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Sample records for agrobacterium-based transformation method

  1. Rapid deletion plasmid construction methods for protoplast and Agrobacterium based fungal transformation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing availability of genomic data and sophistication of analytical methodology in fungi has elevated the need for functional genomics tools in these organisms. Gene deletion is a critical tool for functional analysis. The targeted deletion of genes requires both a suitable method for the trans...

  2. Genetic transformation of Brassica nigra by agrobacterium based vector and direct plasmid uptake.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V; Lakshmi Sita, G; Shaila, M S; Jagannathan, V

    1993-05-01

    Genetic transformation systems have been established for Brassica nigra (cv. IC 257) by using an Agrobacterium binary vector as well as by direct DNA uptake of a plasmid vector. Both the type of vectors carried nptII gene and gus gene. For Agrobacterium mediated transformation, hypocotyl tissue explants were used, and up to 33% of the explants produced calli on selection medium. All of these expressed B-glucuronidase gene on histochemical staining. Protoplasts isolated from hypocotyl tissues of seedlings could be transformed with a plasmid vector by FEG mediated uptake of vector DNA. A number of fertile kanamycin resistant plants were obtained using both the methods, and their transformed nature was confirmed by Southern blot analysis and histochemical staining for GUS. Backcrossed and selfed progenies of these transformed plants showed the presence of npt and gus genes. PMID:24197344

  3. Transient plant transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Principles, methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Krenek, Pavel; Samajova, Olga; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Komis, George; Samaj, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely used as a versatile tool for development of stably transformed model plants and crops. However, the development of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation methods attracted substantial attention in recent years. Transient transformation methods offer several applications advancing stable transformations such as rapid and scalable recombinant protein production and in planta functional genomics studies. Herein, we highlight Agrobacterium and plant genetics factors affecting transfer of T-DNA from Agrobacterium into the plant cell nucleus and subsequent transient transgene expression. We also review recent methods concerning Agrobacterium mediated transient transformation of model plants and crops and outline key physical, physiological and genetic factors leading to their successful establishment. Of interest are especially Agrobacterium based reverse genetics studies in economically important crops relying on use of RNA interference (RNAi) or virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology. The applications of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation technology in biotech industry are presented in thorough detail. These involve production of recombinant proteins (plantibodies, vaccines and therapeutics) and effectoromics-assisted breeding of late blight resistance in potato. In addition, we also discuss biotechnological potential of recombinant GFP technology and present own examples of successful Agrobacterium mediated transient plant transformations.

  4. Transformative Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

  5. An Operator Method for Evaluating Laplace Transforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanoue, B. G.; Yurekli, O.

    2005-01-01

    This note discusses a simple operator technique based on the differentiation and shifting properties of the Laplace transform to find Laplace transforms for various elementary functions. The method is simpler than known integration techniques to evaluate Laplace transforms.

  6. [Hadamard transform spectrometer mixed pixels' unmixing method].

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Hu, Bing-Liang; Liu, Xue-Bin; Sun, Wei; Li, Li-Bo; Feng, Yu-Tao; Liu, Yong-Zheng

    2011-10-01

    Hadamard transform imaging spectrometer is a multi-channel digital transform spectrometer detection technology, this paper based on digital micromirror array device (DMD) of the Hadamard transform spectrometer working principle and instrument structure, obtained by the imaging sensor mixed pixel were analyzed, theory derived the solution of pixel aliasing hybrid method, simulation results show that the method is simple and effective to improve the accuracy of mixed pixel spectrum more than 10% recovery. PMID:22250574

  7. A dynamic transformation method for modal synthesis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhar, E. J.; Stahle, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents a condensation method for large discrete parameter vibration analysis of complex structures that greatly reduces truncation errors and provides accurate definition of modes in a selected frequency range. A dynamic transformation is obtained from the partitioned equations of motion that relates modes not explicity in the condensed solution to the retained modes at a selected system frequency. The generalized mass and stiffness matrices, obtained with existing modal synthesis methods, are reduced using this transformation and solved. Revised solutions are then obtained using new transformations at the calculated eigenvalues and are also used to assess the accuracy of the results. If all the modes of interest have not been obtained, the results are used to select a new set of retained coordinates and a new transformation frequency, and the procedure is repeated for another group of modes.

  8. Physical methods for genetic plant transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Gómez-Lim, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M.

    2012-09-01

    Production of transgenic plants is a routine process for many crop species. Transgenes are introduced into plants to confer novel traits such as improved nutritional qualities, tolerance to pollutants, resistance to pathogens and for studies of plant metabolism. Nowadays, it is possible to insert genes from plants evolutionary distant from the host plant, as well as from fungi, viruses, bacteria and even animals. Genetic transformation requires penetration of the transgene through the plant cell wall, facilitated by biological or physical methods. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art of the physical methods used for genetic plant transformation and to describe the basic physics behind them.

  9. Transformative Paradigm: Mixed Methods and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2007-01-01

    The intersection of mixed methods and social justice has implications for the role of the researcher and choices of specific paradigmatic perspectives. The transformative paradigm with its associated philosophical assumptions provides a framework for addressing inequality and injustice in society using culturally competent, mixed methods…

  10. Canonical transformation method in classical electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, Yu. G.

    1983-08-01

    The solutions of Maxwell's equations in the parabolic equation approximation is obtained on the basis of the canonical transformation method. The Hamiltonian form of the equations for the field in an anisotropic stratified medium is also examined. The perturbation theory for the calculation of the wave reflection and transmission coefficients is developed.

  11. Parallel algorithms for the spectral transform method

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.T.; Worley, P.H.

    1997-05-01

    The spectral transform method is a standard numerical technique for solving partial differential equations on a sphere and is widely used in atmospheric circulation models. Recent research has identified several promising algorithms for implementing this method on massively parallel computers; however, no detailed comparison of the different algorithms has previously been attempted. In this paper, the authors describe these different parallel algorithms and report on computational experiments that they have conducted to evaluate their efficiency on parallel computers. The experiments used a testbed code that solves the nonlinear shallow water equations on a sphere; considerable care was taken to ensure that the experiments provide a fair comparison of the different algorithms and that the results are relevant to global models. The authors focus on hypercube- and mesh-connected multicomputers with cut-through routing, such as the Intel iPSC/860, DELTA, and Paragon, and the nCUBE/2, but they also indicate how the results extend to other parallel computer architectures. The results of this study are relevant not only to the spectral transform method but also to multidimensional fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and other parallel transforms.

  12. Discrete fourier transform (DFT) analysis for applications using iterative transform methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    According to various embodiments, a method is provided for determining aberration data for an optical system. The method comprises collecting a data signal, and generating a pre-transformation algorithm. The data is pre-transformed by multiplying the data with the pre-transformation algorithm. A discrete Fourier transform of the pre-transformed data is performed in an iterative loop. The method further comprises back-transforming the data to generate aberration data.

  13. Parallel algorithms for the spectral transform method

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.T.; Worley, P.H.

    1994-04-01

    The spectral transform method is a standard numerical technique for solving partial differential equations on a sphere and is widely used in atmospheric circulation models. Recent research has identified several promising algorithms for implementing this method on massively parallel computers; however, no detailed comparison of the different algorithms has previously been attempted. In this paper, we describe these different parallel algorithms and report on computational experiments that we have conducted to evaluate their efficiency on parallel computers. The experiments used a testbed code that solves the nonlinear shallow water equations or a sphere; considerable care was taken to ensure that the experiments provide a fair comparison of the different algorithms and that the results are relevant to global models. We focus on hypercube- and mesh-connected multicomputers with cut-through routing, such as the Intel iPSC/860, DELTA, and Paragon, and the nCUBE/2, but also indicate how the results extend to other parallel computer architectures. The results of this study are relevant not only to the spectral transform method but also to multidimensional FFTs and other parallel transforms.

  14. Ensemble transform sensitivity method for adaptive observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Xie, Yuanfu; Wang, Hongli; Chen, Dehui; Toth, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The Ensemble Transform (ET) method has been shown to be useful in providing guidance for adaptive observation deployment. It predicts forecast error variance reduction for each possible deployment using its corresponding transformation matrix in an ensemble subspace. In this paper, a new ET-based sensitivity (ETS) method, which calculates the gradient of forecast error variance reduction in terms of analysis error variance reduction, is proposed to specify regions for possible adaptive observations. ETS is a first order approximation of the ET; it requires just one calculation of a transformation matrix, increasing computational efficiency (60%-80% reduction in computational cost). An explicit mathematical formulation of the ETS gradient is derived and described. Both the ET and ETS methods are applied to the Hurricane Irene (2011) case and a heavy rainfall case for comparison. The numerical results imply that the sensitive areas estimated by the ETS and ET are similar. However, ETS is much more efficient, particularly when the resolution is higher and the number of ensemble members is larger.

  15. Apparatus and method for transforming living cells

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Galambos, Paul C.

    2003-11-11

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for in vitro transformation of living cells. The apparatus, which is formed as a microelectromechanical device by surface micromachining, can be used to temporarily disrupt the cell walls or membrane of host cells one at a time so that a particular substance (e.g. a molecular tag, nucleic acid, bacteria, virus etc.) can be introduced into the cell. Disruption of the integrity of the host cells (i.e. poration) can be performed mechanically or electrically, or by both while the host cells are contained within a flow channel. Mechanical poration is possible using a moveable member which has a pointed or serrated edge and which is driven by an electrostatic actuator to abrade, impact or penetrate the host cell. Electroporation is produced by generating a relatively high electric field across the host cell when the host cell is located in the flow channel between a pair of electrodes having a voltage applied therebetween.

  16. Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…

  17. Performance analysis of image fusion methods in transform domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yoonsuk; Sharifahmadian, Ershad; Latifi, Shahram

    2013-05-01

    Image fusion involves merging two or more images in such a way as to retain the most desirable characteristics of each. There are various image fusion methods and they can be classified into three main categories: i) Spatial domain, ii) Transform domain, and iii) Statistical domain. We focus on the transform domain in this paper as spatial domain methods are primitive and statistical domain methods suffer from a significant increase of computational complexity. In the field of image fusion, performance analysis is important since the evaluation result gives valuable information which can be utilized in various applications, such as military, medical imaging, remote sensing, and so on. In this paper, we analyze and compare the performance of fusion methods based on four different transforms: i) wavelet transform, ii) curvelet transform, iii) contourlet transform and iv) nonsubsampled contourlet transform. Fusion framework and scheme are explained in detail, and two different sets of images are used in our experiments. Furthermore, various performance evaluation metrics are adopted to quantitatively analyze the fusion results. The comparison results show that the nonsubsampled contourlet transform method performs better than the other three methods. During the experiments, we also found out that the decomposition level of 3 showed the best fusion performance, and decomposition levels beyond level-3 did not significantly affect the fusion results.

  18. Hough transform method for track finding in center drift chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, K. A. Mohammad Kamal; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2016-01-01

    Hough transform is a global tracking method used which had been expected to be faster approach for tracking the circular pattern of electron moving in Center Drift Chamber (CDC), by transforming the point of hit into a circular curve. This paper present the implementation of hough transform method for the reconstruction of tracks in Center Drift Chamber (CDC) which have been generated by random number in C language programming. Result from implementation of this method shows higher peak of circle parameter value (xc,yc,rc) that indicate the similarity value of the parameter needed for circular track in CDC for charged particles in the region of CDC.

  19. Anisotropy minimization via least squares method for transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Mateus A F C; Gabrielli, Lucas H; Spadoti, Danilo H

    2014-07-28

    In this work the least squares method is used to reduce anisotropy in transformation optics technique. To apply the least squares method a power series is added on the coordinate transformation functions. The series coefficients were calculated to reduce the deviations in Cauchy-Riemann equations, which, when satisfied, result in both conformal transformations and isotropic media. We also present a mathematical treatment for the special case of transformation optics to design waveguides. To demonstrate the proposed technique a waveguide with a 30° of bend and with a 50% of increase in its output width was designed. The results show that our technique is simultaneously straightforward to be implement and effective in reducing the anisotropy of the transformation for an extremely low value close to zero.

  20. Direct Linear Transformation Method for Three-Dimensional Cinematography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Robert

    1978-01-01

    The ability of Direct Linear Transformation Method for three-dimensional cinematography to locate points in space was shown to meet the accuracy requirements associated with research on human movement. (JD)

  1. Cell Phones Transform a Science Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    A science methods instructor intentionally encouraged cell phone use for class work to discover how cell phones can be used as research tools to enhance the content and engage the students. The anecdotal evidence suggested that students who used their smartphones as research tools experienced the science content and pedagogical information…

  2. Data transformation methods for multiplexed assays

    DOEpatents

    Tammero, Lance F. Bentley; Dzenitis, John M; Hindson, Benjamin J

    2013-07-23

    Methods to improve the performance of an array assay are described. A correlation between fluorescence intensity-related parameters and negative control values of the assay is determined. The parameters are then adjusted as a function of the correlation. As a result, sensitivity of the assay is improved without changes in its specificity.

  3. General conformal transformation method based on Schwarz-Christoffel approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Linlong; Yin, Jinchan; Yuan, Guishan; Du, Jinglei; Gao, Hongtao; Dong, Xiaochun; Lu, Yueguang; Du, Chunlei

    2011-08-01

    A general conformal transformation method (CTM) is proposed to construct the conformal mapping between two irregular geometries. In order to find the material parameters corresponding to the conformal transformation between two irregular geometries, two polygons are utilized to approximate the two irregular geometries, and an intermediate geometry is used to connect the mapping relations between the two polygons. Based on these manipulations, the approximate material parameters for TE and TM waves are finally obtained by calculating the Schwarz-Christoffel (SC) mappings. To demonstrate the validity of the method, a phase modulator and a plane focal surface Luneburg lens are designed and simulated by the finite element method. The results show that the conformal transformation can be expanded to the cases that the transformed objects are with irregular geometries.

  4. Analytical method for space-fractional telegraph equation by homotopy perturbation transform method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Amit

    2016-06-01

    The object of the present article is to study spacefractional telegraph equation by fractional Homotopy perturbation transform method (FHPTM). The homotopy perturbation transform method is an innovative adjustment in Laplace transform algorithm. Three test examples are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed technique.

  5. Nonlinearities distribution Laplace transform-homotopy perturbation method.

    PubMed

    Filobello-Nino, Uriel; Vazquez-Leal, Hector; Benhammouda, Brahim; Hernandez-Martinez, Luis; Hoyos-Reyes, Claudio; Perez-Sesma, Jose Antonio Agustin; Jimenez-Fernandez, Victor Manuel; Pereyra-Diaz, Domitilo; Marin-Hernandez, Antonio; Diaz-Sanchez, Alejandro; Huerta-Chua, Jesus; Cervantes-Perez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes non-linearities distribution Laplace transform-homotopy perturbation method (NDLT-HPM) to find approximate solutions for linear and nonlinear differential equations with finite boundary conditions. We will see that the method is particularly relevant in case of equations with nonhomogeneous non-polynomial terms. Comparing figures between approximate and exact solutions we show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Transformation of Morinda citrifolia via simple mature seed imbibition method.

    PubMed

    Lee, J J; Ahmad, S; Roslan, H A

    2013-12-15

    Morinda citrifolia, is a valuable medicinal plant with a wide range of therapeutic properties and extensive transformation study on this plant has yet been known. Present study was conducted to establish a simple and reliable transformation protocol for M. citrifolia utilising Agrobacterium tumefaciens via direct seed exposure. In this study, the seeds were processed by tips clipping and dried and subsequently incubated in inoculation medium. Four different parameters during the incubation such as incubation period, bacterial density, temperature and binary vectors harbouring beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (pBI121 and pGSA1131), were tested to examine its effect on transformation efficiency. The leaves from the treated and germinated seedlings were analysed via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), histochemical assay of the GUS gene and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Results of the study showed that Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 with optical density of 1.0 and 2 h incubation period were optimum for M. citrifolia transformation. It was found that various co-cultivation temperatures tested and type of vector used did not affect the transformation efficiency. The highest transformation efficiency for M. citrifolia direct seed transformation harbouring pBI121 and pGSA1131 was determined to be 96.8% with 2 h co-cultivation treatment and 80.4% when using bacterial density of 1.0, respectively. The transformation method can be applied for future characterization study of M. citrifolia.

  7. Transformation ray method: controlling high frequency elastic waves (L).

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Liu, Xiaoning; Hu, Gengkai; Hu, Jin

    2012-10-01

    Elastic ray theory is a high frequency asymptotic approximation of solution of elastodynamic equation, and is widely used in seismology. In this paper, the form invariance under a general spatial mapping and high frequency wave control have been examined by transformation method. It is showed that with the constraint of major and minor symmetry of the transformed elastic tensor, the eikonal equation keeps its form under a general mapping, however, the transport equation loses its form except for conformal mapping. Therefore, the elastic ray path can be controlled in an exact manner by a transformation method, whereas energy distribution along the ray is only approximately controlled. An elastic rotator based on ray tracing method is also provided to illustrate the method and to access the approximation. PMID:23039561

  8. Spindle extraction method for ISAR image based on Radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xia; Zheng, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangyun; Zhu, Daoyuan; Xu, Gaogui

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a method of spindle extraction of target in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) image is proposed which depends on Radon Transform. Firstly, utilizing Radon Transform to detect all straight lines which are collinear with these line segments in image. Then, using Sobel operator to detect image contour. Finally, finding all intersections of each straight line and image contour, the two intersections which have maximum distance between them is the two ends of this line segment and the longest line segment of all line segments is spindle of target. According to the proposed spindle extraction method, one hundred simulated ISAR images which are respectively rotated 0 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees in counterclockwise are used to do experiment and the proposed method and the detection results are more close to the real spindle of target than the method based on Hough Transform .

  9. Transforming Mean and Osculating Elements Using Numerical Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.

    2010-01-01

    Mean element propagation of perturbed two body orbits has as its mathematical basis averaging theory of nonlinear dynamical systems. Averaged mean elements define the long-term evolution characteristics of an orbit. Using averaging theory, a near identity transformation can be found that transforms the mean elements back to the osculating elements that contain short period terms in addition to the secular and long period mean elements. The ability to perform the conversion is necessary so that orbit design conducted in mean elements can be converted back into osculating results. In the present work, this near identity transformation is found using the Fast Fourier Transform. An efficient method is found that is capable of recovering the osculating elements to first order

  10. Physical methods for genetic transformation of fungi and yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Gómez-Lim, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M.

    2014-06-01

    The production of transgenic fungi is a routine process. Currently, it is possible to insert genes from other fungi, viruses, bacteria and even animals, albeit with low efficiency, into the genomes of a number of fungal species. Genetic transformation requires the penetration of the transgene through the fungal cell wall, a process that can be facilitated by biological or physical methods. Novel methodologies for the efficient introduction of specific genes and stronger promoters are needed to increase production levels. A possible solution to this problem is the recently discovered shock-wave-mediated transformation. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art of the physical methods used for genetic fungi transformation and to describe some of the basic physics and molecular biology behind them.

  11. Fourier-transform and global contrast interferometer alignment methods

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Interferometric methods are presented to facilitate alignment of image-plane components within an interferometer and for the magnified viewing of interferometer masks in situ. Fourier-transforms are performed on intensity patterns that are detected with the interferometer and are used to calculate pseudo-images of the electric field in the image plane of the test optic where the critical alignment of various components is being performed. Fine alignment is aided by the introduction and optimization of a global contrast parameter that is easily calculated from the Fourier-transform.

  12. Frequency-dependent FDTD methods using Z transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Dennis M.

    1992-01-01

    While the frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain, or (FD)2TD, method can correctly calculate EM propagation through media whose dielectric properties are frequency-dependent, more elaborate applications lead to greater (FD)2TD complexity. Z-transform theory is presently used to develop the mathematical bases of the (FD)2TD method, simultaneously obtaining a clearer formulation and allowing researchers to draw on the existing literature of systems analysis and signal-processing.

  13. A Secret Image Sharing Method Using Integer Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chin-Pan; Li, Ching-Chung

    2007-12-01

    A new image sharing method, based on the reversible integer-to-integer (ITI) wavelet transform and Shamir's [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] threshold scheme is presented, that provides highly compact shadows for real-time progressive transmission. This method, working in the wavelet domain, processes the transform coefficients in each subband, divides each of the resulting combination coefficients into [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] shadows, and allows recovery of the complete secret image by using any [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] or more shadows [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. We take advantages of properties of the wavelet transform multiresolution representation, such as coefficient magnitude decay and excellent energy compaction, to design combination procedures for the transform coefficients and processing sequences in wavelet subbands such that small shadows for real-time progressive transmission are obtained. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method yields small shadow images and has the capabilities of real-time progressive transmission and perfect reconstruction of secret images.

  14. A dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method for power transformers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wensheng; Bai, Cuifen; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified.

  15. A Dynamic Integrated Fault Diagnosis Method for Power Transformers

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wensheng; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified. PMID:25685841

  16. A simple method for chloroplast transformation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Vellupillai M; Bingham, Scott E; Webber, Andrew N

    2011-01-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) is a multisubunit pigment-protein complex that uses light energy to transfer electrons from plastocyanin to ferredoxin. Application of genetic engineering to photosynthetic reaction center proteins has led to a significant advancement in our understanding of primary electron transfer events and the role of the protein environment in modulating these processes. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii provides a system particularly amenable to analyze the structure-function relationship of Photosystem I. C. reinhardtii is also a particularly favorable organism for chloroplast transformation because it contains only a single chloroplast and grows heterotrophically when supplemented with acetate. Chlamydomonas has, therefore, served as a model organism for the development of chloroplast transformation procedures and the study of photosynthetic mutants generated using this method. Exogenous cloned cpDNA can be introduced into the chloroplast by using this biolistic gene gun method. DNA-coated tungsten or gold particles are bombarded onto cells. Upon its entry into chloroplasts, the transforming DNA is released from the particles and integrated into the chloroplast genome through homologous recombination. The most versatile chloroplast selectable marker is aminoglycoside adenyl transferase (aadA), which can be expressed in the chloroplast to confer resistance to spectinomycin or streptomycin. This article describes the procedures for chloroplast transformation.

  17. A method for decoding the neurophysiological spike-response transform.

    PubMed

    Stern, Estee; García-Crescioni, Keyla; Miller, Mark W; Peskin, Charles S; Brezina, Vladimir

    2009-11-15

    Many physiological responses elicited by neuronal spikes-intracellular calcium transients, synaptic potentials, muscle contractions-are built up of discrete, elementary responses to each spike. However, the spikes occur in trains of arbitrary temporal complexity, and each elementary response not only sums with previous ones, but can itself be modified by the previous history of the activity. A basic goal in system identification is to characterize the spike-response transform in terms of a small number of functions-the elementary response kernel and additional kernels or functions that describe the dependence on previous history-that will predict the response to any arbitrary spike train. Here we do this by developing further and generalizing the "synaptic decoding" approach of Sen et al. (1996). Given the spike times in a train and the observed overall response, we use least-squares minimization to construct the best estimated response and at the same time best estimates of the elementary response kernel and the other functions that characterize the spike-response transform. We avoid the need for any specific initial assumptions about these functions by using techniques of mathematical analysis and linear algebra that allow us to solve simultaneously for all of the numerical function values treated as independent parameters. The functions are such that they may be interpreted mechanistically. We examine the performance of the method as applied to synthetic data. We then use the method to decode real synaptic and muscle contraction transforms. PMID:19695289

  18. Measurement matrix optimization method based on matrix orthogonal similarity transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jinfeng

    2016-05-01

    Optimization of the measurement matrix is one of the important research aspects of compressive sensing theory. A measurement matrix optimization method is presented based on the orthogonal similarity transformation of the information operator's Gram matrix. In terms of the fact that the information operator's Gram matrix is a singular symmetric matrix, a simplified orthogonal similarity transformation is deduced, and thus the simplified diagonal matrix that is orthogonally similar to it is obtained. Then an approximation of the Gram matrix is obtained by letting all the nonzero diagonal entries of the simplified diagonal matrix equal their average value. Thus an optimized measurement matrix can be acquired according to its relationship with the information operator. Results of experiments show that the optimized measurement matrix compared to the random measurement matrix is less coherent with dictionaries. The relative signal recovery error also declines when the proposed measurement matrix is utilized.

  19. Precursor transformation method for damage detection in structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabi, Armin B.; Tabatabai, Habib; Lotfi, Hamid R.

    1998-06-01

    In this paper, a new concept for damage detection and long- term health monitoring of structures is presented. The Precursor Transformation Method (PTM) is based on determining the causes (precursors) of change in the measured state of the structure under non-variable loading conditions (e.g. dead loads in bridges). The PTM concept addresses the inability of the current structural monitoring methods to discriminate, in structural behavior terms, the meaning of voluminous measured sensor data on a timely and cost effective basis. This method offers advantages in sensitivity and cost efficiency when compared to conventional vibration-based or parameter estimation methods. PTM was developed as part of a research project sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration on bridge stay cable condition assessment. Measured changes in the state of a structure (displacements, strains, internal forces) can be related to precursors through a transformation matrix. This matrix is formed by determining the patterns of change in the state of structure associated with externally imposed strains (temperatures) or displacements representing possible damage scenarios. A finite element model of the undamaged structure is used to calculate these patterns. The use of an undamaged model of the structure in determining damage patterns simplifies the calculation process significantly, while introducing some approximation in results. Theoretical derivations and special case studies indicate that these approximations are limited to second order effects, and in many cases well within measurement and calculation accuracies. Examples using simulated damages on two truss structures and a cable-stayed bridge are also presented.

  20. Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation method: an important antioxidant assay.

    PubMed

    Gülçin, İlhami

    2015-01-01

    If we look at the multitude of varied and interesting reaction that constitute biochemistry and bioorganic chemistry, it is possible to classify a great many as either oxidation or reduction reactions. The reducing agent transfers electrons to another substance and is thus it oxidized. And, because it gives electrons, it is also called an electron donor. Electron donors can also form charge transfer complexes with electron acceptors. Reductants in biochemistry are very diverse. For example ferric ions (Fe(3+)) are good reducing agents. Also, different bioanalytical reduction methods are available such as Fe(3+)-ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) reduction method, ferric reducing antioxidant power reducing assay. In this section, Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation will be discussed. Recently there has been growing interest in research into the role of plant-derived antioxidants in food and human health. The beneficial influence of many foodstuffs and beverages including fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, and cacao on human health has been recently recognized to originate from their antioxidant activity. For this purpose, the most commonly method used in vitro determination of reducing capacity of pure food constituents or plant extracts is Fe(3+) reducing ability. This commonly used reducing power method is reviewed and presented in this study. Also, the general chemistry underlying this assay was clarified. Hence, this overview provides a basis and rationale for developing standardized antioxidant capacity methods for the food, nutraceutical, and dietary supplement industries. In addition, the most important advantages of this method were detected and highlighted. The chemical principles of these methods are outlined and critically discussed. The chemical principles of methods of Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation assay are outlined and critically discussed. PMID:25323511

  1. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Jarvis, E.E.

    1997-08-26

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae. The method includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further, specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae. 2 figs.

  2. Classification of Variable Stars Using Thick-Pen Transform Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Oh, H.-S.; Kim, D.

    2013-04-01

    A suitable classification of variable stars is an important task for understanding galaxy structure and evaluating stellar evolution. Most traditional approaches for classification have used various features of variable stars such as period, amplitude, color index, and Fourier coefficients. Recently, by focusing only on the light curve shape, Deb and Singh proposed a classification method based on multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). They applied the PCA method to light curves and compared its results with those obtained by Fourier coefficients. In this article, we propose a new procedure based on the thick-pen transform for obtaining accurate information on the light curve shape as well as for improving the accuracy of classification. The proposed method is applied to the data sets of variable stars from the Stellar Astrophysics and Research on Exoplanets (STARE) project and a small number of stars from Massive Compact Halo Objects (MACHO).

  3. Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods.

    PubMed

    Slavich, George M; Zimbardo, Philip G

    2012-12-01

    Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we suggest that these seemingly different strategies share important underlying characteristics and can be viewed as complimentary components of a broader approach to classroom instruction called transformational teaching. Transformational teaching involves creating dynamic relationships between teachers, students, and a shared body of knowledge to promote student learning and personal growth. From this perspective, instructors are intellectual coaches who create teams of students who collaborate with each other and with their teacher to master bodies of information. Teachers assume the traditional role of facilitating students' acquisition of key course concepts, but do so while enhancing students' personal development and attitudes toward learning. They accomplish these goals by establishing a shared vision for a course, providing modeling and mastery experiences, challenging and encouraging students, personalizing attention and feedback, creating experiential lessons that transcend the boundaries of the classroom, and promoting ample opportunities for preflection and reflection. We propose that these methods are synergistically related and, when used together, maximize students' potential for intellectual and personal growth.

  4. Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods

    PubMed Central

    Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we suggest that these seemingly different strategies share important underlying characteristics and can be viewed as complimentary components of a broader approach to classroom instruction called transformational teaching. Transformational teaching involves creating dynamic relationships between teachers, students, and a shared body of knowledge to promote student learning and personal growth. From this perspective, instructors are intellectual coaches who create teams of students who collaborate with each other and with their teacher to master bodies of information. Teachers assume the traditional role of facilitating students’ acquisition of key course concepts, but do so while enhancing students’ personal development and attitudes toward learning. They accomplish these goals by establishing a shared vision for a course, providing modeling and mastery experiences, challenging and encouraging students, personalizing attention and feedback, creating experiential lessons that transcend the boundaries of the classroom, and promoting ample opportunities for preflection and reflection. We propose that these methods are synergistically related and, when used together, maximize students’ potential for intellectual and personal growth. PMID:23162369

  5. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Dunahay, Terri Goodman; Roessler, Paul G.; Jarvis, Eric E.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae which includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae.

  6. Zoom synchrosqueezing transform and iterative demodulation: Methods with application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hongrui; Xi, Songtao; Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Shibin

    2016-05-01

    Synchrosqueezing is a powerful time-frequency analysis tool for signals with time-varying frequency. However, as it is based on the continuous wavelet transform, its time-frequency representation (TFR) has better time but worse frequency resolution in higher frequency region, while worse time but better frequency resolution in lower frequency region. It makes the synchrosqueezing difficult to accurately estimate IFs with highly oscillating rate but small fluctuation amplitude. To address this issue, a zoom synchrosqueezing transform (ZST) is proposed to generate both excellent time and frequency resolution in a specific frequency region and analyze the mono-component signal in the particular frequency region to obtain accurate IF estimation results. For multi-component signals with nonlinear and close IFs, a ZST based dual iterative demodulation method is proposed, with the inner iteration to gradually refine and accurately extract a concerned mono-component, and the outer iteration to extract all mono-components gradually to alleviate the interference between individual components. Then satisfactory energy concentrated TFRs and accurate IF estimation results of mono-components can be obtained by the proposed ZST. The TFR of the multi-component signal can be gained by superposing the TFRs of all mono-components. The effectiveness of the proposed methods was validated using both simulated signals and a rub-impact signal collected from an engineering machine unit.

  7. Linear transformation method to control flexural waves in thin plates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongquan; Ma, Zhaoyang; Su, Xianyue

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the linear transformation method (LTM) to control flexural waves propagating in thin plates is presented. Unlike earlier studies, only a small number of homogeneous materials with no requirement of in-plane forces or pre-stress are needed, which tremendously simplifies the implementation of devices for flexural waves. An invisibility cloak with homogeneous materials is studied to confirm the validity of the present approach, and to show its imperfection due to impedance mismatch at interfaces. Required materials can be further simplified as layered isotropic materials using the effective medium theory. Finally, the LTM can be extended to the case of flexural waves propagating in anisotropic thin plates. The present method opens a promising avenue toward the realization of advanced structured shields and other devices. PMID:27586744

  8. Optimal PMU placement using topology transformation method in power systems.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nadia H A; Zobaa, Ahmed F

    2016-09-01

    Optimal phasor measurement units (PMUs) placement involves the process of minimizing the number of PMUs needed while ensuring the entire power system completely observable. A power system is identified observable when the voltages of all buses in the power system are known. This paper proposes selection rules for topology transformation method that involves a merging process of zero-injection bus with one of its neighbors. The result from the merging process is influenced by the selection of bus selected to merge with the zero-injection bus. The proposed method will determine the best candidate bus to merge with zero-injection bus according to the three rules created in order to determine the minimum number of PMUs required for full observability of the power system. In addition, this paper also considered the case of power flow measurements. The problem is formulated as integer linear programming (ILP). The simulation for the proposed method is tested by using MATLAB for different IEEE bus systems. The explanation of the proposed method is demonstrated by using IEEE 14-bus system. The results obtained in this paper proved the effectiveness of the proposed method since the number of PMUs obtained is comparable with other available techniques. PMID:27489729

  9. Optimal PMU placement using topology transformation method in power systems.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nadia H A; Zobaa, Ahmed F

    2016-09-01

    Optimal phasor measurement units (PMUs) placement involves the process of minimizing the number of PMUs needed while ensuring the entire power system completely observable. A power system is identified observable when the voltages of all buses in the power system are known. This paper proposes selection rules for topology transformation method that involves a merging process of zero-injection bus with one of its neighbors. The result from the merging process is influenced by the selection of bus selected to merge with the zero-injection bus. The proposed method will determine the best candidate bus to merge with zero-injection bus according to the three rules created in order to determine the minimum number of PMUs required for full observability of the power system. In addition, this paper also considered the case of power flow measurements. The problem is formulated as integer linear programming (ILP). The simulation for the proposed method is tested by using MATLAB for different IEEE bus systems. The explanation of the proposed method is demonstrated by using IEEE 14-bus system. The results obtained in this paper proved the effectiveness of the proposed method since the number of PMUs obtained is comparable with other available techniques.

  10. Radon transform analysis of a probabilistic method for image generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Marc A.

    1989-04-01

    The research performed for this grant over the past year involved affine iterated function system (IFS) encoding and IFS mixing for digital images. This relates to a technique of Michael Barnsley's for generating fractal and other images by randomly iterating affine transformations of the plane into itself. By this technique an image is both generated and represented as the long-term probability distribution for a 2-D or 3-D Markov chain. The encoding involves finding an affine collage of the image, whereby it is identified as a convex combination of affinely scaled versions of itself. This permits some remarkable data compression. The mixing involves a merging of IFS's so as to produce images with combined textures. It ties in with the encoding in that a broader class of images can then be efficiently encoded, and there are more degrees of freedom in the encoding search. The mathematical methods used involve stochastic optimization, computational geometry, the Radon transform, dynamical systems and ergodic theory for Markov chains.

  11. Efficient method for Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Alam, Pravej; Mohammad, Anis; Ahmad, M M; Khan, Mather Ali; Nadeem, Mohd; Khan, Riyazuddeen; Akmal, Mohd; Ahlawat, Seema; Abdin, M Z

    2014-01-01

    Artemisinin, a potent antimalarial natural products isolated from aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. Many patents have been reported that the demand for artemisinin is exponentially increasing year after year due to increased incidences of drug resistant malaria throughout the world. Leaf explants were used frequently as target tissue to generate transgenic of Artemisia. annua L. However, obtaining a large number of transgenic lines through out the year is a laborious and delicate process. To circumvent this, we have developed a highly efficient leaf explant based Agrobacterium mediated transformation of A. annua L. plant. The gus gene was used as screenable marker to assess and optimize the performance of T-DNA delivery. The age of explant, kind of bacterial inoculation, suspension duration, infection times and co-culture conditions were optimized. The co-culture was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 under desiccation condition in the dark at 25-28 0C for 2-4 days. Complete analysis of transgene insertion demonstrated that the optimized method of transformation from leaf explants of A. annua L. was efficient and highly reproducible.

  12. TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  13. A modified Monte Carlo 'local importance function transform' method

    SciTech Connect

    Keady, K. P.; Larsen, E. W.

    2013-07-01

    The Local Importance Function Transform (LIFT) method uses an approximation of the contribution transport problem to bias a forward Monte-Carlo (MC) source-detector simulation [1-3]. Local (cell-based) biasing parameters are calculated from an inexpensive deterministic adjoint solution and used to modify the physics of the forward transport simulation. In this research, we have developed a new expression for the LIFT biasing parameter, which depends on a cell-average adjoint current to scalar flux (J{sup *}/{phi}{sup *}) ratio. This biasing parameter differs significantly from the original expression, which uses adjoint cell-edge scalar fluxes to construct a finite difference estimate of the flux derivative; the resulting biasing parameters exhibit spikes in magnitude at material discontinuities, causing the original LIFT method to lose efficiency in problems with high spatial heterogeneity. The new J{sup *}/{phi}{sup *} expression, while more expensive to obtain, generates biasing parameters that vary smoothly across the spatial domain. The result is an improvement in simulation efficiency. A representative test problem has been developed and analyzed to demonstrate the advantage of the updated biasing parameter expression with regards to solution figure of merit (FOM). For reference, the two variants of the LIFT method are compared to a similar variance reduction method developed by Depinay [4, 5], as well as MC with deterministic adjoint weight windows (WW). (authors)

  14. Method and apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer

    DOEpatents

    Pokrywka, Robert J.

    2005-01-18

    A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of: powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.

  15. A study of geometric phase topology using Fourier transform method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samlan, C. T.; Naik, Dinesh N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2016-07-01

    Topological aspect of the geometric phase (GP) due to pure polarization projection is studied using the 2D Fourier transform (2D-FT) method. Projection of orthogonal polarization state results in a phase singularity in the 2D parameter space of ellipticity and orientation of polarization ellipse. Projection of its surrounding states results in an accumulation of GP in different amount that form a spiral structure. A half wave plate-quarter wave plate combination is used to generate different polarization states which are projected using a polarizer. The accumulated phase for each orientation of the wave plate is extracted from 2D-FT of the interferogram, obtained by interfering it with a reference beam in a Mach-Zehnder like interferometer.

  16. TRANSFORMER

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  17. Method of Estimating Continuous Cooling Transformation Curves of Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Ray, Chandra S.; Day, Delbert E.

    2006-01-01

    A method is proposed for estimating the critical cooling rate and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve from isothermal TTT data of glasses. The critical cooling rates and CCT curves for a group of lithium disilicate glasses containing different amounts of Pt as nucleating agent estimated through this method are compared with the experimentally measured values. By analysis of the experimental and calculated data of the lithium disilicate glasses, a simple relationship between the crystallized amount in the glasses during continuous cooling, X, and the temperature of undercooling, (Delta)T, was found to be X = AR(sup-4)exp(B (Delta)T), where (Delta)T is the temperature difference between the theoretical melting point of the glass composition and the temperature in discussion, R is the cooling rate, and A and B are constants. The relation between the amount of crystallisation during continuous cooling and isothermal hold can be expressed as (X(sub cT)/X(sub iT) = (4/B)(sup 4) (Delta)T(sup -4), where X(sub cT) stands for the crystallised amount in a glass during continuous cooling for a time t when the temperature comes to T, and X(sub iT) is the crystallised amount during isothermal hold at temperature T for a time t.

  18. Category's analysis and operational project capacity method of transformation in design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obednina, S. V.; Bystrova, T. Y.

    2015-10-01

    The method of transformation is attracting widespread interest in fields such contemporary design. However, in theory of design little attention has been paid to a categorical status of the term "transformation". This paper presents the conceptual analysis of transformation based on the theory of form employed in the influential essays by Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas. In the present work the transformation as a method of shaping design has been explored as well as potential application of this term in design has been demonstrated.

  19. Transformation Methods for Using Combination of Remotely Sensed Data and Cadastral Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dönmez, Ş. Ö.; Tunc, A.

    2016-06-01

    In order to examine using cadastral maps as base maps for aerial orthophotos, two different 2D transformation methods were applied between various coordinate systems. Study area was chosen from Kagithane district in Istanbul. The used data is an orthophoto (30 cm spatial resolution), and cadastral map (1:1000) taken from land office, containing the same region. Transformation methods are chosen as; 1st Order Polynomial Transformation and Helmert 2D Transformation within this study. The test points, used to determine the coefficients between the datums, were 26 common traverse points and the check points, used to compare the transformed coordinates to reliable true coordinates, were 10 common block corners. The transformation methods were applied using Matlab software. After applying the methods, residuals were calculated and compared between each transformation method in order to use cadastral maps as reliable vector data.

  20. Methods for performing fast discrete curvelet transforms of data

    DOEpatents

    Candes, Emmanuel; Donoho, David; Demanet, Laurent

    2010-11-23

    Fast digital implementations of the second generation curvelet transform for use in data processing are disclosed. One such digital transformation is based on unequally-spaced fast Fourier transforms (USFFT) while another is based on the wrapping of specially selected Fourier samples. Both digital transformations return a table of digital curvelet coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation parameter, and a spatial location parameter. Both implementations are fast in the sense that they run in about O(n.sup.2 log n) flops for n by n Cartesian arrays or about O(N log N) flops for Cartesian arrays of size N=n.sup.3; in addition, they are also invertible, with rapid inversion algorithms of about the same complexity.

  1. A novel method for genetic transformation of yeast cells using oligoelectrolyte polymeric nanoscale carriers.

    PubMed

    Filyak, Yevhen; Finiuk, Nataliya; Mitina, Nataliya; Bilyk, Oksana; Titorenko, Vladimir; Hrydzhuk, Olesya; Zaichenko, Alexander; Stoika, Rostyslav

    2013-01-01

    The genetic transformation of target cells is a key tool in modern biological research, as well as in many gene therapy and biotechnology applications. Here we describe a new method for delivery of DNA into several industrially important species of yeast, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our method is based on the use of a novel nanoscale oligoelectrolyte polymer possessing a comb-like structure as a carrier molecule. Direct comparisons to standard transformation methods clearly show that our approach: (i) yields two times more transformants of Hansenula polymorpha NCYC 495 compared to electroporation approaches and 15 times more transformants compared to lithium acetate protocols, as well as (ii) 5 times more Pichia pastoris GS115 transformants compared to electroporation and 79 times more transformants compared to lithium acetate. Taken together, these results clearly indicate genetic transformation of yeasts using oligoelectrolyte polymer carriers is a highly effective means of gene delivery.

  2. Apparatus and methods for continuous beam fourier transform mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McLuckey, Scott A.; Goeringer, Douglas E.

    2002-01-01

    A continuous beam Fourier transform mass spectrometer in which a sample of ions to be analyzed is trapped in a trapping field, and the ions in the range of the mass-to-charge ratios to be analyzed are excited at their characteristic frequencies of motion by a continuous excitation signal. The excited ions in resonant motions generate real or image currents continuously which can be detected and processed to provide a mass spectrum.

  3. A Unified Method of Finding Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. [and] An Inversion Method for Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. Integral Transforms and Series Expansions. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Units 324 and 325.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, C. A.

    This document contains two units that examine integral transforms and series expansions. In the first module, the user is expected to learn how to use the unified method presented to obtain Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, complex Fourier series, real Fourier series, and half-range sine series for given piecewise continuous functions. In…

  4. A method of real-time fault diagnosis for power transformers based on vibration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Kaixing; Huang, Hai; Zhou, Jianping; Shen, Yimin; Li, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel probability-based classification model is proposed for real-time fault detection of power transformers. First, the transformer vibration principle is introduced, and two effective feature extraction techniques are presented. Next, the details of the classification model based on support vector machine (SVM) are shown. The model also includes a binary decision tree (BDT) which divides transformers into different classes according to health state. The trained model produces posterior probabilities of membership to each predefined class for a tested vibration sample. During the experiments, the vibrations of transformers under different conditions are acquired, and the corresponding feature vectors are used to train the SVM classifiers. The effectiveness of this model is illustrated experimentally on typical in-service transformers. The consistency between the results of the proposed model and the actual condition of the test transformers indicates that the model can be used as a reliable method for transformer fault detection.

  5. On the Inclusion of Difference Equation Problems and Z Transform Methods in Sophomore Differential Equation Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoye, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, I started covering difference equations and z transform methods in my introductory differential equations course. This allowed my students to extend the "classical" methods for (ordinary differential equation) ODE's to discrete time problems arising in many applications.

  6. A multistage differential transformation method for approximate solution of Hantavirus infection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökdoğan, Ahmet; Merdan, Mehmet; Yildirim, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is presented a reliable algorithm based on the standard differential transformation method (DTM), which is called the multi-stage differential transformation method (MsDTM) for solving Hantavirus infection model. The results obtanied by using MsDTM are compared to those obtained by using the Runge-Kutta method (R-K-method). The proposed technique is a hopeful tool to solving for a long time intervals in this kind of systems.

  7. A rapid and stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method of a medicinal plant Chelone glabra L.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenrui; Li, Ying; Chen, Jinhua; Chen, Zhixing; Cui, Min-Long

    2015-03-01

    Transformation approach is a useful tool for the study of gene function, the mechanism of molecular regulation, and increase usefulness of components by reverse genetic approach in plants. In this study, we developed a stable and rapid method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a medicinal plant Chelone glabra L. using leaf explants. Stable transformants were obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains GV2260 and GV3101 that harbored the binary vector pBI121 and contained the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (NPT II) as a selectable marker and a reporter gene β-glucuronidase (GUS). Putative transformants were identified by kanamycin selection and a histochemical assay. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of the GUS gene into transformed genomes as well as detected stable expression of the β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) by RT-PCR. Resulting transformed plants had morphologically normal phenotypes. This method requires two changes of medium and few leaf explants as well as the transformation efficiency of 2-8 % after 2-3 months of inoculation. This method can provide a quick and economical transformation method for reverse genetic approach to change the secondary metabolic pathway to increase useful components in C. glabra.

  8. Cell classification by moments and continuous wavelet transform methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Fan, Yuan; Udpa, Lalita; Ayres, Virginia M

    2007-01-01

    Image processing techniques are bringing new insights to biomedical research. The automatic recognition and classification of biomedical objects can enhance work efficiency while identifying new inter-relationships among biological features. In this work, a simple rule-based decision tree classifier is developed to classify typical features of mixed cell types investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A combination of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and moment-based features are extracted from the AFM data to represent that shape information of different cellular objects at multiple resolution levels. The features are shown to be invariant under operations of translation, rotation, and scaling. The features are then used in a simple rule-based classifier to discriminate between anucleate versus nucleate cell types or to distinguish cells from a fibrous environment such as a tissue scaffold or stint. Since each feature has clear physical meaning, the decision rule of this tree classifier is simple, which makes it very suitable for online processing. Experimental results on AFM data confirm that the performance of this classifier is robust and reliable. PMID:17722546

  9. Design of piezoelectric transformer for DC/DC converter with stochastic optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasic, Dejan; Vido, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    Piezoelectric transformers were adopted in recent year due to their many inherent advantages such as safety, no EMI problem, low housing profile, and high power density, etc. The characteristics of the piezoelectric transformers are well known when the load impedance is a pure resistor. However, when piezoelectric transformers are used in AC/DC or DC/DC converters, there are non-linear electronic circuits connected before and after the transformer. Consequently, the output load is variable and due to the output capacitance of the transformer the optimal working point change. This paper starts from modeling a piezoelectric transformer connected to a full wave rectifier in order to discuss the design constraints and configuration of the transformer. The optimization method adopted here use the MOPSO algorithm (Multiple Objective Particle Swarm Optimization). We start with the formulation of the objective function and constraints; then the results give different sizes of the transformer and the characteristics. In other word, this method is looking for a best size of the transformer for optimal efficiency condition that is suitable for variable load. Furthermore, the size and the efficiency are found to be a trade-off. This paper proposes the completed design procedure to find the minimum size of PT in need. The completed design procedure is discussed by a given specification. The PT derived from the proposed design procedure can guarantee both good efficiency and enough range for load variation.

