (TBA) metabolites in soil and water. However, considerable uncertainty still exists with respect to TBA risk in agro-ecosystems because limited data are available to quantify excretion, transformation, and leaching processes. To address these uncertainties, we used experimental mesocosms and a mass balance approach to estimate the TBA metabolite leaching potential from manure excreted by implanted (40 mg TBA, 8 mg 17β-estradiol) beef cattle. Manure sample analysis indicates that over 113 days, a maximum of 9.3% (3,200 μg/animal unit [AU]) of the implant dose was excreted as 17α-trenbolone (17α-TBOH), and <1% was excreted as 17β-trenbolone (65 μg/AU) or trendione (3 μg/AU). While most (>97%) of the total excreted mass of 17α-TBOH transforms to uncharacterized products, 0.3-0.6% (100-220 μg/AU) of the implant dose accumulates on land surfaces and is available for subsequent transport. During rainfall or irrigation events, a maximum of 0.005-0.06% (1.6-22 μg/AU 17α-TBOH) or 0.005-0.012% (1.8-4 μg/AU 17α-TBOH) of the dose leached into runoff, respectively. Leaching potentials peak at 5-30 days postimplantation, suggesting that targeted timing of implantation and irrigation could minimize steroid leaching during rainfall and irrigation events.

  12. The USDA Long-Term Agro-ecosystems Research (LTAR) Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Walthall, C. L.; Campbell, J. D.; Derner, J. D.; Huggins, D. R.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; Locke, M. A.; Sadler, J.; Steiner, J. L.; Strickland, T.; Swain, H.

    2016-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has a multi-decadal to century long history of experimental watersheds, ranges and research farms throughout the USA. Many of these ARS research facilities, as well as three led by private foundations or land grant universities, are now part of the USDA Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network that currently has 18 locations. These 18 locations encompass a diversity of agricultural systems as well as provide a research platform for regional to national scale assessments and modeling scenarios of ecosystem goods and services for society. A central challenge that LTAR will address is: How can we sustain or enhance agricultural productivity, profitability, and ecosystem services to feed 9 billion people by 2050? Each LTAR location is designing a common experiment that consists of comparing "business as usual" to "aspirational agriculture" management strategies that reflect prevailing local to regional agricultural systems. The "aspirational agriculture" management strategy for each location will be forward-looking with innovative incorporations of cutting-edge technology, social-ecological systems involving human dimensions and economics, ecosystem services such as pollinator habitat and soil health, and paradigm shifting agricultural enterprise transformations. To accomplish the central challenge, LTAR locations will leverage existing historical data with new network-level initiatives such as wind erosion, phenology, water/carbon/nutrient/energy fluxes, complete water balances, greenhouse gas fluxes and remote sensing/modeling efforts to determine the sustainability of US agriculture across regional to continental scales. This presentation will provide an overview of the current status of the LTAR network, describe several common experiments, showcase the data management systems and web presentations of this data, as well as recent network findings.

  13. Vulnerability and Risk of Agro-ecosystems Facing Increased Salinity Intrusion in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nguyen, M. T.; Hagenlocher, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Vietnamese portion of the Mekong Delta increasingly suffers from salinity intrusion in its freshwater system, as exemplified by the historically high salinity levels recorded during the 2016 dry season. Although this exceptional situation was linked to the El Niño phenomena, many factors contribute to an increasing salinization of coastal areas. Salinity intrusion is a natural process in this tidal area but its extent is increasing and projected to worsen due to increased demand for water, diversion/storage of water flows in the Mekong river and its tributaries, land subsidence linked to groundwater over-abstraction, changes in land use and water management in coastal areas, and sea level rise. The Mekong Delta remains predominantly an agricultural landscape which contributes the majority of the rice, aquaculture, and fruit production of the country. These systems will need to be adapted to increased salinity levels. We will present results from two research projects, DeltAdapt and DELTAS, which were designed to allow understanding of, respectively (1) the main drivers of change of agro-ecosystems in coastal areas of the delta and (2) the relative vulnerabilities and risks deltaic social-ecological systems face with respect to various environmental hazards. We used the Global Delta Vulnerability Index developed within the DELTAS project to characterize the vulnerabilities and risks faced by coastal provinces of the delta with respect to salinity intrusion. The analysis allows us to understand which social, economic, and ecological variables index explain the relative vulnerability of the provinces. In addition, drivers of change (e.g. policy, economic, social, environmental) of coastal agro-ecosystems were systematically analyzed through 80 interviews and 7 focus group discussions in the provinces of Kien Giang and Soc Trang within the DeltAdapt project. This was combined with the analysis of Vietnamese policies to determine which are the important drivers of

  14. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2010-12-01

    With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific

  15. Annual Progress report - General Task

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnousky, S.G.

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  16. Development of the Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network: Current Status and Future Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walbridge, M. R.; Bestelmeyer, B.; Derner, J. D.; Harmel, D.; Heilman, P.; Huggins, D. R.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; Moorman, T.; Mccarty, G.; Pierson, F. B.; Rigby, J.; Robertson, G. P.; Sadler, J.; Sanderson, M.; Steiner, J. L.; Strickland, T.; Wienhold, B.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term research conducted at multiple scales is critical to assessing the effects of key long term drivers (e.g., global population growth; land-use change; increased competition for natural resources; climate variability and change) on our ability to sustain or enhance agricultural production to meet future global demand for agricultural products (e.g., food; feed; fiber; fuel). To address this need, the US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (ARS), in collaboration with a broad group of partners, identified and reorganized existing long-term research infrastructure (i.e., benchmark watersheds; experimental ranges; research farms) into a Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network, the only long-term research network focused specifically on US agro-ecosystems. In 2014, the initial network of 10 sites was expanded to 18 sites, including 3 sites led wholly or in part by non-USDA entities. Later this year, the LTAR network will make the first near real-time data sets from all 18 sites available on the web. This talk will focus briefly on LTAR establishment history, but primarily on LTAR's current status and next steps, including plans for a final network expansion to complete coverage of key farm resource regions in the continental US. In the broader context of this symposium, this talk will set the stage for discussions of complementary long-term research networks (e.g., LTER; NEON) and potential future collaborations to address questions of mutual interest.

  17. Carbon flow analysis of China's agro-ecosystem from 1980 to 2013: A perspective from substance flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Can; Chen, Minpeng

    2017-05-01

    Research on carbon cycling has attracted attention from both scientists and policy-makers. Based on material flow analysis, this study systematically budgets the carbon inputs, outputs and balance from 1980 to 2013 for China's agro-ecosystem and its sub-systems, including agricultural land use, livestock breeding and rural life. The results show that from 1980 to 2013, both the carbon input and output were growing gradually, with the carbon input doubling from 1.6PgC/year in 1980 to 3.4PgC/year in 2013, while carbon output grew from 2.2PgC/year in 1980 to 3.8PgC/year in 2013. From 1980 to 2013, the crop production system in China has remained a carbon source, and the agricultural land uses were also almost all carbon sources instead of carbon sinks. As soil carbon stock plays a very important role in deciding the function of China's agro-ecosystem as a carbon sink or source, practices that can promote carbon storage and sequestration will be an essential component of low carbon agriculture development in China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Spatiotemporal Variability in Water-carbon Flux and Water Use Efficiency Over an Agro-Ecosystem in the Changwu Tableland of the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X.; Liu, W.; Ning, T.

    2015-12-01

    Study on the characteristics and coupling relationship of water and carbon fluxes in agro-ecosystem, will contribute to maintaining and improving agricultural productivity, and is also important for understanding the material circulation of terrestrial ecosystem. In this study, a 30 m-high tower was erected for mounting flux instruments in the Changwu Tableland of the Loess Plateau. Two sets of eddy covariance system on the tower representing for ecosystems with different spatial scales, one is the cropland ecosystem (2m height, the underlying is winter wheat mono-cropping cropland) and the other is agro-fruit ecosystem (30m height, including both cropland and apple orchard). Seasonal and interannual variations in evapotranspiration (ET), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE) for the two ecosystems were continuously measured from September 2004 to June 2010. Mean while, the relationship between actual ET and potential evapotranspiration (ET0) was discussed. The results showed that, 1) Seasonally, ET of the cropland ecosystem was bimodal, peaked in May (Jointing and heading stage of winter wheat) and August (summer fallow period), respectively. The trend of NEE was consistent with the growth period of winter wheat, and the minimum occurred between April and May, the maximum WUE value also appeared that time. Seasonal ET of the agro-fruit ecosystem showed unimodal trend, which peaked in July. The lowest NEE occurred in July. The seasonal variation of WUE was smaller than that of the cropland ecosystem, and it got the highest in May. 2) Both of the annual ET in the cropland and the agro-fruit ecosystem fluctuated in these years, and the annual average ET were 437.12 and 417.41 mm, respectively. Because of the underestimated of latent heat flux caused by the energy imclosure, the observed ET was less than the results of the water balance calculation. The trend in NEE was similar, and the annual average NEE were -325.88 and -440.74 gC/m2

  19. Temporal variations in biting density and rhythm of Culex quinquefasciatus in tea agro-ecosystem of Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, B; Handique, R; Dutta, P; Narain, K; Mahanta, J

    1999-12-01

    Temporal changes in the biting density and host-seeking periodicity of Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of bancroftian filariasis, were studied for two years in the tea agro-ecosystem of Assam, India. Average biting density of the vector varied from 0.8/hour in December to 13.3/hour in March. Minimum temperature was found to have a limiting effect on the biting density of the vector mosquitos. Multiple regression analysis showed that the rainfall and minimum temperature were significant factors influencing biting density of this vector mosquito. The biting rhythm of Cx. quinquefasciatus was found to be nocturnal with two distinct peak periods of biting activity. The first peak was around 19.00 to 20.00 hours and the second peak period was around 22.00 to 23.00 hours. Biting activity however was seen throughout the night with declining trend as the night proceeded.

  20. Land-use change in Indian tropical agro-ecosystems: eco-energy estimation for socio-ecological sustainability.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, Harald; Umesh Babu, M S; Tikhile, Pavan; Baksi, Sangeeta

    2017-04-01

    This study was carried out to understand the ecological and economic sustainability of floriculture and other main crops in Indian agro-ecosystems. The cultivation practices of four major flower crops, namely Jasminum multiflorum, Crossandra infundibuliformis, Chrysanthemum and Tagetes erecta, were studied in detail. The production cost of flowers in terms of energy was calculated to be 99,622-135,996 compared to 27,681-69,133 MJ ha(-1) for the main crops, namely Oryza sativa, Eleusine coracana, Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor. The highest-energy input amongst the crops was recorded for Z. mays (69,133 MJ ha(-1)) as this is a resource-demanding crop. However, flower cultivation requires approximately twice the energy required for the cultivation of Z. mays. In terms of both energy and monetary inputs, flower cultivation needs two to three times the requirements of the main crops cultivated in the region. The monetary inputs for main crop cultivation were calculated to be ₹ 27,349 to ₹ 46,930 as compared to flower crops (₹ 62,540 to ₹ 144,355). Floriculture was found to be more efficient in monetary terms when compared to the main crops cultivated in the region. However, the energy efficiency of flower crops is lower than that of the main crops, and the energy output from flower cultivation was found to be declining in tropical agro-ecosystems in India. Amongst the various inputs, farmyard manure accounts for the highest proportion, and for its preparation, most of the raw material comes from the surrounding ecosystems. Thus, flower cultivation has a direct impact on the ecosystem resource flow. Therefore, keeping the economic and environmental sustainability in view, this study indicates that a more field-based research is required to frame appropriate policies for flower cultivation to achieve sustainable socio-ecological development.

  1. Options for using Landsat and RapidEye satellite images aiming the water productivity assessments in mixed agro-ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo

    2016-10-01

    For water productivity (WP) assessments, the SAFER (Surface Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving) algorithm for evapotranspiration (ET) and the Monteith's light use efficiency (LUE) model for biomass production (BIO), were applied to Landsat and RapidEye satellite images, in the Brazilian semiarid region, inside the dry season of 2011, in a mixture of irrigated and rainfed agro-ecosystems. Firstly, with the Landsat image, the methodology from which the surface temperature (T0) is derived as a residue in the radiation balance was tested. Low differences were detected, being Landsat ET with the thermal band averaged 0.9 +/- 1.5 mm d-1, while without it the mean value was 0.8 +/- 1.5 mm d-1. The corresponding Landsat BIO values were respectively 28 +/- 59 and 28 +/- 58 kg ha-1 d-1, resulting in mean WP of 1.3 +/- 1.3 kg m-3, in both cases. After having confidence on the residual methodology for retrieving T0 it was applied to the RapidEye image, resulting in average pixel values for ET, BIO and WP of 0.6 +/- 1.5 mm d-1, 26 +/- 58 kg ha-1 d-1 and 0.9 +/- 1.3 kg m-3, representing 75%, 93% and 69% of the Landsat ones obtained without the thermal band. In addition, the Surface Resistance Algorithm (SUREAL) was used to classify the agro-ecosystems into irrigated crops and natural vegetation by using the RapidEye image. The incremental values for ET, BIO and WP in 2011 were 2.0 +/- 1.3 mm d-1, 88 +/- 87 kg ha d-1 and 2.5 +/- 0.6 kg m-3, respectively, as a result of the replacement of the natural species by crops.

  2. Assessing Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on the Agro-ecosystems in California and Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, M.; Asrar, G. R.; El-Askary, H. M.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Hayhoe, K.; Kim, J.; Ziska, L.; Medvigy, D.; Prasad, A. K.; Tremback, C.; Walko, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Climate variability and change affects natural and managed ecosystems, namely agriculture and rangelands, and the services they offer such as food, fiber, energy, fresh water, etc. we derive from them are among the highest concerns in quantifying the potential consequences of anthropogenic climate change. These impacts are expected to be ecosystem and region specific, thus requiring climate information at greater spatial and temporal resolution offered by the global climate models. In this study we are using a combination of climate downscaling and regional climate models in conjunction with ecosystem models to assess the impact of climate variability and change on the natural and managed ecosystems in California and Southwest region of the United States. In an attempt to generate reliable assessments of the impact of regional climate variability and change on the agro-ecosystems in the region, we have designed an impact assessment study in which multiple Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are used to develop downscaled climate information to in turn drive ecosystem models. We develop the climate scenarios for the region based on a combination of dynamical and statistical approaches. We evaluate the efficacy of the climate scenarios in hindcast mode against available historical observation records to build confidence in their future climate projections. We then use the derived climate information in the ecosystem models to assess how these ecosystems will function under the projected climate conditions. We will present some early results from the evaluation of three regional climate models in a long-term hindcast experiments, the fundamental step before performing regional climate projection. Model variables needed by agro-ecosystem models, daily precipitation and temperature extremes, from individual models and their ensembles, are being evaluated against the National Weather Service observation network and the global gridded analyses from NCEP. We also compare direct

  3. The Sahelian agro-ecosystem vulnerability to an acceleration of ice-sheet melting during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defrance, Dimitri; Ramstein, Gilles; Charbit, Sylvie; Sultan, Benjamin; Dumas, Christophe; Vrac, Mathieu; Swingedouw, Didier; Gemenne, François; Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Vanderlinden, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    During the 20th century, Sahelian drought episodes like those between 1972 and 1982 showed the vulnerability of the Sahelian agro-ecosystem provoking significant intraregional southward human migrations, to or near the coast. According to the latest IPCC report, the Sahel could become increasingly impacted by climate change during the 21st century because of a lagged and shorter rainfall season having the potential to induce a drastic destabilization of the Sahelian agro-ecosystem and to heavily impact the population. Such effects could be further amplified by a net increase of the Sahelian population. Drastic climate changes over tropical areas also occurred in the past: weakening of the West African Monsoon and megadrought Sahelian episodes have been reported with a close correspondence between the large rainfall decrease and the massive freshwater discharges following ice-sheet melting or iceberg surges. During the last decades a continuous acceleration of ice-sheet mass loss has been observed and post IPCC-AR5 studies suggest the ice-sheet contribution to future sea-level rise could be revised upward due partly to the lack of an accurate representation of ice-ocean interactions. The release of freshwater discharge in response to ice-sheet instability could have large consequences on the most vulnerable regions, such as the tropical areas. To investigate the impacts of large ice-sheet instability during the 21st century, we first explore the climatic signature of Greenland or Antarctic ice-sheet collapse scenarios corresponding to 0.5 to 1.5 meter of sea-level rise, superimposed to the RCP8.5 scenario. We show that a freshwater discharge coming from Greenland melting induces a significant decrease of summer monsoon rainfall, that may lead to changes in agricultural practices. Combined with increasing demography, this has the potential to induce important human migration flows. Without adaptation measures, we estimate that tens to hundreds million people could be

  4. Development of an integrated generic model for multi-scale assessment of the impacts of agro-ecosystems on major ecosystem services in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Belem, Mahamadou; Saqalli, Mehdi

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an integrated model assessing the impacts of climate change, agro-ecosystem and demographic transition patterns on major ecosystem services in West-Africa along a partial overview of economic aspects (poverty reduction, food self-sufficiency and income generation). The model is based on an agent-based model associated with a soil model and multi-scale spatial model. The resulting Model for West-Africa Agro-Ecosystem Integrated Assessment (MOWASIA) is ecologically generic, meaning it is designed for all sudano-sahelian environments but may then be used as an experimentation facility for testing different scenarios combining ecological and socioeconomic dimensions. A case study in Burkina Faso is examined to assess the environmental and economic performances of semi-continuous and continuous farming systems. Results show that the semi-continuous system using organic fertilizer and fallowing practices contribute better to environment preservation and food security than the more economically performant continuous system. In addition, this study showed that farmers heterogeneity could play an important role in agricultural policies planning and assessment. In addition, the results showed that MOWASIA is an effective tool for designing, analysing the impacts of agro-ecosystems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Hydraulic redistribution by two semi-arid shrub species: implications for Sahelian agro-ecosystems

    Treesearch

    F. Kizito; M.I. Dragila; M. Sene; J.R. Brooks; F.C. Meinzer; I. Diedhiou; M. Diouf; A. Lufafa; R.P. Dick; J. Selker; R. Cuenca

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic redistribution is the process of passive water movement from deeper moist soil to shallower dry soil layers using plant roots as conduits. Results from this study indicate that this phenomenon exists among two shrub species (Guiera senegalensis and Piliostigma reticulatum) that co-exist with annual food crops in...

  6. Effect of rhizobacterial consortia from undisturbed arid- and agro-ecosystems on wheat growth under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Inostroza, N G; Barra, P J; Wick, L Y; Mora, M L; Jorquera, M A

    2017-02-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are studied as complements/alternatives to chemical fertilizers used in agriculture. However, poor information exists on the potential of PGPR from undisturbed ecosystems. Here, we have evaluated the plant growth-promoting (PGP) effect of rhizobacterial consortia from undisturbed Chilean arid ecosystems (Consortium C1) and agro-ecosystems (Consortium C2) on plant biomass production. The PGP effects of C1 and C2 were assayed in wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in pots under growth chamber conditions and in pots placed in an open greenhouse under natural conditions, using two different Chilean Andisols (Piedras Negras and Freire series) kept either at 30 or 60% of their maximum water holding capacity (MWHC). PGP effects depended on the soil type, MWHC and the growth conditions tested. Although both consortia showed PGB effects in artificial soils relative to controls in growth chambers, only C1 provoked a PGP effect at 60% MWHC in phosphorus-poor soil of the 'Piedras Negras' series. At natural conditions, however, only C1 exhibited statistically significant PGP effects at 30% MWHC in 'Piedras Negras', yet and most importantly allowed to maintain similar plant biomass as at 60% MWHC. Our results support possible applications of rhizobacterial consortia from arid ecosystems to improve wheat growth in Chilean Andisols under water shortage conditions.

  7. Relationships between primary production and crop yields in semi-arid and arid irrigated agro-ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaafar, H. H.; Ahmad, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    In semi-arid areas within the MENA region, food security problems are the main problematic imposed. Remote sensing can be a promising too early diagnose food shortages and further prevent the population from famine risks. This study is aimed at examining the possibility of forecasting yield before harvest from remotely sensed MODIS-derived Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Net photosynthesis (net PSN), and Gross Primary Production (GPP) in semi-arid and arid irrigated agro-ecosystems within the conflict affected country of Syria. Relationships between summer yield and remotely sensed indices were derived and analyzed. Simple regression spatially-based models were developed to predict summer crop production. The validation of these models was tested during conflict years. A significant correlation (p<0.05) was found between summer crop yield and EVI, GPP and net PSN. Results indicate the efficiency of remotely sensed-based models in predicting summer yield, mostly for cotton yields and vegetables. Cumulative summer EVI-based model can predict summer crop yield during crisis period, with deviation less than 20% where vegetables are the major yield. This approach prompts to an early assessment of food shortages and lead to a real time management and decision making, especially in periods of crisis such as wars and drought.

  8. The importance of landscape and spatial structure for hymenopteran-based food webs in an agro-ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Yvonne; Sandau, Nadine; Bruggisser, Odile T; Aebi, Alex; Kehrli, Patrik; Rohr, Rudolf P; Naisbit, Russell E; Bersier, Louis-Félix

    2013-11-01

    1. Understanding the environmental factors that structure biodiversity and food webs among communities is central to assess and mitigate the impact of landscape changes. 2. Wildflower strips are ecological compensation areas established in farmland to increase pollination services and biological control of crop pests and to conserve insect diversity. They are arranged in networks in order to favour high species richness and abundance of the fauna. 3. We describe results from experimental wildflower strips in a fragmented agricultural landscape, comparing the importance of landscape, of spatial arrangement and of vegetation on the diversity and abundance of trap-nesting bees, wasps and their enemies, and the structure of their food webs. 4. The proportion of forest cover close to the wildflower strips and the landscape heterogeneity stood out as the most influential landscape elements, resulting in a more complex trap-nest community with higher abundance and richness of hosts, and with more links between species in the food webs and a higher diversity of interactions. We disentangled the underlying mechanisms for variation in these quantitative food web metrics. 5. We conclude that in order to increase the diversity and abundance of pollinators and biological control agents and to favour a potentially stable community of cavity-nesting hymenoptera in wildflower strips, more investment is needed in the conservation and establishment of forest habitats within agro-ecosystems, as a reservoir of beneficial insect populations. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  9. Honey bee-collected pollen in agro-ecosystems reveals diet diversity, diet quality, and pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Megan J; Williams, Geoffrey R; Evans, Rodger C; Shutler, Dave

    2017-09-01

    European honey bees Apis mellifera are important commercial pollinators that have suffered greater than normal overwintering losses since 2007 in North America and Europe. Contributing factors likely include a combination of parasites, pesticides, and poor nutrition. We examined diet diversity, diet nutritional quality, and pesticides in honey bee-collected pollen from commercial colonies in the Canadian Maritime Provinces in spring and summer 2011. We sampled pollen collected by honey bees at colonies in four site types: apple orchards, blueberry fields, cranberry bogs, and fallow fields. Proportion of honey bee-collected pollen from crop versus noncrop flowers was high in apple, very low in blueberry, and low in cranberry sites. Pollen nutritional value tended to be relatively good from apple and cranberry sites and poor from blueberry and fallow sites. Floral surveys ranked, from highest to lowest in diversity, fallow, cranberry, apple, and blueberry sites. Pesticide diversity in honey bee-collected pollen was high from apple and blueberry sites and low from cranberry and fallow sites. Four different neonicotinoid pesticides were detected, but neither these nor any other pesticides were at or above LD50 levels. Pollen hazard quotients were highest in apple and blueberry sites and lowest in fallow sites. Pollen hazard quotients were also negatively correlated with the number of flower taxa detected in surveys. Results reveal differences among site types in diet diversity, diet quality, and pesticide exposure that are informative for improving honey bee and land agro-ecosystem management.

  10. Biology and management of Avena fatua and Avena ludoviciana: two noxious weed species of agro-ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Akhter, Muhammad Javaid; Iqbal, Nadeem; Peerzada, Arslan Masood; Hanif, Zarka; Manalil, Sudheesh; Hashim, Saima; Ali, Hafiz Haider; Kebaso, Lynda; Frimpong, David; Namubiru, Halima; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2017-08-02

    Avena fatua and Avena ludoviciana are closely related grass weed species infesting a large number of crops around the world. These species are widely distributed in diverse agro-ecosystems from temperate to sub-tropical regions due to their unique seed traits, successful germination ecology, high competitive ability, and allelopathic potential. A. fatua is more widespread, adaptable, and problematic than A. ludoviciana. Both these species infest major winter and spring crops, including wheat, oat, barley, canola, maize, alfalfa, and sunflower, causing up to 70% yield losses depending on crop species and weed density. Chemical control has been challenged by large-scale herbicide resistance evolution in these weed species. A. fatua is the most widespread herbicide-resistant weed in the world, infesting about 5 million hectares in 13 countries. The use of alternative herbicides with different modes of action has proved effective. Several cultural practices, including diverse crop rotations, cover crops, improved crop competition (using competitive cultivars, high seed rates, narrow row spacing, altered crop geometry), and allelopathic suppression, have shown promise for controlling A. fatua and A. ludoviciana. The integrated use of these cultural methods can reduce the herbicide dose required, and lower dependency on herbicides to control these grasses. Moreover, integrated management may successfully control herbicide-resistant populations of these weed species. The use of integrated approaches based on the knowledge of biology and ecology of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana may help to manage them sustainably in the future.

  11. Biodegradation of isoproturon by Pseudoxanthomonas sp. isolated from herbicide-treated wheat fields of Tarai agro-ecosystem, Pantnagar.

    PubMed

    Giri, Krishna; Pandey, Shailseh; Kumar, Rajesh; Rai, J P N

    2016-12-01

    A gram-negative, rod-shaped, isoproturon (IPU) utilizing bacterium was isolated from herbicide-applied wheat fields of Tarai agro-ecosystem, Pantnagar. The phylogenetic sequence analysis based on 16S rRNA sequence revealed that the isolate could be a distinct species within the genus Pseudomonas. The isolate was a close relative of Pseudoxanthomonas japonensis (95 % similarity) and designated as K2. The bacterial isolate showed positive reaction for oxidase, catalase, and 20 carbohydrates using KB009 Part A and B HiCarbohydrate™ Kit. Degradation experiments were conducted using 200 mg l(-1) initial IPU as a source of carbon at different pH and temperatures. Maximum IPU degradation by K2 was observed at pH 7.0 and 30 °C, while least degradation at 6.5 pH and 25 °C. Addition of dextrose along with IPU as an auxiliary carbon source increased IPU degradation by 4.72 %, as compared to the IPU degradation without dextrose under optimum conditions. 4-isopropylaniline was detected as a degradation by-product in the medium. The present study demonstrated the IPU metabolizing capacity of a novel bacterial isolate K2 that can be a better choice for the remediation of IPU-contaminated sites.

  12. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  13. Influence of agro-ecosystem modeling approach on the greenhouse gas profiles of wheat-derived biopolymer products.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Li, ChangSheng; Bell, J Nigel B; Murphy, Richard J

    2012-01-03

    An approach is presented to include a wider range of factors involved in the nitrogen and carbon cycles in agro-ecosystems than is typical of many Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) of agriculture-based products. This use results from the process-oriented Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC, modified version) model. Here we evaluate the effects of using site-specific N(2)O emissions derived from the DNDC model rather than the values derived from the commonly used Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 empirical model on the results of whole life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) profiles for wheat-based biopolymer products. Statistical methods were also used to analyze the quality of the DNDC and IPCC outputs and to characterize the uncertainty in the GHG results. The results confirm that the GHG profiles of the wheat-derived biopolymer products are sensitive to how the agricultural system is modeled and uncertainty analyses indicate that DNDC is preferred over the IPCC Tier 1 approach for site-specific LCAs. The former allows inclusion of a wider range of important site-specific agricultural parameters in the LCA, provides for improved quality in the LCA data, and permits better calibration of uncertainty in the LCA inventory.

  14. Yakima Hatchery Experimental Design : Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Busack, Craig; Knudsen, Curtis; Marshall, Anne

    1991-08-01

    This progress report details the results and status of Washington Department of Fisheries' (WDF) pre-facility monitoring, research, and evaluation efforts, through May 1991, designed to support the development of an Experimental Design Plan (EDP) for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP), previously termed the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP or Y/KPP). This pre- facility work has been guided by planning efforts of various research and quality control teams of the project that are annually captured as revisions to the experimental design and pre-facility work plans. The current objective are as follows: to develop genetic monitoring and evaluation approach for the Y/KPP; to evaluate stock identification monitoring tools, approaches, and opportunities available to meet specific objectives of the experimental plan; and to evaluate adult and juvenile enumeration and sampling/collection capabilities in the Y/KPP necessary to measure experimental response variables.

  15. Distinct responses of soil microbial communities to elevated CO2 and O3 in a soybean agro-ecosystem.

    PubMed

    He, Zhili; Xiong, Jinbo; Kent, Angela D; Deng, Ye; Xue, Kai; Wang, Gejiao; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong

    2014-03-01

    The concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) have been rising due to human activities. However, little is known about how such increases influence soil microbial communities. We hypothesized that elevated CO2 (eCO2) and elevated O3 (eO3) would significantly affect the functional composition, structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities, and that various functional groups would respond to such atmospheric changes differentially. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed 96 soil samples from a soybean free-air CO2 enrichment (SoyFACE) experimental site using a comprehensive functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0). The results showed the overall functional composition and structure of soil microbial communities shifted under eCO2, eO3 or eCO2+eO3. Key functional genes involved in carbon fixation and degradation, nitrogen fixation, denitrification and methane metabolism were stimulated under eCO2, whereas those involved in N fixation, denitrification and N mineralization were suppressed under eO3, resulting in the fact that the abundance of some eO3-supressed genes was promoted to ambient, or eCO2-induced levels by the interaction of eCO2+eO3. Such effects appeared distinct for each treatment and significantly correlated with soil properties and soybean yield. Overall, our analysis suggests possible mechanisms of microbial responses to global atmospheric change factors through the stimulation of C and N cycling by eCO2, the inhibition of N functional processes by eO3 and the interaction by eCO2 and eO3. This study provides new insights into our understanding of microbial functional processes in response to global atmospheric change in soybean agro-ecosystems.

  16. Multi-Seasonal Nitrogen Recoveries from Crop Residue in Soil and Crop in a Temperate Agro-Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoqing; Liu, Xiao; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Hongtu; Wu, Yeye; Cui, Jiehua; Sun, Ci; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    In conservation tillage systems, at least 30% of the soil surface was covered by crop residues which generally contain significant amounts of nitrogen (N). However, little is known about the multi-seasonal recoveries of the N derived from these crop residues in soil-crop systems, notably in northeastern China. In a temperate agro-ecosystem, 15N-labeled maize residue was applied to field surfaces in the 1st year (2009). From the 2nd to 4th year (2010-2012), one treatment halted the application of maize residue, whereas the soil in the second treatment was re-applied with unlabeled maize residue. Crop and soil samples were collected after each harvest, and their 15N enrichments were determined on an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to trace the allocation of N derived from the initially applied maize residue in the soil-crop systems. On average, 8.4% of the maize residue N was recovered in the soil-crop in the 1st year, and the vast majority (61.9%-91.9%) was recovered during subsequent years. Throughout the experiment, the cumulative recovery of the residue N in the crop increased gradually (18.2%-20.9%), but most of the residue N was retained in the soil, notably in the 0-10 cm soil layer. Compared to the single application, the sequential residue application significantly increased the recovery of the residue N in the soil profile (73.8% vs. 40.9%) and remarkably decreased the total and the initially applied residue derived mineral N along the soil profile. Our results suggested that the residue N was actively involved in N cycling, and its release and recovery in crop and soil profile were controlled by the decomposition process. Sequential residue application significantly enhanced the retention and stabilization of the initially applied residue N in the soil and retarded its translocation along the soil profile.

  17. Low cost drip irrigation: Impact on sugarcane yield, water and energy saving in semiarid tropical agro ecosystem in India.

    PubMed

    Surendran, U; Jayakumar, M; Marimuthu, S

    2016-12-15

    Low cost drip irrigation (LCDI) has been a recent introduction to India and it may be an inexpensive means of expanding irrigation into uncultivated areas, thereby increasing land productivity. This paper is structured into two phases. The first phase, presents an assessment of different irrigation methods (LCDI, conventional drip irrigation (CDI) with single row and paired row, siphon and flood irrigation) on sugarcane production. The results showed that cane yield and water productivity was significantly increased in both plant and ratoon crop of sugarcane owing to the methods of irrigation. Among the methods, LCDI recorded 118.6tha(-1) of cane yield and it was on par with the single row CDI, which recorded the highest mean yield of 120.4tha(-1) and both are found to be significantly superior to the rest of the treatments. The lowest yield was recorded in the treatment of flood irrigation (94.40tha(-1)). Benefit Cost Ratio analysis confirmed that LCDI performed better compared to other irrigation methods. The second phase deals with the farmer participatory research demonstrations at multi location on evaluation of LCDI with flood irrigation. LCDI out performed flood irrigation under all the locations in terms of sugarcane yield, soil moisture content, postharvest soil fertility, reduction in nutrient transport to surface and ground water, water and energy saving. These results suggest that LCDI is a feasible option to increase the sugarcane production in water scarcity areas of semiarid agro ecosystems, and have long-term sustained economic benefits than flood irrigation in terms of water productivity, energy saving and environmental sustainability.

  18. Can climate change jeopardize predator control of invasive herbivore species? A case study in avocado agro-ecosystems in Spain.

    PubMed

    Montserrat, Marta; Sahún, Rosa María; Guzmán, Celeste

    2013-02-01

    Climate change is one of the most important factors affecting the phenology, distribution, composition and diversity of organisms. In agricultural systems many pests and natural enemies are arthropods. As poikilotherm organisms, their body temperature is highly dependent on environmental conditions. Because higher trophic levels typically have lower tolerance to high temperatures than lower trophic levels, trends towards increasing local or regional temperatures may affect the strength of predator/prey interactions and disrupt pest control. Furthermore, increasing temperatures may create climate corridors that could facilitate the invasion and establishment of invasive species originating from warmer areas. In this study we examined the effect of environmental conditions on the dynamics of an agro-ecosystem community located in southern Spain, using field data on predator/prey dynamics and climate gathered during four consecutive years. The study system was composed of an ever-green tree species (avocado), an exotic tetranychid mite, and two native species of phytoseiid mites found in association with this new pest. We also present a climatological analysis of the temperature trend in the area of study during the last 28 years, as evidence of temperature warming occurring in the area. We found that the range of temperatures with positive per capita growth rates was much wider in prey than in predators, and that relative humidity contributed to explain the growth rate variation in predators, but not in prey. Predator and prey differences in thermal performance curves could explain why natural enemies did not respond numerically to the pest when environmental conditions were harsh.

  19. Malaria vector control practices in an irrigated rice agro-ecosystem in central Kenya and implications for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Ng'ang'a, Peter N; Shililu, Josephat; Jayasinghe, Gayathri; Kimani, Violet; Kabutha, Charity; Kabuage, Lucy; Kabiru, Ephantus; Githure, John; Mutero, Clifford

    2008-07-31

    Malaria transmission in most agricultural ecosystems is complex and hence the need for developing a holistic malaria control strategy with adequate consideration of socio-economic factors driving transmission at community level. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in an irrigated ecosystem with the aim of investigating vector control practices applied and factors affecting their application both at household and community level. Four villages representing the socio-economic, demographic and geographical diversity within the study area were purposefully selected. A total of 400 households were randomly sampled from the four study villages. Both semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to gather both qualitative and quantitative data. The results showed that malaria was perceived to be a major public health problem in the area and the role of the vector Anopheles mosquitoes in malaria transmission was generally recognized. More than 80% of respondents were aware of the major breeding sites of the vector. Reported personal protection methods applied to prevent mosquito bites included; use of treated bed nets (57%), untreated bed nets (35%), insecticide coils (21%), traditional methods such as burning of cow dung (8%), insecticide sprays (6%), and use of skin repellents (2%). However, 39% of respondents could not apply some of the known vector control methods due to unaffordability (50.5%), side effects (19.9%), perceived lack of effectiveness (16%), and lack of time to apply (2.6%). Lack of time was the main reason (56.3%) reported for non-application of environmental management practices, such as draining of stagnant water (77%) and clearing of vegetations along water canals (67%). The study provides relevant information necessary for the management, prevention and control of malaria in irrigated agro-ecosystems, where vectors of malaria are abundant and disease transmission is stable.

  20. Understanding spatial variability of soil properties: a key step in establishing field- to farm-scale agro-ecosystem experiments.

    PubMed

    Peukert, Sabine; Bol, Roland; Roberts, William; Macleod, Christopher J A; Murray, Phillip J; Dixon, Elizabeth R; Brazier, Richard E

    2012-10-30

    The spatial variability of soil properties is poorly understood, despite its importance in designing appropriate experimental sampling strategies. As preparation for a farm-scale agro-ecosystem services monitoring project, the 'North Wyke Farm Platform', there was a need to assess the spatial variability of key soil chemical and physical properties. The field-scale spatial variability of soil chemical (total N, total C, soil organic matter), soil physical properties (bulk density and particle size distribution) and stable isotope ratios (δ(13) C and δ(15) N values) was studied using geostatistical approaches in an intensively managed grassland. The scales over which stable isotopes vary (ranges: 212-258 m) were larger than those of the total nutrients, soil organic matter and bulk density (ranges: 84-170 m). Two visually and statistically distinct areas of Great Field (north and south) were identified in terms of co-occurring high/low values of several soil properties. The resulting patterns of spatial variability suggest lower spatial variability of stable isotopes than that of total nutrients, soil organic matter and bulk density. Future sampling regimes should be conducted in a grid with <85 m distance between sampling locations to sufficiently capture the spatial variability of the measured soil properties on the 'North Wyke Farm Platform'. Consultation of the management histories of the sampled field revealed that it had previously comprised two fields with contrasting management histories, suggesting an effect of management legacy (>5 years) on the patterns of spatial variability. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Multi-Seasonal Nitrogen Recoveries from Crop Residue in Soil and Crop in a Temperate Agro-Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guoqing; Liu, Xiao; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Hongtu; Wu, Yeye; Cui, Jiehua; Sun, Ci; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    In conservation tillage systems, at least 30% of the soil surface was covered by crop residues which generally contain significant amounts of nitrogen (N). However, little is known about the multi-seasonal recoveries of the N derived from these crop residues in soil-crop systems, notably in northeastern China. In a temperate agro-ecosystem, 15N-labeled maize residue was applied to field surfaces in the 1st year (2009). From the 2nd to 4th year (2010-2012), one treatment halted the application of maize residue, whereas the soil in the second treatment was re-applied with unlabeled maize residue. Crop and soil samples were collected after each harvest, and their 15N enrichments were determined on an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to trace the allocation of N derived from the initially applied maize residue in the soil-crop systems. On average, 8.4% of the maize residue N was recovered in the soil-crop in the 1st year, and the vast majority (61.9%-91.9%) was recovered during subsequent years. Throughout the experiment, the cumulative recovery of the residue N in the crop increased gradually (18.2%-20.9%), but most of the residue N was retained in the soil, notably in the 0-10 cm soil layer. Compared to the single application, the sequential residue application significantly increased the recovery of the residue N in the soil profile (73.8% vs. 40.9%) and remarkably decreased the total and the initially applied residue derived mineral N along the soil profile. Our results suggested that the residue N was actively involved in N cycling, and its release and recovery in crop and soil profile were controlled by the decomposition process. Sequential residue application significantly enhanced the retention and stabilization of the initially applied residue N in the soil and retarded its translocation along the soil profile. PMID:26192436

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from agro-ecosystems and their contribution to environmental change in the Indus Basin of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. Mohsin; Goheer, M. Arif

    2008-11-01

    There is growing concern that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been responsible for global warming through their effect on radiation balance and temperature. The magnitude of emissions and the relative importance of different sources vary widely, regionally and locally. The Indus Basin of Pakistan is the food basket of the country and agricultural activities are vulnerable to the effects of global warming due to accelerated emissions of GHGs. Many developments have taken place in the agricultural sector of Pakistan in recent decades in the background of the changing role of the government and the encouragement of the private sector for investment in new ventures. These interventions have considerable GHG emission potential. Unfortunately, no published information is currently available on GHG concentrations in the Indus Basin to assess their magnitude and emission trends. The present study is an attempt to estimate GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) emissions arising from different agro-ecosystems of Indus Basin. The GHGs were estimated mostly using the IPCC Guidelines and data from the published literature. The results showed that CH4 emissions were the highest (4.126 Tg yr-1) followed by N2O (0.265 Tg yr-1) and CO2 (52.6 Tg yr-1). The sources of CH4 are enteric fermentation, rice cultivation and cultivation of other crops. N2O is formed by microbial denitrification of NO3 produced from applied fertilizer-N on cropped soils or by mineralization of native organic matter on fallow soils. CO2 is formed by the burning of plant residue and by soil respiration due to the decomposition of soil organic matter.

