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Sample records for agrobacterium tumefaciens phosphatidylcholine

  1. GLYCINE RESISTANCE IN AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, Robert E.

    1962-01-01

    Beardsley, Robert E. (Manhattan College, New York, N. Y.). Glycine resistance in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 83:6–13. 1962.—The application of the fluctuation test of Luria and Delbrück to the distribution of glycine-resistant bacteria among cultures of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain B6 indicates that resistance arises by mutation in the absence of glycine. On glycine-supplemented medium, additional resistant colonies arise during prolonged periods of incubation. Their appearance is proceded by L-form growth. In general, the number of generations over which glycine resistance is inherited in the absence of glycine is increased by serial transfers on the selection medium. In liquid medium containing glycine, sensitive bacteria form spheroplasts. Resistant bacteria continue to grow as rod forms. In the medium employed, spheroplasts are unstable. Images PMID:13866159

  2. Carbohydrate metabolism in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Arthur, L O; Bulla, L A; Julian, G S; Nakamura, L K

    1973-10-01

    The activity of pentose cycling (PC) reactions in Agrobacterium tumefaciens is much greater than that normally found in bacteria, and in this regard the organism represents a unique category. Equations specifically derived from radiorespirometric data for bacteria with high PC activity in the presence of an alternate pathway are presented. A. tumefaciens utilizes d-glucose by strictly aerobic mechanisms involving the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) and PC pathways; relative participation by the ED pathway is 55% and by the PC cycle, 44%. The 3-ketoglycose-synthesizing system in the bacterium does not affect the relative participation of these two pathways. Radiorespirometric and enzymatic analyses clearly demonstrate that the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway does not function. Studies on the oxidation of pyruvic, acetic, succinic, and glutamic acids show that terminal respiration includes both the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylic acid cycles.

  3. Agrobacterium tumefaciens as an agent of disease.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Matthew A; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2003-08-01

    Twenty-six years ago it was found that the common soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens is capable of extraordinary feats of interkingdom genetic transfer. Since this discovery, A. tumefaciens has served as a model system for the study of type IV bacterial secretory systems, horizontal gene transfer and bacterial-plant signal exchange. It has also been modified for controlled genetic transformation of plants, a core technology of plant molecular biology. These areas have often overshadowed its role as a serious, widespread phytopathogen - the primary driver of the first 80 years of Agrobacterium research. Now, the diverse areas of A. tumefaciens research are again converging because new discoveries in transformation biology and the use of A. tumefaciens vectors are allowing the development of novel, effective biotechnology-based strategies for the control of crown gall disease.

  4. Characteristics of Agrobacterium tumefaciens auxotrophic mutant infectivity.

    PubMed

    Lippincott, B B; Lippincott, J A

    1966-10-01

    Lippincott, Barbara B. (Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill.), and James A. Lippincott. Characteristics of Agrobacterium tumefaciens auxotrophic mutant infectivity. J. Bacteriol. 92:937-945. 166.-Mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens auxotrophic for adenine, methionine, or asparagine are less infectious than the wild-type strain B6 from which they were derived and show increased infectivity on pinto bean leaves when the specific compounds required for growth of the mutants are added to the infected leaf. Reversion to a prototrophic form of nutrition is accompanied by increased infectivity. Tumors initiated by these auxotrophic mutants are shown to arise only at large wound sites where nutritional conditions may be less restricting. The data indicate that, after inoculation, the bacteria pass through a phase in which host-supplied nutrients are utilized for the production of one or more factors necessary for successful tumor initiation.

  5. Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Alan R. White; Ann G. Matthysse

    2004-07-31

    We have cloned the celC gene and its homologue from E. coli, yhjM, in an expression vector and expressed the both genes in E. coli; we have determined that the YhjM protein is able to complement in vitro cellulose synthesis by extracts of A. tumefaciens celC mutants, we have purified the YhjM protein product and are currently examining its enzymatic activity; we have examined whole cell extracts of CelC and various other cellulose mutants and wild type bacteria for the presence of cellulose oligomers and cellulose; we have examined the ability of extracts of wild type and cellulose mutants including CelC to incorporate UDP-14C-glucose into cellulose and into water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble oligosaccharides; we have made mutants which synthesize greater amounts of cellulose than the wild type; and we have examined the role of cellulose in the formation of biofilms by A. tumefaciens. In addition we have examined the ability of a putative cellulose synthase gene from the tunicate Ciona savignyi to complement an A. tumefaciens celA mutant. The greatest difference between our knowledge of bacterial cellulose synthesis when we started this project and current knowledge is that in 1999 when we wrote the original grant very few bacteria were known to synthesize cellulose and genes involved in this synthesis were sequenced only from Acetobacter species, A. tumefaciens and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Currently many bacteria are known to synthesize cellulose and genes that may be involved have been sequenced from more than 10 species of bacteria. This additional information has raised the possibility of attempting to use genes from one bacterium to complement mutants in another bacterium. This will enable us to examine the question of which genes are responsible for the three dimensional structure of cellulose (since this differs among bacterial species) and also to examine the interactions between the various proteins required for cellulose synthesis. We have carried out one

  6. Murine Toxicity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens1

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Pat B.; Huisingh, Donald

    1968-01-01

    Eleven strains of the crown gall organism, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, tested by intraperitoneal injection into mice, were lethal within 48 hr. Five other species had some lethal strains. The lethal effect of A. tumefaciens appeared to be the result of a toxic rather than an infectious process, since histopathological anomalies were not found in mice injected with live cultures and since heat-killed cultures were lethal. The murine toxin disappeared when A. tumefaciens was grown at 36 C and reappeared when the organism was subsequently incubated below 30 C. The murine toxin itself was not inactivated by exposure to 100 C for 30 min. The toxin was associated with the cells and was not excreted into the medium. Centrifugal fractionation revealed that the toxin was associated with the smaller cells in 3-day stationary-phase cultures. These data suggested a possible relationship between toxin production and the production of the agents responsible for the initiation of plant tumors. PMID:5643064

  7. Transformation of medicinal plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Bandurska, Katarzyna; Berdowska, Agnieszka; Król, Małgorzata

    2016-12-20

    For many years attempts are made to develop efficient methods for transformation of medicinal plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It is a soil bacteria which possess a natural ability to infect plants in places of injures which results in arise of cancerous growths (crown gall). This is possible thanks a transfer of fragment of Ti plasmid into plant cells and stable integration with a plant genome. Efficiency of medicinal plant transformation depends on many factors for example: Agrobacterium strain, methods and procedures of transformation as well as on plant species, type and age of the explants and regeneration conditions. The main goal of plant transformation is to increase the amount of naturally occurring bioactive compounds and the production of biopharmaceuticals. Genetic plant transformation via bacteria of the genus Agrobacterium is a complex process which requires detailed analysis of incorporated transgene expression and occurs only in the case when the plant cell acquires the ability to regenerate. In many cases, the regeneration efficiency observed in medicinal plants are inefficient after applied transformation procedures. To date there have been attempts of genetic transformation by using A. tumefaciens of medicinal plants belonging to the families: Apocynaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteraceae, Begoniaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Linaceae, Papaveraceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Solanaceae.

  8. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a diazotrophic bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Kanvinde, L.; Sastry, G.R.K. )

    1990-07-01

    This is the first report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens can fix nitrogen in a free-living condition as shown by its abilities to grown on nitrogen-free medium, reduce acetylene to ethylene, and incorporate {sup 15}N supplied as {sup 15}N{sub 2}. As with most other well-characterized diazotrophic bacteria, the presence of NH{sub 4}{sup +} in the medium and aerobic conditions repress nitrogen fixation by A. tumefaciens. The system requires molybdenum. No evidence for nodulation was found with pea, peanut, or soybean plants. Further understanding of the nitrogen-fixing ability of this bacterium, which has always been considered a pathogen, should cast new light on the evolution of a pathogenic versus symbiotic relationship.

  9. Transformation of oil palm using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantlets are regenerated after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of embryogenic calli derived from young leaves of oil palm. The calli are transformed with an Agrobacterium strain, LBA4404, harboring the plasmid pUBA, which carries a selectable marker gene (bar) for resistance to the herbicide Basta and is driven by a maize ubiquitin promoter. Modifications of the transformation method, treatment of the target tissues using acetosyringone, exposure to a plasmolysis medium, and physical injury via biolistics are applied. The main reasons for such modifications are to activate the bacterial virulence system and, subsequently, to increase the transformation efficiency. Transgenic oil palm cells are selected and regenerated on a medium containing herbicide Basta. Molecular analyses revealed the presence and integration of the introduced bar gene into the genome of the transformants.

  10. AMINO ACID CROSS RESISTANCE IN AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, Robert E.

    1962-01-01

    Beardsley, Robert E. (Manhattan College, New York, N. Y.). Amino acid cross resistance in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 84:1237–1240. 1962.—Resistant clones selected on medium supplemented with glycine were also resistant to d-methionine, d-valine, dl-norleucine, and dl-serine. Cross resistance was similarly exhibited by clones selected on d-methionine, d-valine, or dl-norleucine. Two types of resistant organisms were observed. One produced colonies containing normal rods on selection medium. The other produced translucent colonies containing L forms. Both grew as typical rods in unsupplemented medium. Some resistant clones did not produce a temperate phage carried by the parental strain, but these retained immunity to homologous phage. The toxicity of d-methionine and d-valine for nonresistant bacteria is not reversed by the l isomers. The lethal effects of toxic amino acids are additive. PMID:13969951

  11. Impact of biological amendments on Agrobacterium tumefaciens soil survival

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Paradox, the primary walnut rootstock used in California, is susceptible to Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which causes crown gall. While A. tumefaciens is susceptible to commonly used fumigants such as methyl bromide (MeBr) and Telone-C35 (1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin), these fumigants also sig...

  12. Membrane lipids in Agrobacterium tumefaciens: biosynthetic pathways and importance for pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Meriyem; Danne, Linna; Möller, Philip; Narberhaus, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Many cellular processes critically depend on the membrane composition. In this review, we focus on the biosynthesis and physiological roles of membrane lipids in the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The major components of A. tumefaciens membranes are the phospholipids (PLs), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cardiolipin, and ornithine lipids (OLs). Under phosphate-limited conditions, the membrane composition shifts to phosphate-free lipids like glycolipids, OLs and a betaine lipid. Remarkably, PC and OLs have opposing effects on virulence of A. tumefaciens. OL-lacking A. tumefaciens mutants form tumors on the host plant earlier than the wild type suggesting a reduced host defense response in the absence of OLs. In contrast, A. tumefaciens is compromised in tumor formation in the absence of PC. In general, PC is a rare component of bacterial membranes but amount to ~22% of all PLs in A. tumefaciens. PC biosynthesis occurs via two pathways. The phospholipid N-methyltransferase PmtA methylates PE via the intermediates monomethyl-PE and dimethyl-PE to PC. In the second pathway, the membrane-integral enzyme PC synthase (Pcs) condenses choline with CDP-diacylglycerol to PC. Apart from the virulence defect, PC-deficient A. tumefaciens pmtA and pcs double mutants show reduced motility, enhanced biofilm formation and increased sensitivity towards detergent and thermal stress. In summary, there is cumulative evidence that the membrane lipid composition of A. tumefaciens is critical for agrobacterial physiology and tumor formation. PMID:24723930

  13. Transmission of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Phage by Pristionchus Iheriteiri

    PubMed Central

    Chantanao, A.; Jensen, H. J.

    1969-01-01

    Pristionchus lheriteiri (Maupas) Paramonov, a saprozoic nematode, served as a carrier of an unnamed phage of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend) Conn. Viable phage particles passed through the nematode, caused lysis and formed typical plaques on agar plates seeded to A. tumefaciens. Phage retention by carrier nematodes was extended several hr by restricting food intake. Female nematodes accumulated phage in greater quantities and more rapidly than male nematodes. PMID:19325671

  14. Virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain A281 on legumes

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, E.E.; Fraley, R.T.; Chilton, M.D.

    1987-03-01

    This study addresses the basis of host range on legumes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain A281, an L,L-succinamopine strain. The authors tested virulence of T-DNA and vir region constructs from this tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid with complementary Ti plasmid regions from heterologous nopaline and octopine strains.

  15. Transgene expression in tick cells using agrobacterium tumefaciens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ticks transmit infectious diseases to humans and other animals. Genetic manipulation of these arthropods would allow the development of alternative disease control strategies. Interestingly, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At) mediated T-DNA transfer has been recently shown to promote the genetic modific...

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ach5

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Cho, Shu-Ting; Lo, Wen-Sui; Wang, Yi-Chieh; Lai, Erh-Min

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes crown gall disease. The strain Ach5 was isolated from yarrow (Achillea ptarmica L.) and is the wild-type progenitor of other derived strains widely used for plant transformation. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:26044425

  17. Agrobacterium tumefaciens responses to plant-derived signaling molecules.

    PubMed

    Subramoni, Sujatha; Nathoo, Naeem; Klimov, Eugene; Yuan, Ze-Chun

    2014-01-01

    As a special phytopathogen, Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes plant tumors also known as crown galls. The complexity of Agrobacterium-plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely attributed to its evolved capabilities of precise recognition and response to plant-derived chemical signals. Agrobacterium perceives plant-derived signals to activate its virulence genes, which are responsible for transferring and integrating its Transferred DNA (T-DNA) from its Tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid into the plant nucleus. The expression of T-DNA in plant hosts leads to the production of a large amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinin (CK), and opines. IAA and CK stimulate plant growth, resulting in tumor formation. Agrobacterium utilizes opines as nutrient sources as well as signals in order to activate its quorum sensing (QS) to further promote virulence and opine metabolism. Intriguingly, Agrobacterium also recognizes plant-derived signals including γ-amino butyric acid and salicylic acid (SA) to activate quorum quenching that reduces the level of QS signals, thereby avoiding the elicitation of plant defense and preserving energy. In addition, Agrobacterium hijacks plant-derived signals including SA, IAA, and ethylene to down-regulate its virulence genes located on the Ti plasmid. Moreover, certain metabolites from corn (Zea mays) also inhibit the expression of Agrobacterium virulence genes. Here we outline the responses of Agrobacterium to major plant-derived signals that impact Agrobacterium-plant interactions.

  18. Agrobacterium tumefaciens responses to plant-derived signaling molecules

    PubMed Central

    Subramoni, Sujatha; Nathoo, Naeem; Klimov, Eugene; Yuan, Ze-Chun

    2014-01-01

    As a special phytopathogen, Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes plant tumors also known as crown galls. The complexity of Agrobacterium–plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely attributed to its evolved capabilities of precise recognition and response to plant-derived chemical signals. Agrobacterium perceives plant-derived signals to activate its virulence genes, which are responsible for transferring and integrating its Transferred DNA (T-DNA) from its Tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid into the plant nucleus. The expression of T-DNA in plant hosts leads to the production of a large amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinin (CK), and opines. IAA and CK stimulate plant growth, resulting in tumor formation. Agrobacterium utilizes opines as nutrient sources as well as signals in order to activate its quorum sensing (QS) to further promote virulence and opine metabolism. Intriguingly, Agrobacterium also recognizes plant-derived signals including γ-amino butyric acid and salicylic acid (SA) to activate quorum quenching that reduces the level of QS signals, thereby avoiding the elicitation of plant defense and preserving energy. In addition, Agrobacterium hijacks plant-derived signals including SA, IAA, and ethylene to down-regulate its virulence genes located on the Ti plasmid. Moreover, certain metabolites from corn (Zea mays) also inhibit the expression of Agrobacterium virulence genes. Here we outline the responses of Agrobacterium to major plant-derived signals that impact Agrobacterium–plant interactions. PMID:25071805

  19. Agrobacterium tumefaciens supports DNA replication of diverse geminivirus types.

    PubMed

    Selth, Luke A; Randles, John W; Rezaian, M Ali

    2002-04-10

    We have previously shown that the soil-borne plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens supports the replication of tomato leaf curl geminivirus (Australian isolate) (TLCV) DNA. However, the reproducibility of this observation with other geminiviruses has been questioned. Here, we show that replicative DNA forms of three other geminiviruses also accumulate at varying levels in Agrobacterium. Geminiviral DNA constructs that lacked the ability to replicate in Agrobacterium were rendered replication-competent by changing their configuration so that two copies of the viral ori were present. Furthermore, we report that low-level replication of TLCV DNA can occur in Escherichia coli containing a dimeric TLCV construct in a high copy number plasmid. These findings were reinforced by expression studies using beta-glucuronidase which revealed that all six TLCV promoters are active in Agrobacterium, and two are functional in E. coli.

  20. Two Distinct Cardiolipin Synthases Operate in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Czolkoss, Simon; Fritz, Christiane; Hölzl, Georg; Aktas, Meriyem

    2016-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a universal component of energy generating membranes. In most bacteria, it is synthesized via the condensation of two molecules phosphatidylglycerol (PG) by phospholipase D-type cardiolipin synthases (PLD-type Cls). In the plant pathogen and natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens CL comprises up to 15% of all phospholipids in late stationary growth phase. A. tumefaciens harbors two genes, atu1630 (cls1) and atu2486 (cls2), coding for PLD-type Cls. Heterologous expression of either cls1 or cls2 in Escherichia coli resulted in accumulation of CL supporting involvement of their products in CL synthesis. Expression of cls1 and cls2 in A. tumefaciens is constitutive and irrespective of the growth phase. Membrane lipid profiling of A. tumefaciens mutants suggested that Cls2 is required for CL synthesis at early exponential growth whereas both Cls equally contribute to CL production at later growth stages. Contrary to many bacteria, which suffer from CL depletion, A. tumefaciens tolerates large changes in CL content since the CL-deficient cls1/cls2 double mutant showed no apparent defects in growth, stress tolerance, motility, biofilm formation, UV-stress and tumor formation on plants. PMID:27472399

  1. Agrobacterium tumefaciens Interaction with Suspension-Cultured Tomato Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Nicola T.; Binns, Andrew N.

    1985-01-01

    Adherence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to suspension-cultured tomato cells has been characterized using a quantitative binding assay. Saturable binding of radiolabeled A. tumefaciens to plant cells resulted in 100 to 300 bacteria bound per cell. Specificity of A. tumefaciens binding was also inferred from two additional results: (a) an initial incubation of plant cells with A. tumefaciens reduced subsequent binding of radiolabeled A. tumefaciens by 60% to 75%; (b) tomato cells bound less than three E. coli per cell. Protease treatment of plant cells had no effect on subsequent bacterial binding, but prior treatment of plant cells with pectinolytic enzymes increased binding 2- to 3-fold. Pectin-enriched and neutral polymer-enriched fractions were obtained from tomato cell walls. The soluble pectin-enriched fraction inhibited binding of bacteria to plant cells by 85% to 95%, whereas the neutral polymer fraction only partially inhibited binding. Preliminary characterization of the activity showed it is heat stable, partially inactivated by protease treatment, and substantially inactivated by acid hydrolysis. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16664024

  2. Ψ, a Temperate Phage of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Is Mutagenic

    PubMed Central

    Expert, Dominique; Tourneur, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    A new temperate bacteriophage (phage Ψ) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain B91 is described. Many octopine-utilizing strains of A. tumefaciens harbor prophage Ψ or a phage that is similar if not identical to it. This phage has a very narrow host range, and we found that its growth is strongly reduced in strains which carry an octopine pTi plasmid. When sensitive bacteria are infected with Ψ, 1 to 3% of the survivors carry mutations on the chromosome, as well as on the pTi plasmid. This phenomenon appears to be a direct consequence of lysogenization. The possible mechanisms whereby such Ψ-induced mutations occur are discussed. Images PMID:16789221

  3. Enhancement of Agrobacterium tumefaciens infectivity by mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Heberlein, G T; Lippincott, J A

    1967-11-01

    The ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to induce pinto leaf tumors may be enhanced two- to threefold after treatment with mitomycin C. The enhancement may be obtained with either lethal or nonlethal concentrations. With 10-min treatments, an optimal response was obtained with 0.005 mug of mitomycin C per ml in the absence of any change in the number of viable cells. Both the tumor induction process and the tumors induced by treated cultures appear qualitatively the same as controls. To account for these results, the antibiotic must increase the proportion of viable cells that will subsequently initiate tumors. One, or at most a few, random lesions in the bacterial chromosome seem to be the necessary requirement for this promotion. At mitomycin concentrations of 1 and 5 mug/ml, the ability of A. tumefaciens to initiate tumors is rapidly lost, indicating that a fairly intact bacterial chromosome is one of the essentials for the tumor induction process.

  4. Progress of cereal transformation technology mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Monocotyledonous plants were believed to be not transformable by the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens until two decades ago, although convenient protocols for infection of leaf disks and subsequent regeneration of transgenic plants had been well established in a number of dicotyledonous species by then. This belief was reinforced by the fact that monocotyledons are mostly outside the host range of crown gall disease caused by the bacterium and by the failures in trials in monocotyledons to mimic the transformation protocols for dicotyledons. However, a key reason for the failure could have been the lack of active cell divisions at the wound sites in monocotyledons. The complexity and narrow optimal windows of critical factors, such as genotypes of plants, conditions of the plants from which explants are prepared, tissue culture methods and culture media, pre-treatments of explants, strains of A. tumefaciens, inducers of virulence genes, transformation vectors, selection marker genes and selective agents, kept technical hurdles high. Eventually it was demonstrated that rice and maize could be transformed by co-cultivating cells of callus cultures or immature embryos, which are actively dividing or about to divide, with A. tumefaciens. Subsequently, these initial difficulties were resolved one by one by many research groups, and the major cereals are now transformed quite efficiently. As many as 15 independent transgenic events may be regenerated from a single piece of immature embryo of rice. Maize transformation protocols are well established, and almost all transgenic events deregulated for commercialization after 2003 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Wheat, barley, and sorghum are also among those plants that can be efficiently transformed by A. tumefaciens. PMID:25426132

  5. Progress of cereal transformation technology mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Monocotyledonous plants were believed to be not transformable by the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens until two decades ago, although convenient protocols for infection of leaf disks and subsequent regeneration of transgenic plants had been well established in a number of dicotyledonous species by then. This belief was reinforced by the fact that monocotyledons are mostly outside the host range of crown gall disease caused by the bacterium and by the failures in trials in monocotyledons to mimic the transformation protocols for dicotyledons. However, a key reason for the failure could have been the lack of active cell divisions at the wound sites in monocotyledons. The complexity and narrow optimal windows of critical factors, such as genotypes of plants, conditions of the plants from which explants are prepared, tissue culture methods and culture media, pre-treatments of explants, strains of A. tumefaciens, inducers of virulence genes, transformation vectors, selection marker genes and selective agents, kept technical hurdles high. Eventually it was demonstrated that rice and maize could be transformed by co-cultivating cells of callus cultures or immature embryos, which are actively dividing or about to divide, with A. tumefaciens. Subsequently, these initial difficulties were resolved one by one by many research groups, and the major cereals are now transformed quite efficiently. As many as 15 independent transgenic events may be regenerated from a single piece of immature embryo of rice. Maize transformation protocols are well established, and almost all transgenic events deregulated for commercialization after 2003 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Wheat, barley, and sorghum are also among those plants that can be efficiently transformed by A. tumefaciens.

  6. Succinic Semialdehyde Promotes Prosurvival Capability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Tang, Desong; Gao, Yong-Gui

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Succinic semialdehyde (SSA), an important metabolite of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is a ligand of the repressor AttJ regulating the expression of the attJ-attKLM gene cluster in the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. While the response of A. tumefaciens to GABA and the function of attKLM have been extensively studied, genetic and physiological responses of A. tumefaciens to SSA remain unknown. In combination with microarray and genetic approaches, this study sets out to explore new roles of the SSA-AttJKLM regulatory mechanism during bacterial infection. The results showed that SSA plays a key role in regulation of several bacterial activities, including C4-dicarboxylate utilization, nitrate assimilation, and resistance to oxidative stress. Interestingly, while the SSA relies heavily on the functional AttKLM in mediating nitrate assimilation and oxidative stress resistance, the compound could regulate utilization of C4-dicarboxylates independent of AttJKLM. We further provide evidence that SSA controls C4-dicarboxylate utilization through induction of an SSA importer and that disruption of attKLM attenuates the tumorigenicity of A. tumefaciens. Taken together, these findings indicate that SSA could be a potent plant signal which, together with AttKLM, plays a vital role in promoting the bacterial prosurvival abilities during infection. IMPORTANCE Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen causing crown gall diseases and has been well known as a powerful tool for plant genetic engineering. During the long history of microbe-host interaction, A. tumefaciens has evolved the capabilities of recognition and response to plant-derived chemical metabolites. Succinic semialdehyde (SSA) is one such metabolite. Previous results have demonstrated that SSA functions to activate a quorum-quenching mechanism and thus to decrease the level of quorum-sensing signals, thereby avoiding the elicitation of a plant defense. Here, we studied the effect of SSA on gene

  7. [Transformation of Didymella bryoniae mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens].

    PubMed

    Ren, Haiying; Fang, Li; Li, Gang; Ru, Shuijiang; Wang, Hanrong

    2010-06-01

    Gummy stem blight, a plant disease caused by Didymella bryoniae, is one of the major diseases in melon. The disease can seriously reduce melon yield and quality. However, little information is available on the genetics and functional genomics of the fungal pathogen. In this study, we developed an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for D. bryoniae by using a universal pathogenic isolate DB11 and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 carrying plasmid pBIG2RHPH2 harboring the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (hph). Total 45 transformants could be obtained per 1 x 10(5) spores when 1 x 10(6) spores per milliliter of D. bryoniae spore suspension were cocultivated with Agrobacterium cells at OD600 = 0.15 for 48 h in the presence of induction medium (pH 5.2) containing acetosyringone at 200 microg/mL and selection medium contained 100 microg/mL of hygromycin B and 200 microg/mL of cefotaxime sodium, ampicillin and tetracycline, respectively. The transformants were stable when grown on PDA medium without hygromycin B for five times and were verified by PCR amplification with the hph primers and by Southern blot analysis with the hph probe. The transformation system will be useful for further studies of functional genes in D. bryoniae.

  8. Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development

    PubMed Central

    Gohlke, Jochen; Deeken, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumors. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (“omic”) approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumor formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant. PMID:24795740

  9. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Botryosphaeria dothidea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Wang, Qun; Chen, Hua; Sun, Gengwu; Liu, Huixiang; Wang, Hongkai

    2016-07-01

    Botryosphaeria dothidea is a severe causal agent of die-back and cankers of many woody plants and causes great losses in many regions. The pathogenic mechanism of this pathogen has not been well explored due to lack of mutants and genetic information. In this study, we developed an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) protocol for B. dothidea protoplasts using vector pBHt2 containing the hph gene as a selection marker under the control of trp C promoter. Using this protocol we successfully generated the B. dothidea transformants with efficiency about 23 transformants per 10(5) protoplasts. This is the first report of genetic transformation of B. dothidea via ATMT and this protocol provides an effective tool for B. dothidea genome manipulation, gene identification and functional analysis.

  10. Succinoglycan production by solid-state fermentation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Stredansky, M; Conti, E

    1999-09-01

    Succinoglycan was produced by cultivating Agrobacterium tumefaciens on various solid substrates, including agar medium, spent malt grains, ivory nut shavings, and grated carrots, impregnated with a nutrient+ solution. Fermentations were performed on a laboratory scale, both under static conditions and with agitation, using bottles and a prototype horizontal bioreactor. Several fermentation parameters were examined and optimized, including carbon and nitrogen composition, water content and layer thickness of the substrate. The yields and rheological properties of the polymers obtained under different fermentation conditions were compared. The highest succinoglycan yield was achieved in static cultivation, reaching 42 g/l of impregnating solution, corresponding to 30 g/kg of wet substrate. The polymer production in the horizontal bioreactor was faster, but the final yield was lower (29 g/l of impregnating solution).

  11. [Obtaining transgenic rice plants and their progenies using Agrobacterium tumefaciens].

    PubMed

    Yin, Z C; Yang, F; Xu, Y; Li, B J

    1998-12-01

    Rice (Oriza sativa L.) suspension cells of Taipei 309 were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens stran EHA101 harbouring binary vector pBYT2 for 3 days in the presence of vir inducer, 100 mumol/L acetosyringone (AS). After 2 months of continuous selection, 17 stable hygromycin-resistant, GUS-positive calli were recovered from 364 suspension cell clusters co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens. 10 putative transgenic R0 plants obtained from 8 tansformed calli and their progenies were analyzed for the integration and expression of foreign genes. Southern blot analysis of R0 and R1 generations indicated that foreign genes had been stably integrated in the genome of transgenic rice and sexually transmitted. One of the transgenic lines showed 5 copies of T-DNA integration, while the others had only one copy. Histochemical staining observation and fluorometric assay of GUS activity in transgenic rice cells and plants showed ubiquitin promoter from maize was highly effective in driving the expression of gus reporter gene in transgenic rice cells. GUS protein and its activity were also investigated through ndPAGE-X-Gluc staining assay, and it was found that the GUS protein in transgenic rice cells was smaller in size than the standard GUS protein (Sigma Co. G0786) but as large as that from E.coli HB101 (pBI121). This study suggested that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of plant is an efficient and reliable method to introduce foreign genes into rice.

  12. Transformation of the monocotyledonous Alstroemeria by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, M; Ishizaki, T; Sato, H

    2004-03-01

    An efficient procedure is described for the transformation of the monocotyledonous Alstroemeria by Agrobacterium tumefaciens via callus regeneration. Calli derived from ovules were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strains EHA101 and LBA4404, which harbored the binary vector plasmids pIG121Hm and pTOK233, respectively. These plasmids contain the beta-glucuronidase gene ( gusA) as a reporter gene and the hygromycin phosphotransferase and neomycin phosphotransferase II ( nptII) genes as selective markers. Inoculated calli were first plated for 4 weeks on medium containing cefotaxime to eliminate bacteria, following which time transformed cells were selected on medium that contained 20 mg/l hygromycin. A histochemical assay for GUS activity revealed that hygromycin-based selection was completed after 8 weeks. The integration of the T-DNA of pIG121Hm and pTOK233 into the genome of the cells was confirmed by PCR analysis. Efficient shoot regeneration from the transformed calli was observed on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid and 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine after about 5 months of culture. The presence of the gusA and nptII genes in the genomic DNA of regenerated plants was detected by means of PCR and PCR-Southern hybridization, and the expression of these transgenes was verified by reverse transcription-PCR.

  13. Attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens B6 and A. radiobacter K84 to Tomato Root Tips

    PubMed Central

    Penalver, R.; Serra, M. T.; Duran-Vila, N.; Lopez, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens B6 and the avirulent Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K84 attached to in vitro-cultured tomato root tips, but the binding of strain B6 to root tips was greater than the binding of strain K84. Strain K84 was not able to block the attachment of A. tumefaciens B6 to in vitro-cultured tomato root tips. PMID:16535413

  14. Genome Sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strain F2, a Bioflocculant-Producing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ang; Geng, Jianing; Cui, Di; Shu, Chang; Zhang, Si; Yang, Jixian; Xing, Jie; Wang, Jinna; Ma, Fang; Hu, Songnian

    2011-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens F2 is an efficient bioflocculant-producing bacterium. But the genes related to the metabolic pathway of bioflocculant biosynthesis in strain F2 are unknown. We present the draft genome of A. tumefaciens F2. It could provide further insight into the biosynthetic mechanism of polysaccharide-like bioflocculant in strain F2. PMID:21914861

  15. Genome sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain F2, a bioflocculant-producing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Li, Ang; Geng, Jianing; Cui, Di; Shu, Chang; Zhang, Si; Yang, Jixian; Xing, Jie; Wang, Jinna; Ma, Fang; Hu, Songnian

    2011-10-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens F2 is an efficient bioflocculant-producing bacterium. But the genes related to the metabolic pathway of bioflocculant biosynthesis in strain F2 are unknown. We present the draft genome of A. tumefaciens F2. It could provide further insight into the biosynthetic mechanism of polysaccharide-like bioflocculant in strain F2.

  16. Transformation of the plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Garcês, Helena; Sinha, Neelima

    2009-10-01

    Kalanchoë daigremontiana can be stably transformed using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated T-DNA transfer method, as described here. Sterilized plant tissue is cocultivated with an A. tumefaciens suspension, transformants are selected and the shoots are grown in rooting medium and then in soil. Plant phenotypes can be examined approximately 3 mo after transfer of plants to soil.

  17. Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed roots of the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor retain parasitic competence.

    PubMed

    Tomilov, Alexey; Tomilova, Natalya; Yoder, John I

    2007-04-01

    Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae invade roots of neighboring plants to rob them of water and nutrients. Triphysaria is facultative parasite that parasitizes a broad range of plant species including maize and Arabidopsis. In this paper we describe transient and stable transformation systems for Triphysaria versicolor Fischer and C. Meyer. Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes were both able to transiently express a GUS reporter in Triphysaria seedlings following vacuum infiltration. There was a correlation between the length of time seedlings were conditioned in the dark prior to infiltration and the tissue type transformed. In optimized experiments, nearly all of the vacuum infiltrated seedlings transiently expressed GUS activity in some tissue. Calluses that developed from transformed tissues were selected using non-destructive GUS staining and after several rounds of in vivo GUS selection, we recovered uniformly staining GUS calluses from which roots were subsequently induced. The presence and expression of the transgene in Triphysaria was verified using genomic PCR, RT PCR and Southern hybridizations. Transgenic roots were also obtained by inoculating A. rhizogenes into wounded Triphysaria seedlings. Stable transformed roots were identified using GUS staining or fluorescent microscopy following transformation with vectors containing GFP, dsRED or EYFP. Transgenic roots derived from both A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes transformations were morphologically normal and developed haustoria that attached to and invaded lettuce roots. Transgenic roots also remained competent to form haustoria in response to purified inducing factors. These transformation systems will allow an in planta assessment of genes predicted to function in plant parasitism.

  18. Effect of pre-plant soil fumigants on Agrobacterium tumefaciens, pythiaceous species, and subsequent soil recolonization by A. tumefaciens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Paradox (Juglans hindsii x J. regia), the dominant rootstock used in the California walnut industry, is susceptible to crown gall, caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In practice, soil fumigation has been a common preplant management strategy for crown gall, but even an industry standard, methyl b...

  19. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Narcissus tazzeta var. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gang; Zou, Qingcheng; Guo, Deping; Zhuang, Xiaoying; Yu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Xun; Cao, Jiashu

    2007-09-01

    Phytoene synthase (PSY), as a key regulatory enzyme for carotene biosynthesis, plays an important role in regulating color formation in many species. In the present study, a protocol was developed for the transformation of Narcissus tazzeta var chinensis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA1301 plasmid which contained an antisense phytoene synthase gene, a reporter beta-glucuronidase gene and a selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene. Effects of some factors on efficiency of transformation and regeneration were examined. Preculture of the explants for 6 days before inoculation enhanced the transient GUS expression. The addition of acetosyringone (AS) at 100 micromol l(-1) for inoculation and a period of 3 days co-cultivation yielded efficient transient GUS expression. Transformants were obtained through selection on MS medium containing 5 mg l(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.1 mg l(-1)alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 40 mg l(-1) hygromycin. The transformation frequency was 1.24% based on PCR analysis of gus gene. One or two copies of transgene were demonstrated in different transformations by Southern blotting analyses. Northern blotting results confirmed that the transcription of the endogenous psy gene in transgenic plants was inhibited or silenced. The method reported here provides new opportunities for improvement of quality traits of Narcissus tazzeta via genetic transformation.

  20. Common loci for Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium meliloti exopolysaccharide synthesis and their roles in plant interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cangelosi, G.A.; Hung, L.; Puvanesarajah, V.; Stacey, G.; Ozga, D.A.; Leigh, J.A.; Nester, E.W.

    1987-05-01

    The authors isolated approximately 100 analogous EPS-deficient (Exo) mutants of the closely related plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens, including strains whose EPS deficiencies were specifically complemented by each of five cloned, R. meliloti exo loci. They also cloned A. tumefaciens genes which complemented EPS defects in three of the R. meliloti Exo mutants. In two of these cases, symbiotic defects were also complemented. All of the A. tumefaciens Exo mutants formed normal crown gall tumors on four different plant hosts, except ExoC mutants, which were nontumorigenic and unable to attach to plant cells in vitro. Like their R. meliloti counterparts, A. tumefaciens Exo mutants were deficient in production of succinoglycan, the major acidic EPS species produced by both genera. A. tumefaciens ExoC mutants also produced extremely low levels of another major EPS, cyclic 1,2-..beta..-D-glucan. This deficiency has been noted previously in a different set of nontumorigenic, attachment-defective A. tumefaciens mutants.

  1. Plant cell transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens under simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnatska, Veresa; Gladun, Hanna; Padalko, Svetlana

    To investigate simulated microgravity (clinorotation) effect on plant cell transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall formation, the culture of primary explants of potato and Jerusalem artichoke tubers was used. It is found that the efficiency of tumor formation and development in clinorotated explants are considerably reduced. When using the explants isolated from potato tubers clinorotated for 3, 5 and 19 days, drastic reduction of formation and development of crown gall tumors was observed. Conversely, the tumor number and their development increased when potato tubers were clinorotated for one day. As was estimated by us previously, cells of Jerusalem artichoke explants are the most sensitive to agrobacteria on 4-5 h of in vitro culturing and this time corresponds to the certain period of G1-stage of the cell cycle. We have also estimated that this period is characterized by the increase of binding of acridine orange by nuclear chromatin and increase in activity of RNA-polymerase I and II. Inoculation of explants with agrobacteria in this period was the most optimal for transformation and crown gall induction. We estimated that at four - hour clinorotation of explants the intensity of acridine orange binding to nuclei was considerably lower than on 4h in the control. At one-day clinorotation of potato tubers, a considerable increase in template accessibility of chromatin and in activity of RNA-polymerase I and II occurred. These results may serve as an evidence for the ability of plant dormant tissues to respond to microgravity. Another demonstration of dormant tissue response to changed gravity we obtained when investigating pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-proteins). PR-proteins were subjected to nondenaturing PAGE.and we have not found any effect of microgravity on PR-proteins of potato explants with normal or tumorous growth. We may suggest that such response derives from the common effects of two stress factors - wounding and changed

  2. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-Qing; Sink, K C

    2004-12-01

    Transient expression studies using blueberry leaf explants and monitored by beta-glucuronidase (GUS) assays indicated Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 was more effective than LBA4404 or GV3101; and the use of acetosyringone (AS) at 100 microM for inoculation and 6 days co-cultivation was optimum compared to 2, 4, 8, 10 or 12 days. Subsequently, explants of the cultivars Aurora, Bluecrop, Brigitta, and Legacy were inoculated with strain EHA105 containing the binary vector pBISN1 with the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and an intron-interrupted GUS gene directed by the chimeric super promoter (Aocs)3AmasPmas. Co-cultivation was for 6 days on modified woody plant medium (WPM) plus 100 microM AS. Explants were then placed on modified WPM supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) thidiazuron, 0.5 mg l(-1) alpha-naphthaleneacetic, 10 mg l(-1) kanamycin (Km), and 250 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. Selection for Km-resistant shoots was carried out in the dark for 2 weeks followed by culture in the light at 30 microE m(-2) s(-1) at 25 degrees C. After 12 weeks, selected shoots that were both Km resistant and GUS positive were obtained from 15.3% of the inoculated leaf explants of cultivar Aurora. Sixty-eight independent clones derived from such shoots all tested positive by the polymerase chain reaction using a nptII primer. Eight of eight among these 68 clones tested positive by Southern hybridization using a gusA gene derived probe. The transformation protocol also yielded Km-resistant, GUS-positive shoots that were also PCR positive at frequencies of 5.0% for Bluecrop, 10.0% for Brigitta and 5.6% for Legacy.

  3. T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus microcarpus.

    PubMed

    Pardo, A G; Kemppainen, M; Valdemoros, D; Duplessis, S; Martin, F; Tagu, D

    2005-01-01

    The model ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus microcarpus isolate 441 was transformed by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA1100 and AGL-1. The selection marker was the Shble gene of Streptoallotecius hidustanus, conferring resistance to phleomycin, under the control of the gpd gene promoter and terminator of Schizophyllum commune. Transformation resulted in phleomycin resistant clones which were confirmed by PCR to contain the resistance cassette. A. tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer would allow the development of RNA interference technology in P. microcarpus.

  4. Developmental Effects of Zeatin, Ribosyl-Zeatin, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens B6 on Certain Mosses

    PubMed Central

    Spiess, Luretta D.

    1976-01-01

    Eight species of mosses studied were divided into two groups on the basis of their developmental responses to ribosyl-trans-zeatin and Agro-bacterium tumefaciens B6. All eight produced either gametophores or callus on the protonema in response to 6-(γ,γ-dimethylallylamino) purine and trans-zeatin. Three which produced normal gametophores with A. tumefaciens yielded callus or abnormal gametophores with ribosyl-trans-zeatin. Ribosyl-trans-zeatin and A. tumefaciens were relatively ineffective on five other mosses. Characteristics of protonemal growth common to each of these two groups are described. PMID:16659608

  5. The genome of the natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58.

    PubMed

    Wood, D W; Setubal, J C; Kaul, R; Monks, D E; Kitajima, J P; Okura, V K; Zhou, Y; Chen, L; Wood, G E; Almeida, N F; Woo, L; Chen, Y; Paulsen, I T; Eisen, J A; Karp, P D; Bovee, D; Chapman, P; Clendenning, J; Deatherage, G; Gillet, W; Grant, C; Kutyavin, T; Levy, R; Li, M J; McClelland, E; Palmieri, A; Raymond, C; Rouse, G; Saenphimmachak, C; Wu, Z; Romero, P; Gordon, D; Zhang, S; Yoo, H; Tao, Y; Biddle, P; Jung, M; Krespan, W; Perry, M; Gordon-Kamm, B; Liao, L; Kim, S; Hendrick, C; Zhao, Z Y; Dolan, M; Chumley, F; Tingey, S V; Tomb, J F; Gordon, M P; Olson, M V; Nester, E W

    2001-12-14

    The 5.67-megabase genome of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 consists of a circular chromosome, a linear chromosome, and two plasmids. Extensive orthology and nucleotide colinearity between the genomes of A. tumefaciens and the plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti suggest a recent evolutionary divergence. Their similarities include metabolic, transport, and regulatory systems that promote survival in the highly competitive rhizosphere; differences are apparent in their genome structure and virulence gene complement. Availability of the A. tumefaciens sequence will facilitate investigations into the molecular basis of pathogenesis and the evolutionary divergence of pathogenic and symbiotic lifestyles.

  6. DETECTION AND IMPLICATIONS OF EARLY AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS INFECTION OF PARADOX SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Paradox (Juglans hindsii x J. regia), the dominant rootstock used in California, USA walnut production, has many desirable horticultural characteristics, but is highly susceptible to crown gall. Crown gall, caused by the soil-borne bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, can not be consistently control...

  7. Susceptibility of Juglans Species andInterspecific Hybrids to Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Treesearch

    James R. McKenna; Lynn Epstein

    2003-01-01

    Crown gall, caused by the common soil-borne bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, can be an economic problem in walnut nurseries and production orchards in Caliiornia. The principal rootstocks used for commercial walnut production in California are the native Northern California black walnut, Juglans hindsii, and "Paradox,...

  8. An enrichment technique for auxotrophs of Agrobacterium tumefaciens using a combination of carbenicillin and lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Klapwijk, P M; de Jonge, A J; Schilperoort, R A; Rörsch, A

    1975-11-01

    A procedure to enrich for auxotrophic and fermentation mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is described. The method is based on the amplification of the killing power of carbenicillin by the addition of lysozyme. Isolation frequencies of some types of mutants are presented, with and without the application of the proposed procedure. The yield of mutants is usually enhanced a hundredfold per enrichment treatment.

  9. Novel primers for detection of genetically diverse virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens bv1 strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel primers were developed to amplify a 243 bp fragment of an intergenic region between gene5 and tms2 on the T-DNA of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. These primers exhibit 100% positive correlation with strain virulence, 100% negative correlation with avirulence and did not generate extraneous bands,...

  10. picA, a novel plant-inducible locus on the Agrobacterium tumefaciens chromosome.

    PubMed

    Rong, L; Karcher, S J; O'Neal, K; Hawes, M C; Yerkes, C D; Jayaswal, R K; Hallberg, C A; Gelvin, S B

    1990-10-01

    We used the transposon Mu dI1681 to identify genes on the Agrobacterium tumefaciens chromosome that are inducible by extracts from carrot roots. One such locus (picA, for plant inducible chromosomal), harbored by A. tumefaciens At156, was inducible 10- to 50-fold by these extracts. Mutation of picA had no detectable effect upon bacterial growth or virulence under laboratory assay conditions. However, A. tumefaciens cells harboring a mutated picA locus aggregated into long "ropes" when incubated with pea root tip cells. Such aggregation was not displayed by the parental strain A. tumefaciens A136. A preliminary characterization of the inducing compound in the carrot root extract suggests that the active substance is an acidic polysaccharide that is most likely derived from the pectic portion of the plant cell wall.

  11. picA, a novel plant-inducible locus on the Agrobacterium tumefaciens chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Rong, L; Karcher, S J; O'Neal, K; Hawes, M C; Yerkes, C D; Jayaswal, R K; Hallberg, C A; Gelvin, S B

    1990-01-01

    We used the transposon Mu dI1681 to identify genes on the Agrobacterium tumefaciens chromosome that are inducible by extracts from carrot roots. One such locus (picA, for plant inducible chromosomal), harbored by A. tumefaciens At156, was inducible 10- to 50-fold by these extracts. Mutation of picA had no detectable effect upon bacterial growth or virulence under laboratory assay conditions. However, A. tumefaciens cells harboring a mutated picA locus aggregated into long "ropes" when incubated with pea root tip cells. Such aggregation was not displayed by the parental strain A. tumefaciens A136. A preliminary characterization of the inducing compound in the carrot root extract suggests that the active substance is an acidic polysaccharide that is most likely derived from the pectic portion of the plant cell wall. Images PMID:2170328

  12. ER disruption and GFP degradation during non-regenerable transformation of flax with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Bleho, Juraj; Obert, Bohuš; Takáč, Tomáš; Petrovská, Beáta; Heym, Claudia; Menzel, Diedrik; Samaj, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Flax is considered as plant species susceptible to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. In this study, stability of flax transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes versus Agrobacterium tumefaciens was tested by using combined selection for antibiotic resistance and visual selection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion reporter targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Transformation with A. rhizogenes was stable for over 2 years, whereas transformation by A. tumefaciens resulted in non-regenerable stable transformation which was restricted solely to transgenic callus and lasted only 6-8 weeks. However, shoots regenerated from this callus appeared to be non-transgenic. Importantly, callus and root cells stably transformed with A. rhizogenes showed typical regular organization and dynamics of ER as visualized by GFP-ER marker. On the other hand, callus cells transformed with A. tumefaciens showed disintegrated ER structure and impaired dynamics which was accompanied with developmental degradation of GFP. Consequently, shoots which regenerated from such callus were all non-transgenic. Possible reasons for this non-regenerable flax transformation by A. tumefaciens are discussed.

  13. The multifaceted roles of the interspecies signalling molecule indole in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Yong-Guy; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2015-04-01

    Bacteria utilize signal molecules to ensure their survival in environmental niches, and indole is an interspecies and interkingdom signalling molecule, which is widespread in the natural environment. In this study, we sought to identify novel roles of indole in soil-borne bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Agrobacterium tumefaciens was found not to synthesize indole and to degrade it rapidly. The addition of exogenous indole dose-dependently inhibited A. tumefaciens growth and decreased its motility. Surprisingly, indole markedly increased A. tumefaciens biofilm formation on polystyrene, glass and nylon membrane surfaces and enhanced its antibiotic tolerance. Transcriptional analysis showed that indole markedly up-regulated several biofilm-related (celA, cheA, exoR, phoB, flgE, fliR and motA), stress-related genes (clpB, dnaK, gsp, gyrB, marR and soxR) and efflux genes (emrA, norM, and Atu2551) in A. tumefaciens, which partially explained the increased biofilm formation and antibiotic tolerance. In contrast, the plant auxin indole-3-acetic acid did not affect biofilm formation, antibiotic tolerance or gene expression. Interestingly, indole was found to exhibit several similarities with antibiotics, as it inhibited the growth of non-indole-producing bacteria, whereas these bacteria countered its effects by rapidly degrading indole, and by enhancing biofilm formation and antibiotic tolerance.

  14. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Induced Bacteraemia Does Not Lead to Reporter Gene Expression in Mouse Organs

    PubMed Central

    Petrunia, Igor V.; Frolova, Olga Y.; Komarova, Tatiana V.; Kiselev, Sergey L.; Citovsky, Vitaly; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2008-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the main plant biotechnology gene transfer tool with host range which can be extended to non-plant eukaryotic organisms under laboratory conditions. Known medical cases of Agrobacterium species isolation from bloodstream infections necessitate the assessment of biosafety-related risks of A. tumefaciens encounters with mammalian organisms. Here, we studied the survival of A. tumefaciens in bloodstream of mice injected with bacterial cultures. Bacterial titers of 108 CFU were detected in the blood of the injected animals up to two weeks after intravenous injection. Agrobacteria carrying Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter-based constructs and isolated from the injected mice retained their capacity to promote green fluorescent protein (GFP) synthesis in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. To examine whether or not the injected agrobacteria are able to express in mouse organs, we used an intron-containing GFP (GFPi) reporter driven either by a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter or by a CaMV 35S promoter. Western and northern blot analyses as well as RT-PCR analysis of liver, spleen and lung of mice injected with A. tumefaciens detected neither GFP protein nor its transcripts. Thus, bacteraemia induced in mice by A. tumefaciens does not lead to detectible levels of genetic transformation of mouse organs. PMID:18523638

  15. Crown gall transformation of tobacco callus cells by cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, A.; Manzara, T.; Lurquin, P.F.

    1984-09-17

    Incubation of cells from squashed tobacco callus tissue with virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens leads to the production of cells displaying a crown gall phenotype. In vitro crown gall transformation of dicotyledonous plant cells has been demonstrated after cocultivation of cell-wall regenerating mesophyll protoplasts with Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells. In addition, it has been shown that protoplasts freshly isolated from suspension cultures, when treated with A. tumefaciens spheroplasts and a fusogen, also generated cells displaying a typical crown gall phenotype, i.e., phytohormone-independent growth and opine synthesis. Subsequently, both techniques were used to transfer and express foreign genes in plant cells via A. tumefaciens T-DNA integration. For practical purposes, it would be advantageous to be able to perform crown gall transformation of plant cells in tissue culture. The authors report here for the first time the production of Nicotiana tabacum crown gall cells after cocultivation of callus tissue with A. tumefaciens A136 cells. 11 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  16. Transient plant transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Principles, methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Krenek, Pavel; Samajova, Olga; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Komis, George; Samaj, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely used as a versatile tool for development of stably transformed model plants and crops. However, the development of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation methods attracted substantial attention in recent years. Transient transformation methods offer several applications advancing stable transformations such as rapid and scalable recombinant protein production and in planta functional genomics studies. Herein, we highlight Agrobacterium and plant genetics factors affecting transfer of T-DNA from Agrobacterium into the plant cell nucleus and subsequent transient transgene expression. We also review recent methods concerning Agrobacterium mediated transient transformation of model plants and crops and outline key physical, physiological and genetic factors leading to their successful establishment. Of interest are especially Agrobacterium based reverse genetics studies in economically important crops relying on use of RNA interference (RNAi) or virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology. The applications of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation technology in biotech industry are presented in thorough detail. These involve production of recombinant proteins (plantibodies, vaccines and therapeutics) and effectoromics-assisted breeding of late blight resistance in potato. In addition, we also discuss biotechnological potential of recombinant GFP technology and present own examples of successful Agrobacterium mediated transient plant transformations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of ribosome-inactivating proteins on Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens translation systems.

    PubMed Central

    Girbés, T; Barbieri, L; Ferreras, M; Arias, F J; Rojo, M A; Iglesias, R; Alegre, C; Escarmis, C; Stirpe, F

    1993-01-01

    The effects of 30 type 1 and of 2 (ricin and volkensin) type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) on Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens cell-free translation systems were compared with the effects on a rabbit reticulocyte translation system. The depurinating activity of RIPs on E. coli ribosomes was also evaluated. Only six type 1 RIPs inhibited endogenous mRNA-directed translational activity of E. coli lysates, with submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations. Four RIPs had similar activities on poly(U)-directed phenylalanine polymerization by E. coli ribosomes, and three RIPs inhibited poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis by A. tumefaciens ribosomes, with submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations. Images PMID:8407849

  18. Reconciliation of Sequence Data and Updated Annotation of the Genome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, and Distribution of a Linear Chromosome in the Genus Agrobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Steven; Setubal, João C.; Houmiel, Kathryn; Sun, Jian; Kaul, Rajinder; Goldman, Barry S.; Farrand, Stephen K.; Almeida, Nalvo; Burr, Thomas; Nester, Eugene; Rhoads, David M.; Kadoi, Ryosuke; Ostheimer, Trucian; Pride, Nicole; Sabo, Allison; Henry, Erin; Telepak, Erin; Cromes, Lindsey; Harkleroad, Alana; Oliphant, Louis; Pratt-Szegila, Phil; Welch, Roy; Wood, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Two groups independently sequenced the Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 genome in 2001. We report here consolidation of these sequences, updated annotation, and additional analysis of the evolutionary history of the linear chromosome, which is apparently limited to the biovar I group of Agrobacterium. PMID:23241979

  19. Evaluations and modifications of semi-selective media for improved isolation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 1 from cultivated walnut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the causal agent of crown gall of walnut, is an aerobic, Gram negative bacterium belonging to the family Rhizobiaceae. Like many in this group, A. tumefaciens is a common inhabitant of soil and plant host tissue. Isolation from these complex environments is difficult even ...

  20. Agrobacterium rhizogenes GALLS Protein Substitutes for Agrobacterium tumefaciens Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Protein VirE2

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Larry D.; Cuperus, Josh; Ream, Walt

    2004-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes transfer plasmid-encoded genes and virulence (Vir) proteins into plant cells. The transferred DNA (T-DNA) is stably inherited and expressed in plant cells, causing crown gall or hairy root disease. DNA transfer from A. tumefaciens into plant cells resembles plasmid conjugation; single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is exported from the bacteria via a type IV secretion system comprised of VirB1 through VirB11 and VirD4. Bacteria also secrete certain Vir proteins into plant cells via this pore. One of these, VirE2, is an ssDNA-binding protein crucial for efficient T-DNA transfer and integration. VirE2 binds incoming ssT-DNA and helps target it into the nucleus. Some strains of A. rhizogenes lack VirE2, but they still transfer T-DNA efficiently. We isolated a novel gene from A. rhizogenes that restored pathogenicity to virE2 mutant A. tumefaciens. The GALLS gene was essential for pathogenicity of A. rhizogenes. Unlike VirE2, GALLS contains a nucleoside triphosphate binding motif similar to one in TraA, a strand transferase conjugation protein. Despite their lack of similarity, GALLS substituted for VirE2. PMID:15126468

  1. Characterization of an Unusual New Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strain from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ram †

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Arla L.; Pueppke, Steven G.

    1991-01-01

    We characterized five isolates of Agrobacterium tumefaciens from naturally occurring galls on Chrysanthemum morifolium. The isolates are similar, possibly identical, members of a single strain of A. tumefaciens that we designate Chry5. The strain is a biotype I, as indicated by its response to both newly described and traditional biotype tests. Chry5 produces tumors on at least 10 plant species. It is unusual in its ability to form efficiently large tumors on soybean (Glycine max), a species normally refractory to transformation. Chry5 is unable to utilize octopine or mannopine as a carbon source. Although Chry5 can catabolize a single isomer each of nopaline and succinamopine, it differs from other known nopaline and succinamopine strains in its insensitivity to agrocin 84. This pattern of opine catabolism is unique among Agrobacterium strains examined to date. All five isolates of Chry5 contain at least two plasmids, one of which shares homology with pTiB6. Images PMID:16348549

  2. d-Glucaric Acid and Galactaric Acid Catabolism by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yung Feng; Feingold, David Sidney

    1970-01-01

    Cell-free extract (crude extract) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens grown on d-glucuronate or d-glucarate converts d-glucarate and galactarate to a mixture of 2-keto-3-deoxy- and 4-deoxy-5-keto-d-glucarate. These compounds are then converted by partially purified crude extract to an intermediate tentatively identified as 2,5-diketoadipate. The same enzyme preparation further decarboxylates this intermediate to α-ketoglutarate semialdehyde, which is subsequently oxidized in a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent reaction to α-ketoglutaric acid. Since A. tumefaciens converts d-glucuronic acid to d-glucarate, a pathway from d-glucuronate to α-ketoglutarate in A. tumefaciens was determined. PMID:4314480

  3. Influence of volatile organic compounds emitted by Pseudomonas and Serratia strains on Agrobacterium tumefaciens biofilms.

    PubMed

    Plyuta, Vladimir; Lipasova, Valentina; Popova, Alexandra; Koksharova, Olga; Kuznetsov, Alexander; Szegedi, Erno; Chernin, Leonid; Khmel, Inessa

    2016-07-01

    The ability to form biofilms plays an important role in bacteria-host interactions, including plant pathogenicity. In this work, we investigated the action of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by rhizospheric strains of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 449, Pseudomonas fluorescens B-4117, Serratia plymuthica IC1270, as well as Serratia proteamaculans strain 94, isolated from spoiled meat, on biofilms formation by three strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens which are causative agents of crown-gall disease in a wide range of plants. In dual culture assays, the pool of volatiles emitted by the tested Pseudomonas and Serratia strains suppressed the formation of biofilms of A. tumefaciens strains grown on polycarbonate membrane filters and killed Agrobacterium cells in mature biofilms. The individual VOCs produced by the tested Pseudomonas strains, that is, ketones (2-nonanone, 2-heptanone, 2-undecanone), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) produced by Serratia strains, were shown to kill A. tumefaciens cells in mature biofilms and suppress their formation. The data obtained in this study suggest an additional potential of some ketones and DMDS as protectors of plants against A. tumefaciens strains, whose virulence is associated with the formation of biofilms on the infected plants.

  4. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of corn (Zea mays L.) multiple shoots

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shi-liang; Masilamany, Pathmalojiny; Li, Wen-bin; Pauls, K. Peter

    2014-01-01

    An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated corn transformation method based on multiple shoot tissue cultures was developed, which is effective with a variety of corn inbred lines and standard binary vectors. Six factors that affected the success of corn transformation were tested, including A. tumefaciens strain, corn genotype, tissue culture growth stage, medium composition, co-culture temperature and surfactant treatment. Agropine-type bacteria (EHA 101 and AGL 1) were eightfold more effective than octopine-type strain for corn multi-shoot tissues transformation. The average frequency of Glucuronidase (GUS)-positive explants obtained from 14 corn genotypes ranged from 36% to 76%. L-proline (0.7 g L−1) in the co-culture medium apparently improved the frequency of transformation. The newly initiated multi-shoot tissues were most responsive to Agrobacterium infection. A positive correlation was found between multi-shoot tissue susceptibility to Agrobacterium and the proportion of cells in G1 phase. Transformants were identified by reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and by southern blot hybridization assays. The frequency of transformants was approximately 2% based on the number of multi-shoot explants co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. PMID:26019506

  5. Advances in Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of graminaceous crops.

    PubMed

    Singh, Roshan Kumar; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-05-01

    Steady increase in global population poses several challenges to plant science research, including demand for increased crop productivity, grain yield, nutritional quality and improved tolerance to different environmental factors. Transgene-based approaches are promising to address these challenges by transferring potential candidate genes to host organisms through different strategies. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is one such strategy which is well known for enabling efficient gene transfer in both monocot and dicots. Due to its versatility, this technique underwent several advancements including development of improved in vitro plant regeneration system, co-cultivation and selection methods, and use of hyper-virulent strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring super-binary vectors. The efficiency of this method has also been enhanced by the use of acetosyringone to induce the activity of vir genes, silver nitrate to reduce the Agrobacterium-induced necrosis and cysteine to avoid callus browning during co-cultivation. In the last two decades, extensive efforts have been invested towards achieving efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in cereals. Though high-efficiency transformation systems have been developed for rice and maize, comparatively lesser progress has been reported in other graminaceous crops. In this context, the present review discusses the progress made in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system in rice, maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, sugarcane, Brachypodium, millets, bioenergy and forage and turf grasses. In addition, it also provides an overview of the genes that have been recently transferred to these graminaceous crops using Agrobacterium, bottlenecks in this technique and future possibilities for crop improvement.

  6. In Vitro Binding of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to Plant Cells from Suspension Culture 1

    PubMed Central

    Ohyama, Kanji; Pelcher, Lawrence E.; Schaefer, Angelika; Fowke, Larry C.

    1979-01-01

    In vitro binding experiments were carried out using 32P-labeled cells of the virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain B6 and Datura innoxia cells from suspension culture. Binding kinetics showed that adherence of bacteria to Datura cells increased gradually during the first 60 minutes and attained a maximum level within 120 minutes of incubation. Maximum binding occurred at pH 6.0. The presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ reduced binding slightly and EDTA had little effect at concentrations of 0.1 to 10 millimolar. The binding of bacteria to Datura cells was temperature-dependent. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Rhizobium japonicum, and Micrococcus lysodeikticus did not compete with virulent A. tumefaciens strain B6 for binding to Datura cells. The admixture of avirulent A. tumefaciens strain IIBNV6 enhanced adherence of virulent A. tumefaciens strain B6 to Datura cells. Octopine had no effect on the binding of virulent A. tumefaciens strain B6 to Datura cells, but 10 millimolar canavanine was inhibitory. Arginine enhanced the adherence of the bacteria at concentrations higher than 0.1 millimolar. Incubation with DNase, RNase, and lipase did not affect the binding, but protease stimulated the adherence of bacteria to Datura cells. Concanavaline A and soybean lectin had little effect whereas lecithin and lysolecithin enhanced binding slightly. Poly-l-lysine markedly stimulated the bacteria-plant cell adherence. Cells from suspension cultures of pea, vetch, and soybean had a 2- to 3-fold higher binding capacity than Datura cells, whereas cells from wheat, corn, rice, and sorghum had a considerably lower affinity for binding with virulent A. tumefaciens strain B6. Bacterial adherence to plant cells was confirmed by autoradiography and electron microscopy. Autoradiographic analysis showed that bacteria were associated with the cell wall, and that often binding of bacteria was localized. Electron micrographs clearly illustrated a tight association of virulent A

  7. Overexpression of the HspL Promotes Agrobacterium tumefaciens Virulence in Arabidopsis Under Heat Shock Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hau-Hsuan; Liu, Yin-Tzu; Huang, Si-Chi; Tung, Chin-Yi; Huang, Fan-Chen; Tsai, Yun-Long; Cheng, Tun-Fang; Lai, Erh-Min

    2015-02-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers a specific DNA fragment from the resident tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid and effector virulence (Vir) proteins to plant cells during infection. A. tumefaciens VirB1-11 and VirD4 proteins assemble as the type IV secretion system (T4SS), which mediates transfer of the T-DNA and effector Vir protein into plant cells, thus resulting in crown gall disease in plants. Previous studies revealed that an α-crystallin-type, small heat-shock protein (HspL) is a more effective VirB8 chaperone than three other small heat-shock proteins (HspC, HspAT1, and HspAT2). Additionally, HspL contributes to efficient T4SS-mediated DNA transfer and tumorigenesis under room-temperature growth. In this study, we aimed to characterize the impact of HspL on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency under heat-shock treatment. During heat shock, transient transformation efficiency and VirB8 protein accumulation were lower in the hspL deletion mutant than in the wild type. Overexpression of HspL in A. tumefaciens enhanced the transient transformation efficiency in root explants of both susceptible and recalcitrant Arabidopsis ecotypes. In addition, the reduced transient transformation efficiency during heat stress was recovered by overexpression of HspL in A. tumefaciens. HspL may help maintain VirB8 homeostasis and elevate Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency under both heat-shock and nonheat-shock growth.

  8. Characterization of two novel biovar of Agrobacterium tumefaciens isolated from root nodules of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Bhupendra N; Prasad, Birendra; Ghosh, Anuradha; Kumar, Sanjay; Jain, Rakesh K

    2007-10-01

    A total of eight strains of bacteria were isolated from the root nodule of Vicia faba on the selective media of Rhizobium. Two of these strains produced phenotypically distinct mucoid colonies (one slow growing and the other fast growing) and were examined using a polyphasic approach for taxonomic identification. The two strains (MTCC 7405 and MTCC 7406) turned out to be new strains of biovar 1 Agrobacterium rather than Rhizobium, as they showed growth on alkaline medium as well as on 2% NaCl and neither catabolized lactose as the carbon source nor oxidized Tween-80. The distinctness between the two strains was marked with respect to their growth on dextrose and the production of lysine dihydrolase, ornithine decarboxylase and DNA G + C content. 16S rDNA sequencing and their comparison with the 16S rDNA sequences of previously described agrobacteria as well as rhizobia strains confirmed the novelty of the two strains. Both of the strains clustered with strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in the 16S rDNA-based phylogenetic tree. The phenotypic and biochemical properties of the two strains differed from those of the recognized biovar of A. tumefaciens. It is proposed that the strains MTCC 7405 and MTCC 7406 be classified as novel biovar of the species A. tumefaciens (Type strains MTCC 7405 = DQ383275 and MTCC 7406 = DQ383276).

  9. Nitrogen-fixing nodules induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring Rhizobium phaseoli plasmids.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, E; Palacios, R; Sánchez, F

    1987-01-01

    Rhizobium phaseoli CFN299 forms nitrogen-fixing nodules in Phaseolus vulgaris (bean) and in Leucaena esculenta. It has three plasmids of 185, 225, and 410 kilobases. The 410-kilobase plasmid contains the nitrogenase structural genes. We have transferred these plasmids to the plasmid-free strain Agrobacterium tumefaciens GMI9023. Transconjugants containing different combinations of the R. phaseoli plasmids were obtained, and they were exhaustively purified before nodulation was assayed. Only transconjugants harboring the 410-kilobase plasmid nodulate P. vulgaris and L. esculenta. Nodules formed by all such transconjugants are able to reduce acetylene. Transconjugants containing the whole set of plasmids from CFN299 nodulate better and fix more nitrogen than the transconjugants carrying only the Sym plasmid. Microscopic analysis of nodules induced by A. tumefaciens transconjugants reveals infected cells and vascular bundles. None of the A. tumefaciens transconjugants, not even the one with the whole set of plasmids from CFN299, behaves in symbiosis like the original R. phaseoli strain; the transconjugants produce fewer nodules and have lower acetylene reduction (25% as compared to the original R. phaseoli strain) and more amyloplasts per nodule. More than 2,000 bacterial isolates from nodules of P. vulgaris and L. esculenta formed by the transconjugants were analyzed by different criteria. Not a single rhizobium could be detected. Our results show that R. phaseoli plasmids may be expressed in the A. tumefaciens background and direct the formation of effective, differentiated nodules. Images PMID:3584072

  10. Characterization of the replication and stability regions of Agrobacterium tumefaciens plasmid pTAR.

    PubMed

    Gallie, D R; Zaitlin, D; Perry, K L; Kado, C I

    1984-03-01

    A 5.4-kilobase region containing the origin of replication and stability maintenance of the 44-kilobase Agrobacterium tumefaciens plasmid pTAR has been mapped and characterized. Within this region is a 1.3-kilobase segment that is capable of directing autonomous replication. The remaining segment contains the stability locus for maintenance of pTAR during nonselective growth. Approximately 35% of pTAR shares sequence homology with pAg119, a 44-kilobase cryptic plasmid in grapevine strain 1D1119. However, no homology was detected between pTAR DNA and several Ti plasmids or several other small cryptic plasmids in many A. tumefaciens strains. A recombinant plasmid containing the origin of replication and stability maintenance region of pTAR was compatible with pTiC58, pTi15955, and pTi119 and incompatible with pAg119. A new compatibility group, Inc Ag-1, is discussed.

  11. Low-intensity microwave radiation and the virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain B6.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, H A; Raymond, R; Fox, M; Galsky, A G

    1979-01-01

    When virulent cells of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain B6 were exposed to low-level microwave radiation at a frequency of 10,000 MHz and an intensity of 0.58 mW/cm2 for 30 to 120 min, a 30 to 60% decrease in their ability to produce tumors on potato and turnip disks was observed. This microwave exposure did not affect the viability of these bacteria or their ability to attach to a tumor-binding site nor did it induce thermal shock. This loss of virulence was reversible within 12 h. PMID:760631

  12. Scanning electron microscope studies of Agrobacterium tumefaciens attachment to Zea mays, Gladiolus sp., and Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, A E; Goldman, S L; Banks, S W; Graves, A C

    1988-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope studies demonstrated that cells of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains attach to cells on the cut surfaces of corn and wheat seedlings and to gladiolus disks. Bacterial cells attached to these monocots in the same manner as they attached to the dicots tested. Of the strains tested, A66 and T37 covered more of the cut surfaces of these monocots in a nonrandom fashion than did cells of other isolates. These bacteria attached to cells of intact monocotyledonous plants and had the greatest affinity for tissues located within the vascular bundles. They attached in large numbers to cells in these areas in all three monocots tested. Images PMID:3360748

  13. Transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of in vitro cultured ovules.

    PubMed

    Holme, Inger Baeksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette; Holm, Preben Bach

    2006-12-01

    We report on a novel transformation procedure for barley by Agrobacterium infection of in vitro cultured ovules. Ovules of the cultivar Golden Promise were isolated a few hours after pollination and infected with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL0 carrying the binary vector pVec8-GFP. The vector harboured a hygromycin resistance gene and the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene. GFP-expressing embryos were isolated from the ovules, regenerated to plants and investigated by Southern blot analysis. Transformation frequencies amounted to 3.1% with hygromycin selection and 0.8% without selection. Mendelian inheritance and stable expression of the GFP gene was confirmed in 18 independent lines over two generations. We conclude that the described technique allows for the rapid and direct generation of high quality transgenic plants.