  10. Commentary: Using Mixed Methods to Transform Special Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Klingner and Boardman (this issue) offer a cogent and compelling argument for opening the door for the acceptance and use of mixed methods in special education research. Self-identifying as pragmatists, they embody this paradigmatic view by focusing on the utility, efficacy, and accuracy of mixed methods, an argument that should appeal to the…

  11. Nonsubsampled contourlet transform method for optical fringe pattern analysis in profilometry and interferometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Sikun; Wang, Xiangzhao; Tang, Feng; Bu, Yang; Sasaki, Osami

    2016-09-20

    A method based on a nonsubsampled contourlet transform, which is an overcomplete transform with multiresolution, directionality, and shift-invariance properties, is proposed to extract the fundamental frequency component of an optical fringe pattern in profilometry and interferometry. The nonsubsampled contourlet transform method overcomes the disadvantages of the original contourlet transform method, which lacks the shift-invariance property. Besides, it improves the frequency selectivity. A strategy is developed to automatically determine the optimal decomposition scale for removing the background intensity and suppressing the noise of the fringe pattern. The proposed method is precise, effective, and possesses a strong noise immune ability. Simulations and experiments verify the validity, and show the superiorities of the proposed method. PMID:27661603

  12. Transforming student's discourse as a method of teaching science inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, David

    2005-07-01

    A qualitative case study on the instructional practice of one secondary science teacher addresses the persistent reluctance of many science teachers to integrate the cultural resources and social practices of professional science communities into the science content they teach. The literature has shown that teachers' hesitation to implement a social and locally situated learning strategy curtails students' ability to draw upon the language of science necessary to co-construct and shape authentic science inquiry and in particular appropriate argument schemes. The study hypothesized that a teacher's dialogic facilitation of a particular social context and instructional practices enhances a students' ability to express verbally the claims and warrants that rise from evidence taken from their inquiries of natural phenomena. The study also tracks students' use of the Key Words and Ideas of this science curriculum for the purpose of assessing the degree of students' assimilation of these terms into their speech and written expressions of inquiry. The theoretical framework is Vygotskian (1978) and the analysis of the qualitative data is founded on Toulmin (1958), Walton (1996), Jimenez-Alexandre et al. (2000) and Shavelson (1996). The dialogic structure of this teacher's facilitation of student's science knowledge is shown to utilize students' presumptive statements to hone their construction of inductive or deductive arguments. This instructional practice may represent teacher-student activity within the zone of proximal development and supports Vygotsky's notion that a knowledgeable other is instrumental in transforming student's spontaneous talk into scientific speech. The tracking of the curriculum's Key Words and Ideas into students' speech and writing indicated that this teachers' ability to facilitate students' presumptuous reasoning into logic statements did not necessarily guarantee that they could post strong written expressions of this verbal know-how in

  13. Recent developments in the Lorentz Integral Transform (LIT) method

    SciTech Connect

    Orlandini, G.

    2005-05-06

    Recent results on electromagnetic (e.m.) reactions into the continuum of systems with A from 3 to 7 are presented. They have been obtained using the LIT method. The method is briefly reviewed, emphasizing how all the results, though obtained with the sole ingredient of the N-N potential, contain the full complicated dynamics of the A-body system, both in the initial and in the final states.

  14. Probabilistic collocation method for strongly nonlinear problems: 3. Transform by time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Qinzhuo; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2016-03-01

    The probabilistic collocation method (PCM) has drawn wide attention for stochastic analysis recently. Its results may become inaccurate in case of a strongly nonlinear relation between random parameters and model responses. To tackle this problem, we proposed a location-based transformed PCM (xTPCM) and a displacement-based transformed PCM (dTPCM) in previous parts of this series. Making use of the transform between response and space, the above two methods, however, have certain limitations. In this study, we introduce a time-based transformed PCM (tTPCM) employing the transform between response and time. We conduct numerical experiments to investigate its performance in uncertainty quantification. The results show that the tTPCM greatly improves the accuracy of the traditional PCM in a cost-effective manner and is more general and convenient than the xTPCM/dTPCM.

  15. Using generalized Cayley transformations within an inexact rational Krylov sequence method.

    SciTech Connect

    Lehoucq, R. B.; Meerbergen, K.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Utrecht Univ.

    1999-01-01

    The rational Krylov sequence (RKS) method is a generalization of Arnoldi's method. It constructs an orthogonal reduction of a matrix pencil into an upper Hessenberg pencil. The RKS method is useful when the matrix pencil may be efficiently factored. This article considers approximately solving the resulting linear systems with iterative methods. We show that a Cayley transformation leads to a more efficient and robust eigensolver than the usual shift-invert transformation when the linear systems are solved inexactly within the RKS method. A relationship with the recently introduced Jacobi--Davidson method is also established.

  16. Solution of the Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equation by the Laplace Transform Method

    PubMed Central

    Lin, S. H.; Eyring, H.

    1971-01-01

    The time-dependent Schrödinger equation for two quite general types of perturbation has been solved by introducing the Laplace transforms to eliminate the time variable. The resulting time-independent differential equation can then be solved by the perturbation method, the variation method, the variation-perturbation method, and other methods. PMID:16591898

  17. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for the edible mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin jing; Shi, Liang; Chen, Hui; Sun, Yun qi; Zhao, Ming wen; Ren, Ang; Chen, Ming jie; Wang, Hong; Feng, Zhi yong

    2014-01-01

    Hypsizygus marmoreus is one of the major edible mushrooms in East Asia. As no efficient transformation method, the molecular and genetics studies were hindered. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) gene of H. marmoreus was isolated and its promoter was used to drive the hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPH) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in H. marmoreus. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was successfully applied in H. marmoreus. The transformation parameters were optimized, and it was found that co-cultivation of bacteria with protoplast at a ratio of 1000:1 at a temperature of 26 °C in medium containing 0.3 mM acetosyringone resulted in the highest transformation efficiency for Agrobacterium strain. Besides, three plasmids, each carrying a different promoter (from H. marmoreus, Ganoderma lucidum and Lentinula edodes) driving the expression of an antibiotic resistance marker, were also tested. The construct carrying the H. marmoreus gpd promoter produced more transformants than other constructs. Our analysis showed that over 85% of the transformants tested remained mitotically stable even after five successive rounds of subculturing. Putative transformants were analyzed for the presence of hph gene by PCR and Southern blot. Meanwhile, the expression of EGFP in H. marmoreus transformants was detected by fluorescence imaging. This ATMT system increases the transformation efficiency of H. marmoreus and may represent a useful tool for molecular genetic studies in this mushroom species.

  18. Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we…

  19. Two-dimensional cylindrical thermal cloak designed by implicit transformation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xuebo; Lin, Guochang; Wang, Youshan

    2016-07-01

    As a new-type technology of heat management, thermal metamaterials have attracted more and more attentions recently and thermal cloak is a typical case. Thermal conductivity of thermal cloak designed by coordinate transformation method is usually featured by inhomogeneity, anisotropy and local singularity. Explicit transformation method, which is commonly used to design thermal cloak with the coordinate transformation known in advance, has insufficient flexibility, making it hard to proactively reduce the difficulty of device fabrication. In this work, we designed the thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) cylindrical thermal cloak using the implicit transformation method without knowledge of the coordinate transformation in advance. With two classes of generation functions taken into consideration, this study adopted full-wave simulations to analyze the thermal cloaking performances of designed thermal cloaks. Material distributions and simulation results showed that the implicit transformation method has high flexibility. The form of coordinate transformation not only influences the homogeneity and anisotropy but also directly influences the thermal cloaking performance. An improved layered structure for 2D cylindrical thermal cloak was put forward based on the generation function g(r) = r15, which reduces the number of the kinds of constituent materials while guaranteeing good thermal cloaking performance. This work provides a beneficial guidance for reducing the fabrication difficulty of thermal cloak.

  20. Advantages of Analytical Transformations in Monte Carlo Methods for Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, M S; Brooks III, E D; Daffin, F

    2004-12-13

    Monte Carlo methods for radiation transport typically attempt to solve an integral by directly sampling analog or weighted particles, which are treated as physical entities. Improvements to the methods involve better sampling, probability games or physical intuition about the problem. We show that significant improvements can be achieved by recasting the equations with an analytical transform to solve for new, non-physical entities or fields. This paper looks at one such transform, the difference formulation for thermal photon transport, showing a significant advantage for Monte Carlo solution of the equations for time dependent transport. Other related areas are discussed that may also realize significant benefits from similar analytical transformations.

  1. Rapid DNA transformation in Salmonella Typhimurium by the hydrogel exposure method.

    PubMed

    Elabed, Hamouda; Hamza, Rim; Bakhrouf, Amina; Gaddour, Kamel

    2016-07-01

    Even with advances in molecular cloning and DNA transformation, new or alternative methods that permit DNA penetration in Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium are required in order to use this pathogen in biotechnological or medical applications. In this work, an adapted protocol of bacterial transformation with plasmid DNA based on the "Yoshida effect" was applied and optimized on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 reference strain. The plasmid transference based on the use of sepiolite as acicular materials to promote cell piercing via friction forces produced by spreading on the surface of a hydrogel. The transforming mixture containing sepiolite nanofibers, bacterial cells to be transformed and plasmid DNA were plated directly on selective medium containing 2% agar. In order to improve the procedure, three variables were tested and the transformation of Salmonella cells was accomplished using plasmids pUC19 and pBR322. Using the optimized protocol on Salmonella LT2 strain, the efficiency was about 10(5) transformed cells per 10(9) subjected to transformation with 0.2μg plasmid DNA. In summary, the procedure is fast, offers opportune efficiency and promises to become one of the widely used transformation methods in laboratories. PMID:27154729

  2. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia

    2016-02-18

    Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration.

  3. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia

    2016-01-01

    Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration. PMID:26901203

  4. FFT-enhanced IHS transform method for fusing high-resolution satellite images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ling, Y.; Ehlers, M.; Usery, E.L.; Madden, M.

    2007-01-01

    Existing image fusion techniques such as the intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) transform and principal components analysis (PCA) methods may not be optimal for fusing the new generation commercial high-resolution satellite images such as Ikonos and QuickBird. One problem is color distortion in the fused image, which causes visual changes as well as spectral differences between the original and fused images. In this paper, a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-enhanced IHS method is developed for fusing new generation high-resolution satellite images. This method combines a standard IHS transform with FFT filtering of both the panchromatic image and the intensity component of the original multispectral image. Ikonos and QuickBird data are used to assess the FFT-enhanced IHS transform method. Experimental results indicate that the FFT-enhanced IHS transform method may improve upon the standard IHS transform and the PCA methods in preserving spectral and spatial information. ?? 2006 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).

  5. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia

    2016-01-01

    Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration. PMID:26901203

  6. Methods for transforming and expression screening of filamentous fungal cells with a DNA library

    SciTech Connect

    Teter, Sarah; Lamsa, Michael; Cherry, Joel; Ward, Connie

    2015-06-02

    The present invention relates to methods for expression screening of filamentous fungal transformants, comprising: (a) isolating single colony transformants of a DNA library introduced into E. coli; (b) preparing DNA from each of the single colony E. coli transformants; (c) introducing a sample of each of the DNA preparations of step (b) into separate suspensions of protoplasts of a filamentous fungus to obtain transformants thereof, wherein each transformant contains one or more copies of an individual polynucleotide from the DNA library; (d) growing the individual filamentous fungal transformants of step (c) on selective growth medium, thereby permitting growth of the filamentous fungal transformants, while suppressing growth of untransformed filamentous fungi; and (e) measuring activity or a property of each polypeptide encoded by the individual polynucleotides. The present invention also relates to isolated polynucleotides encoding polypeptides of interest obtained by such methods, to nucleic acid constructs, expression vectors, and recombinant host cells comprising the isolated polynucleotides, and to methods of producing the polypeptides encoded by the isolated polynucleotides.

  7. Inverse transformation algorithm of transient electromagnetic field and its high-resolution continuous imaging interpretation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhipeng; Li, Xiu; Lu, Xushan; Zhang, Yingying; Yao, Weihua

    2015-04-01

    We introduce a new and potentially useful method for wave field inverse transformation and its application in transient electromagnetic method (TEM) 3D interpretation. The diffusive EM field is known to have a unique integral representation in terms of a fictitious wave field that satisfies a wave equation. The continuous imaging of TEM can be accomplished using the imaging methods in seismic interpretation after the diffusion equation is transformed into a fictitious wave equation. The interpretation method based on the imaging of a fictitious wave field could be used as a fast 3D inversion method. Moreover, the fictitious wave field possesses some wave field features making it possible for the application of a wave field interpretation method in TEM to improve the prospecting resolution. Wave field transformation is a key issue in the migration imaging of a fictitious wave field. The equation in the wave field transformation belongs to the first class Fredholm integration equation, which is a typical ill-posed equation. Additionally, TEM has a large dynamic time range, which also facilitates the weakness of this ill-posed problem. The wave field transformation is implemented by using pre-conditioned regularized conjugate gradient method. The continuous imaging of a fictitious wave field is implemented by using Kirchhoff integration. A synthetic aperture and deconvolution algorithm is also introduced to improve the interpretation resolution. We interpreted field data by the method proposed in this paper, and obtained a satisfying interpretation result.

  8. Refined Fourier-transform method of analysis of full two-dimensional digitized interferograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovrić, Davorin; Vučić, Zlatko; Gladić, Jadranko; Demoli, Nazif; Mitrović, Slobodan; Milas, Mirko

    2003-03-01

    A refined Fourier-transform method of analysis of interference patterns is presented. The refinements include a method of automatic background subtraction and a way of treating the problem of heterodyning. The method proves particularly useful for analysis of long sequences of interferograms.

  9. Simple parameterized coordinate transformation method for deep- and smooth-profile gratings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xihong; Li, Lifeng

    2014-12-01

    A simple variable transformation that consists of two joined straight-line segments per grating period is proposed for the parameterized coordinate transformation method (the C method). With this bilinear parameterization, the C method can produce convergent numerical results for gratings of deep and smooth profiles with a groove depth-to-period ratio as high as 10, which to date has been far out of reach of the C method. The danger of getting divergent results due to inadvertently using an overly large truncation number is also practically eliminated.

  10. CGH calculation with the ray tracing method for the Fourier transform optical system.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Yoneyama, Takuo; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2013-12-30

    Computer-generated holograms (CGHs) are usually displayed on electronic devices. However, the resolution of current output devices is not high enough to display CGHs, so the visual field is very narrow. A method using a Fourier transform optical system has been proposed, to enlarge the size of reconstructed images. This paper describes a method of CGH calculations for the Fourier transform optical system to enlarge the visual field and reconstruct realistic images by using the ray tracing method. This method reconstructs images at arbitrary depths and also eliminates unnecessary light including zero-th order light.

  11. Methods of compression of digital holograms, based on 1-level wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbatova, E. A.; Cheremkhin, P. A.; Evtikhiev, N. N.

    2016-08-01

    To reduce the size of memory required for storing information about 3D-scenes and to decrease the rate of hologram transmission, digital hologram compression can be used. Compression of digital holograms by wavelet transforms is among most powerful methods. In the paper the most popular wavelet transforms are considered and applied to the digital hologram compression. Obtained values of reconstruction quality and hologram's diffraction efficiencies are compared.

  12. A Simple and Non-Invasive Method for Nuclear Transformation of Intact-walled Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sora; Lee, Young-Chul; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Uk; Huh, Yun Suk; Kim, Geun-Joong; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Genetic engineering in microalgae is gaining attraction but nuclear transformation methods available so far are either inefficient or require special equipment. In this study, we employ positively charged nanoparticles, 3-aminopropyl-functionalized magnesium phyllosilicate (aminoclay, approximate unit cell composition of [H2N(CH2)3]8Si8Mg6O12(OH)4), for nuclear transformation into eukaryotic microalgae. TEM and EDX analysis of the process of transformation reveals that aminoclay coats negatively-charged DNA biomolecules and forms a self-assembled hybrid nanostructure. Subsequently, when this nanostructure is mixed with microalgal cells and plated onto selective agar plates with high friction force, cell wall is disrupted facilitating delivery of plasmid DNA into the cell and ultimately to the nucleus. This method is not only simple, inexpensive, and non-toxic to cells but also provides efficient transformation (5.03×102 transformants/µg DNA), second only to electroporation which needs advanced instrumentation. We present optimized parameters for efficient transformation including pre-treatment, friction force, concentration of foreign DNA/aminoclay, and plasticity of agar plates. It is also confirmed the successful integration and stable expression of foreign gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii through molecular methods. PMID:24988123

  13. In planta transformation method for T-DNA transfer in orchids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiarti, Endang; Purwantoro, Aziz; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Anggriasari, Anida M.; Jang, Seonghoe; Suhandono, Sony; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko

    2014-03-01

    Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro∷PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1α2 pro∷GUS/ A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.

  14. A new Sumudu transform iterative method for time-fractional Cauchy reaction-diffusion equation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangle; Liu, Sanyang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new Sumudu transform iterative method is established and successfully applied to find the approximate analytical solutions for time-fractional Cauchy reaction-diffusion equations. The approach is easy to implement and understand. The numerical results show that the proposed method is very simple and efficient. PMID:27386314

  15. Knowledge Transmission versus Social Transformation: A Critical Analysis of Purpose in Elementary Social Studies Methods Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Brandon M.; Suh, Yonghee; Scott, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate the extent to which 9 elementary social studies methods textbooks present the purpose of teaching and learning social studies. Using Stanley's three perspectives of teaching social studies for knowledge transmission, method of intelligence, and social transformation; we analyze how these texts prepare…

  16. A Fruiting Body Tissue Method for Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Stone, Michelle; Schlagnhaufer, Carl; Romaine, C. Peter

    2000-01-01

    We describe a modified Agrobacterium-mediated method for the efficient transformation of Agaricus bisporus. Salient features of this procedure include cocultivation of Agrobacterium and fruiting body gill tissue and use of a vector with a homologous promoter. This method offers new prospects for the genetic manipulation of this commercially important mushroom species. PMID:11010906

  17. Chemometric Analysis of Multicomponent Biodegradable Plastics by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry: The R-Matrix Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new chemometric method based on absorbance ratios from Fourier transform infrared spectra was devised to analyze multicomponent biodegradable plastics. The method uses the BeerLambert law to directly compute individual component concentrations and weight losses before and after biodegradation of c...

  18. A direct method to transform between expansions in the configuration state function and Slater determinant bases

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Jeppe

    2014-07-21

    A novel algorithm is introduced for the transformation of wave functions between the bases of Slater determinants (SD) and configuration state functions (CSF) in the genealogical coupling scheme. By modifying the expansion coefficients as each electron is spin-coupled, rather than performing a single many-electron transformation, the large transformation matrix that plagues previous approaches is avoided and the required number of operations is drastically reduced. As an example of the efficiency of the algorithm, the transformation for a configuration with 30 unpaired electrons and singlet spin is discussed. For this case, the 10 × 10{sup 6} coefficients in the CSF basis is obtained from the 150 × 10{sup 6} coefficients in the SD basis in 1 min, which should be compared with the seven years that the previously employed method is estimated to require.

  19. Comparison study of EMG signals compression by methods transform using vector quantization, SPIHT and arithmetic coding.

    PubMed

    Ntsama, Eloundou Pascal; Colince, Welba; Ele, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we make a comparative study for a new approach compression between discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). We seek the transform proper to vector quantization to compress the EMG signals. To do this, we initially associated vector quantization and DCT, then vector quantization and DWT. The coding phase is made by the SPIHT coding (set partitioning in hierarchical trees coding) associated with the arithmetic coding. The method is demonstrated and evaluated on actual EMG data. Objective performance evaluations metrics are presented: compression factor, percentage root mean square difference and signal to noise ratio. The results show that method based on the DWT is more efficient than the method based on the DCT.

  20. Performing track reconstruction at the ALICE TPC using a fast Hough Transform method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos S.; Hristov, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The Hough Transform algorithm is a popular image analysis method that is widely used to perform global pattern recognition in images through the identification of local patterns in a suitably chosen parameter space. The algorithm can also be used to perform track reconstruction; to estimate the trajectory of individual particles when passed through the active elements of a detector volume. This paper presents a fast reconstruction method for the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of the ALICE experiment at LHC. The method, that combines a linear Hough Transform algorithm with a fast filling of the Hough Transform parameter space, is developed within AliceO2, the new computing framework of ALICE for RUN3.

  1. Use of ultrasonic array method for positioning multiple partial discharge sources in transformer oil.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing; Tao, Junhan; Wang, Yongqiang; Geng, Jianghai; Cheng, Shuyi; Lü, Fangcheng

    2014-08-01

    Fast and accurate positioning of partial discharge (PD) sources in transformer oil is very important for the safe, stable operation of power systems because it allows timely elimination of insulation faults. There is usually more than one PD source once an insulation fault occurs in the transformer oil. This study, which has both theoretical and practical significance, proposes a method of identifying multiple PD sources in the transformer oil. The method combines the two-sided correlation transformation algorithm in the broadband signal focusing and the modified Gerschgorin disk estimator. The method of classification of multiple signals is used to determine the directions of arrival of signals from multiple PD sources. The ultrasonic array positioning method is based on the multi-platform direction finding and the global optimization searching. Both the 4 × 4 square planar ultrasonic sensor array and the ultrasonic array detection platform are built to test the method of identifying and positioning multiple PD sources. The obtained results verify the validity and the engineering practicability of this method.

  2. Use of ultrasonic array method for positioning multiple partial discharge sources in transformer oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qing; Tao, Junhan; Wang, Yongqiang; Geng, Jianghai; Cheng, Shuyi; Lü, Fangcheng

    2014-08-01

    Fast and accurate positioning of partial discharge (PD) sources in transformer oil is very important for the safe, stable operation of power systems because it allows timely elimination of insulation faults. There is usually more than one PD source once an insulation fault occurs in the transformer oil. This study, which has both theoretical and practical significance, proposes a method of identifying multiple PD sources in the transformer oil. The method combines the two-sided correlation transformation algorithm in the broadband signal focusing and the modified Gerschgorin disk estimator. The method of classification of multiple signals is used to determine the directions of arrival of signals from multiple PD sources. The ultrasonic array positioning method is based on the multi-platform direction finding and the global optimization searching. Both the 4 × 4 square planar ultrasonic sensor array and the ultrasonic array detection platform are built to test the method of identifying and positioning multiple PD sources. The obtained results verify the validity and the engineering practicability of this method.

  3. Research of on-line monitoring method for insulation condition of power transformer bushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jiuyun; Qian, Zheng; Yu, Hao; Yao, Junda

    2016-01-01

    The power transformer is the key equipment of the power system; its insulation condition will directly influence the security and reliability of the power system. Thus, the on-line monitoring of power transformer is urgently required in order to guarantee the normal operation of the power system. Moreover, the dielectric loss factor is a significant parameter reflecting the condition of transformer bushing, so the on-line measurement of dielectric loss factor is really important. In this paper, the phase-to-phase comparison method is selected as the on-line monitoring method based on the overall analysis and discussion of the existing on-line monitoring methods. At first, the harmonic analysis method is utilized to calculate the dielectric loss of each phase of the three-phase transformer bushing, and then the differences of dielectric loss between every two phases are calculated and analyzed. So the insulation condition of each bushing could be achieved based on the careful analysis of different phase-to-phase dielectric loss. The simulation results of phase-to-phase comparison method are carried out in this paper, and the validity is verified. At last, this method is utilized in an actual equipment of on-line monitoring.

  4. An effective numerical method to solve a class of nonlinear singular boundary value problems using improved differential transform method.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lie-Jun; Zhou, Cai-Lian; Xu, Song

    2016-01-01

    In this work, an effective numerical method is developed to solve a class of singular boundary value problems arising in various physical models by using the improved differential transform method (IDTM). The IDTM applies the Adomian polynomials to handle the differential transforms of the nonlinearities arising in the given differential equation. The relation between the Adomian polynomials of those nonlinear functions and the coefficients of unknown truncated series solution is given by a simple formula, through which one can easily deduce the approximate solution which takes the form of a convergent series. An upper bound for the estimation of approximate error is presented. Several physical problems are discussed as illustrative examples to testify the validity and applicability of the proposed method. Comparisons are made between the present method and the other existing methods. PMID:27462514

  5. [A method of object detection for remote sensing-imagery based on spectral space transformation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Gui-Ping; Xiao, Peng-Feng; Feng, Xue-Zhi; Wang, Ke

    2013-03-01

    Object detection is an intermediate link for remote sensing image processing, which is an important guarantee of remote sensing application and services aspects. In view of the characteristics of remotely sensed imagery in frequency domain, a novel object detection algorithm based on spectral space transformation was proposed in the present paper. Firstly, the Fourier transformation method was applied to transform the image in spatial domain into frequency domain. Secondly, the wedge-shaped sample and overlay analysis methods for frequency energy were used to decompose signal into different frequency spectrum zones, and the center frequency values of object's features were acquired as detection marks in frequency domain. Finally, object information was detected with the matched Gabor filters which have direction and frequency selectivity. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm here performs better and it has good detection capability in specific direction as well.

  6. Parallel Methods for Solving Time-Dependent Problems Using the Fourier-Laplace Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Dongwoo

    In this paper we summarize recent progresses on the parallel method for solving time-dependent problems using the Fourier-Laplace transformation. These problems arise in the study of elastic wave equations with absorbing boundary conditions, for example. Instead of solving the time-dependent problems in the space-time domain, we solve them as follows. First, take the Fourier-Laplace transformation of given problems originally set in the space-time domain, and consider the corresponding problems in the space-frequency domain which form a set of indefinite, complex-valued elliptic problems. Such problems are solved in a natural parallel manner since each problem is independent of others. The Fourier-Laplace inversion formula will then recover the solution in the space-time domain. Keywords: parallel method, Fourier-Laplace transform, parabolic and hyperbolic problems

  7. Development of Method for Remaining Life Assessment of Oil-Immersed Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Tetsuro; Nakahara, Yasuo; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Urabe, Noboru; Itoh, Masayoshi

    This paper presents a method for remaining life assessment of oil-immersed transformers using analyzable structured neural networks. Remaining life assessment of oil-immersed transformer is very important. Furfural method is conventionally used for such an assessment. In the furfural method, the average degree of polymerization is determined by considering the nonlinear correlation between the furfural and average degree of polymerization. The remaining life is estimated by considering the average degree of polymerization. However, a range of estimates of the remaining life is obtained when the furfural method is used, making accurate estimation difficult. The proposed method can be used to estimate the remaining life of an oil-immersed transformer accurately; this method involves analyzable structured neural networks and ensemble method. In the proposed method, not only furfural but also oil temperature, operational status, cooling type, etc., are considered. Since various factors are considered as input variables and a nonlinear model, i.e., artificial neural networks are used, accurate estimation of the remaining life has been realized. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by numerical simulation using actual measured data.

  8. A local'' exponential transform method for global variance reduction in Monte Carlo transport problems

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.S. ); Larsen, E.W. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Numerous variance reduction techniques, such as splitting/Russian roulette, weight windows, and the exponential transform exist for improving the efficiency of Monte Carlo transport calculations. Typically, however, these methods, while reducing the variance in the problem area of interest tend to increase the variance in other, presumably less important, regions. As such, these methods tend to be not as effective in Monte Carlo calculations which require the minimization of the variance everywhere. Recently, Local'' Exponential Transform (LET) methods have been developed as a means of approximating the zero-variance solution. A numerical solution to the adjoint diffusion equation is used, along with an exponential representation of the adjoint flux in each cell, to determine local'' biasing parameters. These parameters are then used to bias the forward Monte Carlo transport calculation in a manner similar to the conventional exponential transform, but such that the transform parameters are now local in space and energy, not global. Results have shown that the Local Exponential Transform often offers a significant improvement over conventional geometry splitting/Russian roulette with weight windows. Since the biasing parameters for the Local Exponential Transform were determined from a low-order solution to the adjoint transport problem, the LET has been applied in problems where it was desirable to minimize the variance in a detector region. The purpose of this paper is to show that by basing the LET method upon a low-order solution to the forward transport problem, one can instead obtain biasing parameters which will minimize the maximum variance in a Monte Carlo transport calculation.

  9. A ``local`` exponential transform method for global variance reduction in Monte Carlo transport problems

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.S.; Larsen, E.W.

    1992-08-01

    Numerous variance reduction techniques, such as splitting/Russian roulette, weight windows, and the exponential transform exist for improving the efficiency of Monte Carlo transport calculations. Typically, however, these methods, while reducing the variance in the problem area of interest tend to increase the variance in other, presumably less important, regions. As such, these methods tend to be not as effective in Monte Carlo calculations which require the minimization of the variance everywhere. Recently, ``Local`` Exponential Transform (LET) methods have been developed as a means of approximating the zero-variance solution. A numerical solution to the adjoint diffusion equation is used, along with an exponential representation of the adjoint flux in each cell, to determine ``local`` biasing parameters. These parameters are then used to bias the forward Monte Carlo transport calculation in a manner similar to the conventional exponential transform, but such that the transform parameters are now local in space and energy, not global. Results have shown that the Local Exponential Transform often offers a significant improvement over conventional geometry splitting/Russian roulette with weight windows. Since the biasing parameters for the Local Exponential Transform were determined from a low-order solution to the adjoint transport problem, the LET has been applied in problems where it was desirable to minimize the variance in a detector region. The purpose of this paper is to show that by basing the LET method upon a low-order solution to the forward transport problem, one can instead obtain biasing parameters which will minimize the maximum variance in a Monte Carlo transport calculation.

  10. Identifying shear transformation zones in amorphous solids via a virtual strain method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Michael; Patinet, Sylvain

    One outstanding problem in the mechanical response of amorphous solids is the identification of flow defect sites, so called shear transformation zones (STZs), a priori in the structure. Many methods have been utilized in order to predict local STZ sites including short-range order, soft-mode analysis and machine learning. Here we directly probe local regions of the material via shear in order to detect nearby saddle points that can result in transformations. This non-perturbative method gives excellent correlation with global shear of the system. It also provides a means to cross-correlate the existence of such local transition pathways with other proposed diagnostics such as the soft-spot method of Manning and Liu. We use the information gained by this method to consider the coarse-graining necessary to connect atomistic methods to continuum theories.

  11. Chloroplast transformation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Mei; Yin, Wei-Bo; Hu, Zan-Min

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter we briefly review the developmental history and current research status of chloroplast transformation and introduce the merits of chloroplast transformation as compared with the nuclear genome transformation. Furthermore, according to the chloroplast transformation achieved in oilseed rape (Brassica napus), we introduce the preparation of explants, transformation methods, system selection, identification methods of the transplastomic plants, and experimental results. The technical points, the bottleneck, and the further research directions of the chloroplast transformation are discussed in the notes.

  12. Comparisons between real and complex Gauss wavelet transform methods of three-dimensional shape reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luopeng; Dan, Youquan; Wang, Qingyuan

    2015-10-01

    The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) introduces an expandable spatial and frequency window which can overcome the inferiority of localization characteristic in Fourier transform and windowed Fourier transform. The CWT method is widely applied in the non-stationary signal analysis field including optical 3D shape reconstruction with remarkable performance. In optical 3D surface measurement, the performance of CWT for optical fringe pattern phase reconstruction usually depends on the choice of wavelet function. A large kind of wavelet functions of CWT, such as Mexican Hat wavelet, Morlet wavelet, DOG wavelet, Gabor wavelet and so on, can be generated from Gauss wavelet function. However, so far, application of the Gauss wavelet transform (GWT) method (i.e. CWT with Gauss wavelet function) in optical profilometry is few reported. In this paper, the method using GWT for optical fringe pattern phase reconstruction is presented first and the comparisons between real and complex GWT methods are discussed in detail. The examples of numerical simulations are also given and analyzed. The results show that both the real GWT method along with a Hilbert transform and the complex GWT method can realize three-dimensional surface reconstruction; and the performance of reconstruction generally depends on the frequency domain appearance of Gauss wavelet functions. For the case of optical fringe pattern of large phase variation with position, the performance of real GWT is better than that of complex one due to complex Gauss series wavelets existing frequency sidelobes. Finally, the experiments are carried out and the experimental results agree well with our theoretical analysis.

  13. The unified transform method for the Sasa-Satsuma equation on the half-line.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Fan, Engui

    2013-11-01

    We implement the unified transform method to the initial-boundary value (IBV) problem of the Sasa-Satsuma equation on the half line. In addition to presenting the basic Riemann-Hilbert formalism, which linearizes this IBV problem, we also analyse the associated general Dirichlet to Neumann map using the so-called global relation.

  14. The Challenges of Teaching a Social Studies Methods Course from a Transformative and Social Reconstructionist Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukpokodu, Omiunota Nelly

    2003-01-01

    For the last nine years, Ukpokodu has taught an elementary social studies methods course. As one who is grounded in multicultural education, global education and critical pedagogy, she approaches the course from a transformative and social reconstructionist perspective (Banks 1996; Sleeter and Grant 1994). That means that the course reflects…

  15. Alpha-rooting method of color image enhancement by discrete quaternion Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a novel method for color image enhancement based on the discrete quaternion Fourier transform. We choose the quaternion Fourier transform, because it well-suited for color image processing applications, it processes all 3 color components (R,G,B) simultaneously, it capture the inherent correlation between the components, it does not generate color artifacts or blending , finally it does not need an additional color restoration process. Also we introduce a new CEME measure to evaluate the quality of the enhanced color images. Preliminary results show that the α-rooting based on the quaternion Fourier transform enhancement method out-performs other enhancement methods such as the Fourier transform based α-rooting algorithm and the Multi scale Retinex. On top, the new method not only provides true color fidelity for poor quality images but also averages the color components to gray value for balancing colors. It can be used to enhance edge information and sharp features in images, as well as for enhancing even low contrast images. The proposed algorithms are simple to apply and design, which makes them very practical in image enhancement.

  16. The unified transform method for the Sasa–Satsuma equation on the half-line

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Fan, Engui

    2013-01-01

    We implement the unified transform method to the initial-boundary value (IBV) problem of the Sasa–Satsuma equation on the half line. In addition to presenting the basic Riemann–Hilbert formalism, which linearizes this IBV problem, we also analyse the associated general Dirichlet to Neumann map using the so-called global relation. PMID:24204181

  17. Problems and Possibilities of Web-Based Instruction: Transforming Social Studies Methods and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Karen L.; Stern, Barbara Slater

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on the use of Web-based instruction in social studies methods courses. They examine in what ways Web-based instruction transforms both teaching and learning and explore the problems and possibilities involved with electronic classrooms, including Web-supported instruction. Their study is classroom…

  18. A gyrokinetic continuum code based on the numerical Lie transform (NLT) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lei; Xu, Yingfeng; Xiao, Xiaotao; Dai, Zongliang; Wang, Shaojie

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we report a novel gyrokinetic simulation method named numerical Lie transform (NLT), which depends on a new physical model derived from the I-transform theory. In this model, the perturbed motion of a particle is decoupled from the unperturbed motion. Due to this property, the unperturbed orbit can be computed in advance and saved as numerical tables for real-time computation. A 4D tensor B-spline interpolation module is developed and applied with the semi-Lagrangian scheme to avoid operator splitting. The NLT code is verified by the Rosenbluth-Hinton test and the linear ITG Cyclone test.

  19. Lane detection and tracking based on improved Hough transform and least-squares method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; Chen, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Lane detection and tracking play important roles in lane departure warning system (LDWS). In order to improve the real-time performance and obtain better lane detection results, an improved algorithm of lane detection and tracking based on combination of improved Hough transform and least-squares fitting method is proposed in this paper. In the image pre-processing stage, firstly a multi-gradient Sobel operator is used to obtain the edge map of road images, secondly adaptive Otsu algorithm is used to obtain binary image, and in order to meet the precision requirements of single pixel, fast parallel thinning algorithm is used to get the skeleton map of binary image. And then, lane lines are initially detected by using polar angle constraint Hough transform, which has narrowed the scope of searching. At last, during the tracking phase, based on the detection result of the previous image frame, a dynamic region of interest (ROI) is set up, and within the predicted dynamic ROI, least-squares fitting method is used to fit the lane line, which has greatly reduced the algorithm calculation. And also a failure judgment module is added in this paper to improve the detection reliability. When the least-squares fitting method is failed, the polar angle constraint Hough transform is restarted for initial detection, which has achieved a coordination of Hough transform and least-squares fitting method. The algorithm in this paper takes into account the robustness of Hough transform and the real-time performance of least-squares fitting method, and sets up a dynamic ROI for lane detection. Experimental results show that it has a good performance of lane recognition, and the average time to complete the preprocessing and lane recognition of one road map is less than 25ms, which has proved that the algorithm has good real-time performance and strong robustness.

  20. Study on identifying deciduous forest by the method of feature space transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuexia; Wu, Pengfei

    2009-10-01

    The thematic remotely sensed information extraction is always one of puzzling nuts which the remote sensing science faces, so many remote sensing scientists devotes diligently to this domain research. The methods of thematic information extraction include two kinds of the visual interpretation and the computer interpretation, the developing direction of which is intellectualization and comprehensive modularization. The paper tries to develop the intelligent extraction method of feature space transformation for the deciduous forest thematic information extraction in Changping district of Beijing city. The whole Chinese-Brazil resources satellite images received in 2005 are used to extract the deciduous forest coverage area by feature space transformation method and linear spectral decomposing method, and the result from remote sensing is similar to woodland resource census data by Chinese forestry bureau in 2004.

  1. The Application of Continuous Wavelet Transform Based Foreground Subtraction Method in 21 cm Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Junhua; Xu, Haiguang; Wang, Jingying; An, Tao; Chen, Wen

    2013-08-01

    We propose a continuous wavelet transform based non-parametric foreground subtraction method for the detection of redshifted 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization. This method works based on the assumption that the foreground spectra are smooth in frequency domain, while the 21 cm signal spectrum is full of saw-tooth-like structures, thus their characteristic scales are significantly different. We can distinguish them in the wavelet coefficient space easily and perform the foreground subtraction. Compared with the traditional spectral fitting based method, our method is more tolerant to complex foregrounds. Furthermore, we also find that when the instrument has uncorrected response error, our method can also work significantly better than the spectral fitting based method. Our method can obtain similar results with the Wp smoothing method, which is also a non-parametric method, but our method consumes much less computing time.

  2. A rapid and efficient electroporation method for transformation of Halomonas sp. O-1.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joshua R; Lundgren, Benjamin R; Grzeskowiak, Brian R; Mizuno, Kouhei; Nomura, Christopher T

    2016-10-01

    Halomonas sp. O-1 is a halophilic bacterium with a high potential for industrial application due to its natural ability to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) using seawater-based media. However, a major barrier preventing industrial scale implementation of this organism is a lack of molecular methodologies capable of readily transforming members of the Halomonas genus. Currently, the only reliable method used for introducing DNA into Halomonas spp. is bacterial conjugation, a somewhat tedious and time-consuming technique compared to electroporation-based methodologies. Here we describe a rapid and reproducible method for the electroporation of Halomonas sp. O-1 with plasmid DNA. Electrocompetent cells were generated by growing Halomonas sp. O-1 in a yeast extract-tryptone medium with a final salinity of 3.5%, pH of 7.5, followed by several washes using 300mM sucrose. Results show that plasmids containing chloramphenicol (Cm(R)) and gentamicin (Gm(R)) resistance cassettes are suitable antibiotic selection markers for transformation and yields of 10(4) transformants per μg of DNA were obtained. This method is simple to perform and the materials used are readily available in most research labs. Additionally, this plasmid-based transformation procedure has the potential to be adapted for a number of applications including the creation of recombinant stains and the generation of deletion mutants of Halomonas spp. PMID:27542998

  3. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale.

  4. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  5. A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2014-12-28

    A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos (cFOL) polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the original Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO₂, and compared to previous calculations.

  6. A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2014-12-28

    A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos (cFOL) polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the originalmore » Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO₂, and compared to previous calculations.« less

  7. A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2014-12-28

    A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths, and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the original Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore, the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO{sub 2}, and compared to previous calculations.

  8. Transformation-cost time-series method for analyzing irregularly sampled data.

    PubMed

    Ozken, Ibrahim; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Marwan, Norbert; Bagci, G Baris; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Irregular sampling of data sets is one of the challenges often encountered in time-series analysis, since traditional methods cannot be applied and the frequently used interpolation approach can corrupt the data and bias the subsequence analysis. Here we present the TrAnsformation-Cost Time-Series (TACTS) method, which allows us to analyze irregularly sampled data sets without degenerating the quality of the data set. Instead of using interpolation we consider time-series segments and determine how close they are to each other by determining the cost needed to transform one segment into the following one. Using a limited set of operations-with associated costs-to transform the time series segments, we determine a new time series, that is our transformation-cost time series. This cost time series is regularly sampled and can be analyzed using standard methods. While our main interest is the analysis of paleoclimate data, we develop our method using numerical examples like the logistic map and the Rössler oscillator. The numerical data allows us to test the stability of our method against noise and for different irregular samplings. In addition we provide guidance on how to choose the associated costs based on the time series at hand. The usefulness of the TACTS method is demonstrated using speleothem data from the Secret Cave in Borneo that is a good proxy for paleoclimatic variability in the monsoon activity around the maritime continent.

  9. Development of an Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Transformation Method for the Sensitive Plant Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements. PMID:24533121

  10. The performance of methods based on the fractional Fourier transform for detecting marine mammal vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Locke, Jonathan; White, Paul R

    2011-10-01

    The analysis of cetacean vocalizations is considered using Fourier-based techniques that employ chirp functions in their decomposition. In particular, the paper considers a short-time methods based on the fractional Fourier transform for detecting frequency modulated narrow-band signals, such as dolphin whistles, and compares this to the classical short-time Fourier methods. The fractional Fourier technique explored computes transforms associated with a range of chirp rates and automatically selects the rate for the final analysis. This avoids the need for prior knowledge of signal's chirp rate. An analysis is presented that details the performance of both methods as signal detectors and allows one to determine their detection thresholds. These thresholds are then used to measure the detectability of synthetic signals. This principle is then extended to measure performance on a set of recordings of narrow-band vocalizations from a range of cetacean species.

  11. The performance of methods based on the fractional Fourier transform for detecting marine mammal vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Locke, Jonathan; White, Paul R

    2011-10-01

    The analysis of cetacean vocalizations is considered using Fourier-based techniques that employ chirp functions in their decomposition. In particular, the paper considers a short-time methods based on the fractional Fourier transform for detecting frequency modulated narrow-band signals, such as dolphin whistles, and compares this to the classical short-time Fourier methods. The fractional Fourier technique explored computes transforms associated with a range of chirp rates and automatically selects the rate for the final analysis. This avoids the need for prior knowledge of signal's chirp rate. An analysis is presented that details the performance of both methods as signal detectors and allows one to determine their detection thresholds. These thresholds are then used to measure the detectability of synthetic signals. This principle is then extended to measure performance on a set of recordings of narrow-band vocalizations from a range of cetacean species. PMID:21973352

  12. New approach application of data transformation in mean centering of ratio spectra method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Mahmoud M.; Nejem, R.'afat M.; Van Staden, Raluca Ioana Stefan; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y.

    2015-05-01

    Most of mean centering (MCR) methods are designed to be used with data sets whose values have a normal or nearly normal distribution. The errors associated with the values are also assumed to be independent and random. If the data are skewed, the results obtained may be doubtful. Most of the time, it was assumed a normal distribution and if a confidence interval includes a negative value, it was cut off at zero. However, it is possible to transform the data so that at least an approximately normal distribution is attained. Taking the logarithm of each data point is one transformation frequently used. As a result, the geometric mean is deliberated a better measure of central tendency than the arithmetic mean. The developed MCR method using the geometric mean has been successfully applied to the analysis of a ternary mixture of aspirin (ASP), atorvastatin (ATOR) and clopidogrel (CLOP) as a model. The results obtained were statistically compared with reported HPLC method.

  13. Are we on the brink of a major transformation of clinical method?

    PubMed Central

    McWhinney, I R

    1986-01-01

    The traditional clinical method, which has served medicine well for over 100 years, had its origins in the integration of physical examination with morbid anatomy in early 19th-century France. Now this method is showing signs of failing to meet some contemporary needs. In particular, there is no means for understanding the inner experience of patients. Previous models of a transformed method have not grappled with the problem of validation. Data on the inner experience of patients are not open to empiric validation in the same way as clinical data. The process of understanding the meaning of an illness is not, therefore, scientific in the conventional sense. There are, none the less, rigorous methods for validating the results of this form of inquiry, notably those of phenomenology. A transformed method should aim to understand the meaning of an illness for the patient as well as provide a clinical diagnosis. The transformation will require a change in the epistemology of medicine and an educational process that encourages reflection and growth of self-knowledge. PMID:3756718

  14. An automatic recognition method of pointer instrument based on improved Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li; Fang, Tian; Gao, Xiaoyu

    2015-10-01

    For the automatic recognition of pointer instrument, the method for the automatic recognition of pointer instrument based on improved Hough Transform was proposed in this paper. The automatic recognition of pointer instrument is applied to all kinds of lighting conditions, but the accuracy of it binaryzation will be influenced when the light is too strong or too dark. Therefore, the improved Ostu method was suggested to realize recognition for adaptive thresholding of pointer instrument under all kinds of lighting conditions. On the basis of dial image characteristics, Otsu method is used to get the value of maximum between-cluster variance and initial threshold than analyze its maximum between-cluster variance value to determine the light and shade of the image. When the images are too bright or too dark, the smaller pixels should be given up and then calculate the initial threshold by Otsu method again and again until the best binaryzation image was obtained. Hence, transform the pointer straight line of the binaryzation image to Hough parameter space through improved Hough Transform to determine the position of the pointer straight line by searching the maximum value of arrays of the same angle. Finally, according to angle method, the pointer reading was obtained by the linear relationship for the initial scale and angle of the pointer instrument. Results show that the improved Otsu method make pointer instrument possible to obtained the accuracy binaryzation image even though the light is too bright or too dark , which improves the adaptability of pointer instrument to automatic recognize the light under different conditions. For the pressure gauges with range of 60MPa, the relative error identification reached to 0.005 when use the improved Hough Transform Algorithm.