  3. Malaria vector control practices in an irrigated rice agro-ecosystem in central Kenya and implications for malaria control

    PubMed Central

    Ng'ang'a, Peter N; Shililu, Josephat; Jayasinghe, Gayathri; Kimani, Violet; Kabutha, Charity; Kabuage, Lucy; Kabiru, Ephantus; Githure, John; Mutero, Clifford

    2008-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission in most agricultural ecosystems is complex and hence the need for developing a holistic malaria control strategy with adequate consideration of socio-economic factors driving transmission at community level. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in an irrigated ecosystem with the aim of investigating vector control practices applied and factors affecting their application both at household and community level. Methods Four villages representing the socio-economic, demographic and geographical diversity within the study area were purposefully selected. A total of 400 households were randomly sampled from the four study villages. Both semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to gather both qualitative and quantitative data. Results The results showed that malaria was perceived to be a major public health problem in the area and the role of the vector Anopheles mosquitoes in malaria transmission was generally recognized. More than 80% of respondents were aware of the major breeding sites of the vector. Reported personal protection methods applied to prevent mosquito bites included; use of treated bed nets (57%), untreated bed nets (35%), insecticide coils (21%), traditional methods such as burning of cow dung (8%), insecticide sprays (6%), and use of skin repellents (2%). However, 39% of respondents could not apply some of the known vector control methods due to unaffordability (50.5%), side effects (19.9%), perceived lack of effectiveness (16%), and lack of time to apply (2.6%). Lack of time was the main reason (56.3%) reported for non-application of environmental management practices, such as draining of stagnant water (77%) and clearing of vegetations along water canals (67%). Conclusion The study provides relevant information necessary for the management, prevention and control of malaria in irrigated agro-ecosystems, where vectors of malaria are abundant and disease transmission is stable

  4. PTAGIS Annual Progress Report, 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission.

    2002-05-01

    This is the annual report for the PTAGIS project. February 28, 2002 marked the end of the 2001/02 PTAGIS fiscal year. All critical project activities progressed on schedule. However, a number of activities that have been traditionally performed by PTAGIS have been curtailed due to lack of resources. These reduced activities include production and distribution of the ''PTAGIS Newsletter'', development of a robust Web-based interface to PTAGIS data, curtailment efforts to upgrade critical database server hardware systems and processes and other activities. The main reasons for the lack of resources are: (1) In June, 2001, the region made a decision to expedite the installation of PIT tag detection at Bonneville and McNary dams. BPA issued contract 7422 to PSMFC to provide labor and material to install these systems. Nearly every PTAGIS resource was dedicated to this effort; (2) The Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville Power Administration have not solicited project proposals and budgets for over two years. Project requirements (represented in increasing scope, scale and complexity) have increased, but funding has not.

  5. Biodiversity conservation in an anthropized landscape: Trees, not patch size drive, bird community composition in a low-input agro-ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E; Cárdenas-García, Melinda

    2017-01-01

    One of the most typical agro-ecosystems in the Llanos de Ojuelos, a semi-arid region of central Mexico, is that of fruit-production orchards of nopales (prickly pear cacti). This perennial habitat with complex vertical structure provides refuge and food for at least 112 species of birds throughout the year. Nopal orchards vary in their internal structure, size and shrub/tree composition, yet these factors have unknown effects on the animals that use them. To further understand the conservation potential of this agro-ecosystem, we evaluated the effects of patch-size and the presence of trees on bird community composition, as well as several habitat variables, through an information-theoretical modelling approach. Community composition was obtained through a year of census transects in 12 orchards. The presence of trees in the orchards was the major driver of bird communities followed by seasonality; bird communities are independent of patch size, except for small orchard patches that benefit black-chin sparrows, which are considered a sensitive species. At least 55 species of six trophic guilds (insectivores, granivores, carnivores, nectivores, omnivores, and frugivores) used the orchards. Orchards provide adequate habitat and food resources for several sensitive species of resident and migratory sparrows. The attributes that make orchards important for birds: trees, shrubs, herb seeds, and open patches can be managed to maintain native biodiversity in highly anthropized regions with an urgent need to find convergence between production and biological conservation.

  6. Biodiversity conservation in an anthropized landscape: Trees, not patch size drive, bird community composition in a low-input agro-ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Mellink, Eric; Cárdenas-García, Melinda

    2017-01-01

    One of the most typical agro-ecosystems in the Llanos de Ojuelos, a semi-arid region of central Mexico, is that of fruit-production orchards of nopales (prickly pear cacti). This perennial habitat with complex vertical structure provides refuge and food for at least 112 species of birds throughout the year. Nopal orchards vary in their internal structure, size and shrub/tree composition, yet these factors have unknown effects on the animals that use them. To further understand the conservation potential of this agro-ecosystem, we evaluated the effects of patch-size and the presence of trees on bird community composition, as well as several habitat variables, through an information-theoretical modelling approach. Community composition was obtained through a year of census transects in 12 orchards. The presence of trees in the orchards was the major driver of bird communities followed by seasonality; bird communities are independent of patch size, except for small orchard patches that benefit black-chin sparrows, which are considered a sensitive species. At least 55 species of six trophic guilds (insectivores, granivores, carnivores, nectivores, omnivores, and frugivores) used the orchards. Orchards provide adequate habitat and food resources for several sensitive species of resident and migratory sparrows. The attributes that make orchards important for birds: trees, shrubs, herb seeds, and open patches can be managed to maintain native biodiversity in highly anthropized regions with an urgent need to find convergence between production and biological conservation. PMID:28686608

  7. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Propulsion Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Patrick B.; Schutte, Carol L.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2011-12-01

    Annual Progress Report for Propulsion Materials focusing on enabling and innovative materials technologies that are critical in improving the efficiency of advanced engines by providing enabling materials support for combustion, hybrid, and power electronics development.

  8. FY2012 Annual Progress Report for Propulsion Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Patrick B.; Schutte, Carol L.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    FY2012 annual progress report focusing on enabling and innovative materials technologies that are critical in improving the efficiency of advanced engines by providing enabling materials support for combustion, hybrid, and power electronics development.

  9. Workforce Training and Economic Development Fund: 2015 Annual Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Education, Division of Community Colleges, will annually provide the State Board of Education with The Workforce Training and Economic Development (WTED) Fund Annual Progress Report. Administration and oversight responsibility for the fund was transferred from the Iowa Economic Development Authority to the Iowa Department of…

  10. Wisconsin Occupational Information System. Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Roger H.; And Others

    The first annual report of the Wisconsin Occupational Information System (WOIS) is a descriptive analysis of activities and procedures utilized during the initial grant period of July 14, 1975-July 13, 1976. This report is divided into eight sections summarizing the program of work during the first year. These include: (1) an overview of the…

  11. Chesapeake Bay program annual progress report, wetlands workgroup, December 1991. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The announcement by President Bush of a national no net loss wetlands policy is the result of growing public concern about the rapid loss of these important resources. Wetlands provide essential breeding, spawning, nesting and wintering habitats for a major portion of the region's fish and wildlife. In addition, wetlands function to purify surface water, moderate flood flows, maintain year round stream and river flows, reduce erosion and support commercial fishery and recreation industries. In recognition of the importance of wetlands to the environmental quality and economic productivity of the Bay, the Chesapeake Executive Council adopted the Chesapeake Bay Wetlands Policy in December 1988. The Policy includes a commitment to adopt an implementation plan. The annual report discusses the Living Resources Subcommittee's Wetlands Workgroup progress on these projects over the last year, and the near term goals for the next year. The progress to date includes work completed for the first phase and beginning to set up the second phase of the implementation plan.

  12. Clinical Investigation Program. Annual Research Progress Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-30

    Weider, K., Hane, S., Forsham, P.H.: Response of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Acromegaly . (Submitted for publ ication to JCEM) Hofeldt, F.D...Suggesting Subendocardial Ischemia in Neonates with Respiratory Distress Syndrome. J of Pediatr 94 :609 , 1979. Way, G.L., Wolfe, R.R., Eshaghdour, E...ity. Presented: 89th Annual Mietinq, Arizona Medical Associatvi.r, Pnoenix, Arizona, April 1980. i,, Jer , J. : Cog.mno G,; .,t Aogical Problems of

  13. Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1981,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    Publication: Marinelli, P.V., Pettett, G., and Alden, E.R.: Manual Artificial Ventilation in the Newborn: An Analysis of Equipment, Technique , and...and Alden, E.R.: Manual Ventilation of the Newborn. An Analysis of Equipment and Technique . 16th Annual Uniformed Services Pediatric Seminar, March...80:104, 1981 PRESENTATION: Marinelli, P.V., Pettett, P.G., and Alden, E.R.: Manual Ventilation of the New born. An Analysis of Equipment and Technique

  14. Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1982,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    with specific attention directed at the role of the pancreas in the secretion of these two hormones. METHOD Six adult female sheep will be fasted for...Ray Maughan, MC CPT Wallace E. Taylor, MC WORK UNIT NO: 82/54 TECHNICAL OBJECTIVE To define a better technique for achieving a more complete excision...Gonadotropins in the ( facaca nemestrina - Plymate PRESENTATIONS: Bimodal Effects of Opiates in LH secretion in the Primate. HSC Annual Clinical

  15. Clinical Investigation Program Annual Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    pre-op obstructive side, and is this subjectively noted by the patient to the point of causing secondary obstructive symptoms , of any degree on the...Lipolytic Enzymes in Sedentary, Healthy Men ................. 109 87/110A C The Role of Excess Prostaglandin Production in Causing the Abnormal...Duration of Symptoms Important? ... 154 89/105 0 Role of Blood Pressure Control in Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy and Other Microangiopathies .155 89

  16. Annual Progress Report FY-92. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    surface markers and the 3H-thymidine, no stimulation was seen. This indicates a problem with the culture conditions. Human serum is being substituted...for fetal calf serum to see if that solves the problem . CONCLUSIONS An assay of the mixed lymphocyte reaction base on flow cytometry and a fluorescent...binding). PRIOR AND CURRENT PROGRESS Methods were developed to phenotype and quantitate red cells in a mixed cell population. The problem of

  17. Annual Progress Report FY-82. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    of the bands, suggesting that Franklin did not achieve a 48 dB per octave filter slope as was indicated in the test manual . Based on our clinical...coefficient alphas (i.e., .94 to .81). Analysis of variance and regression techniques were used to relate these factors to background variables. NUMBER...Progress Report (cont.) - Work Unit #2547 techniques in order to determine if different patterns of acoustical vari- ables are strongly associated with

  18. Annual Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    D-Ri39 B2 ANNURL PROGRESS REPORT FISCAL YEAR i982(U) ARMY 1/4 RESEARCH INST OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE NATICK MR I E M IRONS 91 OCT 82 NCLASSIFIED F/O...Ph.D., Canyon Research Group, Orlando, FL, August 1982. 1 4. . . , i. .-) 0l. P,-.-2ൠ _____FOR REVIEW (014) I. AGENCY ACCESSIO I. DATE OF SUMMARY...sectional manikin study (ME-E22-80) in support of a NLABS project to develop a new jacket liner for cold weather clothing has been completed under Cost

  19. 2010 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  20. 1999 annual progress report -- Energy conservation team

    SciTech Connect

    Chalk, S.

    1999-10-19

    This report highlights progress achieved during FY 1999 under the Light-duty Fuels Utilization R and D Program. The program is comprised of two elements: the Advanced Petroleum-Based APB Fuels Program which focused on developing and testing advanced fuels for use with compression-ignition direct-injection (CIDI) engines and fuel cells and the Alternative Fuels Program which focused on Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels. The report contains 17 summaries of industry and National Laboratory projects. Fuel efficient vehicles with very low emissions are essential to meet the challenges of climate change, energy security, and improved air quality. The authors anticipate cooperative efforts with the auto and energy industries to develop new and innovative technologies that will be used to make advanced transportation vehicles that are fuel efficient, clean, and safe.

  1. Nuclear structure research. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.L.

    1993-10-31

    The most significant development this year has been the successful elucidation of the low-energy systematics of the very neutron-deficient Pr, Nd, Pm, and Sm isotopes. This includes an extensive set of Nilsson bandheads in {sup 133}Nd. Some serious errors in earlier decay scheme work were found. The results require some significant reassessments of mean-field calculations in this region. Part of our program continues to focus on shape coexistence and electric monopole (E0) transitions in nuclei. Following the discovery of coexisting ``gamma`` bands connected by E0 transitions in {sup 184}Pt, a similar behavior in {sup 186}Pt was established from {sup 186}Au decay data. This includes a pure E0 transition between states with J{sup {pi}} = 3{sup +}, just as was seen in {sup 184}Pt. Progress has been made in elucidating the low-energy systematics of the neutron-deficient Ir isotopes. A search for the population of the superdeformed band in {sup 194}Pb in the decay of {sup 194}Bi was unsuccessful. An extensive program of systematics for nuclei at and near N = Z has been initiated.

  2. Progress in Scientific and Technical Communications, 1968 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Council for Science and Technology, Washington, DC. Committee on Scientific and Technical Information.

    This sixth annual report describes progress achieved by the Federal Government in improving the communication of scientific and technical information to support and enhance national science and technology. Included in the report are details regarding the scientific and technical activities of individual Federal Agencies, such as the Atomic Energy…

  3. 2013 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2013 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  4. 2011 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    SciTech Connect

    Satyapal, Sunita

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2011 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  5. 2014 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2014 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  6. 2015 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-12-23

    The 2015 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2015 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production; hydrogen delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; systems analysis; and market transformation.

  7. FY2014 Fuel & Lubricant Technologies Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    Annual progress report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies. The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies Program supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle manufacturers and users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement.

  8. Southeastern Community College Annual Progress Report, December 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, R. Gene

    Presenting information on the status of Southeastern Community College (SCC), in Iowa, this annual progress report highlights basic institutional data, financial information, and improvements and planned changes of the college as of 1995. Part 1 presents basic data on SCC, including facility locations, assessed property valuation, district…

  9. Federal Facility Agreement Annual Progress Report for FY 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1999-08-04

    This FFA Annual Progress Report has been developed to summarize the information for activities performed during the Fiscal Year 1998 (October 1, 1997, to September 30, 1998) and activities planned for Fiscal Year 1999 by U.S. EPA, SCDHEC, and SRS at those units and areas identified for remediation in the Agreement.

  10. Running Start Annual Progress Report, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Ron

    The Running Start program was created by the 1990 Washington State Legislature to expand educational options for public school students. Running Start allows eleventh and twelfth grade high school students to take college-level courses, tuition-free, at the 32 community and technical colleges in Washington. This annual progress report for 1996-97…

  11. 45 CFR 1357.16 - Annual progress and services reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... circumstances; (3) For Indian Tribes, a description of the child welfare and/or family preservation and family... of the child protective, child welfare, family preservation, family support, and independent living... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual progress and services reports....

  12. 45 CFR 1357.16 - Annual progress and services reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... circumstances; (3) For Indian Tribes, a description of the child welfare and/or family preservation and family... of the child protective, child welfare, family preservation, family support, and independent living... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Annual progress and services reports....

  13. The impact of land-use and global change on water-related agro-ecosystem services in the midwest US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanLoocke, Andrew D.

    Humans have and are likely to continue to dramatically alter both the global landscape through the conversion of natural ecosystems into agriculture, and the atmosphere through the combustion of biomass and fossil fuels to meet the need for food and energy. Associated with these land use and global changes are major alterations in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, water, and nitrogen, which have important implications on the growth and function of ecosystems and the services they provide for humanity. This dissertation investigates the impacts on water-related agro-ecosystem services associated with increasing concentrations of the tropospheric pollutant ozone ([O 3]) and land use change for cellulosic feedstocks in the Midwestern United States. This study focused on quantifying changes in water-related agro-ecosystem services including direct changes to water quantity, water use efficiency (WUE) that links the carbon cycle to water, and water quality that links the nitrogen cycle to water. In the context of these land-use and global changes and the associated changes in water-related agro-ecosystem services, the goals of this research are to: 1) determine the concentration at which soybean latent heat flux (lambdaET) is sensitive to O3, test whether decreases in lambda ET are linked with the concentration of O3, and find whether an increase in O3 has an impact on WUE 2) determine the regional distribution of water use and WUE for Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus) and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) two of the leading candidate cellulosic feedstocks, relative to Zea mays L. (maize), the current dominant ethanol feedstock 3) determine the change in streamflow in the Mississippi-Atchafalya River Basin (MARB) and the export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic region associated with large-scale production of miscanthus and switchgrass. Micrometeorological measurements were made at the Soybean Free Air Concentration Enrichment

  14. Soil redistribution and nutrient delivery in a Mediterranean rain-fed agro-ecosystem with different crops and management: environmental and economic aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Álvarez, Sara

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean agro-ecosystems are characterised by fragmented fields and patched vegetation. This shape governs the spatial patterns of water, soil and nutrient redistribution. Rainfall parameters, human infrastructures, crop management, support practices, and land use changes (set aside crops, land abandonment) control the magnitude of these processes. Under rain-fed water supply conditions, runoff generation and soil water content are two important factors in determining crop yield. Soil erosion and nutrient delivery are two of the factors which limit crop yield and thus, the gross earning of the landowner. In hilly landscapes, farmers usually supply extra soil to fill in the ephemeral gullies, and nutrient replenishment with fertilizers is a common practice. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental (runoff yield, soil erosion and nutrient delivery) and economic (replenishment of soil and nutrient losses with new soil and fertilizers) consequences of different conventional and conservative practices (fallow/crop rotation, cover crops, land abandonment, buffer strips) in a Mediterranean rain-fed agro-ecosystem (27 ha) with vineyards, cereal crops, cultivated and abandoned olive orchards, several trails and patches of natural vegetation. The five winter cereal fields (wheat and barley) follow fallow/crop rotation. The four vineyards are devoted to the Garnacha variety: one planted in 2007 with white wine grapes, and three planted in 2008 with red wine grapes. The inter-crop strips are managed with a mixture of plant species as cover crop (CC), including: i) spontaneous vegetation, and ii) plantation of common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). The maintenance of the CC includes one mowing pass at the end of spring, between May and June. The appearance and development of ephemeral gullies and the deposition of soil at the bottom of the hillslope are two of the main concerns of the landowners. In some places, the accumulation of soil complicates grape

  15. Response to discussion of "Atmospheric deposition as an important nitrogen load to a typical agro-ecosystem in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain" by Huang et al. (2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ping; Zhang, Jiabao; Ma, Donghao; Wen, Zhaofei; Wu, Shengjun; Garland, Gina; Pereira, Engil Isadora Pujol; Zhu, Anning; Xin, Xiuli; Zhang, Congzhi

    2017-03-01

    We thank Pan et al. (2017) for their comments and discussions to our work on the nitrogen (N) deposition in a typical agro-ecosystem in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain using the water surrogate surface method (Huang et al., 2016). We appreciate this opportunity to respond to their comments, and we hope it will further clarify the findings in our work as well.

  16. Observation and Modeling of Heat, Water and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes upon The Paddy Field for Development of The Numerical Integrate Agro-Ecosystem Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Komori, D.; Yokozawa, M.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2006-12-01

    The spatiotemporal fluctuation of water resources according to land use and climate changes have a demoralizing influence upon the potential area and the feasible period for paddy cultivation. To understand the syndrome, an agroecohydrological model which is considered both the characteristics of the cultivate method and the changes of land use around themselves or those upstream is indispensable. In consequence, the development of the Numerical Integrate Agro-Ecosystem Simulator (NIAES) which is based on a land surface model (LSM) and a real time monitoring and simulation system (RTMASS) has been explored. As a first step, some candidate LSMs are tested, validated and modified for NIAES model with micrometeorological flux tower data (Jun 2005 to May 2006) at Sukhothai in Thailand. The simulated trend of heat, water and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes are valid during the cultivate period of paddy (LAI > 2), but are disagree with those of measurements during the watering and the early period (LAI <= 2). The disagreements suggest that the paddy water is considered as an important parameter and the soil water conductivity is also estimated as a temporal variable in the LSMs to explain the land surface process of heat, water and CO2. During the non-cultivate period, the clear estimation of parameters for substituted grass type and the precise simulation of dewfall for dawn were key points to understand the characteristics of those fluxes in Indochina peninsula.

  17. Agro-ecosystem and socio-economic role of homegarden agroforestry in Jabithenan District, North-Western Ethiopia: implication for climate change adaptation.

    PubMed

    Linger, Ewuketu

    2014-01-01

    Homegarden agroforestry is believed to be more diverse and provide multiple services for household than other monocropping system and this is due to the combination of crops, trees and livestock. The aim of this study was to assess socio-economic and agro-ecological role of homegardens in Jabithenan district, North-western Ethiopia. Two sites purposively and two villages randomly from each site were selected. Totally 96 households; in which 48 from homegarden agroforestry user and 48 from non-tree based garden user were selected for this study. Socio-economic data and potential economic and agro-ecosystem role of homegarden agroforestry over non-tree based garden were collected by using semi-structured and structured questionnaires to the households. Homegarden agroforestry significantly (P < 0.05) improved the farmers cash income than non-tree based garden. With insignificant garden size; homegarden agroforestry practice provides good socio-economical and agro-ecological service for farmers which have a higher implication for climate change adaptation than non-tree based garden.

  18. Analysis of integrated animal-fish production system under subtropical hill agro ecosystem in India: growth performance of animals, total biomass production and monetary benefit.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, A; Pathak, K A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Vinod, K

    2009-03-01

    The present study assessed the benefits of integration of animals with fish production in optimizing the bio mass production from unit land in subtropical hill agro ecosystem. Hampshire pigs and Khaki Campbell ducks were integrated with composite fish culture. The pig and duck excreta were directly allowed into the pond and no supplementary feed was given to fish during the period of study. The average levels of N, P and K in dried pig and duck manure were 0.9, 0.7 and 0.6 per cent and 1.3, 0.6 and 0.5 per cent, respectively. The average body weight of pig and duck at 11 months age was 90 and 1.74 kg with an average daily weight gain of 333.33 and 6.44 g, respectively. The fish production in pig-fish and duck-fish systems were 2209 and 2964 kg/ha, respectively while the fish productivity in control pond was only 820 kg/ha. The total biomass (animal and fish) production was higher (p<0.05) in commercial feeding system compared to the traditional system, however the input/output ratio was 1:1.2 and 1:1.55 for commercial and traditional systems, respectively. It was inferred that the total biomass production per unit land was high (p<0.05) when animal and fish were integrated together.

  19. 76 FR 61112 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Annual Progress Reports for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Annual Progress Reports... responses. This Notice also lists the following information: Title of proposal: Annual Progress Reports for.... SUMMARY: The proposed information collection requirement described below will be submitted to the...

  20. 76 FR 66946 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Annual Progress Reports for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Annual Progress Reports... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Annual Progress Reports for Empowerment Zones. OMB... required to submit annual reports to HUD based on the progress reported in implementing the EZs'...

  1. 76 FR 64369 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Annual Progress Reports for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Annual Progress Reports... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Annual Progress Reports for Empowerment Zones. OMB... EZs, which required to submit annual reports to HUD based on the progress reported in implementing...

  2. Plasma Theory and Simulation Group Annual Progress Report, for 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-31

    reprints of Journal Articles and the ERL Reports. Our prior mode was to publish Quaterly Progress Reports; these then became Semi-Annual Reports, which...IBC Code." 1990 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science, Oakland, CA, May 21-23, 1990: RJ. Procassini, C.K. Birdsall, B.I. Cohen, "Particle...under contract W-7405-ENG-46. Presented at IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science Oakland, CA May 21-23, 1990 MP-4 4P1-9 Particle

  3. Spatial abundance and human biting rate of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus in savannah and rice agro-ecosystems of Central Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mboera, Leonard E G; Bwana, Veneranda M; Rumisha, Susan F; Stanley, Grades; Tungu, Patrick K; Malima, Robert C

    2015-05-18

    This study was carried out to determine the spatial variations in malaria mosquito abundance and human biting rate in five villages representing rice-irrigation and savannah ecosystems in Kilosa District, central Tanzania. The study involved five villages namely Tindiga and Malui (wetland/rice irrigation), Twatwatwa and Mbwade (dry savannah) and Kimamba (wet savannah). Indoor mosquitoes were sampled using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps in three houses in each village. Anopheles gambiae s.l. molecular identification was carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 936 female mosquitoes were collected. About half (46.9%) were malaria mosquitoes (Anopheles gambiae s.l.=28.6%; An. funestus= 18.3%). A total of 161 (60.1%) of the morphologically identified An. gambiae s.l. (268) and subjected to PCR analysis for speciation were genotyped as An. arabiensis. The An. funestus complex mosquitoes were composed of An. funestus funestus and An. rivulorum at the 5:1 ratio. On average, 17.9 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected per village per day. Two-thirds (62.8%) of the malaria mosquitoes were collected in Malui (rice agro-ecosystem) and the lowest number (2.3%) in Twatwatwa (dry savannah ecosystem). The biting rate per person per night for An. arabiensis+An. funestus s.s. was highest in Malui (46.0) and lowest in Twatwatwa (1.67). The parity rate of the An. funestus mosquitoes was lower compared to that of An. arabiensis and none of the mosquitoes was infected with malaria sporozoites. In conclusion, An. arabiensis is the most abundant malaria vector in Kilosa district and its variation is related to the ecological system. The heterogeneity in malaria mosquito abundance and human biting rate could be used to guide selection of locally appropriated control interventions.

  4. Estimating NH3 emissions from agricultural fertilizer application in China using the bi-directional CMAQ model coupled to an agro-ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X.; Wang, S. X.; Ran, L. M.; Pleim, J. E.; Cooter, E.; Bash, J. O.; Benson, V.; Hao, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in atmospheric aerosol chemistry. China is one of the largest NH3 emitting countries with the majority of NH3 emissions coming from agricultural practices, such as fertilizer application and livestock production. The current NH3 emission estimates in China are mainly based on pre-defined emission factors that lack temporal or spatial details, which are needed to accurately predict NH3 emissions. This study provides the first online estimate of NH3 emissions from agricultural fertilizer application in China, using an agricultural fertilizer modeling system which couples a regional air quality model (the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model, or CMAQ) and an agro-ecosystem model (the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, or EPIC). This method improves the spatial and temporal resolution of NH3 emissions from this sector. We combined the cropland area data of 14 crops from 2710 counties with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land use data to determine the crop distribution. The fertilizer application rates and methods for different crops were collected at provincial or agricultural region levels. The EPIC outputs of daily fertilizer application and soil characteristics were input into the CMAQ model and the hourly NH3 emissions were calculated online with CMAQ running. The estimated agricultural fertilizer NH3 emissions in this study were approximately 3 Tg in 2011. The regions with the highest modeled emission rates are located in the North China Plain. Seasonally, peak ammonia emissions occur from April to July. Compared with previous researches, this study considers an increased number of influencing factors, such as meteorological fields, soil and fertilizer application, and provides improved NH3 emissions with higher spatial and temporal resolution.

  5. Characterization of field margins in intensified agro-ecosystems-why narrow margins should matter in terrestrial pesticide risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Melanie; Lenhardt, Patrick P; Brühl, Carsten A

    2014-07-01

    Field margins are important seminatural habitats in agro-ecosystems, but they can be negatively affected by pesticide inputs via direct overspray and spray drift. In Germany, risk mitigation measures (like buffer zones) to reduce pesticide inputs in terrestrial noncrop habitats do not have to be put in place by farmers next to narrow field margins (<3 m width). Because data on structure, size, and width of field margins are scarce, we identified field margins in 2 German agricultural landscapes (Rhineland-Palatinate [RLP], Brandenburg [BB]; 4000 ha each) using digital orthophotos and geographical information systems. In RLP, most of the field margins were less than 3 m wide (85% of margin length and 65% of the margin area), whereas in BB narrow field margins account for 45% of the margin length and 17% of the margin area. Hedgerows were only occasionally recorded. Hence, narrow grassy field margins can represent a large part of the available seminatural habitats adjoining agricultural sites and potentially act as corridors between further habitat patches. For this reason, these margins should be protected from pesticide inputs, at least in landscapes under intensive agricultural use. Field margins are also the main, so-called nontarget habitat protected by the terrestrial risk assessment for plants and arthropods. With many (narrow) margins not considered relevant for risk management, the current practice for protecting the biodiversity from negative effects of pesticides seems questionable. More data on field margin constitution in Germany and other European countries is necessary to critically assess the current practice of pesticide risk assessment and management on a larger scale.

  6. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 2000 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2001-05-01

    This is the FY00 Annual Progress report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD Program, summarizes progress on each project conducted during FY00, characterizes the projects according to their relevance to major funding sources, and provides an index to principal investigators. Project summaries are grouped by LDRD component: Directed Research and Exploratory Research. Within each component, they are further grouped into the ten technical categories: (1) atomic, molecular, optical, and plasma physics, fluids, and beams, (2) bioscience, (3) chemistry, (4) computer science and software engineering, (5) engineering science, (6) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (7) instrumentation and diagnostics, (8) materials science, (9) mathematics, simulation, and modeling, and (10) nuclear and particle physics.

  7. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, Gerald W.

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is the key element in the national effort to establish solar thermal conversion technologies within the major sectors of the national energy market. It provides for the development of concentrating mirror/lens heat collection and conversion technologies for both central and dispersed receiver applications to produce electricity, provide heat at its point of use in industrial processes, provide heat and electricity in combination for industrial, commercial, and residential needs, and ultimately, drive processes for production of liquid and gaseous fuels. This report is the second Annual Technical Progress Report for the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program and is structured according to the organization of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program on September 30, 1979. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program, a brief history, the significant achievements and real progress during FY 1979, also future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements are forecast. (WHK)

  8. FY2014 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-03-01

    The Energy Storage research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded by the Energy Storage subprogram in 2014. You can download individual sections at the following website, http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/downloads/vehicle-technologies-office-2014-energy-storage-rd-annual-report.

  9. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This Report summarizes the waste generation and pollution prevention activities of the major operational sites in the Department of Energy (DOE). We are witnessing progress in waste reduction from routine operations that are the focus of Department-wide reduction goals set by the Secretary on May 3,1996. The goals require that by the end of 1999, we reduce, recycle, reuse, and otherwise avoid waste generation to achieve a 50 percent reduction over 1993 levels. This Report provides the first measure of our progress in waste reduction and recycling against our 1993 waste generation baseline. While we see progress in reducing waste from our normal operations, we must begin to focus attention on waste generated by cleanup and facilities stabilization activities that are the major functions of the Office of Environmental Management. Reducing the generation of waste is one of the seven principles that I have established for the Office of Environmental Management Ten Year Plan. As part of our vision to complete a major portion of the environmental cleanup at DOE sites over the next ten years, we must utilize the potential of the pollution prevention program to reduce the cost of our cleanup program. We have included the Secretarial goals as part of the performance measures for the Ten Year Plan, and we are committed to implementing pollution prevention ideas. Through the efforts of both Federal and contractor employees, our pollution prevention program has reduced waste and the cost of our operations. I applaud their efforts and look forward to reporting further waste reduction progress in the next annual update of this Report.

  10. Carbon dioxide(CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes in an agro-ecosystems under changing physical and biological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, L.; Eberwein, J.; Oikawa, P.; Jenerette, D.; Grantz, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    the greenhouse gas balance of biofuel production. Our approach integrates the soil surface measurements and ecosystem observations to scale up the CO2 and N2O fluxes from lab measurements to the ecosystem level. A process model should be developed to link these scales and allow simulation of the CO2 and N2O emission in this agro-ecosystem in the future.

  11. Developing ground penetrating radar (GPR) for enhanced root and soil organic carbon imaging: Optimizing bioenergy crop adaptation and agro-ecosystem services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, D. B.; Delgado, A.; Bruton, R.; Dobreva, I. D.; Teare, B.; Jessup, R.; Rajan, N.; Bishop, M. P.; Lacey, R.; Neely, H.; Hons, F.; Novo, A.

    2016-12-01

    Selection of the ideal high biomass energy feedstock and crop cultivars for our national energy and production needs should consider not only the value of the harvested above ground feedstock, but also the local and global environmental services it provides in terms of terrestrial carbon (C) phyto-sequestration and improved soil organic matter enrichment. Selection of ideal crops cultivars is mature, while biofuel feedstock is well under way. What is lacking, however, is high throughput phenotyping (HTP) and integrated real-time data analysis technologies for selecting ideal genotypes within these crops that also confer recalcitrant high biomass or perennial root systems not only for C phyto-sequestration, but also for adaptation to conservation agro-ecosystems, increasing soil organic matter and soil water holding capacity. In no-till systems, significant studies have shown that increasing soil organic carbon is derived primarily from root and not above ground biomass. As such, efforts to increase plant soil phyto-sequestration will require a focus on developing optimal root systems within cultivated crops. We propose to achieve a significant advancement in the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) as one approach to phenotype root biomass and 3D architecture, and to quantify soil carbon sequestration. In this context, GPR can be used for genotypic selection in breeding nurseries and unadapted germplasm with favorable root architectures, and for assessing management and nutrient practices that promote root growth. GPR has been used for over a decade to successfully map coarse woody roots. Only few have evaluated its efficacy for imaging finer fibrous roots found in grasses, or tap root species. The objectives of this project is to: i) Empirically define the optimal ground penetrating radar (GPR)-antenna array for 3D root and soil organic carbon imaging and quantification in high biomass grass systems; and ii) Develop novel 3- and 4-dimensional data analysis

  12. 1993 annual final progress report: July 1992 through June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, A.; Crotty, G.; Chen, Z.; Sana, P.; Salami, J.; Doolittle, A.; Pang, A.; Pham, T.

    1994-11-01

    This is the first annual report since the Inauguration of the University Center of Excellence for Photovoltaics Research and Development (UCEP) at Georgia Tech. The essential objective of the Center is to improve the fundamental understanding of the science and technology of advanced PV devices and materials, to provide training and enrich the educational experience of students in the field, and to increase US competitiveness by providing guidelines to industry and DOE for achieving cost-effective and high efficiency PV devices. These objectives are to be accomplished through a combination of research and education. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments, including modeling, processing, and characterization of cast multicrystalline silicon solar cells; use of modeling and PCD measurements to develop a road map for progressing toward 20% multicrystalline and 25% single crystalline cells; the development of a novel PECVD SiN/SiO{sub 2} AR coating that also provides good surface passivation; PECVD deposited SiO{sub 2} films with record low S and D{sub it} at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface; and educational activities and accomplishments.

  13. FY13 Annual Progress Report for SECA Core Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Koeppel, Brian J.

    2014-01-31

    This progress report covers technical work performed during fiscal year 2013 at PNNL under Field Work Proposal (FWP) 40552. The report highlights and documents technical progress in tasks related to advanced cell and stack component materials development and computational design and simulation. Primary areas of emphasis for the materials development work were metallic interconnects and coatings, cathode and anode stability/degradation, glass seals, and advanced testing under realistic stack conditions: Metallic interconnects and coatings • Effects of surface modifications to AISI 441 (prior to application of protective spinel coatings) on oxide scale growth and adhesion were evaluated as a function of temperature and time. Cathode stability/degradation • Effects of cathode air humidity on performance and stability of SOFC cathodes were investigated by testing anode-supported cells as a function of time and temperature. • In-situ high temperature XRD measurements were used to correlate changes in cathode lattice structure and composition with performance of anode-supported button cells. Anode stability/degradation • Effects of high fuel steam content on Ni/YSZ anodes were investigated over a range of time and temperature. • Vapor infiltration and particulate additions were evaluated as a potential means of improving tolerance of Ni/YSZ anodes to sulfur-bearing fuel species. Glass seals • A candidate compliant glass-based seal materials were evaluated in terms of microstructural evolution and seal performance as a function of time and temperature. Stack fixture testing • The SECA CTP stack test fixture was used for intermediate and long-term evaluation of candidate materials and processes. Primary areas of emphasis for the computational modeling work were coarse methodology, degradation of stack components, and electrochemical modeling: Coarse methodology • Improvements were made to both the SOFC-MP and SOFC ROM simulation tools. Degradation of stack

  14. GSA committees: Progress through service the Annual Program Committee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    The GSA's Annual Program Committee (APC) is directly responsible for the GSA's meeting and other responsibilities especially before the main event. It decides on the locations, the number and content of the technical sessions, annual membership surveys, hospitality for the guests, field trips and more. In addition, it pays significant attention to creative thinking about geoscience discoveries and directions as well as identify new and emerging areas of earth science. APC is also looking for new ideas, approaches and directions.

  15. ANNUAL AND POLYETIC PROGRESSION OF CITRUS CANKER ON TREES PROTECTED WITH COPPER SPRAYS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    : Mathematical models are important tools for comparative analysis of epidemics. In this paper, parameters obtained from the mathematical model that best fitted to the annual progress curves of citrus canker incidence were used to evaluate the effect of copper sprays and windbreaks on the annual and...

  16. Oregon Migrant Health Project; Annual Progress Report 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Health, Portland.

    In this 1969 annual report, 10 objectives of the Oregon Migrant Health Project--which served approximately 18,400 migrants during the project year--are listed. These objectives relate to providing for diagnostic and medical services, preventive medical services, and dental care, as well as promoting health awareness, education, and improved living…

  17. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-09-01

    This Annual Report summarizes and highlights waste generation, waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost avoidance for 44 U.S. Department of Energy reporting sites for Calendar Year 1999. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1999 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments.

  18. Annual Progress Report of the Southern Rural Development Center, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.

    This annual report of the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) describes the agency's extension and research activities from October, 1996, to September 30, 1997. SRDC is one of four regional centers coordinating rural development research and extension education programs cooperatively with the land-grant institutions. SRDC cooperates with 29…

  19. Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chess, Stella, Ed.; Thomas, Alexander, Ed.

    This book, the second in an annual series, contains 38 articles published during the past year in the field of child psychiatry and child development. The editors attempted to compile articles "of most value to workers in this field both for immediate information and for long-term reference." Accordingly, the articles are of two types: (1)…

  20. Annual progress report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Research progress is reported for the year 1979-1980. The report is divided into sections dealing individually with the divisions of Biomolecular and Cellular Science, Environmental Biology, and Nuclear Medicine. The sections have been individually entered into EDB. (ACR)

  1. Annual Research Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1983,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    Blood Pressure Measuring Techniques . (0) C-31-82 Evaluation of a Non-Invasive Strategy for the Diagnosis of 97 Coronary Artery Disease. (0) C-35-82...Salasche, S.J., Grabski, W.J. Keloids of the earlobe: a surgical technique . J Dermatol Surg Oncol, 9:552-556, 1983. ...- Anderson, W.C. Hereditary...methacholine-induced bronchial reac- tivity. 35th Annual Carl W. Tempel Symposium oh Pulmonary Disease and Allergy-Iuuunology, Fitzsimons Army Medical

  2. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This fourth Annual Report presents and analyzes 1995 DOE complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 40 reporting sites in 25 States, and trends DOE waste generation from 1991 through 1995. DOE has established a 50% reduction goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, due by December 31, 1999. Routine operations waste generation decreased 37% from 1994 to 1995, and 43% overall from 1993--1995.

  3. Genetic Analysis of Oncorhynchus Nerka : 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; Setter, A.L.; Welsh, T.L.; Rocklage, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 project to develop DNA assessment techniques for the purpose of determining relationships among populations of Oncorhynchus nerka demonstrated differences that had potential for such application. The work was continued in 1991 with specific application of the techniques to develop DNA probes that could be used in separating populations of 0. nerka associated with the lakes in the upper Salmon River, principally those in Redfish Lake. Research included sockeye-kokanee life history studies that might add supporting evidence for assessing the degree of difference or similarity among populations in the lake systems. This report summarizes the annual activities under the work plan.

  4. Integral Fast Reactor Program. Annual progress report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.I.; Walters, L.C.; Laidler, J.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Wade, D.C.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1993. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: (1) metal fuel performance, (2) pyroprocess development, (3) safety experiments and analyses, (4) core design development, (5) fuel cycle demonstration, and (6) LMR technology R and D.

  5. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-11

    These progress reports summarize the year's hydrogen and fuel cell R&D and analysis activities and accomplishments. This work was conducted by industry, academia, and national laboratories for the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and the offices of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Fossil Energy, Nuclear Energy, and Science.

  6. Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chess, Stella, Ed.; Thomas, Alexander, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of 33 articles considered to be the outstanding contributions to the field of child psychiatry in 1975. In general, the articles are of two types: original works that hold promise of making a contribution to progress in the study of the child, or review articles which present a clear, thoughtful, and systematic…

  7. Running Start: 1999-2000 Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia.

    This progress report analyzes the outcomes of the Running Start Program, part of Washington's 1990 "Learning by Choice Law," which was designed to expand educational options for high school students. The program qualified high school juniors and seniors to take college-level classes at the state's community and technical colleges and…

  8. Integral Fast Reactor Program annual progress report, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1991. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: (1) metal fuel performance, (2) pyroprocess development, (3) safety experiments and analyses, (4) core design development, (5) fuel cycle demonstration, and (6) LMR technology R&D.

  9. Integral Fast Reactor Program annual progress report, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1991. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: (1) metal fuel performance, (2) pyroprocess development, (3) safety experiments and analyses, (4) core design development, (5) fuel cycle demonstration, and (6) LMR technology R D.

  10. Research on Automatic Classification, Indexing and Extracting. Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, F.T.; And Others

    In order to contribute to the success of several studies for automatic classification, indexing and extracting currently in progress, as well as to further the theoretical and practical understanding of textual item distributions, the development of a frequency program capable of supplying these types of information was undertaken. The program…

  11. 4. 0K cryocooler project. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, R.E.

    1981-09-30

    Progress during the period October 1980 to October 1981 in the design and construction of a cryocooler to achieve temperatures down to 4/sup 0/K is reported. Information is included on Stirling heat engine design, performance analysis, fabrication and initial testing; Dewar design; construction of a two-stage cooler; and the design of a self-loading helium-loaded regenerator. (LCL)

  12. Integral Fast Reactor Program annual progress report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.I.; Walters, L.C.; Laidler, J.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Wade, D.C.; Lineberry, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1994. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: metal fuel performance; pyroprocess development; safety experiments and analyses; core design development; fuel cycle demonstration; and LMR technology R&D.

  13. Integral Fast Reactor Program. Annual progress report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.I.; Walters, L.C.; Laidler, J.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Wade, D.C.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1992. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: (1) metal fuel performance, (2) pyroprocess development, (3) safety experiments and analyses, (4) core design development, (5) fuel cycle demonstration, and (6) LMR technology R&D.