  14. Effects of 5-Fluorouracil and 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine on Growth and Tumor-Inducing Ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, Robert E.; Lipetz, Jacques

    1966-01-01

    Beardsley, Robert E. (Manhattan College, Bronx, N.Y.), and Jacques Lipetz Effects of 5-fluorouracil and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine on growth and tumor-inducing ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 92:346–348. 1966.—Agrobacterium tumefaciens B6, grown in the presence of 5-fluorouracil or 5-fluodeoxyuridine, exhibited a prolonged lag phase. The tumor-inducing ability of bacteria grown in the presence of these compounds was decreased even after exposures as short as 40 min. A positive correlation was found between the growth-inhibitory effects of these compounds and their effects on the tumor-inducing ability of the bacteria. PMID:16562118

  15. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation of the Lichen Fungus, Umbilicaria muehlenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Ying; Kim, Jung A.; Yu, Nan-Hee; Kim, Sungbeom; Cheong, Yong Hwa; Kang, Seogchan; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2013-01-01

    Transformation-mediated mutagenesis in both targeted and random manners has been widely applied to decipher gene function in diverse fungi. However, a transformation system has not yet been established for lichen fungi, severely limiting our ability to study their biology and mechanism underpinning symbiosis via gene manipulation. Here, we report the first successful transformation of the lichen fungus, Umbilicaria muehlenbergii, via the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We generated a total of 918 transformants employing a binary vector that carries the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene as a selection marker and the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene for labeling transformants. Randomly selected transformants appeared mitotically stable, based on their maintenance of hygromycin B resistance after five generations of growth without selection. Genomic Southern blot showed that 88% of 784 transformants contained a single T-DNA insert in their genome. A number of putative mutants affected in colony color, size, and/or morphology were found among these transformants, supporting the utility of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) for random insertional mutagenesis of U. muehlenbergii. This ATMT approach potentially offers a systematic gene functional study with genome sequences of U. muehlenbergii that is currently underway. PMID:24386304

  16. X-ray structure of imidazolonepropionase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens at 1.87 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, Rajiv; Kumaran, Desigan; Burley, Stephen K.; Swaminathan, Subramanyam

    2010-01-12

    Histidine degradation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens involves four enzymes, including histidase (EC 4.3.1.3), urocanase (EC 4.2.1.49), imidazolonepropionase (EC 3.5.2.7), and N-formylglutamate amidohydrolase (EC 3.5.3.8). The third enzyme of the pathway, imidazolone-propionase, a 45.6 kDa protein, catalyzes conversion of imidazolone-5-propanoate to N-forminio-L-glutamate. Initial studies of the role of imidazolonepropionase in histidine degradation were published in 1953. Subsequent publications have been limited to enzyme kinetics, crystallization, and a recently reported structure determination. The imidazolonepropionases are members of metallodepenent-hydrolases (or amidohydroase) superfamily, which includs ureases, adenosine deaminases, phosphotriesterases, dihydroorotases, allantoinases, hydantoinases, adenine and cytosine deaminases, imidazolonepropionases, aryldial-kylphosphatases, chlorohydrolases, and formylmethanofuran dehydroases. Proteins belonging to this large group share a common three-dimensional structural motif (an eightfold {alpha}/{beta} or TIM barrel) with similar active sites. Most superfamily members also share a conserved metal binding site, involving four histidine residues and one aspartic acid. Imidazolonepropionase is one of the targets selected for X-ray crystallpgrahpic structure determination by the New York Structural GenomiX Research Consortium (NYSGXRC) Target ID: 9252b to correlate the structure function relationship of poorly studied by important enzyme. Here they report the crystal structure of imidazolonepropionase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens determined at 1.87 {angstrom} resolution.

  17. Hfq Influences Multiple Transport Systems and Virulence in the Plant Pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Wilms, Ina; Möller, Philip; Stock, Anna-Maria; Gurski, Rosemarie; Lai, Erh-Min

    2012-01-01

    The Hfq protein mediates gene regulation by small RNAs (sRNAs) in about 50% of all bacteria. Depending on the species, phenotypic defects of an hfq mutant range from mild to severe. Here, we document that the purified Hfq protein of the plant pathogen and natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens binds to the previously described sRNA AbcR1 and its target mRNA atu2422, which codes for the substrate binding protein of an ABC transporter taking up proline and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Several other ABC transporter components were overproduced in an hfq mutant compared to their levels in the parental strain, suggesting that Hfq plays a major role in controlling the uptake systems and metabolic versatility of A. tumefaciens. The hfq mutant showed delayed growth, altered cell morphology, and reduced motility. Although the DNA-transferring type IV secretion system was produced, tumor formation by the mutant strain was attenuated, demonstrating an important contribution of Hfq to plant transformation by A. tumefaciens. PMID:22821981

  18. Inhibition and dispersal of Agrobacterium tumefaciens biofilms by a small diffusible Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoproduct(s).

    PubMed

    Hibbing, Michael E; Fuqua, Clay

    2012-06-01

    Environmental biofilms often contain mixed populations of different species. In these dense communities, competition between biofilm residents for limited nutrients such as iron can be fierce, leading to the evolution of competitive factors that affect the ability of competitors to grow or form biofilms. We have discovered a compound(s) present in the conditioned culture fluids of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that disperses and inhibits the formation of biofilms produced by the facultative plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The inhibitory activity is strongly induced when P. aeruginosa is cultivated in iron-limited conditions, but it does not function through iron sequestration. In addition, the production of the biofilm inhibitory activity is not regulated by the global iron regulatory protein Fur, the iron-responsive extracytoplasmic function σ factor PvdS, or three of the recognized P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing systems. In addition, the compound(s) responsible for the inhibition and dispersal of A. tumefaciens biofilm formation is likely distinct from the recently identified P. aeruginosa dispersal factor, cis-2-decenoic acid (CDA), as dialysis of the culture fluids showed that the inhibitory compound was larger than CDA and culture fluids that dispersed and inhibited biofilm formation by A. tumefaciens had no effect on biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa.

  19. Spermidine Inversely Influences Surface Interactions and Planktonic Growth in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Kim, Sok Ho; Natarajan, Ramya; Bruger, Eric L.; Waters, Christopher M.; Michael, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bacteria, the functions of polyamines, small linear polycations, are poorly defined, but these metabolites can influence biofilm formation in several systems. Transposon insertions in an ornithine decarboxylase (odc) gene in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, predicted to direct synthesis of the polyamine putrescine from ornithine, resulted in elevated cellulose. Null mutants for odc grew somewhat slowly in a polyamine-free medium but exhibited increased biofilm formation that was dependent on cellulose production. Spermidine is an essential metabolite in A. tumefaciens and is synthesized from putrescine in A. tumefaciens via the stepwise actions of carboxyspermidine dehydrogenase (CASDH) and carboxyspermidine decarboxylase (CASDC). Exogenous addition of either putrescine or spermidine to the odc mutant returned biofilm formation to wild-type levels. Low levels of exogenous spermidine restored growth to CASDH and CASDC mutants, facilitating weak biofilm formation, but this was dampened with increasing concentrations. Norspermidine rescued growth for the odc, CASDH, and CASDC mutants but did not significantly affect their biofilm phenotypes, whereas in the wild type, it stimulated biofilm formation and depressed spermidine levels. The odc mutant produced elevated levels of cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP), exogenous polyamines modulated these levels, and expression of a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase reversed the enhanced biofilm formation. Prior work revealed accumulation of the precursors putrescine and carboxyspermidine in the CASDH and CASDC mutants, respectively, but unexpectedly, both mutants accumulated homospermidine; here, we show that this requires a homospermidine synthase (hss) homologue. IMPORTANCE Polyamines are small, positively charged metabolites that are nearly ubiquitous in cellular life. They are often essential in eukaryotes and more variably in bacteria. Polyamines have been reported to influence the surface-attached biofilm

  20. Requirement for genes with homology to ABC transport systems for attachment and virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed Central

    Matthysse, A G; Yarnall, H A; Young, N

    1996-01-01

    Transposon mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens which were avirulent and unable to attach to plant cells were isolated and described previously. A clone from a library of Agrobacterium tumefaciens DNA which was able to complement these chromosomal att mutants was identified. Tn3HoHo1 insertions in this clone were made and used to replace the wild-type genes in the bacterial chromosome by marker exchange. The resulting mutants were avirulent and showed either no or very much reduced attachment to carrot suspension culture cells. We sequenced a 10-kb region of this clone and found a putative operon containing nine open reading frames (ORFs) (attA1A2BCDEFGH). The second and third ORFs (attA2 and attB) showed homology to genes encoding the membrane-spanning proteins (potB and potH; potC and potI) of periplasmic binding protein-dependent (ABC) transport systems from gram-negative bacteria. The homology was strongest to proteins involved in the transport of spermidine and putrescine. The first and fifth ORFs (attA1 and attE) showed homology to the genes encoding ATP-binding proteins of these systems including potA, potG, and cysT from Escherichia coli; occP from A. tumefaciens; cysA from Synechococcus spp.; and ORF-C from an operon involved in the attachment of Campylobacte jejuni. The ability of mutants in these att genes to bind to host cells was restored by addition of conditioned medium during incubation of the bacteria with host cells. PMID:8752352

  1. Requirement for genes with homology to ABC transport systems for attachment and virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Matthysse, A G; Yarnall, H A; Young, N

    1996-09-01

    Transposon mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens which were avirulent and unable to attach to plant cells were isolated and described previously. A clone from a library of Agrobacterium tumefaciens DNA which was able to complement these chromosomal att mutants was identified. Tn3HoHo1 insertions in this clone were made and used to replace the wild-type genes in the bacterial chromosome by marker exchange. The resulting mutants were avirulent and showed either no or very much reduced attachment to carrot suspension culture cells. We sequenced a 10-kb region of this clone and found a putative operon containing nine open reading frames (ORFs) (attA1A2BCDEFGH). The second and third ORFs (attA2 and attB) showed homology to genes encoding the membrane-spanning proteins (potB and potH; potC and potI) of periplasmic binding protein-dependent (ABC) transport systems from gram-negative bacteria. The homology was strongest to proteins involved in the transport of spermidine and putrescine. The first and fifth ORFs (attA1 and attE) showed homology to the genes encoding ATP-binding proteins of these systems including potA, potG, and cysT from Escherichia coli; occP from A. tumefaciens; cysA from Synechococcus spp.; and ORF-C from an operon involved in the attachment of Campylobacte jejuni. The ability of mutants in these att genes to bind to host cells was restored by addition of conditioned medium during incubation of the bacteria with host cells.

  2. Linear Chromosome-generating System of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58: Protelomerase Generates and Protects Hairpin Ends

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wai Mun; DaGloria, Jeanne; Fox, Heather; Ruan, Qiurong; Tillou, John; Shi, Ke; Aihara, Hideki; Aron, John; Casjens, Sherwood

    2012-09-05

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, the pathogenic bacteria that causes crown gall disease in plants, harbors one circular and one linear chromosome and two circular plasmids. The telomeres of its unusual linear chromosome are covalently closed hairpins. The circular and linear chromosomes co-segregate and are stably maintained in the organism. We have determined the sequence of the two ends of the linear chromosome thus completing the previously published genome sequence of A. tumefaciens C58. We found that the telomeres carry nearly identical 25-bp sequences at the hairpin ends that are related by dyad symmetry. We further showed that its Atu2523 gene encodes a protelomerase (resolvase) and that the purified enzyme can generate the linear chromosomal closed hairpin ends in a sequence-specific manner. Agrobacterium protelomerase, whose presence is apparently limited to biovar 1 strains, acts via a cleavage-and-religation mechanism by making a pair of transient staggered nicks invariably at 6-bp spacing as the reaction intermediate. The enzyme can be significantly shortened at both the N and C termini and still maintain its enzymatic activity. Although the full-length enzyme can uniquely bind to its product telomeres, the N-terminal truncations cannot. The target site can also be shortened from the native 50-bp inverted repeat to 26 bp; thus, the Agrobacterium hairpin-generating system represents the most compact activity of all hairpin linear chromosome- and plasmid-generating systems to date. The biochemical analyses of the protelomerase reactions further revealed that the tip of the hairpin telomere may be unusually polymorphically capable of accommodating any nucleotide.

  3. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of a recalcitrant grain legume, lentil (Lens culinaris Medik).

    PubMed

    Akcay, Ufuk Celikkol; Mahmoudian, M; Kamci, H; Yucel, M; Oktem, H A

    2009-03-01

    A simple and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for a recalcitrant legume plant, lentil (Lens culinaris M.) is reported. Application of wounding treatments and efficiencies of three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains, EHA105, C58C1, and KYRT1 were compared for T-DNA delivery into lentil cotyledonary node tissues. KYRT1 was found to be on average 2.8-fold more efficient than both EHA105 and C58C1 for producing transient beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (gus) expression on cotyledonary petioles. Wounding of the explants, use of an optimized transformation protocol with the application of acetosyringone and vacuum infiltration treatments in addition to the application of a gradually intensifying selection regime played significant roles in enhancing transformation frequency. Lentil explants were transformed by inoculation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, KYRT1 harboring a binary vector pTJK136 that carried neomycin phosphotransferase gene (npt-II) and an intron containing gusA gene on its T-DNA region. GUS-positive shoots were micrografted on lentil rootstocks. Transgenic lentil plants were produced with an overall transformation frequency of 2.3%. The presence of the transgene in the lentil genome was confirmed by GUS assay, PCR, RT-PCR and Southern hybridization. The transgenic shoots grafted on rootstocks were successfully transferred to soil and grown to maturity in the greenhouse. GUS activity was detected in vegetative and reproductive organs of T(0), T(1), T(2) and T(3) plants. PCR assays of T(1), T(2) and T(3) progenies confirmed the stable transmission of the transgene to the next generations.

  4. Increased 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity enhances Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene delivery into plant cells.

    PubMed

    Someya, Tatsuhiko; Nonaka, Satoko; Nakamura, Kouji; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a useful tool for the genetic modification in plants, although its efficiency is low for several plant species. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has three major steps in laboratory-controlled experiments: the delivery of T-DNA into plant cells, the selection of transformed plant cells, and the regeneration of whole plants from the selected cells. Each of these steps must be optimized to improve the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. It has been reported that increasing the number of cells transformed by T-DNA delivery can improve the frequency of stable transformation. Previously, we demonstrated that a reduction in ethylene production by plant cells during cocultivation with A. tumefaciens-expressing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase resulted in increased T-DNA delivery into the plant cells. In this study, to further improve T-DNA delivery by A. tumefaciens, we modified the expression cassette of the ACC deaminase gene using vir gene promoter sequences. The ACC deaminase gene driven by the virD1 promoter was expressed at a higher level, resulting in a higher ACC deaminase activity in this A. tumefaciens strain than in the strain with the lac promoter used in a previous study. The newly developed A. tumefaciens strain improves the delivery of T-DNA into Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Erianthus ravennae plants and thus may be a powerful tool for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic engineering of plants.

  5. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  6. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  7. Atypical adaptive and cross-protective responses against peroxide killing in a bacterial plant pathogen, Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2003-10-01

    Physiological adaptive and cross-protection responses to oxidants were investigated in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Exposure of A. tumefaciens to sublethal concentrations of H2O2 induced adaptive protection to lethal concentrations of H2O2. Similar treatments with organic peroxide and menadione did not produce adaptive protection to subsequent exposure to lethal concentrations of these oxidants. Pretreatment of A. tumefaciens with an inducing concentration of menadione conferred cross-protection against H2O2, but not to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH), killing. The menadione induced cross-protection to H2O2 was due to the compound's ability to highly induce the peroxide scavenging enzyme, catalase. The levels of catalase directly correlated with the bacterium's ability to survive H2O2 treatment. Some aspects of the oxidative stress response of A. tumefaciens differ from other bacteria, and these differences may be important in plant/microbe interactions.

  8. [Analysis of signal peptides of the secreted proteins in Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58].

    PubMed

    Fan, Cheng-Ming; Li, Cheng-Yun; Zhao, Ming-Fu; He, Yue-Qiu

    2005-08-01

    The 4554 ORFs of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 Cereon were used for the prediction of signal peptides by the network tools, such as SignalP3.0, LipoP1.0, TMHMM2.0 and TargetP1.01. Total 203 signal peptides with conserved amino residues are found, among them, 158 are secretary types, 9 are RR-motif types, 28 are SignalPase II types and 8 are bacteriocin-pheromone types. However, only two signal peptides from the secreted proteins, AGR-C-1878p and AGR-C-1880p have the same amino sequences, showing the signal peptides of the strain are highly variable.

  9. Colonization of Tomato Plants by Two Agrocin-Producing Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Macrae, Sharmane; Thomson, Jennifer A.; Van Staden, Johannes

    1988-01-01

    For a bacterium to be a successful biocontrol agent against crown gall disease, it must produce an effective agrocin specific for Agrobacterium tumefaciens and be able to colonize host plants efficiently. The colonization abilities of K84 and J73, successful and potential biocontrolling strains, respectively, were compared both in vivo and in vitro. Both strains produced fibrils attaching them to tomato root surfaces and had similar colonization efficiencies up to 14 days after inoculation. However, the ability of J73 to colonize plants for longer periods was significantly less than that of K84. Thus, the presence of fibrils is not sufficient to ensure colonization. No correlation was found between hydrophobicity and colonization. Images PMID:16347802

  10. Isolation of the Tumor-Inducing RNA from Oncogenic and Nononcogenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Beljanski, M.; Cunha, M. I. Aaron-Da; Beljanski, M. S.; Manigault, P.; Bourgarel, P.

    1974-01-01

    Two RNA fractions have been isolated and purified from both oncogenic and nononcogenic strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Both RNAs are capable of inducing the formation of transplantable tumors when introduced at wound sites in stems of Datura stramonium plants. One of these RNA fractions was found to be bound to an RNA-directed DNA polymerase, while the other was associated with the bacterial DNA. Physical evidence suggests that both are single stranded and small in size; linear sucrose gradients show that their size corresponds to a value of 5-6 S. A concentration of 4-5 μg of the RNAs dissolved in 0.01 ml of water is effective in initiating the formation of transplantable tumors in Datura plants. Images PMID:4525450

  11. Population Heterogeneity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Galls of Populus L. from a Single Nursery

    PubMed Central

    Nesme, Xavier; Michel, Marie-France; Digat, Bernard

    1987-01-01

    This study focused on the natural crown gall infections occurring in a Leuce poplar nursery. Soil effects on crown gall frequency were detected, indicating that contamination was due to a resident Agrobacterium tumefaciens population, which was present before seedling plantation. The crown gall frequency on poplar progenies varied from 3 to 67%, indicating the feasibility of improvement in crown gall resistance. Of 129 tumor isolates, 128 were pathogenic. These isolates were of biotype 1 or 2. Biochemical, serological, and antibiotic resistance typing results concurred, indicating the presence of four biotype 1 and two biotype 2 resident subpopulations. No significant change was noticed in the relative proportions of subpopulations from one year to another. Pathogenic subpopulations both in vitro and in planta were susceptible to Kerr K84 (P. B. New and A. Kerr, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 90:172-179, 1972). In addition, no serological cross-reactions were found to occur between K84 and the pathogenic subpopulations. PMID:16347314

  12. Modification of substrate specificity in single point mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens type II NADH dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Desplats, C; Beyly, A; Cuiné, S; Bernard, L; Cournac, L; Peltier, G

    2007-08-21

    Type II NADH dehydrogenases (NDH-2) are monomeric flavoenzymes catalyzing electron transfer from NADH to quinones. While most NDH-2 preferentially oxidize NADH, some of these enzymes have been reported to efficiently oxidize NADPH. With the aim to modify the NADPH vs NADH specificity of the relatively NADH specific Agrobacterium tumefaciens NDH-2, two conserved residues (E and A) of the substrate binding domain were, respectively, mutated to Q and S. We show that when E was replaced by Q at position 203 the enzyme was able to oxidize NADPH as efficiently as NADH. Growth on a minimal medium of an Escherichia coli double mutant lacking both NDH-1 and NDH-2 was restored more efficiently when mutated proteins able to oxidize NADPH were expressed. The biotechnological interest of expressing such modified enzymes in photosynthetic organisms is discussed.

  13. Genomic Species Are Ecological Species as Revealed by Comparative Genomics in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Lassalle, Florent; Campillo, Tony; Vial, Ludovic; Baude, Jessica; Costechareyre, Denis; Chapulliot, David; Shams, Malek; Abrouk, Danis; Lavire, Céline; Oger-Desfeux, Christine; Hommais, Florence; Guéguen, Laurent; Daubin, Vincent; Muller, Daniel; Nesme, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The definition of bacterial species is based on genomic similarities, giving rise to the operational concept of genomic species, but the reasons of the occurrence of differentiated genomic species remain largely unknown. We used the Agrobacterium tumefaciens species complex and particularly the genomic species presently called genomovar G8, which includes the sequenced strain C58, to test the hypothesis of genomic species having specific ecological adaptations possibly involved in the speciation process. We analyzed the gene repertoire specific to G8 to identify potential adaptive genes. By hybridizing 25 strains of A. tumefaciens on DNA microarrays spanning the C58 genome, we highlighted the presence and absence of genes homologous to C58 in the taxon. We found 196 genes specific to genomovar G8 that were mostly clustered into seven genomic islands on the C58 genome—one on the circular chromosome and six on the linear chromosome—suggesting higher plasticity and a major adaptive role of the latter. Clusters encoded putative functional units, four of which had been verified experimentally. The combination of G8-specific functions defines a hypothetical species primary niche for G8 related to commensal interaction with a host plant. This supports that the G8 ancestor was able to exploit a new ecological niche, maybe initiating ecological isolation and thus speciation. Searching genomic data for synapomorphic traits is a powerful way to describe bacterial species. This procedure allowed us to find such phenotypic traits specific to genomovar G8 and thus propose a Latin binomial, Agrobacterium fabrum, for this bona fide genomic species. PMID:21795751

  14. Identification of virulence genes in the corn pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Münch, Steffen; Ludwig, Nancy; Floss, Daniela S; Sugui, Janyce A; Koszucka, Anna M; Voll, Lars M; Sonnewald, Uwe; Deising, Holger B

    2011-01-01

    A previously developed Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) protocol for the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum graminicola led to high rates of tandem integration of the whole Ti-plasmid, and was therefore considered to be unsuitable for the identification of pathogenicity and virulence genes by insertional mutagenesis in this pathogen. We used a modified ATMT protocol with acetosyringone present only during the co-cultivation of C. graminicola and A. tumefaciens. Analysis of 105 single-spore isolates randomly chosen from a collection of approximately 2000 transformants, indicated that almost 70% of the transformants had single T-DNA integrations. Of 500 independent transformants tested, 10 exhibited attenuated virulence in infection assays on whole plants. Microscopic analyses primarily revealed defects at different pre-penetration stages of infection-related morphogenesis. Three transformants were characterized in detail. The identification of the T-DNA integration sites was performed by amplification of genomic DNA ends after endonuclease digestion and polynucleotide tailing. In one transformant, the T-DNA had integrated into the 5'-flank of a gene with similarity to allantoicase genes of other Ascomycota. In the second and third transformants, the T-DNA had integrated into an open reading frame (ORF) and into the 5'-flank of an ORF. In both cases, the ORFs have unknown function.

  15. Translation Start Sequences Affect the Efficiency of Silencing of Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA Oncogenes1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyewon; Humann, Jodi L.; Pitrak, Jennifer S.; Cuperus, Josh T.; Parks, T. Dawn; Whistler, Cheryl A.; Mok, Machteld C.; Ream, L. Walt

    2003-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncogenes cause transformed plant cells to overproduce auxin and cytokinin. Two oncogenes encode enzymes that convert tryptophan to indole-3-acetic acid (auxin): iaaM (tryptophan mono-oxygenase) and iaaH (indole-3-acetamide hydrolase). A third oncogene (ipt) encodes AMP isopentenyl transferase, which produces cytokinin (isopentenyl-AMP). Inactivation of ipt and iaaM (or iaaH) abolishes tumorigenesis. Because adequate means do not exist to control crown gall, we created resistant plants by introducing transgenes designed to elicit posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of iaaM and ipt. Transgenes that elicit silencing trigger sequence-specific destruction of the inducing RNA and messenger RNAs with related sequences. Although PTGS has proven effective against a variety of target genes, we found that a much higher percentage of transgenic lines silenced iaaM than ipt, suggesting that transgene sequences influenced the effectiveness of PTGS. Sequences required for oncogene silencing included a translation start site. A transgene encoding a translatable sense-strand RNA from the 5′ end of iaaM silenced the iaaM oncogene, but deletion of the translation start site abolished the ability of the transgene to silence iaaM. Silencing A. tumefaciens T-DNA oncogenes is a new and effective method to produce plants resistant to crown gall disease. PMID:12972655

  16. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal: an important medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vibha; Misra, Pratibha; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Mishra, Manoj K; Trivedi, Prabodh K; Tuli, Rakesh

    2010-02-01

    This report describes Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Withania somnifera--an important Indian medicinal plant. A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404, containing the binary vector pIG121Hm was used for transformation, along with the gusA reporter gene with intron under the transcriptional control of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. The leaf segments from two-and-a-half-month-old green house-grown seedlings were more efficient in transformation, as compared to those from the in vitro-grown shoots. Second expanded leaf from the shoot tip gave the highest transient transformation efficiency. Selection of transgenic shoots was done in the presence of 50 mg l(-1) kanamycin. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of T(0) transgenic plants showed the presence of gusA and nptII genes. The expression of these transgenes in T(1) progeny was confirmed by RT-PCR. The integration of gusA gene was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The transformation efficiency was found to be 1.67%.

  17. Gene targeting using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated CRISPR-Cas system in rice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The type II clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/ CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is a novel molecular tool for site-specific genome modification. The CRISPR-Cas9 system was recently introduced into plants by transient or stable transformation. Findings Here, we report gene targeting in rice via the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated CRISPR-Cas9 system. Three 20-nt CRISPR RNAs were designed to pair with diverse sites followed by the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) of the rice herbicide resistance gene BEL. After integrating the single-guide RNA (sgRNA) and Cas9 cassette in a single binary vector, transgenic rice plants harboring sgRNA:Cas9 were generated by A. tumefaciens-mediated stable transformation. By analyzing the targeting site on the genome of corresponding transgenic plants, the mutations were determined. The mutagenesis efficiency was varied from ~2% to ~16%. Furthermore, phenotypic analysis revealed that the biallelic mutated transgenic plant was sensitive to bentazon. Conclusions Our results indicate that the agricultural trait could be purposely modified by sgRNA:Cas9-induced gene targeting. CRISPR-Cas9 system could be exploited as a powerful tool for trait improvements in crop breeding. PMID:24920971

  18. Integrative gene transfer in the truffle Tuber borchii by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Brenna, Andrea; Montanini, Barbara; Muggiano, Eleonora; Proietto, Marco; Filetici, Patrizia; Ottonello, Simone; Ballario, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is a powerful tool for reverse genetics and functional genomic analysis in a wide variety of plants and fungi. Tuber spp. are ecologically important and gastronomically prized fungi ("truffles") with a cryptic life cycle, a subterranean habitat and a symbiotic, but also facultative saprophytic lifestyle. The genome of a representative member of this group of fungi has recently been sequenced. However, because of their poor genetic tractability, including transformation, truffles have so far eluded in-depth functional genomic investigations. Here we report that A. tumefaciens can infect Tuber borchii mycelia, thereby conveying its transfer DNA with the production of stably integrated transformants. We constructed two new binary plasmids (pABr1 and pABr3) and tested them as improved transformation vectors using the green fluorescent protein as reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase as selection marker. Transformants were stable for at least 12 months of in vitro culture propagation and, as revealed by TAIL- PCR analysis, integration sites appear to be heterogeneous, with a preference for repeat element-containing genome sites.

  19. Parameters affecting the efficiency of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Colletotrichum graminicola.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Jennifer L; Vaillancourt, Lisa J

    2005-12-01

    We have developed an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) protocol for the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum graminicola, the cause of anthracnose leaf blight and stalk rot of corn. The ATMT results in higher transformation efficiencies than previously available polyethylene glycol-mediated protocols, and falcate spores can be used instead of protoplasts for transformation. Various experimental parameters were tested for their effects on transformation efficiencies. The parameters with the greatest influence were the A. tumefaciens strain used and the Ti-plasmid it carried, the ratio of bacterium to fungus during cocultivation, and the length of cocultivation. Southern analysis demonstrated that most transformants (80%) contained tandem integrations of plasmid sequences, and at least 36% had integrations at multiple sites in the genome. In a majority of cases (70%), the whole Ti-plasmid, and not just the T-DNA, had integrated as a series of tandem repeats. Tandem integrations, especially of the whole plasmid, make it difficult to rescue DNA from both flanks of the integrations with standard PCR-based approaches. Thus, ATMT may be unsuitable for insertional mutagenesis of C. graminicola without further modification.

  20. Bioassays of quorum sensing compounds using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Chu, Weihua; Vattem, Dhiraj A; Maitin, Vatsala; Barnes, Mary B; McLean, Robert J C

    2011-01-01

    In most bacteria, a global level of regulation exists involving intercellular communication via the production and response to cell density-dependent signal molecules. This cell density-dependent regulation has been termed quorum sensing (QS). QS is a global regulator, which has been associated with a number of important features in bacteria including virulence regulation and biofilm formation. Consequently, there is considerable interest in understanding, detecting, and inhibiting QS. Acyl homoserine lactones (acyl HSLs) are used as extracellular QS signals by a variety of Gram-negative bacteria. Chromobacterium violaceum, a Gram-negative bacterium commonly found in soil and water, produces the characteristic purple pigment violacein, the production of which is regulated by acyl HSL-mediated QS. Based on this readily observed pigmentation phenotype, C. violaceum strains can be used to detect various aspects of acyl HSL-mediated QS activity. In another commonly used bioassay organism, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, QS can be detected by the use of a reporter gene such as lacZ. Here, we describe several commonly used approaches incorporating C. violaceum and A. tumefaciens that can be used to detect acyl HSLs and QS inhibition.

  1. Transformation of the cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen Podosphaera xanthii by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cruz, Jesús; Romero, Diego; de Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    The obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Podosphaera xanthii is the main causal agent of powdery mildew in cucurbit crops all over the world. A major limitation of molecular studies of powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales) is their genetic intractability. In this work, we describe a robust method based on the promiscuous transformation ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens for reliable transformation of P. xanthii. The A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system yielded transformants of P. xanthii with diverse transferred DNA (T-DNA) constructs. Analysis of the resultant transformants showed the random integration of T-DNA into the P. xanthii genome. The integrations were maintained in successive generations in the presence of selection pressure. Transformation was found to be transient, because in the absence of selection agent, the introduced genetic markers were lost due to excision of T-DNA from the genome. The ATMT system represents a potent tool for genetic manipulation of P. xanthii and will likely be useful for studying other biotrophic fungi. We hope that this method will contribute to the development of detailed molecular studies of the intimate interaction established between powdery mildew fungi and their host plants.

  2. Structural Analysis of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase From the Bacterium Agrobacterium Tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Cupp-Vickery, J.R.; Igarashi, R.Y.; Perez, M.; Poland, M.; Meyer, C.R.

    2009-05-14

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGlc PPase) catalyzes the conversion of glucose 1-phosphate and ATP to ADP-glucose and pyrophosphate. As a key step in glucan synthesis, the ADPGlc PPases are highly regulated by allosteric activators and inhibitors in accord with the carbon metabolism pathways of the organism. Crystals of Agrobacterium tumefaciens ADPGlc PPase were obtained using lithium sulfate as a precipitant. A complete anomalous selenomethionyl derivative X-ray diffraction data set was collected with unit cell dimensions a = 85.38 {angstrom}, b = 93.79 {angstrom}, and c = 140.29 {angstrom} ({alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 90{sup o}) and space group I{sub 222}. The A. tumefaciens ADPGlc PPase model was refined to 2.1 {angstrom} with an R{sub factor} = 22% and R{sub free} = 26.6%. The model consists of two domains: an N-terminal {alpha}{beta}{alpha} sandwich and a C-terminal parallel {beta}-helix. ATP and glucose 1-phosphate were successfully modeled in the proposed active site, and site-directed mutagenesis of conserved glycines in this region (G20, G21, and G23) resulted in substantial loss of activity. The interface between the N- and the C-terminal domains harbors a strong sulfate-binding site, and kinetic studies revealed that sulfate is a competitive inhibitor for the allosteric activator fructose 6-phosphate. These results suggest that the interface between the N- and C-terminal domains binds the allosteric regulator, and fructose 6-phosphate was modeled into this region. The A. tumefaciens ADPGlc PPase/fructose 6-phosphate structural model along with sequence alignment analysis was used to design mutagenesis experiments to expand the activator specificity to include fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The H379R and H379K enzymes were found to be activated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.

  3. Heterologous DNA Uptake in Cultured Symbiodinium spp. Aided by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Boris; Menzel, Diedrik; Baluška, František; Villanueva, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant-targeted pCB302 plasmids containing sequences encoding gfp fusions with a microtubule-binding domain; gfp with the fimbrin actin-binding domain 2; and gfp with AtRACK1C from Arabidopsis thaliana, all harbored in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, were used to assay heterologous expression on three different clades of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium. Accessibility to the resistant cell wall and through the plasma membrane of these dinoflagellates was gained after brief but vigorous shaking in the presence of glass beads and polyethylene glycol. A resistance gene to the herbicide Basta allowed appropriate selection of the cells expressing the hybrid proteins, which showed a characteristic green fluorescence, although they appeared to lose their photosynthetic pigments and did not further divide. Cell GFP expression frequency measured as green fluorescence emission yielded 839 per every 106 cells for Symbiodinium kawagutii, followed by 640 and 460 per every 106 cells for Symbiodinium microadriaticum and Symbiodinium sp. Mf11, respectively. Genomic PCR with specific primers amplified the AtRACK1C and gfp sequences after selection in all clades, thus revealing their presence in the cells. RT-PCR from RNA of S. kawagutii co-incubated with A. tumefaciens harboring each of the three vectors with their respective constructs, amplified products corresponding to the heterologous gfp sequence while no products were obtained from three distinct negative controls. The reported procedure shows that mild abrasion followed by co-incubation with A. tumefaciens harboring heterologous plasmids with CaMV35S and nos promoters can lead to expression of the encoded proteins into the Symbiodinium cells in culture. Despite the obvious drawbacks of the procedure, this is an important first step towards a stable transformation of Symbiodinium. PMID:26167858

  4. Viral and chloroplastic signals essential for initiation and efficiency of translation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tauqeer; Venkataraman, Srividhya; Hefferon, Kathleen; AbouHaidar, Mounir G

    2014-09-12

    The construction of high-level protein expression vectors using the CaMV 35S promoter in concert with highly efficient translation initiation signals for Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a relatively less explored field compared to that of Escherichia coli. In the current study, we experimentally investigated the capacity of the CaMV 35S promoter to direct GFP gene expression in A. tumefaciens in the context of different viral and chloroplastic translation initiation signals. GFP expression and concomitant translational efficiency was monitored by confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis. Among all of the constructs, the highest level of translation was observed for the construct containing the phage T7 translation initiation region followed by the chloroplastic Rubisco Large Subunit (rbcL) 58-nucleotide 5' leader region including its SD-like sequence (GGGAGGG). Replacing the SD-like (GGGAGGG) with non SD-like (TTTATTT) or replacing the remaining 52 nucleotides of rbcL with nonspecific sequence completely abolished translation. In addition, this 58 nucleotide region of rbcL serves as a translational enhancer in plants when located within the 5' UTR of mRNA corresponding to GFP. Other constructs, including those containing sequences upstream of the coat proteins of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus, or the GAGG sequence of T4 phage or the chloroplastic atpI and/or PsbA 5' UTR sequence, supported low levels of GFP expression or none at all. From these studies, we propose that we have created high expression vectors in A. tumefaciens and/or plants which contain the CaMV 35S promoter, followed by the translationally strong T7 SD plus RBS translation initiation region or the rbcL 58-nucleotide 5' leader region upstream of the gene of interest.

  5. Motility and chemotaxis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens surface attachment and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Peter M; Danhorn, Thomas; Fuqua, Clay

    2007-11-01

    Bacterial motility mechanisms, including swimming, swarming, and twitching, are known to have important roles in biofilm formation, including colonization and the subsequent expansion into mature structured surface communities. Directed motility requires chemotaxis functions that are conserved among many bacterial species. The biofilm-forming plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens drives swimming motility by utilizing a small group of flagella localized to a single pole or the subpolar region of the cell. There is no evidence for twitching or swarming motility in A. tumefaciens. Site-specific deletion mutations that resulted in either aflagellate, flagellated but nonmotile, or flagellated but nonchemotactic A. tumefaciens derivatives were examined for biofilm formation under static and flowing conditions. Nonmotile mutants were significantly deficient in biofilm formation under static conditions. Under flowing conditions, however, the aflagellate mutant rapidly formed aberrantly dense, tall biofilms. In contrast, a nonmotile mutant with unpowered flagella was clearly debilitated for biofilm formation relative to the wild type. A nontumbling chemotaxis mutant was only weakly affected with regard to biofilm formation under nonflowing conditions but was notably compromised in flow, generating less adherent biomass than the wild type, with a more dispersed cellular arrangement. Extragenic suppressor mutants of the chemotaxis-impaired, straight-swimming phenotype were readily isolated from motility agar plates. These mutants regained tumbling at a frequency similar to that of the wild type. Despite this phenotype, biofilm formation by the suppressor mutants in static cultures was significantly deficient. Under flowing conditions, a representative suppressor mutant manifested a phenotype similar to yet distinct from that of its nonchemotactic parent.

  6. Historical account on gaining insights on the mechanism of crown gall tumorigenesis induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Kado, Clarence I.

    2014-01-01

    The plant tumor disease known as crown gall was not called by that name until more recent times. Galls on plants were described by Malpighi (1679) who believed that these extraordinary growth are spontaneously produced. Agrobacterium was first isolated from tumors in 1897 by Fridiano Cavara in Napoli, Italy. After this bacterium was recognized to be the cause of crown gall disease, questions were raised on the mechanism by which it caused tumors on a variety of plants. Numerous very detailed studies led to the identification of Agrobacterium tumefaciens as the causal bacterium that cleverly transferred a genetic principle to plant host cells and integrated it into their chromosomes. Such studies have led to a variety of sophisticated mechanisms used by this organism to aid in its survival against competing microorganisms. Knowledge gained from these fundamental discoveries has opened many avenues for researchers to examine their primary organisms of study for similar mechanisms of pathogenesis in both plants and animals. These discoveries also advanced the genetic engineering of domesticated plants for improved food and fiber. PMID:25147542

  7. In vitro organogenesis and genetic transformation in popular Cucumis sativus L. through Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Soniya, E V; Das, M R

    2002-03-01

    The effect of growth regulators and culture conditions on the morphogenetic response of cotyledonary leaf discs was studied in popular cucumber variety (Cucumis sativus cv. Sheetal). Organogenesis was induced directly without any intervening callus phase on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different concentrations of benzyladenine and indole propionic acid. Best results (93%) were obtained in the presence of the 4 mg/L benzyladenine and 1 mg/L IPA. The elongated shoots were rooted in basal medium with 1 mg/L indole butyric acid, hardened and transferred to the field conditions. Genetic transformation system has been established for Cucumis sativus cv. Sheetal, plants by infecting cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying binary plasmid pBI121, which contains scorable marker, beta-glucuronidase and selectable marker nptII under the CaMV 35S promoter. Infection was most effective when explants were infected with Agrobacterium for 15 min and co-cultivated for 2 days in the co-cultivation medium. Shoots were regenerated directly from cotyledonary leaf explants in the presence of kanamycin (50 microg/ml) and analysed. Southern blot analysis confirmed that transformation had occurred. This method will allow genetic improvement of this crop by the introduction of agronomically important genes.

  8. Polar Organizing Protein PopZ Is Required for Chromosome Segregation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Ehrle, Haley M; Guidry, Jacob T; Iacovetto, Rebecca; Salisbury, Anne K; Sandidge, D J; Bowman, Grant R

    2017-09-01

    Despite being perceived as relatively simple organisms, many bacteria exhibit an impressive degree of subcellular organization. In Caulobacter crescentus, the evolutionarily conserved polar organizing protein PopZ facilitates cytoplasmic organization by recruiting chromosome centromeres and regulatory proteins to the cell poles. Here, we characterize the localization and function of PopZ in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a genetically related species with distinct anatomy. In this species, we find that PopZ molecules are relocated from the old pole to the new pole in the minutes following cell division. PopZ is not required for the localization of the histidine kinases DivJ and PdhS1, which become localized to the old pole after PopZ relocation is complete. The histidine kinase PdhS2 is temporally and spatially related to PopZ in that it localizes to transitional poles just before they begin to shed PopZ and disappears from the old pole after PopZ relocalization. At the new pole, PopZ is required for tethering the centromere of at least one of multiple replicons (chromosome I), and the loss of popZ results in a severe chromosome segregation defect, aberrant cell division, and cell mortality. After cell division, the daughter that inherits polar PopZ is shorter in length and delayed in chromosome I segregation compared to its sibling. In this cell type, PopZ completes polar relocation well before the onset of chromosome segregation. While A. tumefaciens PopZ resembles its C. crescentus homolog in chromosome tethering activity, other aspects of its localization and function indicate distinct properties related to differences in cell organization.IMPORTANCE Members of the Alphaproteobacteria exhibit a wide range of phenotypic diversity despite sharing many conserved genes. In recent years, the extent to which this diversity is reflected at the level of subcellular organization has become increasingly apparent. However, which factors control such organization and how they

  9. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria.

  10. Interaction of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence protein VirD2 with histones.

    PubMed

    Wolterink-van Loo, Suzanne; Escamilla Ayala, Abril A; Hooykaas, Paul J J; van Heusden, G Paul H

    2015-02-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that genetically transforms plants and, under laboratory conditions, also transforms non-plant organisms, such as fungi and yeasts. During the transformation process a piece of ssDNA (T-strand) is transferred into the host cells via a type IV secretion system. The VirD2 relaxase protein, which is covalently attached at the 5' end of the T-strand through Tyr29, mediates nuclear entry as it contains a nuclear localization sequence. How the T-strand reaches the chromatin and becomes integrated in the chromosomal DNA is still far from clear. Here, we investigated whether VirD2 binds to histone proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using immobilized GFP-VirD2 and in vitro synthesized His6-tagged S. cerevisiae proteins, interactions between VirD2 and the histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 were revealed. In vivo, these interactions were confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments. After co-cultivation of Agrobacterium strains expressing VirD2 tagged with a fragment of the yellow fluorescent protein analogue Venus with yeast strains expressing histone H2A or H2B tagged with the complementary part of Venus, fluorescence was detected in dot-shaped structures in the recipient yeast cells. The results indicated that VirD2 was transferred from Agrobacterium to yeast cells and that it interacted with histones in the host cell, and thus may help direct the T-DNA (transferred DNA) to the chromatin as a prelude to integration into the host chromosomal DNA.

  11. Incidence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 1 in and on ‘Paradox’ (Juglans hindsii x Juglans regia) walnut seed collected from commercial nurseries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The walnut rootstock Paradox (Juglans hindsii (Jeps) Rehder x J. regia L.) is susceptible to Agrobacterium tumefaciens (7) which often results in a high incidence of crown gall in nursery or walnut production orchards. Though A. tumefaciens is susceptible to the commonly used preplant soil fumigant...

  12. Evaluation of four Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains for the genetic transformation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Micro-Tom.

    PubMed

    Chetty, V J; Ceballos, N; Garcia, D; Narváez-Vásquez, J; Lopez, W; Orozco-Cárdenas, M L

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains differ not only in their ability to transform tomato Micro-Tom, but also in the number of transgene copies that the strains integrate in the genome. The transformation efficiency of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Micro-Tom with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains AGL1, EHA105, GV3101, and MP90, harboring the plasmid pBI121 was compared. The presence of the nptII and/or uidA transgenes in regenerated T(0) plants was determined by PCR, Southern blotting, and/or GUS histochemical analyses. In addition, a rapid and reliable duplex, qPCR TaqMan assay was standardized to estimate transgene copy number. The highest transformation rate (65 %) was obtained with the Agrobacterium strain GV3101, followed by EHA105 (40 %), AGL1 (35 %), and MP90 (15 %). The mortality rate of cotyledons due to Agrobacterium overgrowth was the lowest with the strain GV3101. The Agrobacterium strain EHA105 was more efficient than GV3101 in the transfer of single T-DNA insertions of nptII and uidA transgenes into the tomato genome. Even though Agrobacterium strain MP90 had the lowest transformation rate of 15 %, the qPCR analysis showed that the strain MP90 was the most efficient in the transfer of single transgene insertions, and none of the transgenic plants produced with this strain had more than two insertion events in their genome. The combination of higher transformation efficiency and fewer transgene insertions in plants transformed using EHA105 makes this Agrobacterium strain optimal for functional genomics and biotechnological applications in tomato.

  13. Role a Agrobacterium tumefaciens ChvA protein in export of. beta. -1,2-glucan

    SciTech Connect

    Cangelosi, G.A.; Martinetti, G.; Leigh, J.A.; Lee, Chi Chang; Theines, C. )

    1989-03-01

    Functional chvA and chvB genes are required for attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to plant cells, an early step in crown gall tumor formation. Strains defective in these loci do not secrete normal amounts of cyclic {beta}-1,2-glucan. Whereas chvB is required for {beta}-1,2-glucan synthesis, the role of chvA in glucan synthesis or export has not been clearly defined. We found that cultures of chvA mutants contained as much neutral {beta}-1,2-glucan in the cell pellets as did the wild type, with no detectable accumulation of glucan in the culture supernatant. The cytoplasm of chvA mutant cells contained over three times more soluble {beta}-1,2-glucan than did the cytoplasm of the wild-type parent. Unlike the wild type, chvA mutants contained no detectable periplasmic glucan. The amino acid sequence of chvA is highly homologous to the sequences of bacterial and eucaryotic export proteins, as observed previously in the case of ndvA, a rhizobial homolog of chvA. Strong sequence homology within this family of export proteins is concentrated in the carboxy-terminal portions of the proteins, but placement of consensus ATP-binding sites, internal signal sequences, and hydrophobic domains are conserved over their entire lengths. These data suggest a model for {beta}-1,2-glucan synthesis in A. tumefaciens in which glucan is synthesized inside the inner membrane with the participation of ChvB and transported across the inner membrane with the participation of ChvA.

  14. Molybdate uptake by Agrobacterium tumefaciens correlates with the cellular molybdenum cofactor status.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Marie-Christine; Ali, Koral; Sonnenschein, Marleen; Robrahn, Laura; Strauss, Daria; Narberhaus, Franz; Masepohl, Bernd

    2016-09-01

    Many enzymes require the molybdenum cofactor, Moco. Under Mo-limiting conditions, the high-affinity ABC transporter ModABC permits molybdate uptake and Moco biosynthesis in bacteria. Under Mo-replete conditions, Escherichia coli represses modABC transcription by the one-component regulator, ModE, consisting of a DNA-binding and a molybdate-sensing domain. Instead of a full-length ModE protein, many bacteria have a shorter ModE protein, ModE(S) , consisting of a DNA-binding domain only. Here, we asked how such proteins sense the intracellular molybdenum status. We show that the Agrobacterium tumefaciens ModE(S) protein Atu2564 is essential for modABC repression. ModE(S) binds two Mo-boxes in the modA promoter as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Northern analysis revealed cotranscription of modE(S) with the upstream gene, atu2565, which was dispensable for ModE(S) activity. To identify genes controlling ModE(S) function, we performed transposon mutagenesis. Tn5 insertions resulting in derepressed modA transcription mapped to the atu2565-modE(S) operon and several Moco biosynthesis genes. We conclude that A. tumefaciens ModE(S) activity responds to Moco availability rather than to molybdate concentration directly, as is the case for E. coli ModE. Similar results in Sinorhizobium meliloti suggest that Moco dependence is a common feature of ModE(S) regulators.

  15. A Glutathione Transferase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens Reveals a Novel Class of Bacterial GST Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Skopelitou, Katholiki; Dhavala, Prathusha; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C.; Labrou, Nikolaos E.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, we report a novel class of glutathione transferases (GSTs) originated from the pathogenic soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, with structural and catalytic properties not observed previously in prokaryotic and eukaryotic GST isoenzymes. A GST-like sequence from A. tumefaciens C58 (Atu3701) with low similarity to other characterized GST family of enzymes was identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it belongs to a distinct GST class not previously described and restricted only in soil bacteria, called the Eta class (H). This enzyme (designated as AtuGSTH1-1) was cloned and expressed in E. coli and its structural and catalytic properties were investigated. Functional analysis showed that AtuGSTH1-1 exhibits significant transferase activity against the common substrates aryl halides, as well as very high peroxidase activity towards organic hydroperoxides. The crystal structure of AtuGSTH1-1 was determined at 1.4 Å resolution in complex with S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-glutathione (Nb-GSH). Although AtuGSTH1-1 adopts the canonical GST fold, sequence and structural characteristics distinct from previously characterized GSTs were identified. The absence of the classic catalytic essential residues (Tyr, Ser, Cys) distinguishes AtuGSTH1-1 from all other cytosolic GSTs of known structure and function. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that instead of the classic catalytic residues, an Arg residue (Arg34), an electron-sharing network, and a bridge of a network of water molecules may form the basis of the catalytic mechanism. Comparative sequence analysis, structural information, and site-directed mutagenesis in combination with kinetic analysis showed that Phe22, Ser25, and Arg187 are additional important residues for the enzyme's catalytic efficiency and specificity. PMID:22496785

  16. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of Salix matsudana Koidz. using mature seeds.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingli; Yi, Jaeseon; Yang, Chuanping; Li, Chenghao

    2013-06-01

    An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method was developed for Salix matsudana Koidz. using mature seeds as starting material. Multiple shoots were induced directly from embryonic shoot apices of germinating seeds. Although thidiazuron, 6-benzylaminopurine and zeatin induced multiple shoot induction with high frequency, zeatin (4.5 μM) was more effective for elongation of shoots and roots. The binary vector pCAMBIA1303, which contained neomycin phosphotransferase as a selectable marker gene and β-glucuronidase as a reporter gene, was used for transformation. Factors affecting transformation efficiency were examined for optimization of the procedure. Up to 35 of 180 seeds regenerated kanamycin-resistant shoots under optimal transformation conditions as follows: seeds were precultured for 4 days, apices of embryonic shoots were removed and infected with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 grown to a cell density equivalent (OD600) of 0.6, and then the infected explants were cultivated at 21 °C for 4 days. Storage of seeds at -20 °C for as long as 3 years had no significant effect on the induction of kanamycin-resistant shoots. Using this method, transgenic plants were obtained within ∼5 months with a transformation frequency of 7.2%. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that 36.4-93.8% of plants from all 13 tested kanamycin-resistant lines were PCR positive. Several 'escapes' were eliminated by a second round of selection. PCR, Southern blot and reverse transcriptase-PCR analyses of selected transgenic individuals 2 years after cutting propagation confirmed the successful generation of stable transformants. Our method, which minimizes the duration of axenic culture, may provide an alternative procedure for transformation of other recalcitrant Salix species.

  17. A Photolyase-Like Protein from Agrobacterium tumefaciens with an Iron-Sulfur Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Oberpichler, Inga; Pierik, Antonio J.; Wesslowski, Janine; Pokorny, Richard; Rosen, Ran; Vugman, Michal; Zhang, Fan; Neubauer, Olivia; Ron, Eliora Z.; Batschauer, Alfred; Lamparter, Tilman

    2011-01-01

    Photolyases and cryptochromes are evolutionarily related flavoproteins with distinct functions. While photolyases can repair UV-induced DNA lesions in a light-dependent manner, cryptochromes regulate growth, development and the circadian clock in plants and animals. Here we report about two photolyase-related proteins, named PhrA and PhrB, found in the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. PhrA belongs to the class III cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyases, the sister class of plant cryptochromes, while PhrB belongs to a new class represented in at least 350 bacterial organisms. Both proteins contain flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a primary catalytic cofactor, which is photoreduceable by blue light. Spectral analysis of PhrA confirmed the presence of 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) as antenna cofactor. PhrB comprises also an additional chromophore, absorbing in the short wavelength region but its spectrum is distinct from known antenna cofactors in other photolyases. Homology modeling suggests that PhrB contains an Fe-S cluster as cofactor which was confirmed by elemental analysis and EPR spectroscopy. According to protein sequence alignments the classical tryptophan photoreduction pathway is present in PhrA but absent in PhrB. Although PhrB is clearly distinguished from other photolyases including PhrA it is, like PhrA, required for in vivo photoreactivation. Moreover, PhrA can repair UV-induced DNA lesions in vitro. Thus, A. tumefaciens contains two photolyase homologs of which PhrB represents the first member of the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF) that contains an iron-sulfur cluster. PMID:22066008

  18. Processive lipid galactosyl/glucosyltransferases from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Mesorhizobium loti display multiple specificities.

    PubMed

    Hölzl, Georg; Leipelt, Martina; Ott, Claudia; Zähringer, Ulrich; Lindner, Buko; Warnecke, Dirk; Heinz, Ernst

    2005-09-01

    The glycosyltransferase family 21 (GT21) includes both enzymes of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Many of the eukaryotic enzymes from animal, plant, and fungal origin have been characterized as uridine diphosphoglucose (UDP-Glc):ceramide glucosyltransferases (glucosylceramide synthases [Gcs], EC 2.4.1.80). As the acceptor molecule ceramide is not present in most bacteria, the enzymatic specificities and functions of the corresponding bacterial glycosyltransferases remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the homologous and heterologous expression of GT21 enzymes from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Mesorhizobium loti in A. tumefaciens, Escherichia coli, and the yeast Pichia pastoris. Glycolipid analyses of the transgenic organisms revealed that the bacterial glycosyltransferases are involved in the synthesis of mono-, di- and even tri-glycosylated glycolipids. As products resulting from their activity, we identified 1,2-diacyl-3-(O-beta-D-galacto-pyranosyl)-sn-glycerol, 1,2-diacyl-3-(O-beta-D-gluco-pyranosyl)-sn-glycerol as well as higher glycosylated lipids such as 1,2-diacyl-3-[O-beta-D-galacto-pyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-D-galacto-pyranosyl]-sn-glycerol, 1,2-diacyl-3-[O-beta-D-gluco-pyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-D-galacto-pyranosyl]-sn-glycerol, 1,2-diacyl-3-[O-beta-D-gluco-pyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-D-gluco-pyranosyl]-sn-glycerol, and the deviatingly linked diglycosyldiacylglycerol 1,2-diacyl-3-[O-beta-D-gluco-pyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-beta-D-galacto-pyranosyl]-sn-glycerol. From a mixture of triglycosyldiacylglycerols, 1,2-diacyl-3-[O-beta-D-galacto-pyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-D-galacto-pyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-D-galacto-pyranosyl]-sn-glycerol could be separated in a pure form. In vitro enzyme assays showed that the glycosyltransferase from A. tumefaciens favours uridine diphosphogalactose (UDP-Gal) over UDP-Glc. In conclusion, the bacterial GT21 enzymes differ from the eukaryotic ceramide glucosyltransferases by the successive transfer of up to three galactosyl and

  19. Attempts to Detect Agrobacterium tumefaciens DNA in Crown-Gall Tumor Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Donald J.; Kemp, John D.

    1976-01-01

    Primary and secondary crown gall tissue cultures were established from sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus, variety Mammoth Russian) wound-inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend) Conn strain B6. Growth rates of tumor tissues and habituated healthy sunflower stem section tissues on basal medium lacking auxin and cytokinin were compared to those of healthy sunflower stem section tissue grown on the same medium with added phytohormones. No difference was detected in the thermal denaturation midpoints (74.8 C) and melting profiles in 25 mm sodium phosphate (pH 6.8), or the buoyant densities in cesium chloride equilibrium centrifugation (1.687 g cm−3), between deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs) isolated from crude nuclear preparations of the four tissue types. No satellite DNA was observed in equilibrium centrifugation of unsheared plant DNAs. Heterologous DNA renaturation kinetic analyses were performed in 0.14 m sodium phosphate (pH 6.8) at 70 C. Thermal stability measurements of reassociated DNA revealed less than 1% of mismatched base pairs. Reannealing of sheared, denatured, radioactive A. tumefaciens B6 DNA (molecular weight, 325,000 daltons) in the presence of a 5400-fold excess of sheared calf thymus, healthy tissue, or secondary sunflower crown gall DNA obeyed second order kinetics, with a Cot½ of 2.8, identical to that observed when B6 DNA was reannealed in the absence of foreign DNA. Reannealing rates of B6 DNA in the presence of 5400-fold excesses of DNA from two lines of primary sunflower crown gall were increased 2.24- or 1.47-fold. Digestion of the tumor DNA preparations with pancreatic deoxyribonuclease I until no detectable DNA remained, followed by restoration of solution viscosity by added calf thymus DNA, failed to remove the acceleration effect of the tumor DNA preparations. Reisolation of the reannealed nucleic acid formed in this experiment, and digestion with ribonuclease A or deoxyribonuclease I revealed that the double

  20. Stable Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange in Arabidopsis Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens1

    PubMed Central

    Louwerse, Jeanine D.; van Lier, Miranda C.M.; van der Steen, Dirk M.; de Vlaam, Clementine M.T.; Hooykaas, Paul J.J.; Vergunst, Annette C.

    2007-01-01

    Site-specific integration is an attractive method for the improvement of current transformation technologies aimed at the production of stable transgenic plants. Here, we present a Cre-based targeting strategy in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) of transferred DNA (T-DNA) delivered by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The rationale for effective RMCE is the precise exchange of a genomic and a replacement cassette both flanked by two heterospecific lox sites that are incompatible with each other to prevent unwanted cassette deletion. We designed a strategy in which the coding region of a loxP/lox5171-flanked bialaphos resistance (bar) gene is exchanged for a loxP/lox5171-flanked T-DNA replacement cassette containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) coding region via loxP/loxP and lox5171/lox5171 directed recombination. The bar gene is driven by the strong 35S promoter, which is located outside the target cassette. This placement ensures preferential selection of RMCE events and not random integration events by expression of nptII from this same promoter. Using root transformation, during which Cre was provided on a cotransformed T-DNA, 50 kanamycin-resistant calli were selected. Forty-four percent contained a correctly exchanged cassette based on PCR analysis, indicating the stringency of the selection system. This was confirmed for the offspring of five analyzed events by Southern-blot analysis. In four of the five analyzed RMCE events, there were no additional T-DNA insertions or they easily segregated, resulting in high-efficiency single-copy RMCE events. Our approach enables simple and efficient selection of targeting events using the advantages of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PMID:17921337

  1. Proteomics and Genetics for Identification of a Bacterial Antimonite Oxidase in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingxin; Wang, Qian; Li, Mingshun; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Guo, Wei; McDermott, Timothy R; Rensing, Christopher; Wang, Gejiao

    2015-05-19

    Antimony (Sb) and its compounds are listed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1979) and the European Union (CEC, 1976) as a priority pollutant. Microbial redox transformations are presumed to be an important part of antimony cycling in nature; however, regulation of these processes and the enzymology involved are unknown. In this study, comparative proteomics and reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of Sb(III)-oxidizing bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 revealed an oxidoreductase (anoA) is widely distributed in microorganisms, including at least some documented to be able to oxidize Sb(III). Deletion of the anoA gene reduced Sb(III) resistance and decreased Sb(III) oxidation by ∼27%, whereas the anoA complemented strain was similar to the wild type GW4 and a GW4 anoA overexpressing strain increased Sb(III) oxidation by ∼34%. Addition of Sb(III) up-regulated anoA expression and cloning anoA to Escherichia coli demonstrated direct transferability of this activity. A His-tag purified AnoA was found to require NADP(+) as cofactor, and exhibited a K(m) for Sb(III) of 64 ± 10 μM and a V(max) of 150 ± 7 nmol min(-1) mg(-1). This study contributes important initial steps toward a mechanistic understanding of microbe-antimony interactions and enhances our understanding of how microorganisms participate in antimony biogeochemical cycling in nature.

  2. Replicon-specific regulation of small heat shock genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Balsiger, Sylvia; Ragaz, Curdin; Baron, Christian; Narberhaus, Franz

    2004-10-01

    Four genes coding for small heat shock proteins (sHsps) were identified in the genome sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, one on the circular chromosome (hspC), one on the linear chromosome (hspL), and two on the pAT plasmid (hspAT1 and hspAT2). Induction of sHsps at elevated temperatures was revealed by immunoblot analyses. Primer extension experiments and translational lacZ fusions demonstrated that expression of the pAT-derived genes and hspL is controlled by temperature in a regulon-specific manner. While the sHsp gene on the linear chromosome turned out to be regulated by RpoH (sigma32), both copies on pAT were under the control of highly conserved ROSE (named for repression of heat shock gene expression) sequences in their 5' untranslated region. Secondary structure predictions of the corresponding mRNA strongly suggest that it represses translation at low temperatures by masking the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. The hspC gene was barely expressed (if at all) and not temperature responsive.

  3. Replicon-Specific Regulation of Small Heat Shock Genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Balsiger, Sylvia; Ragaz, Curdin; Baron, Christian; Narberhaus, Franz

    2004-01-01

    Four genes coding for small heat shock proteins (sHsps) were identified in the genome sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, one on the circular chromosome (hspC), one on the linear chromosome (hspL), and two on the pAT plasmid (hspAT1 and hspAT2). Induction of sHsps at elevated temperatures was revealed by immunoblot analyses. Primer extension experiments and translational lacZ fusions demonstrated that expression of the pAT-derived genes and hspL is controlled by temperature in a regulon-specific manner. While the sHsp gene on the linear chromosome turned out to be regulated by RpoH (σ32), both copies on pAT were under the control of highly conserved ROSE (named for repression of heat shock gene expression) sequences in their 5′ untranslated region. Secondary structure predictions of the corresponding mRNA strongly suggest that it represses translation at low temperatures by masking the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. The hspC gene was barely expressed (if at all) and not temperature responsive. PMID:15466035

  4. Transfer of an indigenous plasmid of Rhizobium loti to other rhizobia and Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Pankhurst, C E; Broughton, W J; Wieneke, U

    1983-08-01

    Rhizobium loti strains NZP2037 and NZP2213 were each found to contain a single large plasmid: pRlo2037a (240 MDal) and pRlo2213a (120 MDal), respectively. Plasmid DNA present in crude cell lysates of each strain and purified pRlo2037a DNA did not hybridize with pID1, a recombinant plasmid containing part of the nitrogen fixation (nif) region of R. meliloti, indicating that nif genes were not present on these plasmids. The transposon Tn5 was inserted into pRlo2037a and this plasmid was then transferred into R. leguminosarum, R. meliloti and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. All transconjugants failed to nodulate Lotus pedunculatus, suggesting that the ability to nodulate this legume was also not carried on pRlo2037a. Transfer of pRlo2037a to R. loti strain NZP2213 did not alter the Nod+ Fix- phenotype of this strain for L. pedunculatus. Determinants for flavolan resistance, believed to be necessary for effective nodulation of L. pedunculatus, were not carried on pRlo2037a. These data suggest that nodulation, nitrogen fixation and flavolan resistance genes are not present on the large plasmid in R. loti strain NZP2037.

  5. Agrobacterium tumefaciens AK-6b gene modulates phenolic compound metabolism in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gális, Ivan; Kakiuchi, Yasutaka; Simek, Petr; Wabiko, Hiroetsu

    2004-01-01

    The 6b gene (AK-6b) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens AKE10 can substitute for the requirement of tobacco tissues for auxin and cytokinin to maintain callus growth in the culture medium. To identify compounds that might be involved in this process we analyzed phenolic metabolites in transgenic tobacco tissues expressing the AK-6b gene. On medium containing both cytokinin and auxin (SH medium), transgenic calli accumulated higher levels of chlorogenic acid, caffeoyl putrescine, rutin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside, than did wild-type tissues. In contrast, the levels of scopolin and its aglycone, scopoletin were lower in transgenic tissues. On hormone-free medium, these phenolic compounds showed neither significant levels nor an apparent relationship with AK-6b transcript levels, except for the negatively correlated levels of scopoletin and AK-6b transcripts. Apparently, the AK-6b gene acts, in SH medium, to redirect the synthesis of scopolin in tobacco tissues towards the preferential synthesis of caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids.

  6. Proteins encoded by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid DNA (T-DNA) in crown gall tumors

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Joan C.; Nester, Eugene W.; Gordon, Milton P.

    1980-01-01

    In order to detect proteins that may be produced in crown gall tumors as a result of expression of incorporated Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid DNA (T-DNA), we have isolated mRNA complementary to T-DNA and translated this in a protein-synthesizing system derived from wheat germ. mRNA prepared from cultured E1 tumor from Nicotiana tabacum hybridized with HindIII fragment 1 sequences of T-DNA immobilized on cellulose nitrate filters. Two proteins of 30,000 and 16,500 Mr were produced when this selected RNA was released and translated. Other tumor lines from N. tabacum were investigated, and a protein of slightly less than 30,000 Mr was encoded by HindIII fragment 1 sequences of 15955/01 tumor. No products were observed for 15955/1 tumor line, which differs from E1/B6-806 and 15955/01 in that it does not produce octopine. mRNA species of each of the tumor lines hybridized to Bst I fragment 8 sequences of T-DNA and produced a common protein of 15,000 Mr. Because this protein is derived from the region of the T-DNA that is conserved in octopine- and nopaline-type crown gall tumors, it may play a role in oncogenicity. Images PMID:16592819

  7. Characterization, correction and de novo assembly of an Oxford Nanopore genomic dataset from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Stéphane; Mudge, Joann; Cameron, Connor; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Anand, Ajith; Fengler, Kevin; Hayes, Kevin; Llaca, Victor; Jones, Todd J; May, Gregory

    2016-06-28

    The MinION is a portable single-molecule DNA sequencing instrument that was released by Oxford Nanopore Technologies in 2014, producing long sequencing reads by measuring changes in ionic flow when single-stranded DNA molecules translocate through the pores. While MinION long reads have an error rate substantially higher than the ones produced by short-read sequencing technologies, they can generate de novo assemblies of microbial genomes, after an initial correction step that includes alignment of Illumina sequencing data or detection of overlaps between Oxford Nanopore reads to improve accuracy. In this study, MinION reads were generated from the multi-chromosome genome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Errors in the consensus two-directional (sense and antisense) "2D" sequences were first characterized by way of comparison with an internal reference assembly. Both Illumina-based correction and self-correction were performed and the resulting corrected reads assembled into high-quality hybrid and non-hybrid assemblies. Corrected read datasets and assemblies were subsequently compared. The results shown here indicate that both hybrid and non-hybrid methods can be used to assemble Oxford Nanopore reads into informative multi-chromosome assemblies, each with slightly different outcomes in terms of contiguity and accuracy.

  8. Nucleotide sequence of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens octopine Ti plasmid-encoded tmr gene.

    PubMed Central

    Heidekamp, F; Dirkse, W G; Hille, J; van Ormondt, H

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the tmr gene, encoded by the octopine Ti plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (pTiAch5), was determined. The T-DNA, which encompasses this gene, is involved in tumor formation and maintenance, and probably mediates the cytokinin-independent growth of transformed plant cells. The nucleotide sequence of the tmr gene displays a continuous open reading frame specifying a polypeptide chain of 240 amino acids. The 5'- terminus of the polyadenylated tmr mRNA isolated from octopine tobacco tumor cell lines was determined by nuclease S1 mapping. The nucleotide sequence 5'-TATAAAA-3', which sequence is identical to the canonical "TATA" box, was found 29 nucleotides upstream from the major initiation site for RNA synthesis. Two potential polyadenylation signals 5'-AATAAA-3' were found at 207 and 275 nucleotides downstream from the TAG stopcodon of the tmr gene. A comparison was made of nucleotide stretches, involved in transcription control of T-DNA genes. Images PMID:6312414

  9. Effects of cell lysis treatments on the yield of coenzyme Q10 following Agrobacterium tumefaciens fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yuting Tian; Tianli Yue; Jinjin Pei; Yahong Yuan; Juhai Li; Martin Lo, Y

    2010-04-01

    The yield of CoQ₁₀, an intracellular product extracted from Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells is dependent on the effectiveness of cell lysis post fermentation. Various cell lysis approaches are investigated, including ultrasound, repetitive freezing/thawing, grinding and acid-heat treatment. The acid-heat combination using hydrochloric acid is found the most effective in releasing CoQ₁₀, followed by lactic, sulfuric, phosphoric and oxalic acids. The most significant processing parameters, namely the ratio of acid solution volume and bacteria weight (A/B ratio), incubation temperature and reaction time, are optimized by using the central composite design with a quadratic regression model built by response surface methodology. The highest CoQ₁₀ yield at 1.518 mg/g dry cell is attained using hydrochloric acid (3 mol/L) under optimal A/B ratio, temperature and time at 10.8 mL/g, 84.2 °C and 35.3 min, respectively.

  10. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Maria Cecília; Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Maria Helena; Delgado Duarte, Rubens Tadeu; Furlaneto, Luciana; Furlaneto, Marcia Cristina

    2004-08-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (agro-transformation) was successfully applied to the entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana. Conidia of B. bassiana were transformed to hygromycin B resistance using the hph gene of Escherichia coli as the selective trait, under the control of a heterologous fungal promoter and the Aspergillus nidulans trpC terminator. The efficiency of transformation was up to 28 and 96 transformants per 10(4) and 10(5) target conidia, respectively, using three distinct vectors. High mitotic stability of the transformants (80-100%) was demonstrated after five successive transfers on a nonselective medium. Abortive transformants were observed for all the hph(r) vectors used. Putative transformants were analysed for the presence of the hph gene by PCR and Southern analysis. The latter analysis revealed the integration of two or more copies of the hph gene in the genome. The agro-transformation method was found to be effective for the isolation of B. bassiana hygromycin resistant transformants and may represent a useful tool for insertional mutagenesis studies in this fungus.