  15. Method to eliminate flux linkage DC component in load transformer for static transfer switch.

    PubMed

    He, Yu; Mao, Chengxiong; Lu, Jiming; Wang, Dan; Tian, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Many industrial and commercial sensitive loads are subject to the voltage sags and interruptions. The static transfer switch (STS) based on the thyristors is applied to improve the power quality and reliability. However, the transfer will result in severe inrush current in the load transformer, because of the DC component in the magnetic flux generated in the transfer process. The inrush current which is always 2 ~ 30 p.u. can cause the disoperation of relay protective devices and bring potential damage to the transformer. The way to eliminate the DC component is to transfer the related phases when the residual flux linkage of the load transformer and the prospective flux linkage of the alternate source are equal. This paper analyzes how the flux linkage of each winding in the load transformer changes in the transfer process. Based on the residual flux linkage when the preferred source is completely disconnected, the method to calculate the proper time point to close each phase of the alternate source is developed. Simulation and laboratory experiments results are presented to show the effectiveness of the transfer method.

  16. Method to Eliminate Flux Linkage DC Component in Load Transformer for Static Transfer Switch

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Many industrial and commercial sensitive loads are subject to the voltage sags and interruptions. The static transfer switch (STS) based on the thyristors is applied to improve the power quality and reliability. However, the transfer will result in severe inrush current in the load transformer, because of the DC component in the magnetic flux generated in the transfer process. The inrush current which is always 2~30 p.u. can cause the disoperation of relay protective devices and bring potential damage to the transformer. The way to eliminate the DC component is to transfer the related phases when the residual flux linkage of the load transformer and the prospective flux linkage of the alternate source are equal. This paper analyzes how the flux linkage of each winding in the load transformer changes in the transfer process. Based on the residual flux linkage when the preferred source is completely disconnected, the method to calculate the proper time point to close each phase of the alternate source is developed. Simulation and laboratory experiments results are presented to show the effectiveness of the transfer method. PMID:25133255

  17. A new stationary gridline artifact suppression method based on the 2D discrete wavelet transform

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Hui; Tong, Dan; Dong Bao, Xu; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In digital x-ray radiography, an antiscatter grid is inserted between the patient and the image receptor to reduce scattered radiation. If the antiscatter grid is used in a stationary way, gridline artifacts will appear in the final image. In most of the gridline removal image processing methods, the useful information with spatial frequencies close to that of the gridline is usually lost or degraded. In this study, a new stationary gridline suppression method is designed to preserve more of the useful information. Methods: The method is as follows. The input image is first recursively decomposed into several smaller subimages using a multiscale 2D discrete wavelet transform. The decomposition process stops when the gridline signal is found to be greater than a threshold in one or several of these subimages using a gridline detection module. An automatic Gaussian band-stop filter is then applied to the detected subimages to remove the gridline signal. Finally, the restored image is achieved using the corresponding 2D inverse discrete wavelet transform. Results: The processed images show that the proposed method can remove the gridline signal efficiently while maintaining the image details. The spectra of a 1D Fourier transform of the processed images demonstrate that, compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method has better information preservation after the removal of the gridline artifacts. Additionally, the performance speed is relatively high. Conclusions: The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method can preserve more information within an acceptable execution time.

  18. A multistate local coupled cluster CC2 response method based on the Laplace transform.

    PubMed

    Kats, Danylo; Schütz, Martin

    2009-09-28

    A new Laplace transform based multistate local CC2 response method for calculating excitation energies of extended molecular systems is presented. By virtue of the Laplace transform trick, the eigenvalue problem involving the local CC2 Jacobian is partitioned along the doubles-doubles block (which is diagonal in the parental canonical method) without losing the sparsity in the integral, amplitude, and amplitude response supermatrices. Hence, only an effective eigenvalue problem involving singles vectors has to be solved, while the doubles part can be computed on-the-fly. Within this framework, a multistate treatment of excited states with state specific and adaptive local approximations imposed on the doubles part is straightforwardly possible. Furthermore, in the context of the density fitting approximation of the two-electron integrals, a procedure to specify the local approximation, i.e., the restricted pair lists and domains, on the basis of an analysis of the object to be approximated itself is proposed. Performance and accuracy of the new Laplace transformed density fitted local CC2 (LT-DF-LCC2) response method are tested for set of different test molecules and states. It turns out that LT-DF-LCC2 response is much more robust than the earlier local CC2 response method proposed before, which failed to find some excited states in difficult cases.

  19. A multistate local coupled cluster CC2 response method based on the Laplace transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kats, Danylo; Schütz, Martin

    2009-09-01

    A new Laplace transform based multistate local CC2 response method for calculating excitation energies of extended molecular systems is presented. By virtue of the Laplace transform trick, the eigenvalue problem involving the local CC2 Jacobian is partitioned along the doubles-doubles block (which is diagonal in the parental canonical method) without losing the sparsity in the integral, amplitude, and amplitude response supermatrices. Hence, only an effective eigenvalue problem involving singles vectors has to be solved, while the doubles part can be computed on-the-fly. Within this framework, a multistate treatment of excited states with state specific and adaptive local approximations imposed on the doubles part is straightforwardly possible. Furthermore, in the context of the density fitting approximation of the two-electron integrals, a procedure to specify the local approximation, i.e., the restricted pair lists and domains, on the basis of an analysis of the object to be approximated itself is proposed. Performance and accuracy of the new Laplace transformed density fitted local CC2 (LT-DF-LCC2) response method are tested for set of different test molecules and states. It turns out that LT-DF-LCC2 response is much more robust than the earlier local CC2 response method proposed before, which failed to find some excited states in difficult cases.

  20. Periodic nonlinear Fourier transform for fiber-optic communications, Part I: theory and numerical methods.

    PubMed

    Kamalian, Morteza; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Le, Son Thai; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we introduce the periodic nonlinear Fourier transform (PNFT) method as an alternative and efficacious tool for compensation of the nonlinear transmission effects in optical fiber links. In the Part I, we introduce the algorithmic platform of the technique, describing in details the direct and inverse PNFT operations, also known as the inverse scattering transform for periodic (in time variable) nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). We pay a special attention to explaining the potential advantages of the PNFT-based processing over the previously studied nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT) based methods. Further, we elucidate the issue of the numerical PNFT computation: we compare the performance of four known numerical methods applicable for the calculation of nonlinear spectral data (the direct PNFT), in particular, taking the main spectrum (utilized further in Part II for the modulation and transmission) associated with some simple example waveforms as the quality indicator for each method. We show that the Ablowitz-Ladik discretization approach for the direct PNFT provides the best performance in terms of the accuracy and computational time consumption. PMID:27505799

  1. Trace projection transformation: A new method for measurement of debris flow surface velocity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Cui, Peng; Guo, Xiaojun; Ge, Yonggang

    2016-09-01

    Spatiotemporal variation of velocity is important for debris flow dynamics. This paper presents a new method, the trace projection transformation, for accurate, non-contact measurement of a debris-flow surface velocity field based on a combination of dense optical flow and perspective projection transformation. The algorithm for interpreting and processing is implemented in C ++ and realized in Visual Studio 2012. The method allows quantitative analysis of flow motion through videos from various angles (camera positioned at the opposite direction of fluid motion). It yields the spatiotemporal distribution of surface velocity field at pixel level and thus provides a quantitative description of the surface processes. The trace projection transformation is superior to conventional measurement methods in that it obtains the full surface velocity field by computing the optical flow of all pixels. The result achieves a 90% accuracy of when comparing with the observed values. As a case study, the method is applied to the quantitative analysis of surface velocity field of a specific debris flow.

  2. Applications of asynoptic space - Time Fourier transform methods to scanning satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lait, Leslie R.; Stanford, John L.

    1988-01-01

    A method proposed by Salby (1982) for computing the zonal space-time Fourier transform of asynoptically acquired satellite data is discussed. The method and its relationship to other techniques are briefly described, and possible problems in applying it to real data are outlined. Examples of results obtained using this technique are given which demonstrate its sensitivity to small-amplitude signals. A number of waves are found which have previously been observed as well as two not heretofore reported. A possible extension of the method which could increase temporal and longitudinal resolution is described.

  3. A fusion method of Gabor wavelet transform and unsupervised clustering algorithms for tissue edge detection.

    PubMed

    Ergen, Burhan

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes two edge detection methods for medical images by integrating the advantages of Gabor wavelet transform (GWT) and unsupervised clustering algorithms. The GWT is used to enhance the edge information in an image while suppressing noise. Following this, the k-means and Fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithms are used to convert a gray level image into a binary image. The proposed methods are tested using medical images obtained through Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) devices, and a phantom image. The results prove that the proposed methods are successful for edge detection, even in noisy cases.

  4. A Method for Transforming Existing Web Service Descriptions into an Enhanced Semantic Web Service Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaofeng; Song, William; Munro, Malcolm

    Web Services as a new distributed system technology has been widely adopted by industries in the areas, such as enterprise application integration (EAI), business process management (BPM), and virtual organisation (VO). However, lack of semantics in the current Web Service standards has been a major barrier in service discovery and composition. In this chapter, we propose an enhanced context-based semantic service description framework (CbSSDF+) that tackles the problem and improves the flexibility of service discovery and the correctness of generated composite services. We also provide an agile transformation method to demonstrate how the various formats of Web Service descriptions on the Web can be managed and renovated step by step into CbSSDF+ based service description without large amount of engineering work. At the end of the chapter, we evaluate the applicability of the transformation method and the effectiveness of CbSSDF+ through a series of experiments.

  5. A new method for investigating heterogeneities from well logs using the Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaci, Said; Zaourar, Naima; Hachay, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Borehole logs exhibit multi-scale properties that cannot be analyzed using the conventional tools. Here, we propose a new method based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), a combination of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert transform (HT), for estimating a local scaling coefficient from well logs. This parameter measures heterogeneities degree of the layers crossed by the borehole. The proposed technique has been applied on P- and S-wave seismic velocity logs recorded at the KTB main borehole drilled for the German Continental Deep Drilling program. The calculated depth-dependent scaling parameter highlighted the lithological discontinuities occurred within the logged depth interval, and allowed to measure the complexity of underground heterogeneities. To conclude, the suggested method presents a new way to explore multi-scale features of the logs data, and may bring additional information to the conventional analysis tools. More datasets are needed to establish a possible relationship between the local scaling parameter and lithology.

  6. The general 2-D moments via integral transform method for acoustic radiation and scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jerry R.; Mirotznik, Mark S.

    2001-05-01

    The moments via integral transform method (MITM) is a technique to analytically reduce the 2-D method of moments (MoM) impedance double integrals into single integrals. By using a special integral representation of the Green's function, the impedance integral can be analytically simplified to a single integral in terms of transformed shape and weight functions. The reduced expression requires fewer computations and reduces the fill times of the MoM impedance matrix. Furthermore, the resulting integral is analytic for nearly arbitrary shape and weight function sets. The MITM technique is developed for mixed boundary conditions and predictions with basic shape and weight function sets are presented. Comparisons of accuracy and speed between MITM and brute force are presented. [Work sponsored by ONR and NSWCCD ILIR Board.

  7. A Novel Medical Freehand Sketch 3D Model Retrieval Method by Dimensionality Reduction and Feature Vector Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Zhang; Sheng, Kang Bao

    2016-01-01

    To assist physicians to quickly find the required 3D model from the mass medical model, we propose a novel retrieval method, called DRFVT, which combines the characteristics of dimensionality reduction (DR) and feature vector transformation (FVT) method. The DR method reduces the dimensionality of feature vector; only the top M low frequency Discrete Fourier Transform coefficients are retained. The FVT method does the transformation of the original feature vector and generates a new feature vector to solve the problem of noise sensitivity. The experiment results demonstrate that the DRFVT method achieves more effective and efficient retrieval results than other proposed methods. PMID:27293478

  8. [Application of optimized parameters SVM based on photoacoustic spectroscopy method in fault diagnosis of power transformer].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-xin; Cheng, Zhi-feng; Xu, Zheng-ping; Bai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problems such as complex operation, consumption for the carrier gas and long test period in traditional power transformer fault diagnosis approach based on dissolved gas analysis (DGA), this paper proposes a new method which is detecting 5 types of characteristic gas content in transformer oil such as CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6 and H2 based on photoacoustic Spectroscopy and C2H2/C2H4, CH4/H2, C2H4/C2H6 three-ratios data are calculated. The support vector machine model was constructed using cross validation method under five support vector machine functions and four kernel functions, heuristic algorithms were used in parameter optimization for penalty factor c and g, which to establish the best SVM model for the highest fault diagnosis accuracy and the fast computing speed. Particles swarm optimization and genetic algorithm two types of heuristic algorithms were comparative studied in this paper for accuracy and speed in optimization. The simulation result shows that SVM model composed of C-SVC, RBF kernel functions and genetic algorithm obtain 97. 5% accuracy in test sample set and 98. 333 3% accuracy in train sample set, and genetic algorithm was about two times faster than particles swarm optimization in computing speed. The methods described in this paper has many advantages such as simple operation, non-contact measurement, no consumption for the carrier gas, long test period, high stability and sensitivity, the result shows that the methods described in this paper can instead of the traditional transformer fault diagnosis by gas chromatography and meets the actual project needs in transformer fault diagnosis.

  9. A simple, low-cost method for chloroplast transformation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Economou, Chloe; Wannathong, Thanyanan; Szaub, Joanna; Purton, Saul

    2014-01-01

    The availability of routine techniques for the genetic manipulation of the chloroplast genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has allowed a plethora of reverse-genetic studies of chloroplast biology using this alga as a model organism. These studies range from fundamental investigations of chloroplast gene function and regulation to sophisticated metabolic engineering programs and to the development of the algal chloroplast as a platform for producing high-value recombinant proteins. The established method for delivering transforming DNA into the Chlamydomonas chloroplast involves microparticle bombardment, with the selection of transformant lines most commonly involving the use of antibiotic resistance markers. In this chapter we describe a simpler and cheaper delivery method in which cell/DNA suspensions are agitated with glass beads: a method that is more commonly used for nuclear transformation of Chlamydomonas. Furthermore, we highlight the use of an expression vector (pASapI) that employs an endogenous gene as a selectable marker, thereby avoiding the contentious issue of antibiotic resistance determinants in transgenic lines.

  10. A simple, low-cost method for chloroplast transformation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Economou, Chloe; Wannathong, Thanyanan; Szaub, Joanna; Purton, Saul

    2014-01-01

    The availability of routine techniques for the genetic manipulation of the chloroplast genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has allowed a plethora of reverse-genetic studies of chloroplast biology using this alga as a model organism. These studies range from fundamental investigations of chloroplast gene function and regulation to sophisticated metabolic engineering programs and to the development of the algal chloroplast as a platform for producing high-value recombinant proteins. The established method for delivering transforming DNA into the Chlamydomonas chloroplast involves microparticle bombardment, with the selection of transformant lines most commonly involving the use of antibiotic resistance markers. In this chapter we describe a simpler and cheaper delivery method in which cell/DNA suspensions are agitated with glass beads: a method that is more commonly used for nuclear transformation of Chlamydomonas. Furthermore, we highlight the use of an expression vector (pASapI) that employs an endogenous gene as a selectable marker, thereby avoiding the contentious issue of antibiotic resistance determinants in transgenic lines. PMID:24599870

  11. [A wavelet-transform-based method for the automatic detection of late-type stars].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-tian; Zhao, Rrui-zhen; Zhao, Yong-heng; Wu, Fu-chao

    2005-07-01

    The LAMOST project, the world largest sky survey project, urgently needs an automatic late-type stars detection system. However, to our knowledge, no effective methods for automatic late-type stars detection have been reported in the literature up to now. The present study work is intended to explore possible ways to deal with this issue. Here, by "late-type stars" we mean those stars with strong molecule absorption bands, including oxygen-rich M, L and T type stars and carbon-rich C stars. Based on experimental results, the authors find that after a wavelet transform with 5 scales on the late-type stars spectra, their frequency spectrum of the transformed coefficient on the 5th scale consistently manifests a unimodal distribution, and the energy of frequency spectrum is largely concentrated on a small neighborhood centered around the unique peak. However, for the spectra of other celestial bodies, the corresponding frequency spectrum is of multimodal and the energy of frequency spectrum is dispersible. Based on such a finding, the authors presented a wavelet-transform-based automatic late-type stars detection method. The proposed method is shown by extensive experiments to be practical and of good robustness.

  12. A comparison and optimization of methods and factors affecting the transformation of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chan, Weng-Tat; Verma, Chandra S; Lane, David P; Gan, Samuel Ken-En

    2013-12-12

    DNA manipulation routinely requires competent bacteria that can be made using one of numerous methods. To determine the best methods, we compared four commonly used chemical methods (DMSO, MgCl2-CaCl2, CaCl2 and Hanahan's methods) on frequently used Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains: DH5α, XL-1 Blue, SCS110, JM109, TOP10 and BL21-(DE3)-PLysS. Hanahan's method was found to be most effective for DH5α, XL-1 Blue and JM109 strains (P<0.05), whilst the CaCl2 method was best for SCS110, TOP10 and BL21 strains (P<0.05). The use of SOB (super optimal broth) over LB [Luria-Bertani (broth)] growth media was found to enhance the competency of XL-1 Blue (P<0.05), dampened JM109's competency (P<0.05), and had no effect on the other strains (P>0.05). We found no significant differences between using 45 or 90 s heat shock across all the six strains (P>0.05). Through further optimization by means of concentrating the aliquots, we were able to get further increases in transformation efficiencies. Based on the optimized parameters and methods, these common laboratory E. coli strains attained high levels of TrE (transformation efficiency), thus facilitating the production of highly efficient and cost-effective competent bacteria.

  13. A comparison and optimization of methods and factors affecting the transformation of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Weng-Tat; Verma, Chandra S.; Lane, David P.; Gan, Samuel Ken-En

    2013-01-01

    DNA manipulation routinely requires competent bacteria that can be made using one of numerous methods. To determine the best methods, we compared four commonly used chemical methods (DMSO, MgCl2–CaCl2, CaCl2 and Hanahan's methods) on frequently used Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains: DH5α, XL-1 Blue, SCS110, JM109, TOP10 and BL21-(DE3)-PLysS. Hanahan's method was found to be most effective for DH5α, XL-1 Blue and JM109 strains (P<0.05), whilst the CaCl2 method was best for SCS110, TOP10 and BL21 strains (P<0.05). The use of SOB (super optimal broth) over LB [Luria–Bertani (broth)] growth media was found to enhance the competency of XL-1 Blue (P<0.05), dampened JM109′s competency (P<0.05), and had no effect on the other strains (P>0.05). We found no significant differences between using 45 or 90 s heat shock across all the six strains (P>0.05). Through further optimization by means of concentrating the aliquots, we were able to get further increases in transformation efficiencies. Based on the optimized parameters and methods, these common laboratory E. coli strains attained high levels of TrE (transformation efficiency), thus facilitating the production of highly efficient and cost-effective competent bacteria. PMID:24229075

  14. Connecting the Dots and Merging Meaning: Using Mixed Methods to Study Primary Care Delivery Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Scammon, Debra L; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Day, Rachel L; Day, Julie; Kim, Jaewhan; Waitzman, Norman J; Farrell, Timothy W; Magill, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To demonstrate the value of mixed methods in the study of practice transformation and illustrate procedures for connecting methods and for merging findings to enhance the meaning derived. Data Source/Study Setting. An integrated network of university-owned, primary care practices at the University of Utah (Community Clinics or CCs). CC has adopted Care by Design, its version of the Patient Centered Medical Home. Study Design. Convergent case study mixed methods design. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. Analysis of archival documents, internal operational reports, in-clinic observations, chart audits, surveys, semistructured interviews, focus groups, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services database, and the Utah All Payer Claims Database. Principal Findings. Each data source enriched our understanding of the change process and understanding of reasons that certain changes were more difficult than others both in general and for particular clinics. Mixed methods enabled generation and testing of hypotheses about change and led to a comprehensive understanding of practice change. Conclusions. Mixed methods are useful in studying practice transformation. Challenges exist but can be overcome with careful planning and persistence. PMID:24279836

  15. Quench Detection and Protection for High Temperature Superconducting Transformers by Using the Active Power Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanato, N.; Kobayashi, Y.

    AC high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils have been developed for transformers, motors and so on. Quench detection and protection system are essential for safety operations of the AC HTS facilities. The balance voltage method is universally used for the quench detection and protection, however especially for AC operations, the method has risks in terms of high voltage sparks. Because the method needs a voltage tap soldered to a midpoint of the coil winding and the AC HTS facilities generally operate at high voltages and therefore high voltage sparks may occur at the midpoint with no insulation. We have proposed the active power method for the quench detection and protection. The method requires no voltage tap on the midpoint of the coil winding and therefore it has in-built effectiveness for the AC HTS facilities. In this paper, we show that the method can detect the quench in an HTS transformer and moreover our proposed quench protection circuits which consist of thyristors are simple and useful for the AC HTS facilities.

  16. An Efficient Method to Recognize Geologic Structures by Analyzing the Pressure Data with Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H.; Srinivasan, S.; Li, L.; Bryant, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Uncertainty in prediction of flow performance stems from the uncertainty in model parameters such as conductivity, porosity etc., to a large extent, while the characterization of the model parameters is demanding due to the inherent heterogeneity of geologic structures. Inverse modeling approaches attempt to identify the unknown model structures and corresponding parameters by integrating observation data. Several inverse methods have been proposed in the literature ranging from trial-and-error methods to advanced ensemble Kalman filter assimilation, including those that use multiple point statistics to characterize complex geologic structures. However, these methods are hindered by the huge amount of data accumulated with time, for instance, the pressure data are recorded at very fine time intervals from the very early stage of bore hole drilling to mature production period. Assimilation of such large amount of data can be a computational burden to the inverse methods. The object of this work is to propose a computationally efficient approach to analyze the long observation records in order to recognize the subsurface structures, especially flow connectivity which plays a critical role in transport prediction. Wavelet transform is found to be a powerful technique that transforms data into different components and analyzes each component at corresponding scale. By analyzing the components transformed we relate the characteristics of the heterogeneity to signature in the production/injection records. Combining components at different scales we are able to recognize connectivity between wells, and thereby identify complex structure in aquifers. The method is demonstrated in a synthetic example where CO2 is injected into a deep saline aquifer for sequestration. The method is computationally efficient since it involves no iterative forward simulation or sensitivity matrix computation. Once the important episodes have been identified in the dynamic data, inverse

  17. Laplace transform homotopy perturbation method for the approximation of variational problems.

    PubMed

    Filobello-Nino, U; Vazquez-Leal, H; Rashidi, M M; Sedighi, H M; Perez-Sesma, A; Sandoval-Hernandez, M; Sarmiento-Reyes, A; Contreras-Hernandez, A D; Pereyra-Diaz, D; Hoyos-Reyes, C; Jimenez-Fernandez, V M; Huerta-Chua, J; Castro-Gonzalez, F; Laguna-Camacho, J R

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes the application of Laplace Transform-Homotopy Perturbation Method and some of its modifications in order to find analytical approximate solutions for the linear and nonlinear differential equations which arise from some variational problems. As case study we will solve four ordinary differential equations, and we will show that the proposed solutions have good accuracy, even we will obtain an exact solution. In the sequel, we will see that the square residual error for the approximate solutions, belongs to the interval [0.001918936920, 0.06334882582], which confirms the accuracy of the proposed methods, taking into account the complexity and difficulty of variational problems.

  18. Three-dimensional profiling using the Fourier transform method with a hexagonal grating projection

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, Koichi; Kusunoki, Fuminori; Moriwaki, Kousuke; Fukuda, Hiroki; Tomii, Takaharu

    2008-04-20

    We present three-dimensional profilometry based on triangulation in which a hexagonal pattern is projected on the object. To obtain an accurate result with a one-shot photographic image, the Fourier transform method and method of excess fraction are adopted. The three grating components of the hexagonal pattern are used. For compactness a new pattern projection scheme is introduced. The experimental results show that the constructed optical system works well for measuring the profile of a mannequin with a height resolution of {approx} {+-} 1 mm.

  19. Preliminary Method for Direct Quantification of Colistin Methanesulfonate by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Niece, Krista L.

    2015-01-01

    Colistin use has increased in response to the advent of infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. It is administered parenterally as an inactive prodrug, colistin methanesulfonate (CMS). Various formulations of CMS and labeling conventions can lead to confusion about colistin dosing, and questions remain about the pharmacokinetics of CMS. Since CMS does not have strong UV absorbance, current methods employ a laborious process of chemical conversion to colistin followed by precolumn derivatization to detect formed colistin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Here, we report a method for direct quantification of colistin methanesulfonate by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FTIR). PMID:26124160

  20. Laplace transform homotopy perturbation method for the approximation of variational problems.

    PubMed

    Filobello-Nino, U; Vazquez-Leal, H; Rashidi, M M; Sedighi, H M; Perez-Sesma, A; Sandoval-Hernandez, M; Sarmiento-Reyes, A; Contreras-Hernandez, A D; Pereyra-Diaz, D; Hoyos-Reyes, C; Jimenez-Fernandez, V M; Huerta-Chua, J; Castro-Gonzalez, F; Laguna-Camacho, J R

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes the application of Laplace Transform-Homotopy Perturbation Method and some of its modifications in order to find analytical approximate solutions for the linear and nonlinear differential equations which arise from some variational problems. As case study we will solve four ordinary differential equations, and we will show that the proposed solutions have good accuracy, even we will obtain an exact solution. In the sequel, we will see that the square residual error for the approximate solutions, belongs to the interval [0.001918936920, 0.06334882582], which confirms the accuracy of the proposed methods, taking into account the complexity and difficulty of variational problems. PMID:27006884

  1. Preliminary method for direct quantification of colistin methanesulfonate by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Niece, Krista L; Akers, Kevin S

    2015-09-01

    Colistin use has increased in response to the advent of infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. It is administered parenterally as an inactive prodrug, colistin methanesulfonate (CMS). Various formulations of CMS and labeling conventions can lead to confusion about colistin dosing, and questions remain about the pharmacokinetics of CMS. Since CMS does not have strong UV absorbance, current methods employ a laborious process of chemical conversion to colistin followed by precolumn derivatization to detect formed colistin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Here, we report a method for direct quantification of colistin methanesulfonate by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FTIR).

  2. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in industrial transformer oil by radiolytic and photolytic methods.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cynthia G; Silverman, Joseph; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Neta, Pedatsur; Poster, Dianne L

    2003-12-15

    Used electrical transformer oils containing low or high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were treated using electron, gamma, and ultraviolet radiation, and the conditions for complete dechlorination were developed. Dechlorination was determined by analysis of the inorganic chloride formed and the concentrations of remaining PCBs. Transformer oil containing approximately 95 microg g(-1) PCB (approximately 3.5 mmol L(-1) Cl) is completely dechlorinated by irradiation with 600 kGy after the addition of 10% triethylamine (TEA). Transformer oil containing >800,000 microg g(-1) PCB (17.7 mol L(-1) Cl) requires an additional solvent to prevent solidification. When this oil is diluted with 2-propanol (2-PrOH) and TEA (v/v/v, 1/79/20), complete dechlorination is achieved with a dose of 2500 kGy. Ultraviolet photolysis of the same oil/2-PrOH/TEA solutions led to 90% dechlorination after exposure for 120 h in our experimental setup. Such yields were obtained by radiolysis with a dose of 2000 kGy (300 h in our Gammacell). Replacing TEA with KOH in 2-PrOH solutions greatly increases the yield of dechlorination in both the radiolytic and the photolytic experiments, demonstrating that a chain reaction plays a role in both of these treatment methods and suggesting that both methods deserve further consideration for large-scale application.

  3. Homotopy Perturbation Transform Method with He's Polynomial for Solution of Coupled Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Dinkar; Singh, Prince; Chauhan, Shubha

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a combined form of the Laplace transform method with the homotopy perturbation method (HPTM) is applied to solve nonlinear systems of partial differential equations viz. the system of third order KdV Equations and the systems of coupled Burgers' equations in one- and two- dimensions. The nonlinear terms can be easily handled by the use of He's polynomials. The results shows that the HPTM is very efficient, simple and avoids the round-off errors. Four test examples are considered to illustrate the present scheme. Further the results are compared with Homotopy perturbation method (HPM) which shows that this method is a suitable method for solving systems of partial differential equations.

  4. Novel radon transform-based method for linear feature detection in open water SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Sun, Jiyin; Xu, Suqin; Chen, Biao

    2007-11-01

    Open water SAR images frequently exhibit long dark or bright linear features, some of which are ship wakes, internal wave or internal wave wakes of under water moving objects. The detection of these line features is very impotent in both civil and military fields. Considering to the drawbacks of conventional Radon transform, this paper proposed a novel liner feature detection method. It use the gliding window and firstly apply a Radon transform to the aim image, use a "mean matrix" to normalize the aim image in the Radon domain, and then search for the peaks or troughs in an ellipse region instead of the whole region. This algorithm is tested on a set of simulated SAR images of ship wakes. The results demonstrate that this algorithm's robustness in the presence of noise, as well as its ability to detect and localize linear features that are somewhat not so straight.

  5. A texture matching method considering geometric transformations in noninvasive ultrasonic measurement of arterial elasticity.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lili; Qian, Ming; Song, Ruibo; Meng, Long; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2012-03-01

    Measurement of arterial elasticity can provide an important reference for understanding arterial wall changes that may occur in the early stages of atherosclerosis. Conventional correlation-based methods for evaluating arterial wall movements consider only the translation, ignoring the rotation and deformation, which limits the accuracy of measurement of arterial displacement and its biomechanical properties. This article proposes a novel texture matching method based on ultrasonic B-mode image considering geometric transformations to accurately measure arterial displacement and acquire arterial elasticity noninvasively. The method was validated by simulated images with rotation and deformation and further by measurements in vitro arterial phantom and in vivo common carotid arteries of 20 healthy volunteers. Simulation results demonstrate that the method can improve the accuracy of measurement of arterial displacement. Experimental results show that the elastic modulus of the arterial phantom agrees well with the results obtained from mechanical tests, deviating only 4.1%. The mean elastic modulus of the common carotid arteries is 361.7 ± 93.5 kPa. The texture matching method was shown to be able to measure the displacement and elasticity of the arterial wall with complex geometric transformations and may be clinically useful for early detecting and monitoring atherosclerosis.

  6. [A phase error correction method for the new Fourier transforms spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Gong, Tian-Cheng; Chen, Jian-Jun; Li, Yang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Wei-Min

    2014-11-01

    To decrease the distortion of the recovered spectrum, improve the quantity of the recovered spectrum and decrease the influence of the phase error of the new spectrum detection system based on MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) micro-mirrors, a new phase error correction method for this system is proposed in the present paper. The source of phase error of the spectrum detection system based on MEMS micro-mirrors is analyzed firstly. The analyzed result indicated that the phase error of the new spectral Fourier transform detection system is the zero drift of the optical path difference, and the phase error can be corrected by Zero-crossing sampling which is realized by improving the structure of the interferometer system and Mertz product The spectrum detection system is set up and the phase error correction method is verified by this system. The experiment result is show that the quantity of the recovered spectrum of the spectrum detection is improved obviously by using the improved interferometer system and Mertz product, and the recovered spectrum has no negative peaks and the side lobes is suppressed markedly. This correction method can reduce the influence caused by phase error to the system performance well and improve the spectral detection performance effectively. In this paper, the origin of the system phase error based on the new MEMS micromirror Fourier transform spectroscopy detection system is analyzed, and the phase error correction method is proposed. This method can improve the performance of the spectrum detection system.

  7. Improved Sensitivity Testing of Explosives Using Transformed Up-Down Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Geoffrey

    2013-06-01

    Sensitivity tests provide data that help establish guidelines for the safe handling of explosives. Any sensitivity test is based on assumptions to simplify the method or reduce the number of individual sample evaluations. Two common assumptions that are not typically checked after testing are 1) explosive response is linear in the applied stimulus levels and 2) the chosen test level spacing is close to the standard deviation of the explosive response function (for Bruceton Up-Down testing). In this work we present efforts to improve sensitivity testing by addressing these assumptions using Transformed Up-Down (TUD) test methods augmented with simple algorithms. TUD methods have been developed extensively for psychometric testing applications over the past 50 years and generally use multiple tests at a given level to determine whether to increase or decrease the applied stimulus. In the context of our work, we can use TUD methods that concentrate testing around useful probability levels and augment them with algorithms for adjusting test level spacing during the evaluation. Transformed methods that we have developed to address the assumptions noted above will be examined and evaluated with simulation to highlight their properties and assess their usefulness.

  8. [A phase error correction method for the new Fourier transforms spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Gong, Tian-Cheng; Chen, Jian-Jun; Li, Yang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Wei-Min

    2014-11-01

    To decrease the distortion of the recovered spectrum, improve the quantity of the recovered spectrum and decrease the influence of the phase error of the new spectrum detection system based on MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) micro-mirrors, a new phase error correction method for this system is proposed in the present paper. The source of phase error of the spectrum detection system based on MEMS micro-mirrors is analyzed firstly. The analyzed result indicated that the phase error of the new spectral Fourier transform detection system is the zero drift of the optical path difference, and the phase error can be corrected by Zero-crossing sampling which is realized by improving the structure of the interferometer system and Mertz product The spectrum detection system is set up and the phase error correction method is verified by this system. The experiment result is show that the quantity of the recovered spectrum of the spectrum detection is improved obviously by using the improved interferometer system and Mertz product, and the recovered spectrum has no negative peaks and the side lobes is suppressed markedly. This correction method can reduce the influence caused by phase error to the system performance well and improve the spectral detection performance effectively. In this paper, the origin of the system phase error based on the new MEMS micromirror Fourier transform spectroscopy detection system is analyzed, and the phase error correction method is proposed. This method can improve the performance of the spectrum detection system. PMID:25752034

  9. Simultaneous seismic data interpolation and denoising with a new adaptive method based on dreamlet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Benfeng; Wu, Ru-Shan; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Jingye

    2015-05-01

    Interpolation and random noise removal is a pre-requisite for multichannel techniques because the irregularity and random noise in observed data can affect their performances. Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS) method can better handle seismic data interpolation if the data's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is high, while it has difficulty in noisy situations because it inserts the noisy observed seismic data in each iteration. Weighted POCS method can weaken the noise effects, while the performance is affected by the choice of weight factors and is still unsatisfactory. Thus, a new weighted POCS method is derived through the Iterative Hard Threshold (IHT) view, and in order to eliminate random noise, a new adaptive method is proposed to achieve simultaneous seismic data interpolation and denoising based on dreamlet transform. Performances of the POCS method, the weighted POCS method and the proposed method are compared in simultaneous seismic data interpolation and denoising which demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. The recovered SNRs confirm that the proposed adaptive method is the most effective among the three methods. Numerical examples on synthetic and real data demonstrate the validity of the proposed adaptive method.

  10. The Transformation Design Method and Metamaterials: Tools to Realize Invisibility and Other Interesting Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Schurig, David

    2007-02-21

    I will explain how the transformation design method can yield a material specification that possesses the same electromagnetic behavior as a fairly general set of imagined space-time topologies. This method has been used to design invisibility cloaks, but the method is quite general and can be used to design a wide variety of interesting devices that guide, concentrate or shape electromagnetic fields in ways that would be difficult to manage with other design methodologies. Applications range from stealth to energy conversion and distribution to wireless communications to biomedical imaging. The drawback of the method is the complexity of the material specifications that it produces, which are in general anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Only with recent advances in the field of metamaterials can these specifications be realized. I will discuss how metamaterials accomplish this and what their limitations are, e.g. bandwidth, loss, frequency range etc. I will discuss in detail the recent implementation of an invisibility cloak in the microwave spectrum.

  11. Peptide-based method for detection of metastatic transformation in primary tumors of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Huang, Yue; Yu, Yue; Li, Weiwei; Yin, Yongmei; Li, Genxi

    2015-09-15

    Detection of metastatic activity before the onset of the actual metastasis can be a promising method to combat metastasis, the foremost cause of death in cancer. Therefore, in this work, we have developed an assay method for the detection of metastatic tumor cells in primary tumor, by using a protein of the metastatic cell signaling as the biomarker. In this assay, a peptide-based probe targeting the marker protein and a sensitive nanoparticle doped graphene nanolabel are combined to enable the detection of metastatic cells. Consequently, the metastatic cells can be specifically detected and discriminated from primary tumor cells. By applying this assay method to clinical samples of primary tumor, a low amount of metastatic activity can be detected in the tumor sites, which may suggest the activity of local metastatic transformation. So, these results may point to the prospect of using the proposed method for controlling metastatic cancer.

  12. [A novel method to determine the redshifts of active galaxies based on wavelet transform].

    PubMed

    Tu, Liang-Ping; Luo, A-Li; Jiang, Bin; Wei, Peng; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Liu, Rong

    2012-10-01

    Automatically determining redshifts of galaxies is very important for astronomical research on large samples, such as large-scale structure of cosmological significance. Galaxies are generally divided into normal galaxies and active galaxies, and the spectra of active galaxies mostly have more obvious emission lines. In the present paper, the authors present a novel method to determine spectral redshifts of active galaxies rapidly based on wavelet transformation mainly, and it does not need to extract line information accurately. This method includes the following steps: Firstly, we denoised a spectrum to be processed; Secondly, the low-frequency spectrum was extracted based on wavelet transform, and then we could get the residual spectrum through the denoised spectrum subtracting the low-frequency spectrum; Thirdly, the authors calculated the standard deviation of the residual spectrum and determined a threshold value T, then retained the wavelength set whose corresponding flux was greater than T; Fourthly, according to the wavelength form of all the standard lines, we calculated all the candidate redshifts; Finally, utilizing the density estimation method based on Parzen window, we determined the redshift point with maximum density, and the average value of its neighborhood would be the final redshift of this spectrum. The experiments on simulated data and real data from SDSS-DR7 show that this method is robust and its correct rate is encouraging. And it can be expected to be applied in the project of LAMOST.

  13. AgarTrap: a simplified Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for sporelings of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama, Shoko; Kodama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. is being developed as an emerging model plant, and several transformation techniques were recently reported. Examples are biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods. Here, we report a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sporelings, and it is termed Agar-utilized Transformation with Pouring Solutions (AgarTrap). The procedure of the AgarTrap was carried out by simply exchanging appropriate solutions in a Petri dish, and completed within a week, successfully yielding sufficient numbers of independent transformants for molecular analysis (e.g. characterization of gene/protein function) in a single experiment. The AgarTrap method will promote future molecular biological study in M. polymorpha.

  14. Method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a high temperature super-conducting transformer

    DOEpatents

    Golner, Thomas M.; Mehta, Shirish P.

    2005-07-26

    A method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a super-conducting transformer is provided that includes a first super-conducting coil set, a second super-conducting coil set, and a third super-conducting coil set. The first, second and third super-conducting coil sets are connected via an insulated interconnect system that includes insulated conductors and insulated connectors that are utilized to connect the first, second, and third super-conducting coil sets to the high voltage leads.

  15. Transform methods for precision continuum and control models of flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupi, Victor D.; Turner, James D.; Chun, Hon M.

    1991-01-01

    An open loop optimal control algorithm is developed for general flexible structures, based on Laplace transform methods. A distributed parameter model of the structure is first presented, followed by a derivation of the optimal control algorithm. The control inputs are expressed in terms of their Fourier series expansions, so that a numerical solution can be easily obtained. The algorithm deals directly with the transcendental transfer functions from control inputs to outputs of interest, and structural deformation penalties, as well as penalties on control effort, are included in the formulation. The algorithm is applied to several structures of increasing complexity to show its generality.

  16. A Fourier Transform Method for Vsin i Estimations under Nonlinear Limb-darkening Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenhagen, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Star rotation offers us a large horizon for the study of many important physical issues pertaining to stellar evolution. Currently, four methods are widely used to infer rotation velocities, namely those related to line width calibrations, on the fitting of synthetic spectra, interferometry, and on Fourier transforms (FTs) of line profiles. Almost all of the estimations of stellar projected rotation velocities using the Fourier method in the literature have been addressed with the use of linear limb-darkening (LD) approximations during the evaluation of rotation profiles and their cosine FTs, which in certain cases, lead to discrepant velocity estimates. In this work, we introduce new mathematical expressions of rotation profiles and their Fourier cosine transforms assuming three nonlinear LD laws—quadratic, square-root, and logarithmic—and study their applications with and without gravity-darkening (GD) and geometrical flattening (GF) effects. Through an analysis of He I models in the visible range accounting for both limb and GD, we find out that, for classical models without rotationally driven effects, all the Vsin i values are too close to each other. On the other hand, taking into account GD and GF, the Vsin i obtained with the linear law result in Vsin i values that are systematically smaller than those obtained with the other laws. As a rule of thumb, we apply these expressions to the FT method to evaluate the projected rotation velocity of the emission B-type star Achernar (α Eri).

  17. A Fourier transform method for Vsin i estimations under nonlinear Limb-Darkening laws

    SciTech Connect

    Levenhagen, R. S.

    2014-12-10

    Star rotation offers us a large horizon for the study of many important physical issues pertaining to stellar evolution. Currently, four methods are widely used to infer rotation velocities, namely those related to line width calibrations, on the fitting of synthetic spectra, interferometry, and on Fourier transforms (FTs) of line profiles. Almost all of the estimations of stellar projected rotation velocities using the Fourier method in the literature have been addressed with the use of linear limb-darkening (LD) approximations during the evaluation of rotation profiles and their cosine FTs, which in certain cases, lead to discrepant velocity estimates. In this work, we introduce new mathematical expressions of rotation profiles and their Fourier cosine transforms assuming three nonlinear LD laws—quadratic, square-root, and logarithmic—and study their applications with and without gravity-darkening (GD) and geometrical flattening (GF) effects. Through an analysis of He I models in the visible range accounting for both limb and GD, we find out that, for classical models without rotationally driven effects, all the Vsin i values are too close to each other. On the other hand, taking into account GD and GF, the Vsin i obtained with the linear law result in Vsin i values that are systematically smaller than those obtained with the other laws. As a rule of thumb, we apply these expressions to the FT method to evaluate the projected rotation velocity of the emission B-type star Achernar (α Eri).

  18. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

  19. Secondary Path Modeling Method for Active Noise Control of Power Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tong; Liang, Jiabi; Liang, Yuanbin; Wang, Lixin; Pei, Xiugao; Li, Peng

    The accuracy of the secondary path modeling is critical to the stability of active noise control system. On condition of knowing the input and output of the secondary path, system identification theory can be used to identify the path. Based on the experiment data, correlation analysis is adopted to eliminate the random noise and nonlinear harmonic in the output data in order to obtain the accurate frequency characteristic of the secondary path. After that, Levy's Method is applied to identify the transfer function of the path. Computer simulation results are given respectively, both showing the proposed off-line modeling method is feasible and applicable. At last, Levy's Method is used to attain an accurate secondary path model in the active control of transformer noise experiment and achieves to make the noise sound level decrease about 10dB.

  20. General properties of the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation and applicability of the corrected original Foldy-Wouthuysen method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silenko, Alexander J.

    2016-02-01

    General properties of the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation which is widely used in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry are considered. Merits and demerits of the original Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation method are analyzed. While this method does not satisfy the Eriksen condition of the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, it can be corrected with the use of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. We show a possibility of such a correction and propose an appropriate algorithm of calculations. An applicability of the corrected Foldy-Wouthuysen method is restricted by the condition of convergence of a series of relativistic corrections.

  1. A Simple Method for Predicting Transmembrane Proteins Based on Wavelet Transform

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    The increasing protein sequences from the genome project require theoretical methods to predict transmembrane helical segments (TMHs). So far, several prediction methods have been reported, but there are some deficiencies in prediction accuracy and adaptability in these methods. In this paper, a method based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been developed to predict the number and location of TMHs in membrane proteins. PDB coded as 1KQG is chosen as an example to describe the prediction process by this method. 80 proteins with known 3D structure from Mptopo database are chosen at random as data sets (including 325 TMHs) and 80 sequences are divided into 13 groups according to their function and type. TMHs prediction is carried out for each group of membrane protein sequences and obtain satisfactory result. To verify the feasibility of this method, 80 membrane protein sequences are treated as test sets, 308 TMHs can be predicted and the prediction accuracy is 96.3%. Compared with the main prediction results of seven popular prediction methods, the obtained results indicate that the proposed method in this paper has higher prediction accuracy. PMID:23289014

  2. Improved sensitivity testing of explosives using transformed Up-Down methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Geoffrey W.

    2014-05-01

    Sensitivity tests provide data that help establish guidelines for the safe handling of explosives. Any sensitivity test is based on assumptions to simplify the method or reduce the number of individual sample evaluations. Two common assumptions that are not typically checked after testing are 1) explosive response follows a normal distribution as a function of the applied stimulus levels and 2) the chosen test level spacing is close to the standard deviation of the explosive response function (for Bruceton Up-Down testing for example). These assumptions and other limitations of traditional explosive sensitivity testing can be addressed using Transformed Up-Down (TUD) test methods. TUD methods have been developed extensively for psychometric testing over the past 50 years and generally use multiple tests at a given level to determine how to adjust the applied stimulus. In the context of explosive sensitivity we can use TUD methods that concentrate testing around useful probability levels. Here, these methods are explained and compared to Bruceton Up-Down testing using computer simulation. The results show that the TUD methods are more useful for many cases but that they do require more tests as a consequence. For non-normal distributions, however, the TUD methods may be the only accurate assessment method.

  3. Ovary-drip transformation: a simple method for directly generating vector- and marker-free transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) with a linear GFP cassette transformation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aifu; Su, Qiao; An, Lijia

    2009-03-01

    The presence of selectable marker genes and vector backbone sequences has affected the safe assessment of transgenic plants. In this study, the ovary-drip method for directly generating vector- and selectable marker-free transgenic plants was described, by which maize was transformed with a linear GFP cassette (Ubi-GFP-nos). The key features of this method center on the complete removal of the styles and the subsequent application of a DNA solution directly to the ovaries. The movement of the exogenous DNA was monitored using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled DNA, which showed that the time taken by the exogenous DNA to enter the ovaries was shortened compared to that of the pollen-tube pathway. This led to an improved transformation frequency of 3.38% compared to 0.86% for the pollen-tube pathway as determined by PCR analysis. The use of 0.05% surfactant Silwet L-77 + 5% sucrose as a transformation solution further increased the transformation frequency to 6.47%. Southern blot analysis showed that the transgenic plants had low transgene copy number and simple integration pattern. Green fluorescence was observed in roots and immature embryos of transgenic plants by fluorescence microscopy. Progeny analysis showed that GFP insertions were inherited in T(1) generation. The ovary-drip method would become a favorable choice for directly generating vector- and marker-free transgenic maize expressing functional genes of agronomic interest.