  14. Annual Research Progress Report. Fiscal Year 1989. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    burgdor- feri; Rickettsia of Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia t phi. Progress: To date 18 feral domestic cats were examined. Three cats were four’J with...were submitted to the Bureau of Laboratories, Texas Department of Health, Austin, TX. Blood specimens were examined for the presence of Borrelia ...high titer for Lyme spirochete 1:128; 1:128; and 1:256. From fleas exa- mined none were found to be infective with Borrelia burgdo-rferi or

  15. FY 2005 Annual Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen Program

    SciTech Connect

    2005-10-01

    In cooperation with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies, the Department of Energy's Hydrogen Program is advancing the state of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in support of the President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. The initiative seeks to develop hydrogen, fuel cell, and infrastructure technologies needed to make it practical and cost-effective for Americans to choose to use fuel cell vehicles by 2020. Significant progress was made in fiscal year 2005 toward that goal.

  16. Annual Progress Report, 31 Oct 1988-1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-11

    children (Plomin & Rowe, 1979) while others have reported heritability of introversion and extraversion in adults (Scarr & Kidd, 1983). We believe...Arl ng on, VA 222 7- 00 61.153N RR04108 442d 006 1 TITLE (Include Security Classification) Progress Report 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Jerome Kagan 13a TYPE...rhinitis. One of the many possible interpretations of this result is based on the fact that the olfactory system lacks a blood- brain 6 barrier and

  17. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 2000 [USDOE] [9th edition

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This ninth edition of the Annual Report of Waste Generation and Pollution Prevention Progress highlights waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost savings/avoidance for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pollution Prevention Program for Fiscal Year 2000. This edition marks the first time that progress toward meeting the 2005 Pollution Prevention Goals, issued by the Secretary of Energy in November 1999, is being reported. In addition, the Annual Report has a new format, and now contains information on a fiscal year basis, which is consistent with other DOE reports.

  18. The theory of hadronic systems. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1993-04-12

    This report briefly discusses progress on the following topics: isospin breaking in the pion-nucleon system; direct capture of pions into deeply bound atomic states; knock out of secondary components in the nucleus; study of the radii of neutron distributions in nuclei; the hadronic double scattering operator; transparency in pion production; asymmetry in pion scattering and charge exchange from polarized nuclei; the mechanism of pion absorption in nuclei; the neutron-proton charge-exchange reaction; modification of the fundamental structure of nucleons in nuclei; and antiproton annihilation in nuclei.

  19. 2015 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    SciTech Connect

    Popovich, Neil

    2015-12-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  20. 2012 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  1. Annual Research Progress Report. Fiscal Year 1989. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Hemoquant Assays for Hemoglobin Quantification. (C) C-37-88 A Comparison of Cine and DSA Quantiative Coronary Angiography. 100 (0) C-47-88 Percutaneous...HemoQuant’" assay. 99 Detail Summary Sheet Date: 17 Oct 89 ..Proj No: C-37-88 Status: O n.... Title: A Comparison of Cine and DSA Quantitative Coronary... cine angiogram. Progress: Study terminated due to release from active duty of principal investi- 119 Detail Summary Sheet Date:2 Aug 9_Pro- No: s-17

  2. Coastal-shelf transport and diffusion. Annual progress report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Csanady, G. T.

    1981-11-01

    Progress is reported in theoretical and observational studies of the physics of continental shelf circulation, the mechanics of the coastal boundary layer, and the pathways of mass exchange between the coastal waters and the deep sea. Attempts were also made to develop the engineering science of pollution prediction under the complex circumstances prevailing in the coastal ocean. The report is organized into the following five sections: dynamics of shelf circulation; coastal boundary layer; the water side of the air-sea interface; disposal of contaminants; and cross-shelf mass exchange.

  3. Ionization in liquids [annual] progress report, 1993--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bakale, G.

    1994-12-31

    Progress in 1993--94 was focused on delineating how ions of the model nonpolar spherical solute Buckminsterfullerene interact differently with various nonpolar solvents than does the ellipsoidal fullerene analog C-70, and exposing a variety of new audiences to the electrophilicity-carcinogenicity relationship in order to obtain fresh insight into this relationship that may lead to elucidation of the role of electrons in carcinogenesis and thereby a better understanding of the biological effects of ionizing radiation. To achieve these goals a new collaboration was established with scientists at Oak Ridge National Lab who have unique facilities to characterize fullerene and its radiolytic products.

  4. Temporal dynamics of direct N2O fluxes from agro-ecosystems in cold climates: importance of year-round measurements in multiple cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner-Riddle, C.; Tenuta, M.

    2014-12-01

    Soil N2O fluxes (direct emissions) are highly variable in time and space due to soil, weather and management drivers. In cold climates, freeze/thaw cycles and short growing seasons can enhance soil N2O production contributing to the temporal variability of fluxes. Year-round measurements of N2O fluxes in multiple cropping systems are needed to decrease the uncertainty of annual emission estimates and to devise mitigation practices for emission reduction in cold climates. We have deployed a micrometeorological flux-gradient approach coupled to a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy system at two long-term sites in Canada: Elora, Ontario (2000-2014) and Glenlea, Manitoba (2006-2014). Quasi-simultaneous half-hourly flux measurements on four 4-ha fields within a level and aerodynamically homogeneous landscape were obtained allowing for comparison of crop type and/or management practices within and between years. Annual crops such as corn, soybeans, wheat, and barley received typical inorganic fertilizer and/or manure applications, and best management practices such as timing of application and reduced tillage were studied. Perennial grass-alfalfa hayfields were compared to annual crops during selected time periods. Here we synthesize the long-term datasets from these two sites, and quantify the overall contribution of non-growing season (mainly freeze/thaw cycles) and growing season (mainly nitrogen application) to annual emission totals. Uncertainties of regional estimates for cold-climates will be assessed using these long-term datasets.

  5. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    This seventh Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 45 reporting sites from 1993 through 1998. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1998 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments. More detailed information follows this section in the body of the Report. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December31, 1999. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1998 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation decreased 67 percent overall from 1993 to 1998. However, for the first time since 1994, the total amount of materials recycled by the Complex decreased from 109,600 metric tons in 1997 to 92,800 metric tons in 1998. This decrease is attributed to the fact that in 1997, several large ''one-time only'' recycling projects were conducted throughout the Complex. In order to demonstrate commitment to DOE's Complex-wide recycling goal, it is important for sites to identify all potential large-scale recycling/reuse opportunities.

  6. Herbaceous Energy Corps Program: Annual progress report for FY 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.; Turhollow, A.F.; Johnston, J.W.

    1987-05-01

    This report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program (HECP) for the year ending September 30, 1986. HECP is devoted to research on the development of terrestrial, nonwoody plant species for use as energy feedstocks. HECP emphasizes lignocellulosic forage crops. In FY 1986 screening and selection trials continued on 25 species of perennial and annual grasses and legumes in five projects in the Southeast and the Midwest-Lake States regions. Research also continued on the development of winter rapeseed as a diesel-fuel substitute. Activities in FY 1986 included genetic crosses and selections to incorporate atrazine resistance, development of Canola-quality winter rapeseed for the Southeast, and development of dwarf varieties. Production practices for double-cropped winter rapeseed in the Southeast were also examined. Exploratory research efforts in FY 1986 included the physiology and biochemistry of hydrocarbon production in latex-bearing plants, the productivity of cattail stands under sustained harvesting, the development of tissue culture techniques for hard-to-culture sorghum genotypes, and the start of a study to measure sustained productivity of old-field successional vegetation. Environmental and economic analyses in FY 1986 included studies on the uses of wetlands and wet soils, the use of lignocellulosic crops as an alcohol feedstock, the potential of direct combustion of lignocellulosic crops, and existing oilseed extraction facilities. 6 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. Annual progress report for FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.; Turhollow, A.F.; Johnston, J.W.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program (HECP) for the year ending September 30, 1985. HECP emphasizes lignocellulosic forage crops. In FY 1985 screening and selection trails began on seven species of perennial and annual grasses and legumes in five projects in the Southeast and the Midwest-Lake State regions. Research also continued on the development of winter rapeseed as a disel-fuel substitute. Activities in FY 1985 included crosses and selections to incorporate atrazine resistance and reduced vernalization requirements in genotypes with desirable seed and oil qualities. Exploratory research efforts in FY 1985 included the physiology and biochemistry of hydrocarbon production in latex bearing plants, the productivity of cattail stands under sustained harvesting, and the development of tissue culture techniques for hard-to-culture sorghum genotypes. Environmental and economic analyses in FY 1985 included completion of a resource assessment of the southwestern United States, a study on successful new crop introductions, and initiation of studies on near-term markets for lignocellulosic energy crops and on vegetable oil extraction facilities. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  9. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This sixth Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 36 reporting sites from 1993 through 1997. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December 31, 1999. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation increased three percent from 1996 to 1997, and decreased 61 percent overall from 1993 to 1997. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1997 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. However, it is important to note that increases in low-level radioactive and low-level mixed waste generation could reverse this achievement. From 1996 to 1997, low-level radioactive waste generation increased 10 percent, and low-level mixed waste generation increased slightly. It is critical that DOE sites continue to reduce routine operations waste generation for all waste types, to ensure that DOE`s Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals are achieved by December 31, 1999.

  10. Determining how magnetic helicity injection really works. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bellan, P.M.

    1998-10-21

    Magnetic helicity injection is the essential process underlying both spheromak formation and helicity injection toroidal current drive in tokamaks (e.g., HIT and NSTX). The dynamical details of the helicity injection process are poorly understood because existing models avoid a dynamic description. In particular, Taylor relaxation, the main model motivating helicity injection efforts, is an argument that predicts the state to which a turbulent magnetic configuration relaxes after all dynamics are over. The goal of the Caltech experiment is to investigate the actual dynamics and topological evolution associated with relaxation and so determine how helicity injection really works. Although the global relaxation model (i.e., Taylor model) typically invokes axisymmetry, simple physical arguments (Cowling`s theorem) show that the detailed dynamics must involve topologically complex, non-axisymmetric processes. Progress for this project is given here.

  11. [Effects of tillage-cropping systems on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agro-ecosystems in a purple paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Ke; Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Hao, Qing-Ju; Tang, Qi-Wen; Cheng, Bing-Hong; Li, Hui; Chen, Lu-Hao

    2012-06-01

    Using the static opaque chamber method, a field experiment, located in the Key Field Station for Monitoring of Eco-Environment of Purple Soil of the Ministry of Agriculture of China in the farm of Southwest University (30 degrees 26'N, 106 degrees 26'E) in Chongqing, was conducted in situ for one year to study the effect of different tillage systems on CH4 and N2O emission from ago-ecosystems in a purple paddy soil. In this paper, four tillage treatments including conventional tillage with rice only system (CT), conventional tillage with rotation of rice and rape system (CTR), no-till and plain culture with rotation of rice and rape system (NTP) and no-till and ridge culture with rotation of rice and rape system (NTR) were selected as research objectives. The results showed that the annual CH4 and N2O emissions were mainly occurred in the rice growing period, and were about 77.6% and 55.0% of the total annual of them emitted from this period. The total annual CH4 under CT was higher than that of other treatments. The annual average flux of CH4[CH4, mg x (m2 x h)(-1)] order was CT (2.96 +/- 0.04) >NTR (1.83 +/- 0.21) >NTP (1.42 +/- 0.01) >CTR (0.96 +/- 0.09); the annual average flux of N2O[N2O, microg x (m2 x h)(-1)] order was CTR (123.6 +/- 47.1) > NTR (115.2 +/- 22.1) > NTP (100.5 +/- 25.8) > CT (81.3 +/- 13.5), and the total annual N2O under CTR was higher than that of CT. The global warming potentials (GWPs) of CH4 and N2O emissions under different tillage-cropping systems were assessed in an integrated way. The results showed that the integrated GWPs of CH4 and N2O emission were in the following sequence: CT > NTR > NTP > CTR, and CTR was the best treatment for decrease the integrated GWPs in this area.

  12. Hungry Horse Mitigation : Flathead Lake : Annual Progress Report 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les

    2009-08-06

    , for example, includes a spring gillnetting series conducted annually in Flathead Lake and builds on an existing data set initiated in 1981. Monitoring of the experimental kokanee reintroduction was a primary activity of this project between 1992 and 1997. Lake trout, whose high densities have precluded successful mitigation of losses of other species in Flathead Lake, have been monitored since 1996 to measure several biological parameters. Results of this work have utility in determining the population status of this key predator in Flathead Lake. The project has also defined the baseline condition of the Flathead Lake fishery in 1992-1993 and has conducted annual lakewide surveys since 1998. The restoration component of the project has addressed several stream channel, riparian, and fish passage problems, and suppression of non-native fish. The research component of the project began in FY 2000 and measured trophic linkages between M. relicta and other species to assist in predicting the results of our efforts to suppress lake trout. Only Work Element A in the Statement of Work is funded entirely by Hungry Horse Mitigation funds. Additional funds are drawn from other sources to assist in completion of all remaining Work Elements.

  13. Hungry Horse Mitigation : Flathead Lake : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les

    2008-12-22

    , for example, includes a spring gillnetting series conducted annually in Flathead Lake and builds on an existing data set initiated in 1981. Monitoring of the experimental kokanee reintroduction was a primary activity of this project between 1992 and 1997. Lake trout, whose high densities have precluded successful mitigation of losses of other species in Flathead Lake, have been monitored since 1996 to measure several biological parameters. Results of this work have utility in determining the population status of this key predator in Flathead Lake. The project has also defined the baseline condition of the Flathead Lake fishery in 1992-1993 and has conducted annual lakewide surveys since 1998. The restoration component of the project has addressed several stream channel, riparian, and fish passage problems, and suppression of non-native fish. The research component of the project began in FY 2000 and measured trophic linkages between M. relicta and other species to assist in predicting the results of our efforts to suppress lake trout. Only Work Element A in the Statement of Work is funded entirely by Hungry Horse Mitigation funds. Additional funds are drawn from other sources to assist in completion of all remaining Work Elements.

  14. Energy Storage Annual Progress Report for FY15

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Ban, Chunmei; Cao, Lei; Graf, Peter; Keyser, Matt; Kim, Gi-Heon; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Saxon, Aron; Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Tenent, Robert; Yang, Chuanbo; Zhang, Chao

    2016-12-01

    The Energy Storage research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in support of the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge. PEVs could have a significant impact on the nation's goal of reducing dependence on imported oil and gaseous pollutant emissions. The Energy Storage program targets overcoming technical barriers to enable market success, including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost; (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability); (3) reducing battery weight and volume; and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports the VTO's Energy Storage program by evaluating the thermal performance of cells and packs, developing electrochemical-thermal models to accelerate the design cycle for developing batteries, investigating the behavior of lithium-ion batteries under abuse conditions such as crush, enhancing the durability of electrodes by coatings such as atomic layer deposition, synthesis of materials for higher energy density batteries, and conducting techno-economic analysis of batteries in various electric-drive vehicles. This report describes the progress made by NREL on the research and development projects funded by the DOE VTO Energy Storage subprogram in FY15.

  15. Autonomous Pathogen Detection System - FY02 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Colston, B; Brown, S; Burris, K; Elkin, C; Hindson, B; Langlois, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Metz, T; Nasarabadi, S; Makarewicz, T; Milznovich, F; Venkateswaran, K S; Visuri, S

    2002-11-11

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a biological agent detection and identification capability, the Autonomous Pathogen Detector System (APDS). Integrating a flow cytometer and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detector with sample collection, sample preparation and fluidics will provide a compact, autonomously operating instrument capable of simultaneously detecting multiple pathogens and/or toxins. The APDS will operate in fixed locations, continuously monitoring air samples and automatically reporting the presence of specific biological agents. The APDS will utilize both multiplex immunoassays and nucleic acid assays to provide ''quasi-orthogonal'' multiple agent detection approaches to minimize false positives and increase the reliability of identification. Technical advances across several fronts must occur, however, to realize the full extent of the APDS. The end goal of a commercially available system for civilian biological weapon defense will be accomplished through three progressive generations of APDS instruments. The APDS is targeted for civilian applications in which the public is at high risk of exposure to covert releases of bioagent, such as major subway systems and other transportation terminals, large office complexes and convention centers. APDS is also designed to be part of a monitoring network of sensors integrated with command and control systems for wide-area monitoring of urban areas and major public gatherings. In this latter application there is potential that a fully developed APDS could add value to DoD monitoring architectures.

  16. UCSD geothermal chemistry program; Annual progress report, FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Weare, J.H.

    1989-10-01

    The development of a geothermal resource requires a considerable financial commitment. As in other energy extraction ventures, the security of this investment can be jeopardized by the uncertain behavior of the resource under operating conditions. Many of the most significant problems limiting the development of geothermal power are related to the chemical properties of the high temperature and highly pressured formation fluids from which the energy is extracted. When the pressure and temperature conditions on these fluids are changed either during the production phase (pressure changes) or during the extraction phase (temperature changes) of the operation, the fluids which were originally in equilibrium under the new conditions by precipitation of solid materials (scales) or release of dissolved gases (some toxic) in the formation and well bores or in the plant equipment. Unfortunately, predicting the behavior of the production fluids is difficult, because it is a function of many variables. In order to address these problems the Department of Energy is developing a computer model describing the chemistry of geothermal fluids. The model under development at UCSD is based on recent progress in the physical chemistry of concentrated aqueous solutions, and is covered in this report.

  17. Photosynthetic acclimation of Acer saccharum. Eleventh annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The overall goal of our research program has been to understand the effect of variations in the characteristics of whole-leaf CO/sub 2/ exchange on productivity of plants and plant communities. To this end we have measured CO/sub 2/ exchange as a function of major environmental factors, emphasizing irradiance, temperature, and CO/sub 2/ concentration. In addition we have determined the effect of O/sub 2/ on photosynthesis, because of the major impact O/sub 2/ has on net carbon gain during photosynthesis. We have tested various models for their ability to simulate the daily responses of CO/sub 2/ exchange measured in the field. These studies have convinced us that we have adequate modeling capacity for simulation of daily time courses under natural conditions. During the past three years we have made progress on several projects related to gas exchange, particularly CO/sub 2/ exhange, in leaves. The primary emphasis has been on the analysis and modeling of daily CO/sub 2/ exchange in Acer saccharum seedlings. More recently we have been emphasizing the investigation of the photosynthetic response of Populus grandidentata. Data has also been collected on a number of other species in order to test the generality of some of the responses noted in the intensive studies.

  18. Physical mapping of human chromosome 16. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, G.R.

    1993-08-01

    We aim to isolate cDNAs mapping to human chromosome 16 and localise such cDNAs on the high resolution physical map. In collaboration with LANL, PCR primers will be synthesised from cDNA sequences mapped to chromosome 16 and used as ESTs in the generation of mega-YAC contigs for this chromosome. Probing of high density cosmid grids will enable integration of the ESTs into cosmid contigs and location of the cosmid contigs on the YAC contig. A hn-cDNA library has been constructed from the hybrid CY18 which contains chromosome 16 as the only human chromosome. A modified screening protocol has been successfully developed and 15 hn-cDNA clones have been sequenced and localised on the hybrid map. Sequence analysis of four of these revealed that they were known cDNAs, which are now mapped to chromosome 16. Development of techniques to allow the isolation of longer cDNAs from the identified exons is in progress. This will depend on PCR amplification of cDNAs from a total human CDNA library.

  19. Palm Beach County Health Department Migrant Project, Annual Progress Report, 1972-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm Beach County Health Dept., West Palm Beach, FL.

    Information about the Palm Beach County Health Department Migrant Project for 1972 is presented in this annual progress report. Information on services provided by the Project as prescribed by the Migrant Health Branch is included. Major topics include program objectives, relationships and contributions, staff orientation and training, a general…

  20. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report period ending December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1987-10-01

    This annual report on fusion energy discusses the progress on work in the following main topics: toroidal confinement experiments; atomic physics and plasma diagnostics development; plasma theory and computing; plasma-materials interactions; plasma technology; superconducting magnet development; fusion engineering design center; materials research and development; and neutron transport. (LSP)

  1. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram supporting the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  2. Western Kansas Migrant Health Project: 8th Annual Progress Report, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Health, Topeka.

    The Western Kansas Migrant Health Project provides migrant families with such services as: (1) remedial schools and day care centers; (2) health education; (3) housing and sanitation; (4) nursing services; (5) medical and dental services; (6) hospital services; and (7) supplemental food programs. This 1971 annual progress report covers the…

  3. FY2012 Annual Progress Report for Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Slezak, Lee

    2013-03-29

    Annual progress report that evaluates the technologies and performance characteristics of advanced automotive powertrain components and subsystems in an integrated vehicle systems context. These evaluations address light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle platforms. This work is directed toward evaluating and verifying the targets of the VTO R&D teams and to providing guidance in establishing roadmaps for achievement of these goals.

  4. 21 CFR 601.70 - Annual progress reports of postmarketing studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Annual progress reports of postmarketing studies. 601.70 Section 601.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... revised schedule, as well as the reason(s) for the revision, if the schedule under paragraph (b)(7)...

  5. FLORIDA MIGRANT HEALTH PROJECT. FOURTH ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT, 1966-1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Health, Jacksonville.

    THE FOURTH ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT OF THE FLORIDA MIGRANT HEALTH PROJECT INDICATES THAT IN 1966-67 THERE WAS AN APPRECIABLE INCREASE IN THE AMOUNT AND VARIETY OF MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES RENDERED, THE NUMBER OF MIGRANTS CONTACTED, AND THE ACTIVITIES PERFORMED BY PROJECT PERSONNEL. MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICE REFERRALS INCREASED BY 1,222 OVER THE SAME…

  6. Annual Progress Report, June 1, 1969-June 1, 1970. Colorado Migrant Health Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver.

    Narrative and statistical data on the Colorado Migrant Health Program are presented in this 1969-70 annual progress report. The objectives of the program were to develop, augment, and improve health care services to migrant agricultural workers and their families; to develop, expand, and improve existing programs; and to establish and maintain…

  7. 10 CFR 905.14 - Does Western require annual IRP progress reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... projected goals and implementation schedules, and energy and capacity benefits and renewable energy... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Does Western require annual IRP progress reports? 905.14 Section 905.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated...

  8. 10 CFR 905.14 - Does Western require annual IRP progress reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... projected goals and implementation schedules, and energy and capacity benefits and renewable energy... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Does Western require annual IRP progress reports? 905.14 Section 905.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated...

  9. 10 CFR 905.14 - Does Western require annual IRP progress reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... projected goals and implementation schedules, and energy and capacity benefits and renewable energy... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Does Western require annual IRP progress reports? 905.14 Section 905.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated...

  10. 10 CFR 905.14 - Does Western require annual IRP progress reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... projected goals and implementation schedules, and energy and capacity benefits and renewable energy... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Does Western require annual IRP progress reports? 905.14 Section 905.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated...

  11. 10 CFR 905.14 - Does Western require annual IRP progress reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... projected goals and implementation schedules, and energy and capacity benefits and renewable energy... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Does Western require annual IRP progress reports? 905.14 Section 905.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated...

  12. Arizona Measure of Academic Progress: Third Annual Look at Growth in Arizona Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aportela, Anabel

    The 2001 results of Arizonas Measure of Academic Progress (MAP) mark the third annual release of this important school accountability tool. The 2001 MAP results are slightly different from the results of previous years in that they show the percent of students who achieve One Years Growth (OYG) and present results in a more accessible format. The…

  13. Western Kansas Migrant Health Project: 11th Annual Progress Report, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Health, Topeka.

    Information about the Western Kansas Migrant Health Project for 1974 is presented in this annual progress report. The Project provides: (1) migrant education programs; (2) health education; (3) nursing services; (4) medical and dental services; (5) hospital services; and (6) supplemental food programs. Since August 1974, the western Kansas VISTA…

  14. The domestic natural gas and oil initiatve. First annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This document is the first of a series of annual progress reports designed to inform the industry and the public of the accomplishments of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (the Initiative) and the benefits realized. Undertaking of the Initiative was first announced by Hazel O`Leary, Secretary of the Department of Energy (Department or DOE), in April 1993.

  15. Characterization of annual disease progression of multiple sclerosis patients: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Freilich, Jonatan; Manouchehrinia, Ali; Trusheim, Mark; Baird, Lynn G; Desbiens, Sophie; Berndt, Ernst; Hillert, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Previous research characterizing factors influencing multiple sclerosis (MS) disease progression has typically been based on time to disease milestones (Kaplan-Meier, Cox hazard regression, etc.). A limitation of these methods is the handling of the often large groups of patients not reaching the milestone. To characterize clinical factors influencing MS disease progression as annual transitions from each Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The annual progression of 11,964 patients from the Swedish MS Registry was analysed with 10 multinomial logistic regressions, that is, one for transition from each full EDSS with explanatory variables age, sex, age at onset, time in current EDSS, highest prior EDSS, MS course and treatment. All factors (except sex) investigated had statistically significant impacts on transitions from at least one EDSS. However, significance and size of the effect are dependent on the EDSS state of the patient. Greater age, longer time in a state, highest prior EDSS, having progressive MS and treatment had significant impacts, whereas age at onset had minor impact. Our study confirms that established factors associated with MS disease worsening in time to disease milestones also have impacts on annual progression. This approach adds granularity to what EDSS these factors have an influence.

  16. A Multi-Year Comparison of No-Till Versus Conventional-Till Effects on the Carbon Balance in a Corn/Soybean Agro-Ecosystem Using Eddy Covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, E.; Slattery, R.; Meyers, T. P.; Bernacchi, C.

    2015-12-01

    Dramatic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations since the industrial revolution are in large part due to the release of carbon previously stored in the soil. No-till strategies have been proposed as a means to mitigate agricultural contributions to atmospheric carbon by decreasing emissions and sequestering carbon in agricultural soils while increasing water use efficiency and soil quality. However, the effects of no-till versus conventional-till practices on carbon sequestration often vary due to difficulty in quantifying soil carbon as soil properties change with management. Eddy covariance (EC) offers a more accurate method of continuously measuring the total carbon budget and does so without relying on physical soil carbon measurements. The majority of agricultural land in the Midwestern United States is farmed using the corn/soybean rotation, making it an ideal agro-ecosystem to examine the potential of adopting no-till practices on carbon and water balances. In this study, we use EC to compare carbon and water fluxes between continuous no-till and conventional-till corn/soybean sites over several years in east central Illinois. This allows the determination and comparison of 1) net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and net biome production (NEE after accounting for grain usage); 2) water use efficiency; and 3) response to climatic variation, both at short and long time scales, between the two tillage systems. We hypothesize that both carbon uptake and water use efficiency will improve with no-till practices, which in turn will improve crop responses to environmental factors such as drought and heat stress.

  17. Mapping of topsoil organic carbon in agro-ecosystems of a flat terrain area (Lombardy) by means of legacy soil data, climatic data and NDVI time series predictors with machine learning methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Calogero; Saia, Sergio; Braun, Andreas; Acutis, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Topsoil organic carbon plays an important role in the agricultural yield, yield potential, and to deliver many ecosystem services, such as the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from soil. In particular, SOC content sturdily affects soil properties, thus the precision of its estimation can support broad-scale agricultural and environmental management policy. Soils in temperate agro-ecosystem are generally highly productive and cropland occupies about 60% of their surface (Ramankutty et al 2008). In such contexts, lands is frequently subjected to SOC degrading operations, mostly ploughing, with drawbacks on soil fertility and erosion. In temperate agro-ecosystems, a strong role in SOC maintenance can be played by manure and residues inputs after husbandry and related activities and return of plant biomass to the soil (Acutis et al 2014). In this perspective, soil management can have a major role in SOC spatial distribution to maintain soil fertility and ecosystem services in a target area. Due to the considerable importance of SOC on both agronomical and ecological aspects of the agro-ecosystems, regional soil surveys over the years frequently take into account the measurement of SOC concentration and often stock. In the present study, we integrated a highly detailed legacy SOC dataset with climatic data and RS data to produce a reliable SOC maps from a farm to a district scale. In particular, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)was used after the computation of its average value in a given pixel derived from several approximately cloud-free images. The input dataset was made of about 3000 Ap horizons implemented of SOC concentration, texture, bulk density and metadata. Climatic data (Worldclim), soil type (from the pedological map 1:250000 WRB), and a time series NDVI were applied. The NDVI data were derived from a set of Landsat 5 scenes (path 193, row 28,29) whereas the path 194, (row 28 and 29) contributes for less than one fourth of

  18. Analysis of a village chicken production system and performance of improved dual purpose chickens under a subtropical hill agro-ecosystem in India.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Chhetri, Bijoy; Ahmed, S K; Haunshi, Santosh

    2008-08-01

    This study was designed to analyze the low input backyard poultry production system practiced by the tribal farmers, and evaluate the performance of an improved dual-purpose breed, the Vanaraja. Results revealed that a significantly (p < 0.05) higher number of farmers used temporary, non-conventional poultry houses made of locally available materials, such as bamboo and wood. Most of the farmers (65.9 %) did not provide balanced feed to their poultry and did not vaccinate their birds against any disease. Under standard management conditions, the average body weight of Vanaraja birds at 6 weeks was 625 +/- 10.9 g. Under backyard conditions, the body weight at 18 months was 3.6 +/- 0.8 kg. The age at first egg was 154 +/- 9 days in the backyard system, whereas under the intensive system it was 196 +/- 4 days. Annual production under the backyard and intensive systems of rearing was 176 +/- 9 and 152 +/- 7 eggs, respectively. Mortality of adult birds was 12 % and predation by foxes and wild cats accounted for 1.67 %. This study revealed that village chickens are an important income source for household expenses, and that traditional free-range poultry production in the smallholder sector of developing countries can possibly be improved through the use of improved dual-purpose birds.

  19. Estimating agro-ecosystem carbon balance of northern Japan, and comparing the change in carbon stock by soil inventory and net biome productivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Toma, Yo; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Iwasaki, Shinya; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D; Jones, Edward O; Hatano, Ryusuke

    2016-06-01

    Soil C sequestration in croplands is deemed to be one of the most promising greenhouse gas mitigation options for agriculture. We have used crop-level yields, modeled heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and land use data to estimate spatio-temporal changes in regional scale net primary productivity (NPP), plant C inputs, and net biome productivity (NBP) in northern Japan's arable croplands and grasslands for the period of 1959-2011. We compared the changes in C stocks derived from estimated NBP and using repeated inventory datasets for each individual land use type from 2005 to 2011. For the entire study region of 2193 ha, overall annual plant C inputs to the soil constituted 37% of total region NPP. Plant C inputs in upland areas (excluding bush/fallow) could be predicted by climate variables. Overall NBP for all land use types increased from -1.26MgCha(-1)yr(-1) in 1959-0.26 Mg Cha(-1)yr(-1) in 2011. However, upland and paddy fields showed a decreased in NBP over the period of 1959-2011, under the current C input scenario. From 1988, an increase in agricultural abandonment (bush/fallow) and grassland cover caused a slow increase in the regional C pools. The comparison of carbon budgets using the NBP estimation method and the soil inventory method indicated no significant difference between the two methods. Our results showed C loss in upland crops, paddy fields and sites that underwent land use change from paddy field to upland sites. We also show C gain in grassland from 2005 to 2011. An underestimation of NBP or an overestimation of repeated C inventories cannot be excluded, but either method may be suitable for tracking absolute changes in soil C, considering the uncertainty associated with these methods.

  20. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems, Volume 1: Annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    This is the first annual technical progress report for The Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems Program. Two semi-annual technical progress reports were previously issued. This program was initially by the Department of Energy as an R D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular three-stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO/sub x/ formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; coal ash and sulfur is subsequently removed from the combustion gases by an impact separator in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage. 27 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) research progress in 1988: Proceedings from the ninth annual EPRI NDE information meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Avioli, M.J. Jr.; Dau, G.J.; Liu, S.N.; Stein, J.; Welty, C.S.

    1989-05-01

    The increasing cost of equipment for power generating plants and the potential increases in productivity and safety analysis through rapidly developing Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology led EPRI to initiate a Nondestructive Evaluation Program in 1974. To date, the major focus has been on light water reactor inspection problems; however, increased application to other systems is now underway. This report presents a comprehensive review of the EPRI effort in the NDE area. Most of the report consists of contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. An organizational plan of the program is presented in overview. In addition, organization from several viewpoints is presented, e.g., in-service inspection operators, R and D personnel, and utility representatives. As the tenth in a planned series of annual progress reports of EPRI-funded NDE activities, this report also serves as the proceedings of the Ninth Annual EPRI NDE Information Meeting held in Charlotte, North Carolina, on November 15--16, 1988. It summarizes significant progress made since the previous EPRI Special Report NP-5490-SR was issued in June 1988. Section 1 contains information about the program organization, and the sections that follow contain contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. The progress reports are grouped by plant components -- pipe, pressure vessel, and steam generator and boiler tubes. In addition, Part 5 is devoted to discussions of technology transfer.

  2. Nondestructive evaluation research progress in 1989: Proceedings from the tenth annual EPRI NDE information meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Avioli, M.J. Jr.; Behravesh, M.M.; Gehl, S.M.; Liu, S.N.; Stein, J.; Welty, C.S. )

    1990-06-01

    The increasing cost of equipment for power generating plants and the potential increases in productivity and safety available through rapidity developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology led EPRI to initiate a Nondestructive Evaluation Program in 1974. To date, the major focus has been on light water reactor (LWR) inspection problems; however, increased application to other systems is now under way. This report presents a comprehensive review of the EPRI effort in the NDE area. Most of the report consists of contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. An organizational plan of the program is presented in overview. In addition, organization from several viewpoints is presented, e.g., in-service inspection operators, R D personnel, and utility representatives. As the eleventh in a planned series of annual progress reports of EPRI-funded NDE activities, this report also serves as the proceedings of the Tenth Annual EPRI NDE Information Meeting held in Palo Alto, California, on November 14-15, 1989. It summarizes significant progress made since the previous EPRI Special Report NP-6075-SR was issued in May 1989. Section 1 contains information about the program organization, and the sections that follow contain contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. The progress reports are grouped by plant components -- pipe and nozzle, pressure vessel, and boilers and steam generators. In addition, Part 5 is devoted to discussions of technology transfer. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  3. Underground Energy Storage Program: 1981 annual report. Volume I. Progress summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1982-06-01

    This is the 1981 annual report for the Underground Energy Storage Program administered by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The two-volume document describes all of the major research funded under this program during the period March 1981 to March 1982. Volume I summarizes the activities and notable progress toward program objectives in both Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Major changes in program emphasis and structure are also documented.

  4. From forest and agro-ecosystems to the microecosystems of the human body: what can landscape ecology tell us about tumor growth, metastasis, and treatment options?

    PubMed

    Daoust, Simon P; Fahrig, Lenore; Martin, Amanda E; Thomas, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is now understood to be a process that follows Darwinian evolution. Heterogeneous populations of cancerous cells that make up the tumor inhabit the tissue 'microenvironment', where ecological interactions analogous to predation and competition for resources drive the somatic evolution of cancer. The tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in the tumor genesis, development, and metastasis processes, as it creates the microenvironmental selection forces that ultimately determine the cellular characteristics that result in the greatest fitness. Here, we explore and offer new insights into the spatial aspects of tumor-microenvironment interactions through the application of landscape ecology theory to tumor growth and metastasis within the tissue microhabitat. We argue that small tissue microhabitats in combination with the spatial distribution of resources within these habitats could be important selective forces driving tumor invasiveness. We also contend that the compositional and configurational heterogeneity of components in the tissue microhabitat do not only influence resource availability and functional connectivity but also play a crucial role in facilitating metastasis and may serve to explain, at least in part, tissue tropism in certain cancers. This novel work provides a compelling argument for the necessity of taking into account the structure of the tissue microhabitat when investigating tumor progression.

  5. Annual Reports Regarding Progress in Developing a Dredged Material Management Plan for the Long Island Sound Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The site designation for the Western and Central Long Island Sound disposal sites requires the completion of a Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) and EPA to conduct an annual review of progress toward completion of the DMMP.

  6. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-12-01

    Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the VTP program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  7. Research in theoretical elementary particle physics at the University of Florida: Task A. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.; Thorn, C.B.

    1994-12-01

    This is the Annual Progress Report of the theoretical particle theory group at the University of Florida under DOE Grant DE-FG05-86ER40272. At present our group consists of four Full Professors (Field, Ramond, Thorn, Sikivie), one Associate Professor (Woodard), and two Assistant Professors (Qiu, Kennedy). In addition, we have four postdoctoral research associates and seven graduate students. The research of our group covers a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics including both theory and phenomenology. Included in this report is a summary of the last several years, an outline of our current research program.

  8. Nonlinear and Nonideal MHD. Final annual progress report, January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, James D

    2003-04-30

    This is the third and final annual progress report on the current 3-year ''Nonlinear and Nonideal MHD'' DoE grand DE-FG02-86ER53218 for the six months since the November 2002 progress report. During this grant year the funding level was $309k. The participating personnel and their approximate degree of funded involvement in this research project this grant year has been as follows: Professor J. D. Callen (PI, 1.8 months during academic year, 2.2 summer months); Professor C.C. Hegna (Co-PI: 2.3 months during academic year, 1.5 summer months); postdoc Dr. S. Gupta (100%); and graduate students A.L. Garcia-Perciante (50% RA) and X. Liu (50% RA).

  9. Nutrition and Child Growth and Development in Tunisia. Annual Progress Report, September 1, 1971--August 31, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Harben Boutourline

    This annual report of the Yale Project describes the progress made on the nutrition and growth study of Tunisian children from September 1, 1971 through August 31, 1972. The report details: (1) the progress in analysis of the cross-sectional study data, which was completed as of June 30, 1972, and (2) the development of the present longitudinal…

  10. Prediction of the Long Term Stability of Polyester-Based Recording Media. First Annual Report, June 1982; Second Annual Report, August 1983; Progress Report, December 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Daniel W.; And Others

    This document comprises three progress reports for a 5-year environmental aging study aimed at establishing the lifetimes of magnetic tapes and the poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) base of photographic and electronic film under archival storage conditions. The first annual report (1982) introduces the rationale for the project, provides…

  11. Compilation of 1988 annual reports of the Navy ELF (extremely low frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 2. Annual progress report No. 7, January-December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This is the seventh compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports document the progress of eight studies performed during 1988 at the Wisconsin and Michigan Transmitting Facilities. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produced by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships.

  12. Compilation of 1988 annual reports of the Navy ELF (extremely low frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3. Annual progress report No. 7, January-December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This is the seventh compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports documents the progress of eight studies performed during 1988 at the Wisconsins and Michigan Transmitting Facilities. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produced by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships.

  13. Task A: Research in theoretical elementary particle physics at the University of Florida; Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.; Thorn, C.B.

    1993-11-01

    This is the Annual Progress Report of the theoretical particle theory group at the University of Florida under DoE Grant DE-FG05-86ER40272. At present our group consists of four Full Professors (Field, Ramond, Thorn, Sikivie) and three Assistant Professors (Qiu, Woodard, Kennedy). Dallas Kennedy recently joined our group increasing the Particle Theory faculty to seven. In addition, we have three postdoctoral research associates, an SSC fellow, and eight graduate students. The research of our group covers a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics with balance between theory and phenomenology. Included in this report is a summary of the last several years of operation of the group and an outline of our current research program.

  14. Development and application of the electrochemical etching technique. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This annual progress report documents further advances in the development and application of electrochemical etching of polycarbonate foils (ECEPF) for fast, intermediate, and thermal neutron dosimetry as well as alpha particle dosimetry. The fast (> 1.1 MeV) and thermal neutron dosimetry techniques were applied to a thorough investigation of the neutron contamination inherent in and about the primary x-ray beam of several medical therapy electron accelerators. Because of the small size of ECEPF dosimeters in comparison to other neutron meters, they have an unusually low perturbation of the radiation field under measurement. Due to this small size and the increased sensitivity of the ECEPF dosimeter over current techniques of measuring neutrons in a high photon field, the fast neutron contamination in the primary x-ray beam of all the investigated accelerators was measured with precision and found to be greater than that suggested by the other, more common, neutron dosimetry methods.

  15. Annual Program Progress Report under DOE/PHRI Cooperative Agreement: (July 1, 2001-June 30, 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    Palafox, Neal A., MD, MPH

    2002-07-31

    OAK B188 DOE/PHRI Special Medical Care Program in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI)Annual Program Progress Report. The DOE Marshall Islands Medical Program continued, in this it's 48th year, to provide medical surveillance for the exposed population from Rongelap and Utrik and the additional DOE patients. The program was inaugurated in 1954 by the Atomic Energy Commission following the exposure of Marshallese to fallout from a nuclear test (Castle Bravo) at Bikini Atoll. This year marks the fourth year in which the program has been carried out by PHRI under a cooperative agreement with DOE. The DOERHRI Special Medical Care Program, awarded the cooperative agreement on August 28, 1998, commenced its health care program on January 15, 1999, on Kwajalein and January 22, 1999, on Majuro. This report details the program for the July 1, 2001, through the June 30, 2002, period. The program provides year-round, on-site medical care to the DOE patient population residing in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and annual examinations to those patients living in Hawaii and on the Continental U.S.

  16. Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2004-12-02

    This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

  17. Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is DOE`s first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992.

  18. Compilation of 1989 annual reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3. tabs G, H. Annual progress report, Jan-Dec 89

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This is the eighth compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports document the progress of eight studies performed during 1989 near the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility -- Republic, Michigan. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produces by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships. Bird Species and Communities: Aquatic Ecosystems.

  19. Compilation of 1989 annual reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 1. Tabs A, B. Annual progress report, Jan-Dec 89

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This is the eighth compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports document the progress of eight studies performed during 1989 near the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility -- Republic, Michigan. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produced by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships. Herbaceous Plant Cover and Trees: Litter Decomposition and Microflora.

  20. Compilation of 1989 annual reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 2. tabs C-F. Annual progress report, Jan-Dec 89

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This is the eighth compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications Systems Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports document the progress of eight studies performed during 1989 near the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility -- Republic, Michigan. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produced by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships. Soil Amoeba: Arthropoda and Earthworms: Pollinating Insects: Small Mammals and Nesting Birds.