  11. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Penicillium expansum PE-12 and its application in molecular breeding.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian; Qi, Zhen; Wang, Yueyue; Zhang, Fangyuan; Li, Renyong; Yu, Qingsheng; Chen, Xiangbin; Wang, Huojun; Xiong, Xin; Tang, Kexuan

    2013-03-30

    Lipase produced by Penicillium expansum is widely used in laundry detergent and leather industry; however, the absence of an efficient transformation technology sets a major obstacle for further enhancement of its lipase productivity through advanced gene engineering. In this work, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was investigated for P. expansum PE-12 transformation, using hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) as a selectable marker gene. As a result, we revealed that the frequency of transformation surpassed 100 transformants/10(5)condida, most of the integrated T-DNA appeared as a single copy at a random position in chromosomal DNA, and all the transformants showed mitotic stability. Facilitated by this newly established method, for the first time, P. expansum PE-12 was genetically engineered to improve the lipase yield, through a homologous expression vector carrying the endogenous lipase gene (PEL) driven by the strong constitutive promoter of the glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpdA) from Aspergillus nidulans. The highest expression level of the engineered strain reached up to 1700 U/mL, nearly 2-fold of the original industrial strain (900 U/mL). Our reproducible ATMT system has not only revealed the great potential of homologous expression-directed genetic engineering, which is more efficient and specific compared to traditional mutagenesis, but also provided new possibilities and perspectives for any other practical applications of P. expansum-related genetic engineering in the future.

  12. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens Transcription Factor BlcR Is Regulated via Oligomerization*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi; Fiscus, Valena; Meng, Wuyi; Zheng, Zhida; Zhang, Lian-Hui; Fuqua, Clay; Chen, Lingling

    2011-01-01

    The Agrobacterium tumefaciens BlcR is a member of the emerging isocitrate lyase transcription regulators that negatively regulates metabolism of γ-butyrolactone, and its repressing function is relieved by succinate semialdehyde (SSA). Our crystal structure showed that BlcR folded into the DNA- and SSA-binding domains and dimerized via the DNA-binding domains. Mutational analysis identified residues, including Phe147, that are important for SSA association; BlcRF147A existed as tetramer. Two BlcR dimers bound to target DNA and in a cooperative manner, and the distance between the two BlcR-binding sequences in DNA was critical for BlcR-DNA association. Tetrameric BlcRF147A retained DNA binding activity, and importantly, this activity was not affected by the distance separating the BlcR-binding sequences in DNA. SSA did not dissociate tetrameric BlcRF147A or BlcRF147A-DNA. As well as in the SSA-binding site, Phe147 is located in a structurally flexible loop that may be involved in BlcR oligomerization. We propose that SSA regulates BlcR DNA-binding function via oligomerization. PMID:21467043

  13. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens Transcription Factor BlcR Is Regulated via Oligomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Yi; Fiscus, Valena; Meng, Wuyi; Zheng, Zhida; Zhang, Lian-Hui; Fuqua, Clay; Chen, Lingling

    2012-02-08

    The Agrobacterium tumefaciens BlcR is a member of the emerging isocitrate lyase transcription regulators that negatively regulates metabolism of {gamma}-butyrolactone, and its repressing function is relieved by succinate semialdehyde (SSA). Our crystal structure showed that BlcR folded into the DNA- and SSA-binding domains and dimerized via the DNA-binding domains. Mutational analysis identified residues, including Phe{sup 147}, that are important for SSA association; BlcR{sup F147A} existed as tetramer. Two BlcR dimers bound to target DNA and in a cooperative manner, and the distance between the two BlcR-binding sequences in DNA was critical for BlcR-DNA association. Tetrameric BlcR{sup F147A} retained DNA binding activity, and importantly, this activity was not affected by the distance separating the BlcR-binding sequences in DNA. SSA did not dissociate tetrameric BlcR{sup F147A} or BlcR{sup F147A}-DNA. As well as in the SSA-binding site, Phe{sup 147} is located in a structurally flexible loop that may be involved in BlcR oligomerization. We propose that SSA regulates BlcR DNA-binding function via oligomerization.

  14. Agrobacterium tumefaciens type II NADH dehydrogenase. Characterization and interactions with bacterial and thylakoid membranes.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Laetitia; Desplats, Carine; Mus, Florence; Cuiné, Stéphan; Cournac, Laurent; Peltier, Gilles

    2006-08-01

    Type II NADH dehydrogenases (NDH-2) are monomeric enzymes that catalyse quinone reduction and allow electrons to enter the respiratory chain in different organisms including higher plant mitochondria, bacteria and yeasts. In this study, an Agrobacterium tumefaciens gene encoding a putative alternative NADH dehydrogenase (AtuNDH-2) was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli as a (His)6-tagged protein. The purified 46 kDa protein contains FAD as a prosthetic group and oxidizes both NADH and NADPH with similar Vmax values, but with a much higher affinity for NADH than for NADPH. AtuNDH-2 complements the growth (on a minimal medium) of an E. coli mutant strain deficient in both NDH-1 and NDH-2, and is shown to supply electrons to the respiratory chain when incubated with bacterial membranes prepared from this mutant. By measuring photosystem II chlorophyll fluorescence on thylakoid membranes prepared from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we show that AtuNDH-2 is able to stimulate NADH-dependent reduction of the plastoquinone pool. We discuss the possibility of using heterologous expression of NDH-2 enzymes to improve nonphotochemical reduction of plastoquinones and H2 production in C. reinhardtii.

  15. Structure And Specificity of a Quorum-Quenching Lactonase (AiiB) From Agrobacterium Tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.; Thomas, P.W.; Momb, J.; Hoang, Q.Q.; Petsko, G.A.; Ringe, D.; Fast, W.

    2009-06-03

    N-Acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) mediated quorum-sensing regulates virulence factor production in a variety of Gram-negative bacteria. Proteins capable of degrading these autoinducers have been called 'quorum-quenching' enzymes, can block many quorum-sensing dependent phenotypes, and represent potentially useful reagents for clinical, agricultural, and industrial applications. The most characterized quorum-quenching enzymes to date are the AHL lactonases, which are metalloproteins that belong to the metallo-beta-lactamase superfamily. Here, we report the cloning, heterologous expression, purification, metal content, substrate specificity, and three-dimensional structure of AiiB, an AHL lactonase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Much like a homologous AHL lactonase from Bacillus thuringiensis, AiiB appears to be a metal-dependent AHL lactonase with broad specificity. A phosphate dianion is bound to the dinuclear zinc site and the active-site structure suggests specific mechanistic roles for an active site tyrosine and aspartate. To our knowledge, this is the second representative structure of an AHL lactonase and the first of an AHL lactonase from a microorganism that also produces AHL autoinducers. This work should help elucidate the hydrolytic ring-opening mechanism of this family of enzymes and also facilitate the design of more effective quorum-quenching catalysts.

  16. An Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strain with Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Transaminase Activity Shows an Enhanced Genetic Transformation Ability in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Satoko; Someya, Tatsuhiko; Zhou, Sha; Takayama, Mariko; Nakamura, Kouji; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens has the unique ability to mediate inter-kingdom DNA transfer, and for this reason, it has been utilized for plant genetic engineering. To increase the transformation frequency in plant genetic engineering, we focused on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a negative factor in the Agrobacterium-plant interaction. Recent studies have shown contradictory results regarding the effects of GABA on vir gene expression, leading to the speculation that GABA inhibits T-DNA transfer. In this study, we examined the effect of GABA on T-DNA transfer using a tomato line with a low GABA content. Compared with the control, the T-DNA transfer frequency was increased in the low-GABA tomato line, indicating that GABA inhibits T-DNA transfer. Therefore, we bred a new A. tumefaciens strain with GABA transaminase activity and the ability to degrade GABA. The A. tumefaciens strain exhibited increased T-DNA transfer in two tomato cultivars and Erianthus arundinacues and an increased frequency of stable transformation in tomato. PMID:28220841

  17. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation: An efficient tool for insertional mutagenesis and targeted gene disruption in Harpophora oryzae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Chen, Guo-Qing; Ning, Guo-Ao; Shi, Huan-Bin; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lu, Jian-Ping; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Su, Zhen-Zhu; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The endophytic filamentous fungus Harpophora oryzae is a beneficial endosymbiont isolated from the wild rice. H. oryzae could not only effectively improve growth rate and biomass yield of rice crops, but also induce systemic resistance against the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was employed and optimized to modify the H. oryzae genes by either random DNA fragment integration or targeted gene replacement. Our results showed that co-cultivation of H. oryzae conidia with A. tumefaciens in the presence of acetosyringone for 48 h at 22 °C could lead to a relatively highest frequency of transformation, and 200 μM acetosyringone (AS) pre-cultivation of A. tumefaciens is also suggested. ATMT-mediated knockout mutagenesis was accomplished with the gene-deletion cassettes using a yeast homologous recombination method with a yeast-Escherichia-Agrobacterium shuttle vector pKOHo. Using the ATMT-mediated knockout mutagenesis, we successfully deleted three genes of H. oryzae (HoATG5, HoATG7, and HoATG8), and then got the null mutants ΔHoatg5, ΔHoatg7, and ΔHoatg8. These results suggest that ATMT is an efficient tool for gene modification including randomly insertional mutagenesis and gene deletion mutagenesis in H. oryzae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes use different proteins to transport bacterial DNA into the plant cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Ream, Walt

    2009-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes transport single-stranded DNA (ssDNA; T-strands) and virulence proteins into plant cells through a type IV secretion system. DNA transfer initiates when VirD2 nicks border sequences in the tumour-inducing plasmid, attaches to the 5' end, and pilots T-strands into plant cells. Agrobacterium tumefaciens translocates ssDNA-binding protein VirE2 into plant cells where it targets T-strands into the nucleus. Some A. rhizogenes strains lack VirE2 but transfer T-strands efficiently due to the GALLS gene, which complements an A. tumefaciens virE2 mutant. VirE2 and full-length GALLS (GALLS-FL) contain nuclear localization sequences that target these proteins to the plant cell nucleus. VirE2 binds cooperatively to T-strands allowing it to move ssDNA without ATP hydrolysis. Unlike VirE2, GALLS-FL contains ATP-binding and helicase motifs similar to those in TraA, a strand transferase involved in conjugation. VirE2 may accumulate in the nucleus and pull T-strands into the nucleus using the force generated by cooperative DNA binding. GALLS-FL accumulates inside the nucleus where its predicted ATP-dependent strand transferase may pull T-strands into the nucleus. These different mechanisms for nuclear import of T-strands may affect the efficiency and quality of transgenic events in plant biotechnology applications.

  19. Characterization of membrane and protein interaction determinants of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB11 ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Rashkova, S; Spudich, G M; Christie, P J

    1997-01-01

    The VirB11 ATPase is a putative component of the transport machinery responsible for directing the export of nucleoprotein particles (T complexes) across the Agrobacterium tumefaciens envelope to susceptible plant cells. Fractionation and membrane treatment studies showed that approximately 30% of VirB11 partitioned as soluble protein, whereas the remaining protein was only partially solubilized with urea from cytoplasmic membranes of wild-type strain A348 as well as a Ti-plasmidless strain expressing virB11 from an IncP replicon. Mutations in virB11 affecting protein function were mapped near the amino terminus (Q6L, P13L, and E25G), just upstream of a region encoding a Walker A nucleotide-binding site (F154H;L155M), and within the Walker A motif (P170L, K175Q, and delta GKT174-176). The K175Q and delta GKT174-176 mutant proteins partitioned almost exclusively with the cytoplasmic membrane, suggesting that an activity associated with nucleotide binding could modulate the affinity of VirB11 for the cytoplasmic membrane. The virB11F154H;L155M allele was transdominant over wild-type virB11 in a merodiploid assay, providing strong evidence that at least one form of VirB11 functions as a homo- or heteromultimer. An allele with a deletion of the first half of the gene, virB11 delta1-156, was transdominant in a merodiploid assay, indicating that the C-terminal half of VirB11 contains a protein interaction domain. Products of both virB11 delta1-156 and virB11 delta158-343, which synthesizes the N-terminal half of VirB11, associated tightly with the A. tumefaciens membrane, suggesting that both halves of VirB11 contain membrane interaction determinants. PMID:9006008

  20. Absence of the Polar Organizing Protein PopZ Results in Reduced and Asymmetric Cell Division in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Howell, Matthew; Aliashkevich, Alena; Salisbury, Anne K; Cava, Felipe; Bowman, Grant R; Brown, Pamela J B

    2017-09-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a rod-shaped bacterium that grows by polar insertion of new peptidoglycan during cell elongation. As the cell cycle progresses, peptidoglycan synthesis at the pole ceases prior to insertion of new peptidoglycan at midcell to enable cell division. The A. tumefaciens homolog of the Caulobacter crescentus polar organelle development protein PopZ has been identified as a growth pole marker and a candidate polar growth-promoting factor. Here, we characterize the function of PopZ in cell growth and division of A. tumefaciens Consistent with previous observations, we observe that PopZ localizes specifically to the growth pole in wild-type cells. Despite the striking localization pattern of PopZ, we find the absence of the protein does not impair polar elongation or cause major changes in the peptidoglycan composition. Instead, we observe an atypical cell length distribution, including minicells, elongated cells, and cells with ectopic poles. Most minicells lack DNA, suggesting a defect in chromosome segregation. Furthermore, the canonical cell division proteins FtsZ and FtsA are misplaced, leading to asymmetric sites of cell constriction. Together, these data suggest that PopZ plays an important role in the regulation of chromosome segregation and cell division.IMPORTANCEA. tumefaciens is a bacterial plant pathogen and a natural genetic engineer. However, very little is known about the spatial and temporal regulation of cell wall biogenesis that leads to polar growth in this bacterium. Understanding the molecular basis of A. tumefaciens growth may allow for the development of innovations to prevent disease or to promote growth during biotechnology applications. Finally, since many closely related plant and animal pathogens exhibit polar growth, discoveries in A. tumefaciens may be broadly applicable for devising antimicrobial strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Loss of PodJ in Agrobacterium tumefaciens Leads to Ectopic Polar Growth, Branching, and Reduced Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Anderson-Furgeson, James C.; Zupan, John R.; Grangeon, Romain

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium that elongates by unipolar addition of new cell envelope material. Approaching cell division, the growth pole transitions to a nongrowing old pole, and the division site creates new growth poles in sibling cells. The A. tumefaciens homolog of the Caulobacter crescentus polar organizing protein PopZ localizes specifically to growth poles. In contrast, the A. tumefaciens homolog of the C. crescentus polar organelle development protein PodJ localizes to the old pole early in the cell cycle and accumulates at the growth pole as the cell cycle proceeds. FtsA and FtsZ also localize to the growth pole for most of the cell cycle prior to Z-ring formation. To further characterize the function of polar localizing proteins, we created a deletion of A. tumefaciens podJ (podJAt). ΔpodJAt cells display ectopic growth poles (branching), growth poles that fail to transition to an old pole, and elongated cells that fail to divide. In ΔpodJAt cells, A. tumefaciens PopZ-green fluorescent protein (PopZAt-GFP) persists at nontransitioning growth poles postdivision and also localizes to ectopic growth poles, as expected for a growth-pole-specific factor. Even though GFP-PodJAt does not localize to the midcell in the wild type, deletion of podJAt impacts localization, stability, and function of Z-rings as assayed by localization of FtsA-GFP and FtsZ-GFP. Z-ring defects are further evidenced by minicell production. Together, these data indicate that PodJAt is a critical factor for polar growth and that ΔpodJAt cells display a cell division phenotype, likely because the growth pole cannot transition to an old pole. IMPORTANCE How rod-shaped prokaryotes develop and maintain shape is complicated by the fact that at least two distinct species-specific growth modes exist: uniform sidewall insertion of cell envelope material, characterized in model organisms such as Escherichia coli, and unipolar growth, which occurs

  2. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the causal agent of gummosis in cashew nut plants.

    PubMed

    Muniz, C R; da Silva, G F; Souza, M T; Freire, F C O; Kema, G H J; Guedes, M I F

    2014-02-21

    Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a major pathogen of many different crop cultures, including cashew nut plants. This paper describes an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system for the successful delivery of T-DNA, transferring the genes of green fluorescent protein (gfp) and hygromycin B phosphotransferase (hph) to L. theobromae. When the fungal pycnidiospores were co-cultured with A. tumefaciens harboring the binary vector with hph-gfp gene, hygromycin-resistant fungus only developed with acetosyringone supplementation. The cashew plants inoculated with the fungus expressing GFP revealed characteristic pathogen colonization by epifluorescence microscopy. Intense and bright green hyphae were observed for transformants in all extensions of mycelium cultures. The penetration of parenchyma cells near to the inoculation site, beneath the epicuticle surface, was observed prior to 25 dpi. Penetration was followed by the development of hyphae within invaded host cells. These findings provide a rapid and reproducible ATMT method for L. theobromae transformation.

  3. Abiotic and biotic factors responsible for antimonite oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Wang, Qian; Wang, Gejiao

    2017-03-01

    Antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing bacteria can transform the toxic Sb(III) into the less toxic antimonate [Sb(V)]. Recently, the cytoplasmic Sb(III)-oxidase AnoA and the periplasmic arsenite [As(III)] oxidase AioAB were shown to responsible for bacterial Sb(III) oxidation, however, disruption of each gene only partially decreased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. This study showed that in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4, Sb(III) induced cellular H2O2 content and H2O2 degradation gene katA. Gene knock-out/complementation of katA, anoA, aioA and anoA/aioA and Sb(III) oxidation and growth experiments showed that katA, anoA and aioA were essential for Sb(III) oxidation and resistance and katA was also essential for H2O2 resistance. Furthermore, linear correlations were observed between cellular H2O2 and Sb(V) content in vivo and chemical H2O2 and Sb(V) content in vitro (R2 = 0.93 and 0.94, respectively). These results indicate that besides the biotic factors, the cellular H2O2 induced by Sb(III) also catalyzes bacterial Sb(III) oxidation as an abiotic oxidant. The data reveal a novel mechanism that bacterial Sb(III) oxidation is associated with abiotic (cellular H2O2) and biotic (AnoA and AioAB) factors and Sb(III) oxidation process consumes cellular H2O2 which contributes to microbial detoxification of both Sb(III) and cellular H2O2.

  4. Shoot regeneration of mesophyll protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, not achievable with untransformed protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Steffen, A; Eriksson, T; Schieder, O

    1986-04-01

    Alternative methods for shoot regeneration in protoplast derived cultures were developed in Nicotiana paniculata and Physalis minima. In both species protoplast derived callus is not regeneratable to shoots by conventional methods, e.g. hormone treatment. Leaf discs and stem segments of N. paniculata and P. minima were incubated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens "shooter" strains harbouring pGV 2215 or pGV 2298 or wildtype strain B6S3. After 36 h of co-incubation protoplasts were prepared. (Leaf disc and stem segment cloning). Co-cultivation experiments were also undertaken with protoplasts of both species. Transformed clones, characterized by their hormone independent growth and octopine production, could be isolated after about two months. Transformation frequencies of "leaf disc and stem segment cloning" and co-cultivation experiments varied from 5×10(-3) to 5×10(-5). After about one year of cultivation on hormone-free culture medium, shoots could be recovered from colonies of N. paniculata, transformed by the strain harbouring pGV 2298. In protoplast derived colonies of P. minima, shoot induction was obtained only after transformation by bacteria carrying pGV 2215. This demonstrates the importance of the particular "shooter" mutant, as well as the response of the host plant. Transformed shoots of P. minima produced octopine, whereas octopine production in transformed shoots and callus of N. paniculata was undetectable after one year of cultivation, though T-DNA was still present in the plant genome. Transformed shoots of N. paniculata and P. minima do not produce any roots. Shoots of N. paniculata have an especially tumerous phenotype. Shoots of both species were successfully grafted to normal donor plants of N. tabacum.

  5. Abiotic and biotic factors responsible for antimonite oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Wang, Qian; Wang, Gejiao

    2017-03-02

    Antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing bacteria can transform the toxic Sb(III) into the less toxic antimonate [Sb(V)]. Recently, the cytoplasmic Sb(III)-oxidase AnoA and the periplasmic arsenite [As(III)] oxidase AioAB were shown to responsible for bacterial Sb(III) oxidation, however, disruption of each gene only partially decreased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. This study showed that in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4, Sb(III) induced cellular H2O2 content and H2O2 degradation gene katA. Gene knock-out/complementation of katA, anoA, aioA and anoA/aioA and Sb(III) oxidation and growth experiments showed that katA, anoA and aioA were essential for Sb(III) oxidation and resistance and katA was also essential for H2O2 resistance. Furthermore, linear correlations were observed between cellular H2O2 and Sb(V) content in vivo and chemical H2O2 and Sb(V) content in vitro (R(2) = 0.93 and 0.94, respectively). These results indicate that besides the biotic factors, the cellular H2O2 induced by Sb(III) also catalyzes bacterial Sb(III) oxidation as an abiotic oxidant. The data reveal a novel mechanism that bacterial Sb(III) oxidation is associated with abiotic (cellular H2O2) and biotic (AnoA and AioAB) factors and Sb(III) oxidation process consumes cellular H2O2 which contributes to microbial detoxification of both Sb(III) and cellular H2O2.

  6. Identification of genes associated with asexual reproduction in Phyllosticta citricarpa mutants obtained through Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation.

    PubMed

    Goulin, Eduardo Henrique; Savi, Daiani Cristina; Petters, Desirrê Alexia Lourenço; Kava, Vanessa; Galli-Terasawa, Lygia; Silva, Geraldo José; Glienke, Chirlei

    2016-11-01

    Phyllosticta citricarpa is the epidemiological agent of Citrus Black Spot (CBS) disease, which is responsible for large economic losses worldwide. CBS is characterized by the presence of spores (pycnidiospores) in dark lesions of fruit, which are also responsible for short distance dispersal of the disease. The identification of genes involved in asexual reproduction of P. citricarpa can be an alternative for directional disease control. We analyzed a library of mutants obtained through Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system, looking for alterations in growth and reproductive structure formation. Two mutant strains were found to have lost the ability to form pycnidia. The flanking T-DNA insertion regions were identified on P. citricarpa genome by using blast analysis and further gene prediction. The predicted genes containing the T-DNA insertions were identified as Spindle Poison Sensitivity Scp3, Ion Transport protein, and Cullin Binding proteins. The Ion Transport and Cullin Binding proteins are known to be correlated with sexual and asexual reproduction in fungi; however, the exact mechanism by which these proteins act on spore formation in P. citricarpa needs to be better characterized. The Scp3 proteins are suggested here for the first time as being associated with asexual reproduction in fungus. This protein is associated with microtubule formation, and as microtubules play an essential role as spindle machinery for chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, insertions in this gene can lead to abnormal formations, such as that observed here in P. citricarpa. We suggest these genes as new targets for fungicide development and CBS disease control, by iRNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Adaptation of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirG response regulator to activate transcription in plants.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka-Verner, Eva; Salem, Tarek A; Gurley, William B

    2016-02-01

    The Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirG response regulator of the VirA/VirG two-component system was adapted to function in tobacco protoplasts. The subcellular localization of VirG and VirA proteins transiently expressed in onion cells was determined using GFP fusions. Preliminary studies using Gal4DBD-VP16 fusions with VirG and Escherichia coli UhpA, and NarL response regulators indicated compatibility of these bacterial proteins with the eukaryotic transcriptional apparatus. A strong transcriptional activator based on tandem activation domains from the Drosophila fushi tarazu and Herpes simplex VP16 was created. Selected configurations of the two-site Gal4-vir box GUS reporters were activated by chimeric effectors dependent on either the yeast Gal4 DNA-binding domain or that of VirG. Transcriptional induction of the GUS reporter was highest for the VirE19-element promoter with both constitutive and wild-type VirG-tandem activation domain effectors. Multiple VirE19 elements increased the reporter activity proportionately, indicating that the VirG DNA binding domain was functional in plants. The VirG constitutive-Q-VP16 effector was more active than the VirG wild-type. In both the constitutive and wild-type forms of VirG, Q-VP16 activated transcription of the GUS reporter best when located at the C-terminus, i.e. juxtaposed to the VirG DNA binding domain. These results demonstrate the possibility of using DNA binding domains from bacterial response regulators and their cognate binding elements in the engineering of plant gene expression.

  8. Arsenite oxidation regulator AioR regulates bacterial chemotaxis towards arsenite in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Kaixiang; Fan, Xia; Qiao, Zixu; Han, Yushan; McDermott, Timothy R.; Wang, Qian; Wang, Gejiao

    2017-01-01

    Some arsenite [As(III)]-oxidizing bacteria exhibit positive chemotaxis towards As(III), however, the related As(III) chemoreceptor and regulatory mechanism remain unknown. The As(III)-oxidizing bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 displays positive chemotaxis towards 0.5–2 mM As(III). Genomic analyses revealed a putative chemoreceptor-encoding gene, mcp, located in the arsenic gene island and having a predicted promoter binding site for the As(III) oxidation regulator AioR. Expression of mcp and other chemotaxis related genes (cheA, cheY2 and fliG) was inducible by As(III), but not in the aioR mutant. Using capillary assays and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence spectra analysis, Mcp was confirmed to be responsible for chemotaxis towards As(III) and to bind As(III) (but not As(V) nor phosphate) as part of the sensing mechanism. A bacterial one-hybrid system technique and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that AioR interacts with the mcp regulatory region in vivo and in vitro, and the precise AioR binding site was confirmed using DNase I foot-printing. Taken together, these results indicate that this Mcp is responsible for the chemotactic response towards As(III) and is regulated by AioR. Additionally, disrupting the mcp gene affected bacterial As(III) oxidation and growth, inferring that Mcp may exert some sort of functional connection between As(III) oxidation and As(III) chemotaxis. PMID:28256605

  9. Ubiquinone-10 production using Agrobacterium tumefaciens dps gene in Escherichia coli by coexpression system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawei; Shrestha, Binaya; Li, Zhaopeng; Tan, Tianwei

    2007-01-01

    Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q; abbreviation, UQ) acts as a mobile component of the respiratory chain by playing an essential role in the electron transport system, and has been widely used in pharmaceuticals. The biosynthesis of UQ involves 10 sequential reactions brought about by various enzymes. In this study we have cloned, expressed the decaprenyl diphosphate synthase, designated dps gene, from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and succeeded in detecting UQ-10 in addition to innate UQ-8 in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the production of UQ-10 was higher than UQ-8. To establish an efficient expression system for UQ- 10 production, we used genes, including ubiC, ubiA, and ubiG involved in UQ biosynthesis in E. coli, to construct a better co-expression system. The expression coupled by dps and ubiCA was effective for increasing UQ-10 production by five times than that by expressing single dps gene in the shake flask culture. To study for a large-scale production of UQ-10 in E. coli, fed-batch fermentations were implemented to achieve a high cell density culture. A cell concentration of 85.40 g/L and 94.58 g/L dry cell weight (DCW), and UQ-10 content of 50.29 mg/L and 45.86 mg/L was obtained after 32.5 h and 27.5 h of cultivation, subsequent to isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside and lactose induction, respectively. In addition, plasmid stability was maintained at high level throughout the fermentation.

  10. Abiotic and biotic factors responsible for antimonite oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Wang, Qian; Wang, Gejiao

    2017-01-01

    Antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing bacteria can transform the toxic Sb(III) into the less toxic antimonate [Sb(V)]. Recently, the cytoplasmic Sb(III)-oxidase AnoA and the periplasmic arsenite [As(III)] oxidase AioAB were shown to responsible for bacterial Sb(III) oxidation, however, disruption of each gene only partially decreased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. This study showed that in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4, Sb(III) induced cellular H2O2 content and H2O2 degradation gene katA. Gene knock-out/complementation of katA, anoA, aioA and anoA/aioA and Sb(III) oxidation and growth experiments showed that katA, anoA and aioA were essential for Sb(III) oxidation and resistance and katA was also essential for H2O2 resistance. Furthermore, linear correlations were observed between cellular H2O2 and Sb(V) content in vivo and chemical H2O2 and Sb(V) content in vitro (R2 = 0.93 and 0.94, respectively). These results indicate that besides the biotic factors, the cellular H2O2 induced by Sb(III) also catalyzes bacterial Sb(III) oxidation as an abiotic oxidant. The data reveal a novel mechanism that bacterial Sb(III) oxidation is associated with abiotic (cellular H2O2) and biotic (AnoA and AioAB) factors and Sb(III) oxidation process consumes cellular H2O2 which contributes to microbial detoxification of both Sb(III) and cellular H2O2. PMID:28252030

  11. Regulatory Activities of Four ArsR Proteins in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yoon-Suk; Brame, Keenan; Jetter, Jonathan; Bothner, Brian B.; Wang, Gejiao

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ArsR is a well-studied transcriptional repressor that regulates microbe-arsenic interactions. Most microorganisms have an arsR gene, but in cases where multiple copies exist, the respective roles or potential functional overlap have not been explored. We examined the repressors encoded by arsR1 and arsR2 (ars1 operon) and by arsR3 and arsR4 (ars2 operon) in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. ArsR1 and ArsR4 are very similar in their primary sequences and diverge phylogenetically from ArsR2 and ArsR3, which are also quite similar to one another. Reporter constructs (lacZ) for arsR1, arsR2, and arsR4 were all inducible by As(III), but expression of arsR3 (monitored by reverse transcriptase PCR) was not influenced by As(III) and appeared to be linked transcriptionally to an upstream lysR-type gene. Experiments using a combination of deletion mutations and additional reporter assays illustrated that the encoded repressors (i) are not all autoregulatory as is typically known for ArsR proteins, (ii) exhibit variable control of each other's encoding genes, and (iii) exert variable control of other genes previously shown to be under the control of ArsR1. Furthermore, ArsR2, ArsR3, and ArsR4 appear to have an activator-like function for some genes otherwise repressed by ArsR1, which deviates from the well-studied repressor role of ArsR proteins. The differential regulatory activities suggest a complex regulatory network not previously observed in ArsR studies. The results indicate that fine-scale ArsR sequence deviations of the reiterated regulatory proteins apparently translate to different regulatory roles. IMPORTANCE Given the significance of the ArsR repressor in regulating various aspects of microbe-arsenic interactions, it is important to assess potential regulatory overlap and/or interference when a microorganism carries multiple copies of arsR. This study explores this issue and shows that the four arsR genes in A. tumefaciens 5A, associated with two separate

  12. [Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Aureobasidium pullulans and high-efficient screening for polymalic acid producing strain].

    PubMed

    Tu, Guangwei; Wang, Yongkang; Feng, Jun; Li, Xiaorong; Guo, Meijin; Zou, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    To develop a genetic transformation method of Aureobasidium pullulans and T-DNA insertion for high-efficient screening of polymalic acid (PMA) producing strain. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-AGL1, containing the selection genes encoding hygromycin B phosphotase or phosphinothricin acetyltranferase, was used to transform Aureobasidium pullulans CCTCC M2012223 and transformants were confirmed by colony PCR method. Transferred DNA (T-DNA) insertional mutants were cultured in microwell plate, and screened for high-titer PMA producing strain according to the pH response model. DNA walking was used to detect the insertion sites in the mutant. Results show that the selection markers could stably generated in the transformants, and 80 to 120 transformants could be found per 10(7) single cells. A high-titer PMA mutant H27 was obtained, giving a good PMA production caused by the disruption of phosphoglycerate mutase, that increased by 24.5% compared with the control. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and high-efficient screening method were successfully developed, which will be helpful for genetic transformation of Aureobasidium pullulans and its functional genes discovery.

  13. A stable and efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of the medicinal plant Digitalis purpurea L.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Gao, Zhenrui; Piao, Chunlan; Lu, Kaiwen; Wang, Zhiping; Cui, Min-Long

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we developed a rapid and efficient method for in vitro propagation and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Digitalis purpurea L. (syn. foxglove), an important medicinal plant. Mature leaf explants of D. purpurea were used for 100 % adventitious shoot regeneration on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1 mg L(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ) (a cytokine) and 0.1 mg L(-1) 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (an auxin). Transformation was achieved by inoculating leaf explants with the A. tumefaciens strains GV2260/pBI121 or GV3101/pBI121. The binary vector pBI121 contained the reporter β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) and kanamycin selection marker nptII. Kanamycin-resistant shoots were regenerated directly on the selection medium 4-6 weeks after co-cultivation. Approximately, 52.2 and 60 % of kanamycin-resistant shoots transformed with Agrobacterium strains GV2260 and GV3101, respectively, showed strong GUS staining by histochemical assay. Furthermore, PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of nptII and GUS on the chromosome of the transformed D. purpurea plants, and stable GUS expression was detected in the transformants by RT-PCR analysis. This efficient method of shoot regeneration and genetic transformation of D. purpurea will provide a powerful tool to increase and produce valuable components such as digitoxin, digoxin, and digoxigenin in D. purpurea through improved secondary metabolic pathways via a biotechnological approach.

  14. Agrobacterium tumefaciens deploys a superfamily of type VI secretion DNase effectors as weapons for interbacterial competition in planta.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lay-Sun; Hachani, Abderrahman; Lin, Jer-Sheng; Filloux, Alain; Lai, Erh-Min

    2014-07-09

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread molecular weapon deployed by many Proteobacteria to target effectors/toxins into both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. We report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil bacterium that triggers tumorigenesis in plants, produces a family of type VI DNase effectors (Tde) that are distinct from previously known polymorphic toxins and nucleases. Tde exhibits an antibacterial DNase activity that relies on a conserved HxxD motif and can be counteracted by a cognate immunity protein, Tdi. In vitro, A. tumefaciens T6SS could kill Escherichia coli but triggered a lethal counterattack by Pseudomonas aeruginosa upon injection of the Tde toxins. However, in an in planta coinfection assay, A. tumefaciens used Tde effectors to attack both siblings cells and P. aeruginosa to ultimately gain a competitive advantage. Such acquired T6SS-dependent fitness in vivo and conservation of Tde-Tdi couples in bacteria highlights a widespread antibacterial weapon beneficial for niche colonization. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Computational prediction of over-annotated protein-coding genes in the genome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia-Feng; Sui, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Chun-Ling; Jing, Li; Wang, Ji-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 is a type of pathogen that can cause tumors in some dicotyledonous plants. Ever since the genome of A. tumefaciens strain C58 was sequenced, the quality of annotation of its protein-coding genes has been queried continually, because the annotation varies greatly among different databases. In this paper, the questionable hypothetical genes were re-predicted by integrating the TN curve and Z curve methods. As a result, 30 genes originally annotated as “hypothetical” were discriminated as being non-coding sequences. By testing the re-prediction program 10 times on data sets composed of the function-known genes, the mean accuracy of 99.99% and mean Matthews correlation coefficient value of 0.9999 were obtained. Further sequence analysis and COG analysis showed that the re-annotation results were very reliable. This work can provide an efficient tool and data resources for future studies of A. tumefaciens strain C58. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61302186 and 61271378) and the Funding from the State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics of Southeast University.

  16. Agrobacterium tumefaciens Deploys a Superfamily of Type VI Secretion DNase Effectors as Weapons for Interbacterial Competition In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lay-Sun; Hachani, Abderrahman; Lin, Jer-Sheng; Filloux, Alain; Lai, Erh-Min

    2014-01-01

    Summary The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread molecular weapon deployed by many Proteobacteria to target effectors/toxins into both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. We report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil bacterium that triggers tumorigenesis in plants, produces a family of type VI DNase effectors (Tde) that are distinct from previously known polymorphic toxins and nucleases. Tde exhibits an antibacterial DNase activity that relies on a conserved HxxD motif and can be counteracted by a cognate immunity protein, Tdi. In vitro, A. tumefaciens T6SS could kill Escherichia coli but triggered a lethal counterattack by Pseudomonas aeruginosa upon injection of the Tde toxins. However, in an in planta coinfection assay, A. tumefaciens used Tde effectors to attack both siblings cells and P. aeruginosa to ultimately gain a competitive advantage. Such acquired T6SS-dependent fitness in vivo and conservation of Tde-Tdi couples in bacteria highlights a widespread antibacterial weapon beneficial for niche colonization. PMID:24981331

  17. CelR, an ortholog of the diguanylate cyclase PleD of Caulobacter, regulates cellulose synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, D Michael; Su, Shengchang; Baccaro, Brenna E; Banta, Lois M; Farrand, Stephen K

    2013-12-01

    Cellulose fibrils play a role in attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to its plant host. While the genes for cellulose biosynthesis in the bacterium have been identified, little is known concerning the regulation of the process. The signal molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has been linked to the regulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in many bacterial species, including A. tumefaciens. In this study, we identified two putative diguanylate cyclase genes, celR (atu1297) and atu1060, that influence production of cellulose in A. tumefaciens. Overexpression of either gene resulted in increased cellulose production, while deletion of celR, but not atu1060, resulted in decreased cellulose biosynthesis. celR overexpression also affected other phenotypes, including biofilm formation, formation of a polar adhesion structure, plant surface attachment, and virulence, suggesting that the gene plays a role in regulating these processes. Analysis of celR and Δcel mutants allowed differentiation between phenotypes associated with cellulose production, such as biofilm formation, and phenotypes probably resulting from c-di-GMP signaling, which include polar adhesion, attachment to plant tissue, and virulence. Phylogenetic comparisons suggest that species containing both celR and celA, which encodes the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase, adapted the CelR protein to regulate cellulose production while those that lack celA use CelR, called PleD, to regulate specific processes associated with polar localization and cell division.

  18. Metabolic modeling of denitrification in Agrobacterium tumefaciens: a tool to study inhibiting and activating compounds for the denitrification pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kampschreur, Marlies J.; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Picioreanu, Cristian; Bakken, Lars; Bergaust, Linda; de Vries, Simon; Jetten, Mike S. M.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.

    2012-01-01

    A metabolic network model for facultative denitrification was developed based on experimental data obtained with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The model includes kinetic regulation at the enzyme level and transcription regulation at the enzyme synthesis level. The objective of this work was to study the key factors regulating the metabolic response of the denitrification pathway to transition from oxic to anoxic respiration and to find parameter values for the biological processes that were modeled. The metabolic model was used to test hypotheses that were formulated based on the experimental results and offers a structured look on the processes that occur in the cell during transition in respiration. The main phenomena that were modeled are the inhibition of the cytochrome c oxidase by nitric oxide (NO) and the (indirect) inhibition of oxygen on the denitrification enzymes. The activation of transcription of nitrite reductase and NO reductase by their respective substrates were hypothesized. The general assumption that nitrite and NO reduction are controlled interdependently to prevent NO accumulation does not hold for A. tumefaciens. The metabolic network model was demonstrated to be a useful tool for unraveling the different factors involved in the complex response of A. tumefaciens to highly dynamic environmental conditions. PMID:23087683

  19. Osmoregulation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens: accumulation of a novel disaccharide is controlled by osmotic strength and glycine betaine.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L T; Smith, G M; Madkour, M A

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of osmotic stress adaptation (osmoregulation) in Agrobacterium tumefaciens biotype I (salt-tolerant) and biotype II (salt-sensitive) strains. Using natural-abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified all organic solutes that accumulated to significant levels in osmotically stressed cultures. When stressed, biotype I strains (C58, NT1, and A348) accumulated glutamate and a novel disaccharide, beta-fructofuranosyl-alpha-mannopyranoside, commonly known as mannosucrose. In the salt-sensitive biotype II strain K84, glutamate was observed but mannosucrose was not. We speculate that mannosucrose confers the extra osmotic tolerance observed in the biotype I strains. In addition to identifying the osmoregulated solutes that this species synthesizes, we investigated the ability of A. tumefaciens to utilize the powerful osmotic stress protectant glycine betaine when it is supplied in the medium. Results from growth experiments, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and a 14C labeling experiment demonstrated that in the absence of osmotic stress, glycine betaine was metabolized, while in stressed cultures, glycine betaine accumulated intracellularly and conferred enhanced osmotic stress tolerance. Furthermore, when glycine betaine was taken up in stressed cells, its accumulation caused the intracellular concentration of mannosucrose to drop significantly. The possible role of osmoregulation of A. tumefaciens in the transformation of plants is discussed. PMID:2254260

  20. CelR, an Ortholog of the Diguanylate Cyclase PleD of Caulobacter, Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Barnhart, D. Michael; Su, Shengchang; Baccaro, Brenna E.; Banta, Lois M.

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose fibrils play a role in attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to its plant host. While the genes for cellulose biosynthesis in the bacterium have been identified, little is known concerning the regulation of the process. The signal molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has been linked to the regulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in many bacterial species, including A. tumefaciens. In this study, we identified two putative diguanylate cyclase genes, celR (atu1297) and atu1060, that influence production of cellulose in A. tumefaciens. Overexpression of either gene resulted in increased cellulose production, while deletion of celR, but not atu1060, resulted in decreased cellulose biosynthesis. celR overexpression also affected other phenotypes, including biofilm formation, formation of a polar adhesion structure, plant surface attachment, and virulence, suggesting that the gene plays a role in regulating these processes. Analysis of celR and Δcel mutants allowed differentiation between phenotypes associated with cellulose production, such as biofilm formation, and phenotypes probably resulting from c-di-GMP signaling, which include polar adhesion, attachment to plant tissue, and virulence. Phylogenetic comparisons suggest that species containing both celR and celA, which encodes the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase, adapted the CelR protein to regulate cellulose production while those that lack celA use CelR, called PleD, to regulate specific processes associated with polar localization and cell division. PMID:24038703

  1. Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes use different proteins to transport bacterial DNA into the plant cell nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Walt

    2009-01-01

    Summary Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes transport single‐stranded DNA (ssDNA; T‐strands) and virulence proteins into plant cells through a type IV secretion system. DNA transfer initiates when VirD2 nicks border sequences in the tumour‐inducing plasmid, attaches to the 5′ end, and pilots T‐strands into plant cells. Agrobacterium tumefaciens translocates ssDNA‐binding protein VirE2 into plant cells where it targets T‐strands into the nucleus. Some A. rhizogenes strains lack VirE2 but transfer T‐strands efficiently due to the GALLS gene, which complements an A. tumefaciens virE2 mutant. VirE2 and full‐length GALLS (GALLS‐FL) contain nuclear localization sequences that target these proteins to the plant cell nucleus. VirE2 binds cooperatively to T‐strands allowing it to move ssDNA without ATP hydrolysis. Unlike VirE2, GALLS‐FL contains ATP‐binding and helicase motifs similar to those in TraA, a strand transferase involved in conjugation. VirE2 may accumulate in the nucleus and pull T‐strands into the nucleus using the force generated by cooperative DNA binding. GALLS‐FL accumulates inside the nucleus where its predicted ATP‐dependent strand transferase may pull T‐strands into the nucleus. These different mechanisms for nuclear import of T‐strands may affect the efficiency and quality of transgenic events in plant biotechnology applications. PMID:21255274

  2. Secretome analysis uncovers an Hcp-family protein secreted via a type VI secretion system in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Chung, Pei-Che; Shih, Hsiao-Wei; Wen, Sy-Ray; Lai, Erh-Min

    2008-04-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant-pathogenic bacterium capable of secreting several virulence factors into extracellular space or the host cell. In this study, we used shotgun proteomics analysis to investigate the secretome of A. tumefaciens, which resulted in identification of 12 proteins, including 1 known secretory protein (VirB1*) and 11 potential secretory proteins. Interestingly, one unknown protein, which we designated hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp), is a predicted soluble protein without a recognizable N-terminal signal peptide. Western blot analysis revealed that A. tumefaciens Hcp is expressed and secreted when cells are grown in both minimal and rich media. Further biochemical and immunoelectron microscopy analysis demonstrated that intracellular Hcp is localized mainly in the cytosol, with a small portion in the membrane system. To investigate the mechanism of secretion of Hcp in A. tumefaciens, we generated mutants with deletions of a conserved gene, icmF, or the entire putative operon encoding a recently identified type VI secretion system (T6SS). Western blot analysis indicated that Hcp was expressed but not secreted into the culture medium in mutants with deletions of icmF or the t6ss operon. The secretion deficiency of Hcp in the icmF mutant was complemented by heterologous trans expression of icmF, suggesting that icmF is required for Hcp secretion. In tumor assays with potato tuber disks, deletion of hcp resulted in approximately 20 to 30% reductions in tumorigenesis efficiency, while no consistent difference was observed when icmF or the t6ss operon was deleted. These results increase our understanding of the conserved T6SS used by both plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria.

  3. The role of a bifunctional catalase-peroxidase KatA in protection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens from menadione toxicity.

    PubMed

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2004-03-19

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is an aerobic plant pathogenic bacterium that is exposed to reactive oxygen species produced either as by-products of aerobic metabolism or by the defense systems of host plants. The physiological function of the bifunctional catalase-peroxidase (KatA) in the protection of A. tumefaciens from reactive oxygen species other than H(2)O(2) was evaluated in the katA mutant (PB102). Unexpectedly, PB102 was highly sensitive to the superoxide generator menadione. The expression of katA from a plasmid vector complemented the menadione-hypersensitive phenotype. A. tumefaciens possesses an additional catalase gene, a monofunctional catalase encoded by catE. Neither inactivation nor high-level expression of the catE gene altered the menadione resistance level. Moreover, heterologous expression of the catalase-peroxidase-encoding gene katG from Burkholderia pseudomallei, but not the monofunctional catalase gene katE from Xanthomonas campestris could restore normal levels of menadione resistance to PB102. A recent observation suggests that the menadione resistance phenotype involves increased activities of organic peroxide-metabolizing enzymes. Heterologous expression of X. campestris alkyl hydroperoxide reductase from a plasmid vector failed to complement the menadione-sensitive phenotype of PB102. The level of menadione resistance shows a direct correlation with the level of peroxidase activity of KatA. This is a novel role for KatA and suggests that resistance to menadione toxicity is mediated by a new, and as yet unknown, mechanism in A. tumefaciens.

  4. Biocontrol activity and patulin-removal effects of Bacillus subtilis, Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Agrobacterium tumefaciens against Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Yuan, Y; Liu, B; Zhang, Z; Yue, T

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the biocontrol potential of Bacillus subtilis CICC 10034, Rhodobacter sphaeroides CGMCC 1.2182 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens CGMCC 1.2554 against patulin (PAT)-producer Penicillium expansum and their ability to remove PAT. Bacillus subtilis effectively inhibited P. expansum both on apples and in in vitro experiments, which reduced the rot diameter on apples by 38% compared with the control. The reduction was followed by those induced by A. tumefaciens (27·63%) and R. sphaeroides (23·67%). None of the cell-free supernatant (CFS) was able to prevent pathogen growth. Three antagonists could suppress PAT production by P. expansum on apples by 98·5, 93·7 and 94·99% after treatment with B. subtilis, R. sphaeroides and A. tumefaciens respectively. In addition, the three strains led to a 0·56-1·47 log CFU g(-1) reduction in colony number of P. expansum on apples. Survival of antagonists on apple wounds revealed their tolerance to PAT. Furthermore, both live and autoclaved cells of three strains efficiently adsorbed artificially spiked PAT from medium. The selected antagonists could be applied before harvesting to control apple infection by PAT-producing fungi and also during processing to act as PAT detoxifiers. Since little information related to the capability of R. sphaeroides and A. tumefaciens to inhibit P. expansum is currently available, the results of this study provide some new perspectives to the biocontrol field. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Identification of pathogenicity-related genes in the vascular wilt fungus verticillium dahliae by agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated t-DNA insertional mutagenesis.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Verticillium dahliae is the causal agent of vascular wilt in many economically important crops worldwide. Identification of genes that underpin pathogenicity or virulence may suggest targets for alternative control methods for this fungus. In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transform...

  6. Competence of Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes and mutants for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer: role of phytohormones.

    PubMed

    Chateau, S; Sangwan, R S; Sangwan-Norreel, B S

    2000-12-01

    Many plant species and/or genotypes are highly recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, and yet little is known about this phenomenon. Using several Arabidopsis genotypes/ecotypes, the results of this study indicated that phytohormone pretreatment could overcome this recalcitrance by increasing the transformation rate in the known recalcitrant genotypes. Transient expression of a T-DNA encoded ss-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and stable kanamycin resistance were obtained for the ten Arabidopsis genotypes tested as well as for the mutant uvh1 (up to 69% of petioles with blue spots and up to 42% resistant calli). Cultivation of Arabidopsis tissues on phytohormones for 2-8 d before co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens significantly increased transient GUS gene expression by 2-11-fold and stable T-DNA integration with petiole explants. Different Arabidopsis ecotypes revealed differences in their susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and in their type of reaction to pre-cultivation (three types of reactions were defined by gathering ecotypes into three groups). The Arabidopsis uvh1 mutant described as defective in a DNA repair system showed slightly lower competence to transformation than did its progenitor Colombia. This reduced transformation competence, however, could be overcome by 4-d pre-culture with phytohormones. The importance of pre-cultivation with phytohormones for genetic transformation is discussed.

  7. Discrete Responses to Limitation for Iron and Manganese in Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Influence on Attachment and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hibbing, Michael E.; Xu, Jing; Natarajan, Ramya; Buechlein, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transition metals such as iron and manganese are crucial trace nutrients for the growth of most bacteria, functioning as catalytic cofactors for many essential enzymes. Dedicated uptake and regulatory systems have evolved to ensure their acquisition for growth, while preventing toxicity. Transcriptomic analysis of the iron- and manganese-responsive regulons of Agrobacterium tumefaciens revealed that there are discrete regulatory networks that respond to changes in iron and manganese levels. Complementing earlier studies, the iron-responsive gene network is quite large and includes many aspects of iron-dependent metabolism and the iron-sparing response. In contrast, the manganese-responsive network is restricted to a limited number of genes, many of which can be linked to transport and utilization of the transition metal. Several of the target genes predicted to drive manganese uptake are required for growth under manganese-limited conditions, and an A. tumefaciens mutant with a manganese transport deficiency is attenuated for plant virulence. Iron and manganese limitation independently inhibit biofilm formation by A. tumefaciens, and several candidate genes that could impact biofilm formation were identified in each regulon. The biofilm-inhibitory effects of iron and manganese do not rely on recognized metal-responsive transcriptional regulators, suggesting alternate mechanisms influencing biofilm formation. However, under low-manganese conditions the dcpA operon is upregulated, encoding a system that controls levels of the cyclic di-GMP second messenger. Mutation of this regulatory pathway dampens the effect of manganese limitation. IMPORTANCE Responses to changes in transition metal levels, such as those of manganese and iron, are important for normal metabolism and growth in bacteria. Our study used global gene expression profiling to understand the response of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens to changes of transition metal availability

  8. Discrete Responses to Limitation for Iron and Manganese in Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Influence on Attachment and Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Heindl, Jason E; Hibbing, Michael E; Xu, Jing; Natarajan, Ramya; Buechlein, Aaron M; Fuqua, Clay

    2015-12-28

    Transition metals such as iron and manganese are crucial trace nutrients for the growth of most bacteria, functioning as catalytic cofactors for many essential enzymes. Dedicated uptake and regulatory systems have evolved to ensure their acquisition for growth, while preventing toxicity. Transcriptomic analysis of the iron- and manganese-responsive regulons of Agrobacterium tumefaciens revealed that there are discrete regulatory networks that respond to changes in iron and manganese levels. Complementing earlier studies, the iron-responsive gene network is quite large and includes many aspects of iron-dependent metabolism and the iron-sparing response. In contrast, the manganese-responsive network is restricted to a limited number of genes, many of which can be linked to transport and utilization of the transition metal. Several of the target genes predicted to drive manganese uptake are required for growth under manganese-limited conditions, and an A. tumefaciens mutant with a manganese transport deficiency is attenuated for plant virulence. Iron and manganese limitation independently inhibit biofilm formation by A. tumefaciens, and several candidate genes that could impact biofilm formation were identified in each regulon. The biofilm-inhibitory effects of iron and manganese do not rely on recognized metal-responsive transcriptional regulators, suggesting alternate mechanisms influencing biofilm formation. However, under low-manganese conditions the dcpA operon is upregulated, encoding a system that controls levels of the cyclic di-GMP second messenger. Mutation of this regulatory pathway dampens the effect of manganese limitation. Responses to changes in transition metal levels, such as those of manganese and iron, are important for normal metabolism and growth in bacteria. Our study used global gene expression profiling to understand the response of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens to changes of transition metal availability. Among the properties

  9. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the causative agent of Valsa canker of apple tree Valsa mali var. mali.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Dai, Qingqing; Liu, Yangyang; Yang, Zhe; Song, Na; Gao, Xiaoning; Voegele, Ralf Thomas; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2014-06-01

    Valsa mali var. mali (Vmm), which is the causative agent of Valsa canker of apple tree, causes heavy damage to apple production in eastern Asia. In this article, we report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) of Vmm and expression of gfp (green fluorescent protein) in this fungus. The transformation system was optimized to a transformation efficiency of approximately 150 transformants/10(6) conidia, and a library containing over 4,000 transformants was generated. The tested transformants were mitotically stable. One hundred percent hph (hygromycin B phosphotransferase) integration into Vmm was identified by PCR and five single-copy integration of T-DNA was detected in the eighteen transformants by Southern blot. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ATMT of Vmm. Furthermore, this library has been used to identify genes involved in the virulence of the pathogen, and the transformation system may also be useful to the transformation of other species of the genus Valsa.

  10. Variation in hormone autonomy and regenerative potential of cells transformed by strain A66 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Binns, A.N.; Sciaky, D.; Wood, H.N.

    1982-12-01

    Mutant Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain A66 is shown to differ from its wild-type progenitor (strain A6) by a spontaneous 2.7 kb DNA insert into the T-DNA region of its Ti plasmid. Tobacco stems transformed by A66 exhibit an attenuated response characterized by slow growth and shoot proliferation. Clonal analysis demonstrates that this response is due to an alteration in the growth and regenerative potential of transformed cells, rather than to variation in the frequency of fully autonomous cells within the primary tumor. Cloned A66 transformed tobacco cells exhibit an auxin requirement for growth that can be overcome by shoot proliferation. Other host species, however, may complement the A66 mutation yielding fully auxin-independent tumors when transformed by this bacterium.

  11. Agrobacterium tumefaciens Conn III. Effect of Thermal Shock on Bacteria in Relation to Tumor-Inducing Ability

    PubMed Central

    Stonier, Tom; Beardsley, Robert E.; Parsons, Lowell; McSharry, James

    1966-01-01

    Stonier, Tom (Manhattan College, Bronx, N.Y.), Robert E. Beardsley, Lowell Parsons, and James McSharry. Agrobacterium tumefaciens Conn. III. Effect of thermal shock on bacteria in relation to tumor-inducing ability. J. Bacteriol. 91:266–269. 1966.—Bacteria heated to 42 C for 30 min exhibit a decrease in tumor-initiating ability without a detectable loss in viability. The thermal shock inhibits subsequent bacterial growth for up to 1.5 hr. As bacterial growth recovers, so does tumor-initiating ability. Respiration of the culture is somewhat increased by the heat treatment. The data suggest that living, actively respiring bacteria do not induce tumors unless they are also growing. The results also point to the necessity for excluding bacterial growth inhibition when interpreting data on the effect of various agents on tumor initiation. PMID:5903095

  12. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation as an efficient tool for insertional mutagenesis of Cercospora zeae-maydis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Shuqin; Wang, Fen; Sun, Jiaying; Zhao, Likun; Yan, Libin; Xue, Chunsheng

    2017-02-01

    An efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) approach was developed for the plant pathogenic fungus, Cercospora zeae-maydis, which is the causative agent of gray leaf spot in maize. The transformation was evaluated with five parameters to test the efficiencies of transformation. Results showed that spore germination time, co-cultivation temperature and time were the significant influencing factors in all parameters. Randomly selected transformants were confirmed and the transformants were found to be mitotically stable, with single-copy T-DNA integration in the genome. T-DNA flanking sequences were cloned by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Thus, the ATMT approach is an efficient tool for insertional mutagenesis of C. zeae-maydis.

  13. Integration of an insertion-type transferred DNA vector from Agrobacterium tumefaciens into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome by gap repair.

    PubMed Central

    Risseeuw, E; Franke-van Dijk, M E; Hooykaas, P J

    1996-01-01

    Recently, it was shown that Agrobacterium tumefaciens can transfer transferred DNA (T-DNA) to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and that this T-DNA, when used as a replacement vector, is integrated via homologous recombination into the yeast genome. To test whether T-DNA can be a suitable substrate for integration via the gap repair mechanism as well, a model system developed for detection of homologous recombination events in plants was transferred to S. cerevisiae. Analysis of the yeast transformants revealed that an insertion type T-DNA vector can indeed be integrated via gap repair. Interestingly, the transformation frequency and the type of recombination events turned out to depend strongly on the orientation of the insert between the borders in such an insertion type T-DNA vector. PMID:8816506

  14. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence D2 protein is responsible for precise integration of T-DNA into the plant genome.

    PubMed Central

    Tinland, B; Schoumacher, F; Gloeckler, V; Bravo-Angel, A M; Hohn, B

    1995-01-01

    The VirD2 protein of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was shown to pilot T-DNA during its transfer to the plant cell nucleus. We analyze here its participation in the integration of T-DNA by using a virD2 mutant. This mutation reduces the efficiency of T-DNA transfer, but the efficiency of integration of T-DNA per se is unaffected. Southern and sequence analyses of integration events obtained with the mutated VirD2 protein revealed an aberrant pattern of integration. These results indicate that the wild-type VirD2 protein participates in ligation of the 5'-end of the T-strand to plant DNA and that this ligation step is not rate limiting for T-DNA integration. Images PMID:7628458

  15. Characterization the carotenoid productions and profiles of three Rhodosporidium toruloides mutants from Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xinping; Gao, Ning; Liu, Sasa; Zhang, Sufang; Song, Shuang; Ji, Chaofan; Dong, Xiuping; Su, Yichen; Zhao, Zongbao Kent; Zhu, Beiwei

    2017-08-01

    The red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is a known lipid producer capable of accumulating large amounts of triacylglycerols and carotenoids. However, it remains challenging to study its carotenoid production profiles owing to limited biochemical information and inefficient genetic tools. Here we used an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) to change its carotenoid production and profiles. We constructed R. toruloides NP11 mutant libraries with ATMT, selected three mutants with different colours, characterized their carotenoid products by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis and assured differences among those strains in terms of carotenoid production and its composition profiles. We then located T-DNA insertion sites using the genome walking technology and provided discussions in terms of the new phenotypes. This study is the first of its kind to change the carotenoid production profiles in R. toruloides. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. High throughput Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated germline transformation of mechanically isolated meristem explants of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yurong; Rivlin, Anatoly; Lange, Andrea; Ye, Xudong; Vaghchhipawala, Zarir; Eisinger, Elizabeth; Dersch, Erik; Paris, Miriam; Martinell, Brian; Wan, Yuechun

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediates high frequency of germline transformation of cotton meristem explants. The meristem transformation system we developed is rapid, high throughput and genotype-flexible. We have developed a high throughput cotton transformation system based on direct Agrobacterium inoculation of mechanically isolated meristem explants of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The explants were inoculated with a disarmed A. tumefaciens strain, AB33 harboring a 2 T-DNA binary vector pMON114908. This vector contained a gene of interest, an intron-disrupted β-glucuronidase gene in one T-DNA, and a selectable marker gene, aadA in the other T-DNA. Critical factors, such as method of co-culture, culture temperature during selection, composition of selection medium, and selection scheme were found to influence transformation frequency. The cycle time from initial inoculation to the transplanting of transgenic plants to soil was 7-8 weeks. Stable integration of transgenes and their transmission to progeny were confirmed by molecular and genetic analyses. Transgenes segregated in the expected Mendelian fashion in the T1 generation for most of the transgenic events. It was possible to recover marker-free events in the T1 generation when utilizing a binary vector that contained the selectable marker and gene of interest expression cassettes on independent T-DNAs. The procedure presented here has been used to regenerate thousands of independent transgenic events from multiple varieties with numerous constructs, and we believe it represents a major step forward in cotton transformation technology.

  17. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a quorum sensing system regulates the transfer of the pAt megaplasmid in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Mhedbi-Hajri, Nadia; Yahiaoui, Noura; Mondy, Samuel; Hue, Nathalie; Pélissier, Franck; Faure, Denis; Dessaux, Yves

    2016-08-20

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain P4 is atypical, as the strain is not pathogenic and produces a for this species unusual quorum sensing signal, identified as N-(3-hydroxy-octanoyl)-homoserine lactone (3OH,C8-HSL). By sequence analysis and cloning, a functional luxI-like gene, named cinI, has been identified on the At plasmid of A. tumefaciens strain P4. Insertion mutagenesis in the cinI gene and transcriptome analyses permitted the identification of 32 cinI-regulated genes in this strain, most of them encoding proteins responsible for the conjugative transfer of pAtP4. Among these genes were the avhB genes that encode a type 4 secretion system (T4SS) involved in the formation of the conjugation apparatus, the tra genes that encode the DNA transfer and replication (Dtr) machinery and cinI and two luxR orthologs. These last two genes, cinR and cinX, exhibit an unusual organization, with the cinI gene surrounded by the two luxR orthologs. Conjugation experiments confirmed that the conjugative transfer of pAtP4 is regulated by 3OH,C8-HSL. Root colonization experiments indicated that the quorum sensing regulation of the conjugation of the pAtP4 does not confer a gain or a loss of fitness to the bacterial host in the tomato plant rhizosphere. This work is the first identification of the occurrence of a quorum sensing regulation of the pAt conjugation phenomenon in Agrobacterium.

  18. Nucleotide sequences of the Pseudomonas savastanoi indoleacetic acid genes show homology with Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tetsuji; Palm, Curtis J.; Brooks, Bob; Kosuge, Tsune

    1985-01-01

    We report the nucleotide sequences of iaaM and iaaH, the genetic determinants for, respectively, tryptophan 2-monooxygenase and indoleacetamide hydrolase, the enzymes that catalyze the conversion of L-tryptophan to indoleacetic acid in the tumor-forming bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi. The sequence analysis indicates that the iaaM locus contains an open reading frame encoding 557 amino acids that would comprise a protein with a molecular weight of 61,783; the iaaH locus contains an open reading frame of 455 amino acids that would comprise a protein with a molecular weight of 48,515. Significant amino acid sequence homology was found between the predicted sequence of the tryptophan monooxygenase of P. savastanoi and the deduced product of the T-DNA tms-1 gene of the octopine-type plasmid pTiA6NC from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Strong homology was found in the 25 amino acid sequence in the putative FAD-binding region of tryptophan monooxygenase. Homology was also found in the amino acid sequences representing the central regions of the putative products of iaaH and tms-2 T-DNA. The results suggest a strong similarity in the pathways for indoleacetic acid synthesis encoded by genes in P. savastanoi and in A. tumefaciens T-DNA. Images PMID:16593610

  19. Expression of nitrite and nitric oxide reductases in free-living and plant-associated Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 cells.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Hun; Shapleigh, James P

    2005-08-01

    A number of the bacteria that form associations with plants are denitrifiers. To learn more about how the association with plants affects expression of denitrification genes, the regulation of nitrite and nitric oxide reductases was investigated in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Analysis of free-living cells revealed that expression of the genes encoding nitrite and nitric oxide reductases, nirK and nor, respectively, requires low-oxygen conditions, nitric oxide, and the transcriptional regulator NnrR. Expression of nor was monitored in plant-associated bacteria using nor-gfp fusion expression. In root association experiments, only a small percentage of the attached cells were fluorescent, even when they were incubated under a nitrogen atmosphere. Inactivation of nirK had no significant effect on the ability of A. tumefaciens to bind to plant roots regardless of the oxygen tension, but it did decrease the occurrence of root-associated fluorescent cells. When wild-type cells containing the gfp fusion were infiltrated into leaves, most cells eventually became fluorescent. The same result was obtained when a nirK mutant was used, suggesting that nitric oxide activated nor expression in the endophytic bacteria. Addition of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor to block nitric oxide generation by the plant prevented gfp expression in infiltrated nitrite reductase mutants, demonstrating that plant-derived nitric oxide can activate nor expression in infiltrated cells.

  20. Studies on superoxide dismutase activities in virulent and avirulent strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and also in normal and crown gall tumor cells of Bryophyllum calycinum.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, D; Basu, M; Choudhury, I; Chatterjee, G C

    1982-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase activity in virulent strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was found to be higher than that in avirulent strains. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed two isoenzymes in both these strains. These isoenzymes are suggested to be iron and manganese containing superoxide dismutases. Crown gall tumor cells of the plant Bryophyllum calycinum were found to have higher superoxide dismutase activity than the normal plant cells. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed two isoenzymes in both normal and crown gall tumor cells. Advantages of the higher superoxide dismutase activities in respect of the survival of virulent strains of A. tumefaciens and crown gall tumor growth have been discussed.

  1. Maize (Zea mays L.) transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of pollinated ovules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Cong, Yuanyuan; He, Hongxia; Yu, Ying

    2014-02-10

    A novel transformation system was established for maize using Agrobacterium infection of in vitro cultured ovules. The maize ovules were isolated 24h after pollination and infected with Agrobacterium. The embryos were isolated from the pollinated ovules 2-3 weeks after Agrobacterium infection, regenerated to plantlets and investigated for transgene expression and inheritance. Experimental evaluations were focused on the four main aspects. Firstly, through the introduction of gus gene for monitoring transformation and development of embryo, it was confirmed that transgenic plants can be generated from in vitro cultured maize ovules infected with Agrobacterium. Secondly, in order to standardize the transformation protocol, several important factors that affected transformation efficiency were optimized. They included Agrobacterium delivery approach, surfactant, AS concentration, and cocultivation duration. Thirdly, stable expression and Mendelian inheritance of the introduced genes were analyzed in independent lines over two generations. Fourthly, the pollinated ovule culture-regeneration potential and transformation efficiency of five maize inbred lines were investigated to confirm the genotype independence of this transformation system. We conclude that the transformation system established in this study can be used to generate high-quality transgenic maize plants rapidly and directly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological Control of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Colonization, and pAgK84 Transfer with Agrobacterium radiobacter K84 and the Tra- Mutant Strain K1026

    PubMed Central

    Vicedo, Begonya; Peñalver, Ramón; Asins, María José; López, María M.

    1993-01-01

    The efficacies of Agrobacterium radiobacter K84 and K1026 in root colonization, crown gall control, and plasmid transfer were compared. Levels of root colonization by K84 and K1026 of Montclar and Nemaguard peach seedlings were similar during the 21 days of the experiment. Four strains of A. tumefaciens bv. 1 were used for soil inoculations in biological control experiments on GF677 and Adafuel peach × almond rootstocks; two were sensitive and two were resistant to agrocin 84. Both strains K84 and K1026 were very efficient in controlling the sensitive strains, but some tumors appeared with both treatments. In the biocontrol of resistant strains, no galls were observed in K1026-treated plants, but some K84-treated plants had galls. Recovery of agrobacteria from galls in experiments with sensitive and resistant strains showed that all of the isolates from the controls or K1026-treated plants and most of the isolates from K84-treated plants had the same characteristics as the inoculated strains. Nine isolates from the K84-treated plants growing in soil inoculated with one resistant strain were virulent and produced agrocin 84. These isolates had a plasmid that hybridized with a probe prepared with the BamHI C fragment from pAgK84. These results show the efficiency of K1026 in biocontrol of agrocin 84-sensitive and -resistant strains of A. tumefaciens and suggest the use of K1026 as a safer organism than K84 for biological control of crown gall. Images PMID:16348854

  3. A Pyranose-2-Phosphate Motif Is Responsible for Both Antibiotic Import and Quorum-Sensing Regulation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    El Sahili, Abbas; Li, Si-Zhe; Lang, Julien; Virus, Cornelia; Planamente, Sara; Ahmar, Mohammed; Guimaraes, Beatriz G; Aumont-Nicaise, Magali; Vigouroux, Armelle; Soulère, Laurent; Reader, John; Queneau, Yves; Faure, Denis; Moréra, Solange

    2015-08-01

    Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) in association with ABC transporters select and import a wide variety of ligands into bacterial cytoplasm. They can also take up toxic molecules, as observed in the case of the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58. This organism contains a PBP called AccA that mediates the import of the antibiotic agrocin 84, as well as the opine agrocinopine A that acts as both a nutrient and a signalling molecule for the dissemination of virulence genes through quorum-sensing. Here, we characterized the binding mode of AccA using purified agrocin 84 and synthetic agrocinopine A by X-ray crystallography at very high resolution and performed affinity measurements. Structural and affinity analyses revealed that AccA recognizes an uncommon and specific motif, a pyranose-2-phosphate moiety which is present in both imported molecules via the L-arabinopyranose moiety in agrocinopine A and the D-glucopyranose moiety in agrocin 84. We hypothesized that AccA is a gateway allowing the import of any compound possessing a pyranose-2-phosphate motif at one end. This was structurally and functionally confirmed by experiments using four synthetic compounds: agrocinopine 3'-O-benzoate, L-arabinose-2-isopropylphosphate, L-arabinose-2-phosphate and D-glucose-2-phosphate. By combining affinity measurements and in vivo assays, we demonstrated that both L-arabinose-2-phosphate and D-glucose-2-phosphate, which are the AccF mediated degradation products of agrocinopine A and agrocin 84 respectively, interact with the master transcriptional regulator AccR and activate the quorum-sensing signal synthesis and Ti plasmid transfer in A. tumefaciens C58. Our findings shed light on the role of agrocinopine and antibiotic agrocin 84 on quorum-sensing regulation in A. tumefaciens and reveal how the PBP AccA acts as vehicle for the importation of both molecules by means of a key-recognition motif. It also opens future possibilities for the rational design of

  4. A Pyranose-2-Phosphate Motif Is Responsible for Both Antibiotic Import and Quorum-Sensing Regulation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    El Sahili, Abbas; Li, Si-Zhe; Lang, Julien; Virus, Cornelia; Planamente, Sara; Ahmar, Mohammed; Guimaraes, Beatriz G.; Aumont-Nicaise, Magali; Vigouroux, Armelle; Soulère, Laurent; Reader, John; Queneau, Yves; Faure, Denis; Moréra, Solange

    2015-01-01

    Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) in association with ABC transporters select and import a wide variety of ligands into bacterial cytoplasm. They can also take up toxic molecules, as observed in the case of the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58. This organism contains a PBP called AccA that mediates the import of the antibiotic agrocin 84, as well as the opine agrocinopine A that acts as both a nutrient and a signalling molecule for the dissemination of virulence genes through quorum-sensing. Here, we characterized the binding mode of AccA using purified agrocin 84 and synthetic agrocinopine A by X-ray crystallography at very high resolution and performed affinity measurements. Structural and affinity analyses revealed that AccA recognizes an uncommon and specific motif, a pyranose-2-phosphate moiety which is present in both imported molecules via the L-arabinopyranose moiety in agrocinopine A and the D-glucopyranose moiety in agrocin 84. We hypothesized that AccA is a gateway allowing the import of any compound possessing a pyranose-2-phosphate motif at one end. This was structurally and functionally confirmed by experiments using four synthetic compounds: agrocinopine 3’-O-benzoate, L-arabinose-2-isopropylphosphate, L-arabinose-2-phosphate and D-glucose-2-phosphate. By combining affinity measurements and in vivo assays, we demonstrated that both L-arabinose-2-phosphate and D-glucose-2-phosphate, which are the AccF mediated degradation products of agrocinopine A and agrocin 84 respectively, interact with the master transcriptional regulator AccR and activate the quorum-sensing signal synthesis and Ti plasmid transfer in A. tumefaciens C58. Our findings shed light on the role of agrocinopine and antibiotic agrocin 84 on quorum-sensing regulation in A. tumefaciens and reveal how the PBP AccA acts as vehicle for the importation of both molecules by means of a key-recognition motif. It also opens future possibilities for the rational design of

  5. Construction of an engineering strain producing high yields of α-transglucosidase via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Asperillus niger.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zhou, Liying; Liu, Meng; Huang, Yunyan; Sun, Xin; Lu, Fuping

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was used in breeding industrial strains for the purpose of improving α-transglucosidase production. Firstly, an efficient ATMT system for Asperillus niger was established by optimization of several influencing factors, in which transformation efficiency was improved up to 14-fold compared with the initial conditions. Furthermore, binary vector pBI-Glu containing an α-transglucosidase expression cassette was constructed and transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 in order to infect A. niger. By the efficient ATMT method, the gene for α-transglucosidase, driven by strong promoter PglaA (the glucoamylase gene promoter), had a high expression level in A. niger A-8 (25.02 U/mL). The optimized ATMT system was found to be effective and suitable for A. niger, and should be a useful tool for studying the function of A. niger genes and for industrial breeding of this strain.