  4. Development of Bayesian-based transformation method of Landsat imagery into pseudo-hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Nguyen Tien; Koike, Katsuaki

    2015-10-01

    It has been generally accepted that hyperspectral remote sensing is more effective and provides greater accuracy than multispectral remote sensing in many application fields. EO-1 Hyperion, a representative hyperspectral sensor, has much more spectral bands, while Landsat data has much wider image scene and longer continuous space-based record of Earth's land. This study aims to develop a new method, Pseudo-Hyperspectral Image Synthesis Algorithm (PHISA), to transform Landsat imagery into pseudo hyperspectral imagery using the correlation between Landsat and EO-1 Hyperion data. At first Hyperion scene was precisely pre-processed and co-registered to Landsat scene, and both data were corrected for atmospheric effects. Bayesian model averaging method (BMA) was applied to select the best model from a class of several possible models. Subsequently, this best model is utilized to calculate pseudo-hyperspectral data by R programming. Based on the selection results by BMA, we transform Landsat imagery into 155 bands of pseudo-hyperspectral imagery. Most models have multiple R-squared values higher than 90%, which assures high accuracy of the models. There are no significant differences visually between the pseudo- and original data. Most bands have Pearson's coefficients < 0.95, and only a small fraction has the coefficients < 0.93 like outliers in the data sets. In a similar manner, most Root Mean Square Error values are considerably low, smaller than 0.014. These observations strongly support that the proposed PHISA is valid for transforming Landsat data into pseudo-hyperspectral data from the outlook of statistics.

  5. The Empirical Comparison of Coordinate Transformation Models and Distortion Modeling Methods Based on a Case Study of Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grgic, M.; Varga, M.; Bašić, T.

    2015-12-01

    Several coordinate transformation models enable performing of the coordinate transformations between the historical astro-geodetic datums, which were utilized before the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) technologies were developed, and datums related to the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS), which today are most often used to determine the position. The decision on the most appropriate coordinate transformation model is influenced by many factors, such as: required accuracy, available computational resources, possibility of the model application regarding the size and shape of the territory, coordinate distortion that very often exist in historical astro-geodetic datums, etc. This study is based on the geodetic data of the Republic of Croatia in both, historical and ITRS-related datum. It investigates different transformation models, including conformal Molodensky 3 parameters (p) and 5p (standard and abridged) transformation models, 7p transformation models (Bursa-Wolf and Molodensky-Badekas model), Affine transformation models (8p, 9p, 12p), and Multiple Regression Equation approach. Besides, it investigates the 7p, 8p, 9p, and 12p transformation models extended with distortion modeling, and the grid based only transformation model (NTv2 model). Furthermore, several distortion modeling methods were used to produce various models of distortion shifts in different resolutions. Thereafter, their performance and the performance of the transformation models was evaluated using summary statistics derived from the remained positional residuals that were computed for the independent control spatial data set. Lastly, the most appropriate method(s) of distortion modeling and most appropriate coordinate transformation model(s) were defined regarding the required accuracy for the Croatian case.

  6. A sequential transformation approach to the internally contracted multireference coupled cluster method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelista, Francesco A.; Hanauer, Matthias; Köhn, Andreas; Gauss, Jürgen

    2012-05-01

    The internally contracted multireference coupled cluster (ic-MRCC) approach is formulated using a new wave function ansatz based on a sequential transformation of the reference function (sqic-MRCC). This alternative wave function simplifies the formulation of computationally viable methods while preserving the accuracy of the ic-MRCC approach. The structure of the sqic-MRCC wave function allows folding the effect of the single excitations into a similarity-transformed Hamiltonian whose particle rank is equal to the one of the Hamiltonian. Consequently, we formulate an approximation to the sqic-MRCC method with singles and doubles (included respectively up to fourfold and twofold commutators, sqic-MRCCSD[2]) that contains all terms present in the corresponding single-reference coupled cluster scheme. Computations of the potential energy curves for the dissociation of BeH2 show that the untruncated sqic-MRCCSD scheme yields results that are almost indistinguishable from the ordinary ic-MRCCSD method. The energy obtained from the computationally less expensive sqic-MRCCSD[2] approximation is found to deviate from the full ic-MRCCSD method by less than 0.2 mEh for BeH2, while, in the case of water, the harmonic vibrational frequencies of ozone, the singlet-triplet splitting of p-benzyne, and the dissociation curve of N2, sqic-MRCCSD[2] faithfully reproduces the results obtained via the ic-MRCCSD scheme truncated to two commutators. A formal proof is given of the equivalence of the ic-MRCC and sqic-MRCC methods with the internally contracted and full configuration interaction approaches.

  7. Feature Transformation Detection Method with Best Spectral Band Selection Process for Hyper-spectral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike; Brickhouse, Mark

    2015-11-01

    We present a newly developed feature transformation (FT) detection method for hyper-spectral imagery (HSI) sensors. In essence, the FT method, by transforming the original features (spectral bands) to a different feature domain, may considerably increase the statistical separation between the target and background probability density functions, and thus may significantly improve the target detection and identification performance, as evidenced by the test results in this paper. We show that by differentiating the original spectral, one can completely separate targets from the background using a single spectral band, leading to perfect detection results. In addition, we have proposed an automated best spectral band selection process with a double-threshold scheme that can rank the available spectral bands from the best to the worst for target detection. Finally, we have also proposed an automated cross-spectrum fusion process to further improve the detection performance in lower spectral range (<1000 nm) by selecting the best spectral band pair with multivariate analysis. Promising detection performance has been achieved using a small background material signature library for concept-proving, and has then been further evaluated and verified using a real background HSI scene collected by a HYDICE sensor.

  8. A Novel Method of Suppressing the Inrush Current of Transformers Using a Series-Connected Voltage-Source PWM Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Funabiki, Shigeyuki

    This paper proposes a novel method of suppressing the inrush current of transformers. A small-rated voltage-source PWM converter is connected in series to the transformers through a matching transformer. As the connected PWM converter performs a resistor for the source current, no inrush phenomena occurs. The required-ratings of the PWM converter, which performs the damping resistor for the inrush phenomena, is one-four-hundredth as compared to that of the main transformers in single-phase circuits. In three-phase circuits, it is one-nine-hundredth. The basic principle of the proposed method is discussed. Digital computer simulation is implemented to confirm the validity and excellent practicability of the proposed method using the PSCAD/EMTDC. A prototype experimental-model is constructed and tested. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can perfectly suppress the inrush phenomena.

  9. Novel copyright information hiding method based on random phase matrix of Fresnel diffraction transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chao; Chen, Ru-jun

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new copyright information hide method for digital images in Moiré fringe formats. The copyright information is embedded into the protected image and the detecting image based on Fresnel phase matrix. Firstly, using Fresnel diffraction transform, the random phase matrix of copyright information is generated. Then, according to Moiré fringe principle, the protected image and the detecting image are modulated respectively based on the random phase matrix, and the copyright information is embedded into them. When the protected image and the detecting image are overlapped, the copyright information can reappear. Experiment results show that our method has good concealment performance, and is a new way for copyright protection.

  10. A coordinate transformation method for calculating the 3D light intensity distribution in ICF hohlraum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhili; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Kuixia; Chen, Xudong; Chen, Mingyu; Pu, Jixiong

    2016-06-01

    For an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) system, the light intensity distribution in the hohlraum is key to the initial plasma excitation and later laser-plasma interaction process. Based on the concept of coordinate transformation of spatial points and vector, we present a robust method with a detailed procedure that makes the calculation of the three dimensional (3D) light intensity distribution in hohlraum easily. The method is intuitive but powerful enough to solve the complex cases of random number of laser beams with arbitrary polarization states and incidence angles. Its application is exemplified in the Shenguang III Facility (SG-III) that verifies its effectiveness and it is useful for guiding the design of hohlraum structure parameter.

  11. Third-order symplectic integration method with inverse time dispersion transform for long-term simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingjie; Zhang, Jinhai; Yao, Zhenxing

    2016-06-01

    The symplectic integration method is popular in high-accuracy numerical simulations when discretizing temporal derivatives; however, it still suffers from time-dispersion error when the temporal interval is coarse, especially for long-term simulations and large-scale models. We employ the inverse time dispersion transform (ITDT) to the third-order symplectic integration method to reduce the time-dispersion error. First, we adopt the pseudospectral algorithm for the spatial discretization and the third-order symplectic integration method for the temporal discretization. Then, we apply the ITDT to eliminate time-dispersion error from the synthetic data. As a post-processing method, the ITDT can be easily cascaded in traditional numerical simulations. We implement the ITDT in one typical exiting third-order symplectic scheme and compare its performances with the performances of the conventional second-order scheme and the rapid expansion method. Theoretical analyses and numerical experiments show that the ITDT can significantly reduce the time-dispersion error, especially for long travel times. The implementation of the ITDT requires some additional computations on correcting the time-dispersion error, but it allows us to use the maximum temporal interval under stability conditions; thus, its final computational efficiency would be higher than that of the traditional symplectic integration method for long-term simulations. With the aid of the ITDT, we can obtain much more accurate simulation results but with a lower computational cost.

  12. Development of an efficient regeneration and transformation method for the new potential oilseed crop Lepidium campestre

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lepidium campestre is an undomesticated oilseed species with a great potential to become a new crop for both food and industrial feedstocks production. Genetic modification is needed for further improving the oil quantity and quality of Lepidium. Studies on in vitro shoot regeneration of Lepidium are very limited and there is no transformation protocol available. Results We have investigated the effects of different factors, especially the type, concentration and combination of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro shoot regeneration of Lepidium. The results showed that the 2,4-D treatment was crucial to shoot regeneration from different explants. The duration of 2,4-D exposure between 2-4 days did not show significant difference in shoot regeneration, while the effect of 2,4-D concentration varied greatly depending on the type of explants and cytokinins used, for example, the low concentration of 2,4-D combined with TDZ significantly increased the regeneration frequency of hypocotyls. Cotyledon and hypocotyl explants responded differently to cytokinin, for example, TDZ was more effective than zeatin in promoting shoot regeneration from hypocotyls, but did not affect the regeneration of cotyledons which was more affected by high concentration of zeatin. The results also showed that NAA was not effective for shoot regeneration. Germination in light increased the regeneration frequency compared to that in dark. After optimization of the different conditions, an efficient regeneration protocol was developed with the regeneration efficiency of 92.7%. Using this protocol, the transformation frequency of 6% in average was achieved. The presence of transgenes in the transgenic lines was confirmed by GUS staining, PCR and Southern blot analyses. Conclusion Through systematic investigation of important factors affecting in vitro shoot regeneration, we have developed an efficient regeneration and transformation protocol for the genetic modification of

  13. Transform method for laser speckle strain-rate measurements in biological tissues and biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Sean J.

    1999-03-01

    Laser speckle strain measurements in biological tissues and some synthetic biomaterials, such as translucent dental composites and ceramics, are often complicated by the physical properties of the materials. For example, speckles generated by illuminating soft biological tissue with laser light are subject to rapid decorrelation due to the Brownian movement of water and scattering particles in the tissues and to cellular motions. In addition, the penetration of the laser beam into the tissue or translucent biomaterial results in multiple scattering and a complete depolarization of the speckle field. This may complicate the evaluation of the strain field when a force is applied to the material because the speckle pattern shift is providing information from the surface of the material as well as from the bulk sample, where the strains may or may not be the same as on the surface. This paper presents a variation of a speckle processing scheme originally called the `Transform Method' for evaluating both surface and bulk strain rates and total strains in biological tissues and translucent biomaterials. The method is not a correlation-based technique, but instead relies upon 2D frequency transforms of time series of 1D speckle pattern records stacked into 2D arrays. The method is insensitive to speckle field depolarization and, compared to correlation-based techniques, is relatively insensitive to speckle decorrelation. Strain rates and total in-plane strains were measured in both hard (cortical bone) and soft (artery segments) biological tissues and in translucent biomaterials (dental ceramics). Potential applications to medical diagnostics and biomaterials science are also discussed.

  14. Development of genetic transformation methodologies for an industrially-promising microalga: Scenedesmus almeriensis.

    PubMed

    Dautor, Yasmeen; Úbeda-Mínguez, Patricia; Chileh, Tarik; García-Maroto, Federico; Alonso, Diego López

    2014-12-01

    The development of the microalgal industry requires advances in every aspect of microalgal biotechnology. In this regard, the availability of genetic engineering tools for industrially-promising species is key. As Scenedesmus almeriensis has promise for industrial use, we describe here an Agrobacterium-based methodology that allows stable genetic transformation of it for the first time, thus opening the way to its genetic manipulation. Transformation was accomplished using two different antibiotic resistance genes [hygromicine phophotransferase (hpt) and Shble] and it is credited by PCR amplification of both hpt/Shble and GUS genes and by the β-glucuronidase activity of transformed cells. Nevertheless, the single 35S promoter seems unable to direct gene expression to a convenient level in S. almeriensis as suggested by the low GUS enzymatic activity. Temperature was critical for the transformation efficiency.

  15. Method for simulating dose reduction in digital mammography using the Anscombe transformation

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Lucas R.; de Oliveira, Helder C. R.; Nunes, Polyana F.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Vieira, Marcelo A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work proposes an accurate method for simulating dose reduction in digital mammography starting from a clinical image acquired with a standard dose. Methods: The method developed in this work consists of scaling a mammogram acquired at the standard radiation dose and adding signal-dependent noise. The algorithm accounts for specific issues relevant in digital mammography images, such as anisotropic noise, spatial variations in pixel gain, and the effect of dose reduction on the detective quantum efficiency. The scaling process takes into account the linearity of the system and the offset of the detector elements. The inserted noise is obtained by acquiring images of a flat-field phantom at the standard radiation dose and at the simulated dose. Using the Anscombe transformation, a relationship is created between the calculated noise mask and the scaled image, resulting in a clinical mammogram with the same noise and gray level characteristics as an image acquired at the lower-radiation dose. Results: The performance of the proposed algorithm was validated using real images acquired with an anthropomorphic breast phantom at four different doses, with five exposures for each dose and 256 nonoverlapping ROIs extracted from each image and with uniform images. The authors simulated lower-dose images and compared these with the real images. The authors evaluated the similarity between the normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and power spectrum (PS) of simulated images and real images acquired with the same dose. The maximum relative error was less than 2.5% for every ROI. The added noise was also evaluated by measuring the local variance in the real and simulated images. The relative average error for the local variance was smaller than 1%. Conclusions: A new method is proposed for simulating dose reduction in clinical mammograms. In this method, the dependency between image noise and image signal is addressed using a novel application of the Anscombe

  16. A hybrid group method of data handling with discrete wavelet transform for GDP forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isa, Nadira Mohamed; Shabri, Ani

    2013-09-01

    This study is proposed the application of hybridization model using Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) in time series forecasting. The objective of this paper is to examine the flexibility of the hybridization GMDH in time series forecasting by using Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A time series data set is used in this study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the forecasting model. This data are utilized to forecast through an application aimed to handle real life time series. This experiment compares the performances of a hybrid model and a single model of Wavelet-Linear Regression (WR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and conventional GMDH. It is shown that the proposed model can provide a promising alternative technique in GDP forecasting.

  17. A new method to calculate the beam charge for an integrating current transformer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuchi; Han, Dan; Zhu, Bin; Dong, Kegong; Tan, Fang; Gu, Yuqiu

    2012-09-01

    The integrating current transformer (ICT) is a magnetic sensor widely used to precisely measure the charge of an ultra-short-pulse charged particle beam generated by traditional accelerators and new laser-plasma particle accelerators. In this paper, we present a new method to calculate the beam charge in an ICT based on circuit analysis. The output transfer function shows an invariable signal profile for an ultra-short electron bunch, so the function can be used to evaluate the signal quality and calculate the beam charge through signal fitting. We obtain a set of parameters in the output function from a standard signal generated by an ultra-short electron bunch (about 1 ps in duration) at a radio frequency linear electron accelerator at Tsinghua University. These parameters can be used to obtain the beam charge by signal fitting with excellent accuracy. PMID:23020370

  18. Periodicity of flare index revisited using the Hilbert-Huang transform method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P. X.; Liang, H. F.; Zhu, W. W.

    2011-04-01

    Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) method, we investigate the periodicity in the monthly mean flare indices from 1966 to 2007 (corresponding to almost four complete solar cycles), calculated by T. Atac and A. Ozguc. The results show as following. (1) The periods of 9.37 ± 2.53, 11.8 ± 0.172 and 23.6 ± 0.316 years are found to be statistically significant in the flare index. The most eminent period is 9.37 ± 2.53 years. (2) Other periods of 0.237 ± 0.196 years (86.6 ± 71.6 days), 0.525 ± 0.0508 years (191 ± 18.5 days), 1.05 ± 0.478 years (383 ± 174 days) and 2.37 ± 0.395 years are below the 99% confidence level line, suggesting they are due to stochastic random noise.

  19. Fourier transform infrared method validation at a carbon bed solvent recovery unit for four gaseous hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Reagen, W.K.; Wright, B.D.; Krueger, D.J.; Plummer, G.M.

    1999-05-15

    The authors report the results of a 1995 study in which Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) gas-phase spectrometry was employed to measure the concentrations of four organic compounds (tetrahydrofuran, toluene, 2-butanone, and cyclohexanone) in the gas stream of an industrial solvent recovery unit. The goals of the study were to demonstrate that the extractive FTIR technique is (1) suitable for compliance measurements of the four individual compound concentrations and (2) an accurate substitute for flame ionization detection determinations of the total hydrocarbon content of the gas stream. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides guidance on this type of study in its Method 301, which lists specific procedures and statistical criteria, and in several recently published documents describing FTIR quality assurance/quality control measures. The EPA reviews of the procedures and results indicate that both goals of the study were met according to EPA standards.

  20. Instrumental phase-based method for Fourier transform spectrometer measurements processing

    SciTech Connect

    Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco

    2011-04-20

    Phase correction is a critical procedure for most space-borne Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) whose accuracy (owing to often poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) can be jeopardized from many uncontrollable environmental conditions. This work considers the phase correction in an FTS working under significant temperature change during the measurement and affected by mechanical disturbances. The implemented method is based on the identification of an instrumental phase that is dependent on the interferometer temperature and on the extraction of a linear phase component through a least-squares approach. The use of an instrumental phase parameterized with the interferometer temperature eases the determination of the linear phase that can be extracted using only a narrow spectral region selected to be immune from disturbances. The procedure, in this way, is made robust against phase errors arising from instrumental effects, a key feature to reduce the disturbances through spectra averaging. The method was specifically developed for the Mars IR Mapper spectrometer, that was designed for operation onboard a rover on the Mars surface; the validation was performed using ground and in-flight measurements of the Fourier transform IR spectrometer planetary Fourier spectrometer, onboard the MarsExpress mission. The symmetrization has been exploited also for the spectra calibration, highlighting the issues deriving from the cases of relevant beamsplitter emission. The applicability of this procedure to other instruments is conditional to the presence in the spectra of at least one spectral region with a large SNR along with a negligible (or known) beamsplitter emission. For the PFS instrument, the processing of data with relevant beamsplitter emission has been performed exploiting the absorption carbon dioxide bands present in Martian spectra.

  1. Instrumental phase-based method for Fourier transform spectrometer measurements processing.

    PubMed

    Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco

    2011-04-20

    Phase correction is a critical procedure for most space-borne Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) whose accuracy (owing to often poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) can be jeopardized from many uncontrollable environmental conditions. This work considers the phase correction in an FTS working under significant temperature change during the measurement and affected by mechanical disturbances. The implemented method is based on the identification of an instrumental phase that is dependent on the interferometer temperature and on the extraction of a linear phase component through a least-squares approach. The use of an instrumental phase parameterized with the interferometer temperature eases the determination of the linear phase that can be extracted using only a narrow spectral region selected to be immune from disturbances. The procedure, in this way, is made robust against phase errors arising from instrumental effects, a key feature to reduce the disturbances through spectra averaging. The method was specifically developed for the Mars IR Mapper spectrometer, that was designed for operation onboard a rover on the Mars surface; the validation was performed using ground and in-flight measurements of the Fourier transform IR spectrometer planetary Fourier spectrometer, onboard the MarsExpress mission. The symmetrization has been exploited also for the spectra calibration, highlighting the issues deriving from the cases of relevant beamsplitter emission. The applicability of this procedure to other instruments is conditional to the presence in the spectra of at least one spectral region with a large SNR along with a negligible (or known) beamsplitter emission. For the PFS instrument, the processing of data with relevant beamsplitter emission has been performed exploiting the absorption carbon dioxide bands present in Martian spectra. PMID:21509063

  2. Instrumental phase-based method for Fourier transform spectrometer measurements processing.

    PubMed

    Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco

    2011-04-20

    Phase correction is a critical procedure for most space-borne Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) whose accuracy (owing to often poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) can be jeopardized from many uncontrollable environmental conditions. This work considers the phase correction in an FTS working under significant temperature change during the measurement and affected by mechanical disturbances. The implemented method is based on the identification of an instrumental phase that is dependent on the interferometer temperature and on the extraction of a linear phase component through a least-squares approach. The use of an instrumental phase parameterized with the interferometer temperature eases the determination of the linear phase that can be extracted using only a narrow spectral region selected to be immune from disturbances. The procedure, in this way, is made robust against phase errors arising from instrumental effects, a key feature to reduce the disturbances through spectra averaging. The method was specifically developed for the Mars IR Mapper spectrometer, that was designed for operation onboard a rover on the Mars surface; the validation was performed using ground and in-flight measurements of the Fourier transform IR spectrometer planetary Fourier spectrometer, onboard the MarsExpress mission. The symmetrization has been exploited also for the spectra calibration, highlighting the issues deriving from the cases of relevant beamsplitter emission. The applicability of this procedure to other instruments is conditional to the presence in the spectra of at least one spectral region with a large SNR along with a negligible (or known) beamsplitter emission. For the PFS instrument, the processing of data with relevant beamsplitter emission has been performed exploiting the absorption carbon dioxide bands present in Martian spectra.

  3. Female Reproductive Tissues Are the Primary Target of Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation by the Arabidopsis Floral-Dip Method1

    PubMed Central

    Desfeux, Christine; Clough, Steven J.; Bent, Andrew F.

    2000-01-01

    The floral-dip method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis allows efficient plant transformation without need for tissue culture. To facilitate use with other plant species, we investigated the mechanisms that underlie this method. In manual outcrossing experiments, application of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to pollen donor plants did not produce any transformed progeny, whereas application of Agrobacterium to pollen recipient plants yielded transformants at a rate of 0.48%. Agrobacterium strains with T-DNA carrying gusA (encoding β-glucuronidase [GUS]) under the control of 35S, LAT52, or ACT11 promoters revealed delivery of GUS activity to developing ovules, whereas no GUS staining of pollen or pollen tubes was observed. Transformants derived from the same seed pod contained independent T-DNA integration events. In Arabidopsis flowers, the gynoecium develops as an open, vase-like structure that fuses to form closed locules roughly 3 d prior to anthesis. In correlation with this fact, we found that the timing of Agrobacterium infection was critical. Transformants were obtained and GUS staining of ovules and embryo sacs was observed only if the Agrobacterium were applied 5 d or more prior to anthesis. A 6-fold higher rate of transformation was obtained with a CRABS-CLAW mutant that maintains an open gynoecium. Our results suggest that ovules are the site of productive transformation in the floral-dip method, and further suggest that Agrobacterium must be delivered to the interior of the developing gynoecium prior to locule closure if efficient transformation is to be achieved. PMID:10889238

  4. Study on dietary fibre by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Chylińska, Monika; Szymańska-Chargot, Monika; Kruk, Beata; Zdunek, Artur

    2016-04-01

    Fresh fruit is an important part of the diet of people all over the world as a significant source of water, vitamins and natural sugars. Nowadays it is also one of the main sources of dietary fibre. In fruit the dietary fibre is simply cell wall consisting essentially of polysaccharides. The aim of present study was to predict the contents of pectins, cellulose and hemicelluloses by partial least squares regression (PLS) analysis on the basis of Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra of fruit cell wall residue. The second purpose was to analyse the composition of dietary fibre from fruit based on FT-IR spectral information in combination with chemometric methods (principle components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA)). Additionally the contents of polysaccharides in studied fruits were determined by analytical methods. It has been shown that the analysis of infrared spectra and the use of multivariate statistical methods can be useful for studying the composition of dietary fibre. PMID:26593472

  5. A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Yang, J.; Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Chen, D. Z.

    2014-06-01

    An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA.

  6. A stochastic Galerkin method for the Euler equations with Roe variable transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, Per; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Nordström, Jan

    2014-01-15

    The Euler equations subject to uncertainty in the initial and boundary conditions are investigated via the stochastic Galerkin approach. We present a new fully intrusive method based on a variable transformation of the continuous equations. Roe variables are employed to get quadratic dependence in the flux function and a well-defined Roe average matrix that can be determined without matrix inversion. In previous formulations based on generalized polynomial chaos expansion of the physical variables, the need to introduce stochastic expansions of inverse quantities, or square roots of stochastic quantities of interest, adds to the number of possible different ways to approximate the original stochastic problem. We present a method where the square roots occur in the choice of variables, resulting in an unambiguous problem formulation. The Roe formulation saves computational cost compared to the formulation based on expansion of conservative variables. Moreover, the Roe formulation is more robust and can handle cases of supersonic flow, for which the conservative variable formulation fails to produce a bounded solution. For certain stochastic basis functions, the proposed method can be made more effective and well-conditioned. This leads to increased robustness for both choices of variables. We use a multi-wavelet basis that can be chosen to include a large number of resolution levels to handle more extreme cases (e.g. strong discontinuities) in a robust way. For smooth cases, the order of the polynomial representation can be increased for increased accuracy.

  7. Coordinate transformation method for the solution of inverse problem in 2D and 3D scatterometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnusamy, Sekar

    2005-05-01

    For scatterometry applications, diffraction analysis of gratings is carried out by using Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA). Though RCWA method is originally developed for lamellar gratings, arbitrary profiles can be analyzed using staircase approximation with S-Matrix propagation of field components. For improved accuracy, more number of Fourier waves need to be included in Floquet-Bloch expansion of the field components and also more number of slices are to be made in staircase approximation. These requirements increase the time required for the analysis. A coordinate transformation method (CTM) developed by Chandezon et. al renders the arbitrary grating profile into a plane surface in the new coordinate system and hence it does not require slicing. This method is extended to 3D structures by several authors notably, by Harris et al for non-orthogonal unit cells and by Granet for correct Fourier expansion. Also extended is to handle sharp-edged gratings through adaptive spatial resolution. In this paper, an attempt is made to employ CTM with correct Fourier expansion in conjunction with adaptive spatial resolution, for scatterometry applications. A MATLAB program is developed, and thereby, demonstrated that CTM can be used for diffraction analysis of trapezoidal profiles that are typically encountered in scatterometry applications.

  8. Identification of varying time scales in sediment transport using the Hilbert-Huang Transform method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuai, Ken Z.; Tsai, Christina W.

    2012-02-01

    SummarySediment transport processes vary at a variety of time scales - from seconds, hours, days to months and years. Multiple time scales exist in the system of flow, sediment transport and bed elevation change processes. As such, identification and selection of appropriate time scales for flow and sediment processes can assist in formulating a system of flow and sediment governing equations representative of the dynamic interaction of flow and particles at the desired details. Recognizing the importance of different varying time scales in the fluvial processes of sediment transport, we introduce the Hilbert-Huang Transform method (HHT) to the field of sediment transport for the time scale analysis. The HHT uses the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method to decompose a time series into a collection of the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs), and uses the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) to obtain instantaneous frequency data. The EMD extracts the variability of data with different time scales, and improves the analysis of data series. The HSA can display the succession of time varying time scales, which cannot be captured by the often-used Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method. This study is one of the earlier attempts to introduce the state-of-the-art technique for the multiple time sales analysis of sediment transport processes. Three practical applications of the HHT method for data analysis of both suspended sediment and bedload transport time series are presented. The analysis results show the strong impact of flood waves on the variations of flow and sediment time scales at a large sampling time scale, as well as the impact of flow turbulence on those time scales at a smaller sampling time scale. Our analysis reveals that the existence of multiple time scales in sediment transport processes may be attributed to the fractal nature in sediment transport. It can be demonstrated by the HHT analysis that the bedload motion time scale is better represented by the

  9. Structural Transformation of Clay Minerals by a New Molecular Dynamics Simulation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Gutierrez, Marte

    2010-05-01

    A MD simulation study of 2:1 clay minerals is carried out using a new MD simulation method which is capable of simulating a system under the most general external stress conditions by considering the changes of MD cell size and shape. The tensor defining the cell size and shape is correlated with the atomic level stress tensors (both internal and external) through a Lagrangian formulation. Due to this feature, the method is able to predict the crystal transformation of molecular structures which is compatible with the imposed external stress and boundary conditions. In this paper, the new method has been applied for the first time to the simulations of dehydrated montmorillonite sheets, and has successfully revealed unforeseen structural transformations of clay minerals upon relaxation under different normal stress conditions. In order to first achieve the correct coupled simulation of atomic structural change and MD cell deformation, parametric studies were made on the effects of the time step and the "imaginary" mass M of the MD cell on the model behavior. It is found that the time step essentially controls the convergence behavior of the system, while the "imaginary" mass M has large influences on the final equilibrated structure of the system. Results of the parametric study suggest that values of 1.0×10-17 sec for the time step and 1.0×105 for the "imaginary" mass M are appropriate for the simulation of 2:1 clay minerals using the current method. Simulation results reveal the strong correlations between the degrees of constraints imposed on the simulation cell (i.e., whether the cell size or shape change is allowed) and the final equilibrated crystal structure of clay minerals. It is found during the relaxation process that large shear distortions of clay minerals will occur if full allowance is given to the cell size and shape change, while large shear stress in the sheet plane will be retained if only the cell size change is allowed. These structural

  10. Numerical Methods for the Analysis of Power Transformer Tank Deformation and Rupture Due to Internal Arcing Faults.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chenguang; Hao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Baohui; Zheng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Power transformer rupture and fire resulting from an arcing fault inside the tank usually leads to significant security risks and serious economic loss. In order to reveal the essence of tank deformation or explosion, this paper presents a 3-D numerical computational tool to simulate the structural dynamic behavior due to overpressure inside transformer tank. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 17.3 MJ and a 6.3 MJ arcing fault were simulated on a real full-scale 360MVA/220kV oil-immersed transformer model, respectively. By employing the finite element method, the transformer internal overpressure distribution, wave propagation and von-Mises stress were solved. The numerical results indicate that the increase of pressure and mechanical stress distribution are non-uniform and the stress tends to concentrate on connecting parts of the tank as the fault time evolves. Given this feature, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of transformer tank rupture through limiting the fault energy and enhancing the mechanical strength of the local stress concentrative areas. The theoretical model and numerical simulation method proposed in this paper can be used as a substitute for risky and costly field tests in fault overpressure analysis and tank mitigation design of transformers.

  11. Numerical Methods for the Analysis of Power Transformer Tank Deformation and Rupture Due to Internal Arcing Faults

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chenguang; Hao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Baohui; Zheng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Power transformer rupture and fire resulting from an arcing fault inside the tank usually leads to significant security risks and serious economic loss. In order to reveal the essence of tank deformation or explosion, this paper presents a 3-D numerical computational tool to simulate the structural dynamic behavior due to overpressure inside transformer tank. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 17.3MJ and a 6.3MJ arcing fault were simulated on a real full-scale 360MVA/220kV oil-immersed transformer model, respectively. By employing the finite element method, the transformer internal overpressure distribution, wave propagation and von-Mises stress were solved. The numerical results indicate that the increase of pressure and mechanical stress distribution are non-uniform and the stress tends to concentrate on connecting parts of the tank as the fault time evolves. Given this feature, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of transformer tank rupture through limiting the fault energy and enhancing the mechanical strength of the local stress concentrative areas. The theoretical model and numerical simulation method proposed in this paper can be used as a substitute for risky and costly field tests in fault overpressure analysis and tank mitigation design of transformers. PMID:26230392

  12. Numerical Methods for the Analysis of Power Transformer Tank Deformation and Rupture Due to Internal Arcing Faults.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chenguang; Hao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Baohui; Zheng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Power transformer rupture and fire resulting from an arcing fault inside the tank usually leads to significant security risks and serious economic loss. In order to reveal the essence of tank deformation or explosion, this paper presents a 3-D numerical computational tool to simulate the structural dynamic behavior due to overpressure inside transformer tank. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 17.3 MJ and a 6.3 MJ arcing fault were simulated on a real full-scale 360MVA/220kV oil-immersed transformer model, respectively. By employing the finite element method, the transformer internal overpressure distribution, wave propagation and von-Mises stress were solved. The numerical results indicate that the increase of pressure and mechanical stress distribution are non-uniform and the stress tends to concentrate on connecting parts of the tank as the fault time evolves. Given this feature, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of transformer tank rupture through limiting the fault energy and enhancing the mechanical strength of the local stress concentrative areas. The theoretical model and numerical simulation method proposed in this paper can be used as a substitute for risky and costly field tests in fault overpressure analysis and tank mitigation design of transformers. PMID:26230392

  13. Discrete Wavelet Packet Transforms and volcanic tremor: method and application to Erta 'Ale, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. P.; Carniel, R.; Malone, S.

    2005-12-01

    The time-varying properties of volcanic tremor demand advanced techniques capable of analyzing changes in both time and frequency domains. Specifically, rapid data preprocessing techniques with the ability to distinguish signal from noise are especially valuable in analyzing the temporal, spatial, and spectral properties of these signals. To this end, we use the Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform and the Best Shift Basis algorithm to select an orthonormal basis for continuous volcanic tremor data, then apply a simple statistical test to eliminate frequency bands that primarily consist of Gaussian white noise. We then use the Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform to compute and analyze features in the detail coefficients of each "signal" band. Because MODWPT detail coefficients are equivalent to a time series convolved with a zero phase filter, we apply standard polarization and amplitude-based location techniques to each frequency band's detail coefficients to analyze possible source locations and mechanisms. To demonstrate the usefulness of these techniques, we present a sample analysis of data from Erta 'Ale volcano, Ethiopia, recorded on a temporary network in November 2003. Data were sampled at 100 Hz and the DWPT was computed with the LA(16) wavelet to a maximum level of j = 7. The optimal basis for this data set consists of 54 frequency bands, but only 9 contain meaningful "signal" energy. We identify two frequency bands whose locations suggest a distributed source; three frequency bands whose signals may come from the lava lake itself; three high-frequency bands of scattered energy; and one very high frequency band of non-Gaussian instrument noise. Finally, we discuss optimization efforts, computational efficiency, and the feasibility of using similar wavelet methods to preprocess data in real time or near real time.

  14. Analysis of noise properties of a class of exact methods of inverting the 2-D exponential radon transform

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, X.; Metz, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    A general approach that the authors proposed elsewhere reveals the intrinsic relationship among methods for inversion of the 2-D exponential Radon transform described by Bellini et al., by Tretiak and Metz, by Hawkins et al., and by Inouye et al. Moreover, the approach provides an infinite class of linear methods for inverting the 2-D exponential Radon transform. In the work reported here, they systematically investigated the noise characteristics of the methods in this class, obtaining analytical forms for the autocovariance and the variance of the images reconstructed by use of various methods. The noise properties of a new quasi-optimal method were then compared theoretically to those of other methods of the class. The analysis demonstrates that the quasi-optimal method achieves smaller global variance in the reconstructed images than do the other methods of the class. Extensive numerical simulation studies confirm this prediction.

  15. A Fractal Dimension and Wavelet Transform Based Method for Protein Sequence Similarity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Tang, Yuan Yan; Lu, Yang; Luo, Huiwu

    2015-01-01

    One of the key tasks related to proteins is the similarity comparison of protein sequences in the area of bioinformatics and molecular biology, which helps the prediction and classification of protein structure and function. It is a significant and open issue to find similar proteins from a large scale of protein database efficiently. This paper presents a new distance based protein similarity analysis using a new encoding method of protein sequence which is based on fractal dimension. The protein sequences are first represented into the 1-dimensional feature vectors by their biochemical quantities. A series of Hybrid method involving discrete Wavelet transform, Fractal dimension calculation (HWF) with sliding window are then applied to form the feature vector. At last, through the similarity calculation, we can obtain the distance matrix, by which, the phylogenic tree can be constructed. We apply this approach by analyzing the ND5 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5) protein cluster data set. The experimental results show that the proposed model is more accurate than the existing ones such as Su's model, Zhang's model, Yao's model and MEGA software, and it is consistent with some known biological facts. PMID:26357222

  16. Image restoration method based on Hilbert transform for full-field optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jihoon; Choi, Woo June; Choi, Eun Seo; Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2008-01-01

    A full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) system utilizing a simple but novel image restoration method suitable for a high-speed system is demonstrated. An en-face image is retrieved from only two phase-shifted interference fringe images through using the mathematical Hilbert transform. With a thermal light source, a high-resolution FF-OCT system having axial and transverse resolutions of 1 and 2.2 μm, respectively, was implemented. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is confirmed by presenting the obtained en-face images of biological samples such as a piece of garlic and a gold beetle. The proposed method is robust to the error in the amount of the phase shift and does not leave residual fringes. The use of just two interference images and the strong immunity to phase errors provide great advantages in the imaging speed and the system design flexibility of a high-speed high-resolution FF-OCT system.

  17. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z. Zhou, Z. B. Li, Z. X.; Luo, J.

    2014-05-15

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.

  18. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge.

    PubMed

    Hu, M; Bai, Y Z; Zhou, Z B; Li, Z X; Luo, J

    2014-05-01

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided. PMID:24880402

  19. Enzymatic transesterification monitored by an easy-to-use Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy method.

    PubMed

    Natalello, Antonino; Sasso, Francesco; Secundo, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Transesterification of triglycerides with short chain alcohols is the key reaction in biodiesel production, in addition to other applications in chemical synthesis. However, it is crucial to optimize reaction conditions to make enzymatic transesterification a cost-effective and competitive process. In this work, a new, easy Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic approach for monitoring the transesterification reaction is reported and compared with a gas-chromatographic method. The concentration of the total methyl esters in the reaction mixture is determined from the peak intensity at ∼1435 cm(-1) in the second derivatives of the FTIR absorption spectra using a linear regression calibration. Interestingly, we found that the use of second derivatives allows an accurate determination of the methyl esters without the interference of free fatty acids. Moreover, information on substrate hydrolysis can be obtained within the same measurement by the infrared absorption at ∼1709 cm(-1) . We applied this approach to monitor methanolysis and hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by different commercial lipases, which displayed different sensitivities to methanol inhibition. Therefore, the FTIR approach reported in this work represents a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate method to monitor enzymatic transesterification, requiring very limited sample preparation and a simple statistical analysis of the spectroscopic data.

  20. Sound quality recognition using optimal wavelet-packet transform and artificial neural network methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Y. F.; Wang, Y. S.; Shi, L.; Guo, H.; Chen, H.

    2016-01-01

    According to the human perceptional characteristics, a method combined by the optimal wavelet-packet transform and artificial neural network, so-called OWPT-ANN model, for psychoacoustical recognition is presented. Comparisons of time-frequency analysis methods are performed, and an OWPT with 21 critical bands is designed for feature extraction of a sound, as is a three-layer back-propagation ANN for sound quality (SQ) recognition. Focusing on the loudness and sharpness, the OWPT-ANN model is applied on vehicle noises under different working conditions. Experimental verifications show that the OWPT can effectively transfer a sound into a time-varying energy pattern as that in the human auditory system. The errors of loudness and sharpness of vehicle noise from the OWPT-ANN are all less than 5%, which suggest a good accuracy of the OWPT-ANN model in SQ recognition. The proposed methodology might be regarded as a promising technique for signal processing in the human-hearing related fields in engineering.

  1. A Fractal Dimension and Wavelet Transform Based Method for Protein Sequence Similarity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Tang, Yuan Yan; Lu, Yang; Luo, Huiwu

    2015-01-01

    One of the key tasks related to proteins is the similarity comparison of protein sequences in the area of bioinformatics and molecular biology, which helps the prediction and classification of protein structure and function. It is a significant and open issue to find similar proteins from a large scale of protein database efficiently. This paper presents a new distance based protein similarity analysis using a new encoding method of protein sequence which is based on fractal dimension. The protein sequences are first represented into the 1-dimensional feature vectors by their biochemical quantities. A series of Hybrid method involving discrete Wavelet transform, Fractal dimension calculation (HWF) with sliding window are then applied to form the feature vector. At last, through the similarity calculation, we can obtain the distance matrix, by which, the phylogenic tree can be constructed. We apply this approach by analyzing the ND5 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5) protein cluster data set. The experimental results show that the proposed model is more accurate than the existing ones such as Su's model, Zhang's model, Yao's model and MEGA software, and it is consistent with some known biological facts.

  2. [Calculating the stark broadening of welding arc spectra by Fourier transform method].

    PubMed

    Pan, Cheng-Gang; Hua, Xue-Ming; Zhang, Wang; Li, Fang; Xiao, Xiao

    2012-07-01

    It's the most effective and accurate method to calculate the electronic density of plasma by using the Stark width of the plasma spectrum. However, it's difficult to separate Stark width from the composite spectrum linear produced by several mechanisms. In the present paper, Fourier transform was used to separate the Lorentz linear from the spectrum observed, thus to get the accurate Stark width. And we calculated the distribution of the TIG welding arc plasma. This method does not need to measure arc temperature accurately, to measure the width of the plasma spectrum broadened by instrument, and has the function to reject the noise data. The results show that, on the axis, the electron density of TIG welding arc decreases with the distance from tungsten increasing, and changes from 1.21 X 10(17) cm(-3) to 1.58 x 10(17) cm(-3); in the radial, the electron density decreases with the distance from axis increasing, and near the tungsten zone the biggest electronic density is off axis. PMID:23016315

  3. Recursion-transform method for computing resistance of the complex resistor network with three arbitrary boundaries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhi-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    We develop a general recursion-transform (R-T) method for a two-dimensional resistor network with a zero resistor boundary. As applications of the R-T method, we consider a significant example to illuminate the usefulness for calculating resistance of a rectangular m×n resistor network with a null resistor and three arbitrary boundaries, a problem never solved before, since Green's function techniques and Laplacian matrix approaches are invalid in this case. Looking for the exact calculation of the resistance of a binary resistor network is important but difficult in the case of an arbitrary boundary since the boundary is like a wall or trap which affects the behavior of finite network. In this paper we obtain several general formulas of resistance between any two nodes in a nonregular m×n resistor network in both finite and infinite cases. In particular, 12 special cases are given by reducing one of the general formulas to understand its applications and meanings, and an integral identity is found when we compare the equivalent resistance of two different structures of the same problem in a resistor network. PMID:26066134

  4. Method for calibrating a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Tolmachev, Aleksey

    2003-08-19

    A method for improving the calibration of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer wherein the frequency spectrum of a sample has been measured and the frequency (f) and intensity (I) of at least three species having known mass to charge (m/z) ratios and one specie having an unknown (m/z) ratio have been identified. The method uses the known (m/z) ratios, frequencies, and intensities at least three species to calculate coefficients A, B, and C, wherein the mass to charge ratio of a least one of the three species (m/z).sub.i is equal to ##EQU1## wherein f.sub.i is the detected frequency of the specie, G(I.sub.i) is a predetermined function of the intensity of the species, and Q is a predetermined exponent. Using the calculated values for A, B, and C, the mass to charge ratio of the unknown specie (m/z).sub.ii is calculated as the sum of ##EQU2## wherein f.sub.ii is the measured frequency of the unknown specie, and (I.sub.ii) is the measured intensity of the unknown specie.

  5. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z.; Zhou, Z. B.; Li, Z. X.; Luo, J.

    2014-05-01

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.

  6. Cross modulation method of transformation of the spatial coherence of pulsed laser radiation in a nonlinear medium

    SciTech Connect

    Kitsak, M A; Kitsak, A I

    2008-04-30

    The cross modulation method of transformation of the spatial coherence of low-power pulsed laser radiation in a nonlinear medium is proposed. The method is realised experimentally in a multimode optical fibre. The estimates of the degree of spatial coherence of radiation subjected to the phase cross modulation demonstrated the high efficiency of this radiation decorrelation mechanism. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  7. How to get exogenous DNA to cross the cell membrane of plants. Comment on “Physical methods for genetic transformation in plants” by Rivera et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Hernández, Andrés; Campos Guillén, Juan

    2012-09-01

    Physical methods for genetic transformation in plants. The most commonly applied methods in plant transformation include Agrobacterium infection and protoplast or microprojectile bombardment. A plant transformation system is a prerequisite for the development of a plant improvement program. The global area utilized for biotech crops increases every year.

  8. Enhanced method to reconstruct mode shapes of continuous scanning measurements using the Hilbert Huang transform and the modal analysis method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung; Park, Kyihwan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response.

  9. Enhanced method to reconstruct mode shapes of continuous scanning measurements using the Hilbert Huang transform and the modal analysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung Park, Kyihwan

    2014-09-15

    Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response.

  10. Enhanced method to reconstruct mode shapes of continuous scanning measurements using the Hilbert Huang transform and the modal analysis method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung; Park, Kyihwan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response. PMID:25273766

  11. A transformation method for obtaining marker-free plants of a cross-pollinating and vegetatively propagated crop.

    PubMed

    de Vetten, Nick; Wolters, Anne-Marie; Raemakers, Krit; van der Meer, Ingrid; ter Stege, Renaldo; Heeres, Els; Heeres, Paul; Visser, Richard

    2003-04-01

    It is generally thought that transformation of plant cells using Agrobacterium tumefaciens occurs at a very low frequency. Therefore, selection marker genes are used to identify the rare plants that have taken up foreign DNA. Genes encoding antibiotic and herbicide resistance are widely used for this purpose in plant transformation. Over the past several years, consumer and environmental groups have expressed concern about the use of antibiotic- and herbicide-resistance genes from an ecological and food safety perspective. Although no scientific basis has been determined for these concerns, generating marker-free plants would certainly contribute to the public acceptance of transgenic crops. Several methods have been reported to create marker gene-free transformed plants, for example co-transformation, transposable elements, site-specific recombination, or intrachromosomal recombination. Not only are most of these systems time-consuming and inefficient, but they are also employed on the assumption that isolation of transformants without a selective marker gene is not feasible. Here we present a method that permits the identification of transgenic plants without the use of selectable markers. This strategy relies on the transformation of tissue explants or cells with a virulent A. tumefaciens strain and selection of transformed cells or shoots after PCR analysis. Incubation of potato explants with A. tumefaciens strain AGL0 resulted in transformed shoots at an efficiency of 1-5% of the harvested shoots, depending on the potato genotype used. Because this system does not require genetic segregation or site-specific DNA-deletion systems to remove marker genes, it may provide a reliable and efficient tool for generating transgenic plants for commercial use, especially in vegetatively propagated species like potato and cassava.