  1. Wisconsin Occupational Information System. Annual Progress Report. July 14, 1976-July 13, 1977. Second Year of Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Roger H.; And Others

    The 1977 activities and progress of the Wisconsin Occupational Information System (WOIS) are described in this second annual report. An introduction presents an overview of WOIS, including a description of the computerized system, which is designed to provide quick, accurate, up-to-date occupational information for career decision making to a…

  2. Massachusetts Occupational Information System (MOIS). Annual Progress Report, December 31, 1976-December 31, 1977. Second Year of Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Thomas A.

    The second annual progress report of the Massachusetts Occupational Information System (MOIS) describes the activities and strategies of the MOIS in 1977. The report is divided into seven sections. The Administrative and Organizational Information section considers the highlights of the year, contains a chart illustrating the growth of the system,…

  3. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1982. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 2090. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 12 of the 14 sections of the Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report. The other 2 sections deal with educational activities. The programs discussed deal with advanced fuel energy, toxic substances, environmental impacts of various energy technologies, biomass, low-level radioactive waste management, the global carbon cycle, and aquatic and terrestrial ecology. (KRM)

  4. Annual Progress Report of the Coastal Bend Migrant Council Health Project, San Patricio Migrant Health Center (Texas), 1973-1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coastal Bend Migrant Council, Mathis, TX. San Patricio Migrant Health Center.

    The annual medical progress report covers migrant health services in San Patricio County, Texas, from February 1, 1973 to January 31, 1974. The report discusses: staff, administration, cardiology, dental services, health services, medical services, outreach and environmental health services, prescription services, registration and identification,…

  5. 78 FR 65705 - Request for Comments on the Annual Progress Report on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM... (Report) on the OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program 2012-2017 (Five Year Program). The Annual Progress Report.../Five-Year-Program/2012-2017/Five-Year-Program.aspx . The Secretary of the Interior (Secretary...

  6. Massachusetts Occupational Information System (MOIS). Annual Progress Report, December 31, 1976-December 31, 1977. Second Year of Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Thomas A.

    The second annual progress report of the Massachusetts Occupational Information System (MOIS) describes the activities and strategies of the MOIS in 1977. The report is divided into seven sections. The Administrative and Organizational Information section considers the highlights of the year, contains a chart illustrating the growth of the system,…

  7. Tennessee Public Education: Positioned for Progress in the 1990s. Annual Joint Report on Preschool through Graduate Education in Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, Nashville.

    Plans for restructuring Tennessee public education have been interrupted by the prolonged national recession and a $276.4 million reduction in the 1991-92 state education budget. The state's 1991 Annual Joint Report identified 26 essential educational objectives. Although progress in some areas has been limited, Tennessee has achieved a 25 percent…

  8. Closing the Expectations Gap: Fourth Annual 50-State Progress Report on the Alignment of High School Policies with the Demands of College and Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    Each year, on the anniversary of the 2005 National Education Summit on High Schools, Achieve releases an annual 50-state progress report on the alignment of high school policies with the demands of college and careers. "Closing the Expectations Gap, 2009" is the fourth annual report in this series. The report details state progress implementing…

  9. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.N.

    1992-04-01

    The Energy Division is one of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge Laboratory. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY 1991. The division's total expenditures in FY 1991 were $39.1 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 124 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The Energy Division's programmatic activities focus on three major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities cover energy and resource analysis, the preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, analysis of emergency preparedness for natural and technological disasters, analysis of the energy and environmental needs of developing countries, technology transfer, and analysis of civilian transportation. Energy conservation technologies include electric power systems, building equipment (thermally activated heat pumps, advanced refrigeration systems, novel cycles), building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and technical issues for improving energy efficiency in existing buildings. Military transportation systems concentrate on research for sponsors within the US military on improving the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination.

  10. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.N.

    1992-04-01

    The Energy Division is one of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge Laboratory. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY 1991. The division`s total expenditures in FY 1991 were $39.1 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 124 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The Energy Division`s programmatic activities focus on three major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities cover energy and resource analysis, the preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, analysis of emergency preparedness for natural and technological disasters, analysis of the energy and environmental needs of developing countries, technology transfer, and analysis of civilian transportation. Energy conservation technologies include electric power systems, building equipment (thermally activated heat pumps, advanced refrigeration systems, novel cycles), building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and technical issues for improving energy efficiency in existing buildings. Military transportation systems concentrate on research for sponsors within the US military on improving the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination.

  11. Impact of annual dosing with ivermectin on progression of onchocercal visual field loss.

    PubMed Central

    Cousens, S. N.; Cassels-Brown, A.; Murdoch, I.; Babalola, O. E.; Jatau, D.; Alexander, N. D.; Evans, J. E.; Danboyi, P.; Abiose, A.; Jones, B. R.

    1997-01-01

    Reported are the results of a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial of annual ivermectin dosing in 34 rural communities, Kaduna State, northern Nigeria, where guinea savanna onchocerciasis is mesoendemic. A total of 939 individuals underwent Friedmann field analysis at the first examination and saw at least 19 spots in at least one eye. Of these, 636 (68%) completed a subsequent Friedmann field analysis 2-3 years later. The adjusted incidence rate ratio for the ivermectin group versus the placebo group was 0.64 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-0.98). There was some evidence that the impact of ivermectin was greatest among those who had received one dose of ivermectin. The majority of the deteriorations occurred in eyes that gave evidence of optic atrophy at the first examination. An analysis restricted to individuals with optic atrophy at baseline indicated a reduction of 45% in the incidence of visual field deterioration in the ivermectin group (95% CI: 8-67%). Previous findings have shown that ivermectin has an impact on the incidence of optic atrophy. Our results indicate, for the first time, that ivermectin has a substantial impact on the progression of visual field loss among those with pre-existing optic atrophy. PMID:9277010

  12. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Selden, R.H.

    1991-06-01

    The Energy Division is one of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goals and accomplishments of the Energy Division are described in this annual progress report for FY 1990. The Energy Division is a multidisciplinary research organization committed to (1) increasing the knowledge and understanding of how societies make choices in energy use; (2) improving society's understanding of the environmental, social, and economic implications of technological change; (3) developing and transferring energy efficient technologies; and (4) developing improved transportation planning and policy. Disciplines of the 129 staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The Energy Division's programmatic activities focus on three major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities cover energy and resource analysis, the preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, analysis of emergency preparedness for natural and technological disasters, analysis of the energy and environmental needs of developing countries, technology transfer, and analysis of civilian transportation. Energy conservation technologies include building equipment (thermally activated heat pumps, chemical heat pumps, refrigeration systems, novel cycles), building enveloped (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), retrofits for existing buildings, and electric power systems. Military transportation systems concentrate on research for sponsors within the US military on improving the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination. 48 refs., 34 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1991-07-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) carries out research in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US fusion program and the international fusion community. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, this report also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are carried out by other ORNL organizations (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program and discussed in this report include the following: Experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, development and testing of materials for fusion devices, and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas. Highlights from program activities are included in this report.

  14. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1988 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1989-02-01

    The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka rehabilitation program for Lake Pend Oreille continued to show progress during 1988. Estimated kokanee abundance in early September was 10.2 million fish. This estimate is 70% higher than 1987 and 140% higher than the populations's low point in 1986. Increased population size over the past two years is the result of two consecutive strong year classes produced from high recruitment of hatchery and wild fry. High recruitment of wild fry in 1988 resulted from good parental escapement (strong year class) in 1987 and relatively high fry survival. Hatchery fry made up 51% of total fry recruitment (73% of total fry biomass), which is the largest contribution since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. High hatchery fry abundance resulted from a large release (13 million fry) from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery and excellent fry survival (29%) during their first summer in Lake Pend Oreille. Improved fry release strategies enhanced survival, which doubled from 1987 to 1988 and was ten times higher than survival in 1986. Our research goal is to maintain 30% survival so we are very optimistic, but need to replicate additional years to address annual variability. 27 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Fusion Energy Division: Annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1988-11-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, carries out research in nearly all areas of magnetic fusion. Collaboration among staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the United States and abroad, is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source. This report documents the program's achievements during 1987. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, it also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. Highlights from program activities are included in this report. 126 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1988: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The goals and accomplishments of the Energy Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described in this annual progress report for Fiscal Year (FY) 1988. The Energy Division is a multidisciplinary research organization committed to (1) increasing the knowledge and understanding of the way society makes choices in energy use and energy-using technologies, (2) improving society's understanding of the environmental implications of changes in energy technology, and (3) improving and developing new energy-efficient technologies. The Energy Division's programmatic activities focus on four major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) transportation and decision systems research, (3) technology research and development for improving the efficiency of energy and end-use technologies, and (4) electric power systems. The Division's total expenditures in FY 1988 were $44.3 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 139 staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics.

  17. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Counce, D.M.; Wolff, P.P.

    1993-04-01

    Energy Division`s mission is to provide innovative solutions to energy and related Issues of national and global importance through interdisciplinary research and development. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY 1992. Energy Division`s total expenditures in FY 1992 were $42.8 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, the US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 116.5 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The division`s programmatic activities cover three main areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities involve energy and resource analysis, preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, technology transfer, analysis of energy and environmental needs in developing countries, and civilian transportation analysis. Energy conservation technologies focus on electric power systems, building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and methods to improve energy efficiency in existing buildings. Military transportation systems conduct research for sponsors within the US military to improve the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination. Much of Energy Division`s research is valuable to other organizations as well as to sponsors. This information is disseminated by the staff`s involvement in professional and trade organizations and workshops; joint research with universities and private-sector firms; collaboration with state and local governments; presentation of work at conferences; and publication of research results in journals, reports, and conference proceedings.

  18. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, P.P.

    1994-07-01

    One of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Energy Division`s mission is to provide innovative solutions to energy and related issues of national and global importance through interdisciplinary research and development. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY1993. Energy Division is committed to (1) understanding the mechanisms by which societies make choices in energy use; (2) improving society`s understanding of the environmental, social, and economic implications of technological change; (3) developing and transferring energy-efficient technologies; (4) improving transportation policy and planning; (5) enhancing basic knowledge in the social sciences as related to energy and associated issues. Energy Division`s expenditures in FY1993 totaled $42 million. The work was supported by the US DOE, DOD, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 126.5 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and computer sciences and data systems. The division`s programmatic activities cover three main areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy use and delivery technologies, and (3) transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities involve energy and resource analysis, preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on emergency preparedness, transportation analysis, and analysis of energy and environmental needs in developing countries. Energy use and delivery technologies focus on electric power systems, building equipment, building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and methods to improve energy efficiency in existing buildings. Transportation systems research is conducted both to improve the quality of civilian transportation and for sponsors within the US military to improve the efficiency of deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination.

  19. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Annual progress report, February 1, 1983-January 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1983-09-30

    This annual report describes progress in research on the influence of soil fauna on the general process of terrestrial decomposition. The major goal is to investigate the regulation of decomposition by soil arthropods. Methods have included radioactive tracer measurements of food chain dynamics, rates of nutrient or mineral element flow during decomposition, and simulation modeling. This year's report describes significant progress in defining the influence of soil arthropods in stimulating microbial immobilization of nutrients. Preliminary efforts to define the importance of the soil-litter macroarthropods are also reported.

  20. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hinga, K.R.

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  1. FY2013 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-02-01

    FY 2013 annual report focuses on the following areas: vehicle modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluations, laboratory and field evaluations, codes and standards, industry projects, and vehicle systems optimization.

  2. REPORTING PUPIL PROGRESS IN A CONTINUOUS PROGRESS SCHOOL. COMMITTEE REPORT, ANNUAL SUMMER WORKSHOP (VAIL, COLORADO, JUNE 7-11, 1964).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NIMNIGHT, GLEN; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT DESCRIBES THE RATIONALE OF A CONTINUOUS PROGRESS GRADING AND REPORTING SYSTEM, AND PRESENTS EXAMPLES OF THE PROPOSED REPORTING FOR A NONGRADED SYSTEM, BOTH INDIVIDUAL REPORT FORMS AND CUMULATIVE RECORD FORMS, WITH INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO USE THEM, ARE PRESENTED. (JH)

  3. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Shults, W.D.; Lyon, W.S.

    1980-05-01

    The progress is reported in the following sections: analytical methodology, mass and emission spectrometry, technical support, bio-organic analysis, nuclear and radiochemical analysis, and quality assurance. (DLC)

  4. Idaho Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation : Annual Progress Report February 1, 2007 - January 31, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Timothy; Johnson, June; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    River stocks of steelhead and spring/summer Chinook salmon still have significant natural reproduction and thus are the focal species for this project's investigations. The overall goal is to monitor the abundance, productivity, distribution, and stock-specific life history characteristics of naturally produced steelhead trout and Chinook salmon in Idaho (IDFG 2007). We have grouped project tasks into three objectives, as defined in our latest project proposal and most recent statement of work. The purpose of each objective involves enumerating or describing individuals within the various life stages of Snake River anadromous salmonids. By understanding the transitions between life stages and associated controlling factors, we hope to achieve a mechanistic understanding of stock-specific population dynamics. This understanding will improve mitigation and recovery efforts. Objective 1. Measure 2007 adult escapement and describe the age structure of the spawning run of naturally produced spring/summer Chinook salmon passing Lower Granite Dam. Objective 2. Monitor the juvenile production of Chinook salmon and steelhead trout for the major population groups (MPGs) within the Clearwater and Salmon subbasins. Objective 3. Evaluate life cycle survival and the freshwater productivity/production of Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon. There are two components: update/refine a stock-recruit model and estimate aggregate smolt-to-adult survival. In this annual progress report, we present technical results for work done during 2007. Part 2 contains detailed results of INPMEP aging research and estimation of smolt-to-adult return rates for wild and naturally produced Chinook salmon (Objectives 1 and 3). Part 3 is a report on the ongoing development of a stock-recruit model for the freshwater phase of spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin (Objective 3). Part 4 is a summary of the parr density data (Objective 2) collected in 2007 using the new site selection

  5. DOE Annual Progress Report: Water Needs and Constraints for Hydrogen Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A; Daily, W

    2009-07-02

    hydrogen production and distribution. The narrow scope of the lifecycle analysis enables economic optimization at the plant level with respect to cooling and water treatment technologies. As water withdrawal and disposal costs increase, more expensive, but more water-efficient technologies become more attractive. Some of the benefits of these technologies are offset by their increased energy usage. We use the H2A hydrogen production model to determine the overall cost of hydrogen under a range of water cost and technology scenarios. At the regional level, we are planning on following the hydrogen roll-out scenarios envisioned by Greene and Leiby (2008) to determine the impact of hydrogen market penetration on various watersheds. The economics of various water technologies will eventually be incorporated into the temporal and geographic Macro System Model via a water module that automates the spreadsheet models described. At the time of this progress report, the major achievement for FY2009 has been the completion of the framework and analytical results of the economic optimization of water technology for hydrogen production. This accomplishment required the collection of cost and performance data for multiple cooling and water treatment technologies, as well as the integration of a water and energy balance model with the H2A framework. 22 (twenty-two) different combinations of production method (SMR, electrolysis), scale (centralized, forecourt), cooling (evaporative tower, dry) and water treatment (reverse osmosis, ion exchange) were evaluated. The following data were collected: water withdrawal, water discharge, electricity consumption, equipment footprint, equipment cost, installation cost, annual equipment and material costs and annual labor costs. These data, when consolidated, fit into a small number of input cells in H2A. Items such as capital cost end up as line-items for which there is space in the existing H2A spreadsheets. Items such as electricity use are added

  6. Assessing Progress toward Meeting the Goals of "The Illinois Commitment": Performance Indicators, 2003 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This is the first report on the performance indicators adopted by the Illinois Board of Higher Education in February 2003 to assess progress toward the six goals of "The Illinois Commitment." This imitative is a work in progress that will be implemented and refined over multiple years. This first report focuses on the statewide and…

  7. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    This annual report summarizes activities in the Aquatic Ecology, Earth Sciences, Environmental Analyses, and Terrestrial Ecology sections, as well as in the Fossil Energy, Biomass, Low-Level Waste Research and Management, and Global Carbon Cycle Programs. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each section. (ACR)

  8. FY2012 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-02-01

    Annual report on the work of the the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the Vehicle Technologies Office mission by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  9. Annual Progress Report, 1976. Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University. SRDC Series Publication No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

    Covering the 1976 activities of the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC), this third annual report describes SRDC's: history; organization; regional workshops; functional networks; network bibliographies and other publications; Title V reports; grant received for training in rural development; orientation visits; consultants; information…

  10. Annual Progress Report, 1978. Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University. SRDC Series Publication No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

    Summarizing Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) activities during the October 1977-September 1978 fiscal year, this fifth annual report indicates that with Title V funding SRDC has continued its efforts to bring research and extension personnel together to work on problems in rural development. Support for programs and research at land grant…

  11. Florida "State" Migrant Health Project. Third Annual Progress Report, 1965-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Health, Jacksonville.

    The Third Annual Report on the Florida Migrant Health Project covered migrant health activities engaged in by 14 counties for the period May 1, 1965, through April 30, 1966. The project was designed to develop a basic statewide program of health services for migrant farm workers and their dependents in Florida. Three of the 12 objectives included…

  12. ORNL nuclear waste programs annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    Research progress is reported in 20 activities under the headings: spent fuels, defense waste management, commercial waste management, remedial action, and conventional reactors. Separate entries were prepared for each activity.

  13. University of Florida, University research program in robotics. Annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, C.D. III; Tulenko, J.S.

    1994-05-01

    Progress is reported in the areas of environmental hardening, database, world modeling, vision, man-machine interface, advanced liquid metal reactor inspection robot, and articulated transporter/manipulator system (ATMS) development.

  14. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle.

  15. Department of Clinical Investigation Annual Research Progress Report: Fiscal Year 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-30

    Survey of Army Meeting, US Retirees University of the Health Sciences 10/01/89 DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRICS Atkinson AW Receptive Language Annual Meeting...81/12 Stages I and II Carcinoma of the Endometrium DOWNEY GO 0 GOG #40: A Clinical-Pathologic Study 270 #81/79 of Stages I and II Uterine Sarcomas...Recurrent Carcinoma of the Endometrium DOWNEY GO C GOG 83: A Clinico-Pathologic Study of 284 #85/90 Simultaneous Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinomas 39

  16. Department of Clinical Investigation Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1985. Volume 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    Infarction in Patients Undergoing 203 Peripheral Vascular Surgery . (0) C-7-85 Endotracheal Intubation Utilizing a Blind Oro-Tracheal 204 Intubation Device...histiocytoma of the head and neck. XIII World Congress of Otorhinolaryngology, Miami Beach, FL, 25-30 May 85. Peripheral Vascular Surgery Service Elliott...injection of the carotid sinus nerve: A prospective randomized trial. 12th Annual Vascular Surgery Sminar, Society for Military Vascular Surgeons

  17. Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1988. Volume 1. (Brooke Army Medical Center)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Ped. Surg., 22(11):1055, 1987. Ludomirsky, A., Danford, D., Glasow, P.G., et al. Evaluation of coronary artery fistula by color Doppler... Fistula -in-Ano. Society of Air Force Clinical Surgery, Oakland, CA, Apr 88. Rosenthal, D. Colerectal Trauma. USAREUR Annual Meeting, Garmish, France, 6...Reoperation for Fistula -In-Ano. ACOS, Boston, MA, Jun 88. Ane.sthesia and ,p, rative Service Middaugh, R.E. Rpversal of Respiratory Depression

  18. Annual Continuation And Progress Report For Nuclear Theory At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ormand, W. E.; Quaglioni, S.; Schunck, N.; Vogt, R.; Vranas, P.

    2015-10-26

    Nuclear Theory research under the auspices of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) is conducted within several funding sources and projects. These include base funding, and early career award, and a collaborative SciDAC-­3 award that is jointly funded by DOE/NP and the Advanced Simulations and Computations (ASC) effort within the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Therefore, this annual report is organized within the three primary sections covering these projects.

  19. Annual Progress Report on Students Who Drop Out, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake County Public School System, Raleigh, NC. Dept. of Evaluation and Research.

    This report provides information on the high school dropout rate and the number of students who drop out of the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), North Carolina. The high school dropout rate during 1999-2000 in the WCPSS was 4.1% (2.7% for grades 7 through 12), the lowest since the start of annual reporting by the WCPSS. The WCPSS dropout…

  20. Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, A.; Benner, W.H.; DePaolo, D.J.; Faybishenko, B.; Majer, E.L.; Pallavicini, M.; Russo, R.E.; Shultz, P.G.; Wan, J.

    1997-10-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was awarded eight Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This report summarizes the progress of each grant in addressing significant DOE site cleanup issues after completion of the first year of research. The technical progress made to date in each of the research projects is described in greater detail in individual progress reports. The focus of the research projects covers a diversity of areas relevant to site cleanup, including bioremediation, health effects, characterization, and mixed waste. Some of the projects cut across a number of focus areas. Three of the projects are directed toward characterization and monitoring at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, as a test case for application to other sites.

  1. Report to Congress: 1995 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the progress of states and compact regions during calendar year 1995 in establishing new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on United States policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal.

  2. Mechanism involved in trichloroethylene-induced liver cancer: Importance to environmental cleanup. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, R.J.

    1997-06-01

    'The Pacific Northwest National Lab. was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This section gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas-Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.'

  3. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Annual progress report and incremental funding request

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1984-09-26

    Relationships have been investigated between soil fauna, soil microbes and the decomposition process. Progress is reported in measuring the stimulatory effect of soil arthropod activities upon microbial immobilization of nutrient elements and other elements, and in evaluating the effects of arthropod feeding upon decomposition rates of unconfined leaf litter. (ACR)

  4. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory annual technical progress report of ecological research, period ending July 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Vaitkus, M.R.; Wein, G.R.; Johnson, G.

    1993-11-01

    This progress report gives an overview of research programs at the Savannah River Site. Topics include; environmental operations support, wood stork foraging and breeding, defense waste processing, environmental stresses, alterations in the environment due to pollutants, wetland ecology, biodiversity, pond drawdown studies, and environmental toxicology.

  5. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, W.S.

    1985-04-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following sections: analytical methodology; mass and emission spectroscopy; radioactive materials analysis; bio/organic analysis; and general and environmental analysis; quality assurance, safety, and tabulation analyses. In addition a list of publications and oral presentations and supplemental activities are included.

  6. Polyoxometalates for radioactive waste treatment. Annual progress report, June 15, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    'Four areas of research have been investigated during the first year of this project: (1) Selective separations of Ln{sup 3+} and An{sup 4+}; (2) Very large tungstate complexes of Ln{sup 3+}; (3) U{sup 4+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} polytungstate complexes; (4) Rhenium (technetium) polyoxometalates. Progress in each of these areas is summarized.'

  7. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, W.S.

    1984-05-01

    Progress and activities are reported in: analytical methodology, mass and emission spectrometry, radioactive materials analysis, bio/organic analysis, general and environmental analysis, and quality assurance and safety. Supplementary activities are also discussed, and a bibliography of publications is also included. (DLC)

  8. Tracking Student Progress within a Framework of Curricular Change. AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketcheson, Kathi A.; Tapang, Belen M.

    This study at Portland State University (Oregon) combined information from a student database and survey responses to develop an information system for student information, including student experiences, retention, progress toward graduation, and post-graduation experiences. Following implementation of a new curriculum designed to improve student…

  9. Expanding Opportunities for Success: Ohio's Third Annual Progress Report on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Office of the Governor, Columbus.

    This document describes the progress that Ohio has made toward the six National Education Goals during the 1992-93 school year. Notable improvements have been made, particularly in Head Start programs and student performance on the Ohio Ninth-Grade Proficiency Tests. New baseline data are available for goals 5 (every American adult will be…

  10. [Molecular cloning and structural characteristics of the R complex of maize]. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    Studies on the R complex in Maize continued Progress is discussed in the following areas: Establishing identity of R components and cloning of R components; CO allele origin; molecular organization of R-r complex; NCO allele origin; genetic analysis of R-r complex; studies of the Sn locus and reverse paramutation.

  11. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending January 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    Progress is reported in the following fields: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, separations chemistry, elecrochemistry, catalysis, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemistry of hazardous chemicals, and thermal energy storage.

  12. [Regulation of terpene metabolism]. Annual progress report, March 15, 1988--March 14, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1989-12-31

    Progress in understanding of the metabolism of monoterpenes by peppermint and spearmint is recorded including the actions of two key enzymes, geranyl pyrophosphate:limonene cyclase and a UDP-glucose dependent glucosyl transferase; concerning the ultrastructure of oil gland senescence; enzyme subcellular localization; regulation of metabolism; and tissue culture systems.

  13. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project : Annual Progress Report October 2007 - September 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill; Loffink, Ken

    2008-12-30

    In the late 1990s, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. Migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and providing trap and haul efforts when needed. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage and trapping facility design, operation, and criteria. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. Beginning in March of 2007, two work elements from the Walla Walla Fish Passage Operations Project were transferred to other projects. The work element Enumeration of Adult Migration at Nursery Bridge Dam is now conducted under the Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project and the work element Provide Transportation Assistance is conducted under the Umatilla Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance Project. Details of these activities can be found in those project's respective annual reports.

  14. Advanced MHD Algorithm for Solar and Space Science: lst Year Semi Annual Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnack, Dalton D.; Lionello, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    We report progress for the development of MH4D for the first and second quarters of FY2004, December 29, 2002 - June 6, 2003. The present version of MH4D can now solve the full viscous and resistive MHD equations using either an explicit or a semi-implicit time advancement algorithm. In this report we describe progress in the following areas. During the two last quarters we have presented poster at the EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly in Nice, France, April 6-11, 2003, and a poster at the 2003 International Sherwood Theory Conference in Corpus Christi, Texas, April 28-30 2003. In the area of code development, we have implemented the MHD equations and the semi-implicit algorithm. The new features have been tested.

  15. In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine. Annual technical progress report, [1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.

    1991-12-31

    The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologies who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described.

  16. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, W.D.

    1986-05-01

    Progress reports are presented for the four major sections of the division: analytical spectroscopy, radioactive materials laboratories, inorganic chemistry, and organic chemistry. A brief discussion of the division's role in the Laboratory's Environmental Restoration and Facilities Upgrade is given. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited.

  17. Geothermal drilling ad completion technology development program. Semi-annual progress report, April-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-05-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, and completion technology. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1982 and by 50% by 1986.

  18. Collisional and chaotic transport of energetic particles in toroidal plasma. [Annual] progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J.R.; Shasharina, S.G.

    1993-03-01

    Progress is reported in three general areas of confinement plasma physics: (1) An accurate theory was developed for the trapping/detrapping process in tokamaks with ripple and stellarators. (2) The alpha particle distribution was determined for the situation where both collisions and collisionless chaotic (ripple) transport are present. Transport of the toroidally trapped particles in rippled tokamaks with up-down asymmetry was studied.

  19. University Research Programs in Robotics annual technical progress report, June 1, 1994--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The University of Florida supported three technical areas within the US Department of Energy`s Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) during this project period: Tank Waste Retrieval (TWR) Analysis Automation (CAA), and Cross-Cutting and Advanced Technology (CC&AT). This reports the technical progress made on the tasks for each of these areas. Detailed reports will be sent to the RTDP coordinator and the project area coordinators at the end of the project period.

  20. [Coal comminution] progress reports. Semi-annual report, October 1, 1997--March 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    This report presents the objectives, approach, and progress on six projects being undertaken at the University of Utah. The six projects, all related to the comminution of coal, are: Administration and Comminution Reference Center; Optimal energy utilization strategies for comminution; Ball mill scale-up; Ball media motion computer code; Fracture of brittle particles in constrained beds measured on the ultrafast load cell; and Development of a prototype oscillating ball mill.

  1. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1997 through March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    This report covers progress made on research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of fossil energy technologies, covering the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; bioprocessing research; fossil fuels supplies modeling and research; and oil and gas production.

  2. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hook, R. I.; Hildebrand, S. G.; Gehrs, C. W.; Sharples, F. E.; Shriner, D. S.; Stow, S. H.; Cushman, J. H.; Kanciruk, P.

    1993-04-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory during fiscal year (FY) 1992, which which extended from October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1992. This report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the division's major organizational units. Section activities are described in the Earth and Atmospheric sciences, ecosystem studies, Environmental analysis, environmental biotechnology, and division operations.

  3. US Army Biomedical Laboratory Annual Progress Report, 1 October 1986-30 September 1987. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-07

    evaluated and will be used to improve the application of laboratory data to field situations. In-House Work Unit : (Same as Effects of Water Quality on...contaminated waste sites and groundwater contamination sites. In-House Work Unit : (Same as Effects of Water Quality on Acute Toxicity.) Development of a...investigated. In-House Work Unit : (Same as Effects of Water Quality on Acute Toxicity.) Analytical Chemistry Progress: In-house analytical chemistry capability

  4. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1995 through March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1996-06-01

    This report covers progress for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Attention is focused on the following areas: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; bioprocessing research for coal, oil, and natural gas; coal combustion research; fossil fuels supplies modeling and research; and advanced turbine systems. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory Annual Progress Report FY 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    STD-462. Progress continues on structural alterations to the work space. Additional personnel requirements for the program were recognized and...tracking performance. Current trends are to use the pilot’s helmet as a mounting platform for acvdnced technological devices. This alters both helmet...weight and center-of-gravity. The question being asked is how do these changes effect neck muscle fatigue and hence alter a pilot’s head-tracking ability

  6. Yucca Mountain Project - Argonne National Laboratory annual progress report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Fortner, J.A.; Finn, P.A.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Hoh, J.C.; Emery, J.W.; Buck, E.C.; Wolf, S.F.

    1995-02-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Management Section of the Chemical Technology Division (CMT), Argonne National Laboratory, in the period October 1993-September 1994. Studies have been performed to evaluate the performance of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel samples under unsaturated conditions (low volume water contact) that are likely to exist in the Yucca Mountain environment being considered as a potential site for a high-level waste repository. Tests with simulated waste glasses have been in progress for over eight years and demonstrate that actinides from initially fresh glass surfaces will be released as a result of the spallation of reacted glass layers from the surface, as the small volume of water passes over the waste form. Studies are also underway to evaluate the performance of spent fuel samples and unirradiated UO{sub 2} in projected repository conditions. Tests with UO{sub 2} have been ongoing for nine years and show that the oxidation of UO{sub 2} occurs rapidly, and the resulting paragenetic sequence of secondary phases that form on the sample surface is similar to that observed in natural analogues. The reaction of spent fuel samples under conditions similar to those used with UO{sub 2} have been in progress for nearly two years, and the results suggest that spent fuel follows the same reaction progress as UO{sub 2}. The release of individual fission products and transuranic elements was not congruent, with the release being controlled by the formation of small particles or colloids that are suspended in solution and transported away from the waste form. The reaction progress depends on the composition of the spent fuel samples used and, likely, on the composition of the groundwater that contacts the waste form.

  7. 1989 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress during 1989 of states and compacts in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1989 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99--240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Department of Clinical Investigation Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1993. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    CTG). (0) SWOG 9217 Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer with Finasteride , 553 (Proscar) Phase III Intergroup. (0) xliii Project page Number SWOG 9218...data. 552 Detail Summary Sheet Date: 15 Dec 93 Protocol Number: SWOG 9217 Status: Ongoing Title: "Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer with Finasteride ...treated with finasteride and a group treated with placebo for seven years. Technical Approach: As outlined in the protocol schema Progress: This is a

  9. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-11-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  10. Research in theoretical physics. Annual progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Domokos, G.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.

    1992-12-01

    Progress made in the following areas is summarized: simulation of extensive air showers induced by interactions existing beyond the currently accepted ``Standard Model`` of elementary particle interactions; search for physics beyond the ``Standard Model`` in gluonic inclusive decays of heavy quarks; obtaining limits on the applicability of the special theory of relativity; an improved method of obtaining upper limits on the masses of primaries of extensive air showers associated with point sources in the sky. 8 figs., 1 tab., 73 refs.

  11. US Army Institute of Dental Research Annual Progress Report FY80.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Particulate Pollutants; Pathogenic Organism Identification; Periodontal Defects; Periodontal Surgery ; Polyglycolic Acid; Polylactic Acid; Prostaglandin... TECNICAL OJECTIV." 24 APPROACH, IS PROGRESS IFI.I...I Mi A’A*m PON I0 dN.UU. or Ni. PNNN is .1 wit .90 SINNY..IFN CN*) * 23. (U) To establish within USAIDR...after surgery have been extensively studied, the mechanis" -: a- .g repair have not been fully elucidated. In vitro studies utilizing , ,I -asts have

  12. Joint HVDC Agricultural Study : Annual Progress Report for the 1985 Study Period.

    SciTech Connect

    Raleigh, Robert J.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the first year of a 3-year study designed to assess the possible environmental effects of a +-500-kV dc transmission line. This first annual report documents site development, initiation of the livestock and crop studies, and the integration and interfacing of the agricultural and BPA's electrical monitoring study. The overall objective is to assess whether operation of a +-500-kV dc transmission line results in any detectable effects (beneficial or adverse) on plants or livestock, under controlled, simulated farming and ranching conditions. These two biological systems were selected because they can be expected to experience long-term exposure to maximum field and ion concentrations on the transmission right-of-way. This study is designed to provide data on end points and parameters of primary interest in commercial farming and ranching operations.

  13. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This eighth annual report of the Division covers work done during FY 1981 (October 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981). As with these documents in the past, the format follows approximately the organizational structure of the Energy Division. Chapters 2 through 6 summarize the activities of the sections of the Division: Environmental Impact Section, headed by H.E. Zittel; Regional and Urban Studies Section, R.M. Davis; Economic Analysis Section, R.B. Shelton; Data and Analysis Section, A.S. Loebl; and Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, J.W. Michel. In addition, work on a variety of projects which cut across section lines is reported in Chapter 7, Integrated Programs. These activities are under the supervision of T.J. Wilbanks, Associate Director for the Division. Separate abstracts are included for individual projects.

  14. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    This technical report presents the age-adjusted total, and race and sex specific geographic patterns of cancer mortality for South Carolina (SC) counties utilizing the 1953--1987 average annual age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs). The mortality information was obtained from the State Cancer Control Map and Data Program produced by the National Cancer Institute , Centers for Disease Control and the American Cancer Society. The AAMRs for selected primary sites are classified as significantly different or not significantly different from the corresponding United States and SC mortality rates. Categories for classification of the rates are determined using 95% confidence intervals. Geographic patterns of significantly high county AAMRs are identified and discussed. Individual county rates are not emphasized. The terminology, mortality rates used throughout this report pertains to the 1953--1987 AAMRS.

  15. Active layer hydrology for Imnavait Creek, Toolik, Alaska. Annual progress report, July 1984--January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1986-12-31

    In the annual hydrologic cycle, snowmelt is the most significant event at Imnavait Creek located near Toolik Lake, Alaska. Precipitation that has accumulated for more than 6 months on the surface melts in a relatively short period of 7 to 10 days once sustained melting occurs. During the ablation period, runoff dominates the hydrologic cycle. Some meltwater goes to rewetting the organic soils in the active layer. The remainder is lost primarily because of evaporation, since transpiration is not a very active process at this time. Following the snowmelt period, evapotranspiration becomes the dominate process, with base flow contributing the other watershed losses. It is important to note that the water initally lost by evapotranspiration entered the organic layer during melt. This water from the snowpack ensures that each year the various plant communities will have sufficient water to start a new summer of growth.

  16. Thermohaline circulations and global climate change. Annual progress report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, H.P.

    1993-12-31

    The original project entitled ``Thennohaline Circulations and Global Climate Change`` was concerned with investigating the hypothesis that changes in surface thermal and hydrological forcing of the North Atlantic, changes that might be expected to accompany C0{sub 2}-induced global warming, could result in ocean-atmosphere interactions` exerting a positive feedback on the climate system. Because the North Atlantic is the source of much of the global ocean`s reservoir of deep water, and because this deep water could sequester large amounts of anthropogenically produced C0{sub 2}, changes in the rate of deep-water production are important to future climates. Since deep-water production is controlled by the annual cycle of the atmospheric forcing of the North Atlantic, and since this forcing depends on both hydrological and thermal processes as well as the windstress, there is the potential for feedback between the short-term response of the atmosphere to changing radiative forcing and the longer-term processes in the oceans. Work on this hypothesis led to a second line of investigation. The sensitivity of the annual cycle of the upper ocean to variable atmospheric forcing also determines the structure of the seasonal thermocline, and consequently it is necessary to include both synoptic-scale and interannual variability of atmospheric forcing to fully understand the potential effects of long-term trends of that forcing. Due to its large heat capacity and its nonlinear response to forcing, the upper ocean rectifies the forcing by radiative fluxes, turbulence, and windstress, creating responses on much longer time scales than those of the forcing.

  17. Nature and mechanism of induction of mutations. Annual progress report, October 1, 1981-August 1, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Nilan, R.A.; Kleinhofs, A.; Konzak, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    The major and most significant accomplishment during the past contract year was the chemical identification of the azide metabolite. This accomplishment is unique in plant and bacterial mutagenesis. This is the first observation of a mutagenic amino acid analog. Experiments using barley and bacterial O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase resulted in production of the azide metabolite in vitro. Progress towards understanding the nature of azide-induced mutations continues to be made. In barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Himalaya), DNA-protein crosslinks were detected after azide treatment.

  18. 2011 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  19. Geothermal Energy R&D Program Annual Progress Report Fiscal Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-01

    In this report, the DOE Geothermal Program activities were split between Core Research and Industrial Development. The technical areas covered are: Exploration Technology, Drilling Technology, Reservoir Technology (including Hot Dry Rock Research and The Geyser Cooperation), and Conversion Technology (power plants, materials, and direct use/direct heat). Work to design the Lake County effluent pipeline to help recharge The Geysers shows up here for the first time. This Progress Report is another of the documents that are reasonable starting points in understanding many of the details of the DOE Geothermal Program. (DJE 2005)

  20. 1996 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (the Act), Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the activities during calendar year 1996 related to the establishment of new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress in developing new disposal facilities, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on US policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal.

  1. FY 2014 Annual Progress Report - Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  2. Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT): Semi-Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D N

    2012-02-29

    This report summarizes work carried out by the Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) Team for the period of July 1, 2011 through December 31, 2011. It discusses highlights, overall progress, period goals, and collaborations and lists papers and presentations. The UV-CDAT team is positioned to address the following high-level visualization requirements: (1) Alternative parallel streaming statistics and analysis pipelines - Data parallelism, Task parallelism, Visualization parallelism; (2) Optimized parallel input/output (I/O); (3) Remote interactive execution; (4) Advanced intercomparison visualization; (5) Data provenance processing and capture; and (6) Interfaces for scientists - Workflow data analysis and visualization construction tools, Visualization interfaces.

  3. Compilation of 1986 annual reports of the Navy ELF (extremely low frequency) communications system ecological-monitoring program. Volume 1. Tabs A-C. Annual progress report, January-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    This is the fifth compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. This report documents the progress of the following studies: Herbaceous Plant Cover and Tree Studies; Litter Decomposition and Microflora; and The Effects of Exposing the Slime Mold Physarum Polycephalum to Electromagnetic Fields.

  4. Compilation of 1988 annual reports of the Navy ELF (extremely low frequency) Communications System Ecological-Monitoring Program. Volume 1. Annual progress report No. 7, January-December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This is the seventh compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports document the progress of eight studies performed during 1988 at the Wisconsin and Michigan Transmitting Facilities. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produced by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships.

  5. Large area silicon sheet by EFG. Annual progress report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, F.V.

    1981-02-02

    Progress in the development of a cartridge system for growth of 10 cm wide ribbon is described. Growth speed capability, automated growth, ribbon quality and solar cell performance are areas in which significant progress is reported. Routine growth of 10 cm wide ribbon at speeds in the range from 3.5 to 4.0 cm/minute has been demonstrated both in single cartridge and multiple ribbon furnaces. Simultaneous growth of three 10 cm wide ribbons over a period of several hours has also been accomplished. A system for automated control of ribbon width has been developed and successfully implemented in the multiple ribbon growth system. As-grown ribbon quality and solar cell performance has continued to improve for the 10 cm wide ribbon grown in high-speed systems. Cell efficiencies of greater than 10% have been demonstrated on large areas (approx. 50 cm/sup 2/) of this ribbon. Better optimized growth conditions and cell processing have now been combined to produce greater than 13% (AMl) small area (approx. 6 cm/sup 2/) cells on ribbon grown at 2 cm/minute. Optimization work for 10 cm wide ribbon is continuing aimed at understanding the factors which affect quality in these systems. Utilization of computer modeling to study interface shapes and mass transport phenomena in the meniscus are described.

  6. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory during the period October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the division's major organizational units. Following the sections describing the organizational units is a section devoted to lists of information necessary to convey the scope of the work in the division. The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts environmental research and analyses associated with both energy technology development and the interactions between people and the environment. The division engages in basic and applied research for a diverse list of sponsors. While the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the primary sponsor ESD staff also perform research for other federal agencies, state agencies, and private industry. The division works collaboratively with federal agencies, universities, and private organizations in achieving its research objectives and hosts a large number of visiting investigators from these organizations. Given the diverse interdisciplinary specialization of its staff, ESD provides technical expertise on complex environmental problems and renders technical leadership for major environmental issues of national and local concern. This progress report highlights many of ESD's accomplishment in these and other areas in FY 1991.