  6. Agrobacterium tumefaciens pTAR parA promoter region involved in autoregulation, incompatibility and plasmid partitioning.

    PubMed

    Gallie, D R; Kado, C I

    1987-02-05

    The locus responsible for directing proper plasmid partitioning of Agrobacterium tumefaciens pTAR is contained within a 1259 base-pair region. Insertions or deletions within this locus can result in the loss of the plasmid's ability to partition properly. One protein product (parA), approximately 25,000 Mr, is expressed from the par locus in Escherichia coli and A. tumefaciens protein analysis systems in vitro. DNA sequence analysis of the locus revealed a single 23,500 Mr open reading frame, confirming the protein data. A 248 base-pair region immediately upstream from the 23,500 Mr open reading frame, containing an array of 12 seven-base-pair palindromic repeats each of which are separated by exactly ten base-pairs of A + T-rich (75%) sequence, not only serves to provide the promoter but is also involved in parA autoregulation. In addition, this region containing a set of 12 seven-base-pair palindromic repeats, is responsible for plasmid-associated incompatibility within Inc Ag-1 and also functions as the cis-acting recognition site at which parA interacts to bring about partitioning. Transcriptional analysis indicated that only the DNA strand responsible for parA is actively transcribed, and that active transcription of the opposite strand of par can inhibit the production of parA, resulting in plasmid destabilization. The presence of the par locus in a plasmid results in stable inheritance within a wide range of members of Rhizobiaceae. Segregation rates of par-defective derivatives can be influenced by the host.

  7. Recovery of Nonpathogenic Mutant Bacteria from Tumors Caused by Several Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strains: a Frequent Event?▿

    PubMed Central

    Llop, Pablo; Murillo, Jesús; Lastra, Beatriz; López, María M.

    2009-01-01

    We have evaluated the interaction that bacterial genotypes and plant hosts have with the loss of pathogenicity in tumors, using seven Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains inoculated on 12 herbaceous and woody hosts. We performed a screening of the agrobacteria present inside the tumors, looking for nonpathogenic strains, and found a high variability of those strains in this niche. To verify the origin of the putative nonpathogenic mutant bacteria, we applied an efficient, reproducible, and specific randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis method. In contrast with previous studies, we recovered a very small percentage (0.01%) of nonpathogenic strains that can be considered true mutants. Of 5,419 agrobacterial isolates examined, 662 were nonpathogenic in tomato, although only 7 (from pepper and tomato tumors induced by two A. tumefaciens strains) could be considered to derive from the inoculated strain. Six mutants were affected in the transferred DNA (T-DNA) region; one of them contained IS426 inserted into the iaaM gene, whereas the whole T-DNA region was apparently deleted in three other mutants, and the virulence of the remaining two mutants was fully restored with the T-DNA genes as well. The plasmid profile was altered in six of the mutants, with changes in the size of the Ti plasmid or other plasmids and/or the acquisition of new plasmids. Our results also suggest that the frequent occurrence of nonpathogenic clones in the tumors is probably due to the preferential growth of nonpathogenic agrobacteria, of either endophytic or environmental origin, but different from the bacterial strain inducing the tumor. PMID:19700547

  8. Nicotine Dehydrogenase Complexed with 6-Hydroxypseudooxynicotine Oxidase Involved in the Hybrid Nicotine-Degrading Pathway in Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33.

    PubMed

    Li, Huili; Xie, Kebo; Yu, Wenjun; Hu, Liejie; Huang, Haiyan; Xie, Huijun; Wang, Shuning

    2016-01-04

    Nicotine, a major toxic alkaloid in tobacco wastes, is degraded by bacteria, mainly via pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. Previously, we discovered a new hybrid of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways in Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33 and characterized its key enzyme 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine (HSP) hydroxylase. Here, we purified the nicotine dehydrogenase initializing the nicotine degradation from the strain and found that it forms a complex with a novel 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine oxidase. The purified complex is composed of three different subunits encoded by ndhAB and pno, where ndhA and ndhB overlap by 4 bp and are ∼26 kb away from pno. As predicted from the gene sequences and from chemical analyses, NdhA (82.4 kDa) and NdhB (17.1 kDa) harbor a molybdopterin cofactor and two [2Fe-2S] clusters, respectively, whereas Pno (73.3 kDa) harbors an flavin mononucleotide and a [4Fe-4S] cluster. Mutants with disrupted ndhA or ndhB genes did not grow on nicotine but grew well on 6-hydroxynicotine and HSP, whereas the pno mutant did not grow on nicotine or 6-hydroxynicotine but grew well on HSP, indicating that NdhA and NdhB are responsible for initialization of nicotine oxidation. We successfully expressed pno in Escherichia coli and found that the recombinant Pno presented 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reduction activity when it was coupled with 6-hydroxynicotine oxidation. The determination of reaction products catalyzed by the purified enzymes or mutants indicated that NdhAB catalyzed nicotine oxidation to 6-hydroxynicotine, whereas Pno oxidized 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine to 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylsemialdehyde pyridine. These results provide new insights into this novel hybrid pathway of nicotine degradation in A. tumefaciens S33.

  9. Involvement of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Galacturonate Tripartite ATP-Independent Periplasmic (TRAP) Transporter GaaPQM in Virulence Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinlei

    2015-01-01

    Monosaccharides capable of serving as nutrients for the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens are also inducers of the vir regulon present in the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of this plant pathogen. One such monosaccharide is galacturonate, the predominant monomer of pectin found in plant cell walls. This ligand is recognized by the periplasmic sugar binding protein ChvE, which interacts with the VirA histidine kinase that controls vir gene expression. Although ChvE is also a member of the ChvE-MmsAB ABC transporter involved in the utilization of many neutral sugars, it is not involved in galacturonate utilization. In this study, a putative tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporter, GaaPQM, is shown to be essential for the utilization of galacturonic acid; we show that residue R169 in the predicted sugar binding site of the GaaP is required for activity. The gene upstream of gaaPQM (gaaR) encodes a member of the GntR family of regulators. GaaR is shown to repress the expression of gaaPQM, and the repression is relieved in the presence of the substrate for GaaPQM. Moreover, GaaR is shown to bind putative promoter regions in the sequences required for galacturonic acid utilization. Finally, A. tumefaciens strains carrying a deletion of gaaPQM are more sensitive to galacturonate as an inducer of vir gene expression, while the overexpression of gaaPQM results in strains being less sensitive to this vir inducer. This supports a model in which transporter activity is crucial in ensuring that vir gene expression occurs only at sites of high ligand concentration, such as those at a plant wound site. PMID:26637603

  10. Nicotine Dehydrogenase Complexed with 6-Hydroxypseudooxynicotine Oxidase Involved in the Hybrid Nicotine-Degrading Pathway in Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huili; Xie, Kebo; Yu, Wenjun; Hu, Liejie; Huang, Haiyan; Xie, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine, a major toxic alkaloid in tobacco wastes, is degraded by bacteria, mainly via pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. Previously, we discovered a new hybrid of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways in Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33 and characterized its key enzyme 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine (HSP) hydroxylase. Here, we purified the nicotine dehydrogenase initializing the nicotine degradation from the strain and found that it forms a complex with a novel 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine oxidase. The purified complex is composed of three different subunits encoded by ndhAB and pno, where ndhA and ndhB overlap by 4 bp and are ∼26 kb away from pno. As predicted from the gene sequences and from chemical analyses, NdhA (82.4 kDa) and NdhB (17.1 kDa) harbor a molybdopterin cofactor and two [2Fe-2S] clusters, respectively, whereas Pno (73.3 kDa) harbors an flavin mononucleotide and a [4Fe-4S] cluster. Mutants with disrupted ndhA or ndhB genes did not grow on nicotine but grew well on 6-hydroxynicotine and HSP, whereas the pno mutant did not grow on nicotine or 6-hydroxynicotine but grew well on HSP, indicating that NdhA and NdhB are responsible for initialization of nicotine oxidation. We successfully expressed pno in Escherichia coli and found that the recombinant Pno presented 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reduction activity when it was coupled with 6-hydroxynicotine oxidation. The determination of reaction products catalyzed by the purified enzymes or mutants indicated that NdhAB catalyzed nicotine oxidation to 6-hydroxynicotine, whereas Pno oxidized 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine to 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylsemialdehyde pyridine. These results provide new insights into this novel hybrid pathway of nicotine degradation in A. tumefaciens S33. PMID:26729714

  11. Controlling the sucrose concentration increases Coenzyme Q10 production in fed-batch culture of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Ha, Suk-Jin; Kim, Sang-Yong; Seo, Jin-Ho; Moon, Hee-Jung; Lee, Kyoung-Mi; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2007-08-01

    The production yield of Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) from the sucrose consumed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens KCCM 10413 decreased, and high levels of exopolysaccharide (EPS) accumulated after switching from batch culture to fed-batch culture. Therefore, we examined the effect of sucrose concentration on the fermentation profile by A. tumefaciens. In the continuous fed-batch culture with the sucrose concentration maintained constantly at 10, 20, 30, and 40 g l(-1), the dry cell weight (DCW), specific CoQ(10) content, CoQ(10) production, and the production yield of CoQ(10) from the sucrose consumed increased, whereas EPS production decreased as maintained sucrose concentration decreased. The pH-stat fed-batch culture system was adapted for CoQ(10) production to minimize the concentration of the carbon source and osmotic stress from sucrose. Using the pH-stat fed-batch culture system, the DCW, specific CoQ(10) content, CoQ(10) production, and the product yield of CoQ(10) from the sucrose consumed increased by 22.6, 13.7, 39.3, and 39.3%, respectively, whereas EPS production decreased by 30.7% compared to those of fed-batch culture in the previous report (Ha SJ, Kim SY, Seo JH, Oh DK, Lee JK, Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 74:974-980, 2007). The pH-stat fed-batch culture system was scaled up to a pilot scale (300 l), and the CoQ(10) production results obtained (626.5 mg l(-1) of CoQ(10) and 9.25 mg g DCW(-1) of specific CoQ(10) content) were similar to those obtained at the laboratory scale. Thus, an efficient and highly competitive process for microbial CoQ(10) production is available.

  12. Transformation of Cucumis sativus tissue by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the regeneration of transformed plants.

    PubMed

    Chee, P P

    1990-09-01

    Cotyledons of cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Poinsett 76) were co-cultivated with disarmed Agrobacterium strain C58Z707. The Agrobacterium strain contained the Agrobacterium-derived binary vector plasmid pGA482, its T-DNA region contains a plant expressible bacterial derived neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) gene which upon transfer, genome integration, and expression in plant tissues confers resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin. After growth of inoculated cotyledon sections on selective medium containing 100 mg/l kanamycin, transformed embryogenic calli were obtained followed by the development of embryos and plant regeneration. Transformed R0 and R1 cucumber plants appeared normal and tested positive for NPT II enzyme activity. Genomic DNAs isolated from the NPT II positive plants all showed hybridization to the characteristic 2.0 kb (BamHI to HindIII) NPT II gene-containing fragment. These results show that the Agrobscterium-mediated gene transfer system and regeneration via somatic embryogenesis is an effective method for the transfer of genetic material into plant species belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae.

  13. Transformation of different barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of in vitro cultured ovules.

    PubMed

    Holme, Inger Baeksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette; Holm, Preben Bach

    2008-12-01

    Most cultivars of higher plants display poor regeneration capacity of explants due to yet unknown genotypic determined mechanisms. This implies that technologies such as transformation often are restricted to model cultivars with good tissue characteristics. In the present paper, we add further evidence to our previous hypothesis that regeneration from young barley embryos derived from in vitro-cultured ovules is genotype independent. We investigated the ovule culture ability of four cultivars Femina, Salome, Corniche and Alexis, known to have poor response in other types of tissue culture, and compared that to the data for the model cultivar, Golden Promise. Subsequently, we analyzed the transformation efficiencies of the four cultivars using the protocol for Agrobacterium infection of ovules, previously developed for Golden Promise. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL0, carrying the binary vector pVec8-GFP harboring a hygromycin resistance gene and the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene, was used for transformation. The results strongly indicate that the tissue culture response level in ovule culture is genotype independent. However, we did observe differences between cultivars with respect to frequencies of GFP-expressing embryos and frequencies of regeneration from the GFP-expressing embryos under hygromycin selection. The final frequencies of transformed plants per ovule were lower for the four cultivars than that for Golden Promise but the differences were not statistically significant. We conclude that ovule culture transformation can be used successfully to transform cultivars other than Golden Promise. Similar to that observed for Golden Promise, the ovule culture technique allows for the rapid and direct generation of high quality transgenic plants.

  14. Highly efficient transformation and plant regeneration of tall fescue mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhang-Hua; Chen, Jin-Qing; Wu, Guan-Ting; Jin, Wei; Lang, Chun-Xiu; Huang, Rui-Zhi; Wang, Fu-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Yun

    2005-04-01

    An efficient and reproducible system has been developed for the production of transgenic plants in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) using A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Two-months-old suspension cultures served as excellent explants for transformation. The explants were inoculated with an A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying a plasmid pDBA121 containing genes for hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) and phosphinotricin acetyltransferase (bar). The commercial herbicide Basta was used as a selective agent. Inclusion of acetosyringone (ACS) 20 mg/L in the co-culture medium led to an increase in transformation efficiency. The efficiency of transformation was highly dependent on the genotype, the explant, the culture medium and selective agent used. Tall fescue transformation efficiency is 2.85-10.9 plants per gram fresh weight (FW) of suspension cultures. This is much higher than the corresponding values reported before (2-5 plants). So far more than 300 transgenic plants have been obtained, the fertility of some transgenic plants had decreased. Stable integration and high expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis and Southern blot hybridization or herbicide Basta spraying test.

  15. A rapid and inexpensive one-tube genomic DNA extraction method from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Suresh P; Fawade, Madhukar M

    2014-04-01

    Many methods have been used to isolate genomic DNA, but some of them are time-consuming and costly, especially when extracting a large number of samples. Here we described an easy protocol using two simple solutions for DNA extraction from A. tumefaciens cells. Compared with the standard protocol, this protocol allows rapid DNA isolation with comparable yield and purity at negligible cost. Following this protocol, we have demonstrated: (1) gDNA extraction was achieved within 15 min; (2) this method was cost-effective, since it only used calcium chloride and lysozyme; SDS, phenol, chloroform and proteinase K were not necessary; (3) the method gave high yield of gDNA (130 ng/loopful culture) compared with standard protocol that was suitable for restriction analysis; (4) the protocol can be carried out in a single test tube and the cells directly from solid media can be used. Thus, this protocol offers an easy, efficient and economical way to extract genomic DNA from A. tumefaciens.

  16. Genome sequence and mutational analysis of plant-growth-promoting bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens CCNWGS0286 Isolated from a zinc-lead mine tailing.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiuli; Xie, Pin; Johnstone, Laurel; Miller, Susan J; Rensing, Christopher; Wei, Gehong

    2012-08-01

    The plant-growth-promoting bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens CCNWGS0286, isolated from the nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia growing in zinc-lead mine tailings, both displayed high metal resistance and enhanced the growth of Robinia plants in a metal-contaminated environment. Our goal was to determine whether bacterial metal resistance or the capacity to produce phytohormones had a larger impact on the growth of host plants under zinc stress. Eight zinc-sensitive mutants and one zinc-sensitive mutant with reduced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production were obtained by transposon mutagenesis. Analysis of the genome sequence and of transcription via reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) combined with transposon gene disruptions revealed that ZntA-4200 and the transcriptional regulator ZntR1 played important roles in the zinc homeostasis of A. tumefaciens CCNWGS0286. In addition, interruption of a putative oligoketide cyclase/lipid transport protein reduced IAA synthesis and also showed reduced zinc and cadmium resistance but had no influence on copper resistance. In greenhouse studies, R. pseudoacacia inoculated with A. tumefaciens CCNWGS0286 displayed a significant increase in biomass production over that without inoculation, even in a zinc-contaminated environment. Interestingly, the differences in plant biomass improvement among A. tumefaciens CCNWGS0286, A. tumefaciens C58, and zinc-sensitive mutants 12-2 (zntA::Tn5) and 15-6 (low IAA production) revealed that phytohormones, rather than genes encoding zinc resistance determinants, were the dominant factor in enhancing plant growth in contaminated soil.

  17. Identification and characterization of an anti-oxidative stress-associated mutant of Aspergillus fumigatus transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    FAN, ZHONGQI; YU, HUIMEI; GUO, QI; HE, DAN; XUE, BAIJI; XIE, XIANGLI; YOKOYAMA, KOJI; WANG, LI

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most common opportunistic pathogenic fungi, surviving in various environmental conditions. Maintenance of the redox homeostasis of the fungus relies upon the well-organized regulation between reactive oxygen species generated by immune cells or its own organelles, and the activated anti-oxidative stress mechanism. To investigate such a mechanism, the present study obtained a number of randomly-inserted mutants of A. fumigatus, mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In addition, a high throughput hydrogen peroxide screening system was established to examine ~1,000 mutants. A total of 100 mutants exhibited changes in hydrogen peroxide sensitivity, among which a significant increase in sensitivity was observed in the AFM2658 mutant. Further investigations of the mutant were also performed, in which the sequence of this mutant was characterized using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction. This revealed that the insertion site was located on chromosome 2 afu1_92, and the 96 bp sequence was knocked out, which partially comprised a sequence localized between the integral membrane protein coding region and the helix-loop-helix transcription factor coding region. A decrease in the levels of anti-oxidative stress-associated mRNAs were observed, and an increase in reactive oxygen species were detected using fluorescence. The results of the present study demonstrated that this sequence may have a protective role in A. fumigatus in the presence of oxidative stress. PMID:26847000

  18. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation in the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium lecanii and development of benzimidazole fungicide resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zhao, Jin-Jin; Xie, Ming; Peng, De-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Lecanicillium lecanii has been used in the biological control of several insects in agricultural practice. Since the gene manipulation tools for this entomopathogenic fungus have not been sufficiently developed, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) in L. lecanii was investigated in this study, using the wild-type isolate FZ9906 as a progenitor strain and the hygromycin B resistance (hph) gene as a selection marker. Furthermore, a field carbendazim-resistant (mrt) gene from Botrytis cinerea was expressed in L. lecanii FZ9906 via the ATMT system. The results revealed that the frequency of transformation surpassed 25transformants/10(6) conidia, most of the putative transformants contained a single copy of T-DNA, and the T-DNA inserts were stably inherited after five generations. All putative transformants had indistinguishable biological characteristics relative to the wild-type strain, excepting two transformants with altered growth habits or virulence. Moreover, the resistance of the putative transformants to carbendazim (MBC) was improved, and the highest one was 380-fold higher than the wild-type strain. In conclusion, ATMT is an effective and suitable system for L. lecanii transformation, and will be a useful tool for the basic and application research of gene functions and gene modifications of this strain.

  19. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence protein VirE3 is a transcriptional activator of the F-box gene VBF.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaolei; Zhou, Meiliang; Henkel, Christiaan V; van Heusden, G Paul H; Hooykaas, Paul J J

    2015-12-01

    During Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of plant cells a part of the tumour-inducing plasmid, T-DNA, is integrated into the host genome. In addition, a number of virulence proteins are translocated into the host cell. The virulence protein VirE3 binds to the Arabidopsis thaliana pBrp protein, a plant-specific general transcription factor of the TFIIB family. To study a possible role for VirE3 in transcriptional regulation, we stably expressed virE3 in A. thaliana under control of a tamoxifen-inducible promoter. By RNA sequencing we showed that upon expression of virE3 the RNA levels of 607 genes were increased more than three-fold and those of 132 genes decreased more than three-fold. One of the strongly activated genes was that encoding VBF (At1G56250), an F-box protein that may affect the levels of the VirE2 and VIP1 proteins. Using Arabidopsis cell suspension protoplasts we showed that VirE3 stimulates the VBF promoter, especially when co-expressed with pBrp. Although pBrp is localized at the external surface of plastids, co-expression of VirE3 and pBrp in Arabidopsis cell suspension protoplasts resulted in the accumulation of pBrp in the nucleus. Our results suggest that VirE3 affects the transcriptional machinery of the host cell to favour the transformation process.

  20. Insertion Mutation in HMG-CoA Lyase Increases the Production Yield of MPA through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuguo; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Rui; Lv, Xinxin; Wang, Lihua; Sun, Aiyou; Wei, Dongzhi

    2016-11-28

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an antibiotic produced by Penicillium brevicompactum. MPA has antifungal, antineoplastic, and immunosuppressive functions, among others. β-Hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) lyase is a key enzyme in the bypass metabolic pathway. The inhibitory activity of HMG-CoA lyase increases the MPA biosynthetic flux by reducing the generation of by-products. In this study, we cloned the P. brevicompactum HMG-CoA lyase gene using the thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction and gene walking technology. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was used to insert a mutated HMG-CoA lyase gene into P. brevicompactum. Successful insertion of the HMG-CoA lyase gene was confirmed by hygromycin screening, PCR, Southern blot analysis, and enzyme content assay. The maximum MPA production by transformants was 2.94 g/l. This was 71% higher than wild-type ATCC 16024. Our results demonstrate that ATMT may be an alternative practical genetic tool for directional transformation of P. brevicompactum.

  1. Expression, characterization, and improvement of a newly cloned halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and its application in production of epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Gao, Ai-Cun; Wang, Ya-Jun; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2014-07-01

    A gene encoding halohydrin dehalogenase (HHDH) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens CCTCC M 87071 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. To increase activity and stability of HHDH, 14 amino acid residues around the active site and substrate-binding pocket based on the structural analysis and molecular docking were selected as targets for site-directed mutagenesis. The studies showed that the mutant HHDH (Mut-HHDH) enzyme had a more accessible substrate-binding pocket than the wild-type HHDH (Wt-HHDH). Molecular docking revealed that the distance between the substrate and active site was closer in mutant which improved the catalytic activity. The expressed Wt-HHDH and Mut-HHDH were purified and characterized using 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) as substrates. The specific activity of the mutant was enhanced 26-fold and the value of k cat was 18.4-fold as compared to the Wt-HHDH, respectively. The Mut-HHDH showed threefold extension of half-life at 45 °C than that of Wt-HHDH. Therefore it is possible to add 1,3-DCP concentration up to 100 mM and epichlorohydrin (ECH) was produced at a relatively high conversion and yield (59.6 %) using Mut-HHDH as catalyst. This Mut-HHDH could be a potential candidate for the upscale production of ECH.

  2. Flower-specific expression of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens isopentenyltransferase gene results in radial expansion of floral organs in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Verdonk, Julian C; Shibuya, Kenichi; Loucas, Holly M; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Underwood, Beverly A; Clark, David G

    2008-09-01

    Biotechnology has the potential to modify commercially important traits of crops, such as fruit size and stress tolerance. To date, the floricultural industry has not profited significantly from these possibilities to manipulate, for example, flower size. Cytokinins are known to be involved in many aspects of plant development, including cell division. Increasing the amount of cytokinins has the potential to increase the size of an organ, such as the flower or the fruit. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens cytokinin biosynthesis gene isopentenyltransferase (ipt) has been shown to increase cytokinin levels when introduced into plants. Moreover, it has a dramatic effect on the vegetative development of plants. The expression of the ipt gene under the control of the flower-specific Arabidopsis APETALA3 promoter in petunia (Petunia hybrida) increases the flower size dramatically, but with no effect on vegetative development. The resulting transgenic plants produced flowers with larger corolla diameter and greater total floral fresh weight. This strategy has the potential for use in the production of ornamental crops with large flowers and crop species with larger fruit.

  3. Characterization of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens D-psicose 3-epimerase that converts D-fructose to D-psicose.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Hyun, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yeong-Su; Lee, Yong-Joo; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2006-02-01

    The noncharacterized gene previously proposed as the D-tagatose 3-epimerase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed enzyme was purified by three-step chromatography with a final specific activity of 8.89 U/mg. The molecular mass of the purified protein was estimated to be 132 kDa of four identical subunits. Mn2+ significantly increased the epimerization rate from D-fructose to D-psicose. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity at 50 degrees C and pH 8.0 with Mn2+. The turnover number (k(cat)) and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/Km) of the enzyme for D-psicose were markedly higher than those for d-tagatose, suggesting that the enzyme is not D-tagatose 3-epimerase but D-psicose 3-epimerase. The equilibrium ratio between D-psicose and D-fructose was 32:68 at 30 degrees C. D-Psicose was produced at 230 g/liter from 700-g/liter D-fructose at 50 degrees C after 100 min, corresponding to a conversion yield of 32.9%.

  4. Improvement in the thermostability of D-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens by random and site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Geun; Ju, Yo-Han; Yeom, Soo-Jin; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2011-10-01

    The S213C, I33L, and I33L S213C variants of D-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which were obtained by random and site-directed mutagenesis, displayed increases of 2.5, 5, and 7.5°C in the temperature for maximal enzyme activity, increases of 3.3-, 7.2-, and 29.9-fold in the half-life at 50°C, and increases of 3.1, 4.3, and 7.6°C in apparent melting temperature, respectively, compared with the wild-type enzyme. Molecular modeling suggests that the improvement in thermostability in these variants may have resulted from increased putative hydrogen bonds and formation of new aromatic stacking interactions. The immobilized wild-type enzyme with and without borate maintained activity for 8 days at a conversion yield of 70% (350 g/liter psicose) and for 16 days at a conversion yield of 30% (150 g/liter psicose), respectively. After 8 or 16 days, the enzyme activity gradually decreased, and the conversion yields with and without borate were reduced to 22 and 9.6%, respectively, at 30 days. In contrast, the activities of the immobilized I33L S213C variant with and without borate did not decrease during the operation time of 30 days. These results suggest that the I33L S213C variant may be useful as an industrial producer of D-psicose.

  5. Characterization of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens d-Psicose 3-Epimerase That Converts d-Fructose to d-Psicose

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Hyun, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yeong-Su; Lee, Yong-Joo; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2006-01-01

    The noncharacterized gene previously proposed as the d-tagatose 3-epimerase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed enzyme was purified by three-step chromatography with a final specific activity of 8.89 U/mg. The molecular mass of the purified protein was estimated to be 132 kDa of four identical subunits. Mn2+ significantly increased the epimerization rate from d-fructose to d-psicose. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity at 50°C and pH 8.0 with Mn2+. The turnover number (kcat) and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the enzyme for d-psicose were markedly higher than those for d-tagatose, suggesting that the enzyme is not d-tagatose 3-epimerase but d-psicose 3-epimerase. The equilibrium ratio between d-psicose and d-fructose was 32:68 at 30°C. d-Psicose was produced at 230 g/liter from 700-g/liter d-fructose at 50°C after 100 min, corresponding to a conversion yield of 32.9%. PMID:16461638

  6. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of wheat using a superbinary vector and a polyamine-supplemented regeneration medium.

    PubMed

    Khanna, H K; Daggard, G E

    2003-01-01

    Immature embryo-derived calli of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv Veery5 were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying either binary vector pHK22 or superbinary vector pHK21, the latter carrying an extra set of vir genes--vir B, -C and -G. In both cases, transient beta-glucuronidase ( GUS) expression ranging from 35-63% was observed 3 days after co-cultivation, but 587 calli infected with pHK22/LBA4404 failed to produce a single stably transformed plant, whereas 658 calli infected with pHK21/LBA4404 gave rise to 17 transformants carrying both the GUS and bar genes. Regeneration media supplemented with 0.1 M spermidine improved the recovery of transformants from pHK21/LBA4404-infected calli from 7% to 24.2%, resulting in an increase in the overall transformation frequency from 1.2% to 3.9%. The results suggest that two important factors that could lead to an improvement in transformation frequencies of cereals like wheat are (1) the use of superbinary vectors and (2) modification of the polyamine ratio in the regeneration medium. Stable expression and inheritance of the transgenes was confirmed by both genetic and molecular analyses. T1 progeny showed segregation of the transgenes in a typical Mendelian fashion in most of the plants. Of the transformed plants, 35% showed single-copy insertion of the transgene as shown by both Southern analysis and the segregation ratios.

  7. Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and regeneration of garlic (Allium sativum) immature leaf tissue.

    PubMed

    Kenel, Fernand; Eady, Colin; Brinch, Sheree

    2010-03-01

    Transgenic garlic (Allium sativum) plants have been recovered directly from immature leaf material by selective culture following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This method involved the use of a binary vector containing the mgfp-ER reporter gene and hpt selectable marker, and followed a similar protocol developed previously for the transformation of immature onion embryos. The choice of tissue and post-transformation selection procedure resulted in a large increase in recovery of transgenic plants compared with previously confirmed allium transformation protocols. The presence of transgenes in the genome of the plants was confirmed using Southern analysis. This improvement in frequency and the use of clonal commercial "Printanor" germplasm now makes possible the integration of useful agronomic and quality traits into this crop.

  8. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Valsa mali: an efficient tool for random insertion mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caixia; Guan, Xiangnan; Wang, Hanyan; Li, Guifang; Dong, Xiangli; Wang, Guoping; Li, Baohua

    2013-01-01

    Valsa mali is a causal agent of apple and pear trees canker disease, which is a destructive disease that causes serious economic losses in eastern Asia, especially in China. The lack of an efficient transformation system for Valsa mali retards its investigation, which poses difficulties to control the disease. In this research, a transformation system for this pathogen was established for the first time using A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT), with the optimal transformation conditions as follows: 10(6)/mL conidia suspension, cocultivation temperature 22°C, cocultivation time 72 hours, and 200  μ M acetosyringone (AS) in the inductive medium. The average transformation efficiency was 1015.00 ± 37.35 transformants per 10(6) recipient conidia. Thirty transformants were randomly selected for further confirmation and the results showed the presence of T-DNA in all hygromycin B resistant transformants and also revealed random and single gene integration with genetic stability. Compared with wild-type strain, those transformants exhibited various differences in morphology, conidia production, and conidia germination ability. In addition, pathogenicity assays revealed that 14 transformants had mitigated pathogenicity, while one had enhanced infection ability. The results suggest that ATMT of V. mali is a useful tool to gain novel insight into this economically important pathogen at molecular levels.

  9. The Brucella suis Homologue of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Chromosomal Virulence Operon chvE Is Essential for Sugar Utilization but Not for Survival in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Martinez, Maria-Teresa; Machold, Jan; Weise, Christoph; Schmidt-Eisenlohr, Heike; Baron, Christian; Rouot, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    Brucella strains possess an operon encoding type IV secretion machinery very similar to that coded by the Agrobacterium tumefaciens virB operon. Here we describe cloning of the Brucella suis homologue of the chvE-gguA-gguB operon of A. tumefaciens and characterize the sugar binding protein ChvE (78% identity), which in A. tumefaciens is involved in virulence gene expression. B. suis chvE is upstream of the putative sugar transporter-encoding genes gguA and gguB, also present in A. tumefaciens, but not adjacent to that of a LysR-type transcription regulator. Although results of Southern hybridization experiments suggested that the gene is present in all Brucella strains, the ChvE protein was detected only in B. suis and Brucella canis with A. tumefaciens ChvE-specific antisera, suggesting that chvE genes are differently expressed in different Brucella species. Analysis of cell growth of B. suis and of its chvE or gguA mutants in different media revealed that ChvE exhibited a sugar specificity similar to that of its A. tumefaciens homologue and that both ChvE and GguA were necessary for utilization of these sugars. Murine or human macrophage infections with B. suis chvE and gguA mutants resulted in multiplication similar to that of the wild-type strain, suggesting that virB expression was unaffected. These data indicate that the ChvE and GguA homologous proteins of B. suis are essential for the utilization of certain sugars but are not necessary for survival and replication inside macrophages. PMID:11514518

  10. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) with a rice chitinase gene for improved tolerance to a fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Moore, Paul H; Zhu, Yun J

    2008-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is one of the most important crops in the Pacific Islands, however, taro yields have been declining in Hawaii over the past 30 years partly due to diseases caused by oomycete and fungal pathogens. In this study, an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method for taro is first reported. In total, approximately 200 pieces (8 g) of embryogenic calluses were infected with the super-virulent A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pBI121/ricchi11 that contains the rice chitinase gene ricchi11. The presence and expression of the transgene ricchi11 in six independent transgenic lines was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Southern blot analysis of the six independent lines indicated that three out of six (50%) had integrated a single copy of the transgene, and the other three lines had two or three copies of the transgene. Compared to the particle bombardment transformation of taro method, which was used in the previous studies, the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method obtained 43-fold higher transformation efficiency. In addition, these six transgenic lines via Agrobacterium may be more effective for transgene expression as a result of single-copy or low-copy insertion of the transgene than the single line with multiple copies of the transgene via particle bombardment. In a laboratory bioassay, all six transgenic lines exhibited increased tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii, ranging from 42 to 63% reduction in lesion expansion.

  11. Acetosyringone, pH and temperature effects on transient genetic transformation of immature embryos of Brazilian wheat genotypes by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Manfroi, Ernandes; Yamazaki-Lau, Elene; Grando, Magali F.; Roesler, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Low transformation efficiency is one of the main limiting factors in the establishment of genetic transformation of wheat via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. To determine more favorable conditions for T-DNA delivery and explant regeneration after infection, this study investigated combinations of acetosyringone concentration and pH variation in the inoculation and co-cultivation media and co-culture temperatures using immature embryos from two Brazilian genotypes (BR 18 Terena and PF 020037). Based on transient expression of uidA, the most favorable conditions for T-DNA delivery were culture media with pH 5.0 and 5.4 combined with co-culture temperatures of 22 °C and 25 °C, and a 400 μM acetosyringone supplement. These conditions resulted in blue foci in 81% of the embryos. Media with more acidic pH also presented reduced A. tumefaciens overgrowth during co-culture, and improved regeneration frequency of the inoculated explants. BR 18 Terena was more susceptible to infection by A. tumefaciens than PF 020037. We found that it is possible to improve T-DNA delivery and explant regeneration by adjusting factors involved in the early stages of A. tumefaciens infection. This can contribute to establishing a stable transformation procedure in the future. PMID:26537604

  12. Nodules are induced on alfalfa roots by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium trifolii containing small segments of the Rhizobium meliloti nodulation region

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, A.M.; Drake, D.; Jacobs, T.W.; Long, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    Regions of the Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes from the symbiotic plasmid were transferred to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium trifolii by conjugation. The A. tumefaciens and R. trifolii trans-conjugants were unable to elicit curling of alfalfa root hairs, but were able to induce nodule development at a low frequency. These were judged to be genuine nodules on the basis of cytological and developmental criteria. Like genuine alfalfa nodules, the nodules were initiated from divisions of the inner root cortical cells. They developed a distally positioned meristem and several peripheral vascular bundles. An endodermis separated the inner tissues of the nodule from the surrounding cortex. No infection threads were found to penetrate either root hairs or the nodule cells. Bacteria were found only in intercellular spaces. Thus, alfalfa nodules induced by A. tumefaciens and R. trifolii transconjugants carrying small nodulation clones of R. meliloti were completely devoid of intracellular bacteria. When these strains were inoculated onto white clover roots, small nodule-like protrusions developed that, when examined cytologically, were found to more closely resemble roots than nodules. Although the meristem was broadened and lacked a root cap, the protrusions had a central vascular bundle and other rootlike features. The results suggest that morphogenesis of alfalfa root nodules can be uncoupled from infection thread formation. The genes encoded in the 8.7-kilobase nodulation fragment are sufficient in A. tumefaciens or R. trifolii backgrounds for nodule morphogenesis.

  13. Agrobacterium tumefaciens can Obtain Sulfur from an Opine that is Synthesized by Octopine Synthase Using S-methylmethionine as a Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Mireles, Ana Lidia; Eberhard, Anatol; Winans, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Agrobacterium tumefaciens incites plant tumors that produce nutrients called opines, which are utilized by the bacteria during host colonization. Various opines provide sources of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous, but virtually nothing was previously known about how A. tumefaciens acquires sulfur during colonization. Some strains encode an operon required for the catabolism of the opine octopine. This operon contains a gene, msh, that is predicted to direct the conversion of S-methylmethionine (SMM) and homocysteine (HCys) to two equivalents of methionine. Purified Msh carried out this reaction, suggesting that SMM could be an intermediate in opine catabolism. Purified octopine synthase (Ocs, normally expressed in plant tumors) utilized SMM and pyruvate to produce a novel opine, designated sulfonopine, whose catabolism by the bacteria would regenerate SMM. Sulfonopine was produced by tobacco and Arabidopsis when colonized by A. tumefaciens and was utilized as sole source of sulfur by A. tumefaciens. Purified Ocs also used thirteen other proteogenic and nonproteogenic amino acids as substrates, including three that contain sulfur. Sulfonopine and eleven other opines were tested for induction of octopine catabolic operon and all were able to do so. This is the first study of the acquisition of sulfur, an essential element, by this pathogen. PMID:22486934

  14. Agrobacterium tumefaciens can obtain sulphur from an opine that is synthesized by octopine synthase using S-methylmethionine as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mireles, Ana Lidia; Eberhard, Anatol; Winans, Stephen C

    2012-06-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens incites plant tumours that produce nutrients called opines, which are utilized by the bacteria during host colonization. Various opines provide sources of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous, but virtually nothing was previously known about how A. tumefaciens acquires sulphur during colonization. Some strains encode an operon required for the catabolism of the opine octopine. This operon contains a gene, msh, that is predicted to direct the conversion of S-methylmethionine (SMM) and homocysteine (HCys) to two equivalents of methionine. Purified Msh carried out this reaction, suggesting that SMM could be an intermediate in opine catabolism. Purified octopine synthase (Ocs, normally expressed in plant tumours) utilized SMM and pyruvate to produce a novel opine, designated sulfonopine, whose catabolism by the bacteria would regenerate SMM. Sulfonopine was produced by tobacco and Arabidopsis when colonized by A. tumefaciens and was utilized as sole source of sulphur by A. tumefaciens. Purified Ocs also used 13 other proteogenic and non-proteogenic amino acids as substrates, including three that contain sulphur. Sulfonopine and 11 other opines were tested for induction of octopine catabolic operon and all were able to do so. This is the first study of the acquisition of sulphur, an essential element, by this pathogen.

  15. Highly efficient transformation system for Malassezia furfur and Malassezia pachydermatis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Celis, A M; Vos, A M; Triana, S; Medina, C A; Escobar, N; Restrepo, S; Wösten, H A B; de Cock, H

    2017-03-01

    Malassezia spp. are part of the normal human and animal mycobiota but are also associated with a variety of dermatological diseases. The absence of a transformation system hampered studies to reveal mechanisms underlying the switch from the non-pathogenic to pathogenic life style. Here we describe, a highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system for Malassezia furfur and M. pachydermatis. A binary T-DNA vector with the hygromycin B phosphotransferase (hpt) selection marker and the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) was introduced in M. furfur and M. pachydermatis by combining the transformation protocols of Agaricus bisporus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Optimal temperature and co-cultivation time for transformation were 5 and 7days at 19°C and 24°C, respectively. Transformation efficiency was 0.75-1.5% for M. furfur and 0.6-7.5% for M. pachydermatis. Integration of the hpt resistance cassette and gfp was verified using PCR and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. The T-DNA was mitotically stable in approximately 80% of the transformants after 10 times sub-culturing in the absence of hygromycin. Improving transformation protocols contribute to study the biology and pathophysiology of Malassezia.

  16. Mutational analysis of the active site residues of a D: -psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Yeom, Soo-Jin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Rhee, Sangkee; Kim, Dooil; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2010-02-01

    D-Psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefacience catalyzes the conversion of D: -fructose to D-psicose. According to mutational analysis, the ring at position 112, the negative charge at position 156, and the positive charge at position 215 were essential components for enzyme activity and for binding fructose and psicose. The surface contact area and distance to the bound substrate by molecular modeling suggest that the positive charge of Arg215 was involved in stabilization of cis-endiol intermediate. The distances between the catalytic residues (Glu150 and Glu244) and Mn(2+) are critical to the catalysis, and the negative charges of the metal-binding residues are important for interaction with metal ion. The kinetic parameters of the D183E and H209A mutants for metal-binding residues with substrate and the near-UV circular dichroism spectra indicate that the metal ion bound to Asp183 and His209 is involved not only in catalysis but also in substrate binding.

  17. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi.

    PubMed

    Shao, Changwen; Yin, Youping; Qi, Zhaoran; Li, Ren; Song, Zhangyong; Li, Yan; Wang, Zhongkang

    2015-10-01

    An Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system for the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi was established. Three binary T-DNA vectors, pPZP-Hph, pPZP-Hph-RNAi and pPZP-Hph-DsRed2, were constructed. The trpc promoter from Aspergillus nidulans was used as the cis-regulatory element to drive the expression of hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) gene and DsRed2, which conferred the hygromycin B (Hyg B) resistance and red fluorescence visualization, respectively. The blastospores and conidia were used as the recipients. The blastospores' transformation efficiency reached ∼20-40 transformants per 10(6) blastospores, whereas the conidia were not transformed. Based on an analysis of five generations of subcultures, PCR and Southern blotting assays, the Ptrpc-hph cassette had integrated into the genomes of all transformants, which contained single copy of the hph gene and showed mitotic stability. Abundant altered morphologic phenotypes in colonies, blastospores and hyphae formations were observed in the arbitrary insertional mutants of N. rileyi, which made it possible to study the relationships between the functions and the interrupted genes over the whole genome. The transformation protocol will promote the functional characterization of genes, and the construction of genetically engineered strains of this important entomopathogenic fungus, and potentially of other similar fungal pathogens.

  18. Vascularization, High-Volume Solution Flow, and Localized Roles for Enzymes of Sucrose Metabolism during Tumorigenesis by Agrobacterium tumefaciens1

    PubMed Central

    Wächter, Rebecca; Langhans, Markus; Aloni, Roni; Götz, Simone; Weilmünster, Anke; Koops, Ariane; Temguia, Leopoldine; Mistrik, Igor; Pavlovkin, Jan; Rascher, Uwe; Schwalm, Katja; Koch, Karen E.; Ullrich, Cornelia I.

    2003-01-01

    Vascular differentiation and epidermal disruption are associated with establishment of tumors induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Here, we address the relationship of these processes to the redirection of nutrient-bearing water flow and carbohydrate delivery for tumor growth within the castor bean (Ricinus communis) host. Treatment with aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine showed that vascular differentiation and epidermal disruption were central to ethylene-dependent tumor establishment. CO2 release paralleled tumor growth, but water flow increased dramatically during the first 3 weeks. However, tumor water loss contributed little to water flow to host shoots. Tumor water loss was followed by accumulation of the osmoprotectants, sucrose (Suc) and proline, in the tumor periphery, shifting hexose-to-Suc balance in favor of sugar signals for maturation and desiccation tolerance. Concurrent activities and sites of action for enzymes of Suc metabolism changed: Vacuolar invertase predominated during initial import of Suc into the symplastic continuum, corresponding to hexose concentrations in expanding tumors. Later, Suc synthase (SuSy) and cell wall invertase rose in the tumor periphery to modulate both Suc accumulation and descending turgor for import by metabolization. Sites of abscisic acid immunolocalization correlated with both central vacuolar invertase and peripheral cell wall invertase. Vascular roles were indicated by SuSy immunolocalization in xylem parenchyma for inorganic nutrient uptake and in phloem, where resolution allowed SuSy identification in sieve elements and companion cells, which has widespread implications for SuSy function in transport. Together, data indicate key roles for ethylene-dependent vascularization and cuticular disruption in the redirection of water flow and carbohydrate transport for successful tumor establishment. PMID:14526106

  19. Constitutive expression of the tzs gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens virG mutant strains is responsible for improved transgenic plant regeneration in cotton meristem transformation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xudong; Chen, Yurong; Wan, Yuechun; Hong, Yun-Jeong; Ruebelt, Martin C; Gilbertson, Larry A

    2016-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : virG mutant strains of a nopaline type of Agrobacterium tumefaciens increase the transformation frequency in cotton meristem transformation. Constitutive cytokinin expression from the tzs gene in the virG mutant strains is responsible for the improvement. Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens were tested for their ability to improve cotton meristem transformation frequency. Two disarmed A. tumefaciens nopaline strains with either a virGN54D constitutively active mutation or virGI77V hypersensitive induction mutation significantly increased the transformation frequency in a cotton meristem transformation system. The virG mutant strains resulted in greener explants after three days of co-culture in the presence of light, which could be attributed to a cytokinin effect of the mutants. A tzs knockout strain of virGI77V mutant showed more elongated, less green explants and decreased cotton transformation frequency, as compared to a wild type parental strain, suggesting that expression of the tzs gene is required for transformation frequency improvement in cotton meristem transformation. In vitro cytokinin levels in culture media were tenfold higher in the virGN54D strain, and approximately 30-fold higher in the virGI77V strain, in the absence of acetosyringone induction, compared to the wild type strain. The cytokinin level in the virGN54D strain is further increased upon acetosyringone induction, while the cytokinin level in the virGI77V mutant is decreased by induction, suggesting that different tzs gene expression regulation mechanisms are present in the two virG mutant strains. Based on these data, we suggest that the increased cytokinin levels play a major role in increasing Agrobacterium attachment and stimulating localized division of the attached plant cells.

  20. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated sorghum transformation using a mannose selection system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhensheng; Xie, Xueju; Ling, Yan; Muthukrishnan, Subbarat; Liang, George H

    2005-11-01

    A dual-marker plasmid containing the selectable marker gene, manA, and the reporter gene, sgfp, was used to transform immature sorghum embryos by employing an Agrobacterium-mediated system. Both genes were under the control of the ubi1 promoter in a binary vector pPZP201. The Escherichia coli phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) gene, pmi, was used as the selectable marker gene and mannose was used as the selective agent. The sgfp gene encoding green fluorescence protein (GFP) was the reporter gene and served as a visual screening marker. A total of 167 transgenic plants were obtained from nine different embryogenic callus lines grown on a selection medium containing 1%-2% mannose. Embryoids and shoots regenerated via embryogenesis, that showed strong GFP fluorescence, were selected from two sorghum genotypes: C401, an inbred line, and Pioneer 8505, a commercial hybrid. The GFP accumulation in transgenic plants was observed with a dissecting stereomicroscope. The integration and expression of the manA gene was confirmed by Southern blot and Western blot analyses, and the feasibility of manA selection was demonstrated by the chlorophenol red (CPR) assay. Our results indicated that transgenes segregated in the Mendelian fashion in the T1 generation. The conversion of mannose to a metabolizable fructose carbon source is beneficial to plants. In addition, except in soybean and a few legumes, no endogenous PMI activity has been detected in plant species, indicating that PMI is useful in the transformation of sorghum. In addition, PMI has no sequence homology to known allergens. Optimization of this selection system for sorghum transformation provides an efficient way to produce transgenic plants without using antibiotic or herbicidal agents as selectable markers, and our results showed that the transformation efficiency reached 2.88% for Pioneer 8505 and 3.30% for C401, both values higher than in previously published reports.

  1. Ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes strains, inability of A. vitis and A. rubi strains to adapt to salt-insufficient environment, and taxonomic significance of a simple salt requirement test in the pathogenic Agrobacterium species.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Katsuyuki; Arafat, Hussam Hassan; Urbanczyk, Henryk; Yamamoto, Shinji; Moriguchi, Kazuki; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Katsunori

    2009-02-01

    Resistance to a 1% or higher concentration of NaCl is an important trait for taxonomic discrimination of species in the family Rhizobiaceae. However, we have little knowledge about how much salt rhizobia require. In this study, we examined the requirement of NaCl for growth in relation to the NaCl sensitivity in the pathogenic Agrobacterium species. Consistent with the previous salt resistance data, the standard Luria Bertani medium containing 0.5% NaCl (LB) permitted A. tumefaciens and A. vitis strains to grow well, but not A. rhizogenes strains. In contrast, LB lacking NaCl (LB-NaCl) allowed the A. rhizogenes and A. tumefaciens strains to grow well but not the A. vitis strains. In LB-NaCl, viability of A. vitis strains decreased 500-fold in 24 h. The addition of KCl, MgCl(2) or MgSO(4) to LB-NaCl restored the growth of A. vitis strains. These data indicate higher salt requirements in A. vitis than those in A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes and adaptability of A. tumefaciens to salt-insufficient environments. An A. rubi strain was salt dependent like A. vitis. The experiment was extended to strains in related genera. Checking growth on the two media was very easy, gave a new trait and clear results, and thereby proved useful as an additional method for taxonomic identification.

  2. Genome Sequence and Mutational Analysis of Plant-Growth-Promoting Bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens CCNWGS0286 Isolated from a Zinc-Lead Mine Tailing

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xiuli; Xie, Pin; Johnstone, Laurel; Miller, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    The plant-growth-promoting bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens CCNWGS0286, isolated from the nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia growing in zinc-lead mine tailings, both displayed high metal resistance and enhanced the growth of Robinia plants in a metal-contaminated environment. Our goal was to determine whether bacterial metal resistance or the capacity to produce phytohormones had a larger impact on the growth of host plants under zinc stress. Eight zinc-sensitive mutants and one zinc-sensitive mutant with reduced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production were obtained by transposon mutagenesis. Analysis of the genome sequence and of transcription via reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) combined with transposon gene disruptions revealed that ZntA-4200 and the transcriptional regulator ZntR1 played important roles in the zinc homeostasis of A. tumefaciens CCNWGS0286. In addition, interruption of a putative oligoketide cyclase/lipid transport protein reduced IAA synthesis and also showed reduced zinc and cadmium resistance but had no influence on copper resistance. In greenhouse studies, R. pseudoacacia inoculated with A. tumefaciens CCNWGS0286 displayed a significant increase in biomass production over that without inoculation, even in a zinc-contaminated environment. Interestingly, the differences in plant biomass improvement among A. tumefaciens CCNWGS0286, A. tumefaciens C58, and zinc-sensitive mutants 12-2 (zntA::Tn5) and 15-6 (low IAA production) revealed that phytohormones, rather than genes encoding zinc resistance determinants, were the dominant factor in enhancing plant growth in contaminated soil. PMID:22636006

  3. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) transformation using phosphinothricin selection results in a high frequency of single-copy transgene integration.

    PubMed

    Luo, H; Hu, Q; Nelson, K; Longo, C; Kausch, A P; Chandlee, J M; Wipff, J K; Fricker, C R

    2004-04-01

    Genetic transformation of creeping bentgrass mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been achieved. Embryogenic callus initiated from seeds (cv. Penn-A-4) was infected with an A. tumefaciens strain (LBA4404) harboring a super-binary vector that contained an herbicide-resistant bar gene driven either by the CaMV 35S promoter or a rice ubiquitin promoter. Plants were regenerated from 219 independent transformation events. The overall stable transformation efficiency ranged from 18% to 45%. Southern blot and genetic analysis confirmed transgene integration in the creeping bentgrass genome and normal transmission and stable expression of the transgene in the T1 generation. All independent transformation events carried one to three copies of the transgene, and a majority (60-65%) contained only a single copy of the foreign gene with no apparent rearrangements. We report here the successful use of Agrobacterium for the large-scale production of transgenic creeping bentgrass plants with a high frequency of a single-copy transgene insertion that exhibit stable inheritance patterns.

  4. Animal component-free Agrobacterium tumefaciens cultivation media for better GMP-compliance increases biomass yield and pharmaceutical protein expression in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Houdelet, Marcel; Galinski, Anna; Holland, Tanja; Wenzel, Kathrin; Schillberg, Stefan; Buyel, Johannes Felix

    2017-02-21

    Transient expression systems allow the rapid production of recombinant proteins in plants. Such systems can be scaled up to several hundred kilograms of biomass, making them suitable for the production of pharmaceutical proteins required at short notice, such as emergency vaccines. However, large-scale transient expression requires the production of recombinant Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains with the capacity for efficient gene transfer to plant cells. The complex media often used for the cultivation of this species typically include animal-derived ingredients that can contain human pathogens, thus conflicting with the requirements of good manufacturing practice (GMP). We replaced all the animal-derived components in yeast extract broth (YEB) cultivation medium with soybean peptone, and then used a design-of-experiments approach to optimize the medium composition, increasing the biomass yield while maintaining high levels of transient expression in subsequent infiltration experiments. The resulting plant peptone Agrobacterium medium (PAM) achieved a two-fold increase in OD600 compared to YEB medium during a 4-L batch fermentation lasting 18 h. Furthermore, the yields of the monoclonal antibody 2G12 and the fluorescent protein DsRed were maintained when the cells were cultivated in PAM rather than YEB. We have thus demonstrated a simple, efficient and scalable method for medium optimization that reduces process time and costs. The final optimized medium for the cultivation of A. tumefaciens completely lacks animal-derived components, thus facilitating the GMP-compliant large-scale transient expression of recombinant proteins in plants.

  5. Location of the right boundary of the virulence region on Agrobacterium tumefaciens plasmid pTiC58 and a host-specifying gene next to the boundary.

    PubMed Central

    Hirooka, T; Kado, C I

    1986-01-01

    The right boundary of the virulence (Vir) region of the nopaline plasmid pTiC58 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was determined by transposon insertion, cartridge emplacement, and deletion mutagenesis. Genetic complementation with mutant and wild-type alleles led to the identification of the virE locus at the right boundary, which was located about 6 kilobases from the left border of the segment of DNA that is transferred into the plant genome. virE is 2.0 kilobases long and encodes at least one protein of 69 kilodaltons. Various mutations in virE resulted in different truncated lengths of the 69-kilodalton protein. As this protein was increasingly truncated from the carboxy terminus, the host range of A. tumefaciens and the frequency of tumor formation diminished concomitantly. Thus, as one of its functions, the 69-kilodalton protein of virE is probably involved in some aspect of the host range specificity of A. tumefaciens and in infection efficiency. Images PMID:3019998

  6. Cloning and targeted disruption, via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, of a trypsin protease gene from the vascular wilt fungus Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Dobinson, Katherine F; Grant, Sandra J; Kang, Seogchan

    2004-02-01

    A gene encoding a trypsin protease was isolated from a tomato isolate of Verticillium dahliae. The gene, designated VTP1, contains two introns and is predicted to encode a protein of 256 amino acids. The gene is present in V. dahliae isolates from different host plants and in V. albo-atrum; weakly hybridizing sequences are present in V. tricorpus. VTP1 cDNA sequences were identified in a sequence tag analysis of genes expressed under growth conditions that promote microsclerotia development. Replacement of the gene, by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT), with a mutant allele construct did not noticeably alter either pathogenicity or growth in culture. Searches of expressed sequence tag databases showed that, in addition to the VTP1 gene, V. dahliae contains two genes encoding subtilisin-like proteases similar to those produced by pathogenic Aspergillus spp. This is the first description of the application of ATMT to the molecular analysis of phytopathogenic Verticillium spp.

  7. “Cre/loxP plus BAC”: a strategy for direct cloning of large DNA fragment and its applications in Photorhabdus luminescens and Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shengbiao; Liu, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Guoyong; Xie, Yali; Ding, Xuezhi; Mo, Xiangtao; Stewart, A. Francis; Fu, Jun; Zhang, Youming; Xia, Liqiu

    2016-01-01

    Heterologous expression has been proven to be a valid strategy for elucidating the natural products produced by gene clusters uncovered by genome sequencing projects. Efforts have been made to efficiently clone gene clusters directly from genomic DNA and several approaches have been developed. Here, we present an alternative strategy based on the site-specific recombinase system Cre/loxP for direct cloning gene clusters. A type three secretion system (T3SS) gene cluster (~32 kb) from Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 and DNA fragment (~78 kb) containing the siderophore biosynthetic gene cluster from Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 have been successfully cloned into pBeloBAC11 with “Cre/loxP plus BAC” strategy. Based on the fact that Cre/loxP system has successfully used for genomic engineering in a wide range of organisms, we believe that this strategy could be widely used for direct cloning of large DNA fragment. PMID:27364376

  8. Roles of Ile66 and Ala107 of D-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens in binding O6 of its substrate, D-fructose.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Lim, Byung-Chul; Yeom, Soo-Jin; Kim, Yeong-Su; Kim, Dooil; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2010-01-01

    Using site-directed mutagenesis, we investigated the roles of Ile66 and Ala107 of D: -psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens in binding O6 of its true substrate, D: -fructose. When Ile66 was substituted with alanine, glycine, cysteine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine or valine, all the mutants dramatically increased the K (m) for D: -tagatose but slightly decreased the K (m) for D: -fructose, indicating that Ile66 is involved in substrate recognition. When Ala107 was substituted by either isoleucine or valine, the substituted mutants had lower thermostability than the wild-type enzyme whereas the proline-substituted mutant had higher thermostability. Thus, Ala107 is involved in enzyme stability.

  9. Structural and functional analysis of a putative gene cluster for palatinose transport on the linear chromosome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens MAFF301001.

    PubMed

    De Costa, Devika M; Suzuki, Katsunori; Yoshida, Kazuo

    2003-04-01

    We identified a putative pal gene cluster (palR, palE, palF, palG, palK, palA, and palB) in the plant-tumorigenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens MAFF301001; by sequencing analyses, this cluster was found to be involved in palatinose transport, and its functional importance was revealed by mutational analyses. The pal gene products were highly homologous to those of putative trehalose/maltose ABC-type transport systems but were not essential to bacterial growth on trehalose. Insertion mutations in the palK and palE genes showed the necessity of these genes for bacterial growth and chemotaxis with palatinose as the carbon source, but no inhibition of tumorigenesis was observed. Growth on trehalose and maltose was not influenced by the mutations.

  10. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti Plasmid Virulence Gene virE2 Reduces Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus Infection in Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana Plants

    PubMed Central

    Resmi, Thulasi Raveendrannair; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2015-01-01

    Cassava mosaic disease is a major constraint to cassava cultivation worldwide. In India, the disease is caused by Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV). The Agrobacterium Ti plasmid virulence gene virE2, encoding a nuclear-localized, single-stranded DNA binding protein, was introduced into Nicotiana benthamiana to develop tolerance against SLCMV. Leaf discs of transgenic N. benthamiana plants, harboring the virE2 gene, complemented a virE2 mutation in A. tumefaciens and produced tumours. Three tested virE2 transgenic plants displayed reduction in disease symptoms upon agroinoculation with SLCMV DNA A and DNA B partial dimers. A pronounced reduction in viral DNA accumulation was observed in all three virE2 transgenic plants. Thus, virE2 is an effective candidate gene to develop tolerance against the cassava mosaic disease and possibly other DNA virus diseases. PMID:26008704

  11. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti Plasmid Virulence Gene virE2 Reduces Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus Infection in Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana Plants.

    PubMed

    Resmi, Thulasi Raveendrannair; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2015-05-22

    Cassava mosaic disease is a major constraint to cassava cultivation worldwide. In India, the disease is caused by Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV). The Agrobacterium Ti plasmid virulence gene virE2, encoding a nuclear-localized, single-stranded DNA binding protein, was introduced into Nicotiana benthamiana to develop tolerance against SLCMV. Leaf discs of transgenic N. benthamiana plants, harboring the virE2 gene, complemented a virE2 mutation in A. tumefaciens and produced tumours. Three tested virE2 transgenic plants displayed reduction in disease symptoms upon agroinoculation with SLCMV DNA A and DNA B partial dimers. A pronounced reduction in viral DNA accumulation was observed in all three virE2 transgenic plants. Thus, virE2 is an effective candidate gene to develop tolerance against the cassava mosaic disease and possibly other DNA virus diseases.

  12. [Comparative susceptibility of Ochrobactrum anthropi, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosidans and Bordetella bronchiseptica against 35 antibiotics including 17 beta-lactams].

    PubMed

    Bizet, C; Bizet, J

    1995-04-01

    Ochrobactrum anthropi, formerly known as "Achromobacter sp." or CDC group Vd has been isolated from water, hospital environment (antiseptic solutions, dialysis fluids ... ). O. anthropi is a Gram negative, motile, strictly aerobic, oxydase positive and non-fermentative bacteria with a strong urease activity. The susceptibility of 13 strains of O. anthropi was determined by agar diffusion method and compared to those of type strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The MICs of 20 antimicrobial agents confirmed the distinct phenotype susceptibility of O. anthropi. All the strains of O. anthropi are sensitive to imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, netilmicin, nalidixic acid, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin, colistin, sulphonamides and rifampicin and resistant to ampicillin, amoxycillin + clavulanic acid, ticarcillin, mezlocillin, cefuroxime, cefamandol, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazon, ceftazidime, cefsulodin, aztreonam, streptomycin, kanamycin, pipemidic acid, chloramphenicol, erythromicin, pristinamycin, trimethoprim and fosfomycin. O. anthropi is implicated in nosocomial infections. O. anthropi was the species with the greatest resistance to beta-lactamins.

  13. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III) and As(III)/Sb(III)-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Li, Mingshun

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III)]/antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing strain. The As(III) oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III) oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III) oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III) oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III) oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III) oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III), ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III) and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III) oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III) and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III) oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III) would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III) stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat. PMID:28241045

  14. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III) and As(III)/Sb(III)-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Li, Mingshun; Wang, Gejiao

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III)]/antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing strain. The As(III) oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III) oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III) oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III) oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III) oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III) oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III), ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III) and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III) oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III) and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III) oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III) would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III) stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat.

  15. A Signaling Pathway Involving the Diguanylate Cyclase CelR and the Response Regulator DivK Controls Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Barnhart, D. Michael; Su, Shengchang

    2014-01-01

    The production of cellulose fibrils is involved in the attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to its plant host. Consistent with previous studies, we reported recently that a putative diguanylate cyclase, celR, is required for synthesis of this polymer in A. tumefaciens. In this study, the effects of celR and other components of the regulatory pathway of cellulose production were explored. Mutational analysis of celR demonstrated that the cyclase requires the catalytic GGEEF motif, as well as the conserved aspartate residue of a CheY-like receiver domain, for stimulating cellulose production. Moreover, a site-directed mutation within the PilZ domain of CelA, the catalytic subunit of the cellulose synthase complex, greatly reduced cellulose production. In addition, deletion of divK, the first gene of the divK-celR operon, also reduced cellulose production. This requirement for divK was alleviated by expression of a constitutively active form of CelR, suggesting that DivK acts upstream of CelR activation. Based on bacterial two-hybrid assays, CelR homodimerizes but does not interact with DivK. The mutation in divK additionally affected cell morphology, and this effect was complementable by a wild-type copy of the gene, but not by the constitutively active allele of celR. These results support the hypothesis that CelR is a bona fide c-di-GMP synthase and that the nucleotide signal produced by this enzyme activates CelA via the PilZ domain. Our studies also suggest that the DivK/CelR signaling pathway in Agrobacterium regulates cellulose production independent of cell cycle checkpoint systems that are controlled by divK. PMID:24443526

  16. Large Deletions in the pAtC58 Megaplasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Can Confer Reduced Carriage Cost and Increased Expression of Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Elise R.; Merritt, Peter M.; Bever, James D.; Fuqua, Clay

    2013-01-01

    The accessory plasmid pAtC58 of the common laboratory strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens confers numerous catabolic functions and has been proposed to play a role in virulence. Genomic sequencing of evolved laboratory strains of A. tumefaciens revealed the presence of multiple deletion events in the At plasmid, with reductions in plasmid size ranging from 25% to 30% (115–194 kb). Flanking both ends of the sites of these deletions is a short-nucleotide repeat sequence that is in a single copy in the deleted plasmids, characteristic of a phage- or transposon-mediated deletion event. This repeat sequence is widespread throughout the C58 genome, but concentrated on the At plasmid, suggesting its frequency to be nonrandom. In this study, we assess the prevalence of the larger of these deletions in multiple C58 derivatives and characterize its functional significance. We find that in addition to elevating virulence gene expression, this deletion is associated with a significantly reduced carriage cost to the cell. These observations are a clear demonstration of the dynamic nature of the bacterial genome and suggest a mechanism for genetic plasticity of these costly but otherwise stable plasmids. Additionally, this phenomenon could be the basis for some of the dramatic recombination events so ubiquitous within and among megaplasmids. PMID:23783172

  17. Efficacy of Eucalyptus cinerea as a Source of Bioactive Compounds for Curative Biocontrol of Crown Gall Caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strain B6.

    PubMed

    Kahla, Yosra; Zouari-Bouassida, Karama; Rezgui, Fatma; Trigui, Mohamed; Tounsi, Slim

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated the Eucalyptus cinerea leaves efficiency in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens biocontrol, the causative agent of crown gall. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil (EO) showed that the main components were 1,8-cineole (61%) and camphene (15.13%). Thanks to its polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, terpenoids, alkaloids, and tannins richness, the EtOAc-F exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity in vitro. Indeed, compared to the other fractions, it has the lowest MIC and MBC values of 0.312 mg/mL and 2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The GC-MS analysis of EtOAc-F confirmed its richness in antibacterial compounds including gallic acid (7.18%), shikimic acid (5.07%), and catechin (3.12%). The time-kill curve assay of EtOAc-F (2.5 mg/mL) showed a potent bactericidal effect after 20 min of direct contact with A. tumefaciens. In planta experiments, gall weights were significantly reduced when EtOAc-F was applied at 0.625 and 2.5 mg/wounds. Besides, the disease reduction rates in gall weight were 95% and 97.5%, respectively. Interestingly, no phytotoxic effect was observed since tomato seeds germinated in the presence of the different concentrations of EtOAc-F. These results suggest that EtOAc-F has a good potential to be a curative biocontrol agent for crown gall disease.

  18. The never ripe mutant provides evidence that tumor-induced ethylene controls the morphogenesis of agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced crown galls on tomato stems

    PubMed

    Aloni; Wolf; Feigenbaum; Avni; Klee

    1998-07-01

    We confirm the hypothesis that Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced galls produce ethylene that controls vessel differentiation in the host stem of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Using an ethylene-insensitive mutant, Never ripe (Nr), and its isogenic wild-type parent we show that infection by A. tumefaciens results in high rates of ethylene evolution from the developing crown galls. Ethylene evolution from isolated internodes carrying galls was up to 50-fold greater than from isolated internodes of control plants when measured 21 and 28 d after infection. Tumor-induced ethylene substantially decreased vessel diameter in the host tissues beside the tumor in wild-type stems but had a very limited effect in the Nr stems. Ethylene promoted the typical unorganized callus shape of the gall, which maximized the tumor surface in wild-type stems, whereas the galls on the Nr stems had a smooth surface. The combination of decreased vessel diameter in the host and increased tumor surface ensured water-supply priority to the growing gall over the host shoot. These results indicate that in addition to the well-defined roles of auxin and cytokinin, there is a critical role for ethylene in determining crown-gall morphogenesis.

  19. Characterization of a novel Agrobacterium tumefaciens Galactarolactone Cycloisomerase Enzyme for Direct Conversion of d-Galactarolactone to 3-Deoxy-2-keto-l-threo-hexarate*

    PubMed Central

    Andberg, Martina; Maaheimo, Hannu; Boer, Harry; Penttilä, Merja; Koivula, Anu; Richard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms use different pathways for d-galacturonate catabolism. In the known microbial oxidative pathway, d-galacturonate is oxidized to d-galactarolactone, the lactone hydrolyzed to galactarate, which is further converted to 3-deoxy-2-keto-hexarate and α-ketoglutarate. We have shown recently that Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 contains an uronate dehydrogenase (At Udh) that oxidizes d-galacturonic acid to d-galactarolactone. Here we report identification of a novel enzyme from the same A. tumefaciens strain, which we named Galactarolactone cycloisomerase (At Gci) (E.C. 5.5.1.-), for the direct conversion of the d-galactarolactone to 3-deoxy-2-keto-hexarate. The At Gci enzyme is 378 amino acids long and belongs to the mandelate racemase subgroup in the enolase superfamily. At Gci was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified enzyme was found to exist as an octameric form. It is active both on d-galactarolactone and d-glucarolactone, but does not work on the corresponding linear hexaric acid forms. The details of the reaction mechanism were further studied by NMR and optical rotation demonstrating that the reaction product of At Gci from d-galactaro-1,4-lactone and d-glucaro-1,4-lactone conversion is in both cases the l-threo form of 3-deoxy-2-keto-hexarate. PMID:22493433

  20. Silencing of Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncogenes ipt and iaaM induces resistance to crown gall disease in plum but not in apricot.