  12. Quantitative Estimation of Trace Chemicals in Industrial Effluents with the Sticklet Transform Method

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, N C; Scharlemann, E T; Stevens, C G

    2001-04-02

    Application of a novel transform operator, the Sticklet transform, to the quantitative estimation of trace chemicals in industrial effluent plumes is reported. The sticklet transform is a superset of the well-known derivative operator and the Haar wavelet, and is characterized by independently adjustable lobe width and separation. Computer simulations demonstrate that they can make accurate and robust concentration estimates of multiple chemical species in industrial effluent plumes in the presence of strong clutter background, interferent chemicals and random noise. In this paper they address the application of the sticklet transform in estimating chemical concentrations in effluent plumes in the presence of atmospheric transmission effects. They show that this transform retains the ability to yield accurate estimates using on-plume/off-plume measurements that represent atmospheric differentials up to 10% of the full atmospheric attenuation.

  13. On the Estimation of T-Wave Alternans Using the Spectral Fast Fourier Transform Method

    PubMed Central

    Armoundas, Antonis A; Mela, Theofanie; Merchant, Faisal M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND T-wave alternans (TWA), has been associated with increased vulnerability to ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, both random (white) noise and (patho)physiologic processes (i.e. premature ventricular contractions [PVCs], heart and respiration rates) may hamper TWA estimation and therefore, lessen its clinical utility for risk stratification. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of random noise and certain (patho)physiologic processes on the estimation of TWA using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method and to develop methods to overcome these potential sources of error. METHODS We used a combination of human electrocardiogram data and computer simulations to assess the effects of a PVC, random and colored noise on the accuracy of TWA estimation. RESULTS We quantitatively demonstrate that replacing a “bad” beat with an odd/even median beat is a more accurate approach than replacing it with the overall average or the overall median beat. We also show that phase resetting may have a significant effect on alternans estimation and that estimation of alternans using frequencies greater than 0.4922 cycles/beat in a 128-point FFT provides the most accurate approach for estimating the alternans when phase resetting is likely to occur. Additionally, our data demonstrate that the number of indeterminate TWA tests due to high levels of noise can be reduced when the alternans voltage exceeds a new higher threshold. Also, the amplitude of random noise has a significant effect on alternans estimation and should be considered to adjust the alternans voltage threshold for noise levels greater than 1.8 μV. Finally, we quantitatively demonstrate that colored noise may lead to a false positive or a false negative result. We propose methods to estimate the effect of these (patho)physiologic processes on the alternans estimation in order to determine whether a TWA test is likely to be a true positive or a true negative. CONCLUSION This

  14. Computation of dynamic stress intensity factors using the boundary element method based on Laplace transform and regularized boundary integral equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masataka; Nakamura, Masayuki; Aoki, Kazuhiko; Matsumoto, Toshiro

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents a computational method of dynamic stress intensity factors (DSIF) in two-dimensional problems. In order to obtain accurate numerical results of DSIF, the boundary element method based on the Laplace transform and regularized boundary integral equations is applied to the computation of transient elastodynamic responses. A computer program is newly developed for two-dimensional elastodynamics. Numerical computation of DSIF is carried out for a rectangular plate with a center crack under impact tension. Accuracy of the results is investigated from the viewpoint of computational conditions such as the number of sampling points of the inverse Laplace transform and the number of boundary elements.

  15. Effectiveness of dereverberation, feature transformation, discriminative training methods, and system combination approach for various reverberant environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachioka, Yuuki; Narita, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Shinji

    2015-12-01

    The recently released REverberant Voice Enhancement and Recognition Benchmark (REVERB) challenge includes a reverberant automatic speech recognition (ASR) task. This paper describes our proposed system based on multi-channel speech enhancement preprocessing and state-of-the-art ASR techniques. For preprocessing, we propose a single-channel dereverberation method with reverberation time estimation, which is combined with multichannel beamforming that enhances direct sound compared with the reflected sound. In addition, this paper also focuses on state-of-the-art ASR techniques such as discriminative training of acoustic models including the Gaussian mixture model, subspace Gaussian mixture model, and deep neural networks, as well as various feature transformation techniques. Although, for the REVERB challenge, it is necessary to handle various acoustic environments, a single ASR system tends to be overly tuned for a specific environment, which degrades the performance in the mismatch environments. To overcome this mismatch problem with a single ASR system, we use a system combination approach using multiple ASR systems with different features and different model types because a combination of various systems that have different error patterns is beneficial. In particular, we use our discriminative training technique for system combination that achieves better generalization by making systems complementary with the modified discriminative criteria. Experiments show the effectiveness of these approaches, reaching 6.76 and 18.60 % word error rates on the REVERB simulated and real test sets. These are 68.8 and 61.5 % relative improvements over the baseline.

  16. Light calibration and quality assessment methods for Reflectance Transformation Imaging applied to artworks' analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giachetti, A.; Daffara, C.; Reghelin, C.; Gobbetti, E.; Pintus, R.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we analyze some problems related to the acquisition of multiple illumination images for Polynomial Texture Maps (PTM) or generic Reflectance Transform Imaging (RTI). We show that intensity and directionality nonuniformity can be a relevant issue when acquiring manual sets of images with the standard highlight-based setup both using a flash lamp and a LED light. To maintain a cheap and flexible acquisition setup that can be used on field and by non-experienced users we propose to use a dynamic calibration and correction of the lights based on multiple intensity and direction estimation around the imaged object during the acquisition. Preliminary tests on the results obtained have been performed by acquiring a specifically designed 3D printed pattern in order to see the accuracy of the acquisition obtained both for spatial discrimination of small structures and normal estimation, and on samples of different types of paper in order to evaluate material discrimination. We plan to design and build from our analysis and from the tools developed and under development a set of novel procedures and guidelines that can be used to turn the cheap and common RTI acquisition setup from a simple way to enrich object visualization into a powerful method for extracting quantitative characterization both of surface geometry and of reflective properties of different materials. These results could have relevant applications in the Cultural Heritage domain, in order to recognize different materials used in paintings or investigate the ageing status of artifacts' surface.

  17. A Practical Method for Transforming Free-Text Eligibility Criteria into Computable Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Samson W.; Peleg, Mor; Carini, Simona; Bobak, Michael; Ross, Jessica; Rubin, Daniel; Sim, Ida

    2011-01-01

    Formalizing eligibility criteria in a computer-interpretable language would facilitate eligibility determination for study subjects and the identification of studies on similar patient populations. Because such formalization is extremely labor intensive, we transform the problem from one of fully capturing the semantics of criteria directly in a formal expression language to one of annotating free-text criteria in a format called ERGO Annotation. The annotation can be done manually, or it can be partially automated using natural-language processing techniques. We evaluated our approach in three ways. First, we assessed the extent to which ERGO Annotations capture the semantics of 1000 eligibility criteria randomly drawn from ClinicalTrials.gov. Second, we demonstrated the practicality of the annotation process in a feasibility study. Finally, we demonstrate the computability of ERGO Annotation by using it to (1) structure a library of eligibility criteria, (2) search for studies enrolling specified study populations, and (3) screen patients for potential eligibility for a study. We therefore demonstrate a new and practical method for incrementally capturing the semantics of free-text eligibility criteria into computable form. PMID:20851207

  18. A continuous wavelet transform and classification method for delirium motoric subtyping.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Alan; Conway, Richard; Leonard, Maeve; Meagher, David; Olaighin, Gearóid M

    2009-06-01

    The usefulness of motor subtypes of delirium is unclear due to inconsistency in subtyping methods and a lack of validation with objective measures of activity. The activity of 40 patients was measured over 24 h with a discrete accelerometer-based activity monitor. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) with various mother wavelets were applied to accelerometry data from three randomly selected patients with DSM-IV delirium that were readily divided into hyperactive, hypoactive, and mixed motor subtypes. A classification tree used the periods of overall movement as measured by the discrete accelerometer-based monitor as determining factors for which to classify these delirious patients. This data used to create the classification tree were based upon the minimum, maximum, standard deviation, and number of coefficient values, generated over a range of scales by the CWT. The classification tree was subsequently used to define the remaining motoric subtypes. The use of a classification system shows how delirium subtypes can be categorized in relation to overall motoric behavior. The classification system was also implemented to successfully define other patient motoric subtypes. Motor subtypes of delirium defined by observed ward behavior differ in electronically measured activity levels. PMID:19497833

  19. Zernike polynomials as a basis for modal fitting in lateral shearing interferometry: a discrete domain matrix transformation method.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fengzhao; Zheng, Yazhong; Bu, Yang; Wang, Xiangzhao

    2016-08-01

    A Zernike-polynomials-based wavefront reconstruction method for lateral shearing interferometry is proposed. Shear matrices are calculated using matrix transformation instead of mathematical derivation. Simulation results show that the shear matrices calculated using the proposed method are the same as those obtained from mathematical derivation. The advantage of the proposed method is that high order shear matrices can be obtained easily; thus, wavefront reconstruction can be extended to higher order Zernike terms, and reconstruction accuracy can be improved. PMID:27505367

  20. An exact and efficient 3D reconstruction method from captured light-fields using the fractional Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhabary, Ziv; Levi, Ofer; Small, Eran; Stern, Adrian

    2016-06-01

    Recently we have introduced a new method for refocusing images from captured light fields. The method is based on the fractional Fourier transform and allows refocusing a stack of images with a single step. The new techniques is computational efficient and more exact than alternative ones as it doesn't need any interpolations. Here we overview the method present a comparison of our technique to other refocusing techniques.

  1. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1993-02-09

    A G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G[sub 1] cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G[sub 1] phase, suggesting that such G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  2. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1991-12-31

    A G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G{sub 1} cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G{sub 1} phase, suggesting that such G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  3. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Crissman, Harry A.; Gadbois, Donna M.; Tobey, Robert A.; Bradbury, E. Morton

    1993-01-01

    A G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G.sub.1 cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G.sub.1 phase, suggesting that such G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  4. Novel image fusion method based on adaptive pulse coupled neural network and discrete multi-parameter fractional random transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Jun; Hao, Zhengchao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we first propose the discrete multi-parameter fractional random transform (DMPFRNT), which can make the spectrum distributed randomly and uniformly. Then we introduce this new spectrum transform into the image fusion field and present a new approach for the remote sensing image fusion, which utilizes both adaptive pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) and the discrete multi-parameter fractional random transform in order to meet the requirements of both high spatial resolution and low spectral distortion. In the proposed scheme, the multi-spectral (MS) and panchromatic (Pan) images are converted into the discrete multi-parameter fractional random transform domains, respectively. In DMPFRNT spectrum domain, high amplitude spectrum (HAS) and low amplitude spectrum (LAS) components carry different informations of original images. We take full advantage of the synchronization pulse issuance characteristics of PCNN to extract the HAS and LAS components properly, and give us the PCNN ignition mapping images which can be used to determine the fusion parameters. In the fusion process, local standard deviation of the amplitude spectrum is chosen as the link strength of pulse coupled neural network. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate that the proposed method is more reliable and superior than several existing methods based on Hue Saturation Intensity representation, Principal Component Analysis, the discrete fractional random transform etc.

  5. A Mixed-Methods Study of the Transformation Model for Rapid Improvement of Low Achieving Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson Duina, Angela

    2013-01-01

    New regulations attached to ARRA funding of federal School Improvement Fund grants aimed at producing rapid turnaround of low performing schools were highly criticized as unsuitable for rural schools. This mixed-methods study looked at the implementation of the School Improvement Fund Transformation Model in two rural Maine high schools during the…

  6. Two-pion exchange electromagnetic current in chiral effective field theory using the method of unitary transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Koelling, S.; Epelbaum, E.; Krebs, H.; Meissner, U.-G.

    2009-10-15

    We derive the leading two-pion-exchange contributions to the two-nucleon electromagnetic current operator in the framework of chiral effective field theory using the method of unitary transformation. Explicit results for the current and charge densities are given in momentum and coordinate space.

  7. Accuracy of noninvasive breath methane measurements using Fourier transform infrared methods on individual cows.

    PubMed

    Lassen, J; Løvendahl, P; Madsen, J

    2012-02-01

    Individual methane (CH(4)) production was recorded repeatedly on 93 dairy cows during milking in an automatic milking system (AMS), with the aim of estimating individual cow differences in CH(4) production. Methane and CO(2) were measured with a portable air sampler and analyzer unit based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) detection. The cows were 50 Holsteins and 43 Jerseys from mixed parities and at all stages of lactation (mean=156 d in milk). Breath was captured by the FTIR unit inlet nozzle, which was placed in front of the cow's head in each of the 2 AMS as an admixture to normal barn air. The FTIR unit was running continuously for 3 d in each of 2 AMS units, 1 with Holstein and another with Jersey cows. Air was analyzed every 20 s. From each visit of a cow to the AMS, CH(4) and CO(2) records were summarized into the mean, median, 75, and 90% quantiles. Furthermore, the ratio between CH(4) and CO(2) was used as a derived measure with the idea of using CO(2) in breath as a tracer gas to quantify the production of methane. Methane production records were analyzed with a mixed model, containing cow as random effect. Fixed effects of milk yield and daily intake of the total mixed ration and concentrates were also estimated. The repeatability of the CH(4)-to-CO(2) ratio was 0.39 for Holsteins and 0.34 for Jerseys. Both concentrate intake and total mixed ration intake were positively related to CH(4) production, whereas milk production level was not correlated with CH(4) production. In conclusion, the results from this study suggest that the CH(4)-to-CO(2) ratio measured using the noninvasive method is an asset of the individual cow and may be useful in both management and genetic evaluations. PMID:22281353

  8. [A novel hyperspectra absorption enhancing method based on morphological top-hat transformation].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Lin, Qi-zhong; Wang, Qin-jun; Liu, Qing-jie; Chen, Yu

    2010-09-01

    Hyperspectral characteristics analysis of ground features is the basis for applications of high-resolution imaging technology to ground target identification and ground features classification. Based on morphological multi-scale Top-Hat transformation, a novel spectral absorption enhancing algorithms was put forward, which enhanced spectral absorption features while maintaining shape features of the absorption peak bands. Eleven reflectance spectra of different mineral groups were chosen from the mineral spectral library of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and we used a K-means clustering analysis on both the absorption-enhanced spectra and the original reflectance spectra. Results showed that, firstly, clustering groups of the absorption-enhanced spectra (AES) had better similarity within the same clustering group, and greater difference between different groups, furthermore, they were more consistent with the geological background of these minerals compared with clustering result of the original spectra (OS). Secondly, while all the original spectra were re-sampled to their ASTER spectra and the AES clustering result was displayed in the form of ASTER spectra of the minerals, we could easily describe both the representative spectral feature of each clustering group, and the typical spectral differences between every two groups. These fully demonstrate that the absorption-enhanced spectra have enhanced absorption features of the mineral spectra, and improved the separability of hyper-spectra. Accordingly, feature analysis based on absorption enhanced spectra can be used as reference for information extracting based on multi-spectral remote sensing image data, and it is a very useful method of hyperspectral analysis. PMID:21105412

  9. Calculation of the Kramers-Kronig transform of X-ray spectra by a piecewise Laurent polynomial method.

    PubMed

    Watts, Benjamin

    2014-09-22

    An algorithm is presented for the calculation of the Kramers-Kronig transform of a spectrum via a piecewise Laurent polynomial method. This algorithm is demonstrated to be highly accurate, while also being computationally efficient. The algorithm places no requirements on data point spacing and is capable of integrating across the full spectrum (i.e. from zero to infinity). Further, we present a computer application designed to aid in calculating the Kramers-Kronig transform on near-edge experimental X-ray absorption spectra (extended with atomic scattering factor data) in order to produce the dispersive part of the X-ray refractive index, including near-edge features.

  10. Calculation of the Kramers-Kronig transform of X-ray spectra by a piecewise Laurent polynomial method.

    PubMed

    Watts, Benjamin

    2014-09-22

    An algorithm is presented for the calculation of the Kramers-Kronig transform of a spectrum via a piecewise Laurent polynomial method. This algorithm is demonstrated to be highly accurate, while also being computationally efficient. The algorithm places no requirements on data point spacing and is capable of integrating across the full spectrum (i.e. from zero to infinity). Further, we present a computer application designed to aid in calculating the Kramers-Kronig transform on near-edge experimental X-ray absorption spectra (extended with atomic scattering factor data) in order to produce the dispersive part of the X-ray refractive index, including near-edge features. PMID:25321829

  11. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a method to study lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oleaginous microorganisms, such as different yeast and algal species, can represent a sustainable alternative to plant oil for the production of biodiesel. They can accumulate fatty acids (FA) up to 70% of their dry weight with a predominance of (mono)unsaturated species, similarly to what plants do, but differently from animals. In addition, their growth is not in competition either with food, feed crops, or with agricultural land. Despite these advantages, the exploitation of the single cell oil system is still at an early developmental stage. Cultivation mode and conditions, as well as lipid extraction technologies, represent the main limitations. The monitoring of lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms is consequently crucial to develop and validate new approaches, but at present the majority of the available techniques is time consuming, invasive and, when relying on lipid extraction, can be affected by FA degradation. Results In this work the fatty acid accumulation of the oleaginous yeasts Cryptococcus curvatus and Rhodosporidium toruloides and of the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (as a negative control) was monitored in situ by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Indeed, this spectroscopic tool can provide complementary information to those obtained by classical techniques, such as microscopy, flow cytometry and gas chromatography. As shown in this work, through the analysis of the absorption spectra of intact oleaginous microorganisms it is possible not only to monitor the progression of FA accumulation but also to identify the most represented classes of the produced lipids. Conclusions Here we propose FTIR microspectroscopy - supported by multivariate analysis - as a fast, reliable and non invasive method to monitor and analyze FA accumulation in intact oleaginous yeasts. The results obtained by the FTIR approach were in agreement with those obtained by the other classical methods like flow cytometry and

  12. Improved cotyledonary node method using an alternative explant derived from mature seed for efficient Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation.

    PubMed

    Paz, Margie M; Martinez, Juan Carlos; Kalvig, Andrea B; Fonger, Tina M; Wang, Kan

    2006-03-01

    The utility of transformation for soybean improvement requires an efficient system for production of stable transgenic lines. We describe here an improved cotyledonary node method using an alternative explant for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated soybean transformation. We use the term "half-seed" to refer to this alternative cotyledonary explant that is derived from mature seed of soybean following an overnight imbibition and to distinguish it from cotyledonary node derived from 5-7-day-old seedlings. Transformation efficiencies using half-seed explants ranged between 1.4 and 8.7% with an overall efficiency of 3.8% based on the number of transformed events that have been confirmed in the T1 generation by phenotypic assay using the herbicide Liberty (active ingredient glufosinate) and by Southern analysis. This efficiency is 1.5-fold higher than the cotyledonary node method used in our laboratory. Significantly, the half-seed system is simple and does not require deliberate wounding of explants, which is a critical and technically demanding step in the cotyledonary node method. PMID:16249869

  13. Fourier-transform spectroscopy: new methods and applications: introduction by the feature editors.

    PubMed

    Traub, W A; Winkel, R J; Goldman, A

    1996-06-01

    We are pleased to introduce this special issue of papers on Fourier-transform spectroscopy, which grew out of a recent topical meeting sponsored by the Optical Society of America. The topical meeting welcomed all researchers who practice the art of Fourier-transform spectroscopy in the laboratory, in the atmosphere, and in space. The power and the wide applicability of Fourier-transform spectroscopy unite these fields with a common mathematical and instrumental bond. The meeting probed each of these areas in depth, bringing out new ideas for instrumentation, analysis, and applications. There was a strong sentiment at the meeting that the quality of papers and posters was exceptionally high and that it would be important for future progress in the field to have the results of this meeting captured in print. This special issue is the fruit of that effort.

  14. A Method of Speech Periodicity Enhancement Using Transform-domain Signal Decomposition☆

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tan; Kleijn, W. Bastiaan; Kong, Ying-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Periodicity is an important property of speech signals. It is the basis of the signal’s fundamental frequency and the pitch of voice, which is crucial to speech communication. This paper presents a novel framework of periodicity enhancement for noisy speech. The enhancement is applied to the linear prediction residual of speech. The residual signal goes through a constant-pitch time warping process and two sequential lapped-frequency transforms, by which the periodic component is concentrated in certain transform coefficients. By emphasizing the respective transform coefficients, periodicity enhancement of noisy residual signal is achieved. The enhanced residual signal and estimated linear prediction filter parameters are used to synthesize the output speech. An adaptive algorithm is proposed for adjusting the weights for the periodic and aperiodic components. Effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated via experimental evaluation. It is observed that harmonic structure of the original speech could be properly restored to improve the perceptual quality of enhanced speech. PMID:26150679

  15. An efficient method for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and plant regeneration in cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sonika; Mishra, Avinash; Patel, Manish Kumar; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-09-01

    Cumin is an annual herbaceous medicinally important plant having diverse applications. An efficient and reproducible method of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was herein established for the first time. A direct regeneration method without callus induction was optimised using embryos as explant material in Gamborg's B5 medium supplemented with 0.5-μM 6-benzyladenine and 2.0-μM α-naphthalene acetic acid. About 1,020 embryos (a mean of 255 embryos per batch) were used for the optimisation of transformation conditions. These conditions were an Agrobacterium cell suspension of 0.6 OD600, a co-cultivation time of 72 h, 300-μM acetosyringone and wounding of explants using a razor blade. Pre-cultured elongated embryos were treated using optimised conditions. About 720 embryos (a mean of 180 embryos per batch) were used for transformation and 95 % embryos showed transient β-glucuronidase expression after co-cultivation. Putative transformed embryos were cultured on B5 medium for shoot proliferation and 21 regenerated plants were obtained after selection and allowed to root. T0 plantlets showed β-glucuronidase expression and gene integration was confirmed via PCR amplification of 0.96 and 1.28 kb fragments of the hygromycin-phosphotransferase II and β-glucuronidase genes, respectively. In this study, a transformation efficiency of 1.5 % was demonstrated and a total of 11 transgenic plants were obtained at the hardening stage, however, only four plants acclimatised during hardening. Gene copy number was analysed by Southern blot analysis of hardened plants and single-copy gene integration was observed. This is the first successful attempt of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of cumin.

  16. An efficient method for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and plant regeneration in cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sonika; Mishra, Avinash; Patel, Manish Kumar; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-09-01

    Cumin is an annual herbaceous medicinally important plant having diverse applications. An efficient and reproducible method of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was herein established for the first time. A direct regeneration method without callus induction was optimised using embryos as explant material in Gamborg's B5 medium supplemented with 0.5-μM 6-benzyladenine and 2.0-μM α-naphthalene acetic acid. About 1,020 embryos (a mean of 255 embryos per batch) were used for the optimisation of transformation conditions. These conditions were an Agrobacterium cell suspension of 0.6 OD600, a co-cultivation time of 72 h, 300-μM acetosyringone and wounding of explants using a razor blade. Pre-cultured elongated embryos were treated using optimised conditions. About 720 embryos (a mean of 180 embryos per batch) were used for transformation and 95 % embryos showed transient β-glucuronidase expression after co-cultivation. Putative transformed embryos were cultured on B5 medium for shoot proliferation and 21 regenerated plants were obtained after selection and allowed to root. T0 plantlets showed β-glucuronidase expression and gene integration was confirmed via PCR amplification of 0.96 and 1.28 kb fragments of the hygromycin-phosphotransferase II and β-glucuronidase genes, respectively. In this study, a transformation efficiency of 1.5 % was demonstrated and a total of 11 transgenic plants were obtained at the hardening stage, however, only four plants acclimatised during hardening. Gene copy number was analysed by Southern blot analysis of hardened plants and single-copy gene integration was observed. This is the first successful attempt of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of cumin. PMID:23813408

  17. Fast calculation method of computer generated hologram animation for viewpoint parallel shift and rotation using Fourier transform optical system.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ryosuke; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2016-01-20

    Computer generated hologram (CGH) animations can be made by switching many CGHs on an electronic display. Some fast calculation methods for CGH animations have been proposed, but one for viewpoint movement has not been proposed. Therefore, we designed a fast calculation method of CGH animations for viewpoint parallel shifts and rotation. A Fourier transform optical system was adopted to expand the viewing angle. The results of experiments were that the calculation time of our method was over 6 times faster than that of the conventional method. Furthermore, the degradation in CGH animation quality was found to be sufficiently small.

  18. Review of high-throughput techniques for detecting solid phase Transformation from material libraries produced by combinatorial methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2005-01-01

    High-throughput measurement techniques are reviewed for solid phase transformation from materials produced by combinatorial methods, which are highly efficient concepts to fabricate large variety of material libraries with different compositional gradients on a single wafer. Combinatorial methods hold high potential for reducing the time and costs associated with the development of new materials, as compared to time-consuming and labor-intensive conventional methods that test large batches of material, one- composition at a time. These high-throughput techniques can be automated to rapidly capture and analyze data, using the entire material library on a single wafer, thereby accelerating the pace of materials discovery and knowledge generation for solid phase transformations. The review covers experimental techniques that are applicable to inorganic materials such as shape memory alloys, graded materials, metal hydrides, ferric materials, semiconductors and industrial alloys.

  19. Space-time least-squares finite element method for convection-reaction system with transformed variables

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Jaewook

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to solve a convection-reaction system based on a least-squares finite element method (LSFEM). For steady-state computations, issues related to recirculation flow are stated and demonstrated with a simple example. The method can compute concentration profiles in open flow even when the generation term is small. This is the case for estimating hemolysis in blood. Time-dependent flows are computed with the space-time LSFEM discretization. We observe that the computed hemoglobin concentration can become negative in certain regions of the flow; it is a physically unacceptable result. To prevent this, we propose a quadratic transformation of variables. The transformed governing equation can be solved in a straightforward way by LSFEM with no sign of unphysical behavior. The effect of localized high shear on blood damage is shown in a circular Couette-flow-with-blade configuration, and a physiological condition is tested in an arterial graft flow. PMID:21709752

  20. A comparison between the method based on a rigorous field analysis and the impedance transformation method for the intrinsic surface impedance of superconductor films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Lee, Sang Young

    2006-10-01

    In obtaining the intrinsic surface resistance (RS) from the effective surface resistance (RS,eff) measured at microwave frequencies by using the dielectric resonator method, the impedance transformation method reported by Klein et al. [N. Klein, H. Chaloupka, G. Muller, S. Orbach, H. Piel, B. Roas, L. Schultz, U. Klein, M. Peiniger, J. Appl. Phys. 67 (1990) 6940] has been very useful. Here we compared the RS of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films on dielectric substrates obtained by a rigorous field analysis based on the TE-mode matching method with those by the impedance transformation method. The two methods produced almost the same RS,eff vs. RS relation in most practical cases of the substrate thickness being less than 1 mm and sapphire and rutile used as the materials for the dielectric rod. However, when the resonant frequency of the dielectric resonator became close to that of the resonant structure formed by the substrates and the metallic surroundings, the RS,eff vs. RS relations appeared strikingly different between the two methods. Effects of the TE011-mode cutoff frequency inside the substrate region, which could not be considered in the impedance transformation method, on the relation between the RS,eff and RS of superconductor films are also investigated. We confirmed our arguments by demonstrating a case where existence of evanescent modes should be considered for obtaining the RS of YBCO films from the RS,eff.

  1. The Federal Transformation Intervention Model in Persistently Lowest Achieving High Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Patner, Michelle B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act federal mandate of the Transformation Intervention Model (TIM) outlined by the School Improvement Grant, which was designed to turn around persistently lowest achieving schools. The study was conducted in four high schools in a large Southern California urban district that selected the…

  2. Transactors, Transformers and Beyond. A Multi-Method Development of a Theoretical Typology of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Craig L.; Sims, Henry P., Jr.; Cox, Jonathan F.; Ball, Gail; Schnell, Eugene; Smith, Ken A.; Trevino, Linda

    2003-01-01

    To extend the transactional-transformational model of leadership, four theoretical behavioral types of leadership were developed based on literature review and data from studies of executive behavior (n=253) and subordinate attitudes (n=208). Confirmatory factor analysis of a third data set (n=702) support the existence of four leadership types:…

  3. Apparatus and method for controlling the temperature of the core of a super-conducting transformer

    DOEpatents

    Golner, Thomas; Pleva, Edward; Mehta, Shirish

    2006-10-10

    An apparatus for controlling the temperature of a core of a transformer is provided that includes a core, a shield surrounding the core, a cast formed between the core and the shield, and tubing positioned on the shield. The cast directs heat from the core to the shield and cooling fluid is directed through the tubing to cool the shield.

  4. What Does a Transformative Lens Bring to Credible Evidence in Mixed Methods Evaluations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Credibility in evaluation is a multifaceted concept that involves consideration of diverse stakeholders' perspectives and purposes. The use of a transformative lens is proposed as a means to bringing issues of social justice and human rights to the foreground in decisions about methodology, credibility of evidence, and use of evaluation…

  5. Setaria viridis floral-dip: A simple and rapid Agrobacterium-medicated transformation method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Setaria viridis was recently described as a new monocotyledonous model species for C4 photosynthesis research and genetic transformation. It has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements) that make it suitable for use as a model plan...

  6. a Simplified Parameter Design Method for Transformation Optics-Based Metamaterial Innovative Cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting-Hua; Huang, Ming; Yang, Jing-Jing; Lu, Jin; Cao, Hui-Lu

    2013-10-01

    Transformation optics-based innovative cloak which combines the virtues of both internal and external cloaks to enable arbitrary multi-objects hidden with visions and movements was first proposed by Huang et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 151901 (2012)]. But it is rather difficult to implement in practice, for the required material parameters vary with radius and even have singular values. To accelerate its practical realization but still keep good performance of invisibility, a simplified innovative cloak with only spatially varying axial parameter is developed via choosing appropriate transformation function. The advantage of such a cloak is that both radial and azimuthal parameters are constants, and all three components are nonsingular and finite. Full-wave simulation confirms the perfect cloaking effect of the cloak. Besides, the influences of metamaterials loss and parameter deviation on the performance of cloak are also investigated. This work provides a simple and feasible solution to push metamaterial-assisted innovative cloak more closely to the practice.

  7. A faster method to reconstruct seismic data using anti-leakage Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanjooy, Saber; Nikrouz, Ramin; Mohammed, Nematullah

    2016-02-01

    Despite the simplicity of the anti-leakage Fourier transform (ALFT), and its ability to regularize pure non-uniform data sets and handle higher dimension seismic data, ALFT still remains less appealing because of its iterative algorithm and so its costly computation. During this study a set of parameters and techniques were studied to reduce needed computation and speed up ALFT. Having a good weighting function and cautiously selecting more Fourier coefficients at each iteration could improve the resolution of each iteration and subsequently enhance the converge speed of ALFT. Here a precomputed matrix by exponential term of Fourier transform is used to compute Fourier components at each iteration of the ALFT. This proposed matrix dramatically reduces the needed complex multiplication and speeds up the ALFT. By merging this process with a proper weighting function, the fast-ALFT will be quicker than the original ALFT, while it will have almost the same output.

  8. Local CC2 response method based on the Laplace transform: analytic energy gradients for ground and excited states.

    PubMed

    Ledermüller, Katrin; Schütz, Martin

    2014-04-28

    A multistate local CC2 response method for the calculation of analytic energy gradients with respect to nuclear displacements is presented for ground and electronically excited states. The gradient enables the search for equilibrium geometries of extended molecular systems. Laplace transform is used to partition the eigenvalue problem in order to obtain an effective singles eigenvalue problem and adaptive, state-specific local approximations. This leads to an approximation in the energy Lagrangian, which however is shown (by comparison with the corresponding gradient method without Laplace transform) to be of no concern for geometry optimizations. The accuracy of the local approximation is tested and the efficiency of the new code is demonstrated by application calculations devoted to a photocatalytic decarboxylation process of present interest.

  9. Yule-Nielsen effect in halftone prints: graphical analysis method and improvement of the Yule-Nielsen transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébert, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    The well-known Yule-Nielsen modified spectral Neugebauer model is one of the most accurate predictive models for the spectral reflectance of printed halftone colors which expresses the spectral reflectance of halftones raised to the power 1/n as a linear combination of the spectral reflectance of the fulltone colors (Neugebauer primaries) also raised to the power 1/n, where n is a tunable real number. The power 1/n transform, characteristic of the Yule-Nielsen transform, empirically models the nonlinear relationship between the spectral reflectances of halftones and fulltones due to the internal propagation of light by scattering into the printing support, a phenomenon known as "optical dot gain" or "Yule- Nielsen effect". In this paper, we propose a graphical method permitting to observe this non-linear relationship in the case of single-ink halftones and to experimentally check the capacity of the Yule-Nielsen model to predict it accurately. In the case where the Yule-Nielsen transform is not well adapted to the considered type of prints, we propose alternative transforms in order to improve the prediction accuracy.

  10. The geometric phase analysis method based on the local high resolution discrete Fourier transform for deformation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xianglu; Xie, Huimin; Wang, Huaixi; Li, Chuanwei; Liu, Zhanwei; Wu, Lifu

    2014-02-01

    The geometric phase analysis (GPA) method based on the local high resolution discrete Fourier transform (LHR-DFT) for deformation measurement, defined as LHR-DFT GPA, is proposed to improve the measurement accuracy. In the general GPA method, the fundamental frequency of the image plays a crucial role. However, the fast Fourier transform, which is generally employed in the general GPA method, could make it difficult to locate the fundamental frequency accurately when the fundamental frequency is not located at an integer pixel position in the Fourier spectrum. This study focuses on this issue and presents a LHR-DFT algorithm that can locate the fundamental frequency with sub-pixel precision in a specific frequency region for the GPA method. An error analysis is offered and simulation is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method; both results show that the LHR-DFT algorithm can accurately locate the fundamental frequency and improve the measurement accuracy of the GPA method. Furthermore, typical tensile and bending tests are carried out and the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Detection of conformational transformation of antithrombin in blood with crossed immunoelectrophoresis: new application for a classical method.

    PubMed

    Corral, Javier; Rivera, José; Martínez, Constantino; González-Conejero, Rocio; Miñano, Antonia; Vicente, Vicente

    2003-11-01

    The structural flexibility of antithrombin is essential for its molecular trapping mechanism but also makes it vulnerable to even minor changes affecting its conformational stability, which influences hemostasis significantly. The conformational transformation of this serpin has been poorly investigated in biologic samples because available immunologic methods hardly differentiate between different conformations of this protein. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) in presence of heparin has been classically used to identify mutant antithrombins with low heparin affinity. We demonstrate that this method also separates native and relaxed antithrombin, permitting the analysis of conformational variations of this potent anticoagulant with just a few microliters of plasma. However, CIE does not distinguish between antithrombin conformations with reduced heparin affinity: latent, cleaved, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, or heparin-binding mutants. Therefore, clinical interpretation of CIE results should be examined with caution. Using this and other methods, and evaluating the functional activity of antithrombin, we analyzed the conformational transformation of antithrombin in biologic samples. We confirmed its transformation to the latent configuration by incubating it at 50 degrees C. This conformational change also occurs at 37 degrees C, supporting the idea that this process is involved in the senescence of antithrombin. However, fresh plasma contains only traces of latent antithrombin, suggesting that this conformation is rapidly cleared in vivo. Finally, small increases in temperature (to 40 degrees C) resulted in a faster conformational transformation of antithrombin. Fever has been suggested to have key structural, functional, and clinical consequences in patients with conformational mutations in antithrombin. Our results support a role for small changes in temperature in nonmutated antithrombin, suggesting that fever is a general risk factor for thrombosis.

  12. [Research on ECG de-noising method based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition and wavelet transform using improved threshold function].

    PubMed

    Ye, Linlin; Yang, Dan; Wang, Xu

    2014-06-01

    A de-noising method for electrocardiogram (ECG) based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and wavelet threshold de-noising theory is proposed in our school. We decomposed noised ECG signals with the proposed method using the EEMD and calculated a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Then we selected IMFs and reconstructed them to realize the de-noising for ECG. The processed ECG signals were filtered again with wavelet transform using improved threshold function. In the experiments, MIT-BIH ECG database was used for evaluating the performance of the proposed method, contrasting with de-noising method based on EEMD and wavelet transform with improved threshold function alone in parameters of signal to noise ratio (SNR) and mean square error (MSE). The results showed that the ECG waveforms de-noised with the proposed method were smooth and the amplitudes of ECG features did not attenuate. In conclusion, the method discussed in this paper can realize the ECG denoising and meanwhile keep the characteristics of original ECG signal. PMID:25219236

  13. [Research on ECG de-noising method based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition and wavelet transform using improved threshold function].

    PubMed

    Ye, Linlin; Yang, Dan; Wang, Xu

    2014-06-01

    A de-noising method for electrocardiogram (ECG) based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and wavelet threshold de-noising theory is proposed in our school. We decomposed noised ECG signals with the proposed method using the EEMD and calculated a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Then we selected IMFs and reconstructed them to realize the de-noising for ECG. The processed ECG signals were filtered again with wavelet transform using improved threshold function. In the experiments, MIT-BIH ECG database was used for evaluating the performance of the proposed method, contrasting with de-noising method based on EEMD and wavelet transform with improved threshold function alone in parameters of signal to noise ratio (SNR) and mean square error (MSE). The results showed that the ECG waveforms de-noised with the proposed method were smooth and the amplitudes of ECG features did not attenuate. In conclusion, the method discussed in this paper can realize the ECG denoising and meanwhile keep the characteristics of original ECG signal.

  14. Transformation of carotenoid biosynthetic genes using a micro-cross section method in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward).

    PubMed

    Kim, Misun; Kim, Seong-Cheol; Song, Kwan Jeong; Kim, Ho Bang; Kim, In-Jung; Song, Eun-Young; Chun, Seung-Jong

    2010-12-01

    Genetic transformation using a micro-cross section (MCS) technique was conducted to improve the carotenoid content in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward). The introduced carotenoid biosynthetic genes include geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPS), phytoene desaturase (PDS), ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS), β-carotene hydroxylase (CHX), and phytoene synthase (PSY). The transformed explants were selected on half-strength MS medium containing 0.001 mg l(-1) of 2,4-D and 0.1 mg l(-1) of zeatin, either 5 mg l(-1) hygromycin or 25 mg l(-1) kanamycin, and 500 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. The genomic PCR, genomic Southern blot analysis, and RT-PCR were performed to confirm the integration and expression of the transgenes. The transformation efficiencies of either kanamycin- or hygromycin-resistant shoots ranged from 2.9 to 22.1% depending on the target genes, and from 2.9 to 24.2% depending on the reporter genes. The selection efficiencies ranged from 66.7 to 100% for the target genes and from 95.8 to 100% for the reporter genes. Changes of carotenoid content in the several PCR-positive plants were determined by UPLC analysis. As a result, transgenic plants expressing either GGPS or PSY increased about 1.2- to 1.3-fold in lutein or β-carotene content compared to non-transgenic plants. Our results suggest that the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency of kiwifruit can be greatly increased by this MCS method and that the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway can be modified in kiwifruit by genetic transformation. Our results further suggest that GGPS and PSY genes could be major target genes to increase carotenoid contents in kiwifruit.

  15. New restriction enzymes discovered from Escherichia coli clinical strains using a plasmid transformation method.

    PubMed

    Kasarjian, Julie K A; Iida, Masatake; Ryu, Junichi

    2003-03-01

    The presence of restriction enzymes in bacterial cells has been predicted by either classical phage restriction-modification (R-M) tests, direct in vitro enzyme assays or more recently from bacterial genome sequence analysis. We have applied phage R-M test principles to the transformation of plasmid DNA and established a plasmid R-M test. To validate this test, six plasmids that contain BamHI fragments of phage lambda DNA were constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli strains containing known R-M systems including: type I (EcoBI, EcoAI, Eco124I), type II (HindIII) and type III (EcoP1I). Plasmid DNA with a single recognition site showed a reduction of relative efficiency of transformation (EOT = 10(-1)-10(-2)). When multiple recognition sites were present, greater reductions in EOT values were observed. Once established in the cell, the plasmids were subjected to modification (EOT = 1.0). We applied this test to screen E.coli clinical strains and detected the presence of restriction enzymes in 93% (14/15) of cells. Using additional subclones and the computer program, RM Search, we identified four new restriction enzymes, Eco377I, Eco585I, Eco646I and Eco777I, along with their recognition sequences, GGA(8N)ATGC, GCC(6N)TGCG, CCA(7N)CTTC, and GGA(6N)TATC, respectively. Eco1158I, an isoschizomer of EcoBI, was also found in this study.

  16. Tensor Product Model Transformation Based Adaptive Integral-Sliding Mode Controller: Equivalent Control Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoliang; Li, Hongxing

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes new methodologies for the design of adaptive integral-sliding mode control. A tensor product model transformation based adaptive integral-sliding mode control law with respect to uncertainties and perturbations is studied, while upper bounds on the perturbations and uncertainties are assumed to be unknown. The advantage of proposed controllers consists in having a dynamical adaptive control gain to establish a sliding mode right at the beginning of the process. Gain dynamics ensure a reasonable adaptive gain with respect to the uncertainties. Finally, efficacy of the proposed controller is verified by simulations on an uncertain nonlinear system model. PMID:24453897

  17. Tensor product model transformation based adaptive integral-sliding mode controller: equivalent control method.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoliang; Sun, Kaibiao; Li, Hongxing

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes new methodologies for the design of adaptive integral-sliding mode control. A tensor product model transformation based adaptive integral-sliding mode control law with respect to uncertainties and perturbations is studied, while upper bounds on the perturbations and uncertainties are assumed to be unknown. The advantage of proposed controllers consists in having a dynamical adaptive control gain to establish a sliding mode right at the beginning of the process. Gain dynamics ensure a reasonable adaptive gain with respect to the uncertainties. Finally, efficacy of the proposed controller is verified by simulations on an uncertain nonlinear system model.

  18. Estimation of Instantaneous Gas Exchange in Flow-Through Respirometry Systems: A Modern Revision of Bartholomew's Z-Transform Method.

    PubMed

    Pendar, Hodjat; Socha, John J

    2015-01-01

    Flow-through respirometry systems provide accurate measurement of gas exchange over long periods of time. However, these systems have limitations in tracking rapid changes. When an animal infuses a metabolic gas into the respirometry chamber in a short burst, diffusion and airflow in the chamber gradually alter the original signal before it arrives at the gas analyzer. For single or multiple bursts, the recorded signal is smeared or mixed, which may result in dramatically altered recordings compared to the emitted signal. Recovering the original metabolic signal is a difficult task because of the inherent ill conditioning problem. Here, we present two new methods to recover the fast dynamics of metabolic patterns from recorded data. We first re-derive the equations of the well-known Z-transform method (ZT method) to show the source of imprecision in this method. Then, we develop a new model of analysis for respirometry systems based on the experimentally determined impulse response, which is the response of the system to a very short unit input. As a result, we present a major modification of the ZT method (dubbed the 'EZT method') by using a new model for the impulse response, enhancing its precision to recover the true metabolic signals. The second method, the generalized Z-transform (GZT) method, was then developed by generalizing the EZT method; it can be applied to any flow-through respirometry system with any arbitrary impulse response. Experiments verified that the accuracy of recovering the true metabolic signals is significantly improved by the new methods. These new methods can be used more broadly for input estimation in variety of physiological systems. PMID:26466361

  19. Alternative formulations of the Laplace transform boundary element (LTBE) numerical method for the solution of diffusion-type equations

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, G.

    1992-03-01

    The Laplace Transform Boundary Element (LTBE) method is a recently introduced numerical method, and has been used for the solution of diffusion-type PDEs. It completely eliminates the time dependency of the problem and the need for time discretization, yielding solutions numerical in space and semi-analytical in time. In LTBE solutions are obtained in the Laplace spare, and are then inverted numerically to yield the solution in time. The Stehfest and the DeHoog formulations of LTBE, based on two different inversion algorithms, are investigated. Both formulations produce comparable, extremely accurate solutions.

  20. Efficient Temperature-Dependent Green's Functions Methods for Realistic Systems: Compact Grids for Orthogonal Polynomial Transforms.

    PubMed

    Kananenka, Alexei A; Phillips, Jordan J; Zgid, Dominika

    2016-02-01

    The Matsubara Green's function that is used to describe temperature-dependent behavior is expressed on a numerical grid. While such a grid usually has a couple of hundred points for low-energy model systems, for realistic systems with large basis sets the size of an accurate grid can be tens of thousands of points, constituting a severe computational and memory bottleneck. In this paper, we determine efficient imaginary time grids for the temperature-dependent Matsubara Green's function formalism that can be used for calculations on realistic systems. We show that, because of the use of an orthogonal polynomial transform, we can restrict the imaginary time grid to a few hundred points and reach micro-Hartree accuracy in the electronic energy evaluation. Moreover, we show that only a limited number of orthogonal polynomial expansion coefficients are necessary to preserve accuracy when working with a dual representation of the Green's function or self-energy and transforming between the imaginary time and frequency domain.

  1. Transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram as an alternative method for technology transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.

    2012-12-01

    Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) can be used for technology transfer when the relevant problem (called 'top even' in FTA) is solved in a technology centre and the results are diffused to interested parties (usually Small Medium Enterprises - SMEs) that have not the proper equipment and the required know-how to solve the problem by their own. Nevertheless, there is a significant drawback in this procedure: the information usually provided by the SMEs to the technology centre, about production conditions and corresponding quality characteristics of the product, and (sometimes) the relevant expertise in the Knowledge Base of this centre may be inadequate to form a complete fault tree. Since such cases are quite frequent in practice, we have developed a methodology for transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram, which is more flexible and less strict in establishing causal chains, because it uses a surface phenomenological level with a limited number of categories of faults. On the other hand, such an Ishikawa diagram can be extended to simulate a fault tree as relevant knowledge increases. An implementation of this transformation, referring to anodization of aluminium, is presented.

  2. Application of a Differential Transform Method to the Transient Natural Convection Problem in a Vertical Tube with Variable Fluid Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Ryoichi

    2016-02-01

    The transient natural convection of a viscous fluid in a heated vertical tube is studied using the two-dimensional differential transform method (DTM). A time-dependent Dirichlet boundary condition is imposed for tube wall temperature. The partial differential equations for the velocity and temperature fields within the tube are solved by the DTM while considering temperature-dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity of the fluid. As a result, tractable solutions in double-series form are derived for the temperature and flow velocity. The transformed functions included in the solutions are obtained through a simple recursive procedure. Numerical results illustrate the effects of temperature-dependent properties on transient temperature and flow behaviour, including the Nusselt number and volumetric flow rate. The DTM gives accurate series solutions without any special functions for nonlinear transient heat transfer problems which are advantageous in finding the derivative or integral.

  3. Study of {sup 3}He(e,e{prime}) longitudinal response functions with the integral-transform method

    SciTech Connect

    Dobretsov, V.Yu.; Efros, V.D.; Shao, B.