  7. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory during the period October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the division`s major organizational units. Following the sections describing the organizational units is a section devoted to lists of information necessary to convey the scope of the work in the division. The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts environmental research and analyses associated with both energy technology development and the interactions between people and the environment. The division engages in basic and applied research for a diverse list of sponsors. While the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the primary sponsor ESD staff also perform research for other federal agencies, state agencies, and private industry. The division works collaboratively with federal agencies, universities, and private organizations in achieving its research objectives and hosts a large number of visiting investigators from these organizations. Given the diverse interdisciplinary specialization of its staff, ESD provides technical expertise on complex environmental problems and renders technical leadership for major environmental issues of national and local concern. This progress report highlights many of ESD`s accomplishment in these and other areas in FY 1991.

  8. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research. Annual progress report, September 1, 1991--September 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Progress in the various components of the UCLA High-Energy Physics Research program is summarized, including some representative figures and lists of resulting presentations and published papers. Principal efforts were directed at the following: (I) UCLA hadronization model, PEP4/9 e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} analysis, {bar P} decay; (II) ICARUS and astroparticle physics (physics goals, technical progress on electronics, data acquisition, and detector performance, long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to the Gran Sasso and ICARUS, future ICARUS program, and WIMP experiment with xenon), B physics with hadron beams and colliders, high-energy collider physics, and the {phi} factory project; (III) theoretical high-energy physics; (IV) H dibaryon search, search for K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}}, and detector design and construction for the FNAL-KTeV project; (V) UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab; and (VI) VLPC/scintillating fiber R & D.

  9. Joint inversion of geophysical data for site characterization and restoration monitoring. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P.A.; Roberts, J.J.; Berryman, J.G.; Wildenschild, D.

    1998-06-01

    'The purpose of this project is to develop a computer code for joint inversion of seismic and electrical data, to improve underground imaging for site characterization and remediation monitoring. The computer code developed in this project will invert geophysical data to obtain direct estimates of porosity and saturation underground, rather than inverting for seismic velocity and electrical resistivity or other geophysical properties. This is intended to be a significant improvement in the state-of-the-art of underground imaging, since interpretation of data collected at a contaminated site would become much less subjective. Potential users include DOE scientists and engineers responsible for characterizing contaminated sites and monitoring remediation of contaminated sites. In this three-year project, the authors use a multi-phase approach consisting of theoretical and numerical code development, laboratory investigations, testing on available laboratory and borehole geophysics data sets, and a controlled field experiment, to develop practical tools for joint electrical and seismic data interpretation. This report summarizes work after about 1.7 years of a 3-year project. Progress on laboratory measurements is described first, followed by progress on developing algorithms for the inversion code to relate geophysical data to porosity and saturation.'

  10. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigation : Stock Status of Burbot : Project Progress Report 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Valughn L.; Laude Dorothy C.

    2008-12-26

    Objectives of this investigation were to (1) monitor the population status and recruitment of burbot Lota lota in the Kootenai River, Idaho and British Columbia, Canada during the winter of 2006-2007; (2) evaluate the selective withdrawal system in place at Libby Dam to maintain the river temperature near Bonners Ferry between 1-4 C (November-December) to improve burbot migration and spawning activity; and (3) determine if a hatching success of 10% of eyed burbot embryos could be achieved through extensive rearing and produce fingerlings averaging 9.8 cm in six months. Water temperature did not fall below the upper limit (4 C) until mid-January but was usually maintained between 1-4 C January through February and was acceptable. Snowpack was characterized by a 101% of normal January runoff forecast. Adult burbot were sampled with hoop nets and slat traps. Only three burbot were captured in hoop nets, all at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.5). No burbot were caught in either slat traps or juvenile sampling gear, indicating the population is nearly extirpated. Burbot catch per unit effort in hoop nets was 0.003 fish/net d. Extensive rearing was moved to a smaller private pond and will be reported in the 2008-2009 annual report.

  11. National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems 2012 Annual Report: A Year of Progress and Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Doreswamy, Rajiv; Fry, Emma Kiele

    2013-01-01

    The National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems (NIRPS) maintains and advances U.S. leadership in all aspects of rocket propulsion for defense, civil, and commercial uses. The Institute's creation is in response to widely acknowledged concerns about the U.S. rocket propulsion base dating back more than a decade. U.S. leadership in rocket and missile propulsion is threatened by long-term industry downsizing, a shortage of new solid and liquid propulsion programs, limited ability to attract and retain fresh talent, and discretionary federal budget pressures. Numerous trade and independent studies cite erosion of this capability as a threat to national security and the U.S. economy resulting in a loss of global competitiveness for the U.S. propulsion industry. This report covers the period between May 2011 and December 2012, which includes the creation and transition to operations of NIRPS. All subsequent reports will be annual. The year 2012 has been an eventful one for NIRPS. In its first full year, the new team overcame many obstacles and explored opportunities to ensure the institute has a firm foundation for the future. NIRPS is now an active organization making contributions to the development, sustainment, and strategy of the rocket propulsion industry in the United States. This report describes the actions taken by the NIRPS team to determine the strategy, organizational structure, and goals of the Institute. It also highlights key accomplishments, collaborations with other organizations, and the strategic framework for the Institute.

  12. DE-FG03-01ER15237 Annual Progress Report 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandra Navrotsky

    2003-06-06

    OAK B262 Annual report. We have investigated the thermodynamics of several nanoscale systems: Iron oxides: We have completed and published heat capacity and entropy data on goethite, lepidocrocite, and maghemite, as well as measured their heats of formation. We also have enthalpy of formation data for several poorly crystalline nanophase oxides (schwertmannite, ferrihydrite, and epsilon-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The next step is to measure thermodynamic properties as a function of surface area for several oxides. CoO-MgO: Thermochemical data for bulk samples are in press. Heat capacities have been measured for CoO, MgO, and some intermediate samples. Nanosized samples at several compositions are being prepared this summer. Thin films have been prepared and some solution calorimetry done, but additional sample preparation and characterization is needed. Hydration energetics: Our setups for gas adsorption calorimetry and water immersion calorimetry are being completed. We will test them with known materials (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, selected zeolites) and then proceed to work on TiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and zeolites.

  13. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.H.

    1996-07-31

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. The Laboratory`s research mission was fulfilled with the publication of two books and 143 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical and students, and visiting scientists. An additional three books and about 80 journal articles currently are in press. Faculty, technician and students presented 193 lectures, scientific presentations, and posters to colleges and universities, including minority institutions. Dr. J Vaun McArthur organized and conducted the Third Annual SREL Symposium on the Environment: New Concepts in Strewn Ecology: An Integrative Approach. Dr. Michael Newman conducted a 5-day course titled Quantitative Methods in Ecotoxicology, and Dr. Brian Teppen of The Advanced Analytical Center for Environmental Sciences (AACES) taught a 3-day short course titled Introduction to Molecular Modeling of Environmental Systems. Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin co-hosted a meeting of the Crocodile Special Interest Group. Dr. Rebecca Sharitz attended four symposia in Japan during May and June 1996 and conducted meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of the International Association for Ecology (ENTECOL).

  14. Establishment, succession, and stability of vegetation on surface mined lands in eastern Montana. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, B. W.; Plantenberg, P. L.

    1980-07-01

    An ecological investigation of reclamation and plant succession on surface mined land near Colstrip, Montana, was initiated in June 1975. Its purpose was to examine and document development, stability, and permanence of plant communities established on semiarid mined land since 1928. This report includes analyses of data collected through four growing seasons on study sites located on naturally revegetated spoil and on seeded spoil. Sites included revegetated spoil seeded in 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, and 1977. Naturally revegetated spoil was mined in 1928 and 1930. Data collected include plant density, frequency, cover, yield, composition, species diversity, and soil moisture content. Previous progress reports have detailed successional changes and patterns observed. Analyses of causal factors are included. This report summarizes successional changes which occurred during the past year, presents updated analyses of successional trends and patterns, and presents additional conclusions derived from these analyses.

  15. 1994 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report for calendar year 1994 summarizes the progress that states and compact regions made during the year in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Although events that have occurred in 1995 greatly alter the perspective in terms of storage versus disposal, the purpose of this report is to convey the concerns as evidenced during calendar year 1994. Significant developments occurring in 1995 are briefly outlined in the transmittal letter and will be detailed in the report for calendar year 1995. The report also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1994 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, and is prepared is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985.

  16. Analytical Chemistry Division. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, W. S.

    1982-04-01

    The functions of the Analytical Chemistry Division fall into three general categories: (1) analytical research, development, and implementation; (2) programmatic research, development and utilization; (3) technical support. The Division is organized into five major sections each of which may carry out any type of work falling into the thre categories mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 5 of this report highlight progress within the five sections which are: analytical methodology; mass and emission spectrometry; analytical technical support; bio/organic analysis section; and nuclear and radiochemical analysis. A short summary introduces each chapter to indicate work scope. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Chapter 7 covers supplementary activities. Chapter 8 is on presentation of research results (publications, articles reviewed or referred for periodicals). Approximately 56 articles, 31 proceedings publications and 33 reports have been published, and 119 oral presentations given during this reporting period.

  17. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory during fiscal year (FY) 1993, which extended from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the division`s major organizational units. Following the sections describing the organizational units are sections highlighting ESD Scientific, Technical, and Administrative Achievement awards and listing information necessary to convey the scope of the work in the division. An organizational chart of staff and long-term guests who were in ESD and the end of FY 1993 is located in the final section of the report.

  18. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory during fiscal year (FY) 1994, which extended from October 1, 1993, through September 30, 1994. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the division`s major organizational units. Following the sections describing the organizational units are sections highlighting ESD Scientific, Technical, and Administrative Achievement awards and listing information necessary to covey the scope of the work in the division. An organizational chart of staff and long-term guests who wee in ESD at the end of FY 1994 is located in the final section of the report.

  19. Nature and mechanism of induction of mutations. Annual progress report, August 1, 1979-August 1, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Nilan, R.A.; Kleinhofs, A.; Konzak, C.F.

    1980-08-01

    Past year results have increased understanding of the pathway by which the azide metabolite is synthesized in vivo, the development of a technique for producing an abundant amount of the metabolite in vitro and in furthering the understanding of the effect of azide and its metabolite of chromosomes through analyses of sister chromatid exchanges. Some additional information has been obtained on the chemical nature of the metabolite - specially possible differences of those from barley and from bacteria. Since the final budget was considerably less than requested, research on the chemical nature and identification of the metabolite had to be curtailed. Considerable progress was made on understanding the nature of azide-induced mutations through continued mapping of mutant alleles at the waxy pollen locus and characterization of the gene products and karyotype analysis of these mutant alleles.

  20. Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides information on the progress of activities during fiscal year 1993 in the Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). As a new program, efforts are just getting underway toward addressing major issues related to the fuel and waste stored at the ICPP. The SF&WMTDP has the following principal objectives: Investigate direct dispositioning of spent fuel, striving for one acceptable waste form; determine the best treatment process(es) for liquid and calcine wastes to minimize the volume of high level radioactive waste (HLW) and low level waste (LLW); demonstrate the integrated operability and maintainability of selected treatment and immobilization processes; and assure that implementation of the selected waste treatment process is environmentally acceptable, ensures public and worker safety, and is economically feasible.

  1. Accurate modeling of F-region electron densities. Annual progress report, 1993-1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    In the past year, the authors have made considerable progress in a number of areas including algorithm development, completion of two major case studies, and the development of a new EUV flux model. As a result, there has been a major improvement in the ability to model global emissions in support of NASA's imaging plans. Activity highlights include the following: developed a new algorithm to allow physical models to reproduce observed NmF2; investigated the relationship between NmF2 and F10.7 at Millstone Hill during 1990; developed a new solar EUV flux model; statistical survey of anomalously high nighttime electron T(sub e) at Millstone Hill; conducted a case study of the March 1990 magnetic storm; and conducted a comparison between theory and data of magnetically quiet behavior of the winter ionosphere at Millstone Hill.

  2. Fossil Energy Program Annual Progress Report for the Period April 1, 2000 through March 31, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, RR

    2001-06-14

    This report covers progress made at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of fossil energy technologies. Projects on the ORNL Fossil Energy Program are supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program, the DOE National Petroleum Technology Office, and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The ORNL Fossil Energy Program research and development activities cover the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the SPR. An important part of the Fossil Energy Program is technical management of all activities on the DOE Fossil Energy Advanced Research (AR) Materials Program. The AR Materials Program involves research at other DOE and government laboratories, at universities, and at industrial organizations.

  3. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Annual progress report for 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.H.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes progress during 1987 of five Hanford Site ground water monitoring projects. Four of these projects are being conducted according to regulations based on the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the state Hazardous Waste Management Act. The fifth project is being conducted according to regulations based on the state Solid Waste Management Act. The five projects discussed herein are: 300 Area Process Trenches; 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins; 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds; Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill; Solid Waste Landfill. For each of the projects, there are included, as applicable, discussions of monitoring well installations, water-table measurements, background and/or downgradient water quality and results of chemical analysis, and extent and rate of movement of contaminant plumes. 14 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1993 through March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1993, through March 31, 1994, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Bartlesville Project Office, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The five areas of research covered in this report are: Materials research and development; Environmental analysis and support; Bioprocessing; Coal combustion; and Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Spray forming -- Aluminum: Third annual report (Phase 2). Technical progress -- Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kozarek, R.L.

    1998-04-20

    Commercial production of aluminum sheet and plate by spray atomization and deposition is a potentially attractive manufacturing alternative to conventional ingot metallurgy/hot-milling and to continuous casting processes because of reduced energy requirements and reduced cost. To realize the full potential of the technology, the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa), under contract by the US Department of Energy, is investigating currently available state-of-the-art atomization devices to develop nozzle design concepts whose spray characteristics are tailored for continuous sheet production. This third technical progress report will summarize research and development work conducted during the period 1997 October through 1998 March. Included are the latest optimization work on the Alcoa III nozzle, results of spray forming runs with 6111 aluminum alloy and preliminary rolling trials of 6111 deposits.

  6. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1994 through March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1994, through March 31, 1995, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, and DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Bartlesville Project Office, and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The following research areas are covered in this report: Materials research and development; Environmental analysis support; Bioprocessing research; Coal combustion research; and Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science an Technology database.

  7. MHD air heater technology development. Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1981-03-01

    Progress on the technology development of the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is described in detail. The objective of task 1 is to continue development of ceramic materials technology for the directly-fired HTAH. The objectives of task 2 are to demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating a directly-fired HTAH (including both the heater matrix and valves), to continue obtaining information on life and corrosion resistance of HTAH materials, and to obtain design information for full-scale studies and future design work. The objectives of task 3 are to begin the identification of HTAH control requirements and control system needs, and to continue full-scale study efforts incorporating updated materials and design information in order to identify development needs for the HTAH development program. (WHK)

  8. Advanced biomass research program. Annual report for 1987. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    These results are from an interdisciplinary program researching plant growth and bioconversion processes for enhancing methane from biomass. Modern molecular and cellular biology approaches are being used to characterize the genes and to develop methods for accomplishing transformations to improve biomass quality by regulating plant chemicals. Quality is being emphasized since quantities of 25 Mg/ha can be sustained for five years and conditions for higher yields of some grasses were identified. Breeding has succeeded in the development of hexaploids that produce seeds, and vegetative propagation from tissue cultures for asexual species. Gel seeding of tissue culture derived plantlets inoculated with mycrohizal to improve survivability has shown promise. Biological methane potential assays have revealed the effects of harvesting frequency, storage and the proportion of plant parts on methane yields. Non-hydrolytical depolymerization of polypectate and hydrolytic degradation of cellulose occur more rapidly at near neutral pH's. A gene encoding for the xylan-degrading enzymes was isolated. These enzymes are repressed by glucose. Kinetic modeling of these reactions is progressing. Methods of describing the microbial community structure in digesters are being developed and used to monitor digester health and performance. Polyclonal antibodies for 9 methanogenic bacteria were developed, propionate and butyrate inhibited dissimilation of large organic polymers, the cellular location of key enzyme were revealed and cellulolytic bacteria were found to attack cells from inside the lumen. Controls of formate production and conversion to gas were identified and the genes for the hydrogenase enzymes in the conversions were cloned. System analysis allows the authors to assess the impact of research progress on cost factors. Sixty scientific papers reporting program results were published in 1987.

  9. Biomass energy technology annual technical progress report, FY 1982. Volume II. Technical summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The goal of the BET program is to conduct an integrated R and D program for feedstock production and conversion of organic materials to economically produce energy products that will significantly contribute to meeting long-term US energy needs. In feedstock production, laboratory investigations are being performed to reduce the risks associated with the production of microalgal oils that can be used for energy applications and high-value chemical substitutes. Research also is being done on the biochemical mechanisms that control hydrocarbon production by macroalgal species. There has been significant progress in the DOE Short-Rotation Woods Crops Program aimed at increasing yields of biomass through both improved traditional/conventional silvicultural techniques and short-rotation intensive culture. Studies that evaluate the potential of milkweed as an energy feedstock were completed in FY 1982. In thermochemical conversion, evaluations of a variety of high-performance gasification systems for producing medium-Btu gas and synthesis gas were concluded in FY 1982. Free market forces are expected to stimulate private sector interest in developing the technology and marketing needed to commercialize medium-Btu gasification systems. Medium-Btu gases have numerous beneficial industrial applications, and this technology is close to entry into the marketplace. Progress has been made in FY 1982 toward understanding the basic mechanisms and kinetics affecting the thermochemical processing of biomass through fast pyrolysis and direct liquefaction techniques. In biochemical conversion, fundamental research is being performed on the anaerobic digestion process. FY 1982 research activities also included laboratory-scale experiments on photobiological methods for hydrogen production. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each of the 3 program areas for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  10. The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Contor, Craig R.; Harris, Robin; King, Marty

    2009-06-10

    The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPMEP) is funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L.96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). The UBNPMEP is coordinated with two Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) research projects that also monitor and evaluate the success of the Umatilla Fisheries Restoration Plan. This project deals with the natural production component of the plan, and the ODFW projects evaluate hatchery operations (project No. 1990-005-00, Umatilla Hatchery M & E) and smolt outmigration (project No. 1989-024-01, Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River). Collectively these three projects monitor and evaluate natural and hatchery salmonid production in the Umatilla River Basin. The need for natural production monitoring has been identified in multiple planning documents including Wy-Kan-Ush-Mi Wa-Kish-Wit Volume I, 5b-13 (CRITFC 1996), the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 1990), the Umatilla Basin Annual Operation Plan, the Umatilla Subbasin Summary (CTUIR & ODFW 2001), the Subbasin Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 2004), and the Comprehensive Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 2006). Natural production monitoring and evaluation is also consistent with Section III, Basinwide Provisions, Strategy 9 of the 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, NPCC 2004). The Umatilla Basin M&E plan developed along with efforts to restore natural populations of spring and fall Chinook salmon, (Oncorhynchus tshawytsha), coho

  11. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Five of the 18 redds spawned by captive-reared parents were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from four of these, and survival to this stage ranged from 0%-89%. Expanding these results to the remaining redds produced an estimate of 15,000 eyed-eggs being produced by captive-reared fish.

  12. Acid-base behavior in hydrothermal processing of wastes. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    'A major obstacle to the development of hydrothermal technology for treating DOE wastes has been a lack of scientific knowledge of solution chemistry, thermodynamics and transport phenomena. The progress over the last year is highlighted in the following four abstracts from manuscripts which have been submitted to journals. The authors also have made considerable progress on a spectroscopic study of the acid-base equilibria of Cr(VI). They have utilized novel spectroscopic indicators to study acid-base equilibria up to 380 C. Until now, very few systems have been studied at such high temperatures, although this information is vital for hydrothermal processing of wastes. The pH values of aqueous solutions of boric acid and KOH were measured with the optical indicator 2-naphthol at temperatures from 300 to 380 C. The equilibrium constant Kb-l for the reaction B(OH)3 + OH{sup -} = B(OH){sup -4} was determined from the pH measurements and correlated with a modified Born model. The titration curve for the addition of HCl to sodium borate exhibits strong acid-strong base behavior even at 350 C and 24.1 MPa. At these conditions, aqueous solutions of sodium borate buffer the pH at 9.6 t 0.25. submitted to Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Acetic Acid and HCl Acid-base titrations for the KOH-acetic acid or NH{sub 3} -acetic acid systems were monitored with the optical indicator 2-naphthoic acid at 350 C and 34 MPa, and those for the HCl;Cl- system with acridine at 380 C and up to 34 MPa (5,000 psia ). KOH remains a much stronger base than NH,OH at high temperature. From 298 K to the critical temperature of water, the dissociation constant for HCl decreases by 13 orders of magnitude, and thus, the basicity of Cl{sup -} becomes significant. Consequently, the addition of NaCl to HCl raises the pH. The pH titration curves may be predicted with reasonable accuracy from the relevant equilibrium constants and Pitzer''s formulation of the Debye- Htickel equation for the activity coefficients.'

  13. Development of nuclear analysis capabilities for DOE waste management activities. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; DeHart, M.D.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate prototypic analysis capabilities that can be used by the nuclear safety analysis practitioners to: (1) demonstrate a more thorough understanding of the underlying physics phenomena that can lead to improved reliability and defensibility of safety evaluations; and (2) optimize operations related to the handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of fissile material and DOE spent fuel. To address these problems, the project will investigate the implementation of sensitivity and uncertainty methods within existing Monte Carlo codes used for criticality safety analyses, as well as within a new deterministic code that allows specification of arbitrary grids to accurately model the geometry details required in a criticality safety analysis. This capability can facilitate improved estimations of the required subcritical margin and potentially enable the use of a broader range of experiments in the validation process. The new arbitrary-grid radiation transport code will also enable detailed geometric modeling valuable for improved accuracy in application to a myriad of other problems related to waste characterization. Application to these problems will also be explored. This report summarizes the progress achieved after only seven months of work on a three-year project.'

  14. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, W.S.

    1983-05-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Dvision of Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: (1) analytical research, development, and implementation; (2) programmatic research, development, and utilization; and (3) technical support. The Division is organized into five major sections, each of which may carry out any type of work falling in the three categories mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 5 of this report highlight progress within the five sections (analytical methodology, mass and emission spectrometry, radioactive materials, bio/organic analysis, and general and environmental analysis) during the period January 1, 1982 to December 31, 1982. A short summary introduces each chapter to indicate work scope. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8. Approximately 61 articles, 32 proceedings publications and 37 reports have been published, and 107 oral presentations were given during this reporting period.

  15. Survey of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation 1995 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, E.R.; Mitchell, J.M.; Webb, J.W.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1995-11-01

    This progress report discusses surveys of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) from October 1994 through September 1995. These surveys are important to help avoid or minimize potential impacts of projects on the ORR to species listed as threatened, endangered, or in need of management by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency. Currently, there are 69 species of federally or state-listed terrestrial vertebrates that may occur in Tennessee. Not all of these are expected to occur on the ORR, nor do resources permit comprehensive sampling for all of them over the entire ORR. To effectively organize sampling efforts, listed animal species that might be present were targeted using a prioritization system based on historical and recent sightings, species distributions, literature reviews, and personal communications. Sampling was conducted during the time of the year when each targeted species would most likely be encountered. Several trapping and surveying methods were used, including pitfall traps, Sherman traps, seining, artificial covers, and cave and avian surveys.

  16. Cavitational hydrothermal oxidation: A new remediation process. Annual progress report, September 1996--August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Suslick, K.S.

    1997-11-21

    'During the past year, the authors have continued to make substantial scientific progress on the understanding of cavitation phenomena in aqueous media and applications of cavitation to remediation processes. The efforts have focused on three separate areas: sonoluminescence as a probe of conditions created during cavitational collapse in aqueous media, the use of cavitation for remediation of contaminated water, and an addition of the use of ultrasound in the synthesis of novel heterogeneous catalysts for hydrodehalogenation of halocarbons under mild conditions. In order to gain further understanding of the conditions present during cavitation, the author has continued his studies of sonoluminescence. He has made recent breakthroughs in the use of emission spectroscopy for temperature and pressure measurement of cavitation events, which he expects to publish shortly. He has been able to measure for the first time the temperature of cavitation in water during multi-bubble cavitation in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The emission from excited states of C{sub 2} in water gives temperatures that are consistent with adiabatic compressional heating, with maximum temperatures of 4,300 K. Prior measurements of cavitation temperatures in low vapor pressure nonaqueous media gave somewhat higher temperatures of 5,000 K. This work lays permanently to rest exotic mechanisms for cavitational chemistry, at least for cavitation fields.'

  17. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts research on the environmental aspects of existing and emerging energy systems and applies this information to ensure that technology development and energy use are consistent with national environmental health and safety goals. Offering an interdisciplinary resource of staff and facilities to address complex environmental problems, the division is currently providing technical leadership for major environmental issues of national concern: (1) acidic deposition and related environmental effects, (2) effects of increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and the resulting climatic changes to ecosystems and natural and physical resources, (3) hazardous chemical and radioactive waste disposal and remediation research and development, and (4) development of commercial biomass energy production systems. This progress report outlines ESD's accomplishments in these and other areas in FY 1990. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases in the following areas: ecosystem studies; environmental analyses; environmental toxicology; geosciences; technical and administrative support; biofuels feedstock development program; carbon dioxide information analysis and research program; and environmental waste program.

  18. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a large and diversified organization. As such, it serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside of ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: (1) Analytical Research, Development, and Implementation. The division maintains a program to conceptualize, investigate, develop, assess, improve, and implement advanced technology for chemical and physicochemical measurements. Emphasis is on problems and needs identified with ORNL and Department of Energy (DOE) programs; however, attention is also given to advancing the analytical sciences themselves. (2) Programmatic Research, Development, and Utilization. The division carries out a wide variety of chemical work that typically involves analytical research and/or development plus the utilization of analytical capabilities to expedite programmatic interests. (3) Technical Support. The division performs chemical and physicochemical analyses of virtually all types. The Analytical Chemistry Division is organized into four major sections, each of which may carry out any of the three types of work mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 4 of this report highlight progress within the four sections during the period January 1 to December 31, 1988. A brief discussion of the division's role in an especially important environmental program is given in Chapter 5. Information about quality assurance, safety, and training programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8.

  19. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a large and diversified organization. As such, it serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside of ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: Analytical Research, Development and Implementation; Programmatic Research, Development, and Utilization; and Technical Support. The Analytical Chemistry Division is organized into four major sections, each which may carry out any of the three types of work mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 4 of this report highlight progress within the four sections during the period January 1 to December 31, 1989. A brief discussion of the division's role in an especially important environmental program is given in Chapter 5. Information about quality assurance, safety, and training programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8. Approximately 69 articles, 41 proceedings, and 31 reports were published, and 151 oral presentations were given during this reporting period. Some 308,981 determinations were performed.

  20. Human genetic marker for resistance to radiations and chemicals. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, H.B.

    1998-06-01

    'The broad objective of the project is to understand the molecular basis for the response of cells to radiations and chemicals, with the pragmatic goal of being able to identify human subpopulations that are exceptionally sensitive to DNA damaging agents. The project focuses on HRAD9, a human orthologue of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene rad9. S. pombe rad9::ura4+ mutant cells are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation, UV and many chemicals, such as the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea. They also lack the ability to delay cycling transiently in S phase or in G2 following a block in DNA replication or after incurring DNA damage, respectively -i.e., they lack checkpoint controls. The attempt by mutant cells to progress through mitosis in the absence of fully intact DNA accounts at least in part for their sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. Cells bearing rad9::ura4+ also aberrantly regulate UVDE, an enzyme that participates in a secondary DNA excision repair pathway. The key role played by S. pombe rad9 in promoting resistance to chemicals and radiations suggests that the evolutionarily conserved human cognate also has important functions in mammals. The first set of aims in this proposal centers on characterizing the structure and expression of HRAD9, to assess structure/function relationships and potentially link protein activity to a specific tissue. The next set of aims focuses on determining the role of HRAD9 in radio/chemoresponsiveness and cancer.'

  1. Fundamental chemistry and thermodynamics of hydrothermal oxidation processes. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, J.M.; Mesmer, R.E.; Blencoe, J.G.; Cummings, P.T.; Chialvo, A.A.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this research program is to provide fundamental scientific information on the physical and chemical properties of solutes in aqueous solutions at high temperatures needed to assess and enhance the applicability of hydrothermal oxidation (HTO) to the remediation of DOE hazardous and mixed wastes. Potential limitations to the use of HTO technology include formation of deposits (scale) from precipitation of inorganic solutes in the waste, corrosion arising from formation of strong acids on oxidation of some organic compounds (e.g., chlorinated hydrocarbons), and unknown effects of fluid density and phase behavior at high temperatures. Focus areas for this project include measurements of the solubility and speciation of actinides and surrogates in model HTO process streams at high temperatures, and the experimental and theoretical development of equations of state for aqueous mixtures under HTO process conditions ranging above the critical temperature of water. A predictive level of understanding of the chemical and physical properties of HTO process streams is being developed through molecular-level simulations of aqueous solutions at high temperatures. Advances in fundamental understanding of phase behavior, density, and solute speciation at high temperatures and pressures contribute directly to the ultimate applicability of this process for the treatment of DOE hazardous and mixed wastes. Research in this project has been divided into individual tasks, with each contributing to a unified understanding of HTO processing problems related to the treatment of DOE wastes. This report summarizes progress attained after slightly less than two years of this three-year project.'

  2. Manipulating subsurface colloids to enhance cleanups of DOE waste sites. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gschwend, P.M.

    1998-06-01

    'This project seeks to increase the effectiveness of pump and treat systems for removal of pollutants from sandy aquifers. Pollutants which sorb strongly to aquifer solids are not efficiently remediated using pump and treat technologies. However, if the sorbents most active in immobilizing pollutants (e.g., clays, humics, and iron oxides) were dispersed into colloidal size particles (colloid mobilization), these colloids and their associated pollutants might be pumped from aquifers. At a chromium contaminated sandy aquifer, this project seeks to: (1) understand the forces which stabilize colloidal particles in the aquifer, (2) devise solutions which will disrupt these colloid stabilizing forces, and (3) demonstrate the effectiveness of colloid mobilization as a remediation technique for removing sorbed chromium from the aquifer. This progress report summarizes work completed after 1 1/2 years of a three-year project. The efforts have focused on remediation of a chromium contaminated aquifer located on the property of National Chromium in northeastern Connecticut. Work to date may be divided into three areas: (1) site characterization; (2) identification of colloid binding forces and development of an effective colloid dispersion treatment; and (3) field testing of the aquifer remediation strategy.'

  3. Combined macroscopic and microscopic approach to the fracture of metals. Annual progress report, 1980-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Asaro, R. J.; Gurland, J.; Needleman, A.; Rice, J. R.

    1981-06-01

    Recent progress was achieved in refining and generalizing the methods previously developed for treating the stable crack growth problem, with particular attention to the approximate asymptotic solution of Rice, Drugan and Sham for stress and deformation fields near the tip of a growing crack. The microstructural aspects of ductile fracture were studied in dual-phase steels and high-strength 4340 steels. Very interesting results were obtained in the work on hydrogen effects in steels. In medium strength steels, the ductility-reducing effect of hydrogen is tentatively attributed to the accumulation of hydrogen at internal interfaces with a resulting loss in the resistance to interfacial separation. Extension of Needleman and Rice's work on the growth of cavities at elevated temperatures to the investigation of the effects of triaxial stressing relates the rate of void growth by grain boundary diffusion and dislocation creep to the triaxiality. It provides a good model to analyze the growth of macro-cracks in polycrystals by the mechanisms of growth and coalescence of micro-voids.

  4. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Annual technical progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co.'s Merriam Laboratory during 1979. In a series of experiments with varying feed gas composition, low levels (5 to 10 mole %) of carbon monoxide had little effect on the SRC II processing of Pittsburgh Seam coal (Powhatan No. 5 Mine) while higher levels (20 to 40 mole %) resulted in a general degradation of operability and reduced oil yields. Addition of finely divided (approx. 1 ..mu..m) pyrite to the reactive Powhatan coal had little effect on oil yields although the molecular weight of the distillation residue was apparently decreased. When finely divided pyrite and magnetite were added to the less reactive coals from the Loveridge and Blacksville No. 1 Mines (also Pittsburgh Seam), however, substantial increases in oil yields and product quality were obtained. In a comparison of upflow and downflow dissolver configurations with Powhatan coal in the SRC II mode, there was no difference in yields or product quality. A study characterizing specific reactors revealed a significantly higher conversion in the SRC I mode with a reactor approximating plug flow conditions compared to a completely backmixed reactor. In the SRC II mode there was only a slightly higher oil yield with the plug flow reactor.

  5. Extended Burnup Demonstration Reactor Fuels Program. Annual progress report, April 1983-March 1984. [BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Exarhos, C.A.

    1985-06-20

    The US Department of Energy, Consumers Power Company, Exxon Nuclear Company, and General Public Utilities Nuclear Corporation have participated since 1979 in a cooperative Extended Burnup Demonstration Program. Under the program, standard ENC-fabricated reload fuel in the Big Rock Point and Oyster Creek reactor cores has been irradiated to discharge burnups at or beyond 35,000 MWD/MTU, one to two cycles beyond its originally projected exposure life. The program provides for examination of the fuel at poolside before and after each extended burnup cycle as well as for limited destructive hot cell examination. The 1984 progress report covers work performed under the EBD program between April 1983 and March 1984. Major milestones reached during the period include completion of a hot cell examination on four high burnup rods from Big Rock Point and of a poolside on the Oyster Creek EBD fuel at discharge. The hot cell examination of four rods at burnups to 37.2 GWD/MTU confirmed poolside measurements on the same fuel, showing the urania and gadolinia-bearing fuel rods to be in excellent condition. No major cladding degradation, pellet restructuring, or pellet-clad interaction was found in any of the samples examined. The Oyster Creek fuel, examined at an assembly average exposure of 34.5 GWD/MTU, showed good performance with regard to both diametral creepdown and clad oxide accumulation.

  6. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.; Park, Y.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J.; Kung, H.H.

    1999-03-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the US processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive US processing industries. The program presently has a number of developing industrial connections, including a CRADA with Johns Manville Corporation targeted at the area of MoSi{sub 2}-based high temperature materials and components for fiberglass melting and processing applications. The authors are also developing an interaction with the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop silicides for high temperature radiant gas burner applications, for the glass and other industries. With Combustion Technology Inc., they are developing silicide-based periscope sight tubes for the direct observation of glass melts. With Accutru International Corporation, they are developing silicide-based protective sheaths for self-verifying temperature sensors which may be used in glass furnaces and other industrial applications. The progress made on the program in this period is summarized.

  7. Removal of technetium, carbon tetrachloride, and metals from DOE properties. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mallouk, T.E.; Darab, J.G.; Ponder, S.M.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of the project is to develop and characterize supported reducing agents, and solid waste forms derived from them, which will be effective in the removal of transition metal ions, chlorinated organic molecules, and technetium from aqueous mixed wastes. This work follows the discovery that a nanoscale form of zero-valent iron, dispersed on high surface area supports, reduces metal ions (chromium, mercury, and lead) and rhenium (as a surrogate for technetium) to insoluble forms much faster than does unsupported iron. The scientific goals of the project are to better understand the mechanism of the reduction process, to develop supports that are compatible with a variety of mixed waste compositions, and to develop surface modifiers for the supported iron aggregates that will optimize their selectivity for the contaminants of interest. The support composition is of particular interest in the case of technetium (Tc) separation and stabilization in the Hanford tank wastes. While it is expected that pertechnetate will be reduced insoluble TcO{sub 2} , the support material must be compatible with the vitrification process used in the final waste disposition. The surface modifications are also a focal point for Hanford applications because of the complex and variable makeup of the tank wastes. This report summarizes progress in the first 8 months of a 3-year collaborative project involving Penn State and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL).'

  8. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles]. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.H.

    1994-02-01

    Acetate is the precursor of approximately two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors and many other methanogenic habitats. Besides their intrinsic interest, thermophilic acetotrophic methanogenic cultures usually grow at least twice as fast as their mesophilic counterparts, making them more amenable to study. In recent years, attention has been mainly focused on the thermophilic acetate utilizing methanogen Methanothrix strain CALS-1. Methanothrix, also called Methanosaeta, is one of only two methanogenic genera known to convert acetate to methane, the other being Methanosarcina. The faster-growing more versatile Methanosarcina has been better studied. However, when one examines anaerobic digestor contents, Methanothrix is often the dominant acetate-utilizing methanogen. As described in previous progress reports, the authors have achieved methanogenesis from acetate in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strain CALS-1 grown in a pH auxostat. Using these cell extracts, specific activities for methanogenesis from acetate and ATP of 100--300 nmol/min were routinely obtained, levels comparable to the rate in whole cells, which is not usually the case in methanogenic extracts. Recently obtained results are given and discussed for the following: Methanogenesis in crude extracts; Role of the cell membrane in methanogenesis from acetate; Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase; Novel thermophilic cultures converting acetate to methane; and Methanol-utilizing methanogen.

  9. DOE/EPSCoR Traineeship Program: Progress report, academic year 1992--93. Annual report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, D.; Steadman, J.

    1993-12-31

    This progress report reviews the University of Wyoming`s approach to implementing the DOE Traineeship Program, and briefly describes the research performed by the DOE/EPSCoR Trainees during the academic year, 1992--1993. These brief descriptions of individual research projects demonstrate the wide scope of energy-related research that the DOE-EPSCoR Traineeships have initiated in Wyoming. The availability of this funding has encouraged many talented students to continue their education in fields of interest to DOE. These additional bright, energetic graduate students have improved the educational atmosphere for everyone. The visibility of the DOE program has sharpened the focus of the science and engineering departments on the energy-related research of importance to Wyoming and DOE. The impact of the DOE Traineeships in Wyoming has been substantial and very positive. It has not only increased the number of students studying in energy-related disciplines, but has also increased the quality of their graduate research. The program has also increased the visibility of DOE in Wyoming and has helped focus attention on the energy and environmental graduate education which is so essential to the University and the State.

  10. Studies in premixed combustion. Annual progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashinsky, G.I.

    1993-03-01

    During the period under review, significant progress was been made in studying the intrinsic dynamics of premixed flames and the problems of flame-flow interaction. (1) A weakly nonlinear model for Bunsen burner stabilized flames was proposed and employed for the simulation of three-dimensional polyhedral flames -- one of the most graphic manifestations of thermal-diffusive instability in premixed combustion. (2) A high-precision large-scale numerical simulation of Bunsen burner tip structure was conducted. The results obtained supported the earlier conjecture that the tip opening observed in low Lewis number systems is a purely optical effect not involving either flame extinction or leakage of unburned fuel. (3) A one-dimensional model describing a reaction wave moving through a unidirectional periodic flow field is proposed and studied numerically. For long-wavelength fields the system exhibits a peculiar non-uniqueness of possible propagation regimes. The transition from one regime to another occurs in a manner of hysteresis.

  11. Determining significant endpoints for ecological risk analyses. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, T.G.; Congdon, J.; Rowe, C.; Scott, D.; Bedford, J.; Whicker, F.W.

    1997-11-01

    'This report summarizes the first year''s progress of research funded under the Department of Energy''s Environmental Management Science Program. The research was initiated to better determine ecological risks from toxic and radioactive contaminants. More precisely, the research is designed to determine the relevancy of sublethal cellular damage to the performance of individuals and to identify characteristics of non-human populations exposed to chronic, low-level radiation, as is typically found on many DOE sites. The authors propose to establish a protocol to assess risks to non-human species at higher levels of biological organization by relating molecular damage to more relevant responses that reflect population health. They think that they can achieve this by coupling changes in metabolic rates and energy allocation patterns to meaningful population response variables, and by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative dose/effects experiments. They believe that a scientifically defensible endpoint for measuring ecological risks can only be determined once its understood the extent to which molecular damage from contaminant exposure is detrimental at the individual and population levels of biological organization.'

  12. Nature and mechanism of induction of mutations. Annual progress report, August 1, 1980-October 1, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Nilan, R.A.; Kleinhofs, A.; Konzak, C.F.

    1981-10-01

    New knowledge of the mechanism of mutation induction and the nature of mutations in eukaryotes continues to be developed from experiments involving sodium azide. Azide is a potent mutagen in bacteria and in higher plants but it is weakly mutagenic and not carcinogenic in mammalian systems. It was determined that azide acted through a promutagen or organic metabolite both in barley and bacterial cells. This metabolite has been isolated and characterized. During the past year, considerable progress has been made in understanding the pathway by which the metabolite is synthesized in barley and bacteria. It can be synthesized in vitro both in bacteria and barley and some additional knowledge of the structure of the metabolite is being revealed through chemical synthesis of the metabolite. Additional information concerning the lack of azide mutagenicity in mammalian cells has been developed through the detailed studies of the action of azide and its metabolite from bacteria and barley on sister-chromatid exchanges in mammalian cells. Neither azide nor its metabolites of bacteria and barley are particularly effective, and to date no metabolite has been detected in mammalian cells. Azide-induced mutants in barley have been utilized in barley improvement, in probing the pathways of a number of biochemical and physiological processes and in understanding the structure of gene loci and the nature of mutations induced.

  13. Measurements and models for hazardous chemical and mixed wastes. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, C.; Watts, L.; Outcalt, S.L.; Louie, B.; Mullins, M.E.; Rogers, T.N.

    1998-06-01

    'Aqueous waste of various chemical compositions constitutes a significant fraction of the total waste produced by industry in the US. A large quantity of the waste generated by the US chemical process industry is waste water. In addition, the majority of the waste inventory at DoE sites previously used for nuclear weapons production is aqueous waste. Large quantities of additional aqueous waste are expected to be generated during the clean-up of those sites. In order to effectively treat, safely handle, and properly dispose of these wastes, accurate and comprehensive knowledge of basic thermophysical property information is paramount. This knowledge will lead to huge savings by aiding in the design and optimization of treatment and disposal processes. The main objectives of this project are: Develop and validate models that accurately predict the phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of hazardous aqueous systems necessary for the safe handling and successful design of separation and treatment processes for hazardous chemical and mixed wastes. Accurately measure the phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of a representative system (water + acetone + isopropyl alcohol + sodium nitrate) over the applicable ranges of temperature, pressure, and composition to provide the pure component, binary, ternary, and quaternary experimental data required for model development. As of May, 1998, nine months into the first year of a three year project, the authors have made significant progress in the database development, have begun testing the models, and have been performance testing the apparatus on the pure components.'