    PubMed

    Alburquerque, Nuria; Faize, Lydia; Burgos, Lorenzo

    2017-10-01

    In this study, two vectors with short-length chimeric transgenes were used to produce Prunus rootstocks resistant to crown gall disease through RNA-interference-mediated gene silencing of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncogenes ipt and iaaM. Transgenic plum and apricot lines were produced with efficiencies of up to 7.7 and 1.1% respectively. An in vitro evaluation method allowed identification of susceptible lines and reduction in the number of lines to be evaluated in the greenhouse. Five transgenic plum lines, expressing transgene-derived small interfering RNA (siRNA) and low levels of transgene hairpin RNA (hpRNA), showed a significant reduction in the development of the disease after infection with Agrobacterium strains C58 and A281 under greenhouse conditions. However, unexpectedly, all transgenic apricot lines were gall susceptible. The infection of apricot plants with a binary vector containing only the 6b oncogene demonstrated that the expression of this gene is involved in the induction of tumours in the apricot species. RNAi-mediated gene silencing can be used for inducing crown gall resistance in plum rootstocks. These could be used to graft non-genetically modified commercial fruit cultivars reducing, or eliminating, the disease symptoms. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Modification of competence for in vitro response to Fusarium oxysporum in tomato cells. II. Effect of the integration of Agrobacterium tumefaciens genes for auxin and cytokinin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Storti, E; Bogani, P; Bettini, P; Bittini, P; Guardiola, M L; Pellegrini, M G; Inzé, D; Buiatti, M

    1994-04-01

    We have studied the effect of a change in the endogenous hormone equilibria on the competence of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cells to defend themselves against the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Calluses from cvs 'Davis' and 'Red River', respectively resistant and susceptible to Fusarium and transgenic for an auxin- or cytokinin-synthesizing gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, were used. The integration of Agrobacterium hormone-related genes into susceptible cv 'Red River' can bring the activation of defense processes to a stable competence as assessed by the inhibition of mycelial growth in dual culture and gem-tube elongation of Fusarium conidia, the determination of callose contents, peroxidase induction and ion leakage in the presence of fusaric acid. This is particularly true when the transformation results in a change of phytohormone equilibria towards an higher cytokin in concentration. On the contrary, in resistant cv 'Davis' the inhibition of both fungal growth in dual culture and conidia germination is higher when the hormone balance is modified in favour of the auxins. No significant effect was observed for ion leakage and peroxidase induction, probably because of a constitutive overproduction of cytokinins in 'Davis' cells.

  2. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, with virus-derived hairpin RNA constructs confers resistance to Poinsettia mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Spetz, Carl; Haugslien, Sissel; Xing, Shaochen; Dees, Merete W; Moe, Roar; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2008-06-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Ex Klotzsch) is reported here for the first time. Internode stem explants of poinsettia cv. Millenium were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, strain LBA 4404, harbouring virus-derived hairpin (hp) RNA gene constructs to induce RNA silencing-mediated resistance to Poinsettia mosaic virus (PnMV). Prior to transformation, an efficient somatic embryogenesis system was developed for poinsettia cv. Millenium in which about 75% of the explants produced somatic embryos. In 5 experiments utilizing 868 explants, 18 independent transgenic lines were generated. An average transformation frequency of 2.1% (range 1.2-3.5%) was revealed. Stable integration of transgenes into the poinsettia nuclear genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Both single- and multiple-copy transgene integration into the poinsettia genome were found among transformants. Transgenic poinsettia plants showing resistance to mechanical inoculation of PnMV were detected by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Northern blot analysis of low molecular weight RNA revealed that transgene-derived small interfering (si) RNA molecules were detected among the poinsettia transformants prior to inoculation. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methodology developed in the current study should facilitate improvement of this ornamental plant with enhanced disease resistance, quality improvement and desirable colour alteration. Because poinsettia is a non-food, non-feed plant and is not propagated through sexual reproduction, this is likely to be more acceptable even in areas where genetically modified crops are currently not cultivated.

  3. Development of a rapid and simple Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation system for the fungal pathogen Heterobasidion annosum

    Treesearch

    Nicklas Samils; Malin Elfstrand; Daniel L. Lindner Czederpiltz; Jan Fahleson; Ake Olson; Christina Dixelius; Jan Stenlid

    2006-01-01

    Heterobasidion annosum causes root and butt-rot in trees and is the most serious forest pathogen in the northern hemisphere. We developed a rapid and simple Agrobacterium-mediated method of gene delivery into H. annosum to be used in functional studies of candidate genes and for visualization of mycelial interactions. Heterobasidion annosum TC 32-1 was cocultivated at...

  4. A Pterin-Dependent Signaling Pathway Regulates a Dual-Function Diguanylate Cyclase-Phosphodiesterase Controlling Surface Attachment in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Feirer, Nathan; Xu, Jing; Allen, Kylie D.; Koestler, Benjamin J.; Bruger, Eric L.; Waters, Christopher M.; White, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The motile-to-sessile transition is an important lifestyle switch in diverse bacteria and is often regulated by the intracellular second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP). In general, high c-di-GMP concentrations promote attachment to surfaces, whereas cells with low levels of signal remain motile. In the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens, c-di-GMP controls attachment and biofilm formation via regulation of a unipolar polysaccharide (UPP) adhesin. The levels of c-di-GMP in A. tumefaciens are controlled in part by the dual-function diguanylate cyclase-phosphodiesterase (DGC-PDE) protein DcpA. In this study, we report that DcpA possesses both c-di-GMP synthesizing and degrading activities in heterologous and native genetic backgrounds, a binary capability that is unusual among GGDEF-EAL domain-containing proteins. DcpA activity is modulated by a pteridine reductase called PruA, with DcpA acting as a PDE in the presence of PruA and a DGC in its absence. PruA enzymatic activity is required for the control of DcpA and through this control, attachment and biofilm formation. Intracellular pterin analysis demonstrates that PruA is responsible for the production of a novel pterin species. In addition, the control of DcpA activity also requires PruR, a protein encoded directly upstream of DcpA with a predicted molybdopterin-binding domain. PruR is hypothesized to be a potential signaling intermediate between PruA and DcpA through an as-yet-unidentified mechanism. This study provides the first prokaryotic example of a pterin-mediated signaling pathway and a new model for the regulation of dual-function DGC-PDE proteins. PMID:26126849

  5. Optimization of culture conditions and scale-up to pilot and plant scales for coenzyme Q10 production by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Ha, Suk-Jin; Kim, Sang-Yong; Seo, Jin-Ho; Oh, Deok-Kun; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2007-04-01

    This report describes the optimization of culture conditions for coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) production by Agrobacterium tumefaciens KCCM 10413, an identified high-CoQ(10)-producing strain (Kim et al., Korean patent. 10-0458818, 2002b). Among the conditions tested, the pH and the dissolved oxygen (DO) levels were the key factors affecting CoQ(10) production. When the pH and DO levels were controlled at 7.0 and 0-10%, respectively, a dry cell weight (DCW) of 48.4 g l(-1) and a CoQ(10) production of 320 mg l(-1) were obtained after 96 h of batch culture, corresponding to a specific CoQ(10) content of 6.61 mg g-DCW(-1). In a fed-batch culture of sucrose, the DCW, specific CoQ(10) content, and CoQ(10) production increased to 53.6 g l(-1), 8.54 mg g-DCW(-1), and 458 mg l(-1), respectively. CoQ(10) production was scaled up from a laboratory scale (5-l fermentor) to a pilot scale (300 l) and a plant scale (5,000 l) using the impeller tip velocity (V (tip)) as a scale-up parameter. CoQ(10) production at the laboratory scale was similar to those at the pilot and plant scales. This is the first report of pilot- and plant-scale productions of CoQ(10) in A. tumefaciens.

  6. Recognition of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirE2 translocation signal by the VirB/D4 transport system does not require VirE1.

    PubMed

    Vergunst, Annette C; van Lier, Miranda C M; den Dulk-Ras, Amke; Hooykaas, Paul J J

    2003-11-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens uses a type IV secretion system to deliver a nucleoprotein complex and effector proteins directly into plant cells. The single-stranded DNA-binding protein VirE2, the F-box protein VirF and VirE3 are delivered into host cells via this VirB/D4 encoded translocation system. VirE1 functions as a chaperone of VirE2 by regulating its efficient translation and preventing VirE2-VirE2 aggregation in the bacterial cell. We analyzed whether the VirE1 chaperone is also essential for transport recognition of VirE2 by the VirB/D4 encoded type IV secretion system. In addition, we assayed whether translocation of VirF and VirE3, which also forms part of the virE operon, is affected by the absence of VirE1. We employed the earlier developed CRAFT (Cre recombinase Reporter Assay For Translocation) assay to detect transfer of Cre::Vir fusion proteins from A. tumefaciens into plants, monitored by stable reconstitution of a kanamycin resistance marker, and into yeast, screened by loss of the URA3 gene. We show that the C-terminal 50 amino acids of VirE2 and VirE3 are sufficient to mediate Cre translocation into host cells, confirming earlier indications of a C-terminal transport signal. This transfer was independent of the presence or absence of VirE1. Besides, the translocation efficiency of VirF is not altered in a virE1 mutant. The results unambiguously show that the VirE1 chaperone is not essential for the recognition of the VirE2 transport signal by the transport system and the subsequent translocation across the bacterial envelope into host cells.

  7. Development of an efficient transformation method by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and high throughput spray assay to identify transgenic plants for woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) using NPTII selection.

    PubMed

    Pantazis, Christopher J; Fisk, Sarah; Mills, Kerri; Flinn, Barry S; Shulaev, Vladimir; Veilleux, Richard E; Dan, Yinghui

    2013-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We developed an efficient Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method using an Ac/Ds transposon tagging construct for F. vesca and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to identify its transformants for strawberry functional genomics. Genomic resources for Rosaceae species are now readily available, including the Fragaria vesca genome, EST sequences, markers, linkage maps, and physical maps. The Rosaceae Genomic Executive Committee has promoted strawberry as a translational genomics model due to its unique biological features and transformability for fruit trait improvement. Our overall research goal is to use functional genomic and metabolic approaches to pursue high throughput gene discovery in the diploid woodland strawberry. F. vesca offers several advantages of a fleshy fruit typical of most fruit crops, short life cycle (seed to seed in 12-16 weeks), small genome size (206 Mbb/C), small plant size, self-compatibility, and many seeds per plant. We have developed an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated strawberry transformation method using kanamycin selection, and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to efficiently identify transgenic strawberry plants. Using our kanamycin transformation method, we were able to produce up to 98 independent kanamycin resistant insertional mutant lines using a T-DNA construct carrying an Ac/Ds transposon Launchpad system from a single transformation experiment involving inoculation of 22 leaf explants of F. vesca accession 551572 within approx. 11 weeks (from inoculation to soil). Transgenic plants with 1-2 copies of a transgene were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Using our paromomycin spray assay, transgenic F. vesca plants were rapidly identified within 10 days after spraying.

  8. Optimization of in vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with heat-resistant cDNA in Brassica oleracea subsp. italica cv. Green Marvel.

    PubMed

    Ravanfar, Seyed Ali; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Abdullah, Janna Ong

    2015-11-01

    An efficient system for shoot regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Brassica oleracea cv. Green Marvel cultivar is described. This study focuses on developing shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants of broccoli cv. Green Marvel using thidiazuron (TDZ), zeatin, and kinetin, the optimization of factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the hypocotyl explants with heat-resistant cDNA, followed by the confirmation of transgenicity of the regenerants. High shoot regeneration was observed in 0.05-0.1 mg dm(-3) TDZ. TDZ at 0.1 mg dm(-3) produced among the highest percentage of shoot regeneration (96.67 %) and mean number of shoot formation (6.17). The highest percentage (13.33 %) and mean number (0.17) of putative transformant production were on hypocotyl explants subjected to preculture on shoot regeneration medium (SRM) with 200 µM acetosyringone. On optimization of bacterial density and inoculation time, the highest percentage and mean number of putative transformant production were on hypocotyl explants inoculated with a bacterial dilution of 1:5 for 30 min. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay indicated a transformation efficiency of 8.33 %. The luciferase assay showed stable integration of the Arabidopsis thaliana HSP101 (AtHSP101) cDNA in the transgenic broccoli regenerants. Three out of five transgenic lines confirmed through PCR showed positive hybridization bands of the AtHSP101 cDNA through Southern blot analysis. The presence of AtHSP101 transcripts in the three transgenic broccoli lines indicated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed the expression of the gene. In conclusion, an improved regeneration system has been established from hypocotyl explants of broccoli followed by successful transformation with AtHSP101 for resistance to high temperature.

  9. Plant transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens: modulation of single-stranded DNA-VirE2 complex assembly by VirE1.

    PubMed

    Frenkiel-Krispin, Daphna; Wolf, Sharon Grayer; Albeck, Shira; Unger, Tamar; Peleg, Yoav; Jacobovitch, Jossef; Michael, Yigal; Daube, Shirley; Sharon, Michal; Robinson, Carol V; Svergun, Dmitri I; Fass, Deborah; Tzfira, Tzvi; Elbaum, Michael

    2007-02-09

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects plant cells by the transfer of DNA. A key factor in this process is the bacterial virulence protein VirE2, which associates stoichiometrically with the transported single-stranded (ss) DNA molecule (T-strand). As observed in vitro by transmission electron microscopy, VirE2-ssDNA readily forms an extended helical complex with a structure well suited to the tasks of DNA protection and nuclear import. Here we have elucidated the role of the specific molecular chaperone VirE1 in regulating VireE2-VirE2 and VirE2-ssDNA interactions. VirE2 alone formed functional filamentous aggregates capable of ssDNA binding. In contrast, co-expression with VirE1 yielded monodisperse VirE1-VirE2 complexes. Cooperative binding of VirE2 to ssDNA released VirE1, resulting in a controlled formation mechanism for the helical complex that is further promoted by macromolecular crowding. Based on this in vitro evidence, we suggest that the constrained volume of the VirB channel provides a natural site for the exchange of VirE2 binding from VirE1 to the T-strand.

  10. Identification of pathogenicity-related genes in the vascular wilt fungus Verticillium dahliae by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated T-DNA insertional mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Maruthachalam, K; Klosterman, S J; Kang, S; Hayes, R J; Subbarao, K V

    2011-11-01

    Verticillium dahliae is the causal agent of vascular wilt in many economically important crops worldwide. Identification of genes that control pathogenicity or virulence may suggest targets for alternative control methods for this fungus. In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was applied for insertional mutagenesis of V. dahliae conidia. Southern blot analysis indicated that T-DNAs were inserted randomly into the V. dahliae genome and that 69% of the transformants were the result of single copy T-DNA insertion. DNA sequences flanking T-DNA insertion were isolated through inverse PCR (iPCR), and these sequences were aligned to the genome sequence to identify the genomic position of insertion. V. dahliae mutants of particular interest selected based on culture phenotypes included those that had lost the ability to form microsclerotia and subsequently used for virulence assay. Based on the virulence assay of 181 transformants, we identified several mutant strains of V. dahliae that did not cause symptoms on lettuce plants. Among these mutants, T-DNA was inserted in genes encoding an endoglucanase 1 (VdEg-1), a hydroxyl-methyl glutaryl-CoA synthase (VdHMGS), a major facilitator superfamily 1 (VdMFS1), and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) mannosyltransferase 3 (VdGPIM3). These results suggest that ATMT can effectively be used to identify genes associated with pathogenicity and other functions in V. dahliae.

  11. Hypervirulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens A281 is encoded in a region of pTiBo542 outside of T-DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, E.E.; Helmer, G.L.; Fraley, R.T.; Chilton, M.D.

    1986-12-01

    A binary-vectory strategy was used to study the hypervirulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens A281, an L,L-succinamopine strain. Strain A281 is hypervirulent on several solanaceous plants. Plasmids were constructed (pCS65 and pCS277) carrying either the transferred DNA (T-DNA) or the remainder of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid (pEHA101) from this strain and tested each of these constructs were tested in trans with complementary each of regions from heterologous Ti plasmids. Hypervirulence on tobacco could be reconstructed in a bipartite strain with the L,L-succinamopine T-DNA and the vir region on separate plasmids. pEHA101 was able to complement octopine T-DNA to hypervirulence on tobacco and tomato plants. Nopaline T-DNA was complemented better on tomato plants by pEHA101 than it was by its own nopaline vir region, but not to hypervirulence. L,L-Succinamopine T-DNA could not be complemented to hypervirulence on tobacco and tomato plants with either heterologous vir region. From these results the authors suggest that the hypervirulence of strain A281 is due to non-T-DNA sequences on the Ti plasmid.

  12. Absence of Substrate Channeling between Active Sites in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens IspDF and IspE Enzymes of the Methyl Erythritol Phosphate Pathway†

    PubMed Central

    Lherbet, Christian; Pojer, Florence; Richard, Stéphane B.; Noel, Joseph P.; Poulter, C. D.

    2008-01-01

    The conversion of 2C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) to 2C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate (cMEDP) in the MEP entry into the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway occurs in three consecutive steps catalyzed by the IspD, IspE, and IspF enzymes, respectively. In Agrobacterium tumefaciens the ispD and ispF genes are fused to encode a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the first (synthesis of 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl d-erythritol) and third (synthesis of 2C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate) steps. Sedimentation velocity experiments indicate that the bifunctional IspDF enzyme and the IspE protein associate in solution raising the possibility of substrate channeling among the active sites in these two proteins. Kinetic evidence for substrate channeling was sought by measuring the time courses for product formation during incubations of MEP, CTP, and ATP with the IspDF and IspE proteins with and without an excess of the inactive IspE (D152A) mutant in presence or absence of 30% (v/v) glycerol. The time dependencies indicate that the enzyme-generated intermediates are not transferred from the IspD active site in IspDF to the active site of IspE or from the active site in IspE to the active site in the IspF module of IspDF. PMID:16533036

  13. Production of d-psicose from d-fructose by whole recombinant cells with high-level expression of d-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Su; Park, Chul-Soon; Shin, Kyung-Chul; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2016-02-01

    The specific activity of recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing the double-site variant (I33L-S213C) d-psicose 3-epimerase (DPEase) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens was highest at 24 h of cultivation time in Terrific Broth (TB) medium among the media tested. The contents of crude protein and DPEase in recombinant cells at 24 h were 37.0 and 8.6% (w/w), respectively, indicating that the enzyme was highly expressed. The reaction conditions for the production of d-psicose from d-fructose by whole recombinant cells with the highest specific activity were optimal at 60°C, pH 8.5, 4 g/l cells, and 700 g/l d-fructose. Under these conditions, whole recombinant cells produced 230 g/l d-psicose after 40 min, with a conversion yield of 33% (w/w), a volumetric productivity of 345 g/l/h, and a specific productivity of 86.2 g/g/h. These are the highest conversion yield and volumetric and specific productivities of d-psicose from d-fructose by cells reported thus far.

  14. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transgenic plant and somaclone production through direct and indirect regeneration from leaves in Stevia rebaudiana with their glycoside profile.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Ur Rahman, Laiq; Shanker, Karuna; Singh, Manju

    2014-05-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens (EHA-105 harboring pCAMBIA 1304)-mediated transgenic plant production via direct regeneration from leaf and elite somaclones generation through indirect regeneration in Stevia rebaudiana is reported. Optimum direct regeneration frequency along with highest transformation frequency was found on MS + 1 mg/l BAP + 1 mg/l NAA, while indirect regeneration from callus was obtained on MS + 1 mg/l BAP + 2 mg/l NAA. Successful transfer of GUS-positive (GUS assay and PCR-based confirmation) transgenic as well as four somaclones up to glasshouse acclimatization has been achieved. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) profiling of transgenic and somaclonal plants showed a total of 113 bands, out of which 49 were monomorphic (43.36 %) and 64 were polymorphic (56.64 %). Transgenic plant was found to be closer to mother plant, while on the basis of steviol, stevioside, and rebaudioside A profile, somaclone S2 was found to be the best and showed maximum variability in ISSR profiling.

  15. A nuclear localization signal and the C-terminal omega sequence in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirD2 endonuclease are important for tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Shurvinton, C E; Hodges, L; Ream, W

    1992-12-15

    The T-DNA portion of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid integrates into plant nuclear DNA. Direct repeats define the T-DNA ends; transfer begins when the VirD2 endonuclease produces a site-specific nick in the right-hand border repeat and attaches to the 5' end of the nicked strand. Subsequent events generate linear single-stranded VirD2-bound DNA molecules that include the entire T-DNA (T-strands). VirD2 protein contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS) near the C terminus and may direct bound T-strands to plant nuclei. We constructed mutations in virD2 and showed that the NLS was important for tumorigenesis, although T-strand production occurred normally in its absence. A tobacco etch virus NLS, substituted for the VirD2 NLS, restored tumor-inducing activity. Amino acids (the omega sequence) at the C terminus of VirD2, outside the NLS and the endonuclease domain, contributed significantly to tumorigenesis, suggesting that VirD2 may serve a third important function in T-DNA transfer.

  16. Absence of substrate channeling between active sites in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens IspDF and IspE enzymes of the methyl erythritol phosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Lherbet, Christian; Pojer, Florence; Richard, Stéphane B; Noel, Joseph P; Poulter, C D

    2006-03-21

    The conversion of 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) to 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate (cMEDP) in the MEP entry into the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway occurs in three consecutive steps catalyzed by the IspD, IspE, and IspF enzymes, respectively. In Agrobacterium tumefaciens the ispD and ispF genes are fused to encode a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the first (synthesis of 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl d-erythritol) and third (synthesis of 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate) steps. Sedimentation velocity experiments indicate that the bifunctional IspDF enzyme and the IspE protein associate in solution, raising the possibility of substrate channeling among the active sites in these two proteins. Kinetic evidence for substrate channeling was sought by measuring the time courses for product formation during incubations of MEP, CTP, and ATP with the IspDF and IspE proteins with and without an excess of the inactive IspE(D152A) mutant in the presence or absence of 30% (v/v) glycerol. The time dependencies indicate that the enzyme-generated intermediates are not transferred from the IspD active site in IspDF to the active site of IspE or from the active site in IspE to the active site of the IspF module of IspDF.

  17. Synthesis of methylerythritol phosphate analogues and their evaluation as alternate substrates for IspDF and IspE from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Krasutsky, Sergiy G; Urbansky, Marek; Davis, Chad E; Lherbet, Christian; Coates, Robert M; Poulter, C Dale

    2014-10-03

    The methylerythritol phosphate biosynthetic pathway, found in most Bacteria, some parasitic protists, and plant chloroplasts, converts D-glyceraldehyde phosphate and pyruvate to isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), where it intersects with the mevalonate pathway found in some Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya, including the cytosol of plants. D-3-Methylerythritol-4-phosphate (MEP), the first pathway-specific intermediate in the pathway, is converted to IPP and DMAPP by the consecutive action of the IspD-H proteins. We synthesized five D-MEP analogues-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (EP), D-3-methylthrietol-4-phosphate (MTP), D-3-ethylerythritol-4-phosphate (EEP), D-1-amino-3-methylerythritol-4-phosphate (NMEP), and D-3-methylerythritol-4-thiolophosphate (MESP)-and studied their ability to function as alternative substrates for the reactions catalyzed by the IspDF fusion and IspE proteins from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which covert MEP to the corresponding eight-membered cyclic diphosphate. All of the analogues, except MTP, and their products were substrates for the three consecutive enzymes.

  18. Synthesis of Methylerythritol Phosphate Analogues and Their Evaluation as Alternate Substrates for IspDF and IspE from Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The methylerythritol phosphate biosynthetic pathway, found in most Bacteria, some parasitic protists, and plant chloroplasts, converts d-glyceraldehyde phosphate and pyruvate to isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), where it intersects with the mevalonate pathway found in some Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya, including the cytosol of plants. d-3-Methylerythritol-4-phosphate (MEP), the first pathway-specific intermediate in the pathway, is converted to IPP and DMAPP by the consecutive action of the IspD-H proteins. We synthesized five d-MEP analogues—d-erythritol-4-phosphate (EP), d-3-methylthrietol-4-phosphate (MTP), d-3-ethylerythritol-4-phosphate (EEP), d-1-amino-3-methylerythritol-4-phosphate (NMEP), and d-3-methylerythritol-4-thiolophosphate (MESP)—and studied their ability to function as alternative substrates for the reactions catalyzed by the IspDF fusion and IspE proteins from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which covert MEP to the corresponding eight-membered cyclic diphosphate. All of the analogues, except MTP, and their products were substrates for the three consecutive enzymes. PMID:25184438

  19. Stable genetic transformation of castor (Ricinus communis L.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer using embryo axes from mature seeds.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, M; Sailaja, M

    2005-03-01

    A protocol for the transformation of castor embryo axes using the pCAMBIA vector 1304 in disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 is presented. Co-cultivated explants were initially subjected to expansion and proliferation on MS medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) TDZ followed by three cycles of selection on medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) BA and increasing concentrations of hygromycin (20-40-60 mg l(-1)). Selected shoot clusters were transferred to medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) BA for proliferation and 0.2 mg l(-1) BA for shoot elongation. Elongated shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium with 2.0 mg l(-1) NAA. The presence and stable integration of the hpt gene was confirmed through PCR, RT-PCR, PCR-Southern blot, sequence analysis, Southern blot analysis and PCR analysis of progeny. Southern blot analysis of the primary transformants showed single copy integration and progeny analysis revealed monogenic inheritance of the introduced gene. This paper reports the first successful attempt at producing transgenic castor.

  20. Synergistic effects of chromosomal ispB deletion and dxs overexpression on coenzyme Q(10) production in recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Agrobacterium tumefaciens dps gene.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Ho; Ryu, Yeon-Woo; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2009-10-12

    For biotechnological production of coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) in recombinant Escherichia coli, three genetic manipulations were performed: heterologous expression of decaprenyl diphosphate synthase (Dps) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, deletion of endogenous octaprenyl diphosphate synthase (IspB), and overexpression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose synthase (Dxs). Expression of the dps gene and deletion of the ispB gene in E. coli BL21(DE3)DeltaispB/pAP1 allowed production of CoQ(10) only. Furthermore, coexpression of the dxs gene increased the specific content of CoQ(10) from 0.55-0.89mgg(-1) to 1.40mgg(-1). For mass production of CoQ(10), fed-batch fermentation of E. coli BL21(DE3)DeltaispB/pAP1+pDXS was carried out in a defined medium with 20gl(-1) initial glucose and by the glucose-feeding strategy of pH-stat. Finally, 99.4mgl(-1) CoQ(10) concentration, 1.41mgg(-1) specific CoQ(10) content and 3.11mgl(-1)h(-1) productivity were obtained in 33h of the fermentation, which were 78, 1.9, and 19 times higher than those for E. coli BL21(DE3)/pAP1 without the ispB deletion and dxs overexpression.

  1. The Addition of N-Hexanoyl-Homoserine Lactone to Improve the Microbial Flocculant Production of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strain F2, an Exopolysaccharide Bioflocculant-Producing Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jixian; Wu, Dan; Li, Ang; Guo, Haijuan; Chen, Han; Pi, Shanshan; Wei, Wei; Ma, Fang

    2016-07-01

    In this study, N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), a member of the N-acyl-homoserine lactone class of microbial quorum sensing (QS) signaling molecules, was used to improve microbial flocculant production. After exogenous C6-HSL was added, exopolysaccharide concentration of microbial flocculants was improved by 1.6-fold and flocculation rate of microbial flocculants was increased by 10 %. Fermentation conditions with added C6-HSL were further optimized through response surface methodology. The obtained optimal fermentation conditions were as follows: added C6-HSL concentration of 0.45 μM, fermentation temperature of 30.4 °C, and initial fermentation pH of 7.25. Under these optimal fermentation conditions, the resulting exopolysaccharide concentration was improved by 1.75-fold and flocculation rate was increased by 10 % compared with that of the control group. The yield of microbial flocculants was also improved by 1.75-fold. Results demonstrated that the existence of QS system in Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain F2 played the important roles in the microbial flocculant production.

  2. Expression of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) single-chain variable fragment (scFv) in Spirodela punctata plants transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Parthasarathy; Satheeshkumar, P K; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2016-05-01

    Therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) have been considered effective for some of the autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's diseases, and so on. But associated limitations of the current therapeutics in terms of cost, availability, and immunogenicity have necessitated the need for alternative candidates. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) can negate the limitations tagged with the anti-TNFα therapeutics to a greater extent. In the present study, Spirodela punctata plants were transformed with anti-TNFα through in planta transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, EHA105. Instead of cefotaxime, garlic extract (1 mg/mL) was used to remove the agrobacterial cells after cocultivation. To the best of our knowledge, this report shows for the first time the application of plant extracts in transgenic plant development. 95% of the plants survived screening under hygromycin. ScFv cDNA integration in the plant genomic DNA was confirmed at the molecular level by PCR. The transgenic protein expression was followed up to 10 months. Expression of scFv was confirmed by immunodot blot. Protein expression levels of up to 6.3% of total soluble protein were observed. β-Glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein expressions were also detected in the antibiotic resistant plants. The paper shows the generation of transgenic Spirodela punctuata plants through in planta transformation.

  3. [Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with increased resistance to the storage pest obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens--mediated].

    PubMed

    Bi, Rui-Ming; Jia, Hai-Yan; Feng, De-Shun; Wang, Hong-Gang

    2006-05-01

    The transgenic wheat of improved resistance to the storage pest was production. We have introduced the cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene (CpTI) into cultured embryonic callus cells of immature embryos of wheat elite line by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Independent plantlets were obtained from the kanamycin-resistant calli after screening. PCR and real time PCR analysis, PCR-Southern and Southern blot hybridization indicated that there were 3 transgenic plants viz. transformed- I, II and III (T- I, T-II and T-III). The transformation frequencies were obviously affected by Agrobacterium concentration, the infection duration and transformation treatment. The segregations of CpTI in the transgenic wheat progenies were not easily to be elucidated, and some transgenic wheat lines (T- I and T-III) showed Mendelian segregations. The determinations of insect resistance to the stored grain insect of wheat viz. the grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Olivier) indicated that the 3 transgenic wheat progeny seeds moth-resistance was improved significantly. The seed moth-eaten ratio of T- I, T-II, T-III and nontransformed control was 19.8%, 21.9%, 32.9% and 58.3% respectively. 3 transgenic wheat T1 PCR-positive plants revealed that the 3 transgenic lines had excellent agronomic traits. They supplied good germplasm resource of insect-resistance for wheat genetic improvement.

  4. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Beauveria bassiana using an herbicide resistance gene as a selection marker.

    PubMed

    Fang, Weiguo; Zhang, Yongjun; Yang, Xingyong; Zheng, Xuelian; Duan, Hui; Li, Yi; Pei, Yan

    2004-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana has been investigated for use in the biological control of several insects in agricultural practice. To understand the molecular basis of virulence and host specificity and to improve the entomopathogenicity of B. bassiana, we have developed a simple, highly efficient and reliable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for B. bassiana using a phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar) gene as a selectable marker. Most transformants contained single copies of T-DNA and the T-DNA inserts were stably inherited after five generations. With this highly efficient transformation method for B. bassiana, we also obtained two putative T-DNA-tagged mutants that may have altered growth habits or virulence. Thus, the described protocol could provide a useful tool to manipulate the genetic make-up and to tag genes that may be important for virulence or growth and development of B. bassiana.

  5. The thuEFGKAB Operon of Rhizobia and Agrobacterium tumefaciens Codes for Transport of Trehalose, Maltitol, and Isomers of Sucrose and Their Assimilation through the Formation of Their 3-Keto Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Avetisyan, Anna; Hansen, Espen; Svenson, Johan; Huser, Thomas; Bhuvaneswari, T. V.

    2013-01-01

    The thu operon (thuEFGKAB) in Sinorhizobium meliloti codes for transport and utilization functions of the disaccharide trehalose. Sequenced genomes of members of the Rhizobiaceae reveal that some rhizobia and Agrobacterium possess the entire thu operon in similar organizations and that Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 lacks the transport (thuEFGK) genes. In this study, we show that this operon is dedicated to the transport and assimilation of maltitol and isomers of sucrose (leucrose, palatinose, and trehalulose) in addition to trehalulose, not only in S. meliloti but also in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. By using genetic complementation, we show that the thuAB genes of S. meliloti, M. loti, and A. tumefaciens are functionally equivalent. Further, we provide both genetic and biochemical evidence to show that these bacteria assimilate these disaccharides by converting them to their respective 3-keto derivatives and that the thuAB genes code for this ketodisaccharide-forming enzyme(s). Formation of 3-ketotrehalose in real time in live S. meliloti is shown through Raman spectroscopy. The presence of an additional ketodisaccharide-forming pathway(s) in A. tumefaciens is also indicated. To our knowledge, this is the first report to identify the genes that code for the conversion of disaccharides to their 3-ketodisaccharide derivatives in any organism. PMID:23772075

  6. Genetic transformation of Fusarium avenaceum by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation and the development of a USER-Brick vector construction system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungus Fusarium avenaceum causes considerable in-field and post-field losses worldwide due to its infections of a wide range of different crops. Despite its significant impact on the profitability of agriculture production and a desire to characterize the infection process at the molecular biological level, no genetic transformation protocol has yet been established for F. avenaceum. In the current study, it is shown that F. avenaceum can be efficiently transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. In addition, an efficient and versatile single step vector construction strategy relying on Uracil Specific Excision Reagent (USER) Fusion cloning, is developed. Results The new vector construction system, termed USER-Brick, is based on a limited number of PCR amplified vector fragments (core USER-Bricks) which are combined with PCR generated fragments from the gene of interest. The system was found to have an assembly efficiency of 97% with up to six DNA fragments, based on the construction of 55 vectors targeting different polyketide synthase (PKS) and PKS associated transcription factor encoding genes in F. avenaceum. Subsequently, the ΔFaPKS3 vector was used for optimizing A. tumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT) of F. avenaceum with respect to six variables. Acetosyringone concentration, co-culturing time, co-culturing temperature and fungal inoculum were found to significantly impact the transformation frequency. Following optimization, an average of 140 transformants per 106 macroconidia was obtained in experiments aimed at introducing targeted genome modifications. Targeted deletion of FaPKS6 (FA08709.2) in F. avenaceum showed that this gene is essential for biosynthesis of the polyketide/nonribosomal compound fusaristatin A. Conclusion The new USER-Brick system is highly versatile by allowing for the reuse of a common set of building blocks to accommodate seven different types of genome

  7. Development of Marker-Free Insect-Resistant Indica Rice by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Co-transformation

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Fei; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation is an efficient strategy to generate marker-free transgenic plants. In this study, the vectors pMF-2A∗ containing a synthetic cry2A∗ gene driven by maize ubiquitin promoter and pCAMBIA1301 harboring hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) were introduced into Minghui86 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica), an elite indica restorer line. Two independent transformants containing both the cry2A∗ gene and hpt gene were regenerated. Several homozygous marker-free transgenic progenies were derived from family 2AH2, and three of them were selected for further insect bioassay in the laboratory and field. Insect-resistance assays revealed that all the three transgenic lines were highly resistant to striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), yellow stem borer (Tryporyza incertulas) and rice leaf folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis). The measurement of Cry2A protein concentration showed that Cry2A protein was stably expressed in leaves and stems of homozygous transgenic lines and their hybrids. The yields of the marker-free homozygous transgenic lines and their hybrids were not significantly different from those of their corresponding controls. Furthermore, the results of flanking sequence isolation showed that the T-DNA in line 8-30 was integrated into the intergenic region of chromosome 2 (between Os02g43680 and Os02g43690). These results indicate that the marker-free transgenic rice has the potential for commercial production. PMID:27833629

  8. Development of Marker-Free Insect-Resistant Indica Rice by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Co-transformation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Fei; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation is an efficient strategy to generate marker-free transgenic plants. In this study, the vectors pMF-2A(∗) containing a synthetic cry2A(∗) gene driven by maize ubiquitin promoter and pCAMBIA1301 harboring hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) were introduced into Minghui86 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica), an elite indica restorer line. Two independent transformants containing both the cry2A(∗) gene and hpt gene were regenerated. Several homozygous marker-free transgenic progenies were derived from family 2AH2, and three of them were selected for further insect bioassay in the laboratory and field. Insect-resistance assays revealed that all the three transgenic lines were highly resistant to striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), yellow stem borer (Tryporyza incertulas) and rice leaf folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis). The measurement of Cry2A protein concentration showed that Cry2A protein was stably expressed in leaves and stems of homozygous transgenic lines and their hybrids. The yields of the marker-free homozygous transgenic lines and their hybrids were not significantly different from those of their corresponding controls. Furthermore, the results of flanking sequence isolation showed that the T-DNA in line 8-30 was integrated into the intergenic region of chromosome 2 (between Os02g43680 and Os02g43690). These results indicate that the marker-free transgenic rice has the potential for commercial production.

  9. Ectopic localization of auxin and cytokinin in tobacco seedlings by the plant-oncogenic AK-6b gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens AKE10.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sachiko; Sato, Rui; Takahashi, Miho; Hashiba, Noriko; Ogawa, Atsushi; Toyofuku, Kyoko; Sawata, Taiki; Ohsawa, Yuki; Ueda, Kenji; Wabiko, Hiroetsu

    2013-10-01

    The oncogenic 6b gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces a number of morphological and metabolic alterations in plants. Although molecular functions associated with the 6b genes have been proposed, including auxin transport, sugar transport, transcriptional regulation, and miRNA metabolism, so far an unequivocal conclusion has not been obtained. We investigated the association between auxin accumulation and tumor development of the tobacco seedlings expressing the AK-6b gene under the control of the dexamethasone-inducible promoter. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) localization was examined by immunochemical staining with monoclonal antibody against IAA and by histochemical analysis using the IAA-specific induced construct, DR5::GUS (β-glucuronidase). Both procedures indicated that IAA preferentially accumulated in the tumorous protrusions as well as in newly developing vascular bundles in the tumors. Furthermore, true leaves also showed abaxial IAA localization, leading to altered leaves in which the adaxial and abaxial identities were no longer evident. Co-localization of cytokinin and auxin in the abaxial tumors was verified by immunochemical staining with an antibody against cytokinin. Treatment of AK-6b-seedlings with N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, promoted the morphological severity of phenotypes, whereas 1-naphthoxyacetic acid, a specific auxin influx carrier inhibitor, induced tumor regression on cotyledons and new tumorous proliferations on hypocotyls. Prominent accumulation of both auxin and cytokinin was observed in both regressed and newly developing tumors. We suggest from these results that modulation of auxin/cytokinin localization as a result of AK-6b gene expression is responsible for the tumorous proliferation.

  10. Wound-released chemical signals may elicit multiple responses from an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain containing an octopine-type Ti plasmid.

    PubMed

    Kalogeraki, V S; Winans, S C

    1998-11-01

    The vir regions of octopine-type and nopaline-type Ti plasmids direct the transfer of oncogenic T-DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to the nuclei of host plant cells. Previous studies indicate that at least two genetic loci at the left ends of these two vir regions are sufficiently conserved to form heteroduplexes visible in the electron microscope. To initiate an investigation of these genetic loci, we determined the DNA sequences of these regions of both Ti plasmids and identified both conserved loci. One of these is the 2.5-kb virH locus, which was previously identified on the octopine-type Ti plasmid but thought to be absent from the nopaline-type Ti plasmid. The virH operon contains two genes that resemble P-450-type monooxygenases. The other locus encodes a 0.5-kb gene designated virK. In addition, we identified other potential genes in this region that are not conserved between these two plasmids. To determine (i) whether these genes are members of the vir regulon and, (ii) whether they are required for tumorigenesis, we used a genetic technique to disrupt each gene and simultaneously fuse its promoter to lacZ. Expression of these genes was also measured by nuclease S1 protection assays. virK and two nonconserved genes, designated virL and virM, were strongly induced by the vir gene inducer acetosyringone. Disruptions of virH, virK, virL, or virM did not affect tumorigenesis of Kalanchöe diagramontiana leaves or carrot disks, suggesting that they may play an entirely different role during pathogenesis.

  11. Oncogene 6b from Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces abaxial cell division at late stages of leaf development and modifies vascular development in petioles.

    PubMed

    Terakura, Shinji; Kitakura, Saeko; Ishikawa, Masaki; Ueno, Yoshihisa; Fujita, Tomomichi; Machida, Chiyoko; Wabiko, Hiroetsu; Machida, Yasunori

    2006-05-01

    The 6b gene in the T-DNA region of the Ti plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. vitis is able to generate shooty calli in phytohormone-free culture of leaf sections of tobacco transformed with 6b. In the present study, we report characteristic morphological abnormalities of the leaves of transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis that express 6b from pTiAKE10 (AK-6b), and altered expression of genes related to cell division and meristem formation in the transgenic plants. Cotyledons and leaves of both transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis exhibited various abnormalities including upward curling of leaf blades, and transgenic tobacco leaves produced leaf-like outgrowths from the abaxial side. Transcripts of some class 1 KNOX homeobox genes, which are thought to be related to meristem functions, and cell cycle regulating genes were ectopically accumulated in mature leaves. M phase-specific genes were also ectopically expressed at the abaxial sides of mature leaves. These results suggest that the AK-6b gene stimulates the cellular potential for division and meristematic functions preferentially in the abaxial side of leaves and that the leaf phenotypes generated by AK-6b are at least in part due to such biased cell division during polar development of leaves. The results of the present experiments with a fusion gene between the AK-6b gene and the glucocorticoid receptor gene showed that nuclear import of the AK-6b protein was essential for upward curling of leaves and hormone-free callus formation, suggesting a role for AK-6b in nuclear events.

  12. Purification, crystallization and structural elucidation of d-galactaro-1,4-lactone cycloisomerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens involved in pectin degradation

    PubMed Central

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Bouvier, Jason T.; Gerlt, John A.; Almo, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Pectin is found in the cell wall of plants and is often discarded as waste. A number of research groups are interested in redirecting this biomass waste stream for the production of fuel and bulk chemicals. The primary monomeric subunit of this polysaccharide is d-galacturonate, a six-carbon acid sugar that is degraded in a five-step pathway to central metabolic intermediates by some bacteria, including Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In the third step of the pathway, d-galactaro-1,4-lactone is converted to 2-keto-3-deoxy-l-threo-hexarate by a member of the mandelate racemase subgroup of the enolase superfamily with a novel activity for the superfamily. The 1.6 Å resolution structure of this enzyme was determined, revealing an overall modified (β/α)7β TIM-barrel domain, a hallmark of the superfamily. d-Galactaro-1,4-lactone was manually docked into the active site located at the interface between the N-terminal lid domain and the C-terminal barrel domain. On the basis of the position of the lactone in the active site, Lys166 is predicted to be the active-site base responsible for abstraction of the α proton. His296 on the opposite side of the active site is predicted to be the general acid that donates a proton to the β carbon as the lactone ring opens. The lactone ring appears to be oriented within the active site by stacking interactions with Trp298. PMID:26750482

  13. Dynamic FtsA and FtsZ localization and outer membrane alterations during polar growth and cell division in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Zupan, John R; Cameron, Todd A; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2013-05-28

    Growth and cell division in rod-shaped bacteria have been primarily studied in species that grow predominantly by peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis along the length of the cell. Rhizobiales species, however, predominantly grow by PG synthesis at a single pole. Here we characterize the dynamic localization of several Agrobacterium tumefaciens components during the cell cycle. First, the lipophilic dye FM 4-64 predominantly stains the outer membranes of old poles versus growing poles. In cells about to divide, however, both poles are equally labeled with FM 4-64, but the constriction site is not. Second, the cell-division protein FtsA alternates from unipolar foci in the shortest cells to unipolar and midcell localization in cells of intermediate length, to strictly midcell localization in the longest cells undergoing septation. Third, the cell division protein FtsZ localizes in a cell-cycle pattern similar to, but more complex than, FtsA. Finally, because PG synthesis is spatially and temporally regulated during the cell cycle, we treated cells with sublethal concentrations of carbenicillin (Cb) to assess the role of penicillin-binding proteins in growth and cell division. Cb-treated cells formed midcell circumferential bulges, suggesting that interrupted PG synthesis destabilizes the septum. Midcell bulges contained bands or foci of FtsA-GFP and FtsZ-GFP and no FM 4-64 label, as in untreated cells. There were no abnormal morphologies at the growth poles in Cb-treated cells, suggesting unipolar growth uses Cb-insensitive PG synthesis enzymes.

  14. ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transport System Solute-binding Protein-guided Identification of Novel d-Altritol and Galactitol Catabolic Pathways in Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58*

    PubMed Central

    Wichelecki, Daniel J.; Vetting, Matthew W.; Chou, Liyushang; Al-Obaidi, Nawar; Bouvier, Jason T.; Almo, Steven C.; Gerlt, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in the discovery of the functions of uncharacterized proteins/enzymes have become increasingly important as advances in sequencing technology flood protein databases with an exponentially growing number of open reading frames. This study documents one such innovation developed by the Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI; U54GM093342), the use of solute-binding proteins for transport systems to identify novel metabolic pathways. In a previous study, this strategy was applied to the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters. Here, we apply this strategy to the ATP-binding cassette transporters and report the discovery of novel catabolic pathways for d-altritol and galactitol in Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. These efforts resulted in the description of three novel enzymatic reactions as follows: 1) oxidation of d-altritol to d-tagatose via a dehydrogenase in Pfam family PF00107, a previously unknown reaction; 2) phosphorylation of d-tagatose to d-tagatose 6-phosphate via a kinase in Pfam family PF00294, a previously orphan EC number; and 3) epimerization of d-tagatose 6-phosphate C-4 to d-fructose 6-phosphate via a member of Pfam family PF08013, another previously unknown reaction. The epimerization reaction catalyzed by a member of PF08013 is especially noteworthy, because the functions of members of PF08013 have been unknown. These discoveries were assisted by the following two synergistic bioinformatics web tools made available by the Enzyme Function Initiative: the EFI-Enzyme Similarity Tool and the EFI-Genome Neighborhood Tool. PMID:26472925

  15. Generation and Screening of T-DNA Insertion Mutants Mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in the Garden Asparagus Stem Blight Pathogen Phomopsis asparagi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueping; Qu, Huaxiang; Zhao, Ping; Tang, Yongping; Zhou, Jingsong; Luo, Shaochun; Yin, Yuling; Chen, Guangyu

    2017-07-20

    The garden asparagus stem blight caused by filamentous fungus Phomopsis asparagi exposes a serious threat on asparagus production globally. However, to present, we understand poorly about the molecular mechanisms of fungal pathogenicity. To facilitate functional genomics research of P. asparagi, here we developed a highly efficient and stable Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation approach which yielded 150-200 transformants per 1 × 10(6) conidia. Our results indicated that 25 °C, acetosyringone concentration of 150 μmol/L, and 72 h were recommended as optimal co-cultivation conditions for the transformation. Using this transformation approach, we constructed a T-DNA insertion mutant library containing 1253 strains. Twenty randomly selected T-DNA insertion mutants were able to grow on 0.2 × PDA selective media after five successive subcultures without selective pressure, indicating that the exogenous T-DNA was stably integrated into the P. asparagi genome. We confirmed several randomly selected mutants using PCR with primers specific to the hph gene. Southern blots suggested that three out of the five selected mutants have a single T-DNA insertion. Interestingly, multiple mutant candidates with growth defects were obtained from the growth assay. Moreover, several mutants were selected for further analysis on the T-DNA flanking sequences through TAIL-PCR analysis. A sequence comparison of total junction fragments implied that the insertion of T-DNA within P. asparagi genome appeared to be a random event. The transformation technology and genetic resources developed here will facilitate studies of pathogenic mechanisms in this devastating filamentous fungal pathogen of garden asparagus.

  16. The Dps protein of Agrobacterium tumefaciens does not bind to DNA but protects it toward oxidative cleavage: x-ray crystal structure, iron binding, and hydroxyl-radical scavenging properties.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Pierpaolo; Ilari, Andrea; Falvo, Elisabetta; Chiancone, Emilia

    2003-05-30

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens Dps (DNA-binding proteins from starved cells), encoded by the dps gene located on the circular chromosome of this plant pathogen, was cloned, and its structural and functional properties were determined in vitro. In Escherichia coli Dps, the family prototype, the DNA binding properties are thought to be associated with the presence of the lysine-containing N-terminal tail that extends from the protein surface into the solvent. The x-ray crystal structure of A. tumefaciens Dps shows that the positively charged N-terminal tail, which is 11 amino acids shorter than in the E. coli protein, is blocked onto the protein surface. This feature accounts for the lack of interaction with DNA. The intersubunit ferroxidase center characteristic of Dps proteins is conserved and confers to the A. tumefaciens protein a ferritin-like activity that manifests itself in the capacity to oxidize and incorporate iron in the internal cavity and to release it after reduction. In turn, sequestration of Fe(II) correlates with the capacity of A. tumefaciens Dps to reduce the production of hydroxyl radicals from H2O2 through Fenton chemistry. These data demonstrate conclusively that DNA protection from oxidative damage in vitro does not require formation of a Dps-DNA complex. In vivo, the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of A. tumefaciens Dps may be envisaged to act in concert with catalase A to counteract the toxic effect of H2O2, the major component of the plant defense system when challenged by the bacterium.

  17. Shape-dependent bactericidal activity of TiO2 for the killing of Gram-negative bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens under UV torch irradiation.

    PubMed

    Aminedi, Raghavendra; Wadhwa, Gunveen; Das, Niranjan; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-09-01

    This paper demonstrated the relative bactericidal activity of photoirradiated (6W-UV Torch, λ > 340 nm and intensity = 0.64 mW/cm(2)) P25-TiO2 nanoparticles, nanorods, and nanotubes for the killing of Gram-negative bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 for the first time. TiO2 nanorod (anatase) with length of 70-100 nm and diameter of 10-12 nm, and TiO2 nanotube with length of 90-110 nm and diameter of 9-11 nm were prepared from P-25 Degussa TiO2 (size, 30-50 nm) by hydrothermal method and compared their biocidal activity both in aqueous slurry and thin films. The mode of bacterial cell decomposition was analyzed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), and K(+) ion leakage. The antimicrobial activity of photoirradiated TiO2 of different shapes was found to be in the order P25-TiO2 > nanorod > nanotube which is reverse to their specific surface area as 54 < 79 < 176 m(2) g(-1), evidencing that the highest activity of P25-TiO2 nanoparticles is not due to surface area as their crystal structure and surface morphology are entirely different. TiO2 thin films always exhibited less photoactivity as compared to its aqueous suspension under similar conditions of cell viability test. The changes in the bacterial surface morphology by UV-irradiated P25-TiO2 nanoparticles was examined by TEM, oxidative degradation of cell components such as proteins, carbohydrates, phospholipids, nucleic acids by FT-IR spectral analysis, and K(+) ion leakage (2.5 ppm as compared to 0.4 ppm for control culture) as a measure of loss in cell membrane permeability.

  18. Agrobacterium tumefaciens Zur Regulates the High-Affinity Zinc Uptake System TroCBA and the Putative Metal Chaperone YciC, along with ZinT and ZnuABC, for Survival under Zinc-Limiting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chaoprasid, Paweena; Dokpikul, Thanittra; Johnrod, Jaruwan; Sirirakphaisarn, Sirin; Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agrobacterium tumefaciens has a cluster of genes (Atu3178, Atu3179, and Atu3180) encoding an ABC-type transporter, here named troA, troB, and troC, respectively, which is shown here to be a zinc-specific uptake system. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis confirmed that troA, troB, and troC are cotranscribed, with troC as the first gene of the operon. The yciC (Atu3181) gene is transcribed in the opposite orientation to that of the troCBA operon and belongs to a metal-binding GTPase family. Expression of troCBA and yciC was inducible under zinc-limiting conditions and was controlled by the zinc uptake regulator, Zur. Compared to the wild type, the mutant strain lacking troC was hypersensitive to a metal chelator, EDTA, and the phenotype could be rescued by the addition of zinc, while the strain with a single yciC mutation showed no phenotype. However, yciC was important for survival under zinc limitation when either troC or zinT was inactivated. The periplasmic zinc-binding protein, ZinT, could not function when TroC was inactivated, suggesting that ZinT may interact with TroCBA in zinc uptake. Unlike many other bacteria, the ABC-type transporter ZnuABC was not the major zinc uptake system in A. tumefaciens. However, the important role of A. tumefaciens ZnuABC was revealed when TroCBA was impaired. The strain containing double mutations in the znuA and troC genes exhibited a growth defect in minimal medium. A. tumefaciens requires cooperation of zinc uptake systems and zinc chaperones, including TroCBA, ZnuABC, ZinT, and YciC, for survival under a wide range of zinc-limiting conditions. IMPORTANCE Both host and pathogen battle over access to essential metals, including zinc. In low-zinc environments, physiological responses that make it possible to acquire enough zinc are important for bacterial survival and could determine the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. A. tumefaciens was found to operate a novel pathway for zinc uptake in which Zin

  19. Evaluation on the effectiveness of 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOGR1) gene as a selectable marker for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) embryogenic calli transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Ismanizan, Ismail; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    DOGR1, which encodes 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOGR1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli (EC) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed EC were exposed to 400 mg l-1 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOGR1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOGR1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm. PMID:26442041

  20. Regulation of the Cobalt/Nickel Efflux Operon dmeRF in Agrobacterium tumefaciens and a Link between the Iron-Sensing Regulator RirA and Cobalt/Nickel Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Dokpikul, Thanittra; Chaoprasid, Paweena; Saninjuk, Kritsakorn; Sirirakphaisarn, Sirin; Johnrod, Jaruwan; Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 genome harbors an operon containing the dmeR (Atu0890) and dmeF (Atu0891) genes, which encode a transcriptional regulatory protein belonging to the RcnR/CsoR family and a metal efflux protein belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family, respectively. The dmeRF operon is specifically induced by cobalt and nickel, with cobalt being the more potent inducer. Promoter-lacZ transcriptional fusion, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and DNase I footprinting assays revealed that DmeR represses dmeRF transcription through direct binding to the promoter region upstream of dmeR. A strain lacking dmeF showed increased accumulation of intracellular cobalt and nickel and exhibited hypersensitivity to these metals; however, this strain displayed full virulence, comparable to that of the wild-type strain, when infecting a Nicotiana benthamiana plant model under the tested conditions. Cobalt, but not nickel, increased the expression of many iron-responsive genes and reduced the induction of the SoxR-regulated gene sodBII. Furthermore, control of iron homeostasis via RirA is important for the ability of A. tumefaciens to cope with cobalt and nickel toxicity. IMPORTANCE The molecular mechanism of the regulation of dmeRF transcription by DmeR was demonstrated. This work provides evidence of a direct interaction of apo-DmeR with the corresponding DNA operator site in vitro. The recognition site for apo-DmeR consists of 10-bp AT-rich inverted repeats separated by six C bases (5′-ATATAGTATACCCCCCTATAGTATAT-3′). Cobalt and nickel cause DmeR to dissociate from the dmeRF promoter, which leads to expression of the metal efflux gene dmeF. This work also revealed a connection between iron homeostasis and cobalt/nickel resistance in A. tumefaciens. PMID:27235438

  1. Biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sohlenkamp, Christian; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2003-03-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes and can be synthesized by either of two pathways, the methylation pathway or the CDP-choline pathway. Many prokaryotes lack PC, but it can be found in significant amounts in membranes of rather diverse bacteria and based on genomic data, we estimate that more than 10% of all bacteria possess PC. Enzymatic methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine via the methylation pathway was thought to be the only biosynthetic pathway to yield PC in bacteria. However, a choline-dependent pathway for PC biosynthesis has been discovered in Sinorhizobium meliloti. In this pathway, PC synthase, condenses choline directly with CDP-diacylglyceride to form PC in one step. A number of symbiotic (Rhizobium leguminosarum, Mesorhizobium loti) and pathogenic (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Brucella melitensis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Borrelia burgdorferi and Legionella pneumophila) bacteria seem to possess the PC synthase pathway and we suggest that the respective eukaryotic host functions as the provider of choline for this pathway. Pathogens entering their hosts through epithelia (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae) require phosphocholine substitutions on their cell surface components that are biosynthetically also derived from choline supplied by the host. However, the incorporation of choline in these latter cases proceeds via choline phosphate and CDP-choline as intermediates. The occurrence of two intermediates in prokaryotes usually found as intermediates in the eukaryotic CDP-choline pathway for PC biosynthesis raises the question whether some bacteria might form PC via a CDP-choline pathway.

  2. Pathways for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Schobert, Max; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2003-12-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes with important structural and signalling functions. Although many prokaryotes lack PC, it can be found in significant amounts in membranes of rather diverse bacteria. Two pathways for PC biosynthesis are known in bacteria, the methylation pathway and the phosphatidylcholine synthase (PCS) pathway. In the methylation pathway, phosphatidylethanolamine is methylated three times to yield PC, in reactions catalysed by one or several phospholipid N-methyltransferases (PMTs). In the PCS pathway, choline is condensed directly with CDP-diacylglyceride to form PC in a reaction catalysed by PCS. Using cell-free extracts, it was demonstrated that Sinorhizobium meliloti, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Mesorhizobium loti and Legionella pneumophila have both PMT and PCS activities. In addition, Rhodobacter sphaeroides has PMT activity and Brucella melitensis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Borrelia burgdorferi have PCS activities. Genes from M. loti and L. pneumophila encoding a Pmt or a Pcs activity and the genes from P. aeruginosa and Borrelia burgdorferi responsible for Pcs activity have been identified. Based on these functional assignments and on genomic data, one might predict that if bacteria contain PC as a membrane lipid, they usually possess both bacterial pathways for PC biosynthesis. However, important pathogens such as Brucella melitensis, P. aeruginosa and Borrelia burgdorferi seem to be exceptional as they possess only the PCS pathway for PC formation.

  3. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of cgs, the Brucella abortus Cyclic β(1-2) Glucan Synthetase Gene: Genetic Complementation of Rhizobium meliloti ndvB and Agrobacterium tumefaciens chvB Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Iñón de Iannino, Nora; Briones, Gabriel; Tolmasky, Marcelo; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.

    1998-01-01

    The animal pathogen Brucella abortus contains a gene, cgs, that complemented a Rhizobium meliloti nodule development (ndvB) mutant and an Agrobacterium tumefaciens chromosomal virulence (chvB) mutant. The complemented strains recovered the synthesis of cyclic β(1-2) glucan, motility, virulence in A. tumefaciens, and nitrogen fixation in R. meliloti; all traits were strictly associated with the presence of an active cyclic β(1-2) glucan synthetase protein in the membranes. Nucleotide sequencing revealed the presence in B. abortus of an 8.49-kb open reading frame coding for a predicted membrane protein of 2,831 amino acids (316.2 kDa) and with 51% identity to R. meliloti NdvB. Four regions of the B. abortus protein spanning amino acids 520 to 800, 1025 to 1124, 1284 to 1526, and 2400 to 2660 displayed similarities of higher than 80% with R. meliloti NdvB. Tn3-HoHo1 mutagenesis showed that the C-terminal 825 amino acids of the Brucella protein, although highly conserved in Rhizobium, are not necessary for cyclic β(1-2) glucan synthesis. Confirmation of the identity of this protein as B. abortus cyclic β(1-2) glucan synthetase was done by the construction of a B. abortus Tn3-HoHo1 insertion mutant that does not form cyclic β(1-2) glucan and lacks the 316.2-kDa membrane protein. The recovery of this mutant from the spleens of inoculated mice was decreased by 3 orders of magnitude compared with that of the parental strain; this result suggests that cyclic β(1-2) glucan may be a virulence factor in Brucella infection. PMID:9721274

  4. An IcmF family protein, ImpLM, is an integral inner membrane protein interacting with ImpKL, and its walker a motif is required for type VI secretion system-mediated Hcp secretion in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lay-Sun; Lin, Jer-Sheng; Lai, Erh-Min

    2009-07-01

    An intracellular multiplication F (IcmF) family protein is a conserved component of a newly identified type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded in many animal and plant-associated Proteobacteria. We have previously identified ImpL(M), an IcmF family protein that is required for the secretion of the T6SS substrate hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp) from the plant-pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In this study, we characterized the topology of ImpL(M) and the importance of its nucleotide-binding Walker A motif involved in Hcp secretion from A. tumefaciens. A combination of beta-lactamase-green fluorescent protein fusion and biochemical fractionation analyses revealed that ImpL(M) is an integral polytopic inner membrane protein comprising three transmembrane domains bordered by an N-terminal domain facing the cytoplasm and a C-terminal domain exposed to the periplasm. impL(M) mutants with substitutions or deletions in the Walker A motif failed to complement the impL(M) deletion mutant for Hcp secretion, which provided evidence that ImpL(M) may bind and/or hydrolyze nucleoside triphosphates to mediate T6SS machine assembly and/or substrate secretion. Protein-protein interaction and protein stability analyses indicated that there is a physical interaction between ImpL(M) and another essential T6SS component, ImpK(L). Topology and biochemical fractionation analyses suggested that ImpK(L) is an integral bitopic inner membrane protein with an N-terminal domain facing the cytoplasm and a C-terminal OmpA-like domain exposed to the periplasm. Further comprehensive yeast two-hybrid assays dissecting ImpL(M)-ImpK(L) interaction domains suggested that ImpL(M) interacts with ImpK(L) via the N-terminal cytoplasmic domains of the proteins. In conclusion, ImpL(M) interacts with ImpK(L), and its Walker A motif is required for its function in mediation of Hcp secretion from A. tumefaciens.

  5. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens virB7 gene product, a proposed component of the T-complex transport apparatus, is a membrane-associated lipoprotein exposed at the periplasmic surface.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, D; Dang, T A; Spudich, G M; Zhou, X R; Berger, B R; Christie, P J

    1996-01-01

    The Agrobacterium tumefaciens virB7 gene product contains a typical signal sequence ending with a consensus signal peptidase II cleavage site characteristic of bacterial lipoproteins. VirB7 was shown to be processed as a lipoprotein by (i) in vivo labeling of native VirB7 and a VirB7::PhoA fusion with [3H]palmitic acid and (ii) inhibition of VirB7 processing by globomycin, a known inhibitor of signal peptidase II. A VirB7 derivative sustaining a Ser substitution for the invariant Cys-15 residue within the signal peptidase II cleavage site could not be visualized immunologically and failed to complement a delta virB7 mutation, establishing the importance of this putative lipid attachment site for VirB7 maturation and function. VirB7 partitioned predominantly with outer membrane fractions from wild-type A348 cells as well as a delta virB operon derivative transformed with a virB7 expression plasmid. Expression of virB7 fused to phoA, the alkaline phosphatase gene of Escherichia coli, gave rise to high alkaline phosphatase activities in E. coli and A. tumefaciens cells, providing genetic evidence for the export of VirB7 in these hosts. VirB7 was shown to be intrinsically resistant to proteinase K; by contrast, a VirB7::PhoA derivative was degraded by proteinase K treatment of A. tumefaciens spheroplasts and remained intact upon treatment of whole cells. Together, the results of these studies favor a model in which VirB7 is topologically configured as a monotopic protein with its amino terminus anchored predominantly to the outer membrane and with its hydrophilic carboxyl domain located in the periplasmic space. Parallel studies of VirB5, VirB8, VirB9, and VirB10 established that each of these membrane-associated proteins also contains a large periplasmic domain whereas VirB11 resides predominantly or exclusively within the interior of the cell. PMID:8655494

  6. Low Agrobacterium tumefaciens inoculum levels and a long co-culture period lead to reduced plant defense responses and increase transgenic shoot production of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhifen; Finer, John J

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation is typically conducted by inoculating plant tissues with an Agrobacterium suspension containing approximately 10(8)-10(9) bacteria mL(-1), followed by a 2-3-d co-culture period. Use of longer co-culture periods could potentially increase transformation efficiencies by allowing more time for Agrobacterium to interact with plant cells, but bacterial overgrowth is likely to occur, leading to severe tissue browning and reduced transformation and regeneration. Low bacterial inoculum levels were therefore evaluated as a means to reduce the negative outcomes associated with long co-culture. The use of low inoculum bacterial suspensions (approximately 6 × 10(2) bacteria mL(-1)) followed by long co-culture (15 d) led to the production of an average of three transformed sunflower shoots per explant while the use of high inoculum (approximately 6 × 10(8) bacteria mL(-1)) followed by short co-culture (3 d) led to no transformed shoots. Low inoculum and long co-culture acted synergistically, and both were required for the improvement of sunflower transformation. Gene expression analysis via qRT-PCR showed that genes related to plant defense response were generally expressed at lower levels in the explants treated with low inoculum than those treated with high inoculum during 15 d of co-culture, suggesting that low inoculum reduced the induction of plant defense responses. The use of low inoculum with long co-culture (LI/LC) led to large increases in sunflower transformation efficiency. This method has great potential for improving transformation efficiencies and expanding the types of target tissues amenable for transformation of different plant species.

  7. Resistance of transgenic tobacco seedlings expressing the Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58-6b gene, to growth-inhibitory levels of cytokinin is associated with elevated IAA levels and activation of phenylpropanoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gális, Ivan; Simek, Petr; Van Onckelen, Henri A; Kakiuchi, Yasutaka; Wabiko, Hiroetsu

    2002-08-01

    We previously reported that the Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58-6b gene confers resistance to growth-inhibitory levels of exogenously applied N(6)-benzyladenine (BA, cytokinin) in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seedlings. Here, we found that intracellular levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA, auxin) increased in transgenics but declined in wild-type seedlings upon BA treatment. Since exogenously supplied 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), a stable synthetic auxin, counteracted the growth inhibition of wild-type seedlings by BA, we suggest that BA-induced growth inhibition in wild-type seedlings occurs, at least in part, as a result of intracellular IAA deficiency. Further HPLC analysis of cell extracts from BA-treated seedlings revealed that a fluorescent compound, later identified as the phenylpropanoid, scopolin, and the major phenolic compound, chlorogenic acid, accumulated earlier in transgenics than in wild-type seedlings. Gene transcripts encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, which are responsible for the early steps of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, accumulated earlier and to higher levels in transgenics than in wild-type seedlings as determined by Northern hybridization analysis, thus accounting for the early accumulation of scopolin and chlorogenic acid in transgenics. As some phenolic compounds, including chlorogenic acid and scopoletin (aglycon of scopolin) are suggested to inhibit IAA catabolism, we further propose that C58-6b gene expression protects IAA from degradation by inducing the early phenylpropanoid pathway.

  8. Horizontal gene transfer of atrazine-degrading genes (atz) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens St96-4 pADP1::Tn5 to bacteria of maize-cultivated soil.

    PubMed

    Devers, Marion; Henry, Sonia; Hartmann, Alain; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2005-09-01

    The plasmid pADP1::Tn5 derived from pADP1[Atr+] carrying a Tn5 transposon conferring kanamycin and streptomycin resistances was constructed and introduced in Agrobacterium tumefaciens St96-4. This genetically modified strain was inoculated (approximately 10(8) cfu g(-1)) in potted soils planted with maize and treated or not with atrazine (1.5 mg kg(-1)). Bulk and maize rhizosphere soils were sampled 39 days after planting to look for soil indigenous bacteria that had acquired pADP1::Tn5. Four transconjugants were isolated from four different soil samples. The estimated transfer frequency of pADP1::Tn5 was 10(-4) per donor. Maize rhizosphere and atrazine treatment had no obvious effect on pADP1::Tn5 transfer frequency. The sequencing of the 16S rDNA sequences of the transconjugants revealed that they were almost identical and highly similar to that of Variovorax spp (97%). In addition, their characterization suggested that the atzA and atzB genes had been transferred from pADP1::Tn5 to the bacterial chromosome in two of the four transconjugants. These data suggest that the atz degrading genes are horizontally transferred in soil and possibly subjected to gene rearrangement.

  9. Crystal structure of D-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and its complex with true substrate D-fructose: a pivotal role of metal in catalysis, an active site for the non-phosphorylated substrate, and its conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Hye-Jung; Oh, Deok-Kun; Cha, Sun-Shin; Rhee, Sangkee

    2006-09-01

    D-psicose, a rare sugar produced by the enzymatic reaction of D-tagatose 3-epimerase (DTEase), has been used extensively for the bioproduction of various rare carbohydrates. Recently characterized D-psicose 3-epimerase (DPEase) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens was found to belong to the DTEase family and to catalyze the interconversion of D-fructose and D-psicose by epimerizing the C-3 position, with marked efficiency for D-psicose. The crystal structures of DPEase and its complex with the true substrate D-fructose were determined; DPEase is a tetramer and each monomer belongs to a TIM-barrel fold. The active site in each subunit is distinct from that of other TIM-barrel enzymes, which use phosphorylated ligands as the substrate. It contains a metal ion with octahedral coordination to two water molecules and four residues that are absolutely conserved across the DTEase family. Upon binding of D-fructose, the substrate displaces water molecules in the active site, with a conformation mimicking the intermediate cis-enediolate. Subsequently, Trp112 and Pro113 in the beta4-alpha4 loop undergo significant structural changes, sealing off the active site. Structural evidence and site-directed mutagenesis of the putative catalytic residues suggest that the metal ion plays a pivotal role in catalysis by anchoring the bound D-fructose, and Glu150 and Glu244 carry out an epimerization reaction at the C-3 position.

  10. Evaluation on the effectiveness of 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOG(R)1) gene as a selectable marker for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) embryogenic calli transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Ismanizan, Ismail; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    DOG(R)1, which encodes 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOG(R)1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli (EC) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed EC were exposed to 400 mg l(-1) 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOG(R)1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOG(R)1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm.