    1995-09-01

    The method of integral transforms is first applied to study of the {sup 3}He longitudinal response functions. The transforms are calculated from localized bound-state type solutions to an inhomogenous three-body equation. {sup 3}N dynamics and the conventional charge density operator serve as an input. The final-state interaction the contribution of the T = 3/2 final states to the problem suppressed and amounts to about 15%. This might be ascribed to symmetry properties of the final-state wave functions. The contributions of the p-wave N/N interaction and of the Coulomb interaction to the problem are studied and found to amount to several percent. Uncertainties due to different choices of s-wave NN forces are found to be of a similar magnitude. For q = 300 MeV/c, the results obtained agree with experiment. For q = 500 MeV/c, noticeable differences are detected. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Estimation of Instantaneous Gas Exchange in Flow-Through Respirometry Systems: A Modern Revision of Bartholomew's Z-Transform Method

    PubMed Central

    Pendar, Hodjat; Socha, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Flow-through respirometry systems provide accurate measurement of gas exchange over long periods of time. However, these systems have limitations in tracking rapid changes. When an animal infuses a metabolic gas into the respirometry chamber in a short burst, diffusion and airflow in the chamber gradually alter the original signal before it arrives at the gas analyzer. For single or multiple bursts, the recorded signal is smeared or mixed, which may result in dramatically altered recordings compared to the emitted signal. Recovering the original metabolic signal is a difficult task because of the inherent ill conditioning problem. Here, we present two new methods to recover the fast dynamics of metabolic patterns from recorded data. We first re-derive the equations of the well-known Z-transform method (ZT method) to show the source of imprecision in this method. Then, we develop a new model of analysis for respirometry systems based on the experimentally determined impulse response, which is the response of the system to a very short unit input. As a result, we present a major modification of the ZT method (dubbed the ‘EZT method’) by using a new model for the impulse response, enhancing its precision to recover the true metabolic signals. The second method, the generalized Z-transform (GZT) method, was then developed by generalizing the EZT method; it can be applied to any flow-through respirometry system with any arbitrary impulse response. Experiments verified that the accuracy of recovering the true metabolic signals is significantly improved by the new methods. These new methods can be used more broadly for input estimation in variety of physiological systems. PMID:26466361

  5. Identifying the trend of the morphological change of a natural river using the Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia-Hsin Liu, Chelsie; Tsai, Christina W.

    2015-04-01

    This study introduces a more recent data analysis method, Hilbert Huang transform method (HHT), to analyze transport of sediment particles of a non-stationary and non-linear nature. In order to improve the modeling of the sediment concentrations and bed elevation change, it is proposed to first process the data using the Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method from HHT to obtain a collection of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). In this study, an analysis of time series of bed elevations, sediment concentrations, and flow rates is proposed. Multiple time scales exist in the system of flow, sediment transport and bed elevation change processes. With EMD method, we could decompose the original data into several independent intrinsic mode functions (IMF), each of which may be caused by various factors at different time scales. Then, we use HHT to transform every IMF from time-dependent functions into frequency-functions. A case study of the Chou-Shui River in Taiwan is presented. This study will present an alternative for identifying the trend and variability of the bed elevation change, sediment concentration and flow rate. It is hypothesized that the behavior of bed elevation change can be better described at a different time scales using HHT. The lag between the change in flow, sediment concentration and the bed elevation can also be identified in this study. It is expected that the HHT method can provide a viable alternative for an enhanced understanding of sediment transport processes in natural rivers.

  6. Transport velocity transformation - A convenient method for performance analysis of multilayer solar cell structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, M.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that in the case of low-level injection, space-charge quasi-neutrality, and spatially constant material parameters (including an electrostatic field), the individual layer can be treated analytically and the basic solar cell performance parameters can be evaluated from three equations. The first equation represents the transformation of the transport velocity across the layer from the other layer boundary. The second establishes the light-generated current output from the layer interface, under the influence of the transport velocities and minority-carrier density at both layer boundaries and of bulk recombination. The third equation describes the flow of these carriers across other layers. The power of the approach is considered to lie in its facility for analysis of the solar cell's performance layer by layer, giving a clear picture of the individual layer's influence on cell efficiency.

  7. On a Chirplet Transform Based Method for Co-channel Voice Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugnol, B.; Fernández, C.; Galiano, G.; Velasco, J.

    We use signal and image theory based algorithms to produce estimations of the number of wolves emitting howls or barks in a given field recording as an individuals counting alternative to the traditional trace collecting methodologies. We proceed in two steps. Firstly, we clean and enhance the signal by using PDE based image processing algorithms applied to the signal spectrogram. Secondly, assuming that the wolves chorus may be modelled as an addition of nonlinear chirps, we use the quadratic energy distribution corresponding to the Chirplet Transform of the signal to produce estimates of the corresponding instantaneous frequencies, chirp-rates and amplitudes at each instant of the recording. We finally establish suitable criteria to decide how such estimates are connected in time.

  8. A Fast Method of Transforming Relaxation Functions Into the Frequency Domain

    PubMed Central

    Mopsik, Frederick I.

    1999-01-01

    The limits to the error due to truncation of the numeric integration of the one-sided Laplace transform of a relaxation function in the time domain into its equivalent frequency domain are established. Separate results are given for large and small ω. These results show that, for a given ω, only a restricted range of time samples is needed to perform the computation to a given accuracy. These results are then combined with a known error estimate for integration by cubic splines to give a good estimate for the number of points needed to perform the computation to a given accuracy. For a given data window between t1 and t2, the computation time is shown to be proportional to ln(t1/t2).

  9. Analytical energy gradient based on spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess method with local unitary transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yuya; Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the analytical energy gradient for the spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) method at the levels of the Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional theory (DFT), and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) is developed. Furthermore, adopting the local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme for the IODKH method improves the efficiency in computation of the analytical energy gradient. Numerical assessments of the present gradient method are performed at the HF, DFT, and MP2 levels for the IODKH with and without the LUT scheme. The accuracies are examined for diatomic molecules such as hydrogen halides, halogen dimers, coinage metal (Cu, Ag, and Au) halides, and coinage metal dimers, and 20 metal complexes, including the fourth-sixth row transition metals. In addition, the efficiencies are investigated for one-, two-, and three-dimensional silver clusters. The numerical results confirm the accuracy and efficiency of the present method.

  10. Method for transforming CT images for attenuation correction in PET/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, Jonathan P.J.; Townsend, David W.; Rappoport, Vitaliy; Bendriem, Bernard

    2006-04-15

    A tube-voltage-dependent scheme is presented for transforming Hounsfield units (HU) measured by different computed tomography (CT) scanners at different x-ray tube voltages (kVp) to 511 keV linear attenuation values for attenuation correction in positron emission tomography (PET) data reconstruction. A Gammex 467 electron density CT phantom was imaged using a Siemens Sensation 16-slice CT, a Siemens Emotion 6-slice CT, a GE Lightspeed 16-slice CT, a Hitachi CXR 4-slice CT, and a Toshiba Aquilion 16-slice CT at kVp ranging from 80 to 140 kVp. All of these CT scanners are also available in combination with a PET scanner as a PET/CT tomograph. HU obtained for various reference tissue substitutes in the phantom were compared with the known linear attenuation values at 511 keV. The transformation, appropriate for lung, soft tissue, and bone, yields the function 9.6x10{sup -5}{center_dot}(HU+1000) below a threshold of {approx}50 HU and a{center_dot}(HU+1000)+b above the threshold, where a and b are fixed parameters that depend on the kVp setting. The use of the kVp-dependent scaling procedure leads to a significant improvement in reconstructed PET activity levels in phantom measurements, resolving errors of almost 40% otherwise seen for the case of dense bone phantoms at 80 kVp. Results are also presented for patient studies involving multiple CT scans at different kVp settings, which should all lead to the same 511 keV linear attenuation values. A linear fit to values obtained from 140 kVp CT images using the kVp-dependent scaling plotted as a function of the corresponding values obtained from 80 kVp CT images yielded y=1.003x-0.001 with an R{sup 2} value of 0.999, indicating that the same values are obtained to a high degree of accuracy.

  11. A Bridge Health Monitoring Method Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.; Chiang, Weiling; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a new method for nondestructive instrument method to monitor the health of a bridge. This new method is based on a transient test load and simple data collection. The nuclear of the method is the new invented nonstationary and nonlinear time series analysis method, the Empirical Mode Decomposition and Hilbert Spectral Analysis. The final decision on the health of the bridge structure is based on the nonlinear characteristic of the data, and on the comparison between the free and the forced vibration frequencies. Thus this alternative method enjoys many advantages: (1) no a priori data required, (2) simple data collection, and (3) minimum traffic disruption. Results from a case study of the Shing-Nan Bridge in Hou-Wei will be reported.

  12. Transforming Self and Others through Research: Transpersonal Research Methods and Skills for the Human Sciences and Humanities. SUNY Series in Transpersonal and Humanistic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Rosemarie; Braud, William

    2011-01-01

    Research approaches in the field of transpersonal psychology can be transformative for researchers, participants, and the audience of a project. This book offers these transformative approaches to those conducting research across the human sciences and the humanities. Rosemarie Anderson and William Braud first described such methods in…

  13. A new time-frequency method to reveal quantum dynamics of atomic hydrogen in intense laser pulses: Synchrosqueezing transform

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, Yae-lin; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Wu, Hau-tieng; Li, Peng-Cheng; Chu, Shih-I

    2014-11-15

    This study introduces a new adaptive time-frequency (TF) analysis technique, the synchrosqueezing transform (SST), to explore the dynamics of a laser-driven hydrogen atom at an ab initio level, upon which we have demonstrated its versatility as a new viable venue for further exploring quantum dynamics. For a signal composed of oscillatory components which can be characterized by instantaneous frequency, the SST enables rendering the decomposed signal based on the phase information inherited in the linear TF representation with mathematical support. Compared with the classical type of TF methods, the SST clearly depicts several intrinsic quantum dynamical processes such as selection rules, AC Stark effects, and high harmonic generation.

  14. Ti α - ω phase transformation and metastable structure, revealed by the solid-state nudged elastic band method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarkevich, Nikolai; Johnson, Duane D.

    Titanium is on of the four most utilized structural metals, and, hence, its structural changes and potential metastable phases under stress are of considerable importance. Using DFT+U combined with the generalized solid-state nudged elastic band (SS-NEB) method, we consider the pressure-driven transformation between Ti α and ω phases, and find an intermediate metastable body-centered orthorhombic (bco) structure of lower density. We verify its stability, assess the phonons and electronic structure, and compare computational results to experiment. Interestingly, standard density functional theory (DFT) yields the ω phase as the Ti ground state, in contradiction to the observed α phase at low pressure and temperature. We correct this by proper consideration of the strongly correlated d-electrons, and utilize DFT+U method in the SS-NEB to obtain the relevant transformation pathway and structures. We use methods developed with support by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-03ER46026 and DE-AC02-07CH11358). Ames Laboratory is operated for the DOE by Iowa State University under Contract DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  15. An evaluation of Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy method for the classification and discrimination of bovine, porcine and fish gelatins.

    PubMed

    Cebi, Nur; Durak, M Zeki; Toker, Omer Said; Sagdic, Osman; Arici, Muhammet

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a rapid spectroscopic technique as an alternative method for the differentiation and authentication of gelatin sources in food products by using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra combined with chemometrics. Clear discrimination and classification of all the studied gelatin sources (bovine, porcine, and fish) were achieved by hierarchical cluster and principle component analysis (PCA). Amide-I (1700-1600 cm(-1)) and Amide-II (1565-1520 cm(-1)) spectral bands were used in a chemometric method. Moreover, ATR-FTIR spectral data successfully discriminated pure bovine gelatin from mixture of bovine and porcine gelatins, which is very important for the food industry. The method that we adopted could be beneficial for rapid, simple and economic determination of both gelatin presence and its origin from food products such as yogurt, ice cream, milk dessert or other gelatin containing products such as pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

  16. Optimatization of transient transformation methods to study gene expression in Musa acuminata (AAA group) cultivar Ambon Lumut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prayuni, Kinasih; Dwivany, Fenny M.

    2015-09-01

    Banana is classified as a climateric fruit, whose ripening is regulated by ethylene. Ethylene is synthesized from ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) by ACC oxidase enzyme which is encoded by ACO gene. Controling an important gene expression in ethylene biosynthesis pathway has became a target to delay the ripening process. Therefore in the previous study we have designed a MaACO-RNAi construct to control MaACO gene expression. In this research, we study the effectiveness of different transient transformation methods to deliver the construct. Direct injection, with or no vaccum infiltration methods were used to deliver MaACO-RNAi construct. All of the methods succesfully deliver the construct into banana fruits based on RT-PCR result.

  17. Method of spectral subtraction of gas-phase Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra by minimizing the spectrum length.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Denis; Besov, Alexey

    2011-08-01

    A new method of spectral subtraction for gas-phase Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra was developed for long-path gas measurements. The method is based on minimization of the length of the spectrum that results from subtracting the spectrum of an individual component of a gas mixture (water, CO(2), etc.) from the experimental spectrum of the mixture. For this purpose a subtraction coefficient (k(min)) is found for which the length of the resulting spectrum is minimized. A mathematical simulation with two Lorentzian absorption bands was conducted and the limits of application for the proposed method were determined. Two experimental examples demonstrate that a successful result could be achieved in the case when the subtrahend spectrum contains a number of narrow absorption bands (such as the spectrum of water vapor). PMID:21819781

  18. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy method to differentiate between normal and cancerous breast cells.

    PubMed

    Lane, Randy; See, Seong S

    2012-09-01

    Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is used to find the structural differences between cancerous breast cells (MCF-7 line) and normal breast cells (MCF-12F line). Gold nanoparticles were prepared and the hydrodynamic diameter of the gold nanoparticles found to be 38.45 nm. The Gold nanoparticles were exposed to both MCF-7 and MCF-12F cells from lower to higher concentrations. Spectroscopic studies founds nanoparticles were within the cells, and increasing the nanoparticles concentration inside the cells also resulted in sharper IR peaks as a result of localized surface Plasmon resonance. Asymmetric and symmetric stretching and bending vibrations between phosphate, COO-, CH2 groups were found to give negative shifts in wavenumbers and a decrease in peak intensities when going from noncancerous to cancerous cells. Cellular proteins produced peak assignments at the 1542 and 1644 cm(-1) wavenumbers which were attributed to the amide I and amide II bands of the polypeptide bond of proteins. Significant changes were found in the peak intensities between the cell lines in the spectrum range from 2854-2956 cm(-1). Results show that the concentration range of gold nanoparticles used in this research showed no significant changes in cell viability in either cell line. Therefore, we believe ATR-FTIR and gold nanotechnology can be at the forefront of cancer diagnosis for some time to come.

  19. A simple method to fabricate lenses for in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treffman, Lia M.; Morrison, Philip W., Jr.

    1996-04-01

    A process has been developed to hand grind and polish infrared KBr lenses with a wide choice of focal lengths. These lenses are designed for coupling the infrared (IR) beam from a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer into a hot filament chemical vapor deposition reactor. These IR lenses are ground using a glass lens as a mold; the mold lens is a commercial glass lens used for spectacles and is available in a wide range of focal lengths. Rough grinding begins with ♯100 sandpaper and followed by a sequence of fine grinding steps under ethanol: ♯400 SiC powder, ♯600 SiC powder, and emery powder. Polishing is done with a CeO slurry in water followed by a chamois cloth moistened with ethanol. As an indication of the surface finish of the lenses, a flat KBr window that is hand ground and polished in the above manner has a transmission of ≳89% at 8000 cm-1 and ≳91% at 500 cm-1; the commercially polished KBr window has a transmittance of 92% throughout this spectral range.

  20. A Wavelet Transform Based Method to Determine Depth of Anesthesia to Prevent Awareness during General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Mortaza; Adamoğlu, Ahmet; Demiralp, Tamer; Shayesteh, Mahrokh G.

    2014-01-01

    Awareness during general anesthesia for its serious psychological effects on patients and some juristically problems for anesthetists has been an important challenge during past decades. Monitoring depth of anesthesia is a fundamental solution to this problem. The induction of anesthesia alters frequency and mean of amplitudes of the electroencephalogram (EEG), and its phase couplings. We analyzed EEG changes for phase coupling between delta and alpha subbands using a new algorithm for depth of general anesthesia measurement based on complex wavelet transform (CWT) in patients anesthetized by Propofol. Entropy and histogram of modulated signals were calculated by taking bispectral index (BIS) values as reference. Entropies corresponding to different BIS intervals using Mann-Whitney U test showed that they had different continuous distributions. The results demonstrated that there is a phase coupling between 3 and 4 Hz in delta and 8-9 Hz in alpha subbands and these changes are shown better at the channel T7 of EEG. Moreover, when BIS values increase, the entropy value of modulated signal also increases and vice versa. In addition, measuring phase coupling between delta and alpha subbands of EEG signals through continuous CWT analysis reveals the depth of anesthesia level. As a result, awareness during anesthesia can be prevented. PMID:25276220

  1. A Fast and Practical Yeast Transformation Method Mediated by Escherichia coli Based on a Trans-Kingdom Conjugal Transfer System: Just Mix Two Cultures and Wait One Hour.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Shinji; Ohmine, Yuta; Suzuki, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Trans-kingdom conjugation is a phenomenon by which DNA is transferred into a eukaryotic cell by a bacterial conjugal transfer system. Improvement in this method to facilitate the rapid co-cultivation of donor bacterial and recipient eukaryotic cell cultures could make it the simplest transformation method, requiring neither isolation of vector DNA nor preparation of competent recipient cells. To evaluate this potential advantage of trans-kingdom conjugation, we examined this simple transformation method using vector combinations, helper plasmids, and recipient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Mixing donor Escherichia coli and recipient S. cerevisiae overnight cultures (50 μL each) consistently yielded on the order of 10(1) transformants using the popular experimental strain BY4742 derived from S288c and a shuttle vector for trans-kingdom conjugation. Transformation efficiency increased to the order of 10(2) using a high receptivity trans-kingdom conjugation strain. In addition, either increasing the amount of donor cells or pretreating the recipient cells with thiols such as dithiothreitol improved the transformation efficiency by one order of magnitude. This simple trans-kingdom conjugation-mediated transformation method could be used as a practical yeast transformation method upon enrichment of available vectors and donor E. coli strains.

  2. A Fast and Practical Yeast Transformation Method Mediated by Escherichia coli Based on a Trans-Kingdom Conjugal Transfer System: Just Mix Two Cultures and Wait One Hour.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Shinji; Ohmine, Yuta; Suzuki, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Trans-kingdom conjugation is a phenomenon by which DNA is transferred into a eukaryotic cell by a bacterial conjugal transfer system. Improvement in this method to facilitate the rapid co-cultivation of donor bacterial and recipient eukaryotic cell cultures could make it the simplest transformation method, requiring neither isolation of vector DNA nor preparation of competent recipient cells. To evaluate this potential advantage of trans-kingdom conjugation, we examined this simple transformation method using vector combinations, helper plasmids, and recipient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Mixing donor Escherichia coli and recipient S. cerevisiae overnight cultures (50 μL each) consistently yielded on the order of 10(1) transformants using the popular experimental strain BY4742 derived from S288c and a shuttle vector for trans-kingdom conjugation. Transformation efficiency increased to the order of 10(2) using a high receptivity trans-kingdom conjugation strain. In addition, either increasing the amount of donor cells or pretreating the recipient cells with thiols such as dithiothreitol improved the transformation efficiency by one order of magnitude. This simple trans-kingdom conjugation-mediated transformation method could be used as a practical yeast transformation method upon enrichment of available vectors and donor E. coli strains. PMID:26849654

  3. A Method for Estimating View Transformations from Image Correspondences Based on the Harmony Search Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Erik; Díaz, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for robustly estimating multiple view relations from point correspondences is presented. The approach combines the popular random sampling consensus (RANSAC) algorithm and the evolutionary method harmony search (HS). With this combination, the proposed method adopts a different sampling strategy than RANSAC to generate putative solutions. Under the new mechanism, at each iteration, new candidate solutions are built taking into account the quality of the models generated by previous candidate solutions, rather than purely random as it is the case of RANSAC. The rules for the generation of candidate solutions (samples) are motivated by the improvisation process that occurs when a musician searches for a better state of harmony. As a result, the proposed approach can substantially reduce the number of iterations still preserving the robust capabilities of RANSAC. The method is generic and its use is illustrated by the estimation of homographies, considering synthetic and real images. Additionally, in order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach within a real engineering application, it is employed to solve the problem of position estimation in a humanoid robot. Experimental results validate the efficiency of the proposed method in terms of accuracy, speed, and robustness. PMID:26339228

  4. A Method for Estimating View Transformations from Image Correspondences Based on the Harmony Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Erik; Díaz, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for robustly estimating multiple view relations from point correspondences is presented. The approach combines the popular random sampling consensus (RANSAC) algorithm and the evolutionary method harmony search (HS). With this combination, the proposed method adopts a different sampling strategy than RANSAC to generate putative solutions. Under the new mechanism, at each iteration, new candidate solutions are built taking into account the quality of the models generated by previous candidate solutions, rather than purely random as it is the case of RANSAC. The rules for the generation of candidate solutions (samples) are motivated by the improvisation process that occurs when a musician searches for a better state of harmony. As a result, the proposed approach can substantially reduce the number of iterations still preserving the robust capabilities of RANSAC. The method is generic and its use is illustrated by the estimation of homographies, considering synthetic and real images. Additionally, in order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach within a real engineering application, it is employed to solve the problem of position estimation in a humanoid robot. Experimental results validate the efficiency of the proposed method in terms of accuracy, speed, and robustness. PMID:26339228

  5. The method of impedance transformation for electromagnetic waves propagating in one-dimension plasma photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jingfeng; Yuan, Chengxun; Gao, Ruilin; Jia, Jieshu; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Wang, Xiaoou; Wu, Jian; Li, Hui

    2016-08-01

    This study focuses on the transmission of normal-incidence electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals. Using the Maxwell's equations in a medium, a method that is based on the concept of impendence is employed to perform the simulation. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by simulating a one-layer plasma and conventional photonic crystal. In frequency-domain, the transmission and reflection coefficients in the unmagnetized plasma photonic crystal were calculated, and the influence factors on plasma photonic crystals including dielectric constants of dielectric, spatial period, filling factor, plasma frequency, and collision frequency were studied.

  6. A Novel Ship-rocking Forecasting Method based on Hilbert- Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De-yong, Kang; Yu-jian, Li; Xu-liang, Wang; Zhi, Chen

    2016-02-01

    The ship-rocking is a crucial factor which affects the accuracy of the ocean-based aerospace vehicle measurement. Here we have analysed groups of ship-rocking time series in horizontal and vertical directions utilizing a Hilbert based method from statistical physics. Based on these results we could predict certain amount of future values of the ship-rocking time series based on the current and the previous values. Our predictions are as accurate as the conventional methods from stochastic processes and provide a much wider prediction time range.

  7. Recursion-Transform method to a non-regular m × n cobweb with an arbitrary longitude.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhi-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    A general Recursion-Transform method is put forward and is applied to resolving a difficult problem of the two-point resistance in a non-regular m × n cobweb network with an arbitrary longitude (or call radial), which has never been solved before as the Green's function technique and the Laplacian matrix approach are difficult in this case. Looking for the explicit solutions of non-regular lattices is important but difficult, since the non-regular condition is like a wall or trap which affects the behavior of finite network. This paper gives several general formulae of the resistance between any two nodes in a non-regular cobweb network in both finite and infinite cases by the R-T method which, is mainly composed of the characteristic roots, is simpler and can be easier to use in practice. As applications, several interesting results are deduced from a general formula, and a globe network is generalized. PMID:26073882

  8. Local CC2 response method based on the Laplace transform: orbital-relaxed first-order properties for excited states.

    PubMed

    Ledermüller, Katrin; Kats, Daniel; Schütz, Martin

    2013-08-28

    A multistate local CC2 response method for the calculation of orbital-relaxed first order properties is presented for ground and electronically excited states. It enables the treatment of excited state properties including orbital relaxation for extended molecular systems and is a major step on the way towards analytic gradients with respect to nuclear displacements. The Laplace transform method is employed to partition the eigenvalue problem and the lambda equations, i.e., the doubles parts of these equations are inverted on-the-fly, leaving only the corresponding effective singles equations to be solved iteratively. Furthermore, the state specific local approximations are adaptive. Density-fitting is utilized to decompose the electron-repulsion integrals. The accuracy of the local approximation is tested and the efficiency of the new code is demonstrated on the example of an organic sensitizer for solar-cell applications, which consists of about 100 atoms.

  9. Local CC2 response method based on the Laplace transform: Orbital-relaxed first-order properties for excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledermüller, Katrin; Kats, Daniel; Schütz, Martin

    2013-08-01

    A multistate local CC2 response method for the calculation of orbital-relaxed first order properties is presented for ground and electronically excited states. It enables the treatment of excited state properties including orbital relaxation for extended molecular systems and is a major step on the way towards analytic gradients with respect to nuclear displacements. The Laplace transform method is employed to partition the eigenvalue problem and the lambda equations, i.e., the doubles parts of these equations are inverted on-the-fly, leaving only the corresponding effective singles equations to be solved iteratively. Furthermore, the state specific local approximations are adaptive. Density-fitting is utilized to decompose the electron-repulsion integrals. The accuracy of the local approximation is tested and the efficiency of the new code is demonstrated on the example of an organic sensitizer for solar-cell applications, which consists of about 100 atoms.

  10. Recursion-Transform method to a non-regular m × n cobweb with an arbitrary longitude.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhi-Zhong

    2015-06-15

    A general Recursion-Transform method is put forward and is applied to resolving a difficult problem of the two-point resistance in a non-regular m × n cobweb network with an arbitrary longitude (or call radial), which has never been solved before as the Green's function technique and the Laplacian matrix approach are difficult in this case. Looking for the explicit solutions of non-regular lattices is important but difficult, since the non-regular condition is like a wall or trap which affects the behavior of finite network. This paper gives several general formulae of the resistance between any two nodes in a non-regular cobweb network in both finite and infinite cases by the R-T method which, is mainly composed of the characteristic roots, is simpler and can be easier to use in practice. As applications, several interesting results are deduced from a general formula, and a globe network is generalized.

  11. Harnessing the power of big data: infusing the scientific method with machine learning to transform ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most efforts to harness the power of big data for ecology and environmental sciences focus on data and metadata sharing, standardization, and accuracy. However, many scientists have not accepted the data deluge as an integral part of their research because the current scientific method is not scalab...

  12. A standardized method for assessment of oxidative transformations of brominated phenols in water.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Patricia Moreira; Eriksson, Johan; Green, Nicholas; Bergman, Ake

    2008-01-01

    The term persistence has been used to confusion since it is used as a conceptual parameter without a uniform definition. Work is therefore being done in order to unite ideas and describe persistence based on the chemical reactivity and chemico-physical properties of compounds via investigation of the main degradation pathways in the environment; photolysis, hydrolysis-substitution-elimination (hse), oxidation, reduction and radical reactions. The present work is focused on developing a method to determine oxidative degradation rates of chemicals and thereby measurement of their susceptibility to undergo oxidation reactions. The method based on potassium permanganate works well for water soluble compounds and is easy, robust, inexpensive and reproducible. By using the method and varying the analysed substances, the degradation rates for brominated phenols, two chlorinated phenols and high volume production compounds such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA) have been determined at pH 7.6+/-0.2. The reaction rates of the two halogenated BPA's are particularly fast, giving half-lives in seconds. The other test compounds have slower reaction rates but easily measured under the reaction conditions applied. The reactions are temperature dependent. There is evidence that pK(a) and the substitution pattern of the halogens affects the rate of the reactions. The method is robust and applicable for reaction rate constant measurements of present and potential future environmental contaminants.

  13. Robust Scale Transformation Methods in IRT True Score Equating under Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Common test items play an important role in equating multiple test forms under the common-item nonequivalent groups design. Inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores for IRT true score equating. Current methods extensively focus on detection and elimination of outlying common items, which…

  14. High Capacity Method for Real-Time Audio Data Hiding Using the FFT Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahpour, Mehdi; Megías, David

    This paper presents a very efficient method for audio data hiding which is suitable for real-time applications. The FFT magnitudes which are in a band of frequencies between 5 and 15 kHz are modified slightly and the frequencies which have a magnitude less than a threshold are used for embedding. Its low complexity is one of the most important properties of this method making it appropriate for real-time applications. In addition, the suggested scheme is blind, since it does not need the original signal for extracting the hidden bits. The Experimental results show that it has a very good capacity (5 kbps), without significant perceptual distortion and provides robustness against MPEG compression (MP3).

  15. An implicit fast Fourier transform method for integration of the time dependent Schrodinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.E.; Ritchie, A.B.

    1997-12-31

    One finds that the conventional exponentiated split operator procedure is subject to difficulties when solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for Coulombic systems. By rearranging the kinetic and potential energy terms in the temporal propagator of the finite difference equations, one can find a propagation algorithm for three dimensions that looks much like the Crank-Nicholson and alternating direction implicit methods for one- and two-space-dimensional partial differential equations. The authors report investigations of this novel implicit split operator procedure. The results look promising for a purely numerical approach to certain electron quantum mechanical problems. A charge exchange calculation is presented as an example of the power of the method.

  16. A Proposal of Mouth Extraction Method with Suppressed Noise by Using Luminance Transform and Chromatic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Naoya; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Funahashi, Takuma; Koshimizu, Hiroyasu

    In this paper, we propose a mouth extraction method based on an integrated combination of color difference features, texture information characterized by the CFI (Co-occurrence Frequency Image) feature of the pixels, and the topological features of the extracted mouth region. The negative known that the ill effects caused by the presence of a mustache can be successfully suppressed by using the proposed method. Mouth extraction is performed by using the CIE L*a*b* color space and its behavior was investigated. The system brings L* of CIE L*a*b* to the same value in all the pixels. The presence of a mustache and/or wrinkles around the mouth affects the extraction. Mustache color and skin color are closer to the gray scale than mouth color. If the system brings L* to the same value in all the pixels, mouth extraction would be unaffected by the presence of a shadow or mustache. Moreover, the weight of a* of CIE L*a*b* could provide a strong affect for emphasizing the difference between mouth and the surrounding skin region. In the proposed method, the input image is binarized by referring to the CFI of the converted image. When the boundary between the mouth and the skin is not clear, CFI, the frequency of occurrence of a pixel pair of the image, is referred to detect such a boundary, because the frequency at the boundary is always low. We present the experimental results obtained and show that proposed method can be successfully used for mouth extraction.

  17. A New Method for the Identification of Surfactant-Producing or Transforming Bacteria in the Sea Surface Microlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vella, K.; Kurata, N.; Soloviev, A.; Matt, S.; Shivji, M.; Tartar, A.

    2012-12-01

    The sea surface microlayer represents the interface between the atmosphere and the ocean and it can serve as a collection point for organic materials, such as surfactants. In this work, we present an improved method for the identification of the microbial community structure present in both the sea surface microlayer and the corresponding water column, in relation to surfactant production/transformation. Bacterial samples were collected from the sea surface microlayer with an improved sampling method, which minimized sample contamination from the research platform and the subsurface water. This novel sampling approach was developed by using polycarbonate membrane filters attached to fly fishing line, which provided finer control of the filter touching only the sea surface. Sampling was conducted at open ocean (approximately five miles offshore) and coastal water sites (approximately one mile from coastline) in the Straits of Florida to compare surfactant-producing bacterial populations present in these two regions. The microlayer sampling was planned to coincide with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite overpasses (COSMO SkyMed). By establishing bacterial groups that influence the presence of surfactants, remote sensing techniques which involve monitoring the surface of the ocean will be enhanced. This is because surfactants are capable of suppressing short gravity-capillary ocean surface waves, which affect radar back-scatter. SAR remote sensing thus may provide additional information on the state of the upper ocean ecosystem. Microbial composition was determined using DNA analysis of 16S rRNA genes. Preliminary analysis of bay samples suggested the presence of bacteria related to a strain of uncultured gammaproteobacteria, previously isolated from coastal sediment along a hydrocarbon contamination gradient. Many genera of the gammaproteobacteria are known to be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. We are further exploring and quantifying the presence of

  18. Autocorrelation Analysis Combined with a Wavelet Transform Method to Detect and Remove Cosmic Rays in a Single Raman Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Maury, Augusto; Revilla, Reynier I

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic rays (CRs) occasionally affect charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors, introducing large spikes with very narrow bandwidth in the spectrum. These CR features can distort the chemical information expressed by the spectra. Consequently, we propose here an algorithm to identify and remove significant spikes in a single Raman spectrum. An autocorrelation analysis is first carried out to accentuate the CRs feature as outliers. Subsequently, with an adequate selection of the threshold, a discrete wavelet transform filter is used to identify CR spikes. Identified data points are then replaced by interpolated values using the weighted-average interpolation technique. This approach only modifies the data in a close vicinity of the CRs. Additionally, robust wavelet transform parameters are proposed (a desirable property for automation) after optimizing them with the application of the method in a great number of spectra. However, this algorithm, as well as all the single-spectrum analysis procedures, is limited to the cases in which CRs have much narrower bandwidth than the Raman bands. This might not be the case when low-resolution Raman instruments are used.

  19. A theoretical study of radiation between two concentric spheres using a modified discrete ordinates method associated with Legendre transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabelsi, H.; Sghaier, T.; Sifaoui, M. S.

    2005-07-01

    A modified discrete ordinates method (DOM) is used in spherical participating media. The radiative intensity is broken up into two components. One component is traced back to the enclosure's source. It is called direct intensity. The other component is rather traced back to the contribution of the medium itself. It is called diffuse intensity. Thus, the radiative transfer equation (RTE) is transformed into two simultaneous equations: a direct RTE and a diffuse RTE. The direct RTE is solved analytically. The diffuse RTE is solved numerically using the DOM. The streaming angular derivative term appearing in spherical geometry is modeled by making use of the Finite Legendre Transform. We study a pure radiation transfer problem between two concentric spheres. The medium is assumed to be gray and isotropically scattering. The limiting spheres are considered to be opaque, gray, diffusely emitting and diffusely reflecting with uniform emissivity over each surface. The obtained results are compared with available cases reported in the literature. In particular, relative importance of the direct radiation in optically thin media is studied.

  20. Temperature dependent shape transformation of Ge nanostructures by the vapor-liquid-solid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, K.; Chakraborty, A. K.; NandaGoswami, M. L.; Shingha, R. K.; Dhar, A.; Coleman, K. S.; Ray, S. K.

    2007-04-01

    A vapor-liquid-solid method has been used to study the temperature dependent growth mechanism of Ge nanostructures on Au-coated Si (100) substrates. The formation of Ge nanodots, nanorods, and nanowires has been observed at different growth temperatures. The diameter of grown nanowires is found to be varying from 40 to 80 nm and that of nanorods from 70 to 90 nm, respectively. A comparative study has been done on three types of samples using x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Photoluminescence spectra of grown nanostructures exhibit a broad emission band around 2.6 eV due to oxide related defect states.

  1. A comparison of feature extraction methods for Sentinel-1 images: Gabor and Weber transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Mihaela; Popescu, Anca; Stoichescu, Dan Alexandru

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the performance of two feature extraction methods when applied on high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired with the new ESA mission SENTINEL-1 (S-1). The feature extraction methods were previously tested on high and very high resolution SAR data (imaged by TerraSAR-X) and had a good performance in discriminating between a relevant numbers of land cover classes (tens of classes). Based on the available spatial resolution (10x10m) of S-1 Interferometric Wide (IW) Ground Range Detected (GRD) images the number of detectable classes is much lower. Moreover, the overall heterogeneity of the images is much lower as compared to the high resolution data, the number of observable details is smaller, and this favors the choice of a smaller window size for the analysis: between 10 and 50 pixels in range and azimuth. The size of the analysis window ensures the consistency with the previous results reported in the literature in very high resolution data (as the size on the ground is comparable and thus the number of contributing objects in the window is similar). The performance of Gabor filters and the Weber Local Descriptor (WLD) was investigated in a twofold approach: first the descriptors were computed directly over the IW GRD images and secondly on the sub-sampled version of the same data (in order to determine the effect of the speckle correlation on the overall class detection probability).

  2. Isochoric Burn, an Internally Consistent Method for the Reactant to Product Transformation in Reactive Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J E; Lee, E L

    2002-07-01

    Mixture rules for partially reacted explosives differ amongst various models. For instance, JWL++ uses a partial pressure addition to compute an average zonal pressure, Ignition and Growth requires pressure equilibration and thermal equilibration of temperature dependent JWL EOSs, CHEETAH In Line RF also assumes temperature and pressure equilibration. It has been suggested in the past that a more realistic equilibration scheme should comprise isentropic pressure equilibration of the separate reacted and unreacted phases. This turns out not to be a proper path for equilibration. Rather, we find that the only internally consistent method is the evaluation of the equilibrium pressure that satisfies the particular conditions of reactant and product resulting from deflagration in a fixed volume.

  3. Fourier transform-based scattering-rate method for self-consistent simulations of carrier transport in semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrottke, L.; Lü, X.; Grahn, H. T.

    2015-04-01

    We present a self-consistent model for carrier transport in periodic semiconductor heterostructures completely formulated in the Fourier domain. In addition to the Hamiltonian for the layer system, all expressions for the scattering rates, the applied electric field, and the carrier distribution are treated in reciprocal space. In particular, for slowly converging cases of the self-consistent solution of the Schrödinger and Poisson equations, numerous transformations between real and reciprocal space during the iterations can be avoided by using the presented method, which results in a significant reduction of computation time. Therefore, it is a promising tool for the simulation and efficient design of complex heterostructures such as terahertz quantum-cascade lasers.

  4. New diagnostic method for monitoring plasma reactor walls: Multiple total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared surface probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Anna R.; Ullal, Saurabh J.; Braly, Linda B.; Edelberg, Erik A.; Vahedi, Vahid; Aydil, Eray S.

    2001-08-01

    Films and adsorbates that deposit on reactor walls during plasma etching and deposition affect the discharge properties such as the charged particle and reactive radical concentrations. A systematic study of this plasma-wall interaction is made difficult by a lack of diagnostic methods that enable one to monitor the chemical nature of the reactor wall surface. A new diagnostic technique based on multiple total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared (MTIR-FTIR) spectroscopy was developed to monitor films and adsorbates on plasma etching and deposition reactor walls with monolayer sensitivity. Applications of this MTIR-FTIR probe are demonstrated. Specifically, we use this probe to (i) detect etch products and films that deposit on the reactor walls during Cl2 plasma etching of Si, (ii) determine the efficacy of a SF6 plasma to clean films deposited on reactor walls during Cl2/O2 etching of Si, and (iii) monitor wafer-to-wafer etching reproducibility.

  5. Fourier transform-based scattering-rate method for self-consistent simulations of carrier transport in semiconductor heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Schrottke, L. Lü, X.; Grahn, H. T.

    2015-04-21

    We present a self-consistent model for carrier transport in periodic semiconductor heterostructures completely formulated in the Fourier domain. In addition to the Hamiltonian for the layer system, all expressions for the scattering rates, the applied electric field, and the carrier distribution are treated in reciprocal space. In particular, for slowly converging cases of the self-consistent solution of the Schrödinger and Poisson equations, numerous transformations between real and reciprocal space during the iterations can be avoided by using the presented method, which results in a significant reduction of computation time. Therefore, it is a promising tool for the simulation and efficient design of complex heterostructures such as terahertz quantum-cascade lasers.

  6. Multiscale viscoacoustic waveform inversion with the second generation wavelet transform and adaptive time-space domain finite-difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhiming; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Qunshan

    2014-05-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) has the potential to provide preferable subsurface model parameters. The main barrier of its applications to real seismic data is heavy computational amount. Numerical modelling methods are involved in both forward modelling and backpropagation of wavefield residuals, which spend most of computational time in FWI. We develop a time-space domain finite-difference (FD) method and adaptive variable-length spatial operator scheme in numerical simulation of viscoacoustic equation and extend them into the viscoacoustic FWI. Compared with conventional FD methods, different operator lengths are adopted for different velocities and quality factors, which can reduce the amount of computation without reducing accuracy. Inversion algorithms also play a significant role in FWI. In conventional single-scale methods, it is likely to converge to local minimums especially when the initial model is far from the real model. To tackle the problem, we introduce the second generation wavelet transform to implement the multiscale FWI. Compared to other multiscale methods, our method has advantages of ease of implementation and better time-frequency local analysis ability. The L2 norm is widely used in FWI and gives invalid model estimates when the data is contaminated with strong non-uniform noises. We apply the L1-norm and the Huber-norm criteria in the time-domain FWI to improve its antinoise ability. Our strategies have been successfully applied in synthetic experiments to both onshore and offshore reflection seismic data. The results of the viscoacoustic Marmousi example indicate that our new FWI scheme consumes smaller computer resources. In addition, the viscoacoustic Overthrust example shows its better convergence and more reasonable velocity and quality factor structures. All these results demonstrate that our method can improve inversion accuracy and computational efficiency of FWI.

  7. Filtering methods in tidal-affected groundwater head measurements: Application of harmonic analysis and continuous wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Úbeda, Juan Pedro; Calvache, María Luisa; Duque, Carlos; López-Chicano, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    A new methodology has been developed to obtain tidal-filtered time series of groundwater levels in coastal aquifers. Two methods used for oceanography processing and forecasting of sea level data were adapted for this purpose and compared: HA (Harmonic Analysis) and CWT (Continuous Wavelet Transform). The filtering process is generally comprised of two main steps: the detection and fitting of the major tide constituents through the decomposition of the original signal and the subsequent extraction of the complete tidal oscillations. The abilities of the optional HA and CWT methods to decompose and extract the tidal oscillations were assessed by applying them to the data from two piezometers at different depths close to the shoreline of a Mediterranean coastal aquifer (Motril-Salobreña, SE Spain). These methods were applied to three time series of different lengths (one month, one year, and 3.7 years of hourly data) to determine the range of detected frequencies. The different lengths of time series were also used to determine the fit accuracies of the tidal constituents for both the sea level and groundwater heads measurements. The detected tidal constituents were better resolved with increasing depth in the aquifer. The application of these methods yielded a detailed resolution of the tidal components, which enabled the extraction of the major tidal constituents of the sea level measurements from the groundwater heads (e.g., semi-diurnal, diurnal, fortnightly, monthly, semi-annual and annual). In the two wells studied, the CWT method was shown to be a more effective method than HA for extracting the tidal constituents of highest and lowest frequencies from groundwater head measurements.

  8. A Novel Characteristic Frequency Bands Extraction Method for Automatic Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Hilbert Huang Transform

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao; Ding, Enjie; Chen, Chunxu; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Because roller element bearings (REBs) failures cause unexpected machinery breakdowns, their fault diagnosis has attracted considerable research attention. Established fault feature extraction methods focus on statistical characteristics of the vibration signal, which is an approach that loses sight of the continuous waveform features. Considering this weakness, this article proposes a novel feature extraction method for frequency bands, named Window Marginal Spectrum Clustering (WMSC) to select salient features from the marginal spectrum of vibration signals by Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT). In WMSC, a sliding window is used to divide an entire HHT marginal spectrum (HMS) into window spectrums, following which Rand Index (RI) criterion of clustering method is used to evaluate each window. The windows returning higher RI values are selected to construct characteristic frequency bands (CFBs). Next, a hybrid REBs fault diagnosis is constructed, termed by its elements, HHT-WMSC-SVM (support vector machines). The effectiveness of HHT-WMSC-SVM is validated by running series of experiments on REBs defect datasets from the Bearing Data Center of Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). The said test results evidence three major advantages of the novel method. First, the fault classification accuracy of the HHT-WMSC-SVM model is higher than that of HHT-SVM and ST-SVM, which is a method that combines statistical characteristics with SVM. Second, with Gauss white noise added to the original REBs defect dataset, the HHT-WMSC-SVM model maintains high classification accuracy, while the classification accuracy of ST-SVM and HHT-SVM models are significantly reduced. Third, fault classification accuracy by HHT-WMSC-SVM can exceed 95% under a Pmin range of 500–800 and a m range of 50–300 for REBs defect dataset, adding Gauss white noise at Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) = 5. Experimental results indicate that the proposed WMSC method yields a high REBs fault classification accuracy

  9. A Novel Characteristic Frequency Bands Extraction Method for Automatic Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Hilbert Huang Transform.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Ding, Enjie; Chen, Chunxu; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Because roller element bearings (REBs) failures cause unexpected machinery breakdowns, their fault diagnosis has attracted considerable research attention. Established fault feature extraction methods focus on statistical characteristics of the vibration signal, which is an approach that loses sight of the continuous waveform features. Considering this weakness, this article proposes a novel feature extraction method for frequency bands, named Window Marginal Spectrum Clustering (WMSC) to select salient features from the marginal spectrum of vibration signals by Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT). In WMSC, a sliding window is used to divide an entire HHT marginal spectrum (HMS) into window spectrums, following which Rand Index (RI) criterion of clustering method is used to evaluate each window. The windows returning higher RI values are selected to construct characteristic frequency bands (CFBs). Next, a hybrid REBs fault diagnosis is constructed, termed by its elements, HHT-WMSC-SVM (support vector machines). The effectiveness of HHT-WMSC-SVM is validated by running series of experiments on REBs defect datasets from the Bearing Data Center of Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). The said test results evidence three major advantages of the novel method. First, the fault classification accuracy of the HHT-WMSC-SVM model is higher than that of HHT-SVM and ST-SVM, which is a method that combines statistical characteristics with SVM. Second, with Gauss white noise added to the original REBs defect dataset, the HHT-WMSC-SVM model maintains high classification accuracy, while the classification accuracy of ST-SVM and HHT-SVM models are significantly reduced. Third, fault classification accuracy by HHT-WMSC-SVM can exceed 95% under a Pmin range of 500-800 and a m range of 50-300 for REBs defect dataset, adding Gauss white noise at Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) = 5. Experimental results indicate that the proposed WMSC method yields a high REBs fault classification accuracy and a

  10. A Novel Characteristic Frequency Bands Extraction Method for Automatic Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Hilbert Huang Transform.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Ding, Enjie; Chen, Chunxu; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Li

    2015-11-03

    Because roller element bearings (REBs) failures cause unexpected machinery breakdowns, their fault diagnosis has attracted considerable research attention. Established fault feature extraction methods focus on statistical characteristics of the vibration signal, which is an approach that loses sight of the continuous waveform features. Considering this weakness, this article proposes a novel feature extraction method for frequency bands, named Window Marginal Spectrum Clustering (WMSC) to select salient features from the marginal spectrum of vibration signals by Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT). In WMSC, a sliding window is used to divide an entire HHT marginal spectrum (HMS) into window spectrums, following which Rand Index (RI) criterion of clustering method is used to evaluate each window. The windows returning higher RI values are selected to construct characteristic frequency bands (CFBs). Next, a hybrid REBs fault diagnosis is constructed, termed by its elements, HHT-WMSC-SVM (support vector machines). The effectiveness of HHT-WMSC-SVM is validated by running series of experiments on REBs defect datasets from the Bearing Data Center of Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). The said test results evidence three major advantages of the novel method. First, the fault classification accuracy of the HHT-WMSC-SVM model is higher than that of HHT-SVM and ST-SVM, which is a method that combines statistical characteristics with SVM. Second, with Gauss white noise added to the original REBs defect dataset, the HHT-WMSC-SVM model maintains high classification accuracy, while the classification accuracy of ST-SVM and HHT-SVM models are significantly reduced. Third, fault classification accuracy by HHT-WMSC-SVM can exceed 95% under a Pmin range of 500-800 and a m range of 50-300 for REBs defect dataset, adding Gauss white noise at Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) = 5. Experimental results indicate that the proposed WMSC method yields a high REBs fault classification accuracy and a

  11. Comparison between Hilbert Huang transform and scalogram methods on non-stationary biomedical signals: application to laser Doppler flowmetry recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulier, Rémy; Humeau, Anne; Flatley, Thomas P.; Abraham, Pierre

    2005-11-01

    A significant transient increase in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals is observed in response to a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application on healthy subjects. This reflex may be impaired in diabetic patients. The work presents a comparison between two signal processing methods that provide a clarification of this phenomenon. Analyses by the scalogram and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) of LDF signals recorded at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application are performed on healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. Three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities, are studied at different time intervals in order to take into account the dynamics of the phenomenon. The results show that both the scalogram and the HHT methods lead to the same conclusions concerning the comparisons of the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities—during the progressive pressure and at rest—in healthy and diabetic subjects. However, the HHT shows more details that may be obscured by the scalogram. Indeed, the non-locally adaptative limitations of the scalogram can remove some definition from the data. These results may improve knowledge on the above-mentioned reflex as well as on non-stationary biomedical signal processing methods.