  14. Respiratory chain of alkalophilic bacteria. Annual progress report, June 15, 1981-May 15, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Krulwich, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the increased energy cost of life at extremely alkaline pH, the extraordinary qualitative and quantitative array of respiratory chain components of alkalophilic bacteria, and the normal growth yields and O/sub 2/ consumption rates of such organisms, it has been proposed that the obligately alkalophilic bacteria possess structural/functional properties of the respiratory chain such that particularly efficient energy conservation is facilitated. The respiratory chain components of Bacillus alcalophilus have been studied in comparison with its non-alkalophilic mutant derivative; a similar study of Bacillus firmus RAB and non-alkalophilic RABN is now partially completed. The alkalophiles contain high quantities of many distinct redox carriers as compared to their derivative and other non-alkalophiles. Determinations of H/sup +/7O ratios are now in progress. A system for study of the regulation of cytochrome expression, as a function of pH, has been developed. Failure of obligate alkalophiles to grow at pH 7.0 now appears to relate to the low membrane potentials produced by respiration at that pH, rather than a failure of pH homeostasis. Since alkalophilic cells are found to be viable at pH 7.0, incubations can be conducted for study of functional and regulatory aspects of respiration.

  15. Mixing rocesses in high-level waste tanks. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F.

    1998-06-01

    'Flammable gases can be generated in DOE high-level waste tanks, including radiolytic hydrogen, and during cesium precipitation from salt solutions, benzene. Under normal operating conditions the potential for deflagration or detonation from these gases is precluded by purging and ventilation systems, which remove the flammable gases and maintain a well-mixed condition in the tanks. Upon failure of the ventilation system, due to seismic or other events, however, it has proven more difficult to make strong arguments for well-mixed conditions, due to the potential for density-induced stratification which can potentially sequester fuel or oxidizer at concentrations significantly higher than average. This has complicated the task of defining the safety basis for tank operation. Waste-tank mixing processes have considerable overlap with similar large-enclosure mixing processes that occur in enclosure fires and nuclear reactor containments. Significant differences also exist, so that modeling techniques that have been developed previously can not be directly applied to waste tanks. In particular, mixing of air introduced through tank roof penetrations by buoyancy and pressure driven exchange flows, mixed convection induced by an injected high-velocity purge jet interacting with buoyancy driven flow, and onset and breakdown of stable stratification under the influence of an injected jet have not been adequately studied but are important in assessing the potential for accumulation of high-concentration pockets of fuel and oxygen. Treating these phenomena requires a combination of experiments and the development of new, more general computational models than those that have been developed for enclosure fires. U.C. Berkeley is now completing the second year of its three-year project that started in September, 1996. Excellent progress has been made in several important areas related to waste-tank ventilation and mixing processes.'

  16. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, J.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  17. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. Annual technical progress report, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, E.W.

    1992-03-01

    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in January 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical {sup 37}Cl and {sup 71}Ga experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun.

  18. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    The following sentences highlight some of the technical activities carried out during 1991. They illustrate the diversity of programs and technical work performed within the Analytical Chemistry Division. Our neutron activation analysis laboratory at HFIR was placed into operation during 1991. We have combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with a preparation procedure developed at the Argonne National Laboratory to measure ultra-trace levels of U, Pu, Np, and Am in body fluids, primarily urine. Much progress has been made over the last year in the interfacing of an rf-powered glow discharge source to a double-focusing mass spectrometer. Preliminary experiments using electrospray ionization combined with ion trap mass spectrometry show much promise for the analysis of metals in solution. A secondary ion microprobe has been constructed that permits determination of the distribution of organic compounds less than a monolayer thick on samples as large as 1 cm diameter. Fourier transform mass spectrometry has been demonstrated to be a highly effective tool for the detailed characterization of biopolymers, especially normal and modified oligonucleotides. Much has been accomplished in understanding the fundamentals of quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. Work with ITMS instrumentation has led to the development of rapid methods for the detection of trace organics in environmental and physiological samples. A new type of time-of-flight mass spectrometer was designed for use with our positron ionization experiments. Fundamental research on chromatography at high concentrations and on gas-solid adsorption has continued. The preparation of a monograph on the chemistry of environmental tobacco smoke was completed this year.

  19. Mechanics of bubbles in sludges and slurries. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Terrones, G.; Denn, M.M.; Muller, S.J.; Rossen, W.R.

    1998-06-01

    'Previous studies have established that the waste level of Hanford tanks responds to barometric pressure changes, the compressibility of retained bubbles accounts for the level changes, and the volume of retained gas can be determined from the measured waste level and barometric pressure changes. However, interactions between the gas bubbles and rheologically complex waste cause inaccurate retained gas estimates and are not well understood. Because the retained gas is typically a flammable mixture of hydrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide, accurate determination of the retained gas volume is a critical component for establishing the safety hazard of the tanks. Accurate estimates of retained gas from level/pressure data are highly desirable because direct in-situ measurements are very expensive in an individual tank and impossible in many single-shell tanks. The objective of this research project is to gain a fundamental understanding of the interactions between gas bubbles and tank waste during barometric pressure fluctuations. It is expected that the elucidation of the bubble/waste interaction mechanisms will lead to the development of models for a more accurate determination of: gas content in Hanford tanks, waste properties from level/pressure data, and the effect that barometric pressure fluctuations have on the slow release of bubbles. The results of this research will support critical operations at the Hanford Site associated with the flammable gas safety hazard and future waste operations such as salt-well pumping, waste transfers, and sluicing/retrieval. This three-year research program, which began in FY 1998, is divided into four related problems. Progress has been made in each of the areas of modeling bubble behavior in continuum materials (sludges) from both a solid mechanics viewpoint and separately from a fluid mechanics viewpoint, modeling studies of compressible bubbles in particulate materials (slurries), and experimental studies of bubbles in both

  20. Clinical Cancer Advances 2013: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer from the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jyoti D; Krilov, Lada; Adams, Sylvia; Aghajanian, Carol; Basch, Ethan; Brose, Marcia S; Carroll, William L; de Lima, Marcos; Gilbert, Mark R; Kris, Mark G; Marshall, John L; Masters, Gregory A; O'Day, Steven J; Polite, Blasé; Schwartz, Gary K; Sharma, Sunil; Thompson, Ian; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Roth, Bruce J

    2014-01-10

    Since its founding in 1964, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has been committed to improving cancer outcomes through research and the delivery of quality care. Research is the bedrock of discovering better treatments--providing hope to the millions of individuals who face a cancer diagnosis each year. The studies featured in "Clinical Cancer Advances 2013: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer From the American Society of Clinical Oncology" represent the invaluable contributions of thousands of patients who participate in clinical trials and the scientists who conduct basic and clinical research. The insights described in this report, such as how cancers hide from the immune system and why cancers may become resistant to targeted drugs, enable us to envision a future in which cancer will be even more controllable and preventable. The scientific process is thoughtful, deliberate, and sometimes slow, but each advance, while helping patients, now also points toward new research questions and unexplored opportunities. Both dramatic and subtle breakthroughs occur so that progress against cancer typically builds over many years. Success requires vision, persistence, and a long-term commitment to supporting cancer research and training. Our nation's longstanding investment in federally funded cancer research has contributed significantly to a growing array of effective new treatments and a much deeper understanding of the drivers of cancer. But despite this progress, our position as a world leader in advancing medical knowledge and our ability to attract the most promising and talented investigators are now threatened by an acute problem: Federal funding for cancer research has steadily eroded over the past decade, and only 15% of the ever-shrinking budget is actually spent on clinical trials. This dismal reality threatens the pace of progress against cancer and undermines our ability to address the continuing needs of our patients. Despite this

  1. Molecular genetics of metal detoxification: Prospects for phytoremediation. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ow, D.W.

    1997-10-15

    'The authors proposed to characterize a number of fission yeast mutants that are hypersensitivity to cadmium and deficient in the production of metal-peptide complexes. For each of the mutants the authors sought to clone the gene responsible for the mutant phenotype and more importantly to define the gene function. They summarize the progress made thus far for each of the mutants. Mutants that hypoproduce phytochelatins are: (1) DS12--The gene has been cloned, but a full length cDNA remains to be isolated. They believe the longest clone is short at the 5 feet end by less than 100 bp. This gene encodes sulfite reductase and its function is needed for Pb-induced sulfide production, but not Cd-induced sulfide production. Since this enzyme acts upstream of cysteine biosynthesis, the likely reason that this mutant hypoproduces phytochelatins is that it fails to produce sufficient cysteine during Cd stress. (2) JS563--The gene has been cloned and found to encode a sulfide dehydrogenase. In vitro, the authors found that the protein binds FAD, converts S{sup 2-} to S{sup 0} while reducing quinone. The protein is membrane associated and has been localized to the mitochondria. Its likely function is to detoxify sulfide in the mitochondria resulting from cadmium-induced sulfide production. The sulfide electrons are likely used for the electron transport chain. Cells that have a defect in this enzyme cannot oxidize mitochondrial S{sup 2-} resulting in high toxic levels of S{sup 2-} during Cd stress. In addition, the high S{sup 2-} level precipitates Cd{sup 2-} to form CdS, and the lack of free Cd{sup 2+} fails to induce phytochelatin synthase activity to produce phytochelatin peptides. (3) JS282--The genomic clone that restores Cd tolerance to JS282 has been isolated. Surprisingly, this genomic clone when present in a multicopy vector in a wild type background causes hypersensitivity to Cd and selenium. The cDNA corresponding to the genomic clone has been isolated and its

  2. Colloid transport and retention in fractured deposits. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.; Reimus, P.; Ibaraki, Motomu; Wells, M.J.M.; McKay, L.

    1997-09-01

    'The goal of this project is to identify the chemical and physical factors that control the transport of groundwater colloids in fractured porous media and develop a generalized capability to predict colloid attachment and detachment based on hydraulic factors (head, flow rate), physical structure (fracture aperture), and chemical properties (surface properties of colloids and fracture surfaces). Understanding the processes that control colloid behavior will increase the confidence with which colloid-facilitated contaminant transport can be predicted and assessed at various contaminated US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. An added benefit is the expectation that this work will yield novel techniques to either immobilize colloid-bound contaminants in situ or mobilize colloids for enhancing remedial techniques such as pump-and-treat and bioremediation. Research Statement A series of field-scale and laboratory-scale experiments, using both natural undisturbed samples and simple one-dimension ``artificial fractures,'''' are in progress to investigate the influence of physical and chemical factors on the transport of colloids in fractured materials. The experimental results will be assessed using a computer model (COLFRAC) developed to simulate colloid transport in fractured materials. The overall goal is to assess the relative influence of chemical and physical factors expected to influence colloid transport in fractured materials and investigate strategies for predictive simulation at the field scale. The experimental methods each operate at different physical/geological scales and can be used with different degrees of experimental control. This allows testing of hypotheses in a relatively simple setting in the laboratory where individual chemical or colloidal characteristics can be varied and then the results compared with field-scale experiments where the influence of realistic geologic heterogeneity can be incorporated. The work is organized into interacting tasks

  3. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Paul M. Bertsch,

    2002-06-30

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of The University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory's research mission during the 2002 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of 76 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 50 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members, staff, and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section titled Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 51. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, stable isotopes, sandhills ecology, and phytoremediation: (1) A collaborative study between Dr. Tom Hinton at SREL and scientists at SRTC demonstrated the feasibility of using illite clay to sequester 137Cs in sediments along the P and R reactor cooling canal system, where approximately 3,000 acres of land are contaminated. Overall, the study showed significant decreases in cesium concentrations and bioavailability following the addition of illite with no sign of harm to the ecosystem. While the cesium remains sequestered from the biosphere, its radioactivity decays and the process progresses from contaminant immobilization to remediation. (2) SREL's stable isotope laboratory is now fully functional. Stable isotope distributions in nature can provide important insights into many historical and current environmental processes. Dr. Christopher Romanek is leading SREL's research in this area

  4. Lake Roosevelt White Sturgeon Recovery Project : Annual Progress Report, January 2003 – March 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Matthew D.; McLellan, Jason G.

    2009-07-15

    This report summarizes catch data collected from white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in Lake Roosevelt during limited setlining and gill netting activities in the fall of 2003, and documents progress toward development of a U.S. white sturgeon conservation aquaculture program for Lake Roosevelt. From 27-30 October, 42 overnight small mesh gill net sets were made between Marcus and Northport, WA for a total catch of 15 juvenile white sturgeon (275-488 mm FL). All sturgeon captured were of Canadian hatchery origin. These fish had been previously released as sub-yearlings into the Canadian portion (Keenleyside Reach) of the Transboundary Reach of the Columbia River during 2002 and 2003. Most sturgeon (n=14) were caught in the most upstream area sampled (Northport) in low velocity eddy areas. Five fish exhibited pectoral fin deformities (curled or stunted). Growth rates were less than for juvenile sturgeon captured in the Keenleyside Reach but condition factor was similar. Condition factor was also similar to that observed in juvenile sturgeon (ages 1-8) captured in the unimpounded Columbia River below Bonneville Dam between 1987-92. From 10-14 November, 28 overnight setline sets were made in the Roosevelt Reach between the confluence of the Spokane River and Marcus Island for a total catch of 17 white sturgeon (94-213 cm FL). Catch was greatest in the most upstream areas sampled, a distribution similar to that observed during a WDFW setline survey in Lake Roosevelt in 1998. The mean W{sub r} index of 110% for fish captured this year was higher than the mean W{sub r} of 91% for fish captured in 1998. Excellent fish condition hindered surgical examination of gonads as lipid deposits made the ventral body wall very thick and difficult to penetrate with available otoscope specula. Acoustic tags (Vemco model V16 coded pingers, 69 kHz, 48-month life expectancy) were internally applied to 15 fish for subsequent telemetry investigations of seasonal and reproductively

  5. Integrated High Temperature Coal to Hydrogen System with CO2 Separation: Semi-Annual Progress Report 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ruud, J A; Ku, A; Ramaswamy, V; Wei, W

    2005-12-21

    This is the first semi-annual progress report for the program "Integrated High Temperature Coal to Hydrogen System with CO2 Separation." The objective of the program is to develop a detailed design for a single high-temperature syngas-cleanup module to produce a pure stream of H2 from a coal-based system and to develop the new high-temperature membrane materials at the core of that design. The novel one-box process combines a shift reactor with a high-temperature CO2-selective membrane to convert CO to CO2, remove sulfur compounds, and remove CO2 in a simple, compact, fully integrated system. In the first six months of the program, a conceptual design for the one-box system was developed in Task 1 and the performance targets for the system and the membrane were evaluated. In Task 2.1 processes were developed for creating pore architectures in ceramics that are applicable to membrane structures. In Task 2.2, candidate materials were identified that have the potential for separation of CO2 and H2S at high temperatures.

  6. Biotechnological perspectives of microbes in agro-ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, D K; Sharma, K P; Gaur, R K

    2011-10-01

    In subsistence agricultural systems, crop yields are directly dependent on the inherent soil fertility and on microbial processes that govern the mineralization and mobilization of nutrients required for plant growth. An impact of different crop species that are used in various combinations is likely to be an important factor in determining the structure of plant beneficial microbial communities that function in nutrient cycling, the production of plant growth hormones, and suppression of root diseases. In addition, studies are needed to elucidate the signal transduction pathways that result from treatment of plants with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria under stress conditions. In the present review an emphasis has been given on plant-microbe interactions and their mitigation under abiotic and biotic stresses.

  7. [Redundancy theory and its application in agro-ecosystem management].

    PubMed

    Han, Mingchun; Wu, Jianjun; Wang, Fen

    2005-02-01

    Redundancy theory is an ecological theory developed in 1990s. This paper gave a brief introduction on the concept of redundancy, its hypothesis and redundancy degree, and briefly reviewed the research advances in redundancy theory and in the methodologies about species redundancy, layer redundancy, gene redundancy, and growth redundancy. A hypothesis of optimal growth redundancy degree (OGRD) was proposed, i. e., under certain cultivation and management conditions, there existed a growth redundancy degree corresponding to the highest crop yield, and a high yield would be obtained if OGRD could be achieved through the regulation of management practices. The hypothesis was tested by using the data from high-yielding rice cultivation cases.

  8. Annual Research Progress Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-30

    as the cryoprotectant with no-wash post-thaw properties and developed modifications to meet post-thaw storage with CPD-adenine and pi1 readjustment to...during the investi- gation of the neurotoxic properties of other compounds. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS In a pilot study, male rats were given...current permissible exposures appears necessary based upon the relative absorption properties of the ocular media. PUBLICATIONS None PRESENTATIONS 1

  9. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wattenberg, A.; Simmons, R. O.

    1981-05-01

    Elementary particle physics research at the University of Illinois and at high energy particle accelerator laboratories operated by DOE is described. Major accomplishments in 1980 include: determination of the diffractive cross section for production of charmed D mesons in ..pi../sup -/p collisions at 215 GeV/c to be 20 ..mu..b; data acquisition for ..pi../sup -/ beryllium at 215 GeV/c; construction and testing of prototype muon drift tubes for the p anti p detector facility; Monte Carlo studies of the muon trigger rates, background levels and resolutions were done; results of photoproduction for 70 to 200 GeV photons gave cross-sections of 160 +- 70 nb and 390 +- 190 nb per nucleon respectively; the cross-section for photoproduction of the charmed ..lambda../sub c/ baryon was measured; and development of the FASTBUS system. (GHT)

  10. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A.

    1980-08-31

    Research efforts were concentrated on two main topics. One was to obtain a fit between single-mode nonlinear saturation theory and experimental observations on the PR-6 mirror device. A model of this experiment yields good agreement between predictions of the time variation of the fluctuating potential level, the floating potential, the mode wavelength and mode frequency, and observations. The second topic concerned single-mode Landau damping. The previous results of O-Neil-Morales were confirmed, but in much simpler form with no multiple sums. No longer-time corrections of any significant size were uncovered.

  11. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J. B.

    1981-06-01

    Emphasis during the past year has been on studies of the effects of potential promoting agents on radiation transformation, and of transformation by internal radionuclides emitting high LET radiation. We have also carried out a detailed investigation of the dosimetry of our alpha radiation source. Preliminary studies on the mechanisms of radiation transformation have been initiated as described in the previous proposal. Studies on promotion have focused on the effects of: (1) the endogenous steroid hormone 17-..beta..-estradiol; (2) the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent indomethacin; (3) the endogenous growth factor called Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF); and (4) Melittin, a stimulator of prostaglandins synthesis.

  12. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1991-February 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1992-12-31

    This document is the 1991 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Our approach was to present the progress achieved during 1991 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency.

  13. Compilation of 1985 annual reports of the Navy elf (extremely low frequency) communications system ecological monitoring program. Volume 1. Tabs A-C. Annual progress report, January-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.; Bruhn, J.; Cattelino, P.; Fuller, L.; Jurgensen, M.

    1986-07-01

    This is the fourth compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports document the progress of ten studies performed during 1985 at the Wisconsin and Michigan Transmitting Facilities. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produced by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships. This volume consists of three reports: Herbaceous Plant Cover and Tree Studies; Litter Decomposition and Microflora; and The Effects of Exposing the Slime MOld Physarum polycephalum to Electromagnetic Fields.

  14. 1993 Annual progress report for subsidiary agreement No. 2 (1991--1996) between AECL and US/DOE for a radioactive waste management technical co-operative program

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    A coordinated research program on radioactive waste disposal is being carried out by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the US Department of Energy. This annual report describes progress in the following eight studies: Fundamental materials investigations; In-situ stress determination; Development of a spent fuel dissolution model; Large block tracer test--Experimental testing of retardation models; Laboratory and field tests of in-situ hydrochemical tools; Cigar Lake--Analogue study, actinide and fission product geochemistry; Performance assessment technology exchange; and Development of multiple-well hydraulic test and field tracer test methods.

  15. Building a Grad Nation: Progress and Challenge in Ending the High School Dropout Epidemic. Annual Update 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John M.; Fox, Joanna Hornig; DePaoli, Jennifer L.; Ingram, Erin S.; Maushard, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This fifth annual update on America's high school dropout crisis shows that, for the first time in history, the nation has crossed the 80 percent high school graduation rate threshold and remains on pace, for the second year in a row, to meet the goal of a 90 percent high school graduation rate by the Class of 2020. This report highlights key…

  16. Building a Grad Nation: Progress and Challenge in Ending the High School Dropout Epidemic. Annual Update 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaoli, Jennifer L.; Fox, Joanna Hornig; Ingram, Erin S.; Maushard, Mary; Bridgeland, John M.; Balfanz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the national high school graduation rate hit a record high of 81.4 percent, and for the third year in a row, the nation remained on pace to meet the 90 percent goal by the Class of 2020. This sixth annual update on America's high school dropout challenge shows that these gains have been made possible by raising graduation rates for…

  17. Multi-body forces and the energetics of transition metals, alloys, and semiconductors. Annual progress report, (1991--1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsson, A.E.

    1992-11-01

    Progress over the past year is divided into 3 areas: potential-energy functions for transition-metal aluminides; electronic structure and energetics of complex structures and quasicrystals; and ceramic materials (PdO, PtO).

  18. Studies of particle interactions in bubble chamber, spark chambers and counter experiments: Task P. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.M.; Holloway, L.; O'Halloran, T.A. Jr.; Simmons, R.O.

    1983-07-01

    Our current work reflects the general aim of this task, which is to calculate phenomenological theories of interest to present experiments. Recently, this has emphasized the jet calculus approach to properties of quark and gluon jets. Progress is reviewed.

  19. Studies of the repair of radiation-induced genetic damage in Drosophila. Annual progress report, February 1-July 1, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: (1) characterization of a photo-repair deficient mutant in Drosophila; (2) the role of poly(ADPR)polymerase in Drosophila repair; and (3) service functions. (ACR)

  20. Building a Grad Nation: Progress and Challenge in Ending the High School Dropout Epidemic. Annual Update, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John M.; Bruce, Mary; Fox, Joanna Hornig

    2013-01-01

    This fourth annual update on America's high school dropout crisis shows that for the first time the nation is on track to meet the goal of a 90 percent high school graduation rate by the Class of 2020--if the pace of improvement from 2006 to 2010 is sustained over the next 10 years. The greatest gains have occurred for the students of color and…

  1. Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics (4th), Held in Monterey, California on March 22-24, 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-24

    0249 for Naval Weapons Center. [4] R. J. Marhcfka and J. H. Choi , "Bistatic Scattering Analysis of an Ellipsoid," Applied Computational Electromagnetics...Society, 3rd Annual Review Conference Proceedings, Monterey, California, March 24-26, 1987. [51 J. HI. Choi and R.. J. Marhefka, "Bistatic Scattering...given by the formulas on the next page. In these formulas, the elements 1’ essentially relarýý the magnetic current basis functions to the BOK basis

  2. Fiscal Year 1994 progress in implementing Section 120 of the Comprehensive Environmental Rresponse, Compensation, and Liability Act. Eighth annual report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Public Law 96-510), commonly known as Superfund, in 1980. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) (Public Law 99-499), which amended CERCLA in 1986, added Section 120 regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites at Federal facilities. Under Section 120(e)(5) of CERCLA, each department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal government responsible for compliance with Section 120 must submit an annual report to Congress concerning its progress in implementing the requirements of Section 120. The report must include information on the progress in reaching Interagency Agreements (IAGs), conducting Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Studies (RI/FSs), and performing remedial actions. Federal agencies that own or operate facilities on the National Priorities List (NPL) are required to begin an RI/FS for these facilities within 6 months after being placed on the NPL. Remediation of these facilities is addressed in an IAG between the Federal agency, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and in some instances the state within which the facility is located. This report, prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Management, is being submitted to Congress in accordance with Section 120(e)(5) of CERCLA. It is DOE`s Eighth Annual Report to Congress and provides information on DOE`s progress in implementing CERCLA Section 120 in Fiscal Year 1994 (FY 94), i.e., from October 1, 1993, to September 30, 1994. In this report the words {open_quotes}site{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}facility{close_quotes} are used interchangeably.

  3. World bank and the environment: A progress report, fiscal year 1993. Annual report; Banque mondiale et l`environnement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    This fourth annual report examines how well the World Bank`s environmental policies have worked during fiscal year 1993. It presents an agenda of actions that will help countries manage their environment better and link environmental protection with sustainable development. It describes ways to improve environmental impact studies of Bank-financed projects. The report notes the World Bank`s improved public communications network and increased cofinancing for environmental projects. The Bank`s work in implementing Global Environment Facility (GEF) policies and the Montreal Protocol is also reviewed.

  4. Building a Grad Nation: Progress and Challenge in Ending the High School Dropout Epidemic. Annual Update, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John M.; Fox, Joanna Hornig; Moore, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    America continues to make progress in meeting its high school dropout challenge. Leaders in education, government, nonprofits and business have awakened to the individual, social and economic costs of the dropout crisis and are working together to solve it. This year, all states, districts, and schools are required by law to calculate high school…

  5. Surface and interface electronic structure: Sixth year activity report. [Annual progress report], December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kevan, S D

    1992-12-31

    Several productive runs were made on beamline U4A at NSLS. An upgrade of angle-resolved photoemission spectrometer was largely completed on the beamline. Progress was made on studies of surface states and reconstruction on Mo(001) and W(001), and of surface states and resonances on Pt(111).

  6. Building a Grad Nation: Progress and Challenge in Ending the High School Dropout Epidemic. Annual Update, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John M.; Bruce, Mary; Fox, Joanna Hornig

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the authors shared a Civic Marshall Plan to create a Grad Nation. Through that first report and subsequent update, they saw hopeful signs of progress in boosting high school graduation rates in communities across the country. This 2012 report shows that high school graduation rates continue to improve nationally and across many states and…

  7. National flow cytometry and sorting research resource. Annual progress report, July, 1, 1994--June 30, 1995, Year 12

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.H.

    1995-04-27

    Research progress utilizing flow cytometry is described. Topics include: rapid kinetics flow cytometry; characterization of size determinations for small DNA fragments; statistical analysis; energy transfer measurements of molecular confirmation in micelles; and enrichment of Mus spretus chromosomes by dual parameter flow sorting and identification of sorted fractions by fluorescence in-situ hybridization onto G-banded mouse metaphase spreads.

  8. High temperature turbine technology program. Phase II. Technology test and support studies. Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Work performed on the High Temperature Turbine Technology Program, Phase II - Technology Test and Support Studies during the period from January 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979 is summarized. Objectives of the program elements as well as technical progress and problems encountered during this Phase II annual reporting period are presented. Progress on design, fabrication and checkout of test facilities and test rigs is described. LP turbine cascade tests were concluded. 350 hours of testing were conducted on the LP rig engine first with clean distillate fuel and then with fly ash particulates injected into the hot gas stream. Design and fabrication of the turbine spool technology rig components are described. TSTR 60/sup 0/ sector combustor rig fabrication and testing are reviewed. Progress in the design and fabrication of TSTR cascade rig components for operation on both distillate fuel and low Btu gas is described. The new coal-derived gaseous fuel synthesizing facility is reviewed. Results and future plans for the supporting metallurgical programs are discussed.

  9. Fiscal year 1995 progress in implementing Section 120 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Ninth annual report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Public Law 96-510), commonly known as Superfund, in 1980. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) which amended CERCLA in 1986, added Section 120 regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites at Federal facilities. Under Section 120(e)(5) of CERCLA, each department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal government responsible for compliance with Section 120 must submit an annual report to Congress concerning its progress in implementing the requirements of Section 120. The report must include information on the progress in reaching Interagency Agreements (IAGs), conducting Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Studies (RI/FSs), and performing remedial action. Federal agencies that own or operate facilities on the National priorities List (NPL) are required to begin an RI/FS for these facilities within 6 months after being placed on the NPL. Remediation of these facilities is addressed in an IAG between the Federal agency, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and in some instances the state within which the facility is located. This report provides the status of ongoing activities being performed in support of CERCLA Section 120 at DOE facilities. This includes activities conducted to reach IAGs and progress in conducting remedial actions.

  10. Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D. C. Annual Progress Report FY-89. Volume 2. Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-02

    with lung and breast canc-r and adriamycin. PRIOR AND CURRENT PROGRESS Thirty-six subjects have been accessed, 14 from WRAMC and 22 from Naval...signs: nodal metastasis , parametrial involvement, positive surgical margin, tumor diameter greater than 4 cm, deep cervical invasion, adenocarcinoma...FY: $ 0 Previous FYs: $ 0 Total: $ 0 STUDY OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of pelvic and aortic lymph node metastasis associated with Stage I and

  11. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.

    1980-10-01

    The executive study presents the results and progress of efforts toward understanding shale gas production from the Devonian shale in Appalachia. A correlation was found between the geochemical parameters of the shale in eastern Kentucky and shale gas production there. Tasks on resource inventory tasks and shale characterization include regional structure studies, production studies, geophysical studies, structure studies, fracture density and orientation, and fracture studies. (DLC)

  12. Modeling the Magnetic and Thermal Structure of Active Regions: 1st Year 1st Semi-Annual Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran

    2003-01-01

    This report covers technical progress during the first six months of the first year of NASA SR&T contract "Modeling the Magnetic and Thermal Structure of Active Regions", NASW-03008, between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation, and covers the period January 14, 2003 to July 13, 2003. Under this contract SAIC has conducted research into theoretical modeling of the properties of active regions using the MHD model.

  13. RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Annual progress report for 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the progress during 1988 of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects covering 16 hazardous waste facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility (the Solid Waste Landfill). Each of the projects is being conducted according to federal regulations based on the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the State of Washington Administrative Code. 21 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Ultrahigh sensitivity heavy noble gas detectors for long-term monitoring and monitoring air. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.D.; Gross, K.

    1998-06-01

    'The primary objective of this research project is to develop heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for: (1) long-term monitoring of transuranic waste, spent fuel, and other uranium and thorium bearing wastes, and (2) alpha particle air monitors that discriminate between radon emissions and other alpha emitters. A University of Cincinnati/Argonne National Laboratory (UC/ANL) Team has been assembled to complete this detector development project. DOE needs that are addressed by this project include improved long-term monitoring capability and improved air monitoring capability during remedial activities. Successful development and implementation of the proposed detection systems could significantly improve current capabilities with relatively simple and inexpensive equipment. As of June 1, 1998, the UC/ANL Team has: (1) made significant progress toward characterizing the fluid transfer process which is the basis for this detector development project and (2) evaluated several radiation detectors and several potential pulse processing schemes. The following discussion describes the progress made during the first year of this project and the implications of this progress.'

  15. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is the 1991 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. In April 1992, Snake River fall chinook salmon were listed as ``threatened`` under the Endangered Species Act. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon can not be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  16. Clinical Cancer Advances 2017: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer From the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Harold J; Krilov, Lada; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B; Baxter, Nancy N; Chiorean, E Gabriela; Chow, Warren Allen; De Groot, John Frederick; Devine, Steven Michael; DuBois, Steven G; El-Deiry, Wafik S; Epstein, Andrew S; Heymach, John; Jones, Joshua Adam; Mayer, Deborah K; Miksad, Rebecca A; Pennell, Nathan A; Sabel, Michael S; Schilsky, Richard L; Schuchter, Lynn Mara; Tung, Nadine; Winkfield, Karen Marie; Wirth, Lori J; Dizon, Don S

    2017-02-01

    A MESSAGE FROM ASCO'S PRESIDENT I am pleased to present Clinical Cancer Advances 2017, which highlights the most promising advances in patient-oriented cancer research over the past year. The report gives us an opportunity to reflect on what an exciting time it is for cancer research and how swiftly our understanding of cancer has improved. One year ago, the White House announced the national Cancer Moonshot program to accelerate progress against cancer. This shared vision of progress has reinvigorated the research community, identified new areas of scientific collaboration, and raised our ambitions regarding what may be possible beyond the progress we have already made. When I entered the field 35 years ago, I could not have imagined where we would be today. We can now detect cancer earlier, target treatments more effectively, and manage adverse effects more effectively to enable patients to live better, more fulfilling lives. Today, two of three people with cancer live at least 5 years after diagnosis, up from roughly one of two in the 1970s. This progress has resulted from decades of incremental advances that have collectively expanded our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of cancer. There is no better current example of this than ASCO's 2017 Advance of the Year: Immunotherapy 2.0. Over the last year, there has been a wave of new successes with immunotherapy. Research has proven this approach can be effective against a wide range of hard-to-treat advanced cancers previously considered intractable. Researchers are now working to identify biologic markers that can help increase the effectiveness of treatment and determine who is most likely to benefit from immunotherapy. This knowledge will enable oncologists to make evidence-based decisions so as many patients as possible might benefit from this new type of treatment. Each successive advance builds on the previous hard work of generations of basic, translational, and clinical cancer researchers

  17. Annual Research Progress Report Fiscal Year 1990. Volume 1. Department of Clinical Investigation (Brooke Army Medical Center)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    function and chronic renal insufficiency will be enlisted from adult patients scheduled for nonemergent cardiac catheteriat’ion and divided into three gorups...Progress: The C wave occurred in the RA 5 msec (range 0-38) after TVC. It is propagated to the jugular veins at 2.4 meters/sec (m/s). The V and A wave velo ... insufficient data to report any signi- ficant conclusions. 291 un m m N m m~m m m un ~ mmn nmmm l |mn nn nuC Detail Summary Sheet Date: 20 Sep 90 Proj

  18. Fusion Plasma Theory: Task 1, Magnetic confinement Fusion Plasma Theory. Annual progress report, November 16, 1992--November 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The research performed under this grant during the current year has concentrated on few tokamak plasma confinement issues: applications of our new Chapman-Enskog-like approach for developing hybrid fluid/kinetic descriptions of tokamak plasmas; multi-faceted studies as part of our development of a new interacting island paradigm for the tokamak equilibrium`` and transport; investigations of the resolution power of BES and ECE diagnostics for measuring core plasma fluctuations; and studies of net transport in the presence of fluctuating surfaces. Recent progress and publications in these areas, and in the management of the NERSC node and the fusion theory workstations are summarized briefly in this report.

  19. Integrative studies of thermoregulation in ectothermic vertebrates in aquatic habitats. Annual progress report, 1 October 1980-30 September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Spotila, J R

    1981-05-01

    Field experiments are underway to determine the behavioral mechanisms by which largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, respond to rapid temperature changes in their natural environment. Laboratory experiments are clarifying the relationship between basking behavior of the turtle, Pseudemys scripta and its nutritional state. Important progress has been made in the development and miniaturization of a multichannel, temperature sensing, radio transmitter for fish. Theoretical analysis and mathematical modeling have defined the realized and fundamental climate space of P. scripta and allows the prediction of the behavior of this turtle.

  20. Exploratory energy research program of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Annual progress report, June 1, 1982- May 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported for the following: solar energy laboratory for the roof of Holmes Hall; a freon boiler for alternate energy power cycles; boiling heat transfer in geothermal systems; building energy conservation in Hawaii; combustion properties of biomass pyrolysis products; concentrator solar cell development; materials problems in natural energy development; sail-assisted technology for Pacific marine transportation; electrochemical evaluation of hydrogen systems storage in transition metal hydrides; seismic and thermal properties of Hawaiian basalts; chemical dynamics of OTEC chlorination; and studies of the interaction of hydrogen and deuterium with transition metals and their alloys at high pressure.

  1. Use of corn-distiller's solubles from an ethanol plant for aquaculture. Semi-annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, C.C.; Lewis, W.M.

    1982-03-12

    It appears reasonable that potential exists for using corn distiller's solubles for the controlled production of aquatic organisms (aquaculture). Results of initial laboratory studies which have focused on assessing the short-term effects of various concentrations of corn distiller's solubles on water quality and aquatic organisms (fish, macrocrustaceans, microcrustaceans, and algae) are described. These results, coupled with results of studies currently in progress, will be used to identify a suitable quantity of corn distiller's solubles for daily application to the earthen ponds that will be used in the field production trials.

  2. Transport function and reaction mechanism of vacuolar H{sup +}- translocation inorganic pyrophosphatase. Annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    These studies describe progress made in the definition of the transport capabilities and reaction mechanism of the V-PPase through biochemical analyses of native membrane vesicles isolated from etiolated hypocotyls of Vigna radiate and by reconstitution of the purified enzyme into artificial liposomes; delineation of the ligand requirements of the V-PPase; and the delineation of sequence motifs implicated in substrate-binding through the development of strategies for selective cleavage of the M{sub r} 66,000 polypeptide and the mapping of covalently modified peptide fragments.

  3. Research project on CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Annual progress report, March 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cess, R.D.; Hameed, S.

    1995-01-01

    This summarizes current progress in the research project at SUNY Stony Brook on CO2-induced climate change. Three tasks are described, corresponding to the task categories in the USDOE/PRC CAS cooperative project on climate change. Task 1, led by Dr. Robert Cess, concerns the intercomparison of CO2 related climatic warming in contemporary general circulation models. Task 2, directed by Dr. Sultan Hameed, looks at understanding the natural variability in climatic data and comparing its significant features between observations and model simulations. Task 3, also directed by Dr. Hameed focuses on analysis of historical climate data developed at the institute of Geography of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Climatic fluctuations, volcanic aerosol and carbon dioxide changes. Annual progress report, 1 October 1979-30 September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, R.E.

    1980-05-21

    Technical progress made for the contract period 1 October 1979-30 September 1980, and in fact since the last progress report was prepared on 18 June 1979, is summarized. The relationship between tropospheric air temperature, sea surface temperature patterns and volcanic aerosol has been derived by the application of generalized least squares analysis, which takes account of significant autocorrelation between the variables. Up to 50% of the variance of the tropical tropospheric air temperature can be explained in terms of preceding values of the variables. The technique is being applied to make a preliminary climatic forecast of the effect of the Mt. St. Helen's eruption of 18 May 1980 on zonal mean Northern Hemisphere temperature. A regression approach was used to forecast winter temperature over the continental US using parameters from our data base. Techniques for experimental climatic forecasting are being developed and studies of the background sea-air interaction processes are being made. We have shown that surface effects extend up to at least 500 mb in the atmosphere. Tropical rainfall has been found to vary with the Southern Oscillation Index; this rainfall provides the main energy supply to the atmosphere in the form of latent heat liberation.

  5. Superconductivity program for electric systems, Superconductivity Technology Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, annual progress report for fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, J.O.; Newnam, B.E.; Peterson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    Development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) has undergone tremendous progress during the past year. Kilometer tape lengths and associated magnets based on BSCCO materials are now commercially available from several industrial partners. Superconducting properties in the exciting YBCO coated conductors continue to be improved over longer lengths. The Superconducting Partnership Initiative (SPI) projects to develop HTS fault current limiters and transmission cables have demonstrated that HTS prototype applications can be produced successfully with properties appropriate for commercial applications. Research and development activities at LANL related to the HTS program for Fiscal Year 1997 are collected in this report. LANL continues to support further development of Bi2223 and Bi2212 tapes in collaboration with American Superconductor Corporation (ASC) and Oxford Superconductivity Technology, Inc. (OSTI), respectively. The tape processing studies involving novel thermal treatments and microstructural characterization have assisted these companies in commercializing these materials. The research on second-generation YBCO-coated conductors produced by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) over buffer template layers produced by ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) continues to lead the world. The applied physics studies of magnetic flux pinning by proton and heavy ion bombardment of BSCCO and YBCO tapes have provided many insights into improving the behavior of these materials in magnetic fields. Sections 4 to 7 of this report contain a list of 29 referred publications and 15 conference abstracts, a list of patent and license activities, and a comprehensive list of collaborative agreements in progress and completed.

  6. Climatic fluctuations, volcanic aerosol and carbon dioxide changes. Annual progress report, 1 October 1979-30 September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, R. E.

    1980-05-21

    Technical progress made for the contract period 1 October 1979-30 September 1980, and in fact since the last progress report was prepared on 18 June 1979, is summarized. The relationship between tropospheric air temperature, sea surface temperature patterns and volcanic aerosol has been derived by the application of generalized least squares analysis, which takes account of significant autocorrelation between the variables. Up to 50% of the variance of the tropical tropospheric air temperature can be explained in terms of preceding values of the variables. The technique is being applied to make a preliminary climatic forecast of the effect of the Mt. St. Helen's eruption of 18 May 1980 on zonal mean Northern Hemisphere temperature. A regression approach was used to forecast winter temperature over the continental US using parameters from out data base. Techniques for experimental climatic forecasting are being developed and studies of the background sea-air interaction processes are being made. We have shown that surface effects extend up to at least 500 mb in the atmosphere. Tropical rainfall has been found to vary with the Southern Oscillation Index; this rainfall provides the main energy supply to the atmosphere in the form of latent heat liberation.

  7. Heavy Neutral Beam Probe for edge plasma analysis in Tokamaks. Annual progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Castracane, J.; Saravia, E.; Beckstead, J.; Aceto, S.

    1993-09-03

    The contents of this report present the progress achieved to date on the Heavy Neutral Beam Probe project. This effort is an international collaboration in magnetic confinement fusion energy research sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research (Confinement Systems Division) and the Centre Canadien de Fusion Magnetique (CCFM). The overall objective of the effort is to develop and apply a neutral particle beam to the study of edge plasma dynamics in discharges on the Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV) facility in Montreal, Canada. To achieve this goal, a research and development project was established to produce the necessary hardware to make such measurements and meet the scheduling requirements of the program. At present the project is in the middle of its second budget period with the instrumentation on-site at TdeV. The first half of this budget period was used to complete total system tests at InterScience, Inc., dismantle and ship the hardware to TdeV, re-assemble and install the HNBP on the tokamak. Integration of the diagnostic into the TdeV facility has progressed to the point of first beam production and measurement on the plasma. At this time, the HNBP system is undergoing final de-bugging prior to re-start of machine operation in early Fall of this year.