  11. The use of stable and unstable green fluorescent proteins for studies in two bacterial models: Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    PubMed

    Sabuquillo, Pilar; Gea, Adela; Matas, Isabel M; Ramos, Cayo; Cubero, Jaime

    2017-05-01

    Fluorescent proteins have been used to track plant pathogens to understand their host interactions. To be useful, the transgenic pathogens must present similar behaviour than the wild-type isolates. Herein, a GFP marker was used to transform two plant pathogenic bacteria, Agrobacterium and Xanthomonas, to localize and track the bacteria during infection. The transgenic bacteria were evaluated to determine whether they showed the same fitness than the wild-type strains or whether the expression of the GFP protein interfered in the bacterial activity. In Agrobacterium, the plasmid used for transformation was stable in the bacteria and the strain kept the virulence, while Xanthomonas was not able to conserve the plasmid and transformed strains showed virulence variations compared to wild-type strains. Although marking bacteria with GFP to track infection in plants is a common issue, works to validate the transgenic strains and corroborate their fitness are not usual. Results, presented here, confirm the importance of proper fitness tests on the marked strains before performing localization assays, to avoid underestimation of the microbe population or possible artificial effects in its interaction with the plant.

  12. Fundamental discoveries and simple recombination between circular plasmid DNAs led to widespread use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a generalized vector for plant genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Zambryski, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental research aimed to determine the limits of the Agrobacterium transfer DNA (T-DNA) element that stably inserted into plant nuclear DNA to cause crown gall tumor formation. The T-DNA borders were discovered to be exceedingly precise, revealing that T-DNA insertion into the plant genome was reproducible and exact. Deletion of the internal regions of the T-DNA, to remove the tumor forming genes, while retaining the T-DNA borders, resulted again in efficient DNA transfer to plant cells, but now such cells were capable of completely normal growth and differentiation. Thus, the internal region of the T-DNA was not needed for DNA transfer, and one could envisage insertion of any DNA of interest in between the T-DNA borders. Thus began plant genetic engineering.

  13. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of a pair of novel virulence factors, SghA and SghR, from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fuzhou; Wang, Chao; Fu, Qinqin; Zhang, Lian-hui; Gao, Yong-gui

    2015-09-01

    Two proteins, SghA and SghR, which were recently identified and characterized as novel bacterial virulence factors regulating the infection of plant hosts by Agrobacterium, were cloned, overexpressed and purified with high yield. Both SghA and SghR form dimers in solution. The purified SghA and SghR were crystallized and the crystals diffracted to 1.9 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively. Data were collected and processed, and the crystallographic parameters were within acceptable ranges. These results will help in the determination of their structures in order to uncover the molecular mechanism of how these two proteins together control the release of plant defence signals against agrobacteria during pathogen-host interaction.

  14. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of a pair of novel virulence factors, SghA and SghR, from Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Fuzhou; Wang, Chao; Fu, Qinqin; Zhang, Lian-hui; Gao, Yong-gui

    2015-08-25

    The crystallization of the novel virulence factors SghA and SghR is reported. Two proteins, SghA and SghR, which were recently identified and characterized as novel bacterial virulence factors regulating the infection of plant hosts by Agrobacterium, were cloned, overexpressed and purified with high yield. Both SghA and SghR form dimers in solution. The purified SghA and SghR were crystallized and the crystals diffracted to 1.9 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively. Data were collected and processed, and the crystallographic parameters were within acceptable ranges. These results will help in the determination of their structures in order to uncover the molecular mechanism of how these two proteins together control the release of plant defence signals against agrobacteria during pathogen–host interaction.

  15. Agrobacterium tumefaciens estC, Encoding an Enzyme Containing Esterase Activity, Is Regulated by EstR, a Regulator in the MarR Family

    PubMed Central

    Giengkam, Suparat; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the A. tumefaciens genome revealed estC, which encodes an esterase located next to its transcriptional regulator estR, a regulator of esterase in the MarR family. Inactivation of estC results in a small increase in the resistance to organic hydroperoxides, whereas a high level of expression of estC from an expression vector leads to a reduction in the resistance to organic hydroperoxides and menadione. The estC gene is transcribed divergently from its regulator, estR. Expression analysis showed that only high concentrations of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP, 1 mM) induced expression of both genes in an EstR-dependent manner. The EstR protein acts as a CHP sensor and a transcriptional repressor of both genes. EstR specifically binds to the operator sites OI and OII overlapping the promoter elements of estC and estR. This binding is responsible for transcription repression of both genes. Exposure to organic hydroperoxide results in oxidation of the sensing cysteine (Cys16) residue of EstR, leading to a release of the oxidized repressor from the operator sites, thereby allowing transcription and high levels of expression of both genes. The estC is the first organic hydroperoxide-inducible esterase-encoding gene in alphaproteobacteria. PMID:28036400

  16. Functional Subsets of the VirB Type IV Transport Complex Proteins Involved in the Capacity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens To Serve as a Recipient in virB-Mediated Conjugal Transfer of Plasmid RSF1010

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenying; Binns, Andrew N.

    2003-01-01

    The virB-encoded type IV transport complex of Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediates the transfer of DNA and proteins into plant cells, as well as the conjugal transfer of IncQ plasmids, such as RSF1010, between Agrobacterium strains. While several studies have indicated that there are physical interactions among the 11 VirB proteins, the functional significance of the interactions has been difficult to establish since all of the proteins are required for substrate transfer. Our previous studies, however, indicated that although all of the VirB proteins are required for the capacity of a strain to serve as an RSF1010 donor, only a subset of these proteins in the recipient is necessary to increase the conjugal frequency by 3 to 4 logs. The roles of particular groups of VirB proteins in this increased recipient activity were examined in the study reported here. Examination of the expression of subgroups of virB genes revealed that translation of virB6 is necessary for expression of downstream open reading frames. Expression of limited subsets of the VirB proteins in a recipient strain lacking the Ti plasmid revealed that the VirB7 to VirB10 proteins yield a subcomplex that is functional in the recipient assay but that the VirB1 to VirB4 proteins, as a group, dramatically increase this activity in strains expressing VirB7 to VirB10. Finally, the membrane distribution and cross-linking patterns of VirB10, but not of VirB8 or VirB9, in a strain expressing only VirB7 to VirB10 are significantly altered compared to the patterns of the wild type. These characteristics are, however, restored to the wild-type status by coexpression of VirB1 to VirB3. Taken together, these results define subsets of type IV transport complex proteins that are critical in allowing a strain to participate as a recipient in virB-mediated conjugal RSF1010 transfer. PMID:12754223

  17. The All-Alpha Domains of Coupling Proteins from the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/VirD4 and Enterococcus faecalis pCF10-Encoded Type IV Secretion Systems Confer Specificity to Binding of Cognate DNA Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Neal; Chen, Yuqing; Jakubowski, Simon J.; Sarkar, Mayukh K.; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial type IV coupling proteins (T4CPs) bind and mediate the delivery of DNA substrates through associated type IV secretion systems (T4SSs). T4CPs consist of a transmembrane domain, a conserved nucleotide-binding domain (NBD), and a sequence-variable helical bundle called the all-alpha domain (AAD). In the T4CP structural prototype, plasmid R388-encoded TrwB, the NBD assembles as a homohexamer resembling RecA and DNA ring helicases, and the AAD, which sits at the channel entrance of the homohexamer, is structurally similar to N-terminal domain 1 of recombinase XerD. Here, we defined the contributions of AADs from the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirD4 and Enterococcus faecalis PcfC T4CPs to DNA substrate binding. AAD deletions abolished DNA transfer, whereas production of the AAD in otherwise wild-type donor strains diminished the transfer of cognate but not heterologous substrates. Reciprocal swaps of AADs between PcfC and VirD4 abolished the transfer of cognate DNA substrates, although strikingly, the VirD4-AADPcfC chimera (VirD4 with the PcfC AAD) supported the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid. Purified AADs from both T4CPs bound DNA substrates without sequence preference but specifically bound cognate processing proteins required for cleavage at origin-of-transfer sequences. The soluble domains of VirD4 and PcfC lacking their AADs neither exerted negative dominance in vivo nor specifically bound cognate processing proteins in vitro. Our findings support a model in which the T4CP AADs contribute to DNA substrate selection through binding of associated processing proteins. Furthermore, MOBQ plasmids have evolved a docking mechanism that bypasses the AAD substrate discrimination checkpoint, which might account for their capacity to promiscuously transfer through many different T4SSs. IMPORTANCE For conjugative transfer of mobile DNA elements, members of the VirD4/TraG/TrwB receptor superfamily bind cognate DNA substrates through mechanisms that are

  18. Transformation of Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the Expression of the bar and neo Genes in the Transgenic Plants

    PubMed Central

    De Block, Marc; De Brouwer, Dirk; Tenning, Paul

    1989-01-01

    An efficient and largely genotype-independent transformation method for Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea was established based on neo or bar as selectable marker genes. Hypocotyl explants of Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea cultivars were infected with Agrobacterium strains containing chimeric neo and bar genes. The use of AgNO3 was a prerequisite for efficient shoot regeneration under selective conditions. Vitrification was avoided by decreasing the water potential of the medium, by decreasing the relative humidity in the tissue culture vessel, and by lowering the cytokinin concentration. In this way, rooted transformed shoots were obtained with a 30% efficiency in 9 to 12 weeks. Southern blottings and genetic analysis of S1-progeny showed that the transformants contained on average between one and three copies of the chimeric genes. A wide range of expression levels of the chimeric genes was observed among independent transformants. Up to 25% of the transformants showed no detectable phosphinotricin acetyltransferase or neomycin phosphotransferase II enzyme activities although Southern blottings demonstrated that these plants were indeed transformed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16667089

  19. The dimer interface of Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB8 is important for type IV secretion system function, stability, and association of VirB2 with the core complex.

    PubMed

    Sivanesan, Durga; Baron, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Type IV secretion systems are virulence factors used by many gram-negative bacteria to translocate macromolecules across the cell envelope. VirB8 is an essential inner membrane component of type IV secretion systems, and it is believed to form a homodimer. In the absence of VirB8, the levels of several other VirB proteins were reduced (VirB1, VirB3, VirB4, VirB5, VirB6, VirB7, and VirB11) in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, underlining its importance for complex stability. To assess the importance of dimerization, we changed residues at the predicted dimer interface (V97, A100, Q93, and E94) in order to strengthen or to abolish dimerization. We verified the impact of the changes on dimerization in vitro with purified V97 variants, followed by analysis of the in vivo consequences in a complemented virB8 deletion strain. Dimer formation was observed in vivo after the introduction of a cysteine residue at the predicted interface (V97C), and this variant supported DNA transfer, but the formation of elongated T pili was not detected by the standard pilus isolation technique. Variants with changes at V97 and A100 that weaken dimerization did not support type IV secretion system functions. The T-pilus component VirB2 cofractionated with high-molecular-mass core protein complexes extracted from the membranes, and the presence of VirB8 as well as its dimer interface were important for this association. We conclude that the VirB8 dimer interface is required for T4SS function, for the stabilization of many VirB proteins, and for targeting of VirB2 to the T-pilus assembly site.

  20. The Agrobacterium Ti Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Christie, Peter J; Gordon, Jay E

    2014-12-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen with the capacity to deliver a segment of oncogenic DNA carried on a large plasmid called the tumor-inducing or Ti plasmid to susceptible plant cells. A. tumefaciens belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria, whose members include other plant pathogens (Agrobacterium rhizogenes), plant and insect symbionts (Rhizobium spp. and Wolbachia spp., respectively), human pathogens (Brucella spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp.), and nonpathogens (Caulobacter crescentus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides). Many species of Alphaproteobacteria carry large plasmids ranging in size from ∼100 kb to nearly 2 Mb. These large replicons typically code for functions essential for cell physiology, pathogenesis, or symbiosis. Most of these elements rely on a conserved gene cassette termed repABC for replication and partitioning, and maintenance at only one or a few copies per cell. The subject of this review is the ∼200-kb Ti plasmids carried by infectious strains of A. tumefaciens. We will summarize the features of this plasmid as a representative of the repABC family of megaplasmids. We will also describe novel features of this plasmid that enable A. tumefaciens cells to incite tumor formation in plants, sense and respond to an array of plant host and bacterial signal molecules, and maintain and disseminate the plasmid among populations of agrobacteria. At the end of this review, we will describe how this natural genetic engineer has been adapted to spawn an entire industry of plant biotechnology and review its potential for use in future therapeutic applications of plant and nonplant species.

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) using optimized systems for epicotyls and cotelydons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epicotyl and internodal stem segments provide the predominantly used explants for regeneration of transgenic citrus plants following co-cultivation with Agrobacterium. Previous reports using epicotyls segments from Mexican lime have shown low affinity for Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection which re...

  2. Plant–Agrobacterium interaction mediated by ethylene and super-Agrobacterium conferring efficient gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Satoko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens has a unique ability to transfer genes into plant genomes. This ability has been utilized for plant genetic engineering. However, the efficiency is not sufficient for all plant species. Several studies have shown that ethylene decreased the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation frequency. Thus, A. tumefaciens with an ability to suppress ethylene evolution would increase the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Some studies showed that plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can reduce ethylene levels in plants through 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, which cleaves the ethylene precursor ACC into α-ketobutyrate and ammonia, resulting in reduced ethylene production. The whole genome sequence data showed that A. tumefaciens does not possess an ACC deaminase gene in its genome. Therefore, providing ACC deaminase activity to the bacteria would improve gene transfer. As expected, A. tumefaciens with ACC deaminase activity, designated as super-Agrobacterium, could suppress ethylene evolution and increase the gene transfer efficiency in several plant species. In this review, we summarize plant–Agrobacterium interactions and their applications for improving Agrobacterium-mediated genetic engineering techniques via super-Agrobacterium. PMID:25520733

  3. Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

    Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

  4. Utilization of Octopine and Nopaline by Agrobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Lippincott, James A.; Beiderbeck, Rolf; Lippincott, Barbara B.

    1973-01-01

    Tests for utilization of d-octopine and nopaline in defined media containing a carbon and nitrogen source were made on 60 strains of Agrobacterium representing four species and on a representative of each of five species of Rhizobium. Among 46 virulent strains of Agrobacterium, only two strains were found which utilized neither compound, while three strains were found which could utilize both. Of the remaining virulent strains, 27 utilized octopine and 14 utilized nopaline. Each of six strains of A. rhizogenes tested utilized only octopine but at a slower rate relative to growth than most A. tumefaciens. All eight of the A. radiobacter strains failed to utilize either compound, as did four of six nonvirulent strains of A. tumefaciens. The rhizobia did not utilize octopine or, with the possible exception of R. japonicum, nopaline. Virulence in the genus Agrobacterium is concluded to be highly correlated with the ability to utilize one or both of these compounds. PMID:4745420

  5. Application of succulent plant leaves for Agrobacterium infiltration-mediated protein production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infiltration of tobacco leaves with a suspension of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a binary plant expression plasmid provides a convenient method for laboratory scale protein production. When expressing plant cell wall degrading enzymes in the widely used tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), diffic...

  6. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conditions were optimized for transient transformation of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Bulb scale and basal meristem explants were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 containing the binary vector pCAMBIA 2301 which has the uidA gene that codes for ß-gl...

  7. Improvement of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and rooting of black cherry

    Treesearch

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    An improved protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of an elite, mature black cherry genotype was developed. To increase transformation efficiency, vacuum infiltration, sonication, and a combination of the two treatments were applied during the cocultivation of leaf explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105...

  8. Agrobacterium-medicated transformation of mature Prunus serotina (black cherry) and regeneration of trangenic shoots

    Treesearch

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was developed for in vitro leaf explants of an elite, mature Prunus serotina tree. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring an RNAi plasmid with the black cherry AGAMOUS (AG) gene was used. Bacteria were induced...

  9. Surface motility and associated surfactant production in Agrobacterium vitis.

    PubMed

    Süle, S; Cursino, L; Zheng, D; Hoch, H C; Burr, T J

    2009-11-01

    Agrobacterium vitis is the causal agent of crown gall of grapevine. Surface motility (swarming), an important mechanism for bacterial colonization of new environments and a previously unknown behaviour of Ag. vitis, was demonstrated. Surface motility assays were performed on half-strength potato dextrose agar (Difco) containing 0.75% agar. To test for surfactant production, a drop-collapse test was used. Quorum-sensing (QS) negative and complemented mutants were tested for swarming activity. Ninety-one Agrobacterium strains representing -Agrobacterium tumefaciens (17 strains), Agrobacterium rhizogenes (14 strains) and Ag. vitis (60 strains) were tested for swarming and production of surfactant. All Ag. vitis strains expressed a surface-related motility. In contrast, none of 17 strains of Ag. tumefaciens or 14 strains of Ag. rhizogenes exhibited this behaviour. Surface motility in Ag. vitis was associated with surfactant secretion; both of which are regulated by a QS system previously associated with induction of a hypersensitive response on tobacco and necrosis on grape. An aviR (belongs to luxR family) mutant was surface motility negative and did not produce surfactant. An avsI mutant (autoinducer synthase) was also surface motility negative and was complemented with an Ag. tumefaciens clone expressing avsI. Agrobacterium vitis is able to produce a characteristic swarming phenotype that is regulated by a complex QS system. Swarming activity is unique to Ag. vitis among Agrobacterium sp. and may be associated with the ability of the pathogen to colonize grapevines.

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated sorghum transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z Y; Cai, T; Tagliani, L; Miller, M; Wang, N; Pang, H; Rudert, M; Schroeder, S; Hondred, D; Seltzer, J; Pierce, D

    2000-12-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to genetically transform sorghum. Immature embryos of a public (P898012) and a commercial line (PHI391) of sorghum were used as the target explants. The Agrobacterium strain used was LBA4404 carrying a 'Super-binary' vector with a bar gene as a selectable marker for herbicide resistance in the plant cells. A series of parameter tests was used to establish a baseline for conditions to be used in stable transformation experiments. A number of different transformation conditions were tested and a total of 131 stably transformed events were produced from 6175 embryos in these two sorghum lines. Statistical analysis showed that the source of the embryos had a very significant impact on transformation efficiency, with field-grown embryos producing a higher transformation frequency than greenhouse-grown embryos. Southern blot analysis of DNA from leaf tissues of T0 plants confirmed the integration of the T-DNA into the sorghum genome. Mendelian segregation in the T1 generation was confirmed by herbicide resistance screening. This is the first report of successful use of Agrobacterium for production of stably transformed sorghum plants. The Agrobacterium method we used yields a higher frequency of stable transformation that other methods reported previously.

  11. Odyssey of agrobacterium T-DNA.

    PubMed

    Ziemienowicz, A

    2001-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a plant pathogen, is characterized by the unique feature of interkingdom DNA transfer. This soil bacterium is able to transfer a fragment of its DNA, called T-DNA (transferred DNA), to the plant cell where T-DNA is integrated into the plant genome leading to "genetic colonization" of the host. The fate of T-DNA, its processing, transfer and integration, resembles the journey of Odysseus, although our hero returns from its long trip in a slightly modified form.

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Prunus salicina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation from hypocotyls slices of two Prunus salicina varieties, 'Angeleno' and 'Larry Anne', using a modification of the technique previously described for P. domestica. Regeneration rates on thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supp...

  13. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Fraxinus americana hypocotyls

    Treesearch

    Kaitlin J. Palla; Paula M. Pijut

    2015-01-01

    An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation system was successfully developed for white ash (Fraxinus americana) using hypocotyls as the initial explants. Hypocotyls isolated from mature embryos germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 22.2 µM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.5 µM...

  14. Colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris nodules by Agrobacterium-like strains.

    PubMed

    Mhamdi, Ridha; Mrabet, Moncef; Laguerre, Gisèle; Tiwari, Ravi; Aouani, Mohamed Elarbi

    2005-02-01

    Non-nodulating Agrobacterium-like strains identified among root nodule isolates of common bean were labeled with gusA, a reporter gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS). Bean plants were then co-inoculated with an infective Rhizobium strain and labeled transconjugants of Agrobacterium-like strains. Blue staining of nodules showed that Agrobacterium-like strains were able to colonize these symbiotic organs. Isolation and characterization by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes revealed a mixed population of Rhizobium and Agrobacterium-like strains in all nodules showing GUS activity. PCR amplification of the nifH gene and nodulation tests did not show any evidence of acquisition of symbiotic gene by lateral transfer from Rhizobium to Agrobacterium-like strains. Moreover, these strains were able to invade mature nodules. Based on sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, one of these Agrobacterium-like strains showed 99.4% sequence similarity with Agrobacterium bv. 1 reference strains and 99% similarity with an Agrobacterium bv. 1 strain isolated from Acacia mollisima in Senegal. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 and the disarmed variant AT123 did not show any ability to colonize nodules. Co-inoculation of bean seeds with Agrobacterium and Rhizobium strains did not enhance nodulation and plant yield under controlled conditions.

  15. Aboveground insect infestation attenuates belowground Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Lee, Soohyun; Hong, Jaehwa; Choi, Hye Kyung; Hong, Gun Hyong; Bae, Dong-Won; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease. Although Agrobacterium can be popularly used for genetic engineering, the influence of aboveground insect infestation on Agrobacterium induced gall formation has not been investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves were exposed to a sucking insect (whitefly) infestation and benzothiadiazole (BTH) for 7 d, and these exposed plants were inoculated with a tumorigenic Agrobacterium strain. We evaluated, both in planta and in vitro, how whitefly infestation affects crown gall disease. Whitefly-infested plants exhibited at least a two-fold reduction in gall formation on both stem and crown root. Silencing of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, compromised gall formation indicating an involvement of SA in whitefly-derived plant defence against Agrobacterium. Endogenous SA content was augmented in whitefly-infested plants upon Agrobacterium inoculation. In addition, SA concentration was three times higher in root exudates from whitefly-infested plants. As a consequence, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of roots of whitefly-infested plants was clearly inhibited when compared to control plants. These results suggest that aboveground whitefly infestation elicits systemic defence responses throughout the plant. Our findings provide new insights into insect-mediated leaf-root intra-communication and a framework to understand interactions between three organisms: whitefly, N. benthamiana and Agrobacterium. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. SacB-SacR Gene Cassette As the Negative Selection Marker to Suppress Agrobacterium Overgrowth in Agrobacterium-Mediated Plant Transformation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiming; Miao, Jiamin; Traore, Sy; Kong, Danyu; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Xunzhong; Nimchuk, Zachary L; Liu, Zongrang; Zhao, Bingyu

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium overgrowth is a common problem in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. To suppress the Agrobacterium overgrowth, various antibiotics have been used during plant tissue culture steps. The antibiotics are expensive and may adversely affect plant cell differentiation and reduce plant transformation efficiency. The SacB-SacR proteins are toxic to most Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains when they are grown on culture medium supplemented with sucrose. Therefore, SacB-SacR genes can be used as negative selection markers to suppress the overgrowth of A. tumefaciens in the plant tissue culture process. We generated a mutant A. tumefaciens strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) that has the SacB-SacR cassette inserted into the bacterial genome at the recA gene locus. The mutant Agrobacterium strain is sensitive to sucrose but maintains its ability to transform plant cells in both transient and stable transformation assays. We demonstrated that the mutant strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) can be inhibited by sucrose that reduces the overgrowth of Agrobacterium and therefore improves the plant transformation efficiency. We employed GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) to generate stable transgenic N. benthamiana plants expressing a CRISPR-Cas9 for knocking out a WRKY transcription factor.

  17. SacB-SacR Gene Cassette As the Negative Selection Marker to Suppress Agrobacterium Overgrowth in Agrobacterium-Mediated Plant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiming; Miao, Jiamin; Traore, Sy; Kong, Danyu; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Xunzhong; Nimchuk, Zachary L.; Liu, Zongrang; Zhao, Bingyu

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium overgrowth is a common problem in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. To suppress the Agrobacterium overgrowth, various antibiotics have been used during plant tissue culture steps. The antibiotics are expensive and may adversely affect plant cell differentiation and reduce plant transformation efficiency. The SacB-SacR proteins are toxic to most Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains when they are grown on culture medium supplemented with sucrose. Therefore, SacB-SacR genes can be used as negative selection markers to suppress the overgrowth of A. tumefaciens in the plant tissue culture process. We generated a mutant A. tumefaciens strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) that has the SacB-SacR cassette inserted into the bacterial genome at the recA gene locus. The mutant Agrobacterium strain is sensitive to sucrose but maintains its ability to transform plant cells in both transient and stable transformation assays. We demonstrated that the mutant strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) can be inhibited by sucrose that reduces the overgrowth of Agrobacterium and therefore improves the plant transformation efficiency. We employed GV2260 (recA-SacB/R) to generate stable transgenic N. benthamiana plants expressing a CRISPR-Cas9 for knocking out a WRKY transcription factor. PMID:27833912

  18. Dose Response of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens to Soil Fumigants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cut flower growers in California have routinely used methyl bromide with and without chloropicrin for pre-plant soil fumigation for the control of soilborne pathogens and weeds. Recent research to identify alternatives to methyl bromide for flower growers has involved combinations of 1,3-dichlorop...

  19. Genetic evidence for CheB- and CheR-dependent chemotaxis system in A. tumefaciens toward acetosyringone.

    PubMed

    Harighi, Behrouz

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens has homologues of chemotaxis genes of the alpha-subgroup of proteobacteria, which include orf1, orf2, cheY1, cheA, cheR, cheB, cheY2, orf9, and orf10 and organized in one operon [Wright et al. A chemotaxis cluster from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Gene 1998;220:83-9]. Two mutants of A. tumefaciens were created by in-frame deletions of cheB and cheR using suicide vector, pK18mobsacB. The chemosensory behaviour of mutants studied on swarm plates and in blind-well chemotaxis assay toward acetosyringone. Under the conditions tested, both CheR and CheB were essential for normal chemotaxis. 2008 Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced cotton hairy root culture as an alternative tool for cotton functional genomics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although well-accepted as the ultimate method for cotton functional genomics, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated cotton transformation is not widely used for functional analyses of cotton genes and their promoters since regeneration of cotton in tissue culture is lengthy and labor intensive. In cer...

  1. Nodulation of Sesbania Species by Rhizobium (Agrobacterium) Strain IRBG74 and Other Rhizobia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concatenated sequence analysis with 16S rRNA, rpoB and fusA genes identified a strain (IRBG74) isolated from root nodules of the aquatic legume Sesbania cannabina as a close relative of the plant pathogen Rhizobium radiobacter (syn. Agrobacterium tumefaciens). However, DNA:DNA hybridisation with R. ...

  2. Genetic transformation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli with Agrobacterium to study pathogenesis in Gladiolus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Fog) is one of the most serious diseases of Gladiolus, both in the field and in stored bulbs. In order to study the pathogenesis of this fungus, we have transformed Fog with Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vectors containing the hygromycin B...

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and plant regeneration of the hardwood tree species Fraxinus profunda

    Treesearch

    Micah E. Stevens; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Using mature hypocotyls as the initial explants, an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation system was successfully developed for pumpkin ash (Fraxinus profunda). This transformation protocol is an invaluable tool to combat the highly aggressive, non-native emerald ash borer (EAB), which has the potential to...

  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Fraxinus pennsylvanica hypocotyls and plant regeneration

    Treesearch

    Ningxia Du; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    A genetic transformation protocol for green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) hypocotyl explants was developed. Green ash hypocotyls were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring binary vector pq35GR containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion...

  5. L-glutamine and L-glutamic acid facilitate successful agrobacterium infection of recalcitrant tea cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitish; Gulati, Ashu; Bhattacharya, Amita

    2013-08-01

    The first step in Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of plants is the establishment of cell-cell contact between the two partners. However, failure to establish such contact makes many plants and explants recalcitrant to A. tumefaciens infection. Tea is one such example where even the popular inducer, acetosyringone failed to facilitate A. tumefaciens infection due to the presence of high amounts of bactericidal/bacteriostatic polyphenols. Quinones are formed as a result of polyphenols oxidation. They cause tissue browning and necrosis during the process of transformation, and in turn prevent A. tumefaciens infection. Compounds such as polyphenol adsorbents, i.e., polyvinylpyrrolidone and charcoal, and antioxidants like cysteine and ascorbic acid were screened to overcome tissue browning. Although these compounds enhanced the growth of A. tumefaciens, these failed to facilitate the infection of the leaves of either Kangra Jat, Tocklai Variety-1, UPASI-9, UPASI-10, and Stock-449 cultivars of tea. On the contrary, the presence of filter sterilized L-glutamine and L-glutamic acid in the co-cultivation medium facilitated successful A. tumefaciens infection of recalcitrant tea leaves. L-Glutamine and glutamic acid form harmless adducts by binding to quinones. Therefore, their presence in the co-cultivation medium allowed the tea leaves to remain living and appealing to the infecting A. tumefaciens. Successful A. tumefaciens infection of tea leaves was confirmed by positive signals in GUS assay, PCR, and Dot blot.

  6. Universal PCR primers for detection of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium strains.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, J H; Moore, L W; Ream, W; Manulis, S

    1995-01-01

    Two PCR primer pairs, based on the virD2 and ipt genes, detected a wide variety of pathogenic Agrobacterium strains. The endonuclease domain of VirD2 protein, which cleaves transferred DNA (T-DNA) border sequences, is highly conserved; primer oligonucleotides specific for the endonuclease portion of virD2 detected all pathogenic strains of Agrobacterium tested. PCR primers corresponding to conserved sequences in ipt, the T-DNA-borne cytokinin synthesis gene, detected only Agrobacterium tumefaciens and distinguished it from Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The virD2 and ipt primer pairs did not interfere with each other when included in the same PCR amplification, and this permitted simultaneous detection of both genes in a single reaction. One nonpathogenic Agrobacterium radiobacter strain contained virD2 but not ipt; we speculate that this strain arose from a pathogenic progenitor through a deletion in the T-DNA. The virD2 primer pair appears to be universal for all pathogenic Agrobacterium species; used together, the primer sets reported here should allow unambiguous identification of Ti plasmid DNA in bacteria isolated from soil and plants. PMID:7487020

  7. Carbohydrate Catabolism of Selected Strains in the Genus Agrobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Larry O.; Nakamura, Lawrence K.; Julian, Grant St.; Bulla, Lee A.

    1975-01-01

    Radiorespirometric and enzyme analyses were used to reveal the glucose-catabolizing mechanisms functioning in single strains of seven presumed Agrobacterium species. The Entner-Doudoroff and pentose cycle pathways functioned in A. radiobacter, A. tumefaciens, A. rubi, and A. rhizogenes. Whereas both catabolic pathways were utilized to an almost equal degree in the A. radiobacter and A. tumefaciens strains, use of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway predominated in the A. rubi and A. rhizogenes strains. A. stellulatum catabolized glucose almost solely through the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. In A. pseudotsugae and A. gypsophilae, glucose was metabolized mainly through the Emden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway; the pentose phosphate pathway was also utilized. PMID:128316

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Ruta graveolens L.

    PubMed

    Lièvre, Karine; Tran, Thi Lê Minh; Doerper, Sébastien; Hehn, Alain; Lacoste, Paul; Thomasset, Brigitte; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Gontier, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used to develop a genetic transformation method for a medicinal plant Ruta graveolens. The direct plant regeneration strategy is preferred to callus line establishment. In vitro seedlings, 2- -to 3-wk-old, are used to excise hypocotyls and co-cultivated for 3 d with A. tumefaciens strain C58C1Rif containing plasmid pTDE4 harbouring neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II, kanamycin resistance) and beta-glucuronidase encoding genes. The Southern blot analysis has shown that 78% kanamycin resistant plants contain gene encoding beta-glucuronidase. The GUS histochemical assay shows that 67% transgenic plants exhibit the corresponding enzymatic activity. Routine transformation efficiency of R. graveolens L. is 11% and could reach up to 22%. Transgenic plants are grown in the greenhouse within 4 months after the initial seedlings.

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated in planta genetic transformation of sugarcane setts.

    PubMed

    Mayavan, Subramanian; Subramanyam, Kondeti; Jaganath, Balusamy; Sathish, Dorairaj; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2015-10-01

    An efficient, reproducible, and genotype-independent in planta transformation has been developed for sugarcane using setts as explant. Traditional Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and in vitro regeneration of sugarcane is a complex and time-consuming process. Development of an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol, which can produce a large number of transgenic plants in short duration is advantageous. Hence, in the present investigation, we developed a tissue culture-independent in planta genetic transformation system for sugarcane using setts collected from 6-month-old sugarcane plants. The sugarcane setts (nodal cuttings) were infected with three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains harbouring pCAMBIA 1301-bar plasmid, and the transformants were selected against BASTA(®). Several parameters influencing the in planta transformation such as A. tumefaciens strains, acetosyringone, sonication and exposure to vacuum pressure, have been evaluated. The putatively transformed sugarcane plants were screened by GUS histochemical assay. Sugarcane setts were pricked and sonicated for 6 min and vacuum infiltered for 2 min at 500 mmHg in A. tumefaciens C58C1 suspension containing 100 µM acetosyringone, 0.1 % Silwett L-77 showed the highest transformation efficiency of 29.6 % (with var. Co 62175). The three-stage selection process completely eliminated the chimeric transgenic sugarcane plants. Among the five sugarcane varieties evaluated using the standardized protocol, var. Co 6907 showed the maximum transformation efficiency (32.6 %). The in planta transformation protocol described here is applicable to transfer the economically important genes into different varieties of sugarcane in relatively short time.

  10. Optimization of Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuxuan; Cong, Yahui; Liu, Yaping; Wang, Tingting; Shuai, Qin; Chen, Nana; Gai, Junyi; Li, Yan

    2017-01-01

    High transformation efficiency is a prerequisite for study of gene function and molecular breeding. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is a preferred method in many plants. However, the transformation efficiency in soybean is still low. The objective of this study is to optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in soybean by improving the infection efficiency of Agrobacterium and regeneration efficiency of explants. Firstly, four factors affecting Agrobacterium infection efficiency were investigated by estimation of the rate of GUS transient expression in soybean cotyledonary explants, including Agrobacterium concentrations, soybean explants, Agrobacterium suspension medium, and co-cultivation time. The results showed that an infection efficiency of over 96% was achieved by collecting the Agrobacterium at a concentration of OD650 = 0.6, then using an Agrobacterium suspension medium containing 154.2 mg/L dithiothreitol to infect the half-seed cotyledonary explants (from mature seeds imbibed for 1 day), and co-cultured them for 5 days. The Agrobacterium infection efficiencies for soybean varieties Jack Purple and Tianlong 1 were higher than the other six varieties. Secondly, the rates of shoot elongation were compared among six different concentration combinations of gibberellic acid (GA3) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The shoot elongation rate of 34 and 26% was achieved when using the combination of 1.0 mg/L GA3 and 0.1 mg/L IAA for Jack Purple and Tianlong 1, respectively. This rate was higher than the other five concentration combinations of GA3 and IAA, with an 18 and 11% increase over the original laboratory protocol (a combination of 0.5 mg/L GA3 and 0.1 mg/L IAA), respectively. The transformation efficiency was 7 and 10% for Jack Purple and Tianlong 1 at this optimized hormone concentration combination, respectively, which was 2 and 6% higher than the original protocol, respectively. Finally, GUS histochemical staining, PCR, herbicide

  11. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize (Zea mays) immature embryos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is one of the most efficient and simple gene delivery systems for genetic improvement and biology studies in maize. This system has become more widely used by both public and private laboratories. However, transformation efficiencies vary greatly from laboratory to laboratory for the same genotype. Here, we illustrate our advanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method in Hi-II maize using simple binary vectors. The protocol utilizes immature embryos as starting explants and the bar gene as a selectable marker coupled with bialaphos as a selective agent. The protocol offers efficient transformation results with high reproducibility, provided that some experimental conditions are well controlled. This transformation method, with minor modifications, can be also employed to transform certain maize inbreds.

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Bernardi-Wenzel, J; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2016-06-03

    Fusarium proliferatum is an important pathogen that is associated with plant diseases and primarily affects aerial plant parts by producing different mycotoxins, which are toxic to humans and animals. Within the last decade, this fungus has also been described as one of the causes of red root rot or sudden death syndrome in soybean, which causes extensive damage to this crop. This study describes the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum as a tool for the disruption of pathogenicity genes. The genetic transformation was performed using two binary vectors (pCAMDsRed and pFAT-GFP) containing the hph (hygromycin B resistance) gene as a selection marker and red and green fluorescence, respectively. The presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane were evaluated for their effect on the transformation efficiency. A mean processing rate of 94% was obtained with 96 h of co-cultivation only in the presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane did not affect the transformation process. Hygromycin B resistance and the presence of the hph gene were confirmed by PCR, and fluorescence due to the expression of GFP and DsRed protein was monitored in the transformants. A high rate of mitotic stability (95%) was observed. The efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum allows the technique to be used for random insertional mutagenesis studies and to analyze fungal genes involved in the infection process.

  13. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) of Trichoderma reesei as an efficient tool for random insertional mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yao Hua; Wang, Xiao Li; Wang, Tian Hong; Jiang, Qiao

    2007-01-01

    Filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei QM9414 was successfully transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens AGL-1 for random integration of transforming DNA (T-DNA). Co-cultivation of T. reesei conidia or protoplasts with A. tumefaciens in the presence of acetosyringone resulted in the formation of hygromycin B-resistant fungal colonies with high transformation frequency. Nine randomly selected resistant clones were proved to be stable through mitotic cell division. The integration of the hph gene into T. reesei genome was determined by PCR and dot blot analysis. Transgenic T. reesei strains were analyzed using TAIL-PCR for their T-DNA contents. The results showed that T-DNA inserts occurred evidently by fusing DNA at T-DNA borders via random recombination, which suggests that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a potentially powerful tool towards tagged mutagenesis and gene transfer technology for T. reesei.

  14. Reiterated DNA sequences in Rhizobium and Agrobacterium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, M; González, V; Brom, S; Martínez, E; Piñero, D; Romero, D; Dávila, G; Palacios, R

    1987-01-01

    Repeated DNA sequences are a general characteristic of eucaryotic genomes. Although several examples of DNA reiteration have been found in procaryotic organisms, only in the case of the archaebacteria Halobacterium halobium and Halobacterium volcanii [C. Sapienza and W. F. Doolittle, Nature (London) 295:384-389, 1982], has DNA reiteration been reported as a common genomic feature. The genomes of two Rhizobium phaseoli strains, one Rhizobium meliloti strain, and one Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain were analyzed for the presence of repetitive DNA. Rhizobium and Agrobacterium spp. are closely related soil bacteria that interact with plants and that belong to the taxonomical family Rhizobiaceae. Rhizobium species establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis in the roots of legumes, whereas Agrobacterium species is a pathogen in different plants. The four strains revealed a large number of repeated DNA sequences. The family size was usually small, from 2 to 5 elements, but some presented more than 10 elements. Rhizobium and Agrobacterium spp. contain large plasmids in addition to the chromosomes. Analysis of the two Rhizobium strains indicated that DNA reiteration is not confined to the chromosome or to some plasmids but is a property of the whole genome. Images PMID:3450286

  15. Cadophora finlandia and Phialocephala fortinii: Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and functional GFP expression.

    PubMed

    Gorfer, Markus; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Bandian, Dragana; Strauss, Joseph

    2007-07-01

    Hygromycin B resistance was transferred to the sterile mycelia of Cadophora finlandia and Phialocephala fortinii by co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Constitutively expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) was also introduced using the same vector. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed strong fluorescence of transformants. Both traits were mitotically stable during one year of subculturing on non-selective growth medium. Southern blot analysis showed that the majority of the transformants contained single-copy integrations at random sites in the genome.

  16. Agrobacterium-Mediated Co-transformation of Multiple Genes in Metarhizium robertsii

    PubMed Central

    Bidochka, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Fungi of the Metarhizium genus are a very versatile model for understanding pathogenicity in insects and their symbiotic relationship with plants. To establish a co-transformation system for the transformation of multiple M. robertsii genes using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, we evaluated whether the antibiotic nourseothricin has the same marker selection efficiency as phosphinothricin using separate vectors. Subsequently, in the two vectors containing the nourseothricin and phosphinothricin resistance cassettes were inserted eGFP and mCherry expression cassettes, respectively. These new vectors were then introduced independently into A. tumefaciens and used to transform M. robertsii either in independent events or in one single co-transformation event using an equimolar mixture of A. tumefaciens cultures. The number of transformants obtained by co-transformation was similar to that obtained by the individual transformation events. This method provides an additional strategy for the simultaneous insertion of multiple genes into M. robertsii. PMID:28781540

  17. Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500 mg/L carbenicillin + 200 mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500 mg/L carbenicillin + 200 mg/L cefotaxime + 50 mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated disruption of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene in the invertebrate pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae reveals a peptide spore factor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Numerous secondary metabolites have been isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, but the roles of these compounds as virulence factors in disease development are poorly understood. We targeted for disruption by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation a putative n...

  19. The genome of cultivated sweet potato contains Agrobacterium T-DNAs with expressed genes: An example of a naturally transgenic food crop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes and A. tumefaciens are plant pathogenic bacteria causing abnormal tissue growth such as hairy root and crown gall diseases respectively, through the transfer of DNA fragments (T-DNA) bearing functional genes into the host plant genome. This naturally occurring mechanism of g...

  20. Role of bacterial virulence proteins in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Michielse, C B; Ram, A F J; Hooykaas, P J J; Hondel, C A M J J van den

    2004-05-01

    The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori was optimized using defined co-cultivation conditions, which resulted in a reproducible and efficient transformation system. Optimal co-cultivation conditions were used to study the role of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence proteins in T-DNA transfer. This study revealed that inactivation of either of the regulatory proteins (VirA, VirG), any of the transport pore proteins (VirB), proteins involved in generation of the T-strand (VirD, VirC) or T-strand protection and targeting (VirE2) abolishes or severely reduces the formation of transformants. The results indicate that the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of A. awamori requires an intact T-DNA machinery for efficient transformation; however, the plant host range factors, like VirE3, VirH, and VirF, are not important.

  1. Agrobacterium: nature's genetic engineer.

    PubMed

    Nester, Eugene W

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium was identified as the agent causing the plant tumor, crown gall over 100 years ago. Since then, studies have resulted in many surprising observations. Armin Braun demonstrated that Agrobacterium infected cells had unusual nutritional properties, and that the bacterium was necessary to start the infection but not for continued tumor development. He developed the concept of a tumor inducing principle (TIP), the factor that actually caused the disease. Thirty years later the TIP was shown to be a piece of a tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid excised by an endonuclease. In the next 20 years, most of the key features of the disease were described. The single-strand DNA (T-DNA) with the endonuclease attached is transferred through a type IV secretion system into the host cell where it is likely coated and protected from nucleases by a bacterial secreted protein to form the T-complex. A nuclear localization signal in the endonuclease guides the transferred strand (T-strand), into the nucleus where it is integrated randomly into the host chromosome. Other secreted proteins likely aid in uncoating the T-complex. The T-DNA encodes enzymes of auxin, cytokinin, and opine synthesis, the latter a food source for Agrobacterium. The genes associated with T-strand formation and transfer (vir) map to the Ti plasmid and are only expressed when the bacteria are in close association with a plant. Plant signals are recognized by a two-component regulatory system which activates vir genes. Chromosomal genes with pleiotropic functions also play important roles in plant transformation. The data now explain Braun's old observations and also explain why Agrobacterium is nature's genetic engineer. Any DNA inserted between the border sequences which define the T-DNA will be transferred and integrated into host cells. Thus, Agrobacterium has become the major vector in plant genetic engineering.

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.).

    PubMed

    Han, J-S; Kim, C K; Park, S H; Hirschi, K D; Mok, I- G

    2005-03-01

    We describe a procedure for producing transgenic bottle gourd plants by inoculating cotyledon explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1 that carries the binary vector pCAMBIA3301 containing a glufosinate ammonium-resistance (bar) gene and the beta-D-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The most effective bacterial infection was observed when cotyledon explants of 4-day-old seedlings were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for 6-8 days on co-cultivation medium supplemented with 0.1-0.001 mg/l L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine (AVG). The putatively transformed shoots directly emerged at the proximal end of cotyledon explants after 2-3 weeks of culturing on selection medium containing 2 mg/l DL-phosphinothricin. These shoots were rooted after 3 weeks of culturing on half-strength MS medium containing 0.1 mg/l indole acetic acid and 1 mg/l DL-phosphinothricin. Transgenic plants were obtained at frequencies of 1.9%. Stable integration and transmission of the transgenes in T1 generation plants were confirmed by a histochemical GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses. Genetic segregation analysis of T1 progenies showed that transgenes were inherited in a Mendelian fashion. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in bottle gourd.

  3. The reversed terminator of octopine synthase gene on the Agrobacterium Ti plasmid has a weak promoter activity in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jun-Li; Long, Yue-Sheng; Chen, Gu; Xie, Jun; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2010-06-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers DNA from its Ti plasmid to plant host cells. The genes located within the transferred DNA of Ti plasmid including the octopine synthase gene (OCS) are expressed in plant host cells. The 3'-flanking region of OCS gene, known as OCS terminator, is widely used as a transcriptional terminator of the transgenes in plant expression vectors. In this study, we found the reversed OCS terminator (3'-OCS-r) could drive expression of hygromycin phosphotransferase II gene (hpt II) and beta-glucuronidase gene in Escherichia coli, and expression of hpt II in A. tumefaciens. Furthermore, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that an open reading frame (ORF12) that is located downstream to the 3'-OCS-r was transcribed in A. tumefaciens, which overlaps in reverse with the coding region of the OCS gene in octopine Ti plasmid.

  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transient MaFT expression in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Su-Li; Yang, Xiao-Bing; Liu, Li-Qun; Jiang, Tao; Wu, Hai; Su, Chao; Qian, Yong-Hua; Jiao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    To optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation assay in mulberry (Morus alba L.), various infiltration methods, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) strains, and bacterial concentrations were tested in mulberry seedlings. Compared with LBA4404, GV3101 harboring pBE2133 plasmids presented stronger GUS signals at 3 days post infiltration using syringe. Recombinant plasmids pBE2133:GFP and pBE2133:GFP:MaFT were successfully constructed. Transient expression of MaFT:GFP protein was found in leaves, petiole (cross section), and shoot apical meristem (SAM) of mulberry according to the GFP signal. Moreover, MaFT:GFP mRNA was also detected in leaves and SAM via RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. An efficient transient transformation system could be achieved in mulberry seedlings by syringe using A. tumefaciens GV3101 at the OD600 of 0.5. The movement of MaFT expression from leaves to SAM might trigger the precocious flowering of mulberry.

  5. Agrobacterium rhizogenes GALLS Protein Contains Domains for ATP Binding, Nuclear Localization, and Type IV Secretion▿

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Larry D.; Vergunst, Annette C.; Neal-McKinney, Jason; den Dulk-Ras, Amke; Moyer, Deborah M.; Hooykaas, Paul J. J.; Ream, Walt

    2006-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes are closely related plant pathogens that cause different diseases, crown gall and hairy root. Both diseases result from transfer, integration, and expression of plasmid-encoded bacterial genes located on the transferred DNA (T-DNA) in the plant genome. Bacterial virulence (Vir) proteins necessary for infection are also translocated into plant cells. Transfer of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and Vir proteins requires a type IV secretion system, a protein complex spanning the bacterial envelope. A. tumefaciens translocates the ssDNA-binding protein VirE2 into plant cells, where it binds single-stranded T-DNA and helps target it to the nucleus. Although some strains of A. rhizogenes lack VirE2, they are pathogenic and transfer T-DNA efficiently. Instead, these bacteria express the GALLS protein, which is essential for their virulence. The GALLS protein can complement an A. tumefaciens virE2 mutant for tumor formation, indicating that GALLS can substitute for VirE2. Unlike VirE2, GALLS contains ATP-binding and helicase motifs similar to those in TraA, a strand transferase involved in conjugation. Both GALLS and VirE2 contain nuclear localization sequences and a C-terminal type IV secretion signal. Here we show that mutations in any of these domains abolished the ability of GALLS to substitute for VirE2. PMID:17012398

  6. Mechanisms and regulation of surface interactions and biofilm formation in Agrobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Heindl, Jason E.; Wang, Yi; Heckel, Brynn C.; Mohari, Bitan; Feirer, Nathan; Fuqua, Clay

    2014-01-01

    For many pathogenic bacteria surface attachment is a required first step during host interactions. Attachment can proceed to invasion of host tissue or cells or to establishment of a multicellular bacterial community known as a biofilm. The transition from a unicellular, often motile, state to a sessile, multicellular, biofilm-associated state is one of the most important developmental decisions for bacteria. Agrobacterium tumefaciens genetically transforms plant cells by transfer and integration of a segment of plasmid-encoded transferred DNA (T-DNA) into the host genome, and has also been a valuable tool for plant geneticists. A. tumefaciens attaches to and forms a complex biofilm on a variety of biotic and abiotic substrates in vitro. Although rarely studied in situ, it is hypothesized that the biofilm state plays an important functional role in the ecology of this organism. Surface attachment, motility, and cell division are coordinated through a complex regulatory network that imparts an unexpected asymmetry to the A. tumefaciens life cycle. In this review, we describe the mechanisms by which A. tumefaciens associates with surfaces, and regulation of this process. We focus on the transition between flagellar-based motility and surface attachment, and on the composition, production, and secretion of multiple extracellular components that contribute to the biofilm matrix. Biofilm formation by A. tumefaciens is linked with virulence both mechanistically and through shared regulatory molecules. We detail our current understanding of these and other regulatory schemes, as well as the internal and external (environmental) cues mediating development of the biofilm state, including the second messenger cyclic-di-GMP, nutrient levels, and the role of the plant host in influencing attachment and biofilm formation. A. tumefaciens is an important model system contributing to our understanding of developmental transitions, bacterial cell biology, and biofilm formation

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) with yeast HAL2 gene.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shawkat; Mannan, Abdul; El Oirdi, Mohamed; Waheed, Abdul; Mirza, Bushra

    2012-06-12

    Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) is the most commonly used Citrus rootstock in south Asia. It is extremely sensitive to salt stress that decreases the growth and yield of Citrus crops in many areas worldwide. Over expression of the yeast halotolerant gene (HAL2) results in increasing the level of salt tolerance in transgenic plants. Transformation of rough lemon was carried out by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains LBA4404 harboring plasmid pJRM17. Transgenic shoots were selected on kanamycin 100 mg L(-1) along with 250 mg L(-1) each of cefotaxime and vancomycin for effective inhibition of Agrobacterium growth. The Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 200 μM acetoseryngone (AS) proved to be the best inoculation and co-cultivation medium for transformation. MS medium supplemented with 3 mg L(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) showed maximum regeneration efficiency of the transformed explants. The final selection of the transformed plants was made on the basis of PCR and Southern blot analysis. Rough lemon has been successfully transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with β-glucuronidase (GUS) and HAL2. Various factors affecting gene transformation and regeneration efficiency were also investigated.

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) with yeast HAL2 gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) is the most commonly used Citrus rootstock in south Asia. It is extremely sensitive to salt stress that decreases the growth and yield of Citrus crops in many areas worldwide. Over expression of the yeast halotolerant gene (HAL2) results in increasing the level of salt tolerance in transgenic plants. Results Transformation of rough lemon was carried out by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains LBA4404 harboring plasmid pJRM17. Transgenic shoots were selected on kanamycin 100 mg L-1 along with 250 mg L-1 each of cefotaxime and vancomycin for effective inhibition of Agrobacterium growth. The Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 200 μM acetoseryngone (AS) proved to be the best inoculation and co-cultivation medium for transformation. MS medium supplemented with 3 mg L-1 of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) showed maximum regeneration efficiency of the transformed explants. The final selection of the transformed plants was made on the basis of PCR and Southern blot analysis. Conclusion Rough lemon has been successfully transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with β-glucuronidase (GUS) and HAL2. Various factors affecting gene transformation and regeneration efficiency were also investigated. PMID:22691292

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the endophytic fungus Acremonium implicatum associated with Brachiaria grasses.

    PubMed

    Abello, Javier; Kelemu, Segenet; García, Celsa

    2008-03-01

    Acremonium implicatum is a seed-transmitted endophytic fungus that forms symbiotic associations with the economically significant tropical forage grasses, Brachiaria species. To take advantage of the endophyte's plant protective properties, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for Acremonium implicatum, using green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression and vector pSK1019 (trpC promoter) or pCAMBIA1300 (CaMV35S promoter). We found that transformation efficiency doubled for both mycelial and conidial transformation as the co-cultivation period for Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Acremonium implicatum was increased from 48 to 72h. Significantly, optimal results were obtained for either mycelial or conidial transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL-1 and vector pSK1019 under the control of the trpC promoter. However, mycelial transformation consistently generated a significantly higher number of transformants than did conidial transformation. The mitotic stability of the transferred DNA was confirmed by growing ten transformants in liquid and agar media for six generations. In all cases, resistance to the selection pressure (hygromycin B) was maintained. Fluorescence emission was retained by the transformants and also expressed in Brachiaria tissues from plants inoculated with GFP-transformed A. implicatum. This technology will help in the transfer and expression of agronomically important genes in host plants.

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor S238N.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Minna; Circosta, Ariana; Tagu, Denis; Martin, Francis; Pardo, Alejandro G

    2005-12-01

    The development of an efficient transformation system is required to alter the expression of symbiosis-regulated genes and to develop insertional mutagenesis in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor S238N. Vegetative mycelium of this fungus was transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. The selection marker was the hygromycin resistance gene of Escherichia coli (hph) under the control of the gpd promoter from Agaricus bisporus and the CaMV 35S terminator as part of the T-DNA. PCR amplification of hph and Southern blot analyses showed that the genome of the hygromycin-resistant transformants contained the cassette. The latter proved mostly single copy and random integration of part of the transgene into the fungal genome. A. tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer should facilitate future development of insertional mutagenesis, targeted gene disruption and RNA interference technology in L. bicolor.

  11. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of promising oil-bearing marine algae Parachlorella kessleri.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Jayant Pralhad; Prakash, Gunjan; Pandit, Reena; Lali, Arvind M

    2013-11-01

    Parachlorella kessleri is a unicellular alga which grows in fresh as well as marine water and is commercially important as biomass/lipid feedstock and in bioremediation. The present study describes the successful transformation of marine P. kessleri with the help of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transformed marine P. kessleri was able to tolerate more than 10 mg l(-1) hygromycin concentration. Co-cultivation conditions were modulated to allow the simultaneous growth of both marine P. kessleri and A. tumefaciens. For co-cultivation, P. kessleri was shifted from Walne's to tris acetate phosphate medium to reduce the antibiotic requirement during selection. In the present study, the transfer of T-DNA was successful without using acetosyringone. Biochemical and genetic analyses were performed for expression of transgenes by GUS assay and PCR in transformants. Establishment of this protocol would be useful in further genetic modification of oil-bearing Parachlorella species.

  12. Agrobacterium delivers VirE2 protein into host cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyang; Pan, Shen Q.

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens can cause crown gall tumors on a wide range of host plants. As a natural genetic engineer, the bacterium can transfer both single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) [transferred DNA (T-DNA)] molecules and bacterial virulence proteins into various recipient cells. Among Agrobacterium-delivered proteins, VirE2 is an ssDNA binding protein that is involved in various steps of the transformation process. However, it is not clear how plant cells receive the T-DNA or protein molecules. Using a split–green fluorescent protein approach, we monitored the VirE2 delivery process inside plant cells in real time. We observed that A. tumefaciens delivered VirE2 from the bacterial lateral sides that were in close contact with plant membranes. VirE2 initially accumulated on plant cytoplasmic membranes at the entry points. VirE2-containing membranes were internalized through clathrin-mediated endocytosis to form endomembrane compartments. VirE2 colocalized with the early endosome marker SYP61 but not with the late endosome marker ARA6, suggesting that VirE2 escaped from early endosomes for subsequent trafficking inside the cells. Dual endocytic motifs at the carboxyl-terminal tail of VirE2 were involved in VirE2 internalization and could interact with the μ subunit of the plant clathrin-associated adaptor AP2 complex (AP2M). Both the VirE2 cargo motifs and AP2M were important for the transformation process. Because AP2-mediated endocytosis is well conserved, our data suggest that the A. tumefaciens pathogen hijacks conserved endocytic pathways to facilitate the delivery of virulence factors. This might be important for Agrobacterium to achieve both a wide host range and a high transformation efficiency. PMID:28345032

  13. Highly Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Wheat Via In Planta Inoculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risacher, Thierry; Craze, Melanie; Bowden, Sarah; Paul, Wyatt; Barsby, Tina

    This chapter details a reproducible method for the transformation of spring wheat using Agrobacterium tumefaciens via the direct inoculation of bacteria into immature seeds in planta as described in patent WO 00/63398(1. Transformation efficiencies from 1 to 30% have been obtained and average efficiencies of at least 5% are routinely achieved. Regenerated plants are phenotypically normal with 30-50% of transformation events carrying introduced genes at single insertion sites, a higher rate than is typically reported for transgenic plants produced using biolistic transformation methods.

  14. Morphogenetic and chemical stability of long-term maintained Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic Catharanthus roseus plants.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Sharma, Abhishek; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Shanker, Karuna

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Catharanthus roseus plants (transgenic Dhawal [DT] and transgenic Nirmal [NT]) obtained from the Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizognenes-mediated transformations, respectively, have been maintained in vitro for 5 years. Plants were studied at regular intervals for various parameters such as plant height, leaf size, multiplication rate, alkaloid profile and presence of marker genes. DT plant gradually lost the GUS gene expression and it was not detected in the fifth year while NT plant demonstrated the presence of genes rolA, rolB and rolC even in the fifth year, indicating the more stable nature of Ri transgene. Vindoline content in the DT was two times more than in non-transformed control plants. Alkaloid and tryptophan profiles were almost constant during the 5 years. The cluster analysis revealed that the DT plant is more close to the control Nirmal plant followed by NT plant.

  15. Fate of Agrobacterium radiobacter K84 in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, V O; Moore, L W; Loper, J E

    1993-01-01

    Agrobacterium radiobacter K84 is an effective, commercially applied, biological control agent for the plant disease crown gall, yet little is known about the survival and dissemination of K84. To trace K84 in the environment, spontaneous antibiotic-resistant mutants were used. Growth rates and phenotypes of streptomycin- or rifampin-resistant K84 were similar to those of the parental K84, except the rifampin-resistant mutant produced less agrocin 84 as determined by bioassay. K84 and a strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens established populations averaging 10(5) CFU/g in the rhizosphere of cherry and persisted on roots for 2 years. K84 established rhizosphere populations between 10(4) and 10(6) CFU/g on cherry, ryegrass, and 11 other herbaceous plants. Populations of K84 declined substantially in fallow soil or water over a 16-week period. K84 was detected in the rhizosphere of ryegrass located up to 40 cm from an inoculum source, indicating lateral dissemination of K84 in soil. In gall tissue on cherry, K84 established populations of 10(5) CFU/g, about 10- to 100-fold less than that of the pathogen. These data demonstrate that K84 persists for up to 2 years in a field environment as a rhizosphere inhabitant or in association with crown gall tissue. PMID:8357247

  16. Efficient method for Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Alam, Pravej; Mohammad, Anis; Ahmad, M M; Khan, Mather Ali; Nadeem, Mohd; Khan, Riyazuddeen; Akmal, Mohd; Ahlawat, Seema; Abdin, M Z

    2014-01-01

    Artemisinin, a potent antimalarial natural products isolated from aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. Many patents have been reported that the demand for artemisinin is exponentially increasing year after year due to increased incidences of drug resistant malaria throughout the world. Leaf explants were used frequently as target tissue to generate transgenic of Artemisia. annua L. However, obtaining a large number of transgenic lines through out the year is a laborious and delicate process. To circumvent this, we have developed a highly efficient leaf explant based Agrobacterium mediated transformation of A. annua L. plant. The gus gene was used as screenable marker to assess and optimize the performance of T-DNA delivery. The age of explant, kind of bacterial inoculation, suspension duration, infection times and co-culture conditions were optimized. The co-culture was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 under desiccation condition in the dark at 25-28 0C for 2-4 days. Complete analysis of transgene insertion demonstrated that the optimized method of transformation from leaf explants of A. annua L. was efficient and highly reproducible.

  17. Optimization of genetic transformation of Artemisia annua L. Using Agrobacterium for Artemisinin production

    PubMed Central

    Elfahmi; Suhandono, Sony; Chahyadi, Agus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide isolated from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L., is a choice and effective drug for malaria treatment. Due to the low yield of artemisinin in plants, there is a need to enhance the production of artemisinin from A. annua and biotechnological technique may be one of the methods that can be used for the purpose. Aim: To study the transformation efficiency of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in A. annua that could be applied to enhance the production of artemisinin by means of transgenic plants. Setting and Designs: The factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of A. annua were explored to optimize the transformation system, which included A. tumefaciens strain and effect of organosilicone surfactants. Three strains of A. tumefaciens, that is, LBA4404, GV1301, and AGL1 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA 1303 have been used for transformation. The evaluation was based on transient β-glucuronidase (GUS). Materials and Methods: Plant cell cultures were inniatiated from the seeds of A. annua using the germination Murashige and Skoog medium. A. tumefaciens harboring pCAMBIA were tranformed into the leaves of A.annua cultures from 2-week-old-seedling and 2-month-old-seedling for 15 min by vacuum infiltration. Transformation efficiency was determinated by measuring of blue area (GUS expression) on the whole leaves explant using ImageJ 1.43 software. Two organosilicon surfactants, that is, Silwet L-77 and Silwet S-408 were used to improve the transformation efficiency. Results: The transformation frequency with AGL1 strain was higher than GV3101 and LBA4404 which were 70.91, 49.25, and 45.45%, respectively. Effect of organosilicone surfactants, that is, Silwet L-77 and Silwet S-408 were tested on A. tumefaciens AGL1 and GV3101 for their level of transient expression, and on A. rhizogenes R1000 for its hairy root induction frequency. For AGL1, Silwet S-408 produced higher level of expression than

  18. Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Genetic Transformation of Populus angustifolia and Populus balsamifera

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Priti; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated stable genetic transformation of two species of poplar – Populus angustifolia and Populus balsamifera. The binary vector pCAMBIA-Npro-long-Luc containing the luciferase reporter gene was used to transform stem internode and axillary bud explants. Putative transformants were regenerated on selection-free medium using our previously established in vitro regeneration method. Explant type, genotype, effect of pre-culture, Agrobacterium concentration, a time period of infection and varying periods of co-culture with bacteria were tested for the transformation frequency. The highest frequency of transformation was obtained with stem internode explants pre-cultured for 2 days, infected with Agrobacterium culture at the concentration of OD600 = 0.5 for 10 min and co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for 48 h. Out of the two genotypes tested, P. balsamifera exhibited a higher transformation rate in comparison to P. angustifolia. The primary transformants that exhibited luciferase activity in a bioluminescence assay under the CCD camera when subjected to polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis revealed a stable single-copy integration of luc in their genomes. The reported protocol is highly reproducible and can be applied to other species of poplar; it will also be useful for future genetic engineering of one of the most important families of woody plants for sustainable development. PMID:27014319

  19. Improvement in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) by the inhibition of polyphenolics released during wounding of cotyledonary node explants.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Reena; Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Singh, Aditya K; Niranjan, Abhishek; Singh, Rani; Sanyal, Indraneel; Lehri, Alok; Pande, Veena; Amla, D V

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) has been performed using cotyledonary node explants (CNs), which release phenolics upon excision that are detrimental to the viability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and result in low transformation frequency. Twelve low molecular weight phenolic compounds and salicylic acid were identified in the exudates released upon excision during the preparation of cotyledonary nodes by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Zone inhibition assays performed with the explant exudates released at periodic intervals after excision showed the inhibition of A. tumefaciens. Agroinoculation of freshly excised cotyledonary nodes of chickpea showed 98-99 % inhibition of colony forming units (cfu). Osmium tetraoxide fixation of excised tissues showed enhanced accumulation of phenolics in the sub-epidermal regions causing enzymatic browning, affecting the viability and performance of A. tumefaciens for T-DNA delivery. The periodic analysis of exudates released from excised CNs showed enhanced levels of gallic acid (0.2945 ± 0.014 μg/g), chlorogenic acid (0.0978 ± 0.0046 μg/g), and quercetin (0.0971 ± 0.0046 μg/g) fresh weight, which were detrimental to A. tumefaciens. Quantitative assays and the elution profile showed the maximum leaching of phenolics, flavonoids, and salicylic acid immediately after the excision of explants and continued till 4 to 8 h post-excision. Pre-treatment of excised explants with inhibitors of polyphenol oxidase like L-cysteine, DTT, and sodium thiosulfate before co-cultivation showed the recovery of A. tumefaciens cfu, decreased the accumulation of phenolics, and improved transformation frequency. Our results show the hypersensitive response of excision stress for the expression of defense response-related genes and synthesis of metabolites in grain legume chickpea against pathogen infestation including Agrobacterium.

  20. First report of crown gall caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens on Euphorbia esula/virgata in Europe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hypertrophy and hyperplasia resembling crown galls were found on roots of Euphorbia esula virgata occurring at a single site (47°34’32.52”N, 21° 27’ 38.31”E) in east-central Hungary in 2005. Leafy spurge (E. esula/virgata) is an invasive species causing substantial economic losses to the value of gr...

  1. Identification of Juglans wild relatives resistant to crown gall caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild species are a source of useful agronomic traits for crop plants including but not limited to pathogen resistance, drought tolerance, and salt tolerance (Aradhya and Kluepfel 2012). To exploit this natural diversity of disease resistance, we are conducting the first systematic exploration of th...

  2. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the soybean pathogen Phomopsis longicolla

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) of soybean is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen Phomopsis longicolla. PSD impairs seed germination, reduces seedling vigor, and can substantially reduce stand establishment. In hot and humid conditions, PSD can cause significant yield losses. Few studies have explore...

  3. Induction of D-aldohexoside:cytochrome c oxidoreductase in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, L K; Tyler, D D

    1977-01-01

    D-Aldohexopyranoside:cytochrome c oxidoreductase (ACO) was strongly induced by cellobiose, alpha-methylglucoside, beta-methylglucoside, kojibiose, and sophorose. Induction was rapid, and ACO was readily detectable within 10 min after addition of cellobiose as inducer. Although not measurable for 30 to 40 min after addition of inducer, once started, the rate of induction with alpha-methylglucoside equaled or even exceeded that obtained with cellobiose. Induction by sucrose, maltose, alpha-alpha-trehalose, melibiose, and lactose was weak. In general, the active ACO inducers were poor glycosidase inducers; the converse also appeared to be true. Although ACO induction was not repressed by D-glucose, it was repressed by succinate, malate, and fumarate. PMID:838689

  4. Construction of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated tomato black ring virus infectious cDNA clones.

    PubMed

    Zarzyńska-Nowak, Aleksandra; Ferriol, Inmaculada; Falk, Bryce W; Borodynko-Filas, Natasza; Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata

    2017-02-15

    Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, genus Nepovirus) infects a wide range of economically important plants such as tomato, potato, tobacco and cucumber. Here, a successful construction of infectious full-length cDNA clones of the TBRV genomic RNAs (RNA1 and RNA2) is reported for the first time. The engineered constructs consisting of PCR-amplified DNAs were cloned into binary vector pJL89 immediately downstream of a double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, and upstream of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and nopaline synthase terminator (NOS). The symptoms induced on plants agroinoculated with both constructs were indistinguishable from those caused by the wild-type virus. The infectivity of obtained clones was verified by reinoculation to Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi, Chenopodium quinoa and Cucumis sativus. The presence of viral particles and RNA was confirmed by electron microscopy and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Constructed full-length infectious cDNA clones will serve as an excellent tool to study virus-host-vector interactions.

  5. A reliable in vitro fruiting system for armillaria mellea for evaluation of agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation vectors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Armillaria mellea is a serious pathogen of horticultural and agricultural systems in Europe and North America. The lack of a reliable in vitro fruiting system has hindered research, and necessitated dependence on intermittently available wild-collected basidiospores. Here we describe a reliable, rep...

  6. Agrobacterium infection and plant defense—transformation success hangs by a thread

    PubMed Central

    Pitzschke, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The value of Agrobacterium tumefaciens for plant molecular biologists cannot be appreciated enough. This soil-borne pathogen has the unique capability to transfer DNA (T-DNA) into plant systems. Gene transfer involves both bacterial and host factors, and it is the orchestration of these factors that determines the success of transformation. Some plant species readily accept integration of foreign DNA, while others are recalcitrant. The timing and intensity of the microbially activated host defense repertoire sets the switch to “yes” or “no.” This repertoire is comprised of the specific induction of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), defense gene expression, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hormonal adjustments. Agrobacterium tumefaciens abuses components of the host immunity system it mimics plant protein functions and manipulates hormone levels to bypass or override plant defenses. A better understanding of the ongoing molecular battle between agrobacteria and attacked hosts paves the way toward developing transformation protocols for recalcitrant plant species. This review highlights recent findings in agrobacterial transformation research conducted in diverse plant species. Efficiency-limiting factors, both of plant and bacterial origin, are summarized and discussed in a thought-provoking manner. PMID:24391655

  7. Use of Agrobacterium rhizogenes Strain 18r12v and Paromomycin Selection for Transformation of Brachypodium distachyon and Brachypodium sylvaticum

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Ray; Bragg, Jennifer; Hernandez, Bryan T.; Vogel, John P.; Thilmony, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The genetic transformation of monocot grasses is a resource intensive process, the quality and efficiency of which is dependent in part upon the method of DNA introduction, as well as the ability to effectively separate transformed from wildtype tissue. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brachypodium has relied mainly on Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1. Currently the antibiotic hygromycin B has been the selective agent of choice for robust identification of transgenic calli in Brachypodium distachyon and Brachypodium sylvaticum but few other chemicals have been shown to work as well for selection of transgenic Brachypodium cells in tissue culture. This study demonstrates that Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 18r12v and paromomycin selection can be successfully used for the efficient generation of transgenic B. distachyon and B. sylvaticum. Additionally we observed that the transformation rates were similar to or higher than those obtained with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 and hygromycin selection. The A. rhizogenes strain 18r12v harboring the pARS1 binary vector and paromomycin selection is an effective means of generating transgenic Brachypodium plants. This novel approach will facilitate the transgenic complementation of T-DNA knockout mutants of B. distachyon which were created using hygromycin selection, as well as aid the implementation of more complex genome manipulation strategies which require multiple rounds of transformation. PMID:27252729

  8. Application of sonication in combination with vacuum infiltration enhances the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation in Indian soybean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Arun, Muthukrishnan; Subramanyam, Kondeti; Mariashibu, Thankaraj Salammal; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Shivanandhan, Ganeshan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2015-02-01

    Soybean is a recalcitrant crop to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Development of highly efficient, reproducible, and genotype-independent transformation protocol is highly desirable for soybean genetic improvement. Hence, an improved Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol has been developed for cultivar PK 416 by evaluating various parameters including Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (LBA4404, EHA101, and EHA105 harboring pCAMBIA1304 plasmid), sonication duration, vacuum infiltration pressure, and vacuum duration using cotyledonary node explants of soybean prepared from 7-day-old seedlings. The transformed plants were successfully developed through direct organogenesis system. Transgene expression was assessed by GUS histochemical and gfp visual assays, and integration was analyzed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Among the different combinations and durations evaluated, a maximum transformation efficiency of 18.6 % was achieved when the cotyledonary node explants of cv. PK 416 were sonicated for 20 s and vacuum infiltered for 2 min at 250 mmHg in A. tumefaciens EHA105 suspension. The amenability of the standardized protocol was tested on four more soybean cultivars JS 90-41, Hara Soy, Co 1, and Co 2 in which all the cultivars responded favorably with transformation efficiency ranging from 13.3 to 16.6 %. The transformation protocol developed in the present study would be useful to transform diverse soybean cultivars with desirable traits.