  12. Structural-functional lung imaging using a combined CT-EIT and a Discrete Cosine Transformation reconstruction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schullcke, Benjamin; Gong, Bo; Krueger-Ziolek, Sabine; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich; Moeller, Knut

    2016-05-01

    Lung EIT is a functional imaging method that utilizes electrical currents to reconstruct images of conductivity changes inside the thorax. This technique is radiation free and applicable at the bedside, but lacks of spatial resolution compared to morphological imaging methods such as X-ray computed tomography (CT). In this article we describe an approach for EIT image reconstruction using morphologic information obtained from other structural imaging modalities. This leads to recon- structed images of lung ventilation that can easily be superimposed with structural CT or MRI images, which facilitates image interpretation. The approach is based on a Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) of an image of the considered transversal thorax slice. The use of DCT enables reduction of the dimensionality of the reconstruction and ensures that only conductivity changes of the lungs are reconstructed and displayed. The DCT based approach is well suited to fuse morphological image information with functional lung imaging at low computational costs. Results on simulated data indicate that this approach preserves the morphological structures of the lungs and avoids blurring of the solution. Images from patient measurements reveal the capabilities of the method and demonstrate benefits in possible applications.

  13. Local unitary transformation method toward practical electron correlation calculations with scalar relativistic effect in large-scale molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2013-07-01

    In order to perform practical electron correlation calculations, the local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme at the spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) level [J. Seino and H. Nakai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 244102 (2012), 10.1063/1.4729463; J. Seino and H. Nakai, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 144101 (2012)], 10.1063/1.4757263, which is based on the locality of relativistic effects, has been combined with the linear-scaling divide-and-conquer (DC)-based Hartree-Fock (HF) and electron correlation methods, such as the second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) and the coupled cluster theories with single and double excitations (CCSD). Numerical applications in hydrogen halide molecules, (HX)n (X = F, Cl, Br, and I), coinage metal chain systems, Mn (M = Cu and Ag), and platinum-terminated polyynediyl chain, trans,trans-{(p-CH3C6H4)3P}2(C6H5)Pt(C≡C)4Pt(C6H5){(p-CH3C6H4)3P}2, clarified that the present methods, namely DC-HF, MP2, and CCSD with the LUT-IODKH Hamiltonian, reproduce the results obtained using conventional methods with small computational costs. The combination of both LUT and DC techniques could be the first approach that achieves overall quasi-linear-scaling with a small prefactor for relativistic electron correlation calculations.

  14. Structural-functional lung imaging using a combined CT-EIT and a Discrete Cosine Transformation reconstruction method

    PubMed Central

    Schullcke, Benjamin; Gong, Bo; Krueger-Ziolek, Sabine; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich; Moeller, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Lung EIT is a functional imaging method that utilizes electrical currents to reconstruct images of conductivity changes inside the thorax. This technique is radiation free and applicable at the bedside, but lacks of spatial resolution compared to morphological imaging methods such as X-ray computed tomography (CT). In this article we describe an approach for EIT image reconstruction using morphologic information obtained from other structural imaging modalities. This leads to recon- structed images of lung ventilation that can easily be superimposed with structural CT or MRI images, which facilitates image interpretation. The approach is based on a Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) of an image of the considered transversal thorax slice. The use of DCT enables reduction of the dimensionality of the reconstruction and ensures that only conductivity changes of the lungs are reconstructed and displayed. The DCT based approach is well suited to fuse morphological image information with functional lung imaging at low computational costs. Results on simulated data indicate that this approach preserves the morphological structures of the lungs and avoids blurring of the solution. Images from patient measurements reveal the capabilities of the method and demonstrate benefits in possible applications. PMID:27181695

  15. Lie transformation method on quantum state evolution of a general time-dependent driven and damped parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-10-01

    A variety of dynamics in nature and society can be approximately treated as a driven and damped parametric oscillator. An intensive investigation of this time-dependent model from an algebraic point of view provides a consistent method to resolve the classical dynamics and the quantum evolution in order to understand the time-dependent phenomena that occur not only in the macroscopic classical scale for the synchronized behaviors but also in the microscopic quantum scale for a coherent state evolution. By using a Floquet U-transformation on a general time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian, we exactly solve the dynamic behaviors of a driven and damped parametric oscillator to obtain the optimal solutions by means of invariant parameters of Ks to combine with Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant method. This approach can discriminate the external dynamics from the internal evolution of a wave packet by producing independent parametric equations that dramatically facilitate the parametric control on the quantum state evolution in a dissipative system. In order to show the advantages of this method, several time-dependent models proposed in the quantum control field are analyzed in detail.

  16. Analysis of Transformation Plasticity in Steel Using a Finite Element Method Coupled with a Phase Field Model

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yi-Gil; Kim, Jin-You; Cho, Hoon-Hwe; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Suh, Dong-Woo; Lee, Jae Kon; Han, Heung Nam

    2012-01-01

    An implicit finite element model was developed to analyze the deformation behavior of low carbon steel during phase transformation. The finite element model was coupled hierarchically with a phase field model that could simulate the kinetics and micro-structural evolution during the austenite-to-ferrite transformation of low carbon steel. Thermo-elastic-plastic constitutive equations for each phase were adopted to confirm the transformation plasticity due to the weaker phase yielding that was proposed by Greenwood and Johnson. From the simulations under various possible plastic properties of each phase, a more quantitative understanding of the origin of transformation plasticity was attempted by a comparison with the experimental observation. PMID:22558295

  17. Analysis of transformation plasticity in steel using a finite element method coupled with a phase field model.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yi-Gil; Kim, Jin-You; Cho, Hoon-Hwe; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Suh, Dong-Woo; Lee, Jae Kon; Han, Heung Nam

    2012-01-01

    An implicit finite element model was developed to analyze the deformation behavior of low carbon steel during phase transformation. The finite element model was coupled hierarchically with a phase field model that could simulate the kinetics and micro-structural evolution during the austenite-to-ferrite transformation of low carbon steel. Thermo-elastic-plastic constitutive equations for each phase were adopted to confirm the transformation plasticity due to the weaker phase yielding that was proposed by Greenwood and Johnson. From the simulations under various possible plastic properties of each phase, a more quantitative understanding of the origin of transformation plasticity was attempted by a comparison with the experimental observation. PMID:22558295

  18. Magneto-structural transformations via a solid-state nudged elastic band method: Application to iron under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkevich, N. A. E-mail: ddj@ameslab.gov; Johnson, D. D. E-mail: ddj@ameslab.gov

    2015-08-14

    We extend the solid-state nudged elastic band method to handle a non-conserved order parameter, in particular, magnetization, that couples to volume and leads to many observed effects in magnetic systems. We apply this formalism to the well-studied magneto-volume collapse during the pressure-induced transformation in iron—from ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) austenite to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensite. We find a bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa, with the transition-state enthalpy of 156 meV/Fe at this pressure. A discontinuity in magnetization and coherent stress occurs at the transition state, which has a form of a cusp on the potential-energy surface (yet all the atomic and cell degrees of freedom are continuous); the calculated pressure jump of 25 GPa is related to the observed 25 GPa spread in measured coexistence pressures arising from martensitic and coherency stresses in samples. Our results agree with experiments, but necessarily differ from those arising from drag and restricted parametrization methods having improperly constrained or uncontrolled degrees of freedom.

  19. Nonlinear phase interaction between nonstationary signals: a comparison study of methods based on Hilbert-Huang and Fourier transforms.

    PubMed

    Lo, Men-Tzung; Novak, Vera; Peng, C-K; Liu, Yanhui; Hu, Kun

    2009-06-01

    Phase interactions among signals of physical and physiological systems can provide useful information about the underlying control mechanisms of the systems. Physical and biological recordings are often noisy and exhibit nonstationarities that can affect the estimation of phase interactions. We systematically studied effects of nonstationarities on two phase analyses including (i) the widely used transfer function analysis (TFA) that is based on Fourier decomposition and (ii) the recently proposed multimodal pressure flow (MMPF) analysis that is based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT)-an advanced nonlinear decomposition algorithm. We considered three types of nonstationarities that are often presented in physical and physiological signals: (i) missing segments of data, (ii) linear and step-function trends embedded in data, and (iii) multiple chaotic oscillatory components at different frequencies in data. By generating two coupled oscillatory signals with an assigned phase shift, we quantify the change in the estimated phase shift after imposing artificial nonstationarities into the oscillatory signals. We found that all three types of nonstationarities affect the performances of the Fourier-based and the HHT-based phase analyses, introducing bias and random errors in the estimation of the phase shift between two oscillatory signals. We also provided examples of nonstationarities in real physiological data (cerebral blood flow and blood pressure) and showed how nonstationarities can complicate result interpretation. Furthermore, we propose certain strategies that can be implemented in the TFA and the MMPF methods to reduce the effects of nonstationarities, thus improving the performances of the two methods.

  20. Magneto-structural transformations via a solid-state nudged elastic band method: Application to iron under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2015-08-14

    We extend the solid-state nudged elastic band method to handle a non-conserved order parameter, in particular, magnetization, that couples to volume and leads to many observed effects in magnetic systems. We apply this formalism to the well-studied magneto-volume collapse during the pressure-induced transformation in iron—from ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) austenite to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensite. We also find a bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa, with the transition-state enthalpy of 156 meV/Fe at this pressure. A discontinuity in magnetization and coherent stress occurs at the transition state, which has a form of a cusp on the potential-energy surface (yet all the atomic and cell degrees of freedom are continuous); the calculated pressure jump of 25 GPa is related to the observed 25 GPa spread in measured coexistence pressures arising from martensitic and coherency stresses in samples. Furthermore, our results agree with experiments, but necessarily differ from those arising from drag and restricted parametrization methods having improperly constrained or uncontrolled degrees of freedom.

  1. Magneto-structural transformations via a solid-state nudged elastic band method: Application to iron under pressure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2015-08-14

    We extend the solid-state nudged elastic band method to handle a non-conserved order parameter, in particular, magnetization, that couples to volume and leads to many observed effects in magnetic systems. We apply this formalism to the well-studied magneto-volume collapse during the pressure-induced transformation in iron—from ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) austenite to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensite. We also find a bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa, with the transition-state enthalpy of 156 meV/Fe at this pressure. A discontinuity in magnetization and coherent stress occurs at the transition state, which has a form of a cusp on the potential-energy surface (yetmore » all the atomic and cell degrees of freedom are continuous); the calculated pressure jump of 25 GPa is related to the observed 25 GPa spread in measured coexistence pressures arising from martensitic and coherency stresses in samples. Furthermore, our results agree with experiments, but necessarily differ from those arising from drag and restricted parametrization methods having improperly constrained or uncontrolled degrees of freedom.« less

  2. The Hilbert-Huang Transform-Based Denoising Method for the TEM Response of a PRBS Source Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Li; Guo-qiang, Xue; Pan, Zhao; Hua-sen, Zhong; Khan, Muhammad Younis

    2016-08-01

    The denoising process is critical in processing transient electromagnetic (TEM) sounding data. For the full waveform pseudo-random binary sequences (PRBS) response, an inadequate noise estimation may result in an erroneous interpretation. We consider the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and its application to suppress the noise in the PRBS response. The focus is on the thresholding scheme to suppress the noise and the analysis of the signal based on its Hilbert time-frequency representation. The method first decomposes the signal into the intrinsic mode function, and then, inspired by the thresholding scheme in wavelet analysis; an adaptive and interval thresholding is conducted to set to zero all the components in intrinsic mode function which are lower than a threshold related to the noise level. The algorithm is based on the characteristic of the PRBS response. The HHT-based denoising scheme is tested on the synthetic and field data with the different noise levels. The result shows that the proposed method has a good capability in denoising and detail preservation.

  3. Magneto-structural transformations via a solid-state nudged elastic band method: Application to iron under pressure.

    PubMed

    Zarkevich, N A; Johnson, D D

    2015-08-14

    We extend the solid-state nudged elastic band method to handle a non-conserved order parameter, in particular, magnetization, that couples to volume and leads to many observed effects in magnetic systems. We apply this formalism to the well-studied magneto-volume collapse during the pressure-induced transformation in iron-from ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) austenite to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensite. We find a bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa, with the transition-state enthalpy of 156 meV/Fe at this pressure. A discontinuity in magnetization and coherent stress occurs at the transition state, which has a form of a cusp on the potential-energy surface (yet all the atomic and cell degrees of freedom are continuous); the calculated pressure jump of 25 GPa is related to the observed 25 GPa spread in measured coexistence pressures arising from martensitic and coherency stresses in samples. Our results agree with experiments, but necessarily differ from those arising from drag and restricted parametrization methods having improperly constrained or uncontrolled degrees of freedom.

  4. Nouvelle methode d'integration energetique pour la retro-installation des procedes industriels et la transformation des usines papetieres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonhivers, Jean-Christophe

    The increase in production of goods over the last decades has led to the need for improving the management of natural resources management and the efficiency of processes. As a consequence, heat integration methods for industry have been developed. These have been successful for the design of new plants: the integration principles are largely employed, and energy intensity has dramatically decreased in many processes. Although progress has also been achieved in integration methods for retrofit, these methods still need further conceptual development. Furthermore, methodological difficulties increase when trying to retrofit heat exchange networks that are closely interrelated to water networks, such as the case of pulp and paper mills. The pulp and paper industry seeks to increase its profitability by reducing production costs and optimizing supply chains. Recent process developments in forestry biorefining give this industry the opportunity for diversification into bio-products, increasing potential profit margins, and at the same time modernizing its energy systems. Identification of energy strategies for a mill in a changing environment, including the possibility of adding a biorefinery process on the industrial site, requires better integration methods for retrofit situations. The objective of this thesis is to develop an energy integration method for the retrofit of industrial systems and the transformation of pulp and paper mills, ant to demonstrate the method in case studies. Energy is conserved and degraded in a process. Heat can be converted into electricity, stored as chemical energy, or rejected to the environment. A systematic analysis of successive degradations of energy between the hot utilities until the environment, through process operations and existing heat exchangers, is essential in order to reduce the heat consumption. In this thesis, the "Bridge Method" for energy integration by heat exchanger network retrofit has been developed. This method

  5. A unified analysis of exact methods of inverting the 2-D exponential radon transform, with implications for noise control in SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, C.E.; Pan, X.

    1995-12-01

    Exact methods of inverting the two-dimensional (2-D) exponential Radon transform have been proposed by Bellini et al. and by Inouye et al., both of whom worked in the spatial-frequency domain to estimate the 2-D Fourier transform of the unattenuated sinogram; by Hawkins et al., who worked with circularly harmonic Bessel transforms; and by Tretiak and Metz, who followed filtering of appropriately-modified projections by exponentially-weighted backprojection. With perfect sampling, all four of these methods are exact in the absence of projection-data noise, but empirical studies have shown that they propagate noise differently, and no underlying theoretical relationship among the methods has been evident. In this paper, an analysis of the 2-D Fourier transform of the modified sinogram reveals that all previously-proposed linear methods can be interpreted as special cases of a broad class of methods, and that each method in the class can be implemented, in principle, by any one of four distinct techniques. Moreover, the analysis suggests a new member of the class that is predicted to have noise properties better than those of previously proposed members.

  6. Preparation and transformation of true nifedipine polymorphs: investigated with differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction pattern fitting methods.

    PubMed

    Grooff, Driekus; Liebenberg, Wilna; De Villiers, Melgardt M

    2011-05-01

    The amorphous → metastable and metastable → stable crystalline phase transitions of nifedipine and their relationship with polymorph composition during storage at controlled temperature/humidity conditions were investigated. Metastable form C was produced from both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermal treatment and storage [22 °C/0% and 75% relative humidity (RH)] of the amorphous form. Amorphous conversion rate accelerated with storage temperature up to 40 °C, but a further 8 °C increase to 48 °C (3 °C above the glass transition) resulted in a more than 12-fold decrease in amorphous conversion rate. DSC and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a faster amorphous conversion rate relative to the metastable crystal transformation with 75% RH having a greater accelerative effect on the former. Relative phase quantification from XRD pattern fitting included the use of integrated peak intensities of the crystalline phases, Rietveld and the Rietveld-based partial or no known crystal structures method. Kinetic analysis with Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation indicated that the accelerated amorphous conversion in 75% RH was associated with a 10-fold increase in rate constant with dimensional growth little affected. The smaller rate increase for metastable crystal conversion was associated with an increased dimensional growth while the rate constant was little affected. PMID:21259235

  7. Identification of fungal phytopathogens using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection spectroscopy and advanced statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Ahmad; Lapidot, Itshak; Pomerantz, Ami; Tsror, Leah; Shufan, Elad; Moreh, Raymond; Mordechai, Shaul; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    The early diagnosis of phytopathogens is of a great importance; it could save large economical losses due to crops damaged by fungal diseases, and prevent unnecessary soil fumigation or the use of fungicides and bactericides and thus prevent considerable environmental pollution. In this study, 18 isolates of three different fungi genera were investigated; six isolates of Colletotrichum coccodes, six isolates of Verticillium dahliae and six isolates of Fusarium oxysporum. Our main goal was to differentiate these fungi samples on the level of isolates, based on their infrared absorption spectra obtained using the Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) sampling technique. Advanced statistical and mathematical methods: principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and k-means were applied to the spectra after manipulation. Our results showed significant spectral differences between the various fungi genera examined. The use of k-means enabled classification between the genera with a 94.5% accuracy, whereas the use of PCA [3 principal components (PCs)] and LDA has achieved a 99.7% success rate. However, on the level of isolates, the best differentiation results were obtained using PCA (9 PCs) and LDA for the lower wavenumber region (800-1775 cm-1), with identification success rates of 87%, 85.5%, and 94.5% for Colletotrichum, Fusarium, and Verticillium strains, respectively.

  8. Evaluation of agricultural nonpoint source pollution potential risk over China with a Transformed-Agricultural Nonpoint Pollution Potential Index method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Xu, Zhencheng; Zhu, Yunqiang; He, Chansheng; Wu, Genyi; Qiu, Jin Rong; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Qingsong

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has been the most important threat to water environment quality. Understanding the spatial distribution of NPS pollution potential risk is important for taking effective measures to control and reduce NPS pollution. A Transformed-Agricultural Nonpoint Pollution Potential Index (T-APPI) model was constructed for evaluating the national NPS pollution potential risk in this study; it was also combined with remote sensing and geographic information system techniques for evaluation on the large scale and at 1 km2 spatial resolution. This model considers many factors contributing to the NPS pollution as the original APPI model, summarized as four indicators of the runoff, sediment production, chemical use and the people and animal load. These four indicators were analysed in detail at 1 km2 spatial resolution throughout China. The T-APPI model distinguished the four indicators into pollution source factors and transport process factors; it also took their relationship into consideration. The studied results showed that T-APPI is a credible and convenient method for NPS pollution potential risk evaluation. The results also indicated that the highest NPS pollution potential risk is distributed in the middle-southern Jiangsu province. Several other regions, including the North China Plain, Chengdu Basin Plain, Jianghan Plain, cultivated lands in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, also showed serious NPS pollution potential. This study can provide a scientific reference for predicting the future NPS pollution risk throughout China and may be helpful for taking reasonable and effective measures for preventing and controlling NPS pollution.

  9. Semi-computational simulation of magneto-hemodynamic flow in a semi-porous channel using optimal homotopy and differential transform methods.

    PubMed

    Basiri Parsa, A; Rashidi, M M; Anwar Bég, O; Sadri, S M

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the semi-numerical techniques known as the optimal homotopy analysis method (HAM) and Differential Transform Method (DTM) are applied to study the magneto-hemodynamic laminar viscous flow of a conducting physiological fluid in a semi-porous channel under a transverse magnetic field. The two-dimensional momentum conservation partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary form incorporating Lorentizian magnetohydrodynamic body force terms. These ordinary differential equations are solved by the homotopy analysis method, the differential transform method and also a numerical method (fourth-order Runge-Kutta quadrature with a shooting method), under physically realistic boundary conditions. The homotopy analysis method contains the auxiliary parameter ℏ, which provides us with a simple way to adjust and control the convergence region of solution series. The differential transform method (DTM) does not require an auxiliary parameter and is employed to compute an approximation to the solution of the system of nonlinear differential equations governing the problem. The influence of Hartmann number (Ha) and transpiration Reynolds number (mass transfer parameter, Re) on the velocity profiles in the channel are studied in detail. Interesting fluid dynamic characteristics are revealed and addressed. The HAM and DTM solutions are shown to both correlate well with numerical quadrature solutions, testifying to the accuracy of both HAM and DTM in nonlinear magneto-hemodynamics problems. Both these semi-numerical techniques hold excellent potential in modeling nonlinear viscous flows in biological systems. PMID:23930807

  10. A simple classification method for residual antibiotics using E. coli cells transformed by the calcium chloride method and drug resistance plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Lin, S Y; Kondo, F

    2001-01-01

    Using three different plasmid DNA codings for kanamycin (KM), chloramphenicol (CP), and ampicillin- (AMP) and tetracycline- (TC) resistance, four different competent Escherichia coli strains were transformed by the calcium chloride method to produce KM-, CP- and AMP- and TC-resistant strains. Evaluation of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 22 antibiotics, showed KM-resistant E. coli to be cross resistant only to fradiomycin (FRM); CP-resistant E. coli, especially HB101 and JM109 strains, exhibited cross-resistance only to thiamphenicol (TP). On the other hand, AMP- and TC-resistant E. coli showed cross resistance to several penicillins, tetracyclines and erythromycin. E. coli ATCC-27166, the strain most sensitive to all drugs in this experiment, was employed for disc diffusion experiments and from the pattern of appearance of the inhibition zone, eight major antibiotics were divided into three groups depending on their activity against containing each of the three plasmids. Only gentamicin (GM) activity was not affected by any of the drug resistant strains. Assay techniques utilizing three resistant strains may be the technique for screening foods for antibiotic residues in the future.

  11. A handy approximate solution for a squeezing flow between two infinite plates by using of Laplace transform-homotopy perturbation method.

    PubMed

    Filobello-Nino, Uriel; Vazquez-Leal, Hector; Cervantes-Perez, Juan; Benhammouda, Brahim; Perez-Sesma, Agustin; Hernandez-Martinez, Luis; Jimenez-Fernandez, Victor Manuel; Herrera-May, Agustin Leobardo; Pereyra-Diaz, Domitilo; Marin-Hernandez, Antonio; Huerta Chua, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes Laplace Transform Homotopy Perturbation Method (LT-HPM) to find an approximate solution for the problem of an axisymmetric Newtonian fluid squeezed between two large parallel plates. After comparing figures between approximate and exact solutions, we will see that the proposed solutions besides of handy, are highly accurate and therefore LT-HPM is extremely efficient.

  12. A handy approximate solution for a squeezing flow between two infinite plates by using of Laplace transform-homotopy perturbation method.

    PubMed

    Filobello-Nino, Uriel; Vazquez-Leal, Hector; Cervantes-Perez, Juan; Benhammouda, Brahim; Perez-Sesma, Agustin; Hernandez-Martinez, Luis; Jimenez-Fernandez, Victor Manuel; Herrera-May, Agustin Leobardo; Pereyra-Diaz, Domitilo; Marin-Hernandez, Antonio; Huerta Chua, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes Laplace Transform Homotopy Perturbation Method (LT-HPM) to find an approximate solution for the problem of an axisymmetric Newtonian fluid squeezed between two large parallel plates. After comparing figures between approximate and exact solutions, we will see that the proposed solutions besides of handy, are highly accurate and therefore LT-HPM is extremely efficient. PMID:25157331

  13. A method of two-dimensional mapping of cortical perfusion by cylindrical transformation of HMPAO SPET data.

    PubMed

    Ichise, M; Crisp, S; Ganguli, N; Tsai, S; Gray, B G

    1995-05-01

    In order to synthesize three-dimensional information on relative regional blood flow (rCBF) from the cortical grey matter in 99Tcm-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) single photon emission tomographic (SPET) images into a single two-dimensional 'cortical peel' (CP) image, we developed a program that performs cylindrical transformation of SPET data. A sub-routine of this program performs measurements of cortex-to-cerebellum rCBF ratios for 54 cortical regions in the CP image. This program was used to establish a normative database derived from 30 young normal control subjects aged 28.7 +/- 6.9 years. The database was then used to express cortex-to-cerebellum rCBF ratios in four colour-coded ranges of normal standard deviation of the mean rCBF ratio across the cortical regions in the CP image. This CP method was implemented for 30 clinical HMPAO SPET studies in patients (n = 30, aged 71.8 +/- 4.2 years) with suspected dementia as well as several studies in aged healthy subjects (n = 8, aged 67 +/- 9.8 years). In 25/30 (83%) patients, all abnormalities seen on the tomographic display were evident on the corresponding CP image. No aged healthy subjects showed abnormalities on either the tomographic display or the corresponding CP image. An advantage of this technique is that the extent and severity of rCBF abnormalities are readily appreciated in one single image. This technique, in conjunction with the conventional multi-slice tomographic display, was a useful tool in identifying various patterns of rCBF abnormalities in the patients with clinically suspected dementia.

  14. Development of an efficient transformation method by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and high throughput spray assay to identify transgenic plants for woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) using NPTII selection.

    PubMed

    Pantazis, Christopher J; Fisk, Sarah; Mills, Kerri; Flinn, Barry S; Shulaev, Vladimir; Veilleux, Richard E; Dan, Yinghui

    2013-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We developed an efficient Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method using an Ac/Ds transposon tagging construct for F. vesca and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to identify its transformants for strawberry functional genomics. Genomic resources for Rosaceae species are now readily available, including the Fragaria vesca genome, EST sequences, markers, linkage maps, and physical maps. The Rosaceae Genomic Executive Committee has promoted strawberry as a translational genomics model due to its unique biological features and transformability for fruit trait improvement. Our overall research goal is to use functional genomic and metabolic approaches to pursue high throughput gene discovery in the diploid woodland strawberry. F. vesca offers several advantages of a fleshy fruit typical of most fruit crops, short life cycle (seed to seed in 12-16 weeks), small genome size (206 Mbb/C), small plant size, self-compatibility, and many seeds per plant. We have developed an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated strawberry transformation method using kanamycin selection, and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to efficiently identify transgenic strawberry plants. Using our kanamycin transformation method, we were able to produce up to 98 independent kanamycin resistant insertional mutant lines using a T-DNA construct carrying an Ac/Ds transposon Launchpad system from a single transformation experiment involving inoculation of 22 leaf explants of F. vesca accession 551572 within approx. 11 weeks (from inoculation to soil). Transgenic plants with 1-2 copies of a transgene were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Using our paromomycin spray assay, transgenic F. vesca plants were rapidly identified within 10 days after spraying.

  15. A method detection limit for the analysis of natural organic matter via Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Thomas; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2014-08-19

    Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectra (FT-ICR-MS) of natural organic matter are complex and consist of several thousands of peaks. The corresponding mass to charge ratios (m/z) and signal intensities result from analytes and noise. The most commonly applied way of distinguishing between analyte and noise is a fixed signal-to-noise ratio below which a detected peak is considered noise. However, this procedure is problematic and can yield ambiguous results. For example, random noise peaks can occur slightly above the signal-to-noise threshold (false positives), while peaks of low abundance analytes may occasionally fall below the fixed threshold (false negatives). Thus, cumulative results from repeated measurements of the same sample contain more peaks than a single measurement. False positive and false negative signals are difficult to distinguish, which affects the reproducibility between replicates of a sample. To target this issue, we tested the feasibility of a method detection limit (MDL) for the analysis of natural organic matter to identify peaks that can reliably be distinguished from noise by estimating the uncertainty of the noise. We performed 556 replicate analyses of a dissolved organic matter sample from the deep North Pacific on a 15 T FT-ICR-MS; each of these replicate runs consisted of 500 cumulated broadband scans. To unambiguously identify analyte peaks in the mass spectra, the sample was also run at time-consuming high-sensitivity settings. The resulting data set was used to establish and thoroughly test a MDL. The new method is easy to establish with software help, does only require the additional analysis of replicate blanks (low time increase), and can implement all steps of sample preparation. Especially when analysis time does not allow for replicate runs, major merits of the MDL are reliable removal of false positive (noise) peaks and better reproducibility, while the risk of losing analytes with low signal intensities

  16. Optical source transformations.

    PubMed

    Kundtz, N; Roberts, D A; Allen, J; Cummer, S; Smith, D R

    2008-12-22

    Transformation optics is a recently appreciated methodology for the design of complex media that control the propagation of electromagnetic and other types of waves. The transformation optical technique involves the use of coordinate transformations applied to some region of space, providing a conceptual means to redirect the flow of waves. Successfully designed devices to date have made use of transformations acting on passive space only; however, the technique can also be applied when source distributions (e.g., current and charge) are included within the space being transformed. In this paper we present examples of source transformations that illustrate the potential of these expanded transformation optical methods. In particular, using finite-element full-wave simulations, we confirm the restoration of dipole radiation patterns from both a distorted 'pin-wheel' antenna and a bent dipole partially occluded by a cylindrical scatterer. We propose the technique of source transformations as a powerful approach for antenna design, especially in relation to conformal antennas.

  17. Analytical and numerical validation for solving the fractional Klein-Gordon equation using the fractional complex transform and variational iteration methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khader, M. M.; Adel, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we implement the fractional complex transform method to convert the nonlinear fractional Klein-Gordon equation (FKGE) to an ordinary differential equation. We use the variational iteration method (VIM) to solve the resulting ODE. The fractional derivatives are presented in terms of the Caputo sense. Some numerical examples are presented to validate the proposed techniques. Finally, a comparison with the numerical solution using Runge-Kutta of order four is given.

  18. Micro-shock Wave Assisted Plant Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Datey, Akshay; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Gopalan, Jagadeesh

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are developed by transforming the desired DNA to plant. There are various methods employed to achieve the required transformation in plants. Agrobacterium mediated transformation and Biolistics or particle bombardment method are the most commonly used methods.

  19. Statistical validation of wavelet transform coherence method to assess the transfer of calf muscle activation to blood pressure during quiet standing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Continuous and discrete wavelet transforms have been established as valid tools to analyze non-stationary and transient signals over Fourier domain methods. Additionally, Fourier transform based coherence methods provide aggregate results but do not provide insights into the changes in coherent behavior over time, hence limiting their utility. Methods Statistical validation of the wavelet transform coherence (WTC) was conducted with simulated data sets. Time frequency maps of signal coherence between calf muscle electromyography (EMG) and blood pressure (BP) were obtained by WTC to provide further insight into their interdependent time-varying behavior via the skeletal muscle pump during quiet stance. Data were collected from healthy young males (n = 5, 19–28 years) during a quiet stance on a balance platform. Waveforms for EMG and BP were acquired and processed for further analysis. Results Low values of bias and standard deviation (< 0.1) were observed and the use of both simulated and real data demonstrated that the WTC method was able to identify time points of significant coherence (> Threshold) and objectively detect existence of interdependent activity between the calf muscle EMG and blood pressure. Conclusions The WTC method effectively identified the presence of linear coupling between the EMG and BP signals during quiet standing. Future studies with more human data are needed to establish the exact characteristics of the identified relationship. PMID:24365103

  20. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart K of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Distribution Transformers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... critical temperature in degrees Celsius for the material of the primary winding: 234.5 °C if copper and 225 °C if aluminum, Tk(s) is the critical temperature in degrees Celsius for the material of the...% Temperature ± 1.0 °C (b) Only instrument transformers meeting the 0.3 metering accuracy class, or better,...

  1. Reservoir structures detection and hydrocarbons exploration using wavelet transform method in 2 oil fields in southwestern of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, H.; Saadatinejad, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    Spectral decomposition provides better methods for quantifying and visualizing subtle seismic features and by decomposing the seismic signal into discrete frequency components, allows the geoscientist to analyze and map features. Through these methods, continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is an effective and widely-applied. It provides a different approach to time-frequency analysis and produces a time-scale map. The application of CWT is extensive and in this paper, we applied two major capacities of CWT in seismic investigations. It operated to detect reservoir structural characteristics and low-frequency shadows below gas reservoirs to develop a producing reservoir and discover a new petroleum reservoir in 2 oilfields in southwestern of Iran successfully. At the first and significant application in reservoir structure study, CWT enabled to providing clear images from kind of structural systems especially to identify hidden structural features such as extensional ruptures and faults for better drilling, injection and recovery operations and be able to increase production of oilfield. According to properties of tectonic events as fault and their effect (velocity diffraction) on seismic signals, it had been observed that CWT results show some discontinuities in location of ruptures and be able to display them more obvious than other spectral results, especially on horizon slices. Then, by picking and interpretation those, we obtain map, kind, strike and deep direction of faults easily. In petroleum exploration case, low-frequency shadows in CWT results appear due to energy attenuation of seismic signal in high frequencies by the presence of gas; this means there are no high frequencies under the gas reservoir. This phenomenon accounts as an indicator and attribute to explore reservoirs containing gas. As the frequency increases, these shadows decrease and finally disappear. The ranges of these shadows are usually between 8 to 20 Hz in gaz and 28 to 35 Hz in oil

  2. Development of a Standard Methodology for the Quantitative Measurement of Steel Phase Transformation Kinetics and Dilation Strains Using Dilatometric Methods, QMST (TRP 0015)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Manish Metha; Dr. Tom Oakwood

    2004-04-28

    The purpose of this collaborative project was to develop a standard practice for obtaining and archiving quantitative steel transformation kinetic data and thermal strain data. Two families of dilatometric equipment were employed to develop this standard practice for testing bar product steels. These include high-speed quenching and deformation dilatometers and Gleeble{reg_sign} thermomechanical simulation instruments. Standard measurement, data interpretation and data reporting methods were developed and defined by the cross-industry QMST Consortium members consisting of steel-manufacturers, forgers, heat-treaters, modelers, automotive and heavy vehicle OEMs along with team expert technologists from the National Labs and academia. The team designed phase transformation experiments on two selected steel grades to validate the standard practices--a medium carbon grade SAE 1050 and an alloy steel SAE 8620. A final standard practice document was developed based on the two dilatometry methods, and was submitted to and approved by ASTM (available as A1033-04). The standard practice specifies a method for measuring austenite transformation under no elastic stress or plastic deformation. These methods will be an enabler for the development and electronic archiving of a quantitative database for process modeling using computer simulation software, and will greatly assist endusers in developing accurate process and product simulations during the thermo-mechanical processing of bar and rod product steels.

  3. [Measurements of the concentration of atmospheric CO2 based on OP/FTIR method and infrared reflecting scanning Fourier transform spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wei, Ru-Yi; Zhou, Jin-Song; Zhang, Xue-Min; Yu, Tao; Gao, Xiao-Hui; Ren, Xiao-Qiang

    2014-11-01

    The present paper describes the observations and measurements of the infrared absorption spectra of CO2 on the Earth's surface with OP/FTIR method by employing a mid-infrared reflecting scanning Fourier transform spectrometry, which are the first results produced by the first prototype in China developed by the team of authors. This reflecting scanning Fourier transform spectrometry works in the spectral range 2 100-3 150 cm(-1) with a spectral resolution of 2 cm(-1). Method to measure the atmospheric molecules was described and mathematical proof and quantitative algorithms to retrieve molecular concentration were established. The related models were performed both by a direct method based on the Beer-Lambert Law and by a simulating-fitting method based on HITRAN database and the instrument functions. Concentrations of CO2 were retrieved by the two models. The results of observation and modeling analyses indicate that the concentrations have a distribution of 300-370 ppm, and show tendency that going with the variation of the environment they first decrease slowly and then increase rapidly during the observation period, and reached low points in the afternoon and during the sunset. The concentrations with measuring times retrieved by the direct method and by the simulating-fitting method agree with each other very well, with the correlation of all the data is up to 99.79%, and the relative error is no more than 2.00%. The precision for retrieving is relatively high. The results of this paper demonstrate that, in the field of detecting atmospheric compositions, OP/FTIR method performed by the Infrared reflecting scanning Fourier transform spectrometry is a feasible and effective technical approach, and either the direct method or the simulating-fitting method is capable of retrieving concentrations with high precision. PMID:25752042

  4. A High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Based Screening Method for the Analysis of Atrazine, Alachlor, and Ten of Their Transformation Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroyer, B.R.; Capel, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    A high-performance liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method is presented for the for the fast, quantitative analysis of the target analytes in water and in low organic-carbon, sandy soils that are known to be contaminated with the parent herbicides. Speed and ease of sample preparation was prioritized above minimizing detection limits. Soil samples were extracted using 80:20 methanol:water (volume:volume). Water samples (50 ??L) were injected directly into the HPLC without prior preparation. Method quantification limits for soil samples (10 g dry weight) and water samples ranged from 20 to 110 ng/g and from 20 to 110 ??g/L for atrazine and its transformation products and from 80 to 320 ng/g and from 80 to 320 ??g/L for alachlor and its transformation products, respectively.

  5. Application of crystallization-induced asymmetric transformation to a general, scalable method for the resolution of 2,8-disubstituted Tröger's base derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jameson, Donald L; Field, Thomas; Schmidt, Monica R; DeStefano, Alyson K; Stiteler, Christopher J; Venditto, Vincent J; Krovic, Brooke; Hoffman, Christopher M; Ondisco, Matthew T; Belowich, Matthew E

    2013-11-15

    A general method for the gram scale resolution of 2-substituted and 2,8-disubstituted Tröger's base (TB) derivatives in 63-91% yield has been achieved through the application of crystallization-induced asymmetric transformation (CIAT). Enantiomeric ratios of the resolved TB derivatives range from 99.1:0.9 to >99.5:0.5. Among the Tröger's base compounds resolved are four synthetically valuable bromo and iodo derivatives. PMID:24116701

  6. [Hyper spectral estimation method for soil alkali hydrolysable nitrogen content based on discrete wavelet transform and genetic algorithm in combining with partial least squares DWT-GA-PLS)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Li, Xi-Can; Wang, Xiang-Feng; Li, Yu-Ling

    2013-11-01

    Taking the Qihe County in Shandong Province of East China as the study area, soil samples were collected from the field, and based on the hyperspectral reflectance measurement of the soil samples and the transformation with the first deviation, the spectra were denoised and compressed by discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the variables for the soil alkali hydrolysable nitrogen quantitative estimation models were selected by genetic algorithms (GA), and the estimation models for the soil alkali hydrolysable nitrogen content were built by using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The discrete wavelet transform and genetic algorithm in combining with partial least squares (DWT-GA-PLS) could not only compress the spectrum variables and reduce the model variables, but also improve the quantitative estimation accuracy of soil alkali hydrolysable nitrogen content. Based on the 1-2 levels low frequency coefficients of discrete wavelet transform, and under the condition of large scale decrement of spectrum variables, the calibration models could achieve the higher or the same prediction accuracy as the soil full spectra. The model based on the second level low frequency coefficients had the highest precision, with the model predicting R2 being 0.85, the RMSE being 8.11 mg x kg(-1), and RPD being 2.53, indicating the effectiveness of DWT-GA-PLS method in estimating soil alkali hydrolysable nitrogen content.

  7. Advanced Micromechanical Model for Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steels with Application of In-Situ High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. S.; Liu, W. N.; Sun, X.; Khaleel, M. A.; Ren, Y.; Wang, Y. D.

    2008-12-01

    Compared to other advanced high-strength steels, transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels exhibit better ductility at a given strength level and can be used to produce complicated automotive parts. This enhanced formability comes from the transformation of retained austenite to martensite during plastic deformation. In this study, as a first step in predicting optimum processing parameters in TRIP steel productions, a micromechanical finite element model is developed based on the actual microstructure of a TRIP 800 steel. The method uses a microstructure-based representative volume element (RVE) to capture the complex deformation behavior of TRIP steels. The mechanical properties of the constituent phases of the TRIP 800 steel and the fitting parameters describing the martensite transformation kinetics are determined using the synchrotron-based in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) experiments performed under a uniaxial tensile deformation. The experimental results suggest that the HEXRD technique provides a powerful tool for characterizing the phase transformation behavior and the microstress developed due to the phase-to-phase interaction of TRIP steels during deformation. The computational results suggest that the response of the RVE well represents the overall macroscopic behavior of the TRIP 800 steel under deformation. The methodology described in this study may be extended for studying the effects of the various processing parameters on the macroscopic behaviors of TRIP steels.

  8. Determination of uronic acids in isolated hemicelluloses from kenaf using diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and the curve-fitting deconvolution method.

    PubMed

    Batsoulis, A N; Nacos, M K; Pappas, C S; Tarantilis, P A; Mavromoustakos, T; Polissiou, M G

    2004-02-01

    Hemicellulose samples were isolated from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Hemicellulosic fractions usually contain a variable percentage of uronic acids. The uronic acid content (expressed in polygalacturonic acid) of the isolated hemicelluloses was determined by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and the curve-fitting deconvolution method. A linear relationship between uronic acids content and the sum of the peak areas at 1745, 1715, and 1600 cm(-1) was established with a high correlation coefficient (0.98). The deconvolution analysis using the curve-fitting method allowed the elimination of spectral interferences from other cell wall components. The above method was compared with an established spectrophotometric method and was found equivalent for accuracy and repeatability (t-test, F-test). This method is applicable in analysis of natural or synthetic mixtures and/or crude substances. The proposed method is simple, rapid, and nondestructive for the samples.

  9. Structure and interaction in dense colloidal systems: evaluation of scattering data by the generalized indirect Fourier transformation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Gerhard; Glatter, Otto

    2006-09-01

    The generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique is a versatile tool for the evaluation of small angle scattering data. It does not depend on models for the size and shape of the particles and requires model assumptions only for the interaction effects that are typically not as sensitive to the details of the assumptions. We review here the development of the technique from its inception, focusing on the included interaction models for hard, charged and attractive spheres, and lamellae. A considerable number of applications has also been reported ranging from surfactants, emulsions, microemulsions, food science, and ceramics to melts and block-copolymers.

  10. Application of a radiometric calibration method to lunar Fourier transform IR spectra by using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled high-emissivity blackbody.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, J; Blumenstock, T; Hase, F

    1997-11-01

    Since winter 1994/1995 the Moon has been used in addition to the Sun as an IR source of radiation to measure atmospheric absorption spectra with a Bruker IR Fourier transform spectrometer IFS 120M located near Kiruna, Sweden. A two-point radiometric calibration method with blackbody references was applied to lunar spectra in the long-wave detector channel to improve the accuracy of evaluation of the column amounts of different atmospheric trace gases. A new liquid-nitrogen-cooled high-emissivity blackbody without an entrance window is described that is used for this calibration method.

  11. Optical image encryption using a jigsaw transform for silhouette removal in interference-based methods and decryption with a single spatial light modulator.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    2011-05-01

    Interference-based optical encryption schemes have an inherent silhouette problem due to the equipollent nature of the phase-only masks (POMs) generated using an analytical method. One of the earlier methods suggested that removing the problem by use of exchanging process between two masks increases the computational load. This shortcoming is overcome with a noniterative method using the jigsaw transformation (JT) in a single step, with improved security because the inverse JT of these masks, along with correct permutation keys that are necessary to decrypt the original image. The stringent alignment requirement of the POMs in two different arms during the experiment is removed with an alternative method using a single spatial light modulator. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the decryption process with the proposed method.

  12. Solution of Radiative Transfer Equation with a Continuous and Stochastic Varying Refractive Index by Legendre Transform Method

    PubMed Central

    Gantri, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present paper gives a new computational framework within which radiative transfer in a varying refractive index biological tissue can be studied. In our previous works, Legendre transform was used as an innovative view to handle the angular derivative terms in the case of uniform refractive index spherical medium. In biomedical optics, our analysis can be considered as a forward problem solution in a diffuse optical tomography imaging scheme. We consider a rectangular biological tissue-like domain with spatially varying refractive index submitted to a near infrared continuous light source. Interaction of radiation with the biological material into the medium is handled by a radiative transfer model. In the studied situation, the model displays two angular redistribution terms that are treated with Legendre integral transform. The model is used to study a possible detection of abnormalities in a general biological tissue. The effect of the embedded nonhomogeneous objects on the transmitted signal is studied. Particularly, detection of targets of localized heterogeneous inclusions within the tissue is discussed. Results show that models accounting for variation of refractive index can yield useful predictions about the target and the location of abnormal inclusions within the tissue. PMID:25013454

  13. Morphology and phase transformations of tin oxide nanostructures synthesized by the hydrothermal method in the presence of dicarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zima, Tatyana.; Bataev, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    A new approach to the synthesis of non-stoichiometric tin oxide structures with different morphologies and the phase compositions has been evaluated. The nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of the mixtures of dicarboxylic acids ― aminoterephthalic or oxalic ― with nanocrystalline SnO2 powder, which was obtained via the sol-gel technology. The products were characterized by Raman and IR spectroscopy, SEM, HRTEM, and XRD analysis. It was shown that the controlled addition of a dicarboxylic acid leads not only to a change in the morphology of the nanostructures, but also to SnO2-SnO2/Sn3O4-Sn3O4-SnO phase transformations. A single-phase Sn3O4 in the form of the well-separated hexagonal nanoplates and mixed SnO2/Sn3O4 phases in the form of hierarchical flower-like structures were obtained in the presence of organic additives. The effects of concentration, redox activity of the acids and heat treatment on the basic characteristics of the synthesized tin oxide nanostructures and phase transformations in the synthesized materials are discussed.