  8. Declassification Productivity Research Center annual progress report {number_sign}8, September 26, 1996--September 25, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the progress achieved by the Declassification Productivity Research Center (DPRC) during the second year of operations. This report is submitted in lieu of a fourth quarterly performance report as the Grant continues into its third year. The intent of this report is to address progress against the statement of work (SOW) of the Grant. Accordingly, its format follows that of the SOW, and describes the DPRC research activities this past year and the resulting products. The DPRC was established as an independent, world-class research capability and computer facility to support the DOE Declassification Productivity Initiative (DPI). The goal of DPI is to increase the flow of unrestricted government information to the public. To this end, the work involves both basic and applied research in the areas of (1) system-level declassification process analysis and modeling, (2) development of computer systems to automate declassification processes, including text analysis and interpretation, (3) coordination/integration of new technology among into the processes, and (4) development and promulgation of inter-operability and document transfer standards.

  9. Application of CIS of high-efficiency PV module fabrication. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1996--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Basol, B.; Kapur, V.; Leidholm, C.

    1997-08-01

    This is the Phase II Annual Technical Report of the subcontract titled {open_quotes}Application of CIS to High Efficiency PV Module fabrication.{close_quotes} The general objectives of the program are the development of a novel, non-vacuum process for CIS film deposition, optimization of the various layers forming the CIS device structure, and fabrication of high efficiency submodules. The specific goals of the project are the development of 13% efficient small area cells and 10% efficient submodules using a novel, low-cost CIS deposition approach. During this research period, the authors concentrated their efforts on three different areas of research. Within the National CIS Partnership Program, they participated in the {open_quotes}substrate/Mo interactions{close_quotes} working group and investigated issues such as Na diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrate into the Mo layers and CIS films. It was determined that the Na content within the Mo layers was not a strong function of the nature of the Mo film. However, diffusion through the Mo layers was found to be a function of the Mo film characteristics as well as a very strong function of the CIS growth process. Na was found to be on the grain boundaries in Mo and CIS layers.

  10. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1985 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1986-07-01

    Mid-water trawling techniques were used during September to estimate kokanee population abundance, structure and survival. Abundance in 1985 was estimated at 4.5 million fish (198 per hectare), down from over 12 million kokanee in 1974 when the population was first monitored. Hatchery fry production (<6 million annually) has stabilized kokanee abundance since its initial decline in the late 1960s. Wild fry recruitment has remained relatively stable at 1.8 million since 1978; whereas recruitment of hatchery-reared fry has ranged from 0.09 to 1.98 million. The 1985 creel survey indicated that kokanee harvest rates remain low, with approximately one kokanee harvested per hour of effort from April to August. Catch rates were as high as 3.5 fish per hour during the mid-1960s. The zooplankton community was monitored with periodic plankton tows. Zooplankton composition in 1985 was similar to previous years and appears to have stabilized following the introduction of mysids, with peak cladoceran production occurring several weeks after peak kokanee emergence. Delayed release of hatchery fry resulted in higher survival of hatchery (7.3%) than wild (0.43%) kokanee fry. Other release strategies will be tested as more fry become available.

  11. Thermohaline circulations and global climate change. Annual progress report no. 3, January 15, 1992--December 14, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, H.P.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses research activities conducted during the period 15 January 1992--14 December 1992. Thermohaline Circulations and Global Climate Change is concerned with investigating the hypothesis that changes in surface thermal and hydrological forcing of the North Atlantic, changes that might be expected to accompany C0{sub 2}-induced global warming, could result in ocean-atmosphere interactions` exerting a positive feedback on the climate system. Because the North Atlantic is the source of much of the global ocean`s reservoir of deep water, and because this deep water could sequester large amounts of anthropogenically produced C0{sub 2}, changes in the rate of deep-water production are important to future climates. Since deep-water Production is controlled, in part, by the annual cycle of the atmospheric forcing of the North Atlantic, and since this forcing depends strongly on both hydrological and thermal processes as well as the windstress, there is the potential for feedback between the relatively short-term response of the atmosphere to changing radiative forcing and the longer-term processes in the oceans. Work over the past 11 months has proceeded according to the continuation discussion of last January and several new results have arisen.

  12. Thermohaline circulations and global climate change. Annual progress report No. 2, [15 January 1991--14 January 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, H.P.

    1992-03-01

    ``Thermohaline Circulations and Global Climate Change`` is concerned with investigating the hypothesis that changes in surface thermal and hydrological forcing of the North Atlantic, changes that might be expected to accompany CO{sub 2}-induced global warming, could result in ocean-atmosphere interactions` exerting a positive feedback on the climate system. Because the North Atlantic is the source of much of the global ocean`s reservoir of deep water, and because this deep water could sequester large amounts of anthropogenically produced Co{sub 2}, changes in the rate of deep-water production are important to future climates. Since deep-water production is controlled, in part, by the annual cycle of the atmospheric forcing of the North Atlantic, and since this forcing depends strongly on both hydrological and thermal processes as well as the windstress, there is the potential for feedback between the relatively short-term response of the atmosphere to changing radiative forcing and the longer-term processes in the oceans. Work over the past 12 months has proceeded in several directions.

  13. Fiscal year 1996 progress in implementing Section 120 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Tenth annual report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Public Law 96-510), commonly known as Superfund, in 1980. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) (Public Law 99-499), which amended CERCLA in 1986, added Section 120 regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites at Federal facilities. Under Section 120(e)(5) of CERCLA, each department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal government responsible for compliance with Section 120 must submit an annual report to Congress concerning its progress in implementing the requirements of Section 120. The report must include information on the progress in reaching Interagency Agreements (IAGs), conducting remedial investigation and feasibility studies (RI/FSs), and performing remedial actions. Federal agencies that own or operate facilities on the National Priorities List (NPL) are required to begin an RI/FS for these facilities within 6 months after being placed on the NPL. Remediation of these facilities is addressed in an IAG between the Federal agency, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and in some instances the state within which the facility is located.

  14. Managing tight-binding receptors for new separations technologies. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996--June 10, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, D.H.; Givens, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    'This program is fully staffed and all proposed investigations are proceeding as outlined in the Task Schedule of the original proposal. The program aims remain unchanged and excellent progress is reported below. The authors anticipate no substantial unexpended funds from the first year''s budget at the end of the first year of support. Any such remaining funds will certainly be less than 10% of the budget; less than 5% is expected. Three projects make up this program and each focuses on a single aspect of the major problem of overcoming the inherent slow reaction rates of tight-binding ligands. In a logical order, Project 1 addresses the rates of formation of metal complexes using tight-binding ligands; Project 2 addresses the rate of release of metal ions from complexes with tight-binding ligands; and Project 3 provides the possibility of a new technology that should be unimpeded by the inherent dilatory rates.'

  15. Dual cure low-VOC coating process: Phase 3. Semi-annual technical progress report, October 1992--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzer, K.E.

    1993-11-01

    Objective of Phase 3 is to complete proof-of-principle testing in full-scale systems of the dual cure photocatalyst technology developed in earlier phases. Phase 3 commercial applications are aerospace topcoats, aerospace primers, and solventless manufacture of tape backings. Progress was made in improving urethane/acrylate formulation for aerospace topcoats, particularly in reverse impact, initial gloss, and loss retention during accelerated weathering. Formulations have now been developed which meet all initial criteria; the formulation was optimized. Aerospace primer formulations based on epoxy/flexibilizer systems were evaluated. Because of cure consistency problems and the increased need for non-chromated primers, work on aerospace primer system was de-emphasized to allow greater effort on development and commercialization of aerospace topcoat. Work on solventless backing saturants for electrical tape backings has been completed; optimal dual cure resin formulations have been used in preparing complete tape constructions.

  16. Exploratory research on solvent-refined-coal liquefaction. Annual technical progress report, January 1-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1981-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co.'s Merriam Laboratory during 1980. Six coals and a coal blend, representing the Interior, Rocky Mountain, Eastern and Northern Great Plains Provinces, were processed in the SRC I and SRC II modes to study the relationship between coal properties and liquefaction behavior. Disposable catalysts and specific compounds were added to Loveridge, Kaiparowits and Blacksville No. 2 coals during SRC II mode liquefaction. Kentucky 9/14, Indiana V and Loveridge coals were processed at short residence times (4 to 9 minutes) in the SRC I mode to evaluate the effects of temperature, pressure, residence time and disposable catalyst addition. Finally, coal from the Powhatan No. 1 Mine was evaluated as a feedstock for major coal liquefaction facilities.

  17. Mechanisms, chemistry, and kinetics of anaerobic biodegradation of cis-dichloroethylene and vinyl chloride. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, P.L.; Spormann, A.M.

    1998-06-01

    'The objectives of this study are to: (1) determine the biochemical pathways for reductive dehalogenation of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC), including identification of the enzymes involved, (2) determine the chemical requirements, especially the type and quantity of electron donors needed by the microorganisms for reductive dehalogenation, and (3) evaluate the kinetics of the process with respect to the concentration of both the electron donors and the electron acceptors (cDCE and VC). Progress has been made under each of the three primary objectives. One manuscript related to the first objective has been published. Manuscripts related to the other two objectives have been submitted for publication. Findings related to the three objectives are summarized.'

  18. Innovative techniques for the description of reservoir heterogeneity using tracers. Second technical annual progress report, October 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1992-12-31

    This second annual report on innovative uses of tracers for reservoir characterization contains four sections each describing a novel use of oilfield tracers. The first section describes and illustrates the use of a new single-well tracer test to estimate wettability. This test consists of the injection of brine containing tracers followed by oil containing tracers, a shut-in period to allow some of the tracers to react, and then production of the tracers. The inclusion of the oil injection slug with tracers is unique to this test, and this is what makes the test work. We adapted our chemical simulator, UTCHEM, to enable us to study this tracer method and made an extensive simulation study to evaluate the effects of wettability based upon characteristic curves for relative permeability and capillary pressure for differing wetting states typical of oil reservoirs. The second section of this report describes a new method for analyzing interwell tracer data based upon a type-curve approach. Theoretical frequency response functions were used to build type curves of ``transfer function`` and ``phase spectrum`` that have dimensionless heterogeneity index as a parameter to characterize a stochastic permeability field. We illustrate this method by analyzing field tracer data. The third section of this report describes a new theory for interpreting interwell tracer data in terms of channeling and dispersive behavior for reservoirs. Once again, a stochastic approach to reservoir description is taken. The fourth section of this report describes our simulation of perfluorocarbon gas tracers. This new tracer technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is being tested at the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California. We report preliminary simulations made of these tracers in one of the oil reservoirs under evaluation with these tracers in this field. Our compostional simulator (UTCOMP) was used for this simulation study.

  19. Clinical cancer advances 2011: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer from the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Benowitz, Steven I; Adams, Sylvia; Aghajanian, Carol; Chang, Susan Marina; Dreyer, Zoann Eckert; Janne, Pasi A; Ko, Andrew H; Masters, Greg A; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Patel, Jyoti D; Roth, Bruce J; Samlowski, Wolfram E; Seidman, Andrew D; Tap, William D; Temel, Jennifer S; Von Roenn, Jamie H; Kris, Mark G

    2012-01-01

    A message from ASCO'S President. It has been forty years since President Richard Nixon signed the National Cancer Act of 1971, which many view as the nation's declaration of the "War on Cancer." The bill has led to major investments in cancer research and significant increases in cancer survival. Today, two-thirds of patients survive at least five years after being diagnosed with cancer compared with just half of all diagnosed patients surviving five years after diagnosis in 1975. The research advances detailed in this year's Clinical Cancer Advances demonstrate that improvements in cancer screening, treatment, and prevention save and improve lives. But although much progress has been made, cancer remains one of the world's most serious health problems. In the United States, the disease is expected to become the nation's leading cause of death in the years ahead as our population ages. I believe we can accelerate the pace of progress, provided that everyone involved in cancer care works together to achieve this goal. It is this viewpoint that has shaped the theme for my presidential term: Collaborating to Conquer Cancer. In practice, this means that physicians and researchers must learn from every patient's experience, ensure greater collaboration between members of a patient's medical team, and involve more patients in the search for cures through clinical trials. Cancer advocates, insurers, and government agencies also have important roles to play. Today, we have an incredible opportunity to improve the quality of cancer care by drawing lessons from the real-world experiences of patients. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is taking the lead in this area, in part through innovative use of health information technology. In addition to our existing quality initiatives, ASCO is working with partners to develop a comprehensive rapid-learning system for cancer care. When complete, this system will provide physicians with personalized, real

  20. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1989 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelscher, Brian

    1990-04-01

    The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka rehabilitation program for Lake Pend Oreille continued to show progress during 1989. Estimated kokanee abundance in late August was 7.71 million fish. Decreased population size is the result of lower hatchery and wild fry recruitment and low age 1+ survival. Lower recruitment of wild fry in 1989 resulted from a smaller parental escapement in 1988 and lower wild fry survival. Six fry release strategies were evaluated in 1989. Two groups were released in Clark Fork River to help improve a spawning run to Cabinet Gorge Hatchery. Survival from the mid-summer release, which was barged down Clark Fork River to avoid low flow problems, was not significantly different from the early release. The final assessment of these release strategies will be evaluated when adults return to Cabinet gorge Hatchery in 1992 and 1993. Fry released to support the Sullivan Springs Creek spawning run also survived will in 1989. Two open-water releases were made during early and mid-summer. 30 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research. Annual grant progress report (FDP), January 15, 1993--January 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, D.B.

    1993-10-01

    Progress on seven tasks is reported. (I)UCLA hadronization model, antiproton decay, PEP4/9 e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} analysis: In addition to these topics, work on CP and CPT phenomenology at a {phi} factory and letters of support on the hadronization project are included. (II)ICARUS detector and rare B decays with hadron beams and colliders: Developments are summarized and some typcial events as shown; in addition, the RD5 collaboration at CERN and the asymmetric {phi} factory project are sketched. (III)Theoretical physics: Feynman diagram calculations in gauge theory; supersymmetric standard model; effects of quantum gravity in breaking of global symmetries; models of quark and lepton substructure; renormalized field theory; large-scale structure in the universe and particle-astrophysics/early universe cosmology. (IV)H dibaryon search at BNL, kaon experiments (E799/KTeV) at Fermilab: Project design and some scatterplots are given. (V)UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab. (VI)Detectors for hadron physics at ultrahigh energy colliders: Scintillating fiber and visible light photon counter research. (VII)Administrative support and conference organization.

  2. Advanced light water reactor plants System 80+{trademark} design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1995 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2, and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems.

  3. Professional technical support services for the Mining Equipment Test Facility. First annual technical progress report, April 14-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Garson, R C

    1981-10-01

    The Department of Energy recently began the operation of its Mining Equipment Test Facility. One component at that facility is the highly sophisticated Mine Roof Simulator (MRS) for research and development of roof support equipment. Because of its previous experience, the University of Pittsburgh was contracted to assist the Facilities Manager by providing professional technical support services, principally for the MRS. This technical progress report briefly describes the services provided during the reporting period and planned for the next period. No significant technical disclosures of interest to those not associated with the MRS are contained herein. One of the four units of the US government-owned METF is the Mine Roof Simulator. This unique $10 million test facility was designed to simulate underground mine roof loads and motions. The MRS is a hybrid, analog-digital, computer-controlled, closed-loop, electro-hydraulic, research device capable of applying either loads or displacements in the vertical and one horizontal axis. Its vertical capacity of 3,000,000 pounds can be applied over its 20 by 20 foot active test area. The horizontal load capacity is 1,600,000 pounds. It can simulate coal seam heights of up to 16 feet. Automatic data acquisition and real time display are provided. The most modern, sophisticated technology was used in its design and construction.

  4. Joint inversion of geophysical data for site characterization and restoration monitoring. FY97 annual progress report for EMSP

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P.A.; Berryman, J.G.; Bonner, B.P.; Roberts, J.J.; Wildenschild, D.

    1997-01-01

    'The purpose of this project is to develop a computer code for joint in-version of seismic and electrical data, to improve underground imaging for site characterization and remediation monitoring. The computer code developed in this project will invert geophysical data to obtain direct estimates of porosity and saturation underground, rather than inverting for seismic velocity and electrical resistivity or other geophysical properties. This is intended to be a significant improvement in the state-of-the-art of under-ground imaging, since interpretation of data collected at a contaminated site would become much less subjective. The schedule of this project is as follows: In the first year, investigators perform laboratory measurements of elastic and electrical properties of sand-clay mixtures containing various fluids. Investigators also develop methods of relating measurable geophysical properties to porosity and saturation by using rock physics theories, geostatistical, and empirical techniques together with available laboratory measurements. In the second year, investigators finish any necessary laboratory measurements and apply the methods de-veloped in the first year to invert available borehole log data to predict measured properties of cores and sediments from a borehole. Investigators refine the inversion code in the third year and carry out a field experiment to collect seismic and electrical data. Investigators then use the inversion code to invert the field data to produce estimates of porosity and saturation in the field area where the data were collected. This report describes progress made in the first year of this three-year project.'

  5. Advanced light water reactor plants System 80+{trademark} design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide a status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1996 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2 and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems.

  6. Advanced Light Water Reactor Plants System 80+{trademark} Design Certification Program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide a status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1993 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW{sub t} (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design consists of an essentially complete plant. It is based on evolutionary improvements to the Standardized System 80 nuclear steam supply system in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2, and 3, and the Duke Power Company P-81 balance-of-plant (BOP) that was designed and partially constructed at the Cherokee plant site. The System 80/P-81 original design has been substantially enhanced to increase conformance with the EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD). Some design enhancements incorporated in the System 80+ design are included in the four units currently under construction in the Republic of Korea. These units form the basis of the Korean standardization program. The full System 80+ standard design has been offered to the Republic of China, in response to their recent bid specification. The ABB-CE Standard Safety Analysis Report (CESSAR-DC) was submitted to the NRC and a Draft Safety Evaluation Report was issued by the NRC in October 1992. CESSAR-DC contains the technical basis for compliance with the EPRI URD for simplified emergency planning. The Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) is the standard ABB-Combustion Engineering two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard plant includes a sperical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual containment.

  7. The Science and Engineering of Durable Ultralow PGM Catalysts- 2012 DOE-EERE-FCT annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, Fernando H.

    2012-07-16

    Minimizing the quantity of Pt group metals used in polymer membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is one of the remaining grand challenges for fuel cell commercialization. Tremendous progress has been achieved over the last two decades in decreasing the Pt loading required for efficient fuel cell performance. Unfortunately, the fluctuations in the price of Pt represent a substantial barrier to the economics of widespread fuel cell use. Durability and impurity tolerance are also challenges that are tightly coupled to fuel cell Pt electrode loading. Traditional approaches to decreasing the amount of Pt required for good performance include: (1) Increasing mass activity by decreasing Pt particle size by supporting on carbon; (2) Alloy formulation Pt-Co, Pt-Cr alloys to improve mass activity; (3) Increasing Pt utilization by optimization of electronic and ionic contact of the Pt particles; (4) Improving conductivity of the electronic and ionic conducting constituents of the membrane electrode assembly; and (5) Improving reactant to and product mass transport away from the electroactive sites. Recent novel approaches include the nanoengineering of core shell catalysts and Pt particles of unusual geometries such as nanowires/whiskers. The success of the aforementioned approaches has been great; however further advances using such approaches have been hampered by a lack of underlining scientific understanding of the catalyst activity, particle growth mechanisms, and optimization strategies for designing composite electrodes The objectives of this report are: (1) Development of durable, high mass activity Platinum Group Metal (PGM) cathode catalysts-enabling lower cost fuel cells; (2) Elucidation of the fundamental relationships between PGM catalyst shape, particle size and activity to help design better catalysts; (3) Optimization of the cathode electrode layer to maximize the performance of PGM catalysts-improving fuel cell performance and lowering cost; (4) Understanding the

  8. The delineation and interpretation of the earth's gravity field. Annual progress report, 1 June 1988-31 May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, B.D.

    1989-05-01

    In an attempt to understand the mechanical interaction of a growing lithosphere containing fracture zones with small and large scale mantle convection, which gives rise to geoid anomalies in oceanic regions, a series of fluid dynamical experiments is in progress to investigate: (1) the influence of lithosphere structure, fluid depth and viscosity field on the onset, scale, and evolution of sublithospheric convection; (2) the role of this convection in determining the rate of growth of lithosphere, especially in light of the flattening of the lithosphere bathymetry and heat flow at late times; and (3) combining the results of both numerical and laboratory experiments to decide the dominate factors in producing geoid anomalies in oceanic regions through the thermo-mechanical interaction of the lithosphere and subjacent mantle. The clear existence of small scale convection associated with a downward propagating solidification front (i.e., the lithosphere) and a larger scale flow associated with a discontinuous upward heat flux (i.e., a fracture zone) has been shown. The flows exist simultaneously and each may have a significant role in deciding the thermal evolution of the lithosphere and in understanding the relation of shallow mantle convection to deep mantle convection. This overall process is reflected in the geoid, gravity, and topographic anomalies in the north-central Pacific. These highly correlated fields of intermediate wavelength (approx. 200 to 2000 km) show isostatic compensation by a thin lithosphere for shorter (less than or equal to approx. 500 km), but not the longer, wavelengths. The ultimate, dynamic origin of this class of anomalies is being investigated.

  9. Fundamental quantitative analysis of microbial activity in aquifer bioreclamation; and Modeling the transport of biologically and chemically reactive solutes in a two-dimensional, heterogeneous intermediate scale system. Semi-annual progress report, August 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, B.E.; Valocchi, A.J.; Baveye, P.

    1992-12-31

    This report is the semi-annual progress report for the second half of the third year. The project has four primary areas: (1) biodegradation of poorly soluble organic contaminants; (2) dual-limitation kinetics of electron donors and acceptors; (3) two-dimensional modeling of biofilm reactions in nonhomogeneous porous media; and (4) biologically induced clogging in porous media. For each area, this report presents a brief summary of the previous progress, as well as reporting this period`s progress. In addition plans for future work are included.

  10. Novel ceramic-polymer composite membranes for the separation of hazardous liquid waste. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Y.

    1998-06-01

    'This report summarizes the work progress over the last 1.75 years of a 3 year project. The objectives of the project have been to develop a new class of ceramic-supported polymeric membranes that could be tailored-designed for a wide-range of applications in remediation and pollution prevention. To date, a new class of chemically-modified ceramic membranes was developed for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsions and for the pervaporation removal of volatile organics from aqueous systems. These new ceramic-supported polymer (CSP) membranes are fabricated by modifying the pore surface of a ceramic membrane support by a graft polymerization process (Chaimberg and Cohen, 1994). The graft polymerization process consists of activating the membrane surface with alkoxy vinyl silanes onto which vinyl monomers are added via free-radical graft polymerization resulting in a thin surface layer of terminally anchored polymer chains. Reaction conditions are selected based on knowledge of the graft polymerization kinetics for the specific polymer/substrate system. The resultant ceramic-supported polymer (CSP) membrane is a composite structure in which mechanical strength is provided by the ceramic support and the selectivity is determined by the covalently bonded polymer brush layer. Thus, one of the unique attributes of the CSP membrane is that it can be used in environments where the polymer layer is swollen (or even completely miscible) in the mixture to be separated (Castro et al., 1993). It is important to note that the above modification process is carried out under mild conditions (e.g., temperature of about 70 C) and is well suited for large scale commercial application. In a series of studies, the applicability of a polyvinylpyrrolidone CSP membrane was demonstrated for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsion under a variety of flow conditions (Castro et al.,1996). Improved membrane performance was achieved due to minimization of surface adsorption of the oil components

  11. In-situ characterization of dense non-aqueous phase liquids uUsing partitioning tracers. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, G.A.

    1998-06-01

    'Major advances have been made during the past year in research on interwell partitioning tracers tests (PITTs). These advances include: (1) progress on the inverse problem of how to estimate the three-dimensional distribution of NAPL in aquifers from the tracer data, (2) the first ever partitioning tracer experiments in dual porosity media, (3) the first modeling of partitioning tracers in dual porosity media, (4) experiments with complex NAPLs such as coal tar, (5) the development of an accurate and simple method to predict partition coefficients using the equivalent alkane carbon number approach, (6) partitioning tracer experiments in large model aquifers with permeability layers, (7) the first ever analysis of partitioning tracer data to estimate the change in composition of a NAPL before and after remediation, (8) the first ever analysis of partitioning tracer data after a field demonstration of surfactant foam to remediate NAPL, and (9) experiments at elevated temperatures. The authors have developed a new analytic approach that has several advantages over existing approaches for inversion of tracer data. First, the technique utilizes an extremely efficient three-dimensional multiphase streamline simulator as a forward model. Second, the parameter sensitivities are formulated in terms of one-dimensional integrals of analytic functions along the streamlines. Thus, the computation of sensitivities for all model parameters requires only a single simulation run to construct the velocity field and generate the streamlines. The inversion of tracer data is then performed using a two-step iterative linearization that involves first lining-up the breakthrough times at the producing wells and then matching the production history. Their approach follows from an analogy between streamlines and ray tracing in seismology. The inverse method is analogous to seismic waveform inversion and thus, allows them to utilize efficient methods from geophysical imaging. The new

  12. The validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression: a qualitative interview study of the perceptions of junior doctors and their trainers

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Antonia; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann; Woolf, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate trainee doctors’ and trainers’ perceptions of the validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression (ARCP) using Messick’s conceptualisation of construct validity. Design Qualitative semi-structured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Setting Postgraduate medical training in London, Kent Surrey and Sussex, Yorkshire and Humber, and Wales in November/December 2015. Part of a larger study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. Participants Ninety-six trainees and 41 trainers, comprising UK and international medical graduates from Foundation, General Practice, Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Psychiatry, Radiology, and Surgery, at all levels of training. Main outcome measures Trainee and trainer perceptions of the validity of the ARCP as an assessment tool. Results Participants recognised the need for assessment, but were generally dissatisfied with ARCPs, especially UK graduate trainees. Participants criticised the perceived tick-box nature of ARCPs as measuring clerical rather than clinical ability, and which they found detrimental to learning. Trainees described being able to populate their e-portfolios with just positive feedback; they also experienced difficulty getting assessments signed off by supervisors. ARCPs were perceived as poor at identifying struggling trainees and/or as discouraging excellence by focussing on minimal competency. Positive experiences of ARCPs arose when trainees could discuss their progress with interested supervisors. Conclusions Trainee and trainer criticisms of ARCPs can be conceptualised as evidence that ARCPs lack validity as an assessment tool. Ongoing reforms to workplace-based assessments could address negative perceptions of the ‘tick-box’ elements, encourage constructive input from seniors and allow trainees to demonstrate excellence as well as minimal competency, while keeping patients safe. PMID:28116956

  13. The validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression: a qualitative interview study of the perceptions of junior doctors and their trainers.

    PubMed

    Viney, Rowena; Rich, Antonia; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann; Woolf, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Objective To investigate trainee doctors' and trainers' perceptions of the validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression (ARCP) using Messick's conceptualisation of construct validity. Design Qualitative semi-structured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Setting Postgraduate medical training in London, Kent Surrey and Sussex, Yorkshire and Humber, and Wales in November/December 2015. Part of a larger study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. Participants Ninety-six trainees and 41 trainers, comprising UK and international medical graduates from Foundation, General Practice, Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Psychiatry, Radiology, and Surgery, at all levels of training. Main outcome measures Trainee and trainer perceptions of the validity of the ARCP as an assessment tool. Results Participants recognised the need for assessment, but were generally dissatisfied with ARCPs, especially UK graduate trainees. Participants criticised the perceived tick-box nature of ARCPs as measuring clerical rather than clinical ability, and which they found detrimental to learning. Trainees described being able to populate their e-portfolios with just positive feedback; they also experienced difficulty getting assessments signed off by supervisors. ARCPs were perceived as poor at identifying struggling trainees and/or as discouraging excellence by focussing on minimal competency. Positive experiences of ARCPs arose when trainees could discuss their progress with interested supervisors. Conclusions Trainee and trainer criticisms of ARCPs can be conceptualised as evidence that ARCPs lack validity as an assessment tool. Ongoing reforms to workplace-based assessments could address negative perceptions of the 'tick-box' elements, encourage constructive input from seniors and allow trainees to demonstrate excellence as well as minimal competency, while keeping patients safe.

  14. [Transformation toughening]. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rafa, M.J.

    1993-04-19

    In NiAl, we have succeeded in determining the complete Ginzburg-Landau strain free energy function necessary to model the cubic to tetragonal martensite transformation in a sample of any size. We believe that this is the first time that the parameters of a Ginzburg-Landau functional and the complete strain spinodal for any three-dimensional displacive transformation were used in simulating the transformation near a crack tip under Mode I loading; the transformation pattern and toughening are different from standard transformation toughening theories. Furthermore, the strain spinodal has an approximately conical shape which can be specified by two material dependent experimentally accessible parameters, rather than the ellipsoidal shape in standard theories. Stress induced martensitic transformation in a polycrystalline sample of NiAl was simulated. In the ZrO{sub 2} system, first principles calculations to determine the semi-empirical potentials for simulating the cubic-tetragonal and tetragonal-monoclinic transformations have been started by doing a more elaborate total energy calculation.In the Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} system, we have discovered that the first principles calculations and semi-empirical potentials have just been completed byanother group in England which we will use instead to base our molecular dynamics simulations on.

  15. Annual Report of Progress Summaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-01-02

    Stennous Fluoride When Used as a Constituent of a Compatible Prophy- lactic Paste, as a Topical Solution and in a Dentifrice in Naval Personnel. I...ied; 15 second 10% aqueous SnF2 topical, operator applied; and a dentifrice for home use con- taining 0,4% SnF2’ Group B rece,ives the

  16. Annual Progress Report / Continuation Proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Fultz

    2001-11-21

    We have been performing basic materials science research on materials for anodes and cathodes in electrochemical cells. The work is a mix of electrochemical measurements and analysis of the materials by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry. At present, our experimental work involves only materials for Li storage, but we have been finishing papers from our previous work on hydrogen-storage materials.

  17. Selected Health Behaviors Moderate the Progression of Functional Limitations in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: Eleven Years of Annual Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Stuifbergen, Alexa K.; Blozis, Shelley; Becker, Heather; Harrison, Tracie; Kullberg, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic neurological disease typically diagnosed in young adulthood, presents with a wide variety of symptoms, impairments and functional limitations. Given the chronic, unpredictable and long-term nature of this disease, preserving function is essential. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial and behavioral factors that might influence the trajectory of functional limitation through eleven years of longitudinal follow-up of a sample of persons with MS. Methods Participants (N=606) completed measures of health behaviors, related constructs and functional limitations annually over eleven years. Longitudinal measures of functional limitations were analyzed using random-effects regression that allows for study of individual differences in the trajectories of a measure. Using the best fitting quadratic growth model, we tested the within and between-person effects of Nutrition, Interpersonal Relationships, Exercise, Stress Management, Health Responsibilities, Spiritual Growth, Self-Rated Health and Barriers, controlling for Age, Year since Diagnosis and Year of Dropout, on Functional Limitations in the 11th year. Results After adjusting for covariates, higher mean scores for Exercise and Self-Rated Health were related to lower levels of Functional Limitations in Year 11. Higher mean scores for Stress Management, Health Responsibilities and Barriers were related to higher levels of Functional Limitations in Year 11. Higher mean Exercise scores and lower mean Health Responsibilities scores were related to slower rates of progression of functional limitations in Year 11. Conclusion Findings suggest that the highly variable trajectory of functional limitations in MS may be extended and shaped through health behavior strategies. PMID:26905974

  18. Integrated approach towards the application of horizontal wells to improve waterflooding performance. Annual progress report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, M.; Liner, C.; Kerr, D.

    1997-01-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the fourth year of the project on {open_quotes}Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance{close_quotes}. The project involves using an integrated approach to characterize the reservoir followed by proposing an appropriate reservoir management strategy to improve the field performance. In the first stage of the project, the type of data we integrated include cross borehole seismic surveys, geological interpretation based on the logs and the cores, and the engineering information. In contrast, during the second stage of the project, we intend to use only conventional data to construct the reservoir description. This report covers the results of the implementation from the first stage of the project. It also discusses the work accomplished so far for the second stage of the project. The production from the Self Unit (location of Stage 1) has sustained an increase of 30 bbls/day over a year with an additional increase anticipated with further implementation. We have collected available core, log and production data from Section 16 in the Berryhill Glenn Unit and have finished the geological description. Based on the geological description and the associated petrophysical properties, we have developed a new indexing procedure for identifying the areas with the most potential. We are also investigating an adjoining tract formerly operated by Chevron where successful miceller-polymer flood was conducted. This will help us in evaluating the reasons for the success of the flood. Armed with this information, we will conduct a detailed geostatistical and flow simulation study and recommend the best reservoir management plan to improve the recovery of the field.

  19. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems. Annual progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, H.L.

    1980-01-04

    This is the third annual progress report for a continuing EPA-DOE jointly funded project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project is organized into four project tasks: (1) literature review; (2) process water screening; (3) methods development; and (4) recommendations. Our Bibliography of aquatic ecosystem effects, analytical methods and treatment technologies for organic compounds in advanced fossil-fuel processing effluents was submitted to the EPA for publication. The bibliography contains 1314 citations indexed by chemicals, keywords, taxa and authors. We estimate that the second bibliography volume will contain approximately 1500 citations and be completed in February. We compiled results from several laboratories of inorganic characterizations of 19 process waters: 55 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters; and Hanna-3, Hanna-4B 01W and Lawrence Livermore Hoe Creek underground coal gasification condenser waters. These process waters were then compared to a published summary of the analyses from 18 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters. We completed this year 96-h flow-through toxicity bioassays with fathead minnows and rainbow trout and 48-h flow-through bioassays with Daphnia pulicaria exposed to 5 oil-shale process waters, 1 tar-sand process water, 2 underground coal gasification condenser waters, 1 post-gasification backflood condenser water, as well as 2 bioassays with fossil-fuel process water constituents. The LC/sub 50/ toxicity values for these respective species when exposed to these waters are given in detail. (LTN)

  20. Hydrologic conditions, habitat characteristics, and occurrence of fishes in the Apalachicola River floodplain, Florida; second annual report of progress, October 1993-September 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, Helen M.; Darst, Melanie R.; Grubbs, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes progress and interim results of the second year of a 4-year study. The purpose of the 4-year study is to describe aquatic habitat types in the Apalachicola River floodplain and quantify the amount of habitat inundated by the river at various stages. Final results will be used to determine possible effects of altered flows on floodplain habitats and their associated fish communities. The study is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Northwest Florida Water Management District as part of a comprehensive study of water needs throughout two large river basins in Florida, Georgia, and Alabama. By the end of the second year, approxi- mately 80 to 90 percent of field data collection was completed. Water levels at 56 floodplain and main channel locations at study sites were read numerous times during low water and once or twice during high water. Rating curves estimating the relationship between stage at a floodplain site and flow of the Apalachicola River at Chattahoochee are presented for 3 sites in the upper river. Elevation, substrate type, and amount of vegetative structure were described at 27 cross sections representing eight different floodplain tributary types at upper, middle, and lower river study sites. A summary of substrate and structure information from all cross sections is presented. Substrate and structure characteristics of floodplain habitats inundated when river flow was at record low flow, mean annual low flow, and mean flow are described for 3 cross sections in the upper river. Digital coverage of high-altitude infra-red aerial photography was processed for use in a Geographic Information System which will be used to map aquatic habitats in the third year of the study. A summary of the literature on fish utilization of floodplain habitats is described. Eighty-one percent of the species collected in the main channel of the Apalachicola River are known to occur in floodplain habitats of eastern

  1. Sedimentological evidences for progressive drying of the Sahara during the last 6000 years from the annually laminated record of Lake Yoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francus, Pierre; von Suchodoletz, Hans; Dietze, Michael; Verschuren, Dirk; Kröpelin, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    Lake Yoa is a perennial lake entirely fed by groundwater and located in the Saharan desert of Northern Chad. It contains a unique continuous and high-resolution record of the climate history of the eastern Sahara for the last 6000 years (Kröpelin et al. 2008). Analyses of aquatic and terrestrial paleoecosystems revealed a slow and progressive drying of the region since mid-Holocene (Kröpelin et al. 2008 and Eggermont 2008). Here, we describe the sedimentological evolution of this finely laminated, undisturbed, 7.5 m-long sequence. Comparison of lamination counts with radiocarbon and 137-Cs dates indicates that these couplets are annual, i.e. varves. Counts were made using Fe, and Ca/Ti profiles as well as radiographs acquired using an Itrax µ-XRF core scanner with 100 µ resolution. Three facies could be distinguished. From 6 ka until 1.1 ka, couplets are: (1) a dark brown layer composed of organic matter, aeolian sands and finer detrital material; (2) a light brown layer of neoformed calcite. After 1.1 ka, couplets are formed by (1) a detrital layer consisting of a mixture of aeolian and resuspended material rich in both Fe and Ca and (2) organic-rich material. The change in varve facies corresponds to an abrupt decrease in Ca content and the simultaneous disappearance of neoformed calcite. This may be attributed to exhaustion of carbonate sources in the aquifer or surrounding dry lake beds as well as to a decrease of primary productivity triggering the precipitation of neoformed calcite. The laminated facies are intercalated with the third facies, of which there are relatively few. It consists of few coarser beds indicative of higher energy events due to changes in lake level or dune migration towards the coring site. Magnetic susceptibility broadly increases from bottom to top and may be indicative of the combined effect of changes in the sediment source and redox conditions in the water column. The clay fraction is interpreted to be of aeolian or fluvial

  2. SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Semi-Annual Progress Report for the Period April 1, 2009 through September 30, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Foster, I. T.; Middleton, D. E.

    2009-10-15

    This report summarizes work carried out by the ESG-CET during the period April 1, 2009 through September 30, 2009. It includes discussion of highlights, overall progress, period goals, collaborations, papers, and presentations. To learn more about our project, and to find previous reports, please visit the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) website. This report will be forwarded to the DOE SciDAC program management, the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) program management, national and international collaborators and stakeholders (e.g., the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), the Climate Science Computational End Station (CCES), the SciDAC II: A Scalable and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Science, the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), and other wide-ranging climate model evaluation activities). During this semi-annual reporting period, the ESG-CET team continued its efforts to complete software components needed for the ESG Gateway and Data Node. These components include: Data Versioning, Data Replication, DataMover-Lite (DML) and Bulk Data Mover (BDM), Metrics, Product Services, and Security, all joining together to form ESG-CET's first beta release. The launch of the beta release is scheduled for late October with the installation of ESG Gateways at NCAR and LLNL/PCMDI. Using the developed ESG Data Publisher, the ESG II CMIP3 (IPCC AR4) data holdings - approximately 35 TB - will be among the first datasets to be published into the new ESG enterprise system. In addition, the NCAR's ESG II data holdings will also be published into the new system - approximately 200 TB. This period also saw the testing of the ESG Data Node at various collaboration sites, including: the British Atmospheric Data Center (BADC), the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, the University of Tokyo Center for

  3. Water use efficiency of perennial and annual bioenergy crops in central Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeri, Marcelo; Hussain, Mir Zaman; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Delucia, Evan; Bernacchi, Carl J.

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable bioenergy production depends upon the efficiency with which crops use available water to produce biomass and store carbon belowground. Therefore, water use efficiency (WUE; productivity vs. annual evapotranspiration, ET) is a key metric of bioenergy crop performance. We evaluate WUE of three potential perennial grass bioenergy crops, Miscanthus × giganteus (miscanthus), Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), and an assemblage of prairie species (28 species), and Zea mays-Glycine max rotation, during the establishment phase in Illinois. Ecosystem WUE (EWUE; net ecosystem productivity vs. ET) was highest in miscanthus, reaching a maximum value of 12.8 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1 in the third year, followed by switchgrass (7.5 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1) and prairie (3.9 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 mm-1); the row crop was the lowest. Besides EWUE, harvest-WUE (HWUE, harvested biomass vs. ET) and net biome productivity-WUE (BWUE, calculated as net ecosystem production - harvest vs. ET) were also estimated for all crops and years. After three years of establishment, HWUE and BWUE were highest in miscanthus (9.0 ± 2 and 3.8 ± 2.9 kg ha-1 mm-1, respectively) providing a net benefit to the carbon balance, while the row crops had a negative carbon balance and a negative BWUE. BWUE for maize/soybean indicate that this ecosystem would deplete the soil carbon stocks while using the water resources. Switchgrass had the second highest BWUE, while prairie was almost neutral indicating that long-term carbon sequestration for this agro-ecosystem would be sensitive to harvest timing with an early harvest removing more biomass, and thus carbon, from the field.

  4. Gas-cooled reactor programs: High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Base-Technology Program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Progress in HTGR studies is reported in the following areas: HTGR chemistry; fueled graphite development; prestressed concrete pressure vessel development; structural materials; HTGR graphite studies; and evaluation of the pebble-bed HTR.

  5. Annual Research Briefs - 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the 1996 annual progress reports of the research fellows and students supported by the Center for Turbulence Research. Last year, CTR hosted twelve resident Postdoctoral Fellows, three Research Associates, four Senior Research Fellows, and supported one doctoral student and ten short term visitors.

  6. Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook provides modeled projections of domestic energy markets through 2050, and includes cases with different assumptions of macroeconomic growth, world oil prices, technological progress, and energy policies. With strong domestic production and relatively flat demand, the United States becomes a net energy exporter over the projection period in most cases.