  9. Factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated embryogenic callus transformation of Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) containing the pTA29-barnase gene.

    PubMed

    Li, D D; Shi, W; Deng, X X

    2003-12-01

    Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) calluses were used as explants to develop a new transformation system for citrus mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency included mode of pre-cultivation, temperature of cocultivation and presence of acetosyringone (AS). The highest transformation efficiency was obtained with a 4-day pre-cultivation period in liquid medium. Transformation efficiency was higher when cocultivation was performed for 3 days at 19 degrees C than at 23 or 28 degrees C. Almost no resistant callus was obtained if the cocultivation medium lacked AS. The transformation procedure yielded transgenic Valencia plants containing the pTA29-barnase gene, as verified by PCR amplification and confirmed by Southern blotting. Because male sterility is a common factor leading to seedlessness in citrus cultivars with parthenocarpic characteristics, production of seedless citrus genotypes by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is a promising alternative to conventional breeding methods.

  10. Ecological dynamics and complex interactions of Agrobacterium megaplasmids

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Thomas G.; Morton, Elise R.; Barton, Ian S.; Bever, James D.; Fuqua, Clay

    2014-01-01

    As with many pathogenic bacteria, agrobacterial plant pathogens carry most of their virulence functions on a horizontally transmissible genetic element. The tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid encodes the majority of virulence functions for the crown gall agent Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This includes the vir genes which drive genetic transformation of host cells and the catabolic genes needed to utilize the opines produced by infected plants. The Ti plasmid also encodes, an opine-dependent quorum sensing system that tightly regulates Ti plasmid copy number and its conjugal transfer to other agrobacteria. Many natural agrobacteria are avirulent, lacking the Ti plasmid. The burden of harboring the Ti plasmid depends on the environmental context. Away from diseased hosts, plasmid costs are low but the benefit of the plasmid is also absent. Consequently, plasmidless genotypes are favored. On infected plants the costs of the Ti plasmid can be very high, but balanced by the opine benefits, locally favoring plasmid bearing cells. Cheating derivatives which do not incur virulence costs but can benefit from opines are favored on infected plants and in most other environments, and these are frequently isolated from nature. Many agrobacteria also harbor an At plasmid which can stably coexist with a Ti plasmid. At plasmid genes are less well characterized but in general facilitate metabolic activities in the rhizosphere and bulk soil, such as the ability to breakdown plant exudates. Examination of A. tumefaciens C58, revealed that harboring its At plasmid is much more costly than harboring it’s Ti plasmid, but conversely the At plasmid is extremely difficult to cure. The interactions between these co-resident plasmids are complex, and depend on environmental context. However, the presence of a Ti plasmid appears to mitigate At plasmid costs, consistent with the high frequency with which they are found together. PMID:25452760

  11. Nucleic acid extraction from Agrobacterium strains.

    PubMed

    Wise, Arlene A; Liu, Zhenying; Binns, Andrew N

    2006-01-01

    Agrobacterium is routinely used as a tool for moving genetic constructs into plant cells. The successful use of Agrobacterium as a tool for the genetic engineering of plant cells often requires the manipulation and analysis of nucleic acids present in recombinant Agrobacterium strains. Here we present dependable methods for the isolation of genomic (total) DNA, mega-plasmid DNA, shuttle or binary plasmid DNA, and RNA. In addition, we provide a simple method for the electronic transfer of shuttle plasmids from Agrobacterium to E. coli for use when their low copy number in Agrobacterium impedes plasmid isolation from that strain.

  12. Agrobacterium may delay plant nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair via XRCC4 to favor T-DNA integration.

    PubMed

    Vaghchhipawala, Zarir E; Vasudevan, Balaji; Lee, Seonghee; Morsy, Mustafa R; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2012-10-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a soilborne pathogen that causes crown gall disease in many dicotyledonous plants by transfer of a portion of its tumor-inducing plasmid (T-DNA) into the plant genome. Several plant factors that play a role in Agrobacterium attachment to plant cells and transport of T-DNA to the nucleus have been identified, but the T-DNA integration step during transformation is poorly understood and has been proposed to occur via nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair. Here, we report a negative role of X-ray cross complementation group4 (XRCC4), one of the key proteins required for NHEJ, in Agrobacterium T-DNA integration. Downregulation of XRCC4 in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana increased stable transformation due to increased T-DNA integration. Overexpression of XRCC4 in Arabidopsis decreased stable transformation due to decreased T-DNA integration. Interestingly, XRCC4 directly interacted with Agrobacterium protein VirE2 in a yeast two-hybrid system and in planta. VirE2-expressing Arabidopsis plants were more susceptible to the DNA damaging chemical bleomycin and showed increased stable transformation. We hypothesize that VirE2 titrates or excludes active XRCC4 protein available for DSB repair, thus delaying the closure of DSBs in the chromosome, providing greater opportunity for T-DNA to integrate.

  13. Role of CheY1 and CheY2 in the chemotaxis of A. tumefaciens toward acetosyringone.

    PubMed

    Harighi, Behrouz

    2008-06-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens has a chemtaxis operon, which includes orf1, orf2, cheY1, cheA, cheR, cheB, cheY2, orf9, and orf10. In-frame deletions of cheY1 and cheY2 were constructed and the chemosensory behavior of the mutants was examined on swarm plates and in a chemotaxis assay toward acetosyringone. The cheY2 mutant (C1/delY2) showed impaired chemotactic capabilities in both swarming and chemotaxis assays. The effect of lacking CheY1 on chemotaxis is less severe than that of CheY2, under the conditions studied.

  14. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation method for the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements.

  15. Development of an Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Transformation Method for the Sensitive Plant Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements. PMID:24533121

  16. Efficient gene targeting in Penicillium chrysogenum using novel Agrobacterium-mediated transformation approaches.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Paulo; Bronkhof, Jurian; Dukiќ, Karolina; Kerkman, Richard; Touw, Hesselien; van den Berg, Marco; Offringa, Remko

    2013-12-01

    The industrial production of β-lactam antibiotics by Penicillium chrysogenum has increased tremendously over the last decades, however, further optimization via classical strain and process improvement has reached its limits. The availability of the genome sequence provides new opportunities for directed strain improvement, but this requires the establishment of an efficient gene targeting (GT) system. Recently, mutations affecting the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway were shown to increase GT efficiencies following PEG-mediated DNA transfer in P. chrysogenum from 1% to 50%. Apart from direct DNA transfer many fungi can efficiently be transformed using the T-DNA transfer system of the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, however, for P. chrysogenum no robust system for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was available. We obtained efficient AMT of P. chrysogenum spores with the nourseothricin acetyltransferase gene as selection marker, and using this system we investigated if AMT in a NHEJ mutant background could further enhance GT efficiencies. In general, AMT resulted in higher GT efficiencies than direct DNA transfer, although the final frequencies depended on the Agrobacterium strain and plasmid backbone used. Providing overlapping and complementing fragments on two different plasmid backbones via the same Agrobacterium host was shown to be most effective. This so-called split-marker or bi-partite method resulted in highly efficient GT (>97%) almost exclusively without additional ectopic T-DNA insertions. As this method provides for an efficient GT method independent of protoplasts, it can be applied to other fungi for which no protoplasts can be generated or for which protoplast transformation leads to varying results.

  17. Single acquisition of protelomerase gave rise to speciation of a large and diverse clade within the Agrobacterium/Rhizobium supercluster characterized by the presence of a linear chromid.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha H; Vial, Ludovic; Lassalle, Florent; Diel, Benjamin; Chapulliot, David; Daubin, Vincent; Nesme, Xavier; Muller, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Linear chromosomes are atypical in bacteria and likely a secondary trait derived from ancestral circular molecules. Within the Rhizobiaceae family, whose genome contains at least two chromosomes, a particularity of Agrobacterium fabrum (formerly A. tumefaciens) secondary chromosome (chromid) is to be linear and hairpin-ended thanks to the TelA protelomerase. Linear topology and telA distributions within this bacterial family was screened by pulse field gel electrophoresis and PCR. In A. rubi, A. larrymoorei, Rhizobium skierniewicense, A. viscosum, Agrobacterium sp. NCPPB 1650, and every genomospecies of the biovar 1/A. tumefaciens species complex (including R. pusense, A. radiobacter, A. fabrum, R. nepotum plus seven other unnamed genomospecies), linear chromid topologies were retrieved concomitantly with telA presence, whereas the remote species A. vitis, Allorhizobium undicola, Rhizobium rhizogenes and Ensifer meliloti harbored a circular chromid as well as no telA gene. Moreover, the telA phylogeny is congruent with that of recA used as a marker gene of the Agrobacterium phylogeny. Collectively, these findings strongly suggest that single acquisition of telA by an ancestor was the founding event of a large and diverse clade characterized by the presence of a linear chromid. This clade, characterized by unusual genome architecture, appears to be a relevant candidate to serve as a basis for a possible redefinition of the controversial Agrobacterium genus. In this respect, investigating telA in sequenced genomes allows to both ascertain the place of concerned strains into Agrobacterium spp. and their actual assignation to species/genomospecies in this genus.

  18. Sonication, Vacuum Infiltration and Thiol Compounds Enhance the Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Frequency of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Kapil Dev, Gnajothi; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have established a stable transformation protocol via Agrobacterium tumafacines for the pharmaceutically important Withania somnifera. Six day-old nodal explants were used for 3 day co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the vector pCAMIBA2301. Among the different injury treatments, sonication, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, a vacuum infiltration for 10 min followed by sonication for 10 sec with A. tumefaciens led to a higher transient GUS expression (84% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites). In order to improve gene integration, thiol compounds were added to co-cultivation medium. A combined treatment of L-Cys at 100 mg/l, STS at 125 mg/l, DTT at 75 mg/l resulted in a higher GUS expression (90%) in the nodal explants. After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were subjected to three selection cycles with increasing concentrations of kanamycin [100 to 115 mg/l]. The integration and expression of gusA gene in T0 and T1 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blott analysis. These transformed plants (T0 and T1) were fertile and morphologically normal. From the present investigation, we have achieved a higher transformation efficiency of (10%). Withanolides (withanolide A, withanolide B, withanone and withaferin A) contents of transformed plants (T0 and T1) were marginally higher than control plants. PMID:25927703

  19. Development of a transgenic hairy root system in jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) with gusA reporter gene through Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated co-transformation.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Tirthartha; Roy, Sheuli; Mitra, Adinpunya; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2011-04-01

    Transgenic hairy root system is important in several recalcitrant plants, where Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation and generation of transgenic plants are problematic. Jute (Corchorus spp.), the major fibre crop in Indian subcontinent, is one of those recalcitrant plants where in vitro tissue culture has provided a little success, and hence, Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation remains to be a challenging proposition in this crop. In the present work, a system of transgenic hairy roots in Corchorus capsularis L. has been developed through genetic transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes harbouring two plasmids, i.e. the natural Ri plasmid and a recombinant binary vector derived from the disarmed Ti plasmid of A. tumefaciens. Our findings indicate that the system is relatively easy to establish and reproducible. Molecular analysis of the independent lines of transgenic hairy roots revealed the transfer of relevant transgenes from both the T-DNA parts into the plant genome, indicating the co-transformation nature of the event. High level expression and activity of the gusA reporter gene advocate that the transgenic hairy root system, thus developed, could be applicable as gene expression system in general and for root functional genomics in particular. Furthermore, these transgenic hairy roots can be used in future as explants for plantlet regeneration to obtain stable transgenic jute plants.

  20. Delayed Leaf Senescence in Tobacco Plants Transformed with tmr, a Gene for Cytokinin Production in Agrobacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Smart, CM; Scofield, SR; Bevan, MW; Dyer, TA

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether enhanced levels of endogenous cytokinins could influence plant development, particularly leaf senescence. Tobacco plants were transformed with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens gene tmr, under the control of the soybean heat shock promoter HS6871. This gene encodes the enzyme isopentenyl transferase, which catalyzes the initial step in cytokinin biosynthesis. After heat shock, the cytokinin level increased greatly and the level of tmr mRNA, undetectable at 20[deg]C, rose and remained high for up to 8 hours. The levels of cytokinin and tmr mRNA were substantially lower by 24 hours. Transformed plants grown at 20[deg]C were shorter, had larger side shoots, and remained green for longer than untransformed plants. The differences were more pronounced after several heat shocks of whole plants or defined areas of leaves. Our results demonstrated that plant morphology and leaf senescence can be manipulated by changing the endogenous level of cytokinins. PMID:12324608

  1. Efficient Agrobacterium-based transient expression system for the production of biopharmaceuticals in plants

    PubMed Central

    Circelli, Patrizia; Donini, Marcello; Villani, Maria Elena; Benvenuto, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    We have recently described an efficient transient expression system mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens for the production of HIV-1 Nef protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. In order to enhance the yield of recombinant protein we assayed the effect of three gene-silencing viral suppressor proteins (P25 of Potato Virus X, P19 of Artichoke Mottled Crinckle virus and Tomato Bushy Stunt virus) on Nef expression levels. Results demonstrated that AMCV-P19 gave the highest Nef yield (1.3% of total soluble protein) and that this effect was correlated to a remarkable decrease of Nef-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) indicating an effective modulation of RNA silencing mechanisms. Here we report additional data on the production of different heterologous proteins including human immunoglobulin heavy and light chains and a virus coat protein that demonstrate the robustness of this co-agroinfiltration expression system boosted by the AMCV-P19 gene-silencing suppressor. PMID:21326930

  2. [Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of LJAMP2 gene into 'Red Sun' kiwifruit and its molecular identification].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Xupeng; Wu, Xiuhua; Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Lin; Luo, Keming; Tang, Shaohu

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial canker caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. Actinidiae is one of the most important diseases of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) and leads to considerable yield losses. In order to obtain transgenic plants with resistance for 'Red Sun' kiwifruit to canker disease, a non-specific lipid transfer protein-like antimicrobial protein gene (LJAMP2) from motherwort (Leonurus japonicus) was introduced into 'Red Sun' kiwifruit through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. After two days of co-cultivation with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring 35S:LJAMP2, the transformed explants were transferred to the selection medium containing 25 mg/L kanamycin+3.0 mg/L BA+1.0 mg/L NAA. The regeneration efficiency of kanamycin-resistant shoots reached to 85%. All (100%) of kanamycin-resistant shoots rooted on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.8 mg/L IBA and a total of 40 regenerated plantlets were obtained. PCR and histochemical GUS activity analysis show that 23 of 40 lines (57.50%) were positive, suggesting that the LJAMP2 gene was integrated into the genome of 'Red Sun' kiwifruit. Taken together, we established an efficient genetic transformation method for 'Red Sun' kiwifruit using A. tumefaciens and the transformation frequency reached 5.11%. This protocol will be useful for the genetic breeding of 'Red Sun' kiwifruit for improvement of disease resistance.

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of yam (Dioscorea rotundata): an important tool for functional study of genes and crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    Nyaboga, Evans; Tripathi, Jaindra N.; Manoharan, Rajesh; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Although genetic transformation of clonally propagated crops has been widely studied as a tool for crop improvement and as a vital part of the development of functional genomics resources, there has been no report of any existing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of yam (Dioscorea spp.) with evidence of stable integration of T-DNA. Yam is an important crop in the tropics and subtropics providing food security and income to over 300 million people. However, yam production remains constrained by increasing levels of field and storage pests and diseases. A major constraint to the development of biotechnological approaches for yam improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. In this study, we developed an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Dioscorea rotundata using axillary buds as explants. Two cultivars of D. rotundata were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the binary vectors containing selectable marker and reporter genes. After selection with appropriate concentrations of antibiotic, shoots were developed on shoot induction and elongation medium. The elongated antibiotic-resistant shoots were subsequently rooted on medium supplemented with selection agent. Successful transformation was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analysis, and reporter genes assay. Expression of gusA gene in transgenic plants was also verified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Transformation efficiency varied from 9.4 to 18.2% depending on the cultivars, selectable marker genes, and the Agrobacterium strain used for transformation. It took 3–4 months from Agro-infection to regeneration of complete transgenic plant. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of D. rotundata using axillary buds as explants, which provides a useful platform for future genetic engineering studies in this economically important

  4. The usefulness of the gfp reporter gene for monitoring Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of potato dihaploid and tetraploid genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rakosy-Tican, Elena; Aurori, Cristian M; Dijkstra, Camelia; Thieme, Ramona; Aurori, Adriana; Davey, Michael R

    2007-05-01

    Potato is one of the main targets for genetic improvement by gene transfer. The aim of the present study was to establish a robust protocol for the genetic transformation of three dihaploid and four economically important cultivars of potato using Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the in vivo screenable reporter gene for green fluorescent protein (gfp) and the marker gene for neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII). Stem and leaf explants were used for transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying the binary vector pHB2892. Kanamycin selection, visual screening of GFP by epifluorescent microscopy, PCR amplification of nptII and gfp genes, as well as RT-PCR and Southern blotting of gfp and Northern blotting of nptII, were used for transgenic plant selection, identification and analysis. Genetic transformation was optimized for the best performing genotypes with a mean number of shoots expressing gfp per explant of 13 and 2 (dihaploid line 178/10 and cv. 'Baltica', respectively). The nptII marker and gfp reporter genes permitted selection and excellent visual screening of transgenic tissues and plants. They also revealed the effects of antibiotic selection on organogenesis and transformation frequency, and the identification of escapes and chimeras in all potato genotypes. Silencing of the gfp transgene that may represent site-specific inactivation during cell differentiation, occurred in some transgenic shoots of tetraploid cultivars and in specific chimeric clones of the dihaploid line 178/10. The regeneration of escapes could be attributed to either the protection of non-transformed cells by neighbouring transgenic cells, or the persistence of Agrobacterium cells in plant tissues after co-cultivation.

  5. Submental fat reduction by mesotherapy using phosphatidylcholine alone vs. phosphatidylcholine and organic silicium: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Co, Abigail C; Abad-Casintahan, Maria Flordeliz; Espinoza-Thaebtharm, Agnes

    2007-12-01

    Excess skin and fatty tissues beneath the jaw lead to a double chin deformity. Localized fat deposits in this area are a cause of discomfort and anguish, leading patients to undergo surgical procedures such as liposuction and dermolipectomy to improve the cosmetic effect. Both procedures require anesthesia and an operating room setting and are quite expensive. Fearful of extensive surgery and its complications, patients and physicians seek less invasive methods. Mesotherapy with phosphatidylcholine and other cocktails have been used to treat localized fat deposits. However, there are few published articles regarding its effectiveness and some are even anecdotal. This study aims to determine the efficacy of phosphatidylcholine alone vs. phosphatidylcholine and organic silicium in submental fat reduction. Twelve patients with submental fat deposit with no coexisting morbidity and with informed consent were included in the study. They were submitted to one to five treatment sessions with an average interval of 2 weeks between each session. The medication administered was injected, either pure phosphatidylcholine or a combination of phosphatidylcholine and organic silicium. Baseline measurements of submental fat using vernier caliper and digital photographs of the patients were taken during each treatment session. The occurrence of adverse effects was likewise noted. Results Among the 12 patients, 11 completed the treatment course, and 1 was excluded from the study because of failure to follow up. Both phosphatidylcholine and a combination of phosphatidylcholine and organic silicium were equally effective in reducing submental fat deposits. There was no significant difference as to the rate and degree of reduction. Significant reduction in the thickness of submental fat was achieved after three treatment sessions. Adverse reactions in both groups were mild and transitory ranging from heavy sensation, localized heat, nodulations, and slight bruising that abated 3 to 5

  6. Deletion of host histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases strongly affects Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Jalal; van Heusden, Gerard Paul H; Hooykaas, Paul J J

    2009-09-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen that genetically transforms plant cells by transferring a part of its Ti-plasmid, the T-strand, to the host cell. Under laboratory conditions, it can also transform cells from many different nonplant organisms, including the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Collections of S. cerevisiae strains have been developed with systematic deletion of all coding sequences. Here, we used these collections to identify genes involved in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) of S. cerevisiae. We found that deletion of genes (GCN5, NGG1, YAF9 and EAF7) encoding subunits of the SAGA, SLIK, ADA and NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complexes highly increased the efficiency of AMT, while deletion of genes (HDA2, HDA3 and HST4) encoding subunits of histone deacetylase complexes decreased AMT. These effects are specific for AMT as the efficiency of chemical (lithium acetate) transformation was not or only slightly affected by these deletions. Our data are consistent with a positive role of host histone deacetylation in AMT.

  7. Improved vectors for Agrobacterium mediated genetic manipulation of Hypholoma spp. and other homobasidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Al-Salihi, Suhad A A; Scott, Thomas A; Bailey, Andy M; Foster, Gary D

    2017-08-24

    The basidiomycete fungi Hypholoma fasciculare and H. sublateritium are both prolific producers of sesquiterpenes and triterpenes, some of which have relevant pharmaceutical properties. Although H. sublateritium has been transformed in the past, the low reported efficiencies highlighted the need for establishing an effective simple transformation system for these valuable species. We have optimized Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation through testing various parameters in these two Hypholoma species, showing that a mixture of homogenized mycelia and Agrobacterium (strain LBA4404) co-cultivated for 84h at 25°C is optimal for efficient transformation in these basidiomycetes. This study also reveals the requirements for transgene expression, with the first report of GFP expression in these Hypholoma, the need for an intron for such transgene expression, and further demonstrates the functionality of the expression vector by its use in Clitopilus passeckerianus. This development of transformation system and expression constructs, can facilitate further genetic investigation such as gene functionality in these fungi. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Genetic transformation of Metroxylon sagu (Rottb.) cultures via Agrobacterium-mediated and particle bombardment.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Evra Raunie; Hossain, Md Anowar; Roslan, Hairul Azman

    2014-01-01

    Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu) is a perennial plant native to Southeast Asia and exploited mainly for the starch content in its trunk. Genetic improvement of sago palm is extremely slow when compared to other annual starch crops. Urgent attention is needed to improve the sago palm planting material and can be achieved through nonconventional methods. We have previously developed a tissue culture method for sago palm, which is used to provide the planting materials and to develop a genetic transformation procedure. Here, we report the genetic transformation of sago embryonic callus derived from suspension culture using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and gene gun systems. The transformed embryoids cells were selected against Basta (concentration 10 to 30 mg/L). Evidence of foreign genes integration and function of the bar and gus genes were verified via gene specific PCR amplification, gus staining, and dot blot analysis. This study showed that the embryogenic callus was the most suitable material for transformation as compared to the fine callus, embryoid stage, and initiated shoots. The gene gun transformation showed higher transformation efficiency than the ones transformed using Agrobacterium when targets were bombarded once or twice using 280 psi of helium pressure at 6 to 8 cm distance.

  9. Genetic Transformation of Metroxylon sagu (Rottb.) Cultures via Agrobacterium-Mediated and Particle Bombardment

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Evra Raunie

    2014-01-01

    Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu) is a perennial plant native to Southeast Asia and exploited mainly for the starch content in its trunk. Genetic improvement of sago palm is extremely slow when compared to other annual starch crops. Urgent attention is needed to improve the sago palm planting material and can be achieved through nonconventional methods. We have previously developed a tissue culture method for sago palm, which is used to provide the planting materials and to develop a genetic transformation procedure. Here, we report the genetic transformation of sago embryonic callus derived from suspension culture using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and gene gun systems. The transformed embryoids cells were selected against Basta (concentration 10 to 30 mg/L). Evidence of foreign genes integration and function of the bar and gus genes were verified via gene specific PCR amplification, gus staining, and dot blot analysis. This study showed that the embryogenic callus was the most suitable material for transformation as compared to the fine callus, embryoid stage, and initiated shoots. The gene gun transformation showed higher transformation efficiency than the ones transformed using Agrobacterium when targets were bombarded once or twice using 280 psi of helium pressure at 6 to 8 cm distance. PMID:25295258

  10. Agrobacterium tumefasciens-mediated transformation of the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii.

    PubMed

    Vieira, André L G; Camilo, César M

    2011-08-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely used for plant DNA transformation and more recently, has also been used to transform yeast, filamentous fungi and even human cells. Using this technique, we developed the first transformation protocol for the saprobic aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii, a Blastocladiomycete localized at the base of fungal phylogenetic tree, which has been shown as a promising and interesting model of study of cellular function and differentiation. We constructed binary T-DNA vectors containing hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) or enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) genes, under the control of Aspergillus nidulans trpC promoter and terminator sequences. 24 h of co-cultivation in induction medium (IM) agar plates, followed by transfer to PYG-agar plates containing cefotaxim to kill Agrobacterium tumefsciens and hygromycin to select transformants, resulted in growth and sporulation of resistant transformants. Genomic DNA from the pool o resistant zoospores were shown to contain T-DNA insertion as evidenced by PCR amplification of hph gene. Using a similar protocol we could also evidence the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in zoospores derived from transformed cells. This protocol can also open new perspectives for other non-transformable closely related fungi, like the Chytridiomycete class.

  11. Plant Enzymes but Not Agrobacterium VirD2 Mediate T-DNA Ligation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ziemienowicz, Alicja; Tinland, Bruno; Bryant, John; Gloeckler, Veronique; Hohn, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a gram-negative soil bacterium, transfers DNA to many plant species. In the plant cell, the transferred DNA (T-DNA) is integrated into the genome. An in vitro ligation-integration assay has been designed to investigate the mechanism of T-DNA ligation and the factors involved in this process. The VirD2 protein, which is produced in Agrobacterium and is covalently attached to T-DNA, did not, under our assay conditions, ligate T-DNA to a model target sequence in vitro. We tested whether plant extracts could ligate T-DNA to target oligonucleotides in our test system. The in vitro ligation-integration reaction did indeed take place in the presence of plant extracts. This reaction was inhibited by dTTP, indicating involvement of a plant DNA ligase. We found that prokaryotic DNA ligases could substitute for plant extracts in this reaction. Ligation of the VirD2-bound oligonucleotide to the target sequence mediated by T4 DNA ligase was less efficient than ligation of a free oligonucleotide to the target. T-DNA ligation mediated by a plant enzyme(s) or T4 DNA ligase requires ATP. PMID:10938108

  12. Non-homologous end-joining proteins are required for Agrobacterium T-DNA integration

    PubMed Central

    van Attikum, Haico; Bundock, Paul; Hooykaas, Paul J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease in dicotyledonous plants by introducing a segment of DNA (T-DNA), derived from its tumour-inducing (Ti) plasmid, into plant cells at infection sites. Besides these natural hosts, Agrobacterium can deliver the T-DNA also to monocotyledonous plants, yeasts and fungi. The T-DNA integrates randomly into one of the chromosomes of the eukaryotic host by an unknown process. Here, we have used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a T-DNA recipient to demonstrate that the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) proteins Yku70, Rad50, Mre11, Xrs2, Lig4 and Sir4 are required for the integration of T-DNA into the host genome. We discovered a minor pathway for T-DNA integration at the telomeric regions, which is still operational in the absence of Rad50, Mre11 or Xrs2, but not in the absence of Yku70. T-DNA integration at the telomeric regions in the rad50, mre11 and xrs2 mutants was accompanied by gross chromosomal rearrangements. PMID:11707425

  13. Visualization of VirE2 protein translocation by the Agrobacterium type IV secretion system into host cells

    PubMed Central

    Sakalis, Philippe A; van Heusden, G Paul H; Hooykaas, Paul J J

    2014-01-01

    Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) can mediate the translocation of bacterial virulence proteins into host cells. The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens uses a T4SS to deliver a VirD2-single stranded DNA complex as well as the virulence proteins VirD5, VirE2, VirE3, and VirF into host cells so that these become genetically transformed. Besides plant cells, yeast and fungi can efficiently be transformed by Agrobacterium. Translocation of virulence proteins by the T4SS has so far only been shown indirectly by genetic approaches. Here we report the direct visualization of VirE2 protein translocation by using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and Split GFP visualization strategies. To this end, we cocultivated Agrobacterium strains expressing VirE2 tagged with one part of a fluorescent protein with host cells expressing the complementary part, either fused to VirE2 (for BiFC) or not (Split GFP). Fluorescent filaments became visible in recipient cells 20–25 h after the start of the cocultivation indicative of VirE2 protein translocation. Evidence was obtained that filament formation was due to the association of VirE2 with the microtubuli. PMID:24376037

  14. Visualization of VirE2 protein translocation by the Agrobacterium type IV secretion system into host cells.

    PubMed

    Sakalis, Philippe A; van Heusden, G Paul H; Hooykaas, Paul J J

    2014-02-01

    Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) can mediate the translocation of bacterial virulence proteins into host cells. The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens uses a T4SS to deliver a VirD2-single stranded DNA complex as well as the virulence proteins VirD5, VirE2, VirE3, and VirF into host cells so that these become genetically transformed. Besides plant cells, yeast and fungi can efficiently be transformed by Agrobacterium. Translocation of virulence proteins by the T4SS has so far only been shown indirectly by genetic approaches. Here we report the direct visualization of VirE2 protein translocation by using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and Split GFP visualization strategies. To this end, we cocultivated Agrobacterium strains expressing VirE2 tagged with one part of a fluorescent protein with host cells expressing the complementary part, either fused to VirE2 (for BiFC) or not (Split GFP). Fluorescent filaments became visible in recipient cells 20-25 h after the start of the cocultivation indicative of VirE2 protein translocation. Evidence was obtained that filament formation was due to the association of VirE2 with the microtubuli.

  15. Assessment of factors influencing the Agrobacterium-mediated in planta seed transformation of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Rajesh, Manoharan; Jaganath, Balusamy; Vasuki, Amirthalingam; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Elayaraja, Dhandapani; Karthik, Sivabalan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2013-09-01

    An efficient and reproducible in planta transformation method was developed for brinjal using seed as an explant. The brinjal seeds were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 harbouring pCAMBIA 1301-bar plasmid, and the transformants were selected against BASTA®. Several parameters influencing the in planta seed transformation such as pre-culture duration, acetosyringone concentration, surfactants, duration of sonication, vacuum pressure and vacuum duration have been evaluated. The putatively transformed (T 0) brinjal plants were screened by GUS histochemical analysis. Among the different combinations and concentrations tested, when the 18-h pre-cultured brinjal seeds were sonicated for 20 min and vacuum infiltered for 3 min at 500 mm of Hg in Agrobacterium suspension containing 100 μM acetosyringone, 0.2 % Silwett L-77 favoured the Agrobacterium infection and showed maximum transformation efficiency. Among the five brinjal varieties evaluated, Arka Samhitha showed maximum transformation efficiency at 45.66 %. The transgene was successfully transmitted to progeny plants (T 1) which was evidenced by GUS histochemical analysis, polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridisation. The in planta protocol developed in the present study would be beneficial to transfer the economically and nutritionally important genes into different varieties of brinjal, and the transgenic brinjal plants can be produced in less time (approximately 27 days).

  16. Improvement of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Hi-II maize (Zea mays) using standard binary vectors.

    PubMed

    Vega, Juan M; Yu, Weichang; Kennon, Angela R; Chen, Xinlu; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2008-02-01

    High-frequency transformation of maize (Zea mays L.) using standard binary vectors is advantageous for functional genomics and other genetic engineering studies. Recent advances in Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of maize have made it possible for the public to transform maize using standard binary vectors without a need of the superbinary vector. While maize Hi-II has been a preferred maize genotype to use in various maize transformation efforts, there is still potential and need in further improving its transformation frequency. Here we report the enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of immature zygotic embryos of maize Hi-II using standard binary vectors. This improved transformation process employs low-salt media in combined use with antioxidant L-cysteine alone or L-cysteine and dithiothreitol (DTT) during the Agrobacterium infection stage. Three levels of N6 medium salts, 10, 50, and 100%, were tested. Both 10 and 50% salts were found to enhance the T-DNA transfer in Hi-II. Addition of DTT to the cocultivation medium also improves the T-DNA transformation. About 12% overall and the highest average of 18% transformation frequencies were achieved from a large number of experiments using immature embryos grown in various seasons. The enhanced transformation protocol established here will be advantageous for maize genetic engineering studies including transformation-based functional genomics.

  17. Scale-up of Agrobacterium-mediated transient protein expression in bioreactor-grown Nicotiana glutinosa plant cell suspension culture.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Kristin M; Larsen, Jeffrey S; Curtis, Wayne R

    2008-01-01

    The reporter gene beta-glucuronidase was transiently expressed in a 51-L bioreactor-grown plant cell suspension culture of Nicotiana glutinosa at a yield of approximately 1.1 mg through co-culture with an auxotrophic strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The three order of magnitude scale-up involved the investigation of factors contributing to transient expression including the timing of Agrobacterium inoculation relative to the plant cell growth phase, plant tissue culture hormonal triggers and plant cell cycle synchronization. The co-culture process was simplified to facilitate implementation in a pilot-scale bioreactor. At the shake flask scale it was determined that elevated concentrations of oxygen in the headspace were detrimental to transient expression levels and the addition of acetosyringone to the co-culture had a negligible effect. The bacterial preparation process was also streamlined, permitting the direct transfer of the Agrobacterium culture from a bench-scale fermentor to the pilot-scale plant cell culture bioreactor. Increasing expression levels and overcoming batch-to-batch variability despite extensive procedure systemization remain the major technical hurdles.

  18. Use of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 18r12v and paromomycin selection for transformation of Brachypodium distachyon and Brachypodium sylvaticum

    DOE PAGES

    Collier, Ray; Bragg, Jennifer; Hernandez, Bryan T.; ...

    2016-05-24

    In this study, the genetic transformation of monocot grasses is a resource intensive process, the quality and efficiency of which is dependent in part upon the method of DNA introduction, as well as the ability to effectively separate transformed from wildtype tissue. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brachypodium has relied mainly on Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1. Currently the antibiotic hygromycin B has been the selective agent of choice for robust identification of transgenic calli in Brachypodium distachyon and Brachypodium sylvaticum but few other chemicals have been shown to work as well for selection of transgenic Brachypodium cells in tissue culture. This studymore » demonstrates that Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 18r12v and paromomycin selection can be successfully used for the efficient generation of transgenic B. distachyon and B. sylvaticurn. Additionally we observed that the transformation rates were similar to or higher than those obtained with A. turnefaciens strain AGL1 and hygromycin selection. The A. rhizogenes strain 18r12v harboring the pARS1 binary vector and paromomycin selection is an effective means of generating transgenic Brachypodium plants. This novel approach will facilitate the transgenic complementation of T-DNA knockout mutants of B. distachyon which were created using hygromycin selection, as well as aid the implementation of more complex genome manipulation strategies which require multiple rounds of transformation.« less

  19. Transgenic grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.): factors influencing agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Barik, D P; Mohapatra, U; Chand, P K

    2005-11-01

    A reproducible procedure was developed for genetic transformation of grasspea using epicotyl segment co-cultivation with Agrobacterium. Two disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains, EHA 105 and LBA 4404, both carrying the binary plasmid p35SGUSINT with the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene and the beta-glucuronidase (gus)-intron, were studied as vector systems. The latter was found to have a higher transforming ability. Several key factors modifying the transformation rate were optimized. The highest transformation rate was achieved using hand-pricked explants for infection with an Agrobacterium culture corresponding to OD(600) congruent with 0.6 and diluted to a cell density of 10(9) cells ml(-1) for 10 min, followed by co-cultivation for 4 days in a medium maintained at pH 5.6. Putative transformed explants capable of forming shoots were selected on regeneration medium containing kanamycin (100 mug ml(-1)). We achieved up to 36% transient expression based on the GUS histochemical assay. Southern hybridization of genomic DNA of the kanamycin-resistant GUS-expressive shoots to a gus-intron probe substantiated the integration of the transgene. Transformed shoots were rooted on half-strength MS containing 0.5 mg l(-1) indole-3-acetic acid, acclimated in vermi-compost and established in the experimental field. Germ-line transformation was evident through progeny analysis. Among T(1) seedlings of most transgenic plant lines, kanamycin-resistant and -sensitive plants segregated in a ratio close to 3:1.

  20. Preparation and characterization of debranched-starch/phosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiwei; Luo, Zhigang; Li, Lin; Fu, Xiong

    2015-01-21

    In this study, debranched-starch/phosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes were prepared. The effect of reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, reaction time, and addition amount of phosphatidylcholine on the phosphatidylcholine payload and inclusion rate was investigated. The phosphatidylcholine payload and inclusion rate prepared under the optimal conditions were 106 mg/g and 84.8%, respectively. The formation of debranched-starch/phosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes was confirmed by the results of XRD and FT-IR. Furthermore, the molecular, cluster, and fractal structures of the complexes were investigated using (13)C CP/MAS NMR and SAXS. The results indicated that the inclusion complexes were formed by hydrophobic interactions between alkyl chain of phosphatidylcholine and debranched-starch helix cavity. The complexes possessed a mass fractal structure, and a semicrystalline structure with a Bragg distance of 19.04 nm formed. After complexation, the stability of phosphatidylcholine was significantly improved, and phosphatidylcholine of the complexes can be gradually released with pancreatin treatment. This study revealed that debranched-starch can be used as an effective carrier of phosphatidylcholine for the purpose of improving its stability.

  1. Isoniazid interaction with phosphatidylcholine-based membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Amanda Vicente; Marengo Trindade, Paulo; Marques, Sheylla; Brum, Tainá; Harte, Etienne; Rodrigues, Marieli Oliveira; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonçalves Montes; da Silva, Pedro Almeida; Pohlmann, Adriana R.; Alves, Isabel Dantas; de Lima, Vânia Rodrigues

    2013-11-01

    Interaction between the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid (INH) and phosphatidylcholine membranes was investigated in terms of: (i) drug affinity to a lipid bilayer and (ii) drug-induced changes in the dynamic properties of liposomes, such as membrane hydration state, polar head and non-polar acyl chain order and lipid phase transition behavior. These parameters were studied by plasmon waveguide resonance spectroscopy (PWR), UV-visible, horizontal attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (HATR-FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. PWR measurements showed an INH membrane dissociation constant value of 0.031 μM to phosphatidylcholine bilayers. INH induced higher membrane perturbation in the plane which is perpendicular to the membrane plane. The INH saturation concentration in phosphatidylcholine liposomes was 170 μM. At this concentration, HATR-FTIR and NMR findings showed that INH may interact with the lipid polar head, increasing the number of hydrogen bonds in the phosphate region and enhancing the choline motional freedom. DSC measurements showed that, at 115 μM, INH was responsible for a decrease in lipid phase transition temperature of approximately 2 °C and had no influence in the lipid enthalpy variation (ΔH). However, at 170 μM, INH induced the reduction of the ΔH by approximately 52%, suggesting that the drug may increase the distance among lipid molecules and enhance the freedom of the lipid acyl chains methylene groups. This paper provides information on the effects of INH on membrane dynamics which is important to understand liposome targeting of the drug and for the development of anti-TB pharmacologic systems that not only are less susceptible to resistance but also have low toxicity.

  2. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for the tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala using immature zygotic embryos.

    PubMed

    Jube, Sandro; Borthakur, Dulal

    2009-01-01

    The tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is used as a perennial fodder because of its fast-growing foliage, which is high in protein content. The use of leucaena as a fodder is however restricted due to the presence of the toxin mimosine. Improvements in the nutritional contents as well as other agronomic traits of leucaena can be accomplished through genetic transformation. The objective of this research was to develop a transformation protocol for leucaena using phosphinothricin resistance as the plant selectable marker. Explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos infected with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 containing the binary plasmid pCAMBIA3201 produced four putative transformed leucaena plants. Transformation was con- firmed by PCR, RT-PCR, Southern blot, Western analyses, GUS-specific enzyme activity and herbicide leaf spraying assay. A transformation efficiency of 2% was established using this protocol.

  3. Effects of diacylglycerols on conformation of phosphatidylcholine headgroups in phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, E M; Lester, D S; Borchardt, D B; Zidovetzki, R

    1995-01-01

    The effects of five diacylglycerols (DAGs), diolein, 1-stearoyl,2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol, dioctanoylglycerol, 1-oleoyl,2-sn-acetylglycerol, and dipalmitin (DP), on the structure of lipid bilayers composed of mixtures of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine (4:1 mol/mol) were examined by 2H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine deuterated at the alpha- and beta-positions of the choline moiety was used to probe the surface region of the membranes. Addition of each DAG except DP caused a continuous decrease in the beta-deuteron quadrupole splittings and a concomitant increase in the alpha-deuteron splittings indicating that DAGs induce a conformational change in the phosphatidylcholine headgroup. Additional evidence of conformational change was found at high DAG concentrations (> or = 20 mol%) where the alpha-deuteron peaks became doublets indicating that the two alpha-deuterons were not equivalent. The changes induced by DP were consistent with the lateral phase separation of the bilayers into gel-like and fluid-like domains with the phosphatidylcholine headgroups in the latter phase being virtually unaffected by DP. The DAG-induced changes in alpha-deuteron splittings were found to correlate with DAG-enhanced protein kinase C (PK-C) activity, suggesting that the DAG-induced conformational changes of the phosphatidylcholine headgroups are either directly or indirectly related to a mechanism of PK-C activation. 2H NMR relaxation measurements showed significant increase of the spin-lattice relaxation times for the region of the phosphatidylcholine headgroups, induced by all DAGs except DP. However, this effect of DAGs did not correlate with the DAG-induced activation of PK-C. PMID:8519996

  4. Regulation of Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Waechter, Charles J.; Lester, Robert L.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence is presented which indicates that the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by the methylation pathway in growing cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is repressed by the presence of choline in the growth medium. This result, obtained previously for glucose-grown cells, was also observed for lactate-grown cells, of which half of the phosphatidylcholine is mitochondrial. A respiration-deficient mutant of the parent wild-type strain has been studied, and its inability to form functional mitochondria cannot be due to an impaired methylation pathway, as it has been shown to incorporate 14C-CH3-methionine into all of the methylated glycerophosphatides. The incorporation rate is depressed by the inclusion of 1 mm choline in the growth medium, suggesting a regulatory effect similar to that demonstrated for the wild-type strain. The effects of choline on the glycerophospholipid composition of lactate and glucose-grown cells is presented. The repressive effects of the two related bases, mono- and dimethylethanolamine, were examined, and reduced levels of 14C-CH3-methionine incorporation were found for cells grown in the presence of these bases. The effect of choline on the methylation rates is reversible and glucosegrown cells regain the nonrepressed level of methylation activity in 60 to 80 min after removal of choline from the growth medium. Images PMID:5547992

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Agrobacterium nepotum Strain 39/7T and Agrobacterium sp. Strain KFB 330

    PubMed Central

    Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Gašić, Katarina; Obradović, Aleksa

    2015-01-01

    Tumorigenic strains of Agrobacterium spp. are responsible for crown gall disease of numerous plant species. We present here draft genome sequences of nonpathogenic Agrobacterium nepotum strain 39/7T (CFBP 7436T, LMG 26435T), isolated from crown gall tumor on Prunus cerasifera, and tumorigenic Agrobacterium sp. strain KFB 330 (CFBP 8308, LMG 28674), isolated from galls on raspberry. PMID:25908139

  6. SacB-SacR gene cassette as the negative selection marker to suppress Agrobacterium overgrowth in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agrobacterium overgrowth is a common problem in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. To suppress the Agrobacterium overgrowth, various antibiotics have been used during plant tissue culture steps. The antibiotics are expensive and may adversely affect plant cell differentiation and reduce ...

  7. Importance of phosphatidylcholine on the chloroplast surface.

    PubMed

    Botella, César; Jouhet, Juliette; Block, Maryse A

    2017-01-01

    In plant cells, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major glycerolipid of most membranes but practically lacking from the plastid internal membranes. In chloroplasts, PC is absent from the thylakoids and the inner envelope membrane. It is however the main component of the outer envelope membrane, where it exclusively distributes in the outer monolayer. This unique distribution is likely related with operational compartmentalization of plant lipid metabolism. In this review, we summarize the different mechanisms involved in homeostasis of PC in plant cells. The specific origin of chloroplast PC is examined and the involvement of the P4-ATPase family of phospholipid flippases (ALA) is considered with a special attention to the recently reported effect of the endoplasmic reticulum-localized ALA10 on modification of chloroplast PC desaturation. The different possible roles of chloroplast PC are then discussed and analyzed in consideration of plant physiology.

  8. Phosphatidylcholine: Greasing the Cholesterol Transport Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Lagace, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Negative feedback regulation of cholesterol metabolism in mammalian cells ensures a proper balance of cholesterol with other membrane lipids, principal among these being the major phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC). Processes such as cholesterol biosynthesis and efflux, cholesteryl ester storage in lipid droplets, and uptake of plasma lipoproteins are tuned to the cholesterol/PC ratio. Cholesterol-loaded macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions display increased PC biosynthesis that buffers against elevated cholesterol levels and may also facilitate cholesterol trafficking to enhance cholesterol sensing and efflux. These same mechanisms could play a generic role in homeostatic responses to acute changes in membrane free cholesterol levels. Here, I discuss the established and emerging roles of PC metabolism in promoting intracellular cholesterol trafficking and membrane lipid homeostasis. PMID:27081313

  9. Agrobacterium: nature’s genetic engineer

    PubMed Central

    Nester, Eugene W.

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium was identified as the agent causing the plant tumor, crown gall over 100 years ago. Since then, studies have resulted in many surprising observations. Armin Braun demonstrated that Agrobacterium infected cells had unusual nutritional properties, and that the bacterium was necessary to start the infection but not for continued tumor development. He developed the concept of a tumor inducing principle (TIP), the factor that actually caused the disease. Thirty years later the TIP was shown to be a piece of a tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid excised by an endonuclease. In the next 20 years, most of the key features of the disease were described. The single-strand DNA (T-DNA) with the endonuclease attached is transferred through a type IV secretion system into the host cell where it is likely coated and protected from nucleases by a bacterial secreted protein to form the T-complex. A nuclear localization signal in the endonuclease guides the transferred strand (T-strand), into the nucleus where it is integrated randomly into the host chromosome. Other secreted proteins likely aid in uncoating the T-complex. The T-DNA encodes enzymes of auxin, cytokinin, and opine synthesis, the latter a food source for Agrobacterium. The genes associated with T-strand formation and transfer (vir) map to the Ti plasmid and are only expressed when the bacteria are in close association with a plant. Plant signals are recognized by a two-component regulatory system which activates vir genes. Chromosomal genes with pleiotropic functions also play important roles in plant transformation. The data now explain Braun’s old observations and also explain why Agrobacterium is nature’s genetic engineer. Any DNA inserted between the border sequences which define the T-DNA will be transferred and integrated into host cells. Thus, Agrobacterium has become the major vector in plant genetic engineering. PMID:25610442

  10. Increased Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and rooting efficiencies in canola (Brassica napus L.) from hypocotyl segment explants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardoza, V.; Stewart, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient protocol for the production of transgenic Brassica napus cv. Westar plants was developed by optimizing two important parameters: preconditioning time and co-cultivation time. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was performed using hypocotyls as explant tissue. Two variants of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding gene--mGFP5-ER and eGFP--both under the constitutive expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, were used for the experiments. Optimizing the preconditioning time to 72 h and co-cultivation time with Agrobacterium to 48 h provided the increase in the transformation efficiency from a baseline of 4% to 25%. With mGFP5-ER, the transformation rate was 17% and with eGFP it was 25%. Transgenic shoots were selected on 200 mg/l kanamycin. Rooting efficiency was 100% on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 10 g/l sucrose and 0.5 mg/l indole butyric acid in the presence of kanamycin.

  11. Variable internal flexibility characterizes the helical capsid formed by agrobacterium VirE2 protein on single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Zbaida, David; Eisenstein, Miriam; Frankenstein, Ziv; Mehlman, Tevie; Weiner, Lev; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Barak, Yoav; Albeck, Shira; Briggs, John A G; Wolf, Sharon G; Elbaum, Michael

    2013-07-02

    Agrobacterium is known for gene transfer to plants. In addition to a linear ssDNA oligonucleotide, Agrobacterium tumefaciens secretes an abundant ssDNA-binding effector, VirE2. In many ways VirE2 adapts the conjugation mechanism to transform the eukaryotic host. The crystal structure of VirE2 shows two compact domains joined by a flexible linker. Bound to ssDNA, VirE2 forms an ordered solenoidal shell, or capsid known as the T-complex. Here, we present a three-dimensional reconstruction of the VirE2-ssDNA complex using cryo-electron microscopy and iterative helical real-space reconstruction. High-resolution refinement was not possible due to inherent heterogeneity in the protein structure. By a combination of computational modeling, chemical modifications, mass spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance, we found that the N-terminal domain is tightly constrained by both tangential and longitudinal links, while the C terminus is weakly constrained. The quaternary structure is thus rigidly assembled while remaining locally flexible. This flexibility may be important in accommodating substrates without sequence specificity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of hydroxycinnamic acid degradation in Agrobacterium fabrum reveals a coenzyme A-dependent, beta-oxidative deacetylation pathway.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Tony; Renoud, Sébastien; Kerzaon, Isabelle; Vial, Ludovic; Baude, Jessica; Gaillard, Vincent; Bellvert, Floriant; Chamignon, Cécile; Comte, Gilles; Nesme, Xavier; Lavire, Céline; Hommais, Florence

    2014-06-01

    The soil- and rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium Agrobacterium fabrum (genomospecies G8 of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens species complex) is known to have species-specific genes involved in ferulic acid degradation. Here, we characterized, by genetic and analytical means, intermediates of degradation as feruloyl coenzyme A (feruloyl-CoA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-β-hydroxypropionyl-CoA, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-β-ketopropionyl-CoA, vanillic acid, and protocatechuic acid. The genes atu1416, atu1417, and atu1420 have been experimentally shown to be necessary for the degradation of ferulic acid. Moreover, the genes atu1415 and atu1421 have been experimentally demonstrated to be essential for this degradation and are proposed to encode a phenylhydroxypropionyl-CoA dehydrogenase and a 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-β-ketopropionic acid (HMPKP)-CoA β-keto-thiolase, respectively. We thus demonstrated that the A. fabrum hydroxycinnamic degradation pathway is an original coenzyme A-dependent β-oxidative deacetylation that could also transform p-coumaric and caffeic acids. Finally, we showed that this pathway enables the metabolism of toxic compounds from plants and their use for growth, likely providing the species an ecological advantage in hydroxycinnamic-rich environments, such as plant roots or decaying plant materials.

  13. An improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for the functional genetic analysis of Penicillium marneffei.

    PubMed

    Kummasook, Aksarakorn; Cooper, Chester R; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2010-12-01

    We have developed an improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) system for the functional genetic analysis of Penicillium marneffei, a thermally dimorphic, human pathogenic fungus. Our AMT protocol included the use of conidia or pre-germinated conidia of P. marneffei as the host recipient for T-DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and co-cultivation at 28°C for 36 hours. Bleomycin-resistant transformants were selected as yeast-like colonies following incubation at 37°C. The efficiency of transformation was approximately 123 ± 3.27 and 239 ± 13.12 transformants per plate when using 5 × 10(4) conidia and pre-germinated conidia as starting materials, respectively. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that 95% of transformants contained single copies of T-DNA. Inverse PCR was employed for identifying flanking sequences at the T-DNA insertion sites. Analysis of these sequences indicated that integration occurred as random recombination events. Among the mutants isolated were previously described stuA and gasC defective strains. These AMT-derived mutants possessed single T-DNA integrations within their particular coding sequences. In addition, other morphological and pigmentation mutants possessing a variety of gene-specific defects were isolated, including two mutants having T-DNA integrations within putative promoter regions. One of the latter integration events was accompanied by the deletion of the entire corresponding gene. Collectively, these results indicated that AMT could be used for large-scale, functional genetic analyses in P. marneffei. Such analyses can potentially facilitate the identification of those genetic elements related to morphogenesis, as well as pathogenesis in this medically important fungus.

  14. Oral phosphatidylcholine pretreatment alleviates the signs of experimental rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Erős, Gabor; Ibrahim, Saleh; Siebert, Nikolai; Boros, Mihály; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine-derived metabolites exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in various stress conditions. We hypothesized that dietary phosphatidylcholine may potentially function as an anti-inflammatory substance and may decrease inflammatory activation in a chronic murine model of rheumatoid arthritis (collagen-induced arthritis). Methods The experiments were performed on male DBA1/J mice. In groups 1 to 3 (n = 10 each), collagen-induced arthritis was induced by administration of bovine collagen II. In group 2 the animals were fed ad libitum with phosphatidylcholine-enriched diet as a pretreatment, while the animals of group 3 received this nourishment as a therapy, after the onset of the disease. The severity of the disease and inflammation-linked hyperalgesia were evaluated with semiquantitative scoring systems, while the venular leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions and functional capillary density were assessed by means of in vivo fluorescence microscopy of the synovial tissue. Additionally, the mRNA expressions of cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, TNFα and endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase were determined, and classical histological analysis was performed. Results Phosphatidylcholine pretreatment reduced the collagen-induced arthritis-induced hypersensitivity, and decreased the number of leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions and the extent of functional capillary density as compared with those of group 1. It also ameliorated the tissue damage and decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. The expressions of the cannabinoid receptors and TNFα were not influenced by the phosphatidylcholine intake. Phosphatidylcholine-enriched food administrated as therapy failed to evoke the aforementioned changes, apart from the reduction of the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Conclusions Phosphatidylcholine-enriched food as pretreatment, but not as therapy, appears to exert beneficial effects

  15. Iron-Binding Compounds from Agrobacterium spp.: Biological Control Strain Agrobacterium rhizogenes K84 Produces a Hydroxamate Siderophore

    PubMed Central

    Penyalver, Ramón; Oger, Philippe; López, María M.; Farrand, Stephen K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron-binding compounds were produced in various amounts in response to iron starvation by a collection of Agrobacterium strains belonging to the species A. tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes, and A. vitis. The crown gall biocontrol agent A. rhizogenes strain K84 produced a hydroxamate iron chelator in large amounts. Production of this compound, and also of a previously described antibiotic-like substance called ALS84, occurred only in cultures of strain K84 grown in iron-deficient medium. Similarly, sensitivity to ALS84 was expressed only when susceptible cells were tested in low-iron media. Five independent Tn5-induced mutants of strain K84 affected in the production of the hydroxamate iron chelator showed a similar reduction in the production of ALS84. One of these mutants, M8-10, was completely deficient in the production of both agents and grew poorly compared to the wild type under iron-limiting conditions. Thus, the hydroxamate compound has siderophore activity. A 9.1-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA containing the Tn5 insertion from this mutant was cloned and marker exchanged into wild-type strain K84. The homogenote lost the ability to produce the hydroxamate siderophore and also ALS84. A cosmid clone was isolated from a genomic library of strain K84 that restored to strain M8-10 the ability to produce of the siderophore and ALS84, as well as growth in iron-deficient medium. This cosmid clone contained the region in which Tn5 was located in the mutant. Sequence analysis showed that the Tn5 insert in this mutant was located in an open reading frame coding for a protein that has similarity to those of the gramicidin S synthetase repeat superfamily. Some such proteins are required for synthesis of hydroxamate siderophores by other bacteria. Southern analysis revealed that the biosynthetic gene from strain K84 is present only in isolates of A. rhizogenes that produce hydroxamate-type compounds under low-iron conditions. Based on physiological and genetic analyses showing

  16. [Effect of macrocyclic esters on mitochondrial and phosphatidylcholine membranes].

    PubMed

    Bogatskiĭ, A V; Luk'ianenko, N G; Nazarov, E I; Nazarova, N Iu; Konup, I P

    1982-01-01

    It has been found that some macrocyclic esters have no ionophoric properties, but can block valinomycin-induced potassium transport in mitochondrial membranes and lessen the potassium current induced by valinomycin in phosphatidylcholine bilayers. It has been also discovered that 36-member cyclic esters of succinic acid and propylene glycoles decrease fluorescence of puridine nucleotides in mitochondria and produce a modifying effect on bimolecular phosphatidylcholine membranes in the medium of litium, calcium and magnesium chlorides at unilateral injection. The results obtained suggest that cyclopolyesters under investigation form mixed complexes with the macromolecules in the composition of mitochondrial and phosphatidylcholine membranes with the participation of the integrated ion.

  17. Environment Control to Improve Recombinant Protein Yields in Plants Based on Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Fujiuchi, Naomichi; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems enable plants to produce a wide range of recombinant proteins on a rapid timescale. To achieve economically feasible upstream production and downstream processing, two yield parameters should be considered: (1) recombinant protein content per unit biomass and (2) recombinant protein productivity per unit area–time at the end of the upstream production. Because environmental factors in the upstream production have impacts on these parameters, environment control is important to maximize the recombinant protein yield. In this review, we summarize the effects of pre- and postinoculation environmental factors in the upstream production on the yield parameters and discuss the basic concept of environment control for plant-based transient expression systems. Preinoculation environmental factors associated with planting density, light quality, and nutrient supply affect plant characteristics, such as biomass and morphology, which in turn affect recombinant protein content and productivity. Accordingly, environment control for such plant characteristics has significant implications to achieve a high yield. On the other hand, postinoculation environmental factors, such as temperature, light intensity, and humidity, have been shown to affect recombinant protein content. Considering that recombinant protein production in Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems is a result of a series of complex biological events starting from T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to protein biosynthesis and accumulation in leaf tissue, we propose that dynamic environment control during the postinoculation process, i.e., changing environmental conditions at an appropriate timing for each event, may be a promising approach to obtain a high yield. Detailed descriptions of plant growth conditions and careful examination of environmental effects will significantly contribute to our knowledge to stably obtain high recombinant

  18. Environment Control to Improve Recombinant Protein Yields in Plants Based on Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Fujiuchi, Naomichi; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems enable plants to produce a wide range of recombinant proteins on a rapid timescale. To achieve economically feasible upstream production and downstream processing, two yield parameters should be considered: (1) recombinant protein content per unit biomass and (2) recombinant protein productivity per unit area-time at the end of the upstream production. Because environmental factors in the upstream production have impacts on these parameters, environment control is important to maximize the recombinant protein yield. In this review, we summarize the effects of pre- and postinoculation environmental factors in the upstream production on the yield parameters and discuss the basic concept of environment control for plant-based transient expression systems. Preinoculation environmental factors associated with planting density, light quality, and nutrient supply affect plant characteristics, such as biomass and morphology, which in turn affect recombinant protein content and productivity. Accordingly, environment control for such plant characteristics has significant implications to achieve a high yield. On the other hand, postinoculation environmental factors, such as temperature, light intensity, and humidity, have been shown to affect recombinant protein content. Considering that recombinant protein production in Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems is a result of a series of complex biological events starting from T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to protein biosynthesis and accumulation in leaf tissue, we propose that dynamic environment control during the postinoculation process, i.e., changing environmental conditions at an appropriate timing for each event, may be a promising approach to obtain a high yield. Detailed descriptions of plant growth conditions and careful examination of environmental effects will significantly contribute to our knowledge to stably obtain high recombinant

  19. A high-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for the grass model species Brachypodium distachyon L.

    PubMed

    Păcurar, Daniel Ioan; Thordal-Christensen, Hans; Nielsen, Klaus Kristian; Lenk, Ingo

    2008-10-01

    In the ongoing process of developing Brachypodium distachyon as a model plant for temperate cereals and forage grasses, we have developed a high-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for a diploid accession. Embryogenic callus, derived from immature embryos of the accession BDR018, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1 carrying two T-DNA plasmids, pDM805 and pWBV-Ds-Ubi-bar-Ds. Transient and stable transformation efficiencies were optimised by varying the pre-cultivation period, which had a strong effect on stable transformation efficiency. On average 55% of 17-day-old calli co-inoculated with Agrobacterium regenerated stable transgenic plants. Stable transformation frequencies of up to 80%, which to our knowledge is the highest transformation efficiency reported in graminaceous species, were observed. In a study of 177 transgenic lines transformed with pDM805, all of the regenerated transgenic lines were resistant to BASTA, while the gusA gene was expressed in 88% of the transgenic lines. Southern blot analysis revealed that 35% of the tested plants had a single T-DNA integration. Segregation analysis performed on progenies of ten selected T(0) plants indicated simple Mendelian inheritance of the two transgenes. Furthermore, the presence of two selection marker genes, bar and hpt, on the T-DNA of pWBV-Ds-Ubi-bar-Ds allowed us to characterize the developed transformation protocol with respect to full-length integration rate. Even when not selected for, full-length integration occurred in 97% of the transformants when using bialaphos as selection agent.

  20. Osa Protein Constitutes a Strong Oncogenic Suppression System That Can Block vir-Dependent Transfer of IncQ Plasmids between Agrobacterium Cells and the Establishment of IncQ Plasmids in Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lan-Ying; Gelvin, Stanton B.

    2004-01-01

    The osa (oncogenic suppressive activity) gene of the IncW group plasmid pSa is sufficient to suppress tumorigenesis by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. osa confers oncogenic suppression by inhibiting VirE2 protein export. This result is similar, but not identical, to that of oncogenic suppression by the IncQ plasmid RSF1010. We conducted a series of experiments to compare oncogenic suppression by these two systems. Agrobacterium strains harboring plasmids containing osa are more able to effect oncogenic suppression than are similar strains containing various RSF1010 derivatives. When osa is present within a donor Agrobacterium strain that also carries a derivative of RSF1010, the transfer of RSF1010 derivatives to recipient bacteria and their establishment in plants are blocked. Oncogenic suppression is still effected when the osa gene is integrated into the Agrobacterium chromosome, suggesting that it is the osa gene product that is active in suppression and that suppression does not require a protein-nucleic acid intermediate like that described for IncQ plasmids. Extracellular complementation experiments with tobacco leaf disks indicated that Osa blocks stable transfer of RSF1010 to plant cells by inhibiting transfer of VirE2, which is essential for the transfer of RSF1010 into plant cells, and not by inhibiting the actual transfer of RSF1010 itself. Our results suggest that Osa and RSF1010 cause oncogenic suppression by using different mechanisms. PMID:15489437

  1. Coordinated Regulation of Species-Specific Hydroxycinnamic Acid Degradation and Siderophore Biosynthesis Pathways in Agrobacterium fabrum

    PubMed Central

    Baude, Jessica; Vial, Ludovic; Villard, Camille; Campillo, Tony; Lavire, Céline; Nesme, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rhizosphere-inhabiting species Agrobacterium fabrum (genomospecies G8 of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens species complex) is known to degrade hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs), especially ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, via the novel A. fabrum HCA degradation pathway. Gene expression profiles of A. fabrum strain C58 were investigated in the presence of HCAs, using a C58 whole-genome oligoarray. Both ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid caused variations in the expression of more than 10% of the C58 genes. Genes of the A. fabrum HCA degradation pathway, together with the genes involved in iron acquisition, were among the most highly induced in the presence of HCAs. Two operons coding for the biosynthesis of a particular siderophore, as well as genes of the A. fabrum HCA degradation pathway, have been described as being specific to the species. We demonstrate here their coordinated expression, emphasizing the interdependence between the iron concentration in the growth medium and the rate at which ferulic acid is degraded by cells. The coordinated expression of these functions may be advantageous in HCA-rich but iron-starved environments in which microorganisms have to compete for both iron and carbon sources, such as in plant roots. The present results confirm that there is cooperation between the A. fabrum-specific genes, defining a particular ecological niche. IMPORTANCE We previously identified seven genomic regions in Agrobacterium fabrum that were specifically present in all of the members of this species only. Here we demonstrated that two of these regions, encoding the hydroxycinnamic acid degradation pathway and the iron acquisition pathway, were regulated in a coordinated manner. The coexpression of these functions may be advantageous in hydroxycinnamic acid-rich but iron-starved environments in which microorganisms have to compete for both iron and carbon sources, such as in plant roots. These data support the view that bacterial genomic species

  2. Agrobacterium uses a unique ligand-binding mode for trapping opines and acquiring a competitive advantage in the niche construction on plant host.

    PubMed

    Lang, Julien; Vigouroux, Armelle; Planamente, Sara; El Sahili, Abbas; Blin, Pauline; Aumont-Nicaise, Magali; Dessaux, Yves; Moréra, Solange; Faure, Denis

    2014-10-01

    By modifying the nuclear genome of its host, the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces the development of plant tumours in which it proliferates. The transformed plant tissues accumulate uncommon low molecular weight compounds called opines that are growth substrates for A. tumefaciens. In the pathogen-induced niche (the plant tumour), a selective advantage conferred by opine assimilation has been hypothesized, but not experimentally demonstrated. Here, using genetics and structural biology, we deciphered how the pathogen is able to bind opines and use them to efficiently compete in the plant tumour. We report high resolution X-ray structures of the periplasmic binding protein (PBP) NocT unliganded and liganded with the opine nopaline (a condensation product of arginine and α-ketoglurate) and its lactam derivative pyronopaline. NocT exhibited an affinity for pyronopaline (K(D) of 0.6 µM) greater than that for nopaline (KD of 3.7 µM). Although the binding-mode of the arginine part of nopaline/pyronopaline in NocT resembled that of arginine in other PBPs, affinity measurement by two different techniques showed that NocT did not bind arginine. In contrast, NocT presented specific residues such as M117 to stabilize the bound opines. NocT relatives that exhibit the nopaline/pyronopaline-binding mode were only found in genomes of the genus Agrobacterium. Transcriptomics and reverse genetics revealed that A. tumefaciens uses the same pathway for assimilating nopaline and pyronopaline. Fitness measurements showed that NocT is required for a competitive colonization of the plant tumour by A. tumefaciens. Moreover, even though the Ti-plasmid conjugal transfer was not regulated by nopaline, the competitive advantage gained by the nopaline-assimilating Ti-plasmid donors led to a preferential horizontal propagation of this Ti-plasmid amongst the agrobacteria colonizing the plant-tumour niche. This work provided structural and genetic evidences to support the niche

  3. Phosphatidylcholine and the CDP-Choline Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fagone, Paolo; Jackowski, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    The CDP-choline pathway of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) biosynthesis was first described more than 50 years ago. Investigation of the CDP-choline pathway in yeast provides a basis for understanding the CDP-choline pathway in mammals. PtdCho is considered as an intermediate in a cycle of synthesis and degradation, and the activity of a CDP-choline cycle is linked to subcellular membrane lipid movement. The components of the mammalian CDP-choline pathway include choline transport, choline kinase, phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, and choline phosphotransferase activities. The protein isoforms and biochemical mechanisms of regulation of the pathway enzymes are related to their cell and tissue-specific functions. Regulated PtdCho turnover mediated by phospholipases or neuropathy target esterase participates in the mammalian CDP-choline cycle. Knockout mouse models define the biological functions of the CDP-choline cycle in mammalian cells and tissues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. PMID:23010477

  4. A cytometry microparticle platform approach for screening tobacco microRNA changes after agrobacterium delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Joshua D.; Chen, Qiang; Mason, Hugh S.

    2016-08-01

    Abstract Key message nta-miR-398 is significantly up-regulated while nta-miR-428d is significantly down-regulated in tobacco after agroinfiltration AbstractMicroRNAs are a class of non-coding regulatory RNAs that can modulate development as well as alter innate antiviral defenses in plants. In this study we explored host changes at the microRNA level within tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) after expression of a recombinant anti-Ebola GP1 antibody through Agrobacterium tumefaciens agroinfiltration delivery. A multiplex nanoparticle-based cytometry assay tracked the host expression changes of 53 tobacco microRNAs. Our results revealed that the most abundant microRNAs in actively growing leaves corresponded to nanoparticle probes specific to nta-mir-6149 and nta-miR-168b. After agroinfiltration, probes targeting nta-mir-398 and nta-mir-482d were significantly altered in their respective expression levels and were further verified through RT-qPCR analysis. To our knowledge this study is the first to profile microRNA expression in tobacco after agroinfiltration using a multiplex nanoparticle approach.

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of the desiccation tolerant resurrection plant Ramonda myconi (L.) Rchb.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Sándor; Kiss, Csaba; Scott, Peter; Kovács, Gabriella; Sorvari, Seppo; Toldi, Ottó

    2006-05-01

    In this paper we describe the first procedure for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of the desiccation tolerant plant Ramonda myconi (L.) Rchb. Previously, we reported the establishment of a reliable and effective tissue culture system based on the integrated optimisation of antioxidant and growth regulator composition and the stabilisation of the pH of the culture media by means of a potassium phosphate buffer. This efficient plant regeneration via callus phase provided a basis for the optimisation of the genetic transformation in R. myconi. For gene delivery, both a standard (method A) and a modified protocol (method B) have been applied. Since the latter has previously resulted in successful transformation of another resurrection plant, Craterostigma plantagineum, an identical protocol was utilized in transformation of R. myconi, as this method may prove general for dicotyledonous resurrection plants. On this basis, physical and biochemical key variables in transformation were evaluated such as mechanical microwounding of plant explants and in vitro preinduction of vir genes. While the physical enhancement of bacterial penetration was proved to be essential for successful genetic transformation of R. myconi, an additional two-fold increase in the transformation frequency was obtained when the above physical and biochemical treatments were applied in combination. All R0 and R1 transgenic plants were fertile, and no morphological abnormalities were observed on the whole-plant level.

  6. Agrobacterium Ti plasmid indoleacetic acid gene is required for crown gall oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S.-T.; Perry, K. L.; Schardl, C. L.; Kado, C. I.

    1982-01-01

    A gene (iaaP) necessary for virulence and indoleacetic acid (IAA) production has been located on a nopaline Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. iaaP function was established by using transformation to insert nopaline or octopine Ti plasmids into an avirulent, Ti plasmid-free mutant 1D1293-3 that was defective in IAA synthesis (iaaC-). The resulting transformants produced increased levels of IAA and virulence was restored. When these transformants were cured of their Ti plasmid, virulence and high IAA production levels were concomitantly lost. A Tn5 mutagenized TiC58 plasmid, deficient in the ability to direct increased synthesis of IAA, was inserted by transformation into mutant 1D1293-3. The resulting transformants 1D1293-3 (TiC58::Tn5) remained avirulent and iaaP-. Restriction analysis of the TiC58::Tn5 plasmid DNA identified the iaaP gene at 20.9 kilobases to the left of the T-DNA. A major aromatic-amino-acid aminotransferase is coded by the iaaC gene, but not by the iaaP gene. The possible reasons for the iaaP locus to be situated outside the T-DNA region are discussed. Images PMID:16593184

  7. Horticultural characteristics of transgenic tobacco expressing the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Scorza, R.; Zimmerman, T.W.; Cordts, J.M.; Footen, K.J. ); Ravelonandro, M. . Station de Pathologie Vegetale)

    1994-09-01

    Wisconsin 38 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf discs were transformed with the disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101 carrying the rolC gene from A. rhizogenes and NPT II and GUS genes. Shoots that regenerated on kanamycin-containing medium were confirmed as transgenic through GUS assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot analyses, and transmission of the foreign genes through the sexual cycle. Transgenic plants were as short as half the height of control plants; were earlier flowering by up to 35 days; and had smaller leaves, shorter internodes, smaller seed capsules, fewer seeds, smaller flowers, and reduced pollen viability. The number of seed capsules, leaf number, and specific root length were similar between transgenic and control plants. Transgenic clones varied in the expression of the rolC-induced growth alterations as did the first generation of seedlings from these clones. Such differences suggested the potential for selecting for different levels of expression. Transformation with the rolC gene presents a potentially useful method of genetically modifying horticultural crops, particularly for flowering date, height, and leaf and flower size. Chemical names used: neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS).

  8. Efficient soybean regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using a whole cotyledonary node as an explant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Chen, Can; Ge, Honglian; Liu, Jinmei; Luo, Yunling; Liu, Kun; Chen, Long; Xu, Kedong; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    An optimized regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol based on whole cotyledonary node explants was developed in soybean (Glycine max) cultivar Zhong Huang 13. Adding 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in a germinating medium could significantly increase regeneration efficiency; the optimal BAP concentration for shoot formation was 0.5 mg/L. The concentrations of plant growth regulators in a shoot induction medium were optimized by the orthogonal test [L9 (3(3))]. The best combination for shoot regeneration was a medium of Murashige & Skoog salts with B5 vitamins (MSB) supplemented with 3.5 mg/L BAP, 0.2 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 0.2 mg/L kinetin (KT). Under this favorable condition, one node could regenerate 28-30 shoots. Soybean whole cotyledonary nodes were transformed by inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring a vector pBI121 containing a β-glucuronidase gene (gus). GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern blot analysis indicated that the gus gene was transformed into soybean plants with 23.1% transformation efficiency. Transgenic plants could be obtained within 5-6 weeks, which was about 4 weeks less than that of a traditional single cotyledonary node method. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. EPR study of spermine interaction with multilamellar phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

    PubMed

    Momo, F; Wisniewska, A; Stevanato, R

    1995-11-22

    The interaction of spermine with egg-yolk phosphatidylcholine liposomes was investigated. The EPR spin labeling technique evidenced that spermine induces modifications of some membrane functions of biological interest like water permeability and is a possible modulator of diffusion processes for charged and polar molecules. The association constant for a hypothesized complex between spermine and the phosphate group of phosphatidylcholine was evaluated by enzymatic methods.

  10. Phosphatidylcholine Derived Bolaamphiphiles via ‘Click’ Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Edward J.; DiVittorio, Kristy M.; Smith, Bradley D.

    2010-01-01

    The copper catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition is employed to modify phosphatidylcholine precursors with sn-2 acyl chains containing terminal alkyne or azide groups. Although the reactions are conducted as biphasic dispersions, the yields are essentially quantitative. Bolaamphiphiles are formed by simply clicking together two phosphatidylcholine alkyne precursors to a central bisazide scaffold. The chemistry introduces polar 1,4-triazole units into the lipophilic region of the bilayer membrane, and the bolaamphiphiles do not form stable vesicles. PMID:17217264

  11. Two marine Agrobacterium producers of sesbanimide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Acebal, C; Alcazar, R; Cañedo, L M; de la Calle, F; Rodriguez, P; Romero, F; Fernandez Puentes, J L

    1998-01-01

    Sesbanimides are cytotoxic compounds, originally isolated in 1983 from seeds of the leguminous plants Sesbania drummondii and Sesbania punicea. In this paper we describe the bacterial production of sesbanimides by two "marine Agrobacterium"; strain PH-103 which produces Sesbanimide-A and strain PH-A034C which produces Sesbanimide-C. The isolation and taxonomy of the producing microorganisms, fermentation and isolation of sesbanimides are reported.

  12. Regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in rat liver endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Sribney, M; Knowles, C L; Lyman, E M

    1976-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in rat liver microsomal preparations catalysed by CDP-choline-1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (EC 2.7.8.2) was inhibited by a combination of ATP and CoA or ATP and pantetheine. ATP alone at high concentrations (20 mM) inhibits phosphatidylcholine formation to the extent of 70%. In the presence of 0.1 mM-CoA, ATP (2 mM) inhibits to the extent of 80% and in the presence of 1 mM-pantetheine to the extent of 90%. ADP and other nucleotide triphosphates in combination with either CoA or pantetheine are only 10-30% as effective in inhibiting phosphatidylcholine synthesis. AMP(CH2)PP [adenosine 5'-(alphabeta-methylene)triphosphate] together with CoA inhibits to the extent of 59% and with pantetheine by 48%. AMP-P(CH2)P [adenosine 5'-(betagamma-methylene)triphosphate] together with either CoA or pantetheine had no significant effect on phosphatidylcholine formation. Other closely related derivatives of pantothenic acid were without effect either alone or in the presence of ATP, as were thiol compounds such as cysteine, homocysteine, cysteamine, dithiothreitol and glutathione. Several mechanisms by which this inhibition might take place were ruled out and it is concluded that ATP together with either CoA or pantetheine interacts reversibly with phosphatidylcholine synthetase to cause temporarily the inhibition of phosphatidylcholine formation. PMID:182154

  13. Recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan by Agrobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zichao; Chen, Rachel Ruizhen

    2007-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a sugar polymer of a repeating disaccharide, beta1-3 D-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) beta1-4 D-glucuronic acid (GlcA). It finds applications in numerous biomedical procedures such as ophthalmic surgery and osteoarthritis treatment. Until recently, the only commercial sources were extraction of rooster combs and from fermentation of pathogenic Streptococcus. In this work, we demonstrate that metabolic engineering strategies enable the recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan in a safe microorganism. Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 is a commercial production strain for a food polymer, Curdlan. A broad host range expression vector was successfully developed to express the 3 kb HA synthase gene from Pasteurella multocida, along with a kfiD gene encoding UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K5 strain. Coexpression of these two heterologous enzymes enables Agrobacterium to produce HA. Hyaluronan was accumulated up to 0.3 g/L in shaker flask cultivation. The molecular weight of the polymer from various Agrobacterium strains is in the range of 0.7-2 MD. To our knowledge, this is the first successful recombinant hyaluronan synthesis in a Gram-negative bacterium that naturally produces a food product. The ease of genetic modifications provides future opportunities to tailor properties of polymers for specific applications.

  14. The genome of cultivated sweet potato contains Agrobacterium T-DNAs with expressed genes: An example of a naturally transgenic food crop

    PubMed Central

    Kyndt, Tina; Quispe, Dora; Zhai, Hong; Jarret, Robert; Ghislain, Marc; Liu, Qingchang; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes and Agrobacterium tumefaciens are plant pathogenic bacteria capable of transferring DNA fragments [transfer DNA (T-DNA)] bearing functional genes into the host plant genome. This naturally occurring mechanism has been adapted by plant biotechnologists to develop genetically modified crops that today are grown on more than 10% of the world’s arable land, although their use can result in considerable controversy. While assembling small interfering RNAs, or siRNAs, of sweet potato plants for metagenomic analysis, sequences homologous to T-DNA sequences from Agrobacterium spp. were discovered. Simple and quantitative PCR, Southern blotting, genome walking, and bacterial artificial chromosome library screening and sequencing unambiguously demonstrated that two different T-DNA regions (IbT-DNA1 and IbT-DNA2) are present in the cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) genome and that these foreign genes are expressed at detectable levels in different tissues of the sweet potato plant. IbT-DNA1 was found to contain four open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to the tryptophan-2-monooxygenase (iaaM), indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (iaaH), C-protein (C-prot), and agrocinopine synthase (Acs) genes of Agrobacterium spp. IbT-DNA1 was detected in all 291 cultigens examined, but not in close wild relatives. IbT-DNA2 contained at least five ORFs with significant homology to the ORF14, ORF17n, rooting locus (Rol)B/RolC, ORF13, and ORF18/ORF17n genes of A. rhizogenes. IbT-DNA2 was detected in 45 of 217 genotypes that included both cultivated and wild species. Our finding, that sweet potato is naturally transgenic while being a widely and traditionally consumed food crop, could affect the current consumer distrust of the safety of transgenic food crops. PMID:25902487

  15. The genome of cultivated sweet potato contains Agrobacterium T-DNAs with expressed genes: An example of a naturally transgenic food crop.

    PubMed

    Kyndt, Tina; Quispe, Dora; Zhai, Hong; Jarret, Robert; Ghislain, Marc; Liu, Qingchang; Gheysen, Godelieve; Kreuze, Jan F

    2015-05-05

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes and Agrobacterium tumefaciens are plant pathogenic bacteria capable of transferring DNA fragments [transfer DNA (T-DNA)] bearing functional genes into the host plant genome. This naturally occurring mechanism has been adapted by plant biotechnologists to develop genetically modified crops that today are grown on more than 10% of the world's arable land, although their use can result in considerable controversy. While assembling small interfering RNAs, or siRNAs, of sweet potato plants for metagenomic analysis, sequences homologous to T-DNA sequences from Agrobacterium spp. were discovered. Simple and quantitative PCR, Southern blotting, genome walking, and bacterial artificial chromosome library screening and sequencing unambiguously demonstrated that two different T-DNA regions (IbT-DNA1 and IbT-DNA2) are present in the cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) genome and that these foreign genes are expressed at detectable levels in different tissues of the sweet potato plant. IbT-DNA1 was found to contain four open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to the tryptophan-2-monooxygenase (iaaM), indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (iaaH), C-protein (C-prot), and agrocinopine synthase (Acs) genes of Agrobacterium spp. IbT-DNA1 was detected in all 291 cultigens examined, but not in close wild relatives. IbT-DNA2 contained at least five ORFs with significant homology to the ORF14, ORF17n, rooting locus (Rol)B/RolC, ORF13, and ORF18/ORF17n genes of A. rhizogenes. IbT-DNA2 was detected in 45 of 217 genotypes that included both cultivated and wild species. Our finding, that sweet potato is naturally transgenic while being a widely and traditionally consumed food crop, could affect the current consumer distrust of the safety of transgenic food crops.

  16. Phospholipid lateral diffusion in phosphatidylcholine-sphingomyelin-cholesterol monolayers; effects of oxidatively truncated phosphatidylcholines.

    PubMed

    Parkkila, Petteri; Stefl, Martin; Olżyńska, Agnieszka; Hof, Martin; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in a number of pathological conditions and the generated oxidatively modified lipids influence membrane properties and functions, including lipid-protein interactions and cellular signaling. Brewster angle microscopy demonstrated oxidatively truncated phosphatidylcholines to promote phase separation in monolayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (POPC), sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol). More specifically, 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PazePC), was found to increase the miscibility transition pressure of the SM/Chol-phase. Lateral diffusion of lipids is influenced by a variety of membrane properties, thus making it a sensitive parameter to observe the coexistence of different lipid phases, for instance. The dependence on lipid lateral packing of the lateral diffusion of fluorophore-containing phospholipid analogs was investigated in Langmuir monolayers composed of POPC, SM, and Chol and additionally containing oxidatively truncated phosphatidylcholines, using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). To our knowledge, these are the first FCS results on miscibility transition in ternary lipid monolayers, confirming previous results obtained using Brewster angle microscopy on such lipid monolayers. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy was additionally employed to verify the transition, i.e. the loss and reformation of SM/Chol domains.

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Agrobacterium nepotum Strain 39/7T and Agrobacterium sp. Strain KFB 330.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Gašić, Katarina; Obradović, Aleksa

    2015-04-23

    Tumorigenic strains of Agrobacterium spp. are responsible for crown gall disease of numerous plant species. We present here draft genome sequences of nonpathogenic Agrobacterium nepotum strain 39/7(T) (CFBP 7436(T), LMG 26435(T)), isolated from crown gall tumor on Prunus cerasifera, and tumorigenic Agrobacterium sp. strain KFB 330 (CFBP 8308, LMG 28674), isolated from galls on raspberry. Copyright © 2015 Kuzmanović et al.

  18. Interaction of fluoxetine with phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

    PubMed

    Momo, Federico; Fabris, Sabrina; Stevanato, Roberto

    2005-10-22

    Fluoxetine (Prozac) is one of the latest of a new generation of antidepressants, approved by FDA in 2002. The interactions of fluoxetine with multilamellar liposomes of pure phosphatidylcholine (PC) or containing cholesterol 10% molar were studied as a function of the lipid chain lengths, using differential scanning calorimetry and spin labelling EPR techniques. The DSC profiles of the gel-to-fluid state transition of liposomes of DMPC (C14:0) are broadened and shifted towards lower temperatures at increasing dopant concentrations and, with less than 10% fluoxetine, any detectable transition is destroyed. The broadened profiles and the lowered transition temperatures demonstrate that both the size and the packing of the cooperative units undergoing the transition are modified by fluoxetine, leading to a looser and more flexible bilayer. No phase separation was observed. The effects of fluoxetine on the thermotropic phase behaviour of DPPC (C16:0) and, even more, of DSPC (C18:0) are different from that of DMPC. In fact, in the former cases, two peaks appeared at increasing dopant concentrations, suggesting the occurrence of a phase separation phenomenon, which is a sign of a binding of fluoxetine in the phosphate region. In cholesterol containing membranes, fluoxetine, even at low concentrations, leads to a general corruption of the membrane, both in terms of packing and cooperativity, and the formation of any new phase is no longer observable. EPR spectra reflect the disordered motion of acyl chains in the bilayer. It was found that fluoxetine lowers the order of the lipid chains mainly in correspondence of the fifth carbon position of SASL, indicating a possible accumulation near the interfacial region.

  19. Effects of hypochlorous acid on unsaturated phosphatidylcholines.

    PubMed

    Arnhold, J; Osipov, A N; Spalteholz, H; Panasenko, O M; Schiller, J

    2001-11-01

    Effects of hypochlorous acid and of the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system on mono- and polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines were analyzed by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Chlorohydrins and glycols were detected as main products according to the characteristic shift of molecular masses. Mainly mono-chlorohydrins result upon the incubation of HOCl/(-)OCl with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, whereas only traces of mono-glycols were detected. 1-Palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine yielded a complex mixture of products. Mono-chlorohydrins and glycols dominated only at short incubation, while bis-chlorohydrins as well as products containing one chlorohydrin and one glycol moiety appeared after longer incubation. Similarly, a complex product mixture resulted upon incubation of 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine with hypochlorous acid. Additionally, tris-chlorohydrins, products with two chlorohydrin and one glycol moiety, as well as lysophosphatidylcholines and fragmentation products of the arachidonoyl side chain were detectable. Mono-chlorohydrins of 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were detected after the incubation of the latter phospholipid with the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system at pH 6.0. These chlorohydrins were not observed in the absence of chloride, hydrogen peroxide, or myeloperoxidase as well as in the presence of methionine, taurine, or sodium azide. Thus, mono-chlorohydrins in 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine produced by hypochlorous acid from the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system can also be detected by means of MALDI-TOF MS.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Agrobacterium albertimagni Strain AOL15

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, William L.; Phung, Le T.; Meyer, Folker

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium albertimagni strain AOL15 is an alphaproteobacterium isolated from arsenite-oxidizing biofilms whose draft genome contains 5.1 Mb in 55 contigs with 61.2% GC content and includes a 21-gene arsenic gene island. This is the first available genome for this species and the second Agrobacterium arsenic gene island. PMID:23209236

  1. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine under possible primitive earth conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M.; Eichberg, J.; Oro, J.

    1982-01-01

    Using a primitive earth evaporating pond model, the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine was accomplished when a reaction mixture of choline chloride and disodium phosphatidate, in the presence of cyanamide and traces of acid, was evaporated and heated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 100 C for 7 hours. Optimum yields of about 15% were obtained at 80 C. Phosphatidylcholine was identified by chromatographic, chemical and enzymatic degradation methods. On enzymatic hydrolysis with phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C, lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphorylcholine were formed, respectively. Alkaline hydrolysis gave glycerophosphorylcholine. The synthesis of phosphatidylcholine as the major compound was accompanied by the formation of lysophosphatidylcholine in smaller amounts. Cyanamide was found to be essential for the formation of phosphatidylcholine, and only traces of HCl, of the order of that required to convert the disodium phosphatidate to free phosphatidic acid were found necessary for the synthesis. This work suggests that phosphatidylcholine, which is an essential component of most biological membranes, could have been synthesized on the primitive earth.

  2. Regulation of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism by Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hye Won; Wei, Jie; Cohen, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP, a.k.a. StARD2) binds phosphatidylcholines and catalyzes their intermembrane transfer and exchange in vitro. The structure of PC-TP comprises a hydrophobic pocket and a well-defined head-group binding site, and its gene expression is regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α. Recent studies have revealed key regulatory roles for PC-TP in lipid and glucose metabolism. Notably, Pctp−/− mice are sensitized to insulin action and exhibit more efficient brown fat-mediated thermogenesis. PC-TP appears to limit access of fatty acids to mitochondria by stimulating the activity of thioesterase superfamily member 2, a newly characterized long-chain fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase. Because PC-TP discriminates among phosphatidylcholines within lipid bilayers, it may function as a sensor that links metabolic regulation to membrane composition. PMID:20338778

  3. Efficacy of phosphatidylcholine in the modulation of motion sickness susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Ryan, P.; Homick, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of pharmacological doses of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) in the modulation of motion sickness induced by exposure to coriolis stimulation in a rotating chair. Subjects received daily dietary supplements of 25 grams of lecithin (90 percent phosphatidylcholine) and were tested for their susceptibility to motion sickness after 4 h, 2 d, and 21 d. A small but statistically significant increase in susceptibility (+15 percent) was noted 4 h after supplemental phosphatidylcholine, with four of nine subjects demonstrating a marked increase in susceptibility. This finding was attributed to choline's stimulatory action on cholinergic systems, an action which opposes that of the classical antimotion sickness drug scopolamine. Chronic lecithin loading revealed a trend towards reduced susceptibility, possibly indicating the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms such as receptor down-regulation. Withdrawal from lecithin loading, perhaps coupled with anticholinergic treatment, might prove to be a potent prophylactic regimen and ought to be tested.

  4. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for the cold-adapted fungi Pseudogymnoascus destructans and P. pannorum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Ren, Ping; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms of cold adaptation by fungi remain unknown. This topic is of high interest due to the emergence of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a skin infection of hibernating bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Recent studies indicated that apart from Pd, there is an abundance of other Pseudogymnoascus species in the hibernacula soil. We developed an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system for Pd and a related fungus Pseudogymnoascus pannorum (Pp) to advance experimental studies. URE1 gene encoding the enzyme urease was used as an easy to screen marker to facilitate molecular genetic analyses. A Uracil-Specific Excision Reagent (USER) Friendly pRF-HU2 vector containing Pd or Pp ure1::hygromycin (HYG) disruption cassette was introduced into A. tumefaciens AGL-1 cells by electroporation and the resulting strains were co-cultivated with conidia of Pd or Pp for various durations and temperatures to optimize the ATMT system. Overall, 680 Pd (0.006%) and 1800 Pp (0.018%) transformants were obtained from plating of 10(7) conidia; their recoveries were strongly correlated with the length of the incubation period (96h for Pd; 72h for Pp) and with temperature (15-18°C for Pd; 25°C for Pp). The homologous recombination in transformants was 3.1% for Pd and 16.7% for Pp. The availability of a standardized ATMT system would allow future molecular genetic analyses of Pd and related cold-adapted fungi. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Systematic dissection of the agrobacterium type VI secretion system reveals machinery and secreted components for subcomplex formation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jer-Sheng; Ma, Lay-Sun; Lai, Erh-Min

    2013-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widely distributed in pathogenic Proteobacteria. Sequence and structural analysis of T6SS reveals a resemblance to the T4 bacteriophage tail, in which an outer sheath structure contracts an internal tube for injecting nucleic acid into bacterial cells. However, the molecular details of how this phage tail-like T6SS structure is assembled in vivo and executed for exoprotein or effector secretion remain largely unknown. Here, we used a systematic approach to identify T6SS machinery and secreted components and investigate the interaction among the putative sheath and tube components of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We showed that 14 T6SS components play essential roles in the secretion of the T6SS hallmark exoprotein Hcp. In addition, we discovered a novel T6SS exoprotein, Atu4347, that is dispensable for Hcp secretion. Interestingly, Atu4347 and the putative tube components, Hcp and VgrG, are mainly localized in the cytoplasm but also detected on the bacterial surface. Atu4342 (TssB) and Atu4341 (TssC41) interact with and stabilize each other, which suggests that they are functional orthologs of the sheath components TssB (VipA) and TssC (VipB), respectively. Importantly, TssB interacts directly with the three exoproteins (Hcp, VgrG, and Atu4347), in which Hcp also interacts directly with VgrG-1 on co-purification from Escherichia coli. Further co-immunoprecipitation and pulldown assays revealed these subcomplex(es) in A. tumefaciens and thereby support T6SS functioning as a contractile phage tail-like structure.

  6. Agrobacterium persistence in plant tissues after transformation.

    PubMed

    Cubero, Jaime; López, María M

    2005-01-01

    Agrobacterium spp. are routinely used in plant transformation to introduce genes of interest in valuable economic species. However, several agrobacteria species are also plant pathogens with ability to survive in different environments including the inner part of the plants. To avoid the release of genetic modified bacteria a successful plant transformation protocol must include the total elimination of agrobacteria by the use of antibiotics. Because sometimes these antibiotics failed in removing the bacteria entirely, confirmation of agrobacteria absence after plant transformation and regeneration is required. Different methodologies can be used for this purpose: isolation techniques followed by identification are used if detection of viable and culturable bacteria is necessary and techniques based on the polymerase chain reaction can be used to detect agrobacteria independently of their physiological state. Here we present several protocols to detect Agrobacterium in tissues of transformed plants as well as methods to identify the strains isolated. These identification methods can help to elucidate if they are the engineered bacteria used in the transformation process or just part of the natural endophytic microbiota.

  7. An efficient plant regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Tagetes erecta.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijayta; Ur Rahman, Laiq

    2015-07-01

    Tagetes erecta, L. an asteraceous plant of industrial and medicinal value, contains important compounds like pyrethrins, thiophenes and lutein, possessing immense potential for insecticidal, nematicidal and nutraceutical activities. Considering the importance and demand for these natural compounds, genetic manipulation of this crop for better productivity of secondary metabolites holds great significance. A rapid and reproducible direct regeneration and genetic transformation system is the prerequisite for genetic manipulation of any crop. This paper elucidates the establishment of an efficient direct regeneration and transformation protocol of T. erecta using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Investigation of the effects of different types of explants (Hypocotyls, cotyledonary leaves, rachis and leaf sections) and different BAP and GA3 combinations on the regeneration frequency of T. erecta suggested that the best regeneration frequency (66 %) with an average of 5.08 ± 0.09 shoot buds/explant was observed from hypocotyl explants cultured on media containing 1.5 mg/l BAP and 5 mg/l GA3. The transformation protocol was established using A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404, containing the binary vector pBI121, along with the gusA reporter gene with intron under the transcriptional control of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene as a kanamycin-resistant plant-selectable marker. Various parameters like optimization of kanamycin concentration (200 mg/l) for selection, standardization of cocultivation time (45 min) and acetosyringone concentration (150 μM) for obtaining higher transformation frequency were established using hypocotyl explants. The selected putative transgenic shoots were subsequently rooted on the Murashige and Skoog medium and transferred to the green house successfully. The plants were characterised by analysing the gus expression, amplification of 600 bp npt II fragment and Southern blot

  8. Dimerization of VirD2 Binding Protein Is Essential for Agrobacterium Induced Tumor Formation in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Padavannil, Abhilash; Jobichen, Chacko; Qinghua, Yang; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Yang, Liu; Pan, Shen Q.; Sivaraman, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) is the only bacterial secretion system known to translocate both DNA and protein substrates. The VirB/D4 system from Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a typical T4SS. It facilitates the bacteria to translocate the VirD2-T-DNA complex to the host cell cytoplasm. In addition to protein-DNA complexes, the VirB/D4 system is also involved in the translocation of several effector proteins, including VirE2, VirE3 and VirF into the host cell cytoplasm. These effector proteins aid in the proper integration of the translocated DNA into the host genome. The VirD2-binding protein (VBP) is a key cytoplasmic protein that recruits the VirD2–T-DNA complex to the VirD4-coupling protein (VirD4 CP) of the VirB/D4 T4SS apparatus. Here, we report the crystal structure and associated functional studies of the C-terminal domain of VBP. This domain mainly consists of α-helices, and the two monomers of the asymmetric unit form a tight dimer. The structural analysis of this domain confirms the presence of a HEPN (higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide-binding) fold. Biophysical studies show that VBP is a dimer in solution and that the HEPN domain is the dimerization domain. Based on structural and mutagenesis analyses, we show that substitution of key residues at the interface disrupts the dimerization of both the HEPN domain and full-length VBP. In addition, pull-down analyses show that only dimeric VBP can interact with VirD2 and VirD4 CP. Finally, we show that only Agrobacterium harboring dimeric full-length VBP can induce tumors in plants. This study sheds light on the structural basis of the substrate recruiting function of VBP in the T4SS pathway of A. tumefaciens and in other pathogenic bacteria employing similar systems. PMID:24626239

  9. A new high-frequency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation technique for Sesamum indicum L. using de-embryonated cotyledon as explant.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Supriyo; Basu, Arpita; Kundu, Surekha

    2014-09-01

    In spite of the economic importance of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and the recent availability of its genome sequence, a high-frequency transformation protocol is still not available. The only two existing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols that are available have poor transformation efficiencies of less than 2%. In the present study, we report a high-frequency, simple, and reproducible transformation protocol for sesame. Transformation was done using de-embryonated cotyledons via somatic embryogenic stages. All the critical parameters of transformation, like incubation period of explants in pre-regeneration medium prior to infection by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, cocultivation period, concentrations of acetosyringone in cocultivation medium, kanamycin concentration, and concentration of plant hormones, including 6-benzylaminopurine, have been optimized. This protocol is superior to the two existing protocols in its high regeneration and transformation efficiencies. The transformed sesame lines have been tested by PCR, RT-PCR for neomycin phosphotransferase II gene expression, and β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay. The regeneration frequency and transformation efficiency are 57.33 and 42.66%, respectively. T0 and T1 generation transgenic plants were analyzed, and several T1 plants homozygous for the transgenes were obtained.

  10. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Tomato with rolB Gene Results in Enhancement of Fruit Quality and Foliar Resistance against Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Waheed; Haq, Ihsan-ul-; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Mirza, Bushra

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the second most important cultivated crop next to potato, worldwide. Tomato serves as an important source of antioxidants in human diet. Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum cause early blight and vascular wilt of tomato, respectively, resulting in severe crop losses. The foremost objective of the present study was to generate transgenic tomato plants with rolB gene and evaluate its effect on plant morphology, nutritional contents, yield and resistance against fungal infection. Tomato cv. Rio Grande was transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring rolB gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. rolB. Biochemical analyses showed considerable improvement in nutritional quality of transgenic tomato fruits as indicated by 62% increase in lycopene content, 225% in ascorbic acid content, 58% in total phenolics and 26% in free radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, rolB gene significantly improved the defence response of leaves of transgenic plants against two pathogenic fungal strains A. solani and F. oxysporum. Contrarily, transformed plants exhibited altered morphology and reduced fruit yield. In conclusion, rolB gene from A. rhizogenes can be used to generate transgenic tomato with increased nutritional contents of fruits as well as improved foliar tolerance against fungal pathogens. PMID:24817272

  11. Hairy root transformation using Agrobacterium rhizogenes as a tool for exploring cell type-specific gene expression and function using tomato as a model.

    PubMed

    Ron, Mily; Kajala, Kaisa; Pauluzzi, Germain; Wang, Dongxue; Reynoso, Mauricio A; Zumstein, Kristina; Garcha, Jasmine; Winte, Sonja; Masson, Helen; Inagaki, Soichi; Federici, Fernán; Sinha, Neelima; Deal, Roger B; Bailey-Serres, Julia; Brady, Siobhan M

    2014-10-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes (or Rhizobium rhizogenes) is able to transform plant genomes and induce the production of hairy roots. We describe the use of A. rhizogenes in tomato (Solanum spp.) to rapidly assess gene expression and function. Gene expression of reporters is indistinguishable in plants transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens as compared with A. rhizogenes. A root cell type- and tissue-specific promoter resource has been generated for domesticated and wild tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum pennellii, respectively) using these approaches. Imaging of tomato roots using A. rhizogenes coupled with laser scanning confocal microscopy is facilitated by the use of a membrane-tagged protein fused to a red fluorescent protein marker present in binary vectors. Tomato-optimized isolation of nuclei tagged in specific cell types and translating ribosome affinity purification binary vectors were generated and used to monitor associated messenger RNA abundance or chromatin modification. Finally, transcriptional reporters, translational reporters, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated nuclease9 genome editing demonstrate that SHORT-ROOT and SCARECROW gene function is conserved between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato.

  12. Rapid and efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) employing standard binary vectors and bar gene as a selectable marker.

    PubMed

    Do, Phat T; Lee, Hyeyoung; Mookkan, Muruganantham; Folk, William R; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2016-10-01

    A rapid and efficient Agrobacterium -mediated transformation system in sorghum has been developed employing standard binary vectors and bar gene as a selectable marker. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is an important food and biofuel crop worldwide, for which improvements in genetic transformation are needed to study its biology and facilitate agronomic and commercial improvement. Here, we report optimization of regeneration and transformation of public sorghum genotype P898012 using standard binary vectors and bar gene as a selectable marker. The tissue culture regeneration time frame has been reduced to 7-12 weeks with a yield of over 18 plants per callus, and the optimized transformation system employing Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1 and the bar with a MAS promoter achieved an average frequency over 14 %. Of randomly analyzed independent transgenic events, 40-50 % carry single copy of integrated T-DNA. Some independent transgenic events were derived from the same embryogenic callus lines, but a 3:1 Mendelian segregation ratio was found in all transgenic events with single copy as estimated by Southern blots. The system described here should facilitate studies of sorghum biology and agronomic improvement.

  13. The use of the phosphomannose isomerase gene as alternative selectable marker for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    PubMed

    Lamblin, Frédéric; Aimé, Aurélie; Hano, Christophe; Roussy, Isabelle; Domon, Jean-Marc; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Lainé, Eric

    2007-06-01

    In order to meet the future requirement of using non-antibiotic resistance genes for the production of transgenic plants, we have adapted the selectable marker system PMI/mannose to be used in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) cv. Barbara. The Escherichia coli pmi gene encodes a phosphomannose isomerase (E.C. 5.1.3.8) that converts mannose-6-phosphate, an inhibitor of glycolysis, into fructose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediate). Its expression in transformed cells allows them to grow on mannose-selective medium. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 (pGV2260) harbouring the binary vector pNOV2819 that carries the pmi gene under the control of the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus constitutive promoter was used for transformation experiments. Transgenic flax plants able to root on mannose-containing medium were obtained from hypocotyl-derived calli that had been selected on a combination of 20 g L(-1) sucrose and 10 g L(-1) mannose. Their transgenic state was confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. Transgene expression was detected by RT-PCR in leaves, stems and roots of in vitro grown primary transformants. The mean transformation efficiency of 3.6%, that reached 6.4% in one experiment was comparable to that obtained when using the nptII selectable marker on the same cultivar. The ability of T1 seeds to germinate on mannose-containing medium confirmed the Mendelian inheritance of the pmi gene in the progeny of primary transformants. These results indicate that the PMI/mannose selection system can be successfully used for the recovery of flax transgenic plants under safe conditions for human health and the environment.

  14. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and regeneration of insect-resistant transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Sanyal, Indraneel; Amla, D V

    2011-09-01

    To develop an efficient genetic transformation system of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), callus derived from mature embryonic axes of variety P-362 was transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring p35SGUS-INT plasmid containing the uidA gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) and the nptII gene for kanamycin selection. Various factors affecting transformation efficiency were optimized; as Agrobacterium suspension at OD(600) 0.3 with 48 h of co-cultivation period at 20°C was found optimal for transforming 10-day-old MEA-derived callus. Inclusion of 200 μM acetosyringone, sonication for 4 s with vacuum infiltration for 6 min improved the number of GUS foci per responding explant from 1.0 to 38.6, as determined by histochemical GUS assay. For introducing the insect-resistant trait into chickpea, binary vector pRD400-cry1Ac was also transformed under optimized conditions and 18 T(0) transgenic plants were generated, representing 3.6% transformation frequency. T(0) transgenic plants reflected Mendelian inheritance pattern of transgene segregation in T(1) progeny. PCR, RT-PCR, and Southern hybridization analysis of T(0) and T(1) transgenic plants confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the chickpea genome. The expression level of Bt-Cry protein in T(0) and T(1) transgenic chickpea plants was achieved maximum up to 116 ng mg(-1) of soluble protein, which efficiently causes 100% mortality to second instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera as analyzed by an insect mortality bioassay. Our results demonstrate an efficient and rapid transformation system of chickpea for producing non-chimeric transgenic plants with high frequency. These findings will certainly accelerate the development of chickpea plants with novel traits.

  15. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Coffea arabica (L.) is greatly enhanced by using established embryogenic callus cultures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Following genome sequencing of crop plants, one of the main challenges today is determining the function of all the predicted genes. When gene validation approaches are used for woody species, the main obstacle is the low recovery rate of transgenic plants from elite or commercial cultivars. Embryogenic calli have frequently been the target tissue for transformation, but the difficulty in producing or maintaining embryogenic tissues is one of the main problems encountered in genetic transformation of many woody plants, including Coffea arabica. Results We identified the conditions required for successful long-term proliferation of embryogenic cultures in C. arabica and designed a highly efficient and reliable Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method based on these conditions. The transformation protocol with LBA1119 harboring pBin 35S GFP was established by evaluating the effect of different parameters on transformation efficiency by GFP detection. Using embryogenic callus cultures, co-cultivation with LBA1119 OD600 = 0.6 for five days at 20 °C enabled reproducible transformation. The maintenance conditions for the embryogenic callus cultures, particularly a high auxin to cytokinin ratio, the age of the culture (optimum for 7-10 months of proliferation) and the use of a yellow callus phenotype, were the most important factors for achieving highly efficient transformation (> 90%). At the histological level, successful transformation was related to the number of proembryogenic masses present. All the selected plants were proved to be transformed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Conclusion Most progress in increasing transformation efficiency in coffee has been achieved by optimizing the production conditions of embryogenic cultures used as target tissues for transformation. This is the first time that a strong positive effect of the age of the culture on transformation efficiency was demonstrated. Our results make Agrobacterium

  16. Horizontal gene transfer from Agrobacterium to plants

    PubMed Central

    Matveeva, Tatiana V.; Lutova, Ludmila A.

    2014-01-01

    Most genetic engineering of plants uses Agrobacterium mediated transformation to introduce novel gene content. In nature, insertion of T-DNA in the plant genome and its subsequent transfer via sexual reproduction has been shown in several species in the genera Nicotiana and Linaria. In these natural examples of horizontal gene transfer from Agrobacterium to plants, the T-DNA donor is assumed to be a mikimopine strain of A. rhizogenes. A sequence homologous to the T-DNA of the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes was found in the genome of untransformed Nicotiana glauca about 30 years ago, and was named “cellular T-DNA” (cT-DNA). It represents an imperfect inverted repeat and contains homologs of several T-DNA oncogenes (NgrolB, NgrolC, NgORF13, NgORF14) and an opine synthesis gene (Ngmis). A similar cT-DNA has also been found in other species of the genus Nicotiana. These presumably ancient homologs of T-DNA genes are still expressed, indicating that they may play a role in the evolution of these plants. Recently T-DNA has been detected and characterized in Linaria vulgaris and L. dalmatica. In Linaria vulgaris the cT-DNA is present in two copies and organized as a tandem imperfect direct repeat, containing LvORF2, LvORF3, LvORF8, LvrolA, LvrolB, LvrolC, LvORF13, LvORF14, and the Lvmis genes. All L. vulgaris and L. dalmatica plants screened contained the same T-DNA oncogenes and the mis gene. Evidence suggests that there were several independent T-DNA integration events into the genomes of these plant genera. We speculate that ancient plants transformed by A. rhizogenes might have acquired a selective advantage in competition with the parental species. Thus, the events of T-DNA insertion in the plant genome might have affected their evolution, resulting in the creation of new plant species. In this review we focus on the structure and functions of cT-DNA in Linaria and Nicotiana and discuss their possible evolutionary role. PMID:25157257

  17. Molecular characterization of a phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Preuss, I; Kaiser, I; Gehring, U

    2001-10-01

    While searching for a phospholipase C (PLC) specific for phosphatidylcholine in mammalian tissues, we came across such an activity originating from a contamination of Pseudomonas fluorescens. This psychrophilic bacterium was found to contaminate placental extracts upon processing in the cold. The secreted phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing PLC was purified by a combination of chromatographic procedures. As substrates, the enzyme preferred dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine and 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine over phosphatidylinositol. The active enzyme is a monomer of approximately 40 kDa. As for other bacterial PLCs, the enzyme requires Ca2+ and Zn2+ for activity; dithiothreitol affected the activity due to its chelation of Zn2+, but this inhibition could be compensated for by addition of ZnCl2. The compound D609, described to selectively inhibit phosphatidylcholine-specific PLCs, caused half-inhibition of the P. fluorescens enzyme at approximately 420 microM, while 50-fold lower concentrations similarly affected PLCs from Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens. Partial peptide sequences obtained from the pure P. fluorescens enzyme after tryptic cleavage were used to clone a DNA fragment of 3.5 kb from a P. fluorescens gene library prepared from our laboratory isolate. It contains an ORF of 1155 nucleotides encoding the PLC. There is no significant sequence homology to other PLCs, suggesting that the P. fluorescens enzyme represents a distinct subclass of bacterial PLCs. The protein lacks cysteine residues and consequently contains no disulfide bonds. Interestingly, P. fluorescens reference strain DSMZ 50090 is devoid of the PLC activity described here as well as of the relevant coding sequence.

  18. Plant viral vectors for delivery by Agrobacterium.

    PubMed

    Gleba, Yuri Y; Tusé, Daniel; Giritch, Anatoli

    2014-01-01

    Plant viral vectors delivered by Agrobacterium are the basis of several manufacturing processes that are currently in use for producing a wide range of proteins for multiple applications, including vaccine antigens, antibodies, protein nanoparticles such as virus-like particles (VLPs), and other protein and protein-RNA scaffolds. Viral vectors delivered by agrobacterial T-DNA transfer (magnifection) have also become important tools in research. In recent years, essential advances have been made both in the development of second-generation vectors designed using the 'deconstructed virus' approach, as well as in the development of upstream manufacturing processes that are robust and fully scalable. The strategy relies on Agrobacterium as a vector to deliver DNA copies of one or more viral RNA/DNA replicons; the bacteria are delivered into leaves by vacuum infiltration, and the viral machinery takes over from the point of T-DNA transfer to the plant cell nucleus, driving massive RNA and protein production and, if required, cell-to-cell spread of the replicons. Among the most often used viral backbones are those of the RNA viruses Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Potato virus X (PVX) and Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), and the DNA geminivirus Bean yellow dwarf virus. Prototypes of industrial processes that provide for high yield, rapid scale up and fast manufacturing cycles have been designed, and several GMP-compliant and GMP-certified manufacturing facilities are in place. These efforts have been successful as evidenced by the fact that several antibodies and vaccine antigens produced by magnifection are currently in clinical development.

  19. Unmasking host and microbial strategies in the Agrobacterium-plant defense tango

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Elizabeth E.; Wang, Melinda B.; Bravo, Janis E.; Banta, Lois M.

    2015-01-01

    Coevolutionary forces drive adaptation of both plant-associated microbes and their hosts. Eloquently captured in the Red Queen Hypothesis, the complexity of each plant–pathogen relationship reflects escalating adversarial strategies, but also external biotic and abiotic pressures on both partners. Innate immune responses are triggered by highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or PAMPs, that are harbingers of microbial presence. Upon cell surface receptor-mediated recognition of these pathogen-derived molecules, host plants mount a variety of physiological responses to limit pathogen survival and/or invasion. Successful pathogens often rely on secretion systems to translocate host-modulating effectors that subvert plant defenses, thereby increasing virulence. Host plants, in turn, have evolved to recognize these effectors, activating what has typically been characterized as a pathogen-specific form of immunity. Recent data support the notion that PAMP-triggered and effector-triggered defenses are complementary facets of a convergent, albeit differentially regulated, set of immune responses. This review highlights the key players in the plant’s recognition and signal transduction pathways, with a focus on the aspects that may limit Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection and the ways it might overcome those defenses. Recent advances in the field include a growing appreciation for the contributions of cytoskeletal dynamics and membrane trafficking to the regulation of these exquisitely tuned defenses. Pathogen counter-defenses frequently manipulate the interwoven hormonal pathways that mediate host responses. Emerging systems-level analyses include host physiological factors such as circadian cycling. The existing literature indicates that varying or even conflicting results from different labs may well be attributable to environmental factors including time of day of infection, temperature, and/or developmental stage of the host plant. PMID:25873923

  20. Enhancers of Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation of Tibouchina semidecandra Selected on the Basis of GFP Expression.

    PubMed

    Yong, Wilson Thau Lym; Henry, Erle Stanley; Abdullah, Janna Ong

    2010-12-01

    Genetic engineering is a powerful tool for the improvement of plant traits. Despite reported successes in the plant kingdom, this technology has barely scratched the surface of the Melastomataceae family. Limited studies have led to some optimisation of parameters known to affect the transformation efficiency of these plants. The major finding of this study was to optimise the presence of selected enhancers [e.g., monosaccharides (D-glucose, D-galactose and D-fructose), tyrosine, aluminium chloride (AICI3) and ascorbic acid] to improve the transformation efficiency of Tibouchina semidecandra. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the disarmed plasmid pCAMBIA1304 was used to transform shoots and nodes of T. semidecandra. Different concentrations of the transformation enhancers were tested by using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. The results obtained were based on the percentage of GFP expression, which was observed 14 days post-transformation. A combination of 120 μM galactose and 100 μM tyrosine supplemented with 600 μM AICI3 in the presence of 15 mg/l ascorbic acid gave the highest percentage of positive transformants for T. semidecandra shoots. Whereas 60 μM galactose and 50 μM tyrosine with 200 μM AICI3 in the presence of 15 mg/l ascorbic acid was optimum for T. semidecandra nodes. The presence of the hygromycin phosphotransferase II (hptII) transgene in the genomic DNA of putative T. semidecandra transformants was verified by PCR amplification with specific primers.

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of polyploid cereals. The efficiency of selection and transgene expression in wheat.

    PubMed

    Przetakiewicz, Anna; Karaś, Agnieszka; Orczyk, Wacław; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Three combinations of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains and vectors were used in the transformation of selected Polish wheat cultivars. The combinations were: two hypervirulent strains, AGL1, containing the pDM805 binary plasmid, and EHA101, containing pGAH; and the common Agro strain LBA4404, harboring the super-binary pTOK233 vector. pDM805 contained bar under the control of Ubi1 promoter, pGAH had nptII under nos, and pTOK233 had hpt under 35S. Additionally, pDM805 and pTOK233 carried the gus reporter gene under the Act1 promoter or 35S promoter, respectively. The highest selection rate was 12.6% and was obtained with EHA101(pGAH) on a kanamycin-containing medium. Sixty-five of the plants grown on that medium were PCR positive. The second best combination was LBA4404(pTOK233) and kanamycin selection, which gave an average transformation rate of 2.3%. Phosphinothricin selection gave 1.0% transformation efficiency, while hygromycin, depending on the strain/vector used, gave from 0.2 to 0.4%. PCR tests in T1 revealed that 67% of the lines showed a 3:1 segregation ratio, and 11% a 15:1 ratio, while in 22%, segregation was non-Mendelian. The high number of T0 transgenic plants containing one copy of the transgene was confirmed via Southern blot analysis. Kanamycin resistance in the T1 generation was very low; in some lines, all the progeny were kanamycin sensitive. GUS expression, only tested in young T1 plants, was in agreement with Mendelian segregation in three out of the twelve tested. The factors influencing the efficiency of selection and transgene expression are discussed in this paper.

  2. Several components of SKP1/Cullin/F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and associated factors play a role in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Ajith; Rojas, Clemencia M; Tang, Yuhong; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2012-07-01

    • Successful genetic transformation of plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires the import of bacterial T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell that eventually form a complex (T-complex). The essential components of the T-complex include the single stranded T-DNA, bacterial virulence proteins (VirD2, VirE2, VirE3 and VirF) and associated host proteins that facilitate the transfer and integration of T-DNA. The removal of the proteins from the T-complex is likely achieved by targeted proteolysis mediated by VirF and the plant ubiquitin proteasome complex. • We evaluated the involvement of the host SKP1/culin/F-box (SCF)-E3 ligase complex and its role in plant transformation. Gene silencing, mutant screening and gene expression studies suggested that the Arabidopsis homologs of yeast SKP1 (suppressor of kinetochore protein 1) protein, ASK1 and ASK2, are required for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. • We identified the role for SGT1b (suppressor of the G2 allele of SKP1), an accessory protein that associates with SCF-complex, in plant transformation. We also report the differential expression of many genes that encode F-box motif containing SKP1-interacting proteins (SKIP) upon Agrobacterium infection. • We speculate that these SKIP genes could encode the plant specific F-box proteins that target the T-complex associated proteins for polyubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. A central role of abscisic acid in drought stress protection of Agrobacterium-induced tumors on Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Efetova, Marina; Zeier, Jürgen; Riederer, Markus; Lee, Chil-Woo; Stingl, Nadja; Mueller, Martin; Hartung, Wolfram; Hedrich, Rainer; Deeken, Rosalia

    2007-11-01

    Crown gall tumors induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens represent a sink that has to be provided with nutrients and water by the host plant. The lack of an intact epidermis or cuticle results in uncontrolled loss of water. However, neither the tumor nor the host plant displays wilting. This phenomenon points to drought adaptation in both tumors and the crown gall host plant. To understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of protection against desiccation the gene expression pattern of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) tumors was integrated with the profile of stress metabolites: Arabidopsis tumors accumulated high amounts of abscisic acid (ABA), the ethylene precursor aminocyclopropyl carboxylic acid, osmoprotectants, and form a suberized periderm-like protective layer. Suberization of the outer tumor cell layers most likely is mediated by ABA since external application of ABA induced suberization of Arabidopsis roots. However, the expression level of the classical marker genes, known to respond to drought stress and/or ABA, was lower in tumors. Instead another set of drought and/or ABA-inducible genes was more highly transcribed. Elevated transcription of several ABA-dependent aquaporin genes might indicate that ABA controls the water balance of the tumor. The retarded tumor growth on abi and aba mutant plants underlined the importance of a tumor-specific ABA signaling pathway. Taken together, we propose that ABA is an important signal for protection of tumors against desiccation and thus supports tumor development.

  4. Functional analysis of autophagy genes via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in the vascular Wilt fungus Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Zhao, Jun; Guo, Wangzhen; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2013-08-20

    Autophagy is a widely conserved intracellular process for degradation and recycling of proteins, organelles and cytoplasm in eukaryotic organisms and is now emerging as an important process in foliar infection by many plant pathogenic fungi. However, the role of autophagy in soil-borne fungal physiology and infection biology is poorly understood. Here, we report the establishment of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system and its application to investigate two autophagy genes, VdATG8 and VdATG12, by means of targeted gene replacement and complementation. Transformation of a cotton-infecting Verticillium dahliae strain Vd8 with a novel binary vector pCOM led to the production of 384 geneticin-resistant transformants per 1 × 10(6) conidia. V. dahliae mutants lacking either VdATG8 or VdATG12 exhibited reduced conidiation and impaired aerial hyphae production. Disease development on Arabidopsis plants was slightly delayed when inoculated with VdATG8 or VdATG12 gene deletion mutants, compared with the wild-type and gene complemented strains. Surprisingly, in vitro inoculation with unimpaired roots revealed that the abilities of root invasion were not affected in gene deletion mutants. These results indicate that autophagy is necessary for aerial hyphae development and plant colonization but not for root infection in V. dahliae.

  5. Morphology of root nodules and nodule-like structures formed by Rhizobium and Agrobacterium strains containing a Rhizobium meliloti megaplasmid

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We examined expression of the megaplasmid pRme41b of Rhizobium meliloti in two different Rhizobium sp. Strains and in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transfer of pRme41b into these bacteria was facilitated by insertion of a recombinant plasmid coding for mobilization functions of RP4 into the nif region (Kondorosi, A., E. Kondorosi, C.E. Pankhurst, W. J. Broughton, and Z. Banfalvi, 1982, Mol. Gen. Genet., 188:433-439). In all cases, transconjugants formed nodule-like structures on the roots of Medicago sativa. These structures were largely composed of meristematic cells but they were not invaded by bacteria. Bacteria were found only within infection threads in root hairs, and within intercellular spaces of the outermost cells of the structures. The donor strain of R. meliloti containing pAK11 or pAK12 in pRme41b initially produced nodules on M. sativa that did not fix nitrogen (Fix- ). In these nodules, bacteria were released from infection threads into the host cells but they did not multiply appreciably. Any bacteroids formed degenerated prematurely. In some cases, however, reversion to a Fix+ phenotype occurred after 4 to 6 wk. Bacteria released into newly infected cells in these nodules showed normal development into bacteriods. PMID:6885919

  6. Efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of commercial hybrid poplar Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry.

    PubMed

    Yevtushenko, Dmytro P; Misra, Santosh

    2010-03-01

    Many economically important species of Populus, especially those in sections Aigeiros and Tacamahaca, remain recalcitrant to genetic transformation. In this study, a simple and reliable protocol was developed for the efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a difficult-to-transform, but commercially viable, hybrid poplar Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry (NM6). A plant transformation vector designed to express the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene was used to detect transformation events at early stages of plant regeneration and to optimize parameters affecting poplar transformation. The use of zeatin riboside in shoot-induction medium, regeneration of shoots via indirect organogenesis, and early selection pressure were the major modifications that drastically improved the efficiency of poplar transformation and minimized the number of untransformed regenerants. Transgenic shoots were routinely obtained 4-10 weeks after co-culture with A. tumefaciens, with a greater than 90% rate of plant recovery. Stable transgene integration, ranging from a single insertion to ten copies per genome, was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The mean transformation frequency was 36.3% and about two-thirds of the lines had 1-2 transgene copies. Among the explants, petioles and leaves had a higher transformation frequency than did stem segments. Growth characteristics and the morphology of transgenic poplar plants were identical to untransformed controls. These findings will accelerate the development of P. nigra x P. maximowiczii plants with novel traits, and may also be useful to improve transformation procedures for other Populus species.

  7. From brain to food: analysis of phosphatidylcholins, lyso-phosphatidylcholins and phosphatidylcholin-plasmalogens derivates in Alzheimer's disease human post mortem brains and mice model via mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Grösgen, Sven; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Tanila, Heikki; Grimm, Heike S; Hartmann, Tobias

    2011-10-21

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular senile plaques mainly consisting of Aβ, a 40-42 amino acid long peptide, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, accompanied by an excessive loss of synapses. Recently evidence accumulated that nutrition, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, influences AD pathogenesis. Especially mid-life food habits with the consumption of specific fatty acids (FA) appear to influence the disease risk. The timely separation between food intake and disease makes a direct correlation with detailed analysis of eating habits combined with accurate food analysis nearly unattainable. A possible solution to circumvent these difficulties is to investigate the FA composition in human post mortem brain. In this study we focused on the main phospholipids phosphatidylcholin (PC), phosphatidylcholin-plasmalogen (PC-PL) and lyso-phosphatidylcholin (lyso-PC) in AD brains compared to control brains. Frontal cortices, temporal cortices and cerebellum of 30 AD (mean 78 years) and 14 control aged matched brains (mean 77.4 years) as well as APP transgenic mice compared to control mice were analyzed using an AB Sciex 4000 Qtrap mass spectrometer utilizing a FIA MS/MS method. PC, PC-PL and lyso-PC metabolites were analyzed in respect to saturation level and FA composition. As expected, the majority of the lipid species showed no significant differences, but interestingly a few species revealed a highly significant reduction in AD brains. These FAs are potential candidates for further food analysis in respect to AD pathology. Additionally, we show that the method applied with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) used for this study is suitable for semi quantitative analysis of small amounts (10 μl) of brain tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronopotentiometric studies of phosphatidylcholine bilayers modified by ergosterol.

    PubMed

    Naumowicz, Monika; Petelska, Aneta Dorota; Figaszewski, Zbigniew Artur

    2011-01-01

    We have monitored the effect of ergosterol on electrical capacitance and electrical resistance of the phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes using chronopotentiometry method. The chronopotentiometric characteristic of the bilayers depends on constant-current flow through the membranes. For low current values, no electroporation takes place and the membrane voltage rises exponentially to a constant value described by the Ohm's law. Based on these kinds of chronopotentiometric curves, a method of the membrane capacitance and the membrane resistance calculations is presented.

  9. Localization of phosphatidylcholine in outer envelope membrane of spinach chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    We have examined the effects of phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus on the extent of phospholipid hydrolysis in envelope membrane vesicles and in intact chloroplasts. When isolated envelope vesicles were incubated in presence of phospholipase C, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol, but not phosphatidylinositol, were totally converted into diacylglycerol if they were available to the enzyme (i.e., when the vesicles were sonicated in presence of phospholipase C). These experiments demonstrate that phospholipase C can be used to probe the availability of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol in the cytosolic leaflet of the outer envelope membrane from spinach chloroplasts. When isolated, purified, intact chloroplasts were incubated with low amounts of phospholipase C (0.3 U/mg chlorophyll) under very mild conditions (12 degrees C for 1 min), greater than 80% of phosphatidylcholine molecules and almost none of phosphatidylglycerol molecules were hydrolyzed. Since we have also demonstrated, by using several different methods (phase-contrast and electron microscopy, immunochemical and electrophoretic analyses) that isolated spinach chloroplasts, and especially their outer envelope membrane, remained intact after mild treatment with phospholipase C, we can conclude that there is a marked asymmetric distribution of phospholipids across the outer envelope membrane of spinach chloroplasts. Phosphatidylcholine, the major polar lipid of the outer envelope membrane, is almost entirely accessible from the cytosolic side of the membrane and therefore is probably localized in the outer leaflet of the outer envelope bilayer. On the contrary, phosphatidylglycerol, the major polar lipid in the inner envelope membrane and the thylakoids, is probably not accessible to phospholipase C from the cytosol and therefore is probably localized mostly in the inner leaflet of the outer envelope membrane and in the other chloroplast membranes. PMID:3988805

  10. Stability of drug-carrier emulsions containing phosphatidylcholine mixtures.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Michele; Pattarino, Franco; Ignoni, Terenzio

    2002-03-01

    Lipid emulsion particles containing 10% of medium chain triglycerides were prepared using 2% w/w of a mixture 1:1 w/w of purified soya phosphatidylcholine and 2-hexanoyl phosphatidylcholine as emulsifier mixture, for use as drug carriers. The mean droplet sizes of emulsions, prepared using an Ultra Turrax or a high-pressure homogenizer, were about 288 and 158 nm, respectively, compared with 380 and 268 nm for emulsions containing lecithin, or 325 and 240 nm for those containing 6-phosphatidylcholine. The stability of the emulsions, determined by monitoring the decrease of a lipophilic marker at a specified level within the emulsion, and observing coalescence over time, was also greatly increased using the emulsifier mixture. The emulsion stability did not notably change in the presence of a model destabilizing drug, indomethacin. The use of a second hydrophilic surfactant to adjust the packing properties of the lecithin at the oil-water interface provided an increase in the stability of lipid emulsions, and this may be of importance in the formulation of drug delivery systems.

  11. The effect of phosphatidylcholine to sphingomyelin mole ratio on the dynamic properties of sheep erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Borochov, H; Zahler, P; Wilbrandt, W; Shinitzky, M

    1977-11-01

    Sheep red blood cells are shown to incorporate phosphatidylchline when incubated in human plasma in the presence of EGTA. This treatment results in up to a 5-fold increase in mol ratio of phosphatidylcholine to sphingomyelin. By replacing EGTA with Ca+ the increase of phsphatidylcholine content is completely inhibited, due to the activation of the membrane bound lecithinase which rapidly degrades the incorporated phosphatidylcholine. Analogous treatments of the isolate membranes resulted in similar phosphatidylcholine incorporation but in the presence of Ca+ a residual phosphatidylcholine uptake was still oberved. These results suggest that in the isolated membranes small amounts of phosphatidylcholine can be incorporated into an additional region which is unavailable for the membrane lecithinase. The increase in the phosphatidylcholine to sphingomyelin mol ratio in sheep red blood cells is concomitant with an increase in lipid fluidity, as well as increase in osmotic fragility9

  12. Rhizobium pusense is the main human pathogen in the genus Agrobacterium/Rhizobium.

    PubMed

    Aujoulat, F; Marchandin, H; Zorgniotti, I; Masnou, A; Jumas-Bilak, E

    2015-05-01

    Rhizobium pusense was recently described after isolation from the rhizosphere of chickpea. Multilocus sequence-based analysis of clinical isolates identified as Agrobacterium (Rhizobium) radiobacter demonstrated that R. pusense is the main human pathogen within Agrobacterium (Rhizobium) spp. Clinical microbiology of Agrobacterium (Rhizobium) should be considered in the light of recent taxonomic changes.

  13. Two-way chemical signaling in Agrobacterium-plant interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Winans, S C

    1992-01-01

    The discovery in 1977 that Agrobacterium species can transfer a discrete segment of oncogenic DNA (T-DNA) to the genome of host plant cells has stimulated an intense interest in the molecular biology underlying these plant-microbe associations. This attention in turn has resulted in a series of insights about the biology of these organisms that continue to accumulate at an ever-increasing rate. This excitement was due in part to the notion that this unprecedented interkingdom DNA transfer could be exploited to create transgenic plants containing foreign genes of scientific or commercial importance. In the course of these discoveries, Agrobacterium became one of the best available models for studying the molecular interactions between bacteria and higher organisms. One extensively studied aspect of this association concerns the exchange of chemical signals between Agrobacterium spp. and host plants. Agrobacterium spp. can recognize no fewer than five classes of low-molecular-weight compounds released from plants, and other classes probably await discovery. The most widely studied of these are phenolic compounds, which stimulate the transcription of the genes needed for infection. Other compounds include specific monosaccharides and acidic environments which potentiate vir gene induction, acidic polysaccharides which induce one or more chromosomal genes, and a family of compounds called opines which are released from tumorous plant cells to the bacteria as nutrient sources. Agrobacterium spp. in return release a variety of chemical compounds to plants. The best understood is the transferred DNA itself, which contains genes that in various ways upset the balance of phytohormones, ultimately causing neoplastic cell proliferation. In addition to transferring DNA, some Agrobacterium strains directly secrete phytohormones. Finally, at least some strains release a pectinase, which degrades a component of plant cell walls. PMID:1579105

  14. Legionella dumoffii Utilizes Exogenous Choline for Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Palusinska-Szysz, Marta; Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Kania, Magdalena; Janczarek, Monika; Chmiel, Elżbieta; Danikiewicz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidycholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes but it has been found in only a limited number of prokaryotes. Bacteria synthesize PC via the phospholipid N-methylation pathway (Pmt) or via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway (Pcs) or both. Here, we demonstrated that Legionella dumoffii has the ability to utilize exogenous choline for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis when bacteria grow in the presence of choline. The Pcs seems to be a primary pathway for synthesis of this phospholipid in L. dumoffii. Structurally different PC species were distributed in the outer and inner membranes. As shown by the LC/ESI-MS analyses, PC15:0/15:0, PC16:0/15:0, and PC17:0/17:1 were identified in the outer membrane and PC14:0/16:0, PC16:0/17:1, and PC20:0/15:0 in the inner membrane. L. dumoffii pcsA gene encoding phosphatidylcholine synthase revealed the highest sequence identity to pcsA of L. bozemanae (82%) and L. longbeachae (81%) and lower identity to pcsA of L. drancourtii (78%) and L. pneumophila (71%). The level of TNF-α in THP1-differentiated cells induced by live and temperature-killed L. dumoffii cultured on a medium supplemented with choline was assessed. Live L. dumoffii bacteria cultured on the choline-supplemented medium induced TNF-α three-fold less efficiently than cells grown on the non-supplemented medium. There is an evident effect of PC modification, which impairs the macrophage inflammatory response. PMID:24821544

  15. Apolipoprotein-induced conversion of phosphatidylcholine bilayer vesicles into nanodisks.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chung-Ping Leon; Chiu, Michael H; Wu, Xinping; Lee, Sean K; Prenner, Elmar J; Weers, Paul M M

    2011-03-01

    Apolipoprotein mediated formation of nanodisks was studied in detail using apolipophorin III (apoLp-III), thereby providing insight in apolipoprotein-lipid binding interactions. The spontaneous solubilization of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) vesicles occured only in a very narrow temperature range at the gel-liquid-crystalline phase transition temperature, exhibiting a net exothermic interaction based on isothermal titration calorimetry analysis. The resulting nanodisks were protected from proteolysis by trypsin, endoproteinase Glu-C, chymotrypsin and elastase. DMPC solubilization and the simultaneous formation of nanodisks were promoted by increasing the vesicle diameter, protein to lipid ratio and concentration. Inclusion of cholesterol in DMPC dramatically enhanced the rate of nanodisk formation, presumably by stabilization of lattice defects which form the main insertion sites for apolipoprotein α-helices. The presence of fully saturated acyl chains with a length of 13 or 14 carbons in phosphatidylcholine allowed the spontaneous vesicle solubilization upon apolipoprotein addition. Nanodisks with C13:0-phosphatidylcholine were significantly smaller with a diameter of 11.7 ± 3.1nm compared to 18.5 ± 5.6 nm for DMPC nanodisks determined by transmission electron microscopy. Nanodisk formation was not observed when the phosphatidylcholine vesicles contained acyl chains of 15 or 16 carbons. However, using very high concentrations of lipid and protein (>10mg/ml), 1,2,-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine nanodisks could be produced spontaneously although the efficiency remained low. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Do cholinephosphotransferase and phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase synthesize different species of phosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, S.H.; Moore, T.S.

    1986-04-01

    Two pathways exist for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis in castor bean endosperm. The major pathway utilizes the reaction; (CDPcholine + diacylglycerol ..-->.. PC + CMP) while the other is through (PE + 3 S-Adenosylmethioninie ..-->.. PC + 3 homocysteine). The reason for two pathways is not clear. In an effort to determine if they produce two different products, radioactive precursors (SAM and CDPcholine) were administered to isolated endoplasmic reticulum from the castor bean endosperm. The products were extracted, chromatographed on TLC, and the PC classes separated by argentation chromatography. The radioactivity was determined by a RTLC Scanner. By these methods, it has been determined that there are differences between the PC products of the methyltransferase and the cholinephosphotransferase.

  17. A putative transmembrane leucine zipper of agrobacterium VirB10 is essential for t-pilus biogenesis but not type IV secretion.

    PubMed

    Garza, Isaac; Christie, Peter J

    2013-07-01

    The Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system is composed of a translocation channel and an extracellular T pilus. Bitopic VirB10, the VirB7 lipoprotein, and VirB9 interact to form a cell envelope-spanning structural scaffold termed the "core complex" that is required for the assembly of both structures. The related pKM101-encoded core complex is composed of 14 copies each of these VirB homologs, and the transmembrane (TM) α helices of VirB10-like TraF form a 55-Å-diameter ring at the inner membrane. Here, we report that the VirB10 TM helix possesses two types of putative dimerization motifs, a GxxxA (GA4) motif and two leucine (Leu1, Leu2) zippers. Mutations in the Leu1 motif disrupted T-pilus biogenesis, but these or other mutations in the GA4 or Leu2 motif did not abolish substrate transfer. Replacement of the VirB10 TM domain with a nondimerizing poly-Leu/Ala TM domain sequence also blocked pilus production but not substrate transfer or formation of immunoprecipitable complexes with the core subunits VirB7 and VirB9 and the substrate receptor VirD4. The VirB10 TM helix formed weak homodimers in Escherichia coli, as determined with the TOXCAT assay, whereas replacement of the VirB10 TM helix with the strongly dimerizing TM helix from glycophorin A blocked T-pilus biogenesis in A. tumefaciens. Our findings support a model in which VirB10's TM helix contributes to the assembly or activity of the translocation channel as a weakly self-interacting membrane anchor but establishes a heteromeric TM-TM helix interaction via its Leu1 motif that is critical for T-pilus biogenesis.

  18. A Putative Transmembrane Leucine Zipper of Agrobacterium VirB10 Is Essential for T-Pilus Biogenesis but Not Type IV Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    The Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system is composed of a translocation channel and an extracellular T pilus. Bitopic VirB10, the VirB7 lipoprotein, and VirB9 interact to form a cell envelope-spanning structural scaffold termed the “core complex” that is required for the assembly of both structures. The related pKM101-encoded core complex is composed of 14 copies each of these VirB homologs, and the transmembrane (TM) α helices of VirB10-like TraF form a 55-Å-diameter ring at the inner membrane. Here, we report that the VirB10 TM helix possesses two types of putative dimerization motifs, a GxxxA (GA4) motif and two leucine (Leu1, Leu2) zippers. Mutations in the Leu1 motif disrupted T-pilus biogenesis, but these or other mutations in the GA4 or Leu2 motif did not abolish substrate transfer. Replacement of the VirB10 TM domain with a nondimerizing poly-Leu/Ala TM domain sequence also blocked pilus production but not substrate transfer or formation of immunoprecipitable complexes with the core subunits VirB7 and VirB9 and the substrate receptor VirD4. The VirB10 TM helix formed weak homodimers in Escherichia coli, as determined with the TOXCAT assay, whereas replacement of the VirB10 TM helix with the strongly dimerizing TM helix from glycophorin A blocked T-pilus biogenesis in A. tumefaciens. Our findings support a model in which VirB10's TM helix contributes to the assembly or activity of the translocation channel as a weakly self-interacting membrane anchor but establishes a heteromeric TM-TM helix interaction via its Leu1 motif that is critical for T-pilus biogenesis. PMID:23625845

  19. Antiparallel and Interlinked Control of Cellular Iron Levels by the Irr and RirA Regulators of Agrobacterium tumefaciens▿†

    PubMed Central

    Hibbing, Michael E.; Fuqua, Clay

    2011-01-01

    The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens encodes predicted iron-responsive regulators, Irr and RirA, that function in several other bacteria to control the response to environmental iron levels. Deletion mutations of irr and rirA, alone and in combination, were evaluated for their impact on cellular iron response. Growth was severely diminished in the Δirr mutant under iron-limiting conditions, but reversed to wild-type levels in an Δirr ΔrirA mutant. The level of uncomplexed iron in the Δirr mutant was decreased, whereas the ΔrirA mutant exhibited elevated iron levels. Sensitivity of the Δirr and ΔrirA mutants to iron-activated antimicrobial compounds generally reflected their uncomplexed-iron levels. Expression of genes that encode iron uptake systems was decreased in the Δirr mutant, whereas that of iron utilization genes was increased. Irr function required a trihistidine repeat likely to mediate interactions with heme. Iron uptake genes were derepressed in the ΔrirA mutant. In the Δirr ΔrirA mutant, iron uptake and utilization genes were derepressed, roughly combining the phenotypes of the single mutants. Siderophore production was elevated in the rirA mutant, but most strongly regulated by an RirA-controlled sigma factor. Expression of rirA itself was regulated by Irr, RirA, and iron availability, in contrast to irr expression, which was relatively stable in the different mutants. These studies suggest that in A. tumefaciens, the Irr protein is most active under low-iron conditions, inhibiting iron utilization and activating iron acquisition, while the RirA protein is active under high-iron conditions, repressing iron uptake. PMID:21602352

  20. A genetic screen for bioluminescence genes in the fungus Armillaria mellea, through the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated random insertional mutagenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioluminescence is reported from 71 saprobic species of fungi from four, distant lineages in the order Agaricales. Analyses of the fungal luminescent chemistry shows that all four lineages share a functionally conserved substrate and luciferase, indicating that the bioluminescent pathway is likely c...