  7. OMS 1987 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Designed to serve both as an activity report on Office of Management Studies (OMS) progress during 1987 and a catalog of OMS services and products, this annual report focuses on the management of technology in a scholarly environment. Programs and services are reported in five sections: (1) Applied Research and Development (the Institute on…

  8. Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook provides modeled projections of domestic energy markets through 2050, and includes cases with different assumptions of macroeconomic growth, world oil prices, technological progress, and energy policies. With strong domestic production and relatively flat demand, the United States becomes a net energy exporter over the projection period in most cases.

  9. Annual research briefs, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Briefs of the 1994 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows and students of the Center for Turbulence Research are presented. Subjects covered include turbulence combustion, large eddy simulation, Reynolds-averaged turbulence modeling, turbulence control, postprocessing, sound generation, and turbulence physics.

  10. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1983 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fraley, John J.

    1983-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This annual report covers the 1982-1983 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance, migration, spawning, egg incubation and fry emergence in the Flathead River system. This report also addresses the expected recovery of the mainstem kokanee population under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in 1982.

  11. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-09-29

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University has been successfully managing the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by Penn State, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. Base funding for the selected projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. At the annual funding meeting held in October 2003, ten projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten 2004 projects were completed during the previous annual reporting period and their final reports were submitted with the previous annual report (i.e., 10/01/04-09/30/05). The final report for the remaining project, which was submitted during this reporting

  12. Compilation of 1984 annual reports of the Navy ELF (extremely low frequency) communications system ecological monitoring program. Volume 1, TABS A-E. Annual progress report, January-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.; Bruhn, J.; Cattelino, P.; Jurgensen, M.; Lenz, G.W.

    1985-06-01

    A long-term program of monitoring for possible ELF electromagnetic influences on ecosystems in northwestern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, is being conducted. Selection of study sites, monitoring protocols, and analytical methods were initiated in 1982. These activities, as well as data collection, were continued during 1983 and 1984. Progress is described for studying the terrestrial, aquatic, and wetland ecosystems for the 11 projects comprising the Ecological Monitoring Program.

  13. Compilation of 1986 annual reports of the Navy ELF (extremely low frequency) communications system ecological-monitoring program. Volume 2. Tabs D-G. Annual progress report, January-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    The U.S. Navy is conducting a long-term program to monitor for possible effects from the operation of its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. This report documents progress of the following studies: Soil Amoeba; Soil and Litter Arthropoda and Earthworm Studies; Biological Studies on Pollinating insects: Megachilid Bees; and Small Vertebrates: Small Mammals and Nesting Birds.

  14. Association of Postbreakfast Triglyceride and Visit-to-Visit Annual Variation of Fasting Plasma Glucose with Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Kaori; Takenouchi, Akiko; Tsuboi, Ayaka; Fukuo, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured at baseline and after a median follow-up of 6.0 years in 161 patients with type 2 diabetes. Intrapersonal means and SD of HbA1c, systolic BP, fasting, and postmeal plasma glucose (FPG and PMPG, resp.) and serum triglycerides (FTG and PMTG, resp.) were calculated in each patient during the first 12 months after enrollment. Associations of these variables with nephropathy progression (15 patients with progression of albuminuric stages and 5 with ACR doubling within the microalbuminuric range) were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis providing odds ratio with 95% confidential interval. Patients with nephropathy progression, compared with those without nephropathy progression, had higher HbA1c (p < 0.01). They also had higher means and SD of FPG (both p < 0.05), FTG (both p < 0.05), and PMTG (p = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that SD-FPG (1.036, 1.001–1.073, p = 0.04) and PMTG (1.013, 1.008–1.040, p = 0.001) were significant predictors of progression of nephropathy even after adjustment for mean FPG and SD-FTG, age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, diabetes duration and therapy, means and SDs of HbA1c, PPG, FTG and systolic BP, baseline ACR, smoking status, and uses of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications. Consistency of glycemic control and management of postmeal TG may be important to prevent nephropathy progression in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:27975066

  15. Association of Postbreakfast Triglyceride and Visit-to-Visit Annual Variation of Fasting Plasma Glucose with Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Kaori; Takenouchi, Akiko; Tsuboi, Ayaka; Fukuo, Keisuke; Kazumi, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured at baseline and after a median follow-up of 6.0 years in 161 patients with type 2 diabetes. Intrapersonal means and SD of HbA1c, systolic BP, fasting, and postmeal plasma glucose (FPG and PMPG, resp.) and serum triglycerides (FTG and PMTG, resp.) were calculated in each patient during the first 12 months after enrollment. Associations of these variables with nephropathy progression (15 patients with progression of albuminuric stages and 5 with ACR doubling within the microalbuminuric range) were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis providing odds ratio with 95% confidential interval. Patients with nephropathy progression, compared with those without nephropathy progression, had higher HbA1c (p < 0.01). They also had higher means and SD of FPG (both p < 0.05), FTG (both p < 0.05), and PMTG (p = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that SD-FPG (1.036, 1.001-1.073, p = 0.04) and PMTG (1.013, 1.008-1.040, p = 0.001) were significant predictors of progression of nephropathy even after adjustment for mean FPG and SD-FTG, age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, diabetes duration and therapy, means and SDs of HbA1c, PPG, FTG and systolic BP, baseline ACR, smoking status, and uses of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications. Consistency of glycemic control and management of postmeal TG may be important to prevent nephropathy progression in type 2 diabetic patients.

  16. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 1 April 1996--29 September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-20

    This technical progress report discusses work on the Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities for the Cassini spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft is expected to launch in October 1997, and will explore Saturn and its moons. This progress report discusses issues in: spacecraft integration and liason, engineering support, safety, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication and testing, ground support equipment, RTG shipping and launch support, designs, reviews and mission application. Safety analysis of the RTGs during reentry and launch accidents are covered. This report covers the period of April 1 to September 29, 1996.

  17. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini RTG Program. Semi annual technical progress report, September 26, 1994--April 2, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-20

    The technical progress achieved during the period 26 September 1994 through 2 April 1995 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Ancillary Activities is described herein. Monthly technical activity for the period 27 February 1995 through 2 April 1995 is included in this progress report. The report addresses tasks, including: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple production; ETG Fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment; RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance, reliability, contract changes, CAGO acquisition (operating funds), and CAGO maintenance and repair; and CAGO acquisition (capital funds).

  18. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual Progress Report April 2004 - March 2005. Report C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2006-01-01

    River discharge and water temperatures that occurred during April through July 2004 provided conditions suitable for spawning by white sturgeon downstream from Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary dams. Optimal spawning temperatures in the four tailraces occurred for 3-4 weeks and coincided with the peak of the river hydrograph. However, the peak of the hydrograph was relatively low compared to past years, which is reflected in the relatively low monthly and annual indices of suitable spawning habitat. Bottom-trawl sampling in the Bonneville Reservoir revealed the presence of young-of-theyear (YOY) white sturgeon.

  19. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi-annual technical progress report, April 3, 1995--October 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-24

    This document is the April-October 1995 Progress Report on the Cassini RTG Program. Nine tasks are summarized; (1) Spacecraft integration and liason, (2) Engineering support, (3) Safety, (4) Unicouple fabrication, (5) ETG fabrication, assembly, and test, (6) Ground support equipment, (7) RTG shipping and launch support, (8) Design, reviews, and mission applications, and (9) Project management, QA, contract changes, and material acquisitions.

  20. The biophysical link between climate, water, and vegetation in bioenergy agro-ecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land use change for bioenergy feedstocks is likely to intensify as energy demand rises simultaneously with increased pressure to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Initial assessments of the impact of adopting bioenergy crops as a significant energy source have largely focused on the potential for b...

  1. Evaluation of an agro--ecosystem model using cosmicray neutron soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Benjamin David

    The properties of the land surface affect the interaction of the surface and the atmosphere. The partitioning of absorbed shortwave radiation into emitted radiation, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and soil heat flux is determined by the presence of soil moisture. When the land surface is dry, there will be higher sensible heat flux, emitted radiation and soil heat flux. However, when liquid water is present, latent energy will be used to change the phase of water from solid to liquid and liquid to gas. This latent heat flux moves water and energy to a different part of the atmosphere. A contributing factor to soil moisture available for latent heat flux is the water table. With a shallow water table (< 5 m), plant roots are able to extract water for growth and generally an increase in latent heat flux is seen. In the Midwest U.S., the management of fields changes the latent heat flux through different crop choices, planting and harvest date, fertilizer application, and tile drainage. Therefore, land surface models, like Agro--IBIS, need to be simulated and evaluated at the field--scale. Agro--IBIS is an agroecosystem model that is able to incorporate changes in vegetation growth as well as management practices, which in turn impact soil moisture available for latent heat flux. Agro--IBIS has been updated with the soil physics of HYDRUS--1D in order to accurately simulate the impact of the water table. In measuring soil moisture, a consistent challenge is the representative scale of the instrument, which is often a point. A newer method of obtaining soil moisture over the field--scale is using a cosmic--ray neutron detector, which is sensitive to a diameter of 700 m and to a depth of ˜ 20 cm. I used soil moisture observed by the cosmic--ray neutron detector in an agricultural field to evaluate estimates made with the Agro--IBIS model over a growing season of maize and a growing season of soybean. Because of the large area observed by the cosmic-ray neutron detector, a soil texture sensitivity analysis was performed using Agro--IBIS to determine the texture that would produce the best hydraulic properties and therefore the best estimate of soil moisture. The maize year results show Agro--IBIS with silt loam soil texture with a RMSE of 0.037 cm3 cm-33 and bias of -0.02 cm3 cm3 cm--3 and the updated Agro--IBIS (AgroIBIS--VSF) had a RMSE of 0.033 cm3 cm--3 and bias of -0:006 cm3 cm-3 compared to the cosmic--ray neutron soil moisture. In the soybean year, sandy clay loam with Agro--IBIS had a RMSE of 0.028 cm3 cm --3 and bias of -0.014 cm3 cm--3 and AgroIBIS--VSF had a RMSE of 0.028 cm3 cm --3 and bias of 0.023 cm3 cm--3. These low values for RMSE and bias demonstrate that the models are in good agreement with the field--scale observation of soil moisture for the growing season in 2011 (maize) and 2012 (soybean). Adding a water table did not improve AgroIBIS--VSF's accuracy against the observed cosmic--ray neutron soil moisture in the top 20 cm, except with the sandy clay loam soil texture simulations. The original version of Agro--IBIS conserved water to within 1% of total precipitation, but the water balance for AgroIBIS--VSF lost close to 10%. Both the original and new version of Agro--IBIS performed poorly during the 2012 drought year as shown by their inconsistency with observed yield and the change in soil moisture storage, as well as expected LAI and canopy height.

  2. Occurrence of triclocarban and triclosan in an agro-ecosystem following application of biosolids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherburne, Jessica J.; Anaya, Amanda M.; Fernie, Kimberly J; Forbey, Jennifer S.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Dufty, Alfred M.; Kinney, Chad A.

    2016-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS), two of the most commonly used antimicrobial compounds, can be introduced into ecosystems by applying wastewater treatment plant biosolids to agricultural fields. Concentrations of TCC and TCS were measured in different trophic levels within a terrestrial food web encompassing land-applied biosolids, soil, earthworms (Lumbricus), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), and eggs of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) at an experimental site amended with biosolids for the previous 7 years. The samples from this site were compared to the same types of samples from a reference (biosolids-free) agricultural site. Inter-site comparisons showed that concentrations of both antimicrobials were higher on the experimental site in the soil, earthworms, mice (livers), and European starling eggs, but not American kestrel eggs, compared to the control site. Inter-species comparisons on the experimental site indicated significantly higher TCC concentrations in mice (TCC: 12.6–33.3 ng/g) and in starling eggs (TCC: 15.4–31.4 ng/g) than in kestrel eggs (TCC: 3.6 ng/g). Nesting success of kestrels only was significantly lower on the experimental site compared to the reference site due to nest abandonment. This study demonstrates that biosolids-derived TCC and TCS are present throughout the terrestrial food web, including secondary (e.g., starlings) and tertiary (i.e., kestrels) consumers, after repeated, long-term biosolids application.

  3. HYDROLOGY AND GROUNDWATER NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN A DITCH-DRAINED AGRO-ECOSYSTEM

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Loss of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields is a major water pollution concern in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Even though movement of N and P in groundwater from fields to commonly occurring open drainage ditches is an important loss pathway, it has not been studied well enoug...

  4. The factors influencing seasonal variations in evaporative fluxes from spatially distributed Agro-Ecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The exchange of moisture between the land surface and the atmosphere is the result of complex network of interacting processes, most of which are regulated, at least in part, by spatially variable atmospheric and surface conditions. Because these processes are often strongly nonlinear, scaling measu...

  5. Assessment of soil salinity in an agro-ecosystem under climate change in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciniak, Hasmik; Kiesel, Jens; Sheludkov, Artyom; Schmalz, Britta; Khoroshavin, Vitaly; Fohrer, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    Soil salinization, which can be a serious environmental problem, poses critical challenges for the management of agricultural and the status of natural areas. Strongly influenced by climate, topography, soil and land-use it requires sound adaptation strategies in order to cope with recent and future ecological changes and landscape transformation. Our studies on soil salinity were carried out in the Loktinka river basin with a catchment area of 334 km2. The Loktinka is a slow moving, meandering lowland river, passing along the south-eastern part of an agricultural zone of Tyumen region, nearby the town of Ishim. The Loktinka river, with 25 km in length, is a left tributary of the River Ishim which originates in a relatively small wetland, flows east and terminates in Lake Mergen. The area is representative for the southern part of the forest steppe zone with less favourable conditions for agriculture due to low soil qualities and salinization problems. The area is highly influenced by climate change. Reduced rainfall and increased evapotranspiration can intensify the salinity problem in the catchment and thus, there is a strong need for present and future research. A field program was designed in order to assess the current situation of soils within the catchment area in terms of salinity. Soil profiles and soil texture were identified and soil electrical conductivity as well as pH were measured. The electrical conductivity of horizons ranged from 78 to 1742 μScm-1. The soils were alkaline in reaction (pH 7.1 to 9.47), irrespective of depth. The texture was mainly clay loam. For the prediction of long-term hydro-salinity under climate change, the agro-hydro-salinity model SaltMod (Oosterbaan et al., 2008) was chosen. The model is based on seasonal water balances of agricultural lands for prediction of future trends made on a seasonal basis. Salinity in the soils column is simulated with SaltMod on different soil type and crop combinations.

  6. A Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network of the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As 2050 approaches, bringing with it the need to provide food, feed, fiber, and fuel sufficient to support a global population of 9 billion people, the question has become not how to sustain current levels of production over the long term, but rather how to sustainably intensify agricultural product...

  7. Complex agro-ecosystems for food security in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Khumairoh, Uma; Groot, Jeroen Cj; Lantinga, Egbert A

    2012-07-01

    Attempts to increase food crop yields by intensifying agricultural systems using high inputs of nonrenewable resources and chemicals frequently lead to de-gradation of natural resources, whereas most technological innovations are not accessible for smallholders that represent the majority of farmers world wide. Alternatively, cocultures consisting of assemblages of plant and animal species can support ecological processes of nutrient cycling and pest control, which may lead to increasing yields and declining susceptibility to extreme weather conditions with increasing complexity of the systems. Here we show that enhancing the complexity of a rice production system by adding combinations of compost, azolla, ducks, and fish resulted in strongly increased grain yields and revenues in a season with extremely adverse weather conditions on East Java, Indonesia. We found that azolla, duck, and fish increased plant nutrient content, tillering and leaf area expansion, and strongly reduced the density of six different pests. In the most complex system comprising all components the highest grain yield was obtained. The net revenues of this system from sales of rice grain, fish, and ducks, after correction for extra costs, were 114% higher than rice cultivation with only compost as fertilizer. These results provide more insight in the agro-ecological processes and demonstrate how complex agricultural systems can contribute to food security in a changing climate. If smallholders can be trained to manage these systems and are supported for initial investments by credits, their livelihoods can be improved while producing in an ecologically benign way.

  8. Complex agro-ecosystems for food security in a changing climate

    PubMed Central

    Khumairoh, Uma; Groot, Jeroen CJ; Lantinga, Egbert A

    2012-01-01

    Attempts to increase food crop yields by intensifying agricultural systems using high inputs of nonrenewable resources and chemicals frequently lead to de-gradation of natural resources, whereas most technological innovations are not accessible for smallholders that represent the majority of farmers world wide. Alternatively, cocultures consisting of assemblages of plant and animal species can support ecological processes of nutrient cycling and pest control, which may lead to increasing yields and declining susceptibility to extreme weather conditions with increasing complexity of the systems. Here we show that enhancing the complexity of a rice production system by adding combinations of compost, azolla, ducks, and fish resulted in strongly increased grain yields and revenues in a season with extremely adverse weather conditions on East Java, Indonesia. We found that azolla, duck, and fish increased plant nutrient content, tillering and leaf area expansion, and strongly reduced the density of six different pests. In the most complex system comprising all components the highest grain yield was obtained. The net revenues of this system from sales of rice grain, fish, and ducks, after correction for extra costs, were 114% higher than rice cultivation with only compost as fertilizer. These results provide more insight in the agro-ecological processes and demonstrate how complex agricultural systems can contribute to food security in a changing climate. If smallholders can be trained to manage these systems and are supported for initial investments by credits, their livelihoods can be improved while producing in an ecologically benign way. PMID:22957173

  9. Explaining abrupt spatial transitions in agro-ecosystem responses to periods of extended drought

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the 1930’s, the North American central grassland region (CGR) experienced an extreme multi-year drought that resulted in broad scale plant mortality, massive dust storms and losses of soil and nutrients. Southern mixed grasslands were among the worst affected and experienced severe broad scal...

  10. Elucidating the potential for transfer of antibiotic resistance genes trhough agro-ecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increases in the occurrence of antibiotic resistance (AR) in clinical pathogens raises concerns about how resistance is spread within and between human, environmental and agricultural eco-systems. Livestock manure applied to soil may increase AR bacterial concentrations as a result of addition of ma...

  11. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

  12. Larval habitat dynamics and diversity of Culex mosquitoes in rice agro-ecosystem in Mwea, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat I; Gu, Weidong; Jacob, Benjamin G; Githure, John I; Novak, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Introduction of irrigation projects in developing nations has often been blamed for aggravating the problem of mosquito-borne diseases by creating ideal larval habitats for vector mosquitoes. However, whereas several studies have demonstrated the relationship between malaria vectors and irrigation, little work has been done on culicine mosquitoes despite their potential in transmission of filariasis and arboviruses and their significant biting nuisance in these areas. This study examined the diversity of Culex mosquito fauna and their larval habitats at two sites (Murinduko and Kiamachiri) in Mwea, Kenya over a 12-month period. The habitat types present at each site within a 200-meter radius around the study village, including randomly selected paddies and canals, were sampled every two weeks to examine the relationship between vegetation cover, water depth, turbidity, and Culex larval counts. Ten culicine species belonging to four genera were identified, with 73.1% of the total collection comprising of Culex duttoni and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Other species collected included Cx. annulioris, Cx. poicilipes, Cx. cinereus, Cx. tigripes, Cx. trifilatus, Aedes spp., Coquilettidia fuscopennata, and Ficalbia splendens. Murinduko was more diverse than Kiamachiri in terms of species richness (10 versus 7 species) and larval habitat diversity (11 versus 8 habitat types). Paddies, canals, and rain pools were the most diverse habitats in terms of species richness, and ditches, rock pools, and tree holes were the least diverse. Principal component and correlation analyses showed a strong association between three Culex species and the measured habitat characteristics. Culex poicilipes was strongly associated with floating vegetation, Cx. annulioris with clean water containing emergent vegetation, and Cx. quinquefasciatus was associated with turbid water. Seasonal changes in larval counts in water reservoirs and pool and ditch habitats were closely associated with rainfall. These findings provide important information on larval habitat preference for different Culex species, which will be useful in designing and implementation of larval control operations.

  13. Transmission of bancroftian filariasis in tea agro-ecosystem of Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, B; Handique, R; Narain, K; Dutta, P; Mahanta, J

    2001-09-01

    Tea industry is a labor intensive agro-industry and filariasis is mostly localized among the tea garden workers in Assam. The workers live inside the gardens in colonies. Studies conducted in two cosecutive years revealed that among the host seeking Culex quinquefasciatus average infection rate was 4.6% and with 2.1 larvae per mosquito. The overall prevalence of infective mosquitos was 0.8% with average L3 load of 2.0 per mosquito. The probability of infected mosquitos surviving to have complete development of filarial larvae (13 days) was 0.17. The expectation of infective life was 1.416 days for man biting Cx. quinquefasciatus and the estimated adult survival rate of was 87.6%. It has been estimated that a total of 22,569 mosquito bites were received/man/year in tea garden environment out of which 182 bites/man/year were infective (0.806%). The monthly biting rate varied from 310-4,758.5 bites per man (mean 1,846 +/- 1,389.7 SD). Monthly transmission index of W. bancrofti filaria showed two periods of transmission. In both the year no infection was detected during February and March and infection rate remained low up to May (average infection in April 0.72% and in May 0.48%).

  14. The stream and its altered valley: integrating landscape ecology into environmental assessments of agro-ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Yates, Adam G; Bailey, Robert C

    2006-03-01

    Little is known about the importance of landscape and land cover to the implementation and performance of agricultural conservation projects designed to improve stream quality. In our study, we addressed the potential importance of landscape and land cover to conservation projects by measuring variation across 191 mu-basins (100-2400 ha) and integrating the observed variation into a study design aimed at determining the effectiveness of conservation projects. Our findings indicate that there are strong gradients across which landscape and land cover attributes vary. Land cover varied along a gradient of agricultural intensity, basin morphometry across gradients of stream closure and basin size, basin substrate was described by variation in drumlin formation, glacial landform type, and soil drainage, while agricultural conservation projects varied according to the level of project implementation. Correlation of these gradients found several associations between landscape and land cover, indicating that agricultural intensity was being constrained predominantly by drumlin formation and glacial landform type. Landscape and land cover did not appear to be determining factors in the implementation of conservation projects by land owners. Based on these findings we chose 32 mu-basins which represented the variability along each of the defined gradients for further study. We conclude that landscape scale variables demonstrate important variation and covariation that can and should be integrated into study designs for the assessment of streams and human activities affecting streams.

  15. Soil nutrient transport and transformation during extreme water table fluctuations in an agro-ecosystem

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport to open water is a serious concern because these two elements are the primary drivers of eutrophication. Eutrophication describes a set of open water conditions where concomitant increases in algae and decreases in dissolved oxygen limit water uses for drin...

  16. Predicting nitrous oxide production in a ditch-drained agro-ecosystem

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artificial drainage systems can effectively transport excess water from agricultural soils. However, they can also affect the transport of biologically available nitrogen (N) to open waters and the emission of greenhouse gases from nearby soils. Using 12 large (30 x 33 cm) undisturbed soil columns...

  17. Understanding rice adaptation to varying agro-ecosystems: trait interactions and quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Shalabh; Grondin, Alexandre; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Henry, Amelia; Olds, Thomas-Mitchell; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-08-05

    Interaction and genetic control for traits influencing the adaptation of the rice crop to varying environments was studied in a mapping population derived from parents (Moroberekan and Swarna) contrasting for drought tolerance, yield potential, lodging resistance, and adaptation to dry direct seeding. A BC2F3-derived mapping population for traits related to these four trait groups was phenotyped to understand the interactions among traits and to map and align QTLs using composite interval mapping (CIM). The study also aimed to identify QTLs for the four trait groups as composite traits using multivariate least square interval mapping (MLSIM) to further understand the genetic control of these traits. Significant correlations between drought- and yield-related traits at seedling and reproductive stages respectively with traits for adaptation to dry direct-seeded conditions were observed. CIM and MLSIM methods were applied to identify QTLs for univariate and composite traits. QTL clusters showing alignment of QTLs for several traits within and across trait groups were detected at chromosomes 3, 4, and 7 through CIM. The largest number of QTLs related to traits belonging to all four trait groups were identified on chromosome 3 close to the qDTY 3.2 locus. These included QTLs for traits such as bleeding rate, shoot biomass, stem strength, and spikelet fertility. Multivariate QTLs were identified at loci supported by univariate QTLs such as on chromosomes 3 and 4 as well as at distinctly different loci on chromosome 8 which were undetected through CIM. Rice requires better adaptation across a wide range of environments and cultivation practices to adjust to climate change. Understanding the genetics and trade-offs related to each of these environments and cultivation practices thus becomes highly important to develop varieties with stability of yield across them. This study provides a wider picture of the genetics and physiology of adaptation of rice to wide range of environments. With a complete understanding of the processes and relationships between traits and trait groups, marker-assisted breeding can be used more efficiently to develop plant types that can combine all or most of the beneficial traits and show high stability across environments, ecosystems, and cultivation practices.

  18. Soil respiration partition and its components in the total agro-ecosystem respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delogu, Emilie; LeDantec, Valerie; Mordelet, Patrick; Buysse, Pauline; Aubinet, Marc; Pattey, Elizabeth; Mary, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Close to 15% of the Earth's terrestrial surface is used for cropland. In the context of global warming, and acknowledged by the Kyoto Protocol, agricultural soils could be a significant sink for atmospheric CO2. Understanding the factors influencing carbon fluxes of agricultural soils is essential for implementing efficient mitigation practices. Most of the soil respiration modeling studies was carried out in forest ecosystems, but only a few was carried out in agricultural ecosystems. In the study, we evaluated simple formalisms to model soil respiration using wheat data from four contrasting geographical mi-latitude regions. Soil respiration were measured in three winter wheat fields at Lamasquère (43°49'N, 01°23'E, 2007) and Auradé (43°54'N, 01°10'E, 2008), South-West France and Lonzée (50°33'N, 4°44'E, 2007), Belgium, and in a spring wheat field at Ottawa (45°22'N, 75°43'W, 2007, 2011), Ontario, Canada. Manual closed chambers were used in the French sites. The Belgium and Canadian sites were equipped with automated closed chamber systems, which continuously collected 30-min soil respiration exchanges. All the sites were also equipped with eddy flux towers. When eddy flux data were collected over bare soil, the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was equal to soil respiration exchange. These NEE data were used to validate the model. Different biotic and abiotic descriptors were used to model daily soil respiration and its heterotrophic and autotrophic components: soil temperature, soil relative humidity, Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), shoot biomass, crop height, with different formalisms. It was interesting to conclude that using biotic descriptors did not improve the performances of the model. In fact, a combination of abiotic descriptors (soil humidity and soil temperature) allowed significant model formalism to model soil respiration. The simple soil respiration model was used to calculate the heterotrophic and autotrophic source contributions to overall soil respiration and to estimate the soil respiration contribution to NEE measured at field scale. These different results have been compared and discussed for the wheat in four different conditions of soil and climate and the results showed that soil respiration consistently represented ~50% of the total ecosystem respiration. A significant portion of the heterotrophic soil respiration was influenced by the location and by the organic carbon content of the soils.

  19. Enhancing resource availability in agro-ecosystems for beneficial arthropods through floral provisioning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There has been a decline in beneficial arthropods (insects and spiders) including pollinators because of habitat destruction and intense management practices. Enhancing landscapes with additional floral and other non-crop habitats has the potential to attract pollinators, and predatory arthropods wh...

  20. ENSEMBLES: A new multi-model ensemble for seasonal-to-annual predictions—Skill and progress beyond DEMETER in forecasting tropical Pacific SSTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisheimer, A.; Doblas-Reyes, F. J.; Palmer, T. N.; Alessandri, A.; Arribas, A.; Déqué, M.; Keenlyside, N.; MacVean, M.; Navarra, A.; Rogel, P.

    2009-11-01

    A new 46-year hindcast dataset for seasonal-to-annual ensemble predictions has been created using a multi-model ensemble of 5 state-of-the-art coupled atmosphere-ocean circulation models. The multi-model outperforms any of the single-models in forecasting tropical Pacific SSTs because of reduced RMS errors and enhanced ensemble dispersion at all lead-times. Systematic errors are considerably reduced over the previous generation (DEMETER). Probabilistic skill scores show higher skill for the new multi-model ensemble than for DEMETER in the 4-6 month forecast range. However, substantially improved models would be required to achieve strongly statistical significant skill increases. The combination of ENSEMBLES and DEMETER into a grand multi-model ensemble does not improve the forecast skill further. Annual-range hindcasts show anomaly correlation skill of ˜0.5 up to 14 months ahead. A wide range of output from the multi-model simulations is becoming publicly available and the international community is invited to explore the full scientific potential of these data.

  1. 23 CFR 1200.33 - Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual report. 1200.33 Section 1200.33 Highways NATIONAL... § 1200.33 Annual report. Within 90 days after the end of the fiscal year, each State shall submit an Annual Report. This report shall describe: (a) The State's progress in meeting its highway safety...

  2. Characteristics of coal/light hydrocarbon slurries in spray combustion. Semi-annual progress report, 1 September 1980-28 February 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Grosshandler, W.L.; Crowe, C.T.; Chung, J.N.

    1981-03-06

    This report summarizes the progress made during the first six months of the grant period. The status of each of the three major task areas is discussed: the atomization study, the analytical droplet model, and the combustion study. The time-period has been used primarily to design and begin fabrication of the experimental atomization and combustion facilities. No data is presented in either of these areas. Significant progress has been made in the development of the numerical droplet model. The results of a preliminary parametric study are presented for a single coal particle in a one-millimeter methanol droplet. The importance of gas phase velocity and coal particle diameter bringing the solid material to the droplet surface is discussed.

  3. Parameterization of GCM subgrid nonprecipitating cumulus and stratocumulus clouds using stochastic/phenomenological methods. Annual technical progress report, 1 December 1992--30 November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, R.B.

    1993-08-27

    This document is a progress report to the USDOE Atmospheric Radiation and Measurement Program (ARM). The overall project goal is to relate subgrid-cumulus-cloud formation, coverage, and population characteristics to statistical properties of surface-layer air, which in turn are modulated by heterogeneous land-usage within GCM-grid-box-size regions. The motivation is to improve the understanding and prediction of climate change by more accurately describing radiative and cloud processes.

  4. 1992 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress; Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    This report summarizes the progress States and compact regions made during 1992 in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1992 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act.

  5. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual Progress Report April 2006 - March 2007. Report C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2008-01-01

    Describe reproduction and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Progress updates on young-of-the-year recruitment in Bonneville Reservoir and indices of white sturgeon spawning habitat for 2006 for McNary, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville dam tailrace spawning areas.

  6. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 28 March 1994--25 September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-20

    The progress on the radioisotope generators and ancillary activities is described. This report is organized by program task as follows: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple fabrication; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment; RTG shipping and launch support; design, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance and reliability, contract changes, non-capital CAGO acquisition, and CAGO maintenance; contractor acquired government owned property (CAGO) acquisition.

  7. 16TH Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics at the Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA, March 20-24, 2000, Volume II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Demkowicz Analysis of Waveguides" 1000 ’An hp-Adaptive Finite Element Method for Maxwell’s Equations: L. Demkowicz A Progress Report " 1020 BREAK 1040...to give EMI analysis . Test #2: Scattering by a circular cylinder. FE mesh is shown in Fig. 2(a). Comparison for the results regarding RCS is...on the field components across material interfaces. To validate the analysis several test cases are presented, showing an improvement of typically 1

  8. Geochemical determination of biospheric CO/sub 2/ fluxes to the atmosphere. Annual progress report, June 1, 1979-August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Stuiver, M

    1981-03-24

    Research progress is reported - for an investigation of aspects of the carbon cycle through the use of C13/C12 and C14/C12 abundance ratios. The objective is to increase knowledge of past biospheric carbon reservoir changes that have resulted in increases or reductions of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels. C13 trends in trees from Kodiak Island, Alaska, and from Chile were determined. (ACR)

  9. Environmentally-induced malignancies: An in vivo model to evaluate the health impact of chemicals in mixed waste. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Pallavicini, M.

    1997-01-01

    'Occupational or environmental exposure to organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls is linked to increased risk of developing leukemia, a blood cancer. The long term health effects of exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals and radionuclides are of particular concern because their biologic effects may synergize to increase risk of malignancy. Increased understanding of steps in the progression pathway of a normal cell to a cancer cell is important for biomonitoring, risk assessment and intervention in exposed individuals. Leukemias are characterized by multiple genetic aberrations. Accumulation of multiple genomic changes may reflect genomic instability in the affected ceils. Thus agents that induce DNA damage or genomic instability may increase accumulation of genomic alterations, thereby predisposing cells to transformation. However, not all DNA damaging agents predispose to transformation. Other factors such as genetic susceptibility, cell and tissue response to genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, DNA repair, etc. will impact malignant progression. The author proposed a progression model (Figure 1) of environmentally-induced leukemia that can be evaluated using mouse models.'

  10. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual Progress Report April 2005 - March 2006. Report C.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2007-01-01

    River discharge and water temperatures that occurred during April through July 2005 provided conditions suitable for spawning by white sturgeon downstream from Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary dams. Optimal spawning temperatures in the four tailraces occurred for 3-4 weeks and coincided with the peak of the river hydrograph. However, the peak of the hydrograph occurred in mid May and discharges dropped quickly and water temperature rose during June, which is reflected in the monthly and annual indices of suitable spawning habitat. Indices of available spawning habitat for the month of June 2005 were less than one-half of the average of the period from 1985-2004. Bottom-trawl sampling in the Bonneville Reservoir revealed the presence of young-of-the-year (YOY) white sturgeon but the proportion of positive tows was quite low at 0.06.

  11. Celebrating 40 years of progress in bone marrow transplantation: a report from the 40th Annual Meeting of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Livio; Lyon, Sue

    2014-01-01

    The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation was established in 1974 to enable scientists and physicians involved in clinical bone marrow transplantation to share their experience and develop cooperative studies. The organization celebrated its 40th anniversary with a meeting that considered hematopoietic stem cell transplantation not as a standalone procedure, but as part of a complex therapeutic program managed by a multidisciplinary professional team. The role of antifungal prophylaxis, emerging resistance in Aspergillus, the management of mucormycosis and new guidelines on antifungal therapy were among the topics discussed by the physicians, nurses, allied health professionals and scientists attending the 40th Annual Meeting of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

  12. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Monitoring and Evaluation Project and Hood River Fish Habitat Project : Annual Progress Report 1999-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    2001-02-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin. This annual report summarizes work for two consecutive contract periods: the fiscal year (FY) 1999 contract period was 1 October, 1998 through 30 September, 1999 and 1 October, 1999 through 30 September, 2000 for FY 2000. Work implemented during FY 1999 and FY 2000 included (1) acclimation of hatchery spring chinook salmon and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts, (2) spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys on the West Fork Hood River (3) genetic analysis of steelhead and cutthroat [contractual service with the ODFW], (4) Hood River water temperature studies, (5) Oak Springs Hatchery (OSH) and Round Butte Hatchery (RBH) coded-wire tagging and clipping evaluation, (6) preparation of the Hood River Watershed Assessment (Coccoli et al., December 1999) and the Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan (Coccoli et al., February 2000), (7) project implementation of early action habitat protection and restoration projects, (8) Pelton Ladder evaluation studies, (9) management oversight and guidance to BPA and ODFW engineering on HRPP facilities, and (10) preparation of an annual report summarizing project objectives for FY 1999 and FY 2000.

  13. An Isolated Case of Late-onset Amyloidogenic Transthyretin Type Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy Associated with a Mutant Transthyretin Substituting Methionine for Valine at Position 30 Showing Latent Progressive Cardiac Involvement Confirmed by Serial Annual Electrocardiograms

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Chikako; Takaya, Tomofumi; Mori, Shumpei; Hasegawa, Kohei; Soga, Fumitaka; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Nishii, Tatsuya; Kono, Atsushi K.; Morinaga, Yukiko; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Late-onset amyloidogenic transthyretin (ATTR) type familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) shows features distinct from those of early-onset hereditary ATTR type FAP. We herein describe an asymptomatic 68-year-old man with late-onset ATTR type FAP whose serial annual electrocardiograms demonstrated progressive left bundle branch block. Latent but severe cardiac involvement seems to be one feature of late-onset ATTR type FAP, similar to senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA). Early differential diagnosis of late-onset ATTR type FAP from SSA is important because, currently, only the former has new therapeutic options available in Japan. The present case report, therefore, highlights the necessity of careful observation for periodic electrocardiograms. PMID:28090046

  14. Annual variability of water productivity components in the watershed of Cabeceira Comprida stream, Santa Fé do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coaguila, Daniel N.; Hernandez, Fernando B. T.; de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Neale, Christopher M.; Franco, Renato A. M.; Leivas, Janice F.

    2016-10-01

    The Cabeceira Comprida stream's watershed, located in Santa Fé do Sul, Brazil, is an agroecosystem with great demand of water for the population and agriculture. During the dry season the water demand exceeds the amount generated by the watershed. It is important to know the dynamics of the water above the ground to improve the water resources management. Ten Landsat 8 images were used combined with Northwestern São Paulo State Weather Network data under different thermohydrological conditions of the year 2014 to quantify actual evapotranspiration (ETa), biomass production (BIO) and water productivity (WP) based on ETa. Using the Simple Algorithm for Retrieving evapotranspiration (SAFER) for calculating ETa, the Monteith's radiation model was applied for estimating the BIO and for calculation of WP the ratio of BIO and ETa. The average pixels for ETa, BIO and WP ranged respectively from 0.38 +/- 0.35 to 2.05 +/- 0.76 mm day-1; 10.15 +/- 12.19 to 71.61 +/- 35.54 kg ha-1 day-1; 1.89 +/- 0.76 to 3.88 +/- 0.86 kg m-3. The lower values of ETa (0.38 mm day-1; DOY 220), BIO (10.15 kg ha-1 day-1; DOY 220) and WP (1.89 kg m-3; DOY 204) were obtained in winter, and highest values of ETa (2.05 mm day-1; DOY 364) and BIO (71.64 kg ha-1 day-1; DOY 364) in the summer and WP (3.88 kg m-3; DOY 92) in the autumn. The water productivity components can subsidize the monitoring of the agro-ecosystems, being a useful tool to quantify the annual variability of ETa and BIO.

  15. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 2 October 1995--31 March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-20

    The technical progress achieved during the period 2 October 1995 through 31 March 1996 on Contract No. DE-AC03-91SF18852, Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities is described herein. This report is organized by the program task structure as follows: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple fabrication; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment (GSE); RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance and reliability, contract changes, non-capital CAGO acquisition, and CAGO maintenance; contract acquired government-owned property (CAGO) acquisition; and program calendars.

  16. Molecular characterization of a novel heavy metal uptake transporter from higher plants and its potential for use in phytoremediation. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J.I.

    1997-01-01

    'In the following the author reports on progress on the Department of Energy Grant from the Office of Energy Research and Office of Environmental Management on the topic of Molecular characterization of a novel heavy metal uptake transporter from higher plants and its potential use in phytoremediation. In this research the authors are investigating the following hypotheses: (1) A novel metal transporter cDNA isolated in my lab functions as a plasma membrane heavy metal and uptake transporter in plants roots. (2.) Over-expression of this cDNA in plants can be used to enhance plasma membrane metal uptake into plant tissues.'

  17. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected ten projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten projects have been completed and the final reports for these 2004 projects are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2004 and the council selected

  18. The use of dielectric and NMR measurements to determine the pore-scale location of organic contaminants. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.; Bryar, T.; Caputi, M.

    1997-07-15

    'The objective of the three-year research project is to investigate the effect of adsorbed organics on the dielectric and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) response of porous geological materials. This will allow us to assess the use of dielectric and NMR measurements at a site to determine whether organic contaminants are present in the central volume of the pore space (in a water-wet system) or are adsorbed to the solid surface. In addition, the authors propose to use laboratory dielectric and NMR measurements to study the kinetics of the adsorption and desorption of organics by conducting experiments where the authors control temperature and vary fluid chemistry. This project can be divided into three parts: sample preparation, NMR studies, dielectric studies. Over the past nine months the authors have made significant progress in sample preparation and NMR studies. As the plan is to conduct the NMR and dielectric measurements on the same set of samples, the authors delayed the start of the dielectric measurements until the first stage of NMR measurements were complete. Below the authors summarize the progress in sample preparation and NMR measurements, first briefly introducing the method used for the NMR measurements.'

  19. Locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma: are we making progress?. Highlights from the "2011 ASCO Annual Meeting". Chicago, IL, USA; June 3-7, 2011.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Ng, John; Allendorf, John; Saif, Muhammad W

    2011-07-08

    Pancreatic cancer, as the 4th leading cause of cancer death in the U.S., remains a challenging disease for all oncologists. Less than 20% of all cases could be potentially cured by surgical resection, while the majority of cases are deemed either unresectable or metastatic upon diagnosis. In this year's American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, several studies were presented with novel approaches towards treating locally advanced pancreatic cancer. The LAP-07 study, a large phase III study with two separate randomizations, updated their accrual status, but with no interim data yet reported (Abstract #e14619). A single institutional review study reported its promising results on the incorporation of interferon to chemoradiation, but the toxicities could be concerning (Abstract #e14648). Abstract #e14607 demonstrated promising survival data from a tri-modality approach incorporating local and systemic chemotherapy concurrent with external beam radiation as well as radiofrequency ablation. The tolerability of sorafenib in locally advanced pancreatic cancer was shown in a small phase I study (Abstract #e14525). CyberKnife® stereotactic body radiation therapy was investigated as a modality for local palliation (Abstract #e14506). More effective therapeutic agents and approaches are still needed in this difficult disease. This highlight article will focus on the management of locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

  20. NSLS annual report 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Klaffky, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1984-01-01

    The first comprehensive Annual Report of the National Synchrotron Light Source comes at a time of great activity and forward motion for the facility. In the following pages we outline the management changes that have taken place in the past year, the progress that has been made in the commissioning of the x-ray ring and in the enhanced utilization of the uv ring, together with an extensive discussion of the interesting scientific experiments that have been carried out.