  14. Identification of nematicidal fatty acids and triglycerides from seeds of Jubaea chilensis by GC-EI-MS and chemical transformation methods.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jian-Qiao; Eppler, C Mark; Montenegro, Gloria; Timmins, Scott D; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2005-01-01

    Nematicidal bioassay-guided fractionation of the n-hexane extract of the seeds of Jubaea chilensis led to the identification of eight known fatty acids and a mixture of triglycerides, reported for the first time for this species. In addition, their corresponding methyl esters were identified to be artifacts generated during the extraction and isolation procedures by using GC-EI-MS and chemical transformation methods. The fatty acid composition of the triglycerides was analyzed by GC-EI-MS and chemical transformation techniques. Among the 17 compounds, only lauric acid and myristic acid exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the movement of Caenorhabditis elegans with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 75 microg/ml. PMID:16163824

  15. Thermal transformation of bioactive caffeic acid on fumed silica seen by UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry and quantum chemical methods.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Tetiana V; Lipkovska, Natalia O; Barvinchenko, Valentyna M; Palyanytsya, Borys B; Kazakova, Olga A; Dudik, Olesia O; Menyhárd, Alfréd; László, Krisztina

    2016-05-15

    Thermochemical studies of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and their surface complexes are important for the pharmaceutical industry, medicine and for the development of technologies of heterogeneous biomass pyrolysis. In this study, structural and thermal transformations of caffeic acid complexes on silica surfaces were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry (TPD MS) and quantum chemical methods. Two types of caffeic acid surface complexes are found to form through phenolic or carboxyl groups. The kinetic parameters of the chemical reactions of caffeic acid on silica surface are calculated. The mechanisms of thermal transformations of the caffeic chemisorbed surface complexes are proposed. Thermal decomposition of caffeic acid complex chemisorbed through grafted ester group proceeds via three parallel reactions, producing ketene, vinyl and acetylene derivatives of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. Immobilization of phenolic acids on the silica surface improves greatly their thermal stability.

  16. Novel non-linear processing methods of VLF signals for seismic-ionospheric precursor detection: Evaluation of Zhao-Atlas-Marks and Hilbert-Huang Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeberis, Christos; Zaharis, Zaharias; Xenos, Thomas; Theochari, Sophia; Spatalas, Spyridon; Arabelos, Dimitrios; Contadakis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the application of three different methods of extracting spectra from VLF signals in order to detect disturbances that can be attributed to seismic-ionospheric precursor phenomena. The methods tested here are the Wavelet Transform (WT) as a benchmark method, the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) and the application of Zhao-Atlas-Marks (ZAM) Distribution, which is a quadratic representation, to process the signals in question. For the purpose of this paper, data acquired in Thessaloniki (40.59N, 22,78E) from the VLF station in Tavolara, Italy (ICV station Lat 40.923, Lon. 9.731) for over three years (December 2010 - December 2013) are used. The receiver was developed by Elettronika Srl and is part of the International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors (INFREP). A normalization of the received VLF signals is applied prior to their analysis. The efficacy of the processing methods and the results produced by these processes are then discussed. Finally, comparative spectra are presented along with an evaluation of the discrimination and detection capabilities of each method on disturbances of the received signals. These methods provide different resolution and filtering capabilities. HHT provides frequency range filtering by making Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF) selection thus allowing us to focus on specific frequency ranges on the phenomena in question, whereas ZAM has an emphasis on improving frequency resolution and thus provides cross-term suppression, therefore this method gives clearer spectra without having the option of filtering that HHT provides. Based upon the results, a suitable processing method can be chosen to further improve the current analysis method by using data produced by seismic-ionospheric precursor phenomena and also contribute to a real-time method for correlating seismic activity with the observed disturbances.

  17. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Mow S.; Premuzic, Eugene T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  18. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  19. Phase-shift detection in a Fourier-transform method for temperature sensing using a tapered fiber microknot resonator.

    PubMed

    Larocque, Hugo; Lu, Ping; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2016-04-01

    Phase-shift detection in a fast-Fourier-transform (FFT)-based spectrum analysis technique for temperature sensing using a tapered fiber microknot resonator is proposed and demonstrated. Multiple transmission peaks in the FFT spectrum of the device were identified as optical modes having completed different amounts of round trips within the ring structure. Temperature variation induced phase shifts for each set of peaks were characterized, and experimental results show that different peaks have distinct temperature sensitivities reaching values up to -0.542  rad/°C, which is about 10 times greater than that of a regular adiabatic taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer when using similar phase-tracking schemes. PMID:27192232

  20. Characterization of plasmonic hole arrays as transparent electrical contacts for organic photovoltaics using high-brightness Fourier transform methods

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Camino, Fernando E.; Nam, Chang-Yong; Pang, Yutong T.; Hoy, Jessica; Eisaman, Matthew D.; Black, Charles T.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2014-05-15

    Here we present a methodology for probing light-matter interactions in prototype photovoltaic devices consisting of an organic semiconductor active layer with a semitransparent metal electrical contact exhibiting surface plasmon-based enhanced optical transmission. We achieve high-spectral irradiance in a spot size of less than 100 μm using a high-brightness laser-driven light source and appropriate coupling optics. Spatially resolved Fourier transform photocurrent spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions allows us to measure external quantum efficiency with high sensitivity in small-area devices (<1 mm2). Lastly, this allows for rapid fabrication of variable-pitch sub-wavelength hole arrays in metal films for use asmore » transparent electrical contacts, and evaluation of the evanescent and propagating mode coupling to resonances in the active layer.« less

  1. Characterizing a large shear-zone with seismic and magnetotelluric methods: The case of the Dead Sea Transform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maercklin, N.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Haberland, C.; Ritter, O.; Ryberg, T.; Weber, M.; Weckmann, U.

    2005-01-01

    Seismic tomography, imaging of seismic scatterers, and magnetotelluric soundings reveal a sharp lithologic contrast along a ???10 km long segment of the Arava Fault (AF), a prominent fault of the southern Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the Middle East. Low seismic velocities and resistivities occur on its western side and higher values east of it, and the boundary between the two units coincides partly with a seismic scattering image. At 1-4 km depth the boundary is offset to the east of the AF surface trace, suggesting that at least two fault strands exist, and that slip occurred on multiple strands throughout the margin's history. A westward fault jump, possibly associated with straightening of a fault bend, explains both our observations and the narrow fault zone observed by others. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Characterization of plasmonic hole arrays as transparent electrical contacts for organic photovoltaics using high-brightness Fourier transform methods

    SciTech Connect

    Camino, Fernando E.; Nam, Chang-Yong; Pang, Yutong T.; Hoy, Jessica; Eisaman, Matthew D.; Black, Charles T.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2014-05-15

    Here we present a methodology for probing light-matter interactions in prototype photovoltaic devices consisting of an organic semiconductor active layer with a semitransparent metal electrical contact exhibiting surface plasmon-based enhanced optical transmission. We achieve high-spectral irradiance in a spot size of less than 100 μm using a high-brightness laser-driven light source and appropriate coupling optics. Spatially resolved Fourier transform photocurrent spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions allows us to measure external quantum efficiency with high sensitivity in small-area devices (<1 mm2). Lastly, this allows for rapid fabrication of variable-pitch sub-wavelength hole arrays in metal films for use as transparent electrical contacts, and evaluation of the evanescent and propagating mode coupling to resonances in the active layer.

  3. An efficient method of agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and regeneration in local Indian cultivar of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) using grafting.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an industrial crop used as a source of edible oil and nutrients. In this study, an efficient method of regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is reported for a local cultivar GG-20 using de-embryonated cotyledon explant. A high regeneration 52.69 ± 2.32 % was achieved by this method with 66.6 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), while the highest number of shoot buds per explant, 17.67 ± 3.51, was found with 20 μM BAP and 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The bacterial culture OD, acetosyringone and L-cysteine concentration were optimized as 1.8, 200 μM and 50 mg L(-1), respectively, in co-cultivation media. It was observed that the addition of 2,4-D in co-cultivation media induced accumulation of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The optimized protocol exhibited 85 % transformation efficiency followed by 14.65 ± 1.06 % regeneration, of which 3.82 ± 0.6 % explants were survived on hygromycin after selection. Finally, 14.58 ± 2.95 % shoots (regenerated on survived explants) were rooted on rooting media (RM3). In grafting method, regenerated shoots (after hygromycin selection) were grafted on the non-transformed stocks with 100 % survival and new leaves emerged in 3 weeks. The putative transgenic plants were then confirmed by PCR, Southern hybridization, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical assay. The reported method is efficient and rapid and can also be applied to other crops which are recalcitrant and difficult in rooting.

  4. Multimode vibration analysis with high-speed TV holography and a spatiotemporal 3D Fourier transform method.

    PubMed

    Trillo, Cristina; Doval, Angel F; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando; Pérez-López, Carlos; de la Torre-Ibarra, Manuel; Deán, J Luis

    2009-09-28

    The combination of a high-speed TV holography system and a 3D Fourier-transform data processing is proposed for the analysis of multimode vibrations in plates. The out-of-plane displacement of the object under generic vibrational excitation is resolved in time by the fast acquisition rate of a high-speed camera, and recorded in a sequence of interferograms with spatial carrier. A full-field temporal history of the multimode vibration is thus obtained. The optical phase of the interferograms is extracted and subtracted from the phase of a reference state to yield a sequence of optical phase-change maps. Each map represents the change undergone by the object between any given state and the reference state. The sequence of maps is a 3D array of data (two spatial dimensions plus time) that is processed with a 3D Fourier-transform algorithm. The individual vibration modes are separated in the 3D frequency space due to their different vibration frequencies and, to a lesser extent, to the different spatial frequencies of the mode shapes. The contribution of each individual mode (or indeed the superposition of several modes) to the dynamic behaviour of the object can then be separated by means of a bandpass filter (or filters). The final output is a sequence of complex-valued maps that contain the full-field temporal history of the selected mode (or modes) in terms of its mechanical amplitude and phase. The proof-of-principle of the technique is demonstrated with a rectangular, fully clamped, thin metal plate vibrating simultaneously in several of its natural resonant frequencies under white-noise excitation. PMID:19907591

  5. Isolation and characterization by conventional methods and genetic transformation of Psychrobacter and Acinetobacter from fresh and spoiled meat, milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Gennari, M; Parini, M; Volpon, D; Serio, M

    1992-01-01

    Of 126 samples of fresh and spoiled meat and dairy products, 40% were positive for the presence of Moraxella-like bacteria and 64% of Acinetobacter; 279 and 466 strains, respectively, were isolated and a part of these were tested by biochemical methods and DNA transformation assays. In some cases, the Moraxellaceae in the samples examined reached considerable quantitative levels, but their percentage in the microflora was generally low. Moraxella-like bacteria were predominant in fresh meat, Acinetobacter in spoiled meat and milk. Most acinetobacters belonged to biotype lwoffii (sensu lato) and all 90 strains tested were positive for DNA transformation with an auxotrophic Acinetobacter. Moraxella-like bacteria were identified as Psychrobacter immobilis in 96% of 103 transformation assays. Moraxellaceae show lipolytic activity but they are considered of low incidence in food spoilage. Only 3.7% of acinetobacters from dairy sources was able to produce ropy milk. Unlike strains from clinical isolates, psychrobacters and acinetobacters isolated from food often do not grow at 37 degrees C.

  6. The Fourier transform method and the SD-bar approach for the analytical and numerical treatment of multicenter overlap-like quantum similarity integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Safouhi, Hassan . E-mail: hassan.safouhi@ualberta.ca; Berlu, Lilian

    2006-07-20

    Molecular overlap-like quantum similarity measurements imply the evaluation of overlap integrals of two molecular electronic densities related by Dirac delta function. When the electronic densities are expanded over atomic orbitals using the usual LCAO-MO approach (linear combination of atomic orbitals), overlap-like quantum similarity integrals could be expressed in terms of four-center overlap integrals. It is shown that by introducing the Fourier transform of delta Dirac function in the integrals and using the Fourier transform approach combined with the so-called B functions, one can obtain analytic expressions of the integrals under consideration. These analytic expressions involve highly oscillatory semi-infinite spherical Bessel functions, which are the principal source of severe numerical and computational difficulties. In this work, we present a highly efficient algorithm for a fast and accurate numerical evaluation of these multicenter overlap-like quantum similarity integrals over Slater type functions. This algorithm is based on the SD-bar approach due to Safouhi. Recurrence formulae are used for a better control of the degree of accuracy and for a better stability of the algorithm. The numerical result section shows the efficiency of our algorithm, compared with the alternatives using the one-center two-range expansion method, which led to very complicated analytic expressions, the epsilon algorithm and the nonlinear D-bar transformation.

  7. A new empirical method based on log-transformation regressions for the estimation of static formation temperatures of geothermal, petroleum and permafrost boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Ojeda, O. M.; Santoyo, E.

    2016-08-01

    A new practical method based on logarithmic transformation regressions was developed for the determination of static formation temperatures (SFTs) in geothermal, petroleum and permafrost bottomhole temperature (BHT) data sets. The new method involves the application of multiple linear and polynomial (from quadratic to eight-order) regression models to BHT and log-transformation (Tln) shut-in times. Selection of the best regression models was carried out by using four statistical criteria: (i) the coefficient of determination as a fitting quality parameter; (ii) the sum of the normalized squared residuals; (iii) the absolute extrapolation, as a dimensionless statistical parameter that enables the accuracy of each regression model to be evaluated through the extrapolation of the last temperature measured of the data set; and (iv) the deviation percentage between the measured and predicted BHT data. The best regression model was used for reproducing the thermal recovery process of the boreholes, and for the determination of the SFT. The original thermal recovery data (BHT and shut-in time) were used to demonstrate the new method's prediction efficiency. The prediction capability of the new method was additionally evaluated by using synthetic data sets where the true formation temperature (TFT) was known with accuracy. With these purposes, a comprehensive statistical analysis was carried out through the application of the well-known F-test and Student's t-test and the error percentage or statistical differences computed between the SFT estimates and the reported TFT data. After applying the new log-transformation regression method to a wide variety of geothermal, petroleum, and permafrost boreholes, it was found that the polynomial models were generally the best regression models that describe their thermal recovery processes. These fitting results suggested the use of this new method for the reliable estimation of SFT. Finally, the practical use of the new method was

  8. Phase transformations in nanostructured coatings based on Zr-Y-O and produced by a pulse magnetron sputtering method

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorischeva, Marina V. Kalashnikov, Mark P. Sergeev, Victor P.

    2015-10-27

    Deposition of nanostructured coatings on the basis of Zr-Y-O was implemented by the pulse magnetron methods. Structural-phase states and morphology of the nanostructured coatings were investigated by TEM, SEM and the high-temperature X-ray method. The method of the high-temperature X-ray diffraction revealed the presence of reversible phase transition of the tetragonal phase to the monoclinic phase, which can ensure stress relaxation and closure of surface cracks.

  9. Proof in Transformation Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    The first of three articles showing how inductively-obtained results in transformation geometry may be organized into a deductive system. This article discusses two approaches to enlargement (dilatation), one using coordinates and the other using synthetic methods. (MM)

  10. Ambient formic acid in southern California air: A comparison of two methods, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and alkaline trap-liquid chromatography with UV detection

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. ); Tuazon, E.C. ); Fujita, E. )

    1990-01-01

    Formic acid is an ubiquitous component of urban smog. Sources of formic acid in urban air include direct emissions from vehicles and in situ reaction of ozone with olefins. Ambient levels of formic acid in southern California air were first measured some 15 years ago by Hanst et al. using long-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). All subsequent studies of formic acid in the Los Angeles area have involved the use of two methods, either FTIR or collection on alkaline traps followed by gas chromatography, ion chromatography, or liquid chromatography analysis with UV detection, ATLC-UV. The Carbon Species Methods Comparison Study (CSMCS), a multilaboratory air quality study carried out in August 1986 at a southern California smog receptor site, provided an opportunity for direct field comparison of the FTIR and alkaline trap methods. The results of the comparison are presented in this brief report.

  11. Local unitary transformation method for large-scale two-component relativistic calculations: Case for a one-electron Dirac Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2012-06-01

    An accurate and efficient scheme for two-component relativistic calculations at the spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) level is presented. The present scheme, termed local unitary transformation (LUT), is based on the locality of the relativistic effect. Numerical assessments of the LUT scheme were performed in diatomic molecules such as HX and X2 (X = F, Cl, Br, I, and At) and hydrogen halide clusters, (HX)n (X = F, Cl, Br, and I). Total energies obtained by the LUT method agree well with conventional IODKH results. The computational costs of the LUT method are drastically lower than those of conventional methods since in the former there is linear-scaling with respect to the system size and a small prefactor.

  12. Coupling machine learning methods with wavelet transforms and the bootstrap and boosting ensemble approaches for drought prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belayneh, A.; Adamowski, J.; Khalil, B.; Quilty, J.

    2016-05-01

    This study explored the ability of coupled machine learning models and ensemble techniques to predict drought conditions in the Awash River Basin of Ethiopia. The potential of wavelet transforms coupled with the bootstrap and boosting ensemble techniques to develop reliable artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector regression (SVR) models was explored in this study for drought prediction. Wavelet analysis was used as a pre-processing tool and was shown to improve drought predictions. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) (in this case SPI 3, SPI 12 and SPI 24) is a meteorological drought index that was forecasted using the aforementioned models and these SPI values represent short and long-term drought conditions. The performances of all models were compared using RMSE, MAE, and R2. The prediction results indicated that the use of the boosting ensemble technique consistently improved the correlation between observed and predicted SPIs. In addition, the use of wavelet analysis improved the prediction results of all models. Overall, the wavelet boosting ANN (WBS-ANN) and wavelet boosting SVR (WBS-SVR) models provided better prediction results compared to the other model types evaluated.

  13. Fourier transform-plasmon waveguide spectroscopy: a nondestructive multifrequency method for simultaneously determining polymer thickness and apparent index of refraction.

    PubMed

    Bobbitt, Jonathan M; Weibel, Stephen C; Elshobaki, Moneim; Chaudhary, Sumit; Smith, Emily A

    2014-12-16

    Fourier transform (FT)-plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR) spectroscopy measures light reflectivity at a waveguide interface as the incident frequency and angle are scanned. Under conditions of total internal reflection, the reflected light intensity is attenuated when the incident frequency and angle satisfy conditions for exciting surface plasmon modes in the metal as well as guided modes within the waveguide. Expanding upon the concept of two-frequency surface plasmon resonance developed by Peterlinz and Georgiadis [Opt. Commun. 1996, 130, 260], the apparent index of refraction and the thickness of a waveguide can be measured precisely and simultaneously by FT-PWR with an average percent relative error of 0.4%. Measuring reflectivity for a range of frequencies extends the analysis to a wide variety of sample compositions and thicknesses since frequencies with the maximum attenuation can be selected to optimize the analysis. Additionally, the ability to measure reflectivity curves with both p- and s-polarized light provides anisotropic indices of refraction. FT-PWR is demonstrated using polystyrene waveguides of varying thickness, and the validity of FT-PWR measurements are verified by comparing the results to data from profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  14. Dual source fourier transform polarization modulation spectroscopy: an improved method for the measurement of circular and linear dichroism.

    PubMed

    Nafie, Laurence A; Buijs, Henry; Rilling, Allan; Cao, Xiaolin; Dukor, Rina K

    2004-06-01

    It is shown that the use of two sources in a four-port interferometer equipped with cube-corner mirrors leads to increased signal-to-noise ratios in Fourier transform (FT-IR) circular and linear dichroism spectra. The output beam to the sample is a superposition of two interferograms, one from each source, having opposite Fourier phases. These two interferograms cancel one another to the degree that the two sources are matched in intensity. If the radiation from each of the two sources is first polarized orthogonally with respect to the other and passed through a polarization modulator before reaching the sample, the resulting polarization-modulation interferograms are out of Fourier phase and out of polarization-modulation phase. As a result, the polarization-modulation interferograms, due to circular or linear dichroism in the sample, from the two sources combine positively rather than negatively. An improvement in signal-to-noise ratio of up to two (or a factor of four in scan-time reduction for the same signal-to-noise ratio) compared to single source operation can be realized, while at the same time, the potential for saturation of the detector signal is significantly reduced due to the reduction in magnitude of the combined ordinary infrared transmission interferogram. Absorption and circular dichroism spectra from a dual-source FT-IR spectrometer are presented and analyzed.

  15. Fourier Transform-Plasmon Waveguide Spectroscopy: A Nondestructive Multifrequency Method for Simultaneously Determining Polymer Thickness and Apparent Index of Refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbitt, Jonathan M; Weibel, Stephen C; Elshobaki, Moneim; Chaudhary, Sumit; Smith, Emily A

    2014-12-16

    Fourier transform (FT)-plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR) spectroscopy measures light reflectivity at a waveguide interface as the incident frequency and angle are scanned. Under conditions of total internal reflection, the reflected light intensity is attenuated when the incident frequency and angle satisfy conditions for exciting surface plasmon modes in the metal as well as guided modes within the waveguide. Expanding upon the concept of two-frequency surface plasmon resonance developed by Peterlinz and Georgiadis [ Opt. Commun. 1996, 130, 260], the apparent index of refraction and the thickness of a waveguide can be measured precisely and simultaneously by FT-PWR with an average percent relative error of 0.4%. Measuring reflectivity for a range of frequencies extends the analysis to a wide variety of sample compositions and thicknesses since frequencies with the maximum attenuation can be selected to optimize the analysis. Additionally, the ability to measure reflectivity curves with both p- and s-polarized light provides anisotropic indices of refraction. FT-PWR is demonstrated using polystyrene waveguides of varying thickness, and the validity of FT-PWR measurements are verified by comparing the results to data from profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  16. Adaptive discrete cosine transform-based image compression method on a heterogeneous system platform using Open Computing Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqudami, Nasser; Kim, Shin-Dug

    2014-11-01

    Discrete cosine transform (DCT) is one of the major operations in image compression standards and it requires intensive and complex computations. Recent computer systems and handheld devices are equipped with high computing capability devices such as a general-purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) in addition to the traditional multicores CPU. We develop an optimized parallel implementation of the forward DCT algorithm for the JPEG image compression using the recently proposed Open Computing Language (OpenCL). This OpenCL parallel implementation combines a multicore CPU and a GPGPU in a single solution to perform DCT computations in an efficient manner by applying certain optimization techniques to enhance the kernel execution time and data movements. A separate optimal OpenCL kernel code was developed (CPU-based and GPU-based kernels) based on certain appropriate device-based optimization factors, such as thread-mapping, thread granularity, vector-based memory access, and the given workload. The performance of DCT is evaluated on a heterogeneous environment and our OpenCL parallel implementation results in speeding up the execution of the DCT by the factors of 3.68 and 5.58 for different image sizes and formats in terms of workload allocations and data transfer mechanisms. The obtained speedup indicates the scalability of the DCT performance.

  17. Transforming Elementary Science Teacher Education by Bridging Formal and Informal Science Education in an Innovative Science Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riedinger, Kelly; Marbach-Ad, Gili; McGinnis, J. Randy; Hestness, Emily; Pease, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    We investigated curricular and pedagogical innovations in an undergraduate science methods course for elementary education majors at the University of Maryland. The goals of the innovative elementary science methods course included: improving students' attitudes toward and views of science and science teaching, to model innovative science teaching…

  18. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  19. Reading Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    The parents of students who attend Decatur High School thought that there was little hope of their kids going on to college. After a year or so in Decatur's reading program, their sons and daughters were both transformed and college bound. In this article, the author describes how Decatur was able to successfully transform their students. Seven…

  20. Transformational Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Hiles, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Transformational Events is a new pedagogic pattern that explains how innovations (and other transformations) happened. The pattern is three temporal stages: an interval of increasingly unsatisfactory ad hoc solutions to a persistent problem (the "mess"), an offer of an invention or of a new way of thinking, and a period of widespread adoption and…

  1. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic methods for microbial ecology: analysis of bacteria, bacteria-polymer mixtures and biofilms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, P. D.; Henson, J. M.; Guckert, J. B.; Nivens, D. E.; White, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been used to rapidly and nondestructively analyze bacteria, bacteria-polymer mixtures, digester samples and microbial biofilms. Diffuse reflectance FT-IR (DRIFT) analysis of freeze-dried, powdered samples offered a means of obtaining structural information. The bacteria examined were divided into two groups. The first group was characterized by a dominant amide I band and the second group of organisms displayed an additional strong carbonyl stretch at approximately 1740 cm-1. The differences illustrated by the subtraction spectra obtained for microbes of the two groups suggest that FT-IR spectroscopy can be utilized to recognize differences in microbial community structure. Calculation of specific band ratios has enabled the composition of bacteria and extracellular or intracellular storage product polymer mixtures to be determined for bacteria-gum arabic (amide I/carbohydrate C-O approximately 1150 cm-1) and bacteria-poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (amide I/carbonyl approximately 1740 cm-1). The key band ratios correlate with the compositions of the material and provide useful information for the application of FT-IR spectroscopy to environmental biofilm samples and for distinguishing bacteria grown under differing nutrient conditions. DRIFT spectra have been obtained for biofilms produced by Vibrio natriegens on stainless steel disks. Between 48 and 144 h, an increase in bands at approximately 1440 and 1090 cm-1 was seen in FT-IR spectra of the V. natriegens biofilm. DRIFT spectra of mixed culture effluents of anaerobic digesters show differences induced by shifts in input feedstocks. The use of flow-through attenuated total reflectance has permitted in situ real-time changes in biofilm formation to be monitored and provides a powerful tool for understanding the interactions within adherent microbial consortia.

  2. TimeWrap--a method for automatic transformation of structured guideline components into formal process-representations.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Katharina; Miksch, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    Guideline and protocol representation languages have reached a level of complexity where auxiliary methods are needed to support the authoring of protocols in the particular language. Several approaches and methods exist that claim high knowledge about both, the medical context and the formal requirements. Therefore, we need knowledge-based methods to facilitate the human plan designer and create the protocols of the particular language as automated as possible. We present a three-step wrapper method, called TimeWrap, to extract information, in particular temporal issues, out of semistructured data and integrate it in a formal representation. We illustrate our approach using the guideline-representation language Asbru and examples from guidelines to treat conjunctivitis.

  3. An Ultrahigh Frequency Partial Discharge Signal De-Noising Method Based on a Generalized S-Transform and Module Time-Frequency Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yushun; Zhou, Wenjun; Li, Pengfei; Yang, Shuai; Tian, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Due to electromagnetic interference in power substations, the partial discharge (PD) signals detected by ultrahigh frequency (UHF) antenna sensors often contain various background noises, which may hamper high voltage apparatus fault diagnosis and localization. This paper proposes a novel de-noising method based on the generalized S-transform and module time-frequency matrix to suppress noise in UHF PD signals. The sub-matrix maximum module value method is employed to calculate the frequencies and amplitudes of periodic narrowband noise, and suppress noise through the reverse phase cancellation technique. In addition, a singular value decomposition de-noising method is employed to suppress Gaussian white noise in UHF PD signals. Effective singular values are selected by employing the fuzzy c-means clustering method to recover the PD signals. De-noising results of simulated and field detected UHF PD signals prove the feasibility of the proposed method. Compared with four conventional de-noising methods, the results show that the proposed method can suppress background noise in the UHF PD signal effectively, with higher signal-to-noise ratio and less waveform distortion. PMID:27338409

  4. An Ultrahigh Frequency Partial Discharge Signal De-Noising Method Based on a Generalized S-Transform and Module Time-Frequency Matrix.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yushun; Zhou, Wenjun; Li, Pengfei; Yang, Shuai; Tian, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Due to electromagnetic interference in power substations, the partial discharge (PD) signals detected by ultrahigh frequency (UHF) antenna sensors often contain various background noises, which may hamper high voltage apparatus fault diagnosis and localization. This paper proposes a novel de-noising method based on the generalized S-transform and module time-frequency matrix to suppress noise in UHF PD signals. The sub-matrix maximum module value method is employed to calculate the frequencies and amplitudes of periodic narrowband noise, and suppress noise through the reverse phase cancellation technique. In addition, a singular value decomposition de-noising method is employed to suppress Gaussian white noise in UHF PD signals. Effective singular values are selected by employing the fuzzy c-means clustering method to recover the PD signals. De-noising results of simulated and field detected UHF PD signals prove the feasibility of the proposed method. Compared with four conventional de-noising methods, the results show that the proposed method can suppress background noise in the UHF PD signal effectively, with higher signal-to-noise ratio and less waveform distortion. PMID:27338409

  5. A new method for the estimation of the instantaneous speed relative fluctuation in a vibration signal based on the short time scale transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combet, Francois; Zimroz, Radoslaw

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we propose an original method for the estimation of the instantaneous speed relative fluctuation (ISRF) in a vibration signal measured on a system submitted to relatively heavy load and speed fluctuations and without speed measurement available. Our approach is based on the estimation of an instantaneous time-scaling factor along the vibration signal, related to the instantaneous relative speed gap from time t=0. It extends a previous work related to the estimation of the relative speed gap between two stationary signals via the Scale transform. In a non-stationary situation the method is performed between segments of the signal, which we coin the short time scale transform. In order to adjust the optimal length of the segments we propose an optimisation scheme based on the Kurtosis maximisation of the amplitude spectrum of the angular resampled signal using the estimated ISRF. Contrary to conventional methods based on the instantaneous frequency estimation of one spectral component, the proposed method for ISRF estimation does not depend on the choice of one particular component. The algorithm is relatively simple to implement and has a reasonable computation cost. However, it is not advised to use it in the case of very large speed variations such as during a speed-up. The method is then applied to the vibration measurements of two different planetary gearboxes used in the mining industry, first one with available speed measurement for validation, and second one with advanced wear of the planetary stage and without speed information. In this latter case the estimated ISRF is used in order to establish a diagnosis of the system.

  6. Screening for pharmaceutical transformation products formed in river sediment by combining ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry with a rapid data-processing method.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Maier, Michael P; Radke, Michael

    2014-01-31

    While the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has been extensively investigated, their environmental fate is less thoroughly explored. Scarce information on their transformation pathways and transformation products (TPs) limits conventional target analytical approaches. In this study, samples from water/sediment tests were analyzed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography interfaced with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QToF-MS). A data processing method based on peak detection, time-trend filtration and structure assignment was established to provide an efficient way for identifying the key TPs in terms of persistence; all software used for the individual steps of this method is freely available. The accurate mass and meaningful time-trends were major contributors in facilitating the isolation of plausible TP peaks. In total, 16 TPs from 9 parent pharmaceuticals were identified. Eleven out of the 16 TPs were confirmed by corresponding reference standards; no standards were available for the remaining TPs. For additional 6 potential TPs, a molecular formula was suggested but no additional structural information could be generated. Among the TPs identified in the water/sediment tests, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (parent: carbamazepine), saluamine (parent: furosemide), chlorothiazide and 4-amino-6-chloro-1,3-benzenedisulfonamide (parent of both: hydrochlorothiazide), and 1-naphthol (parent: propranolol) accumulated over the entire incubation period of 35 days. PMID:24439506

  7. Low complexity MIMO method based on matrix transformation for few-mode multi-core optical transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaolong; Liu, Bo; Li, Li; Tian, Qinghua

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes and demonstrates a low complexity multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) equalization digital signal processing (DSP) method for the few mode multi-core (FMMC) fiber optical transmission system. The MIMO equalization algorithm offers adaptive equalization taps according to the degree of crosstalk in cores or modes, which eliminates the interference among different modes and cores in space division multiplexing (SDM) transmission system. Compared with traditional MIMO method, the proposed scheme has increased the convergence rate by 4 times and reduced the number of finite impulse response (FIR) filters by 55% when the numbers of mode and core are three.

  8. Equilibrium state of anatase to rutile transformation for nano-structured Titanium Dioxide powder using polymer template method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Tapabrata; Jena, Sidhartha S.; Pradhan, Dillip K.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we report the novel synthesis procedure of phase-pure nano-structured titania in anatase phase using polyacrylamide gel based polymer template method. The evolution of rutile phased titania with increasing temperature has also been investigated. The synthesized nano-materials are characterized using X-ray diffraction, Brunauer - Emmett - Teller surface analysis technique and Scanning electron microscopy. We have used dual phase Rietveld refinement method to analyse the X-Ray diffraction data to get clear picture of crystallographic information of the prepared samples.

  9. A rapid Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method for direct quantification of paracetamol content in solid pharmaceutical formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallah, Muhammad Ali; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Mahesar, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Bajeer, Muhammad Ashraf

    2015-04-01

    A transmission FTIR spectroscopic method was developed for direct, inexpensive and fast quantification of paracetamol content in solid pharmaceutical formulations. In this method paracetamol content is directly analyzed without solvent extraction. KBr pellets were formulated for the acquisition of FTIR spectra in transmission mode. Two chemometric models: simple Beer's law and partial least squares employed over the spectral region of 1800-1000 cm-1 for quantification of paracetamol content had a regression coefficient of (R2) of 0.999. The limits of detection and quantification using FTIR spectroscopy were 0.005 mg g-1 and 0.018 mg g-1, respectively. Study for interference was also done to check effect of the excipients. There was no significant interference from the sample matrix. The results obviously showed the sensitivity of transmission FTIR spectroscopic method for pharmaceutical analysis. This method is green in the sense that it does not require large volumes of hazardous solvents or long run times and avoids prior sample preparation.

  10. Towards Transformation of Knowledge and Subjectivity in Curriculum Inquiry: Insights from Chen Kuan-Hsing's "Asia as Method"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Angel M. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Chen's book, "Asia as Method" (Duke University Press, 2010), and his theorization on topics of de-imperialization, de-colonization, de-cold war, as well as on foregrounding epistemologies and frames of reference situated in the diverse contexts in Asia have contributed to empowering scholars and researchers situated not only in Taiwan, but also in…

  11. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power. PMID:25004532

  12. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  13. Organelle transformation.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Kumar, Anish; Desai, Nirali; Parikh, Seema

    2012-01-01

    The source of genetic information in a plant cell is contained in nucleus, plastids, and mitochondria. Organelle transformation is getting a lot of attention nowadays because of its superior performance over the conventional and most commonly used nuclear transformation for obtaining transgenic lines. Absence of gene silencing, strong predictable transgene expression, and its application in molecular pharming, both in pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals, are some of many advantages. Other important benefits of utilizing this technology include the absence of transgene flow, as organelles are maternally inherited. This may increase the acceptability of organelle transformation technology in the development of transgenic crops in a wider scale all over the globe. As the need for crop productivity and therapeutic compounds increases, organelle transformation may be able to bridge the gap, thereby having a definite promise for the future.

  14. Triple transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Farrukh I.; Schinn, Dustin S.

    2013-08-01

    A new business plan that enables policy transformation and resource mobilization at the national and international level, while improving access to resources, will allow the Green Climate Fund to integrate development goals and action on climate change.

  15. Organelle transformation.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Kumar, Anish; Desai, Nirali; Parikh, Seema

    2012-01-01

    The source of genetic information in a plant cell is contained in nucleus, plastids, and mitochondria. Organelle transformation is getting a lot of attention nowadays because of its superior performance over the conventional and most commonly used nuclear transformation for obtaining transgenic lines. Absence of gene silencing, strong predictable transgene expression, and its application in molecular pharming, both in pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals, are some of many advantages. Other important benefits of utilizing this technology include the absence of transgene flow, as organelles are maternally inherited. This may increase the acceptability of organelle transformation technology in the development of transgenic crops in a wider scale all over the globe. As the need for crop productivity and therapeutic compounds increases, organelle transformation may be able to bridge the gap, thereby having a definite promise for the future. PMID:22610643

  16. Automated Fast Screening Method for Cocaine Identification in Seized Drug Samples Using a Portable Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Instrument.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Dipak; Seelenbinder, John

    2016-05-01

    Quick and presumptive identification of seized drug samples without destroying evidence is necessary for law enforcement officials to control the trafficking and abuse of drugs. This work reports an automated screening method to detect the presence of cocaine in seized samples using portable Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers. The method is based on the identification of well-defined characteristic vibrational frequencies related to the functional group of the cocaine molecule and is fully automated through the use of an expert system. Traditionally, analysts look for key functional group bands in the infrared spectra and characterization of the molecules present is dependent on user interpretation. This implies the need for user expertise, especially in samples that likely are mixtures. As such, this approach is biased and also not suitable for non-experts. The method proposed in this work uses the well-established "center of gravity" peak picking mathematical algorithm and combines it with the conditional reporting feature in MicroLab software to provide an automated method that can be successfully employed by users with varied experience levels. The method reports the confidence level of cocaine present only when a certain number of cocaine related peaks are identified by the automated method. Unlike library search and chemometric methods that are dependent on the library database or the training set samples used to build the calibration model, the proposed method is relatively independent of adulterants and diluents present in the seized mixture. This automated method in combination with a portable FT-IR spectrometer provides law enforcement officials, criminal investigators, or forensic experts a quick field-based prescreening capability for the presence of cocaine in seized drug samples.

  17. Automated Fast Screening Method for Cocaine Identification in Seized Drug Samples Using a Portable Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Instrument.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Dipak; Seelenbinder, John

    2016-05-01

    Quick and presumptive identification of seized drug samples without destroying evidence is necessary for law enforcement officials to control the trafficking and abuse of drugs. This work reports an automated screening method to detect the presence of cocaine in seized samples using portable Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers. The method is based on the identification of well-defined characteristic vibrational frequencies related to the functional group of the cocaine molecule and is fully automated through the use of an expert system. Traditionally, analysts look for key functional group bands in the infrared spectra and characterization of the molecules present is dependent on user interpretation. This implies the need for user expertise, especially in samples that likely are mixtures. As such, this approach is biased and also not suitable for non-experts. The method proposed in this work uses the well-established "center of gravity" peak picking mathematical algorithm and combines it with the conditional reporting feature in MicroLab software to provide an automated method that can be successfully employed by users with varied experience levels. The method reports the confidence level of cocaine present only when a certain number of cocaine related peaks are identified by the automated method. Unlike library search and chemometric methods that are dependent on the library database or the training set samples used to build the calibration model, the proposed method is relatively independent of adulterants and diluents present in the seized mixture. This automated method in combination with a portable FT-IR spectrometer provides law enforcement officials, criminal investigators, or forensic experts a quick field-based prescreening capability for the presence of cocaine in seized drug samples. PMID:27006022

  18. A novel analytical method for the determination of residual moisture in plutonium dioxide: Supercritical fluid extraction/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.M.; Hollis, W.K.; Rubin, J.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Jasperson, M.N.; Vance, D.E.; Rodriguez, J.B.

    1999-02-01

    A novel approach has been developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the quantitative determination of moisture content in impure plutonium oxide. The method combines a commercial supercritical fluid extraction instrument using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) with on-line detection using a high-pressure Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) cell. The combined SCCO{sub 2}/FTIR system has been modified for use inside a fully enclosed glove box. A series of validation experiments were performed using a pure, surrogate oxide (ThO{sub 2}) and an inorganic hydrate (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O). The level of agreement between LOI and SCCO{sub 2}/FTIR for the surrogate oxide is excellent. The results for the inorganic hydrate showed excellent correlation with the known amount of water present. Results obtained for a group of nominally pure PuO{sub 2} samples were verified by independent measurement. The results of SCCO{sub 2}/FTIR for impure PuO{sub 2} samples is consistently lower than the results of obtained from the current analytical method (Loss On Ignition), indicating that the current method is inadequate for analytical purposes. While further verification experiments of the SCCO{sub 2}/FTIR method are underway, these initial results suggest that SCCO{sub 2}/FTIR could be used as an alternative analytical method for the Materials Identification and Surveillance program.

  19. Study on Optimization Method of Quantization Step and the Image Quality Evaluation for Medical Ultrasonic Echo Image Compression by Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khieovongphachanh, Vimontha; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Shozo

    In this paper, we investigate optimized quantization method in JPEG2000 application for medical ultrasonic echo images. JPEG2000 has been issued as the new standard for image compression technique, which is based on Wavelet Transform (WT) and JPEG2000 incorporated into DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine). There are two quantization methods. One is the scalar derived quantization (SDQ), which is usually used in standard JPEG2000. The other is the scalar expounded quantization (SEQ), which can be optimized by user. Therefore, this paper is an optimization of quantization step, which is determined by Genetic Algorithm (GA). Then, the results are compared with SDQ and SEQ determined by arithmetic average method. The purpose of this paper is to improve image quality and compression ratio for medical ultrasonic echo images. The image quality is evaluated by objective assessment, PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) and subjective assessment is evaluated by ultrasonographers from Tokai University Hospital and Tokai University Hachioji Hospital. The results show that SEQ determined by GA provides better image quality than SDQ and SEQ determined by arithmetic average method. Additionally, three optimization methods of quantization step apply to thin wire target image for analysis of point spread function.

  20. High-frequency transformation method and library transducing vectors for cloning mammalian cDNAs by trans-complementation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, K; Okazaki, N; Kume, K; Jinno, S; Tanaka, K; Okayama, H

    1990-01-01

    We describe a highly efficient alkali cation method and library transducing vectors for cloning mammalian cDNAs by trans-complementation of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutants. cDNA libraries constructed with the pcD or pcD2 vector are transduced into yeast by cotransfection with a linearized vector, which allows an enhanced homologous recombination between the yeast vector and the library plasmid leading to the efficient formation of concatemers containing pcD molecules. The transformation frequencies obtained by the method are 10(6) colonies per 10(8) cells transfected with 2 micrograms of library and 1 microgram of vector, 50-60% of which contain pcD molecules. The high-efficiency alkali cation method circumvents many of the shortcomings of the spheroplast method generally used for Schiz. pombe transfection. The vectors are maximized for the efficiency of library transduction and minimized for the rearrangements of pcD molecules during propagation in yeast. This system allows rapid screening of multi-million cDNA clone libraries for rare cDNAs in a routine scale of experiments. Using this system, various mammalian cDNAs that are extremely difficult, time-consuming, or unclonable to clone by other methods have been cloned. Images PMID:2251111

  1. Method for Optimal Sensor Deployment on 3D Terrains Utilizing a Steady State Genetic Algorithm with a Guided Walk Mutation Operator Based on the Wavelet Transform

    PubMed Central

    Unaldi, Numan; Temel, Samil; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most critical issues of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is the deployment of a limited number of sensors in order to achieve maximum coverage on a terrain. The optimal sensor deployment which enables one to minimize the consumed energy, communication time and manpower for the maintenance of the network has attracted interest with the increased number of studies conducted on the subject in the last decade. Most of the studies in the literature today are proposed for two dimensional (2D) surfaces; however, real world sensor deployments often arise on three dimensional (3D) environments. In this paper, a guided wavelet transform (WT) based deployment strategy (WTDS) for 3D terrains, in which the sensor movements are carried out within the mutation phase of the genetic algorithms (GAs) is proposed. The proposed algorithm aims to maximize the Quality of Coverage (QoC) of a WSN via deploying a limited number of sensors on a 3D surface by utilizing a probabilistic sensing model and the Bresenham's line of sight (LOS) algorithm. In addition, the method followed in this paper is novel to the literature and the performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the Delaunay Triangulation (DT) method as well as a standard genetic algorithm based method and the results reveal that the proposed method is a more powerful and more successful method for sensor deployment on 3D terrains. PMID:22666078

  2. Method of forming high density oxide pellets by hot pressing at 50$sup 0$ to 100$sup 0$C above the cubic to monoclinic phase transformation temperature

    DOEpatents

    Pasto, A.E.

    1975-08-01

    A process for low temperature sintering of rare earth and actinide oxides which have a cubic to monoclinic transformation is described. The process involves hot pressing a powder compact at a temperature just above the transformation temperature. (auth)

  3. Multiscale intensity homogeneity transformation method and its application to computer-aided detection of pulmonary embolism in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yanhui; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Wei, Jun; Chughtai, Aamer; Sundaram, Baskaran; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2013-04-01

    A 3D multiscale intensity homogeneity transformation (MIHT) method was developed to reduce false positives (FPs) in our previously developed CAD system for pulmonary embolism (PE) detection. In MIHT, the voxel intensity of a PE candidate region was transformed to an intensity homogeneity value (IHV) with respect to the local median intensity. The IHVs were calculated in multiscales (MIHVs) to measure the intensity homogeneity, taking into account vessels of different sizes and different degrees of occlusion. Seven new features including the entropy, gradient, and moments that characterized the intensity distributions of the candidate regions were derived from the MIHVs and combined with the previously designed features that described the shape and intensity of PE candidates for the training of a linear classifier to reduce the FPs. 59 CTPA PE cases were collected from our patient files (UM set) with IRB approval and 69 cases from the PIOPED II data set with access permission. 595 and 800 PEs were identified as reference standard by experienced thoracic radiologists in the UM and PIOPED set, respectively. FROC analysis was used for performance evaluation. Compared with our previous CAD system, at a test sensitivity of 80%, the new method reduced the FP rate from 18.9 to 14.1/scan for the PIOPED set when the classifier was trained with the UM set and from 22.6 to 16.0/scan vice versa. The improvement was statistically significant (p<0.05) by JAFROC analysis. This study demonstrated that the MIHT method is effective in reducing FPs and improving the performance of the CAD system.

  4. Bearing fault diagnosis under variable rotational speed via the joint application of windowed fractal dimension transform and generalized demodulation: A method free from prefiltering and resampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Juanjuan; Liang, Ming; Guan, Yunpeng

    2016-02-01

    The conventional way for bearing fault diagnosis under variable rotational speed generally includes prefiltering, resampling based on shaft rotating frequency and order spectrum analysis. However, its application is confined by three major obstacles: a) knowledge-demanding parameter determination required by prefiltering, b) unavailable shaft rotating frequency for resampling as it is coupled with instantaneous fault characteristic frequency (IFCF) by a fault characteristic coefficient (FCC) which cannot be decided without knowing what fault actually exists, and c) complicated and error-prone resampling process. As such, we propose a new method to address these problems. The proposed method free from prefiltering and resampling mainly contains the following steps: a) extracting envelope by windowed fractal dimension (FD) transform, requiring no prefiltering, b) with the envelope signal, performing short time Fourier transform (STFT) to get a clear time frequency representation (TFR), from which the IFCF and the basic demodulator for generalized demodulation (GD) can be obtained, c) applying the generalized demodulation to the envelope signal with the current demodulator, converting the trajectory of the current time-frequency component into a linear path parallel to the time axis, d) frequency analyzing the demodulated signal, followed by searching the amplitude of the constant frequency where the linear path is situated. Updating demodulator via multiplying the basic demodulator by different real numbers (i.e., coefficient λ) and repeating the steps (c)-(d), the resampling-free order spectrum is then obtained. Based on the resulting spectrum, the final diagnosis decision can be made. The proposed method for its implementation on the example of simulated data is presented. Finally, experimental data are employed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  5. Method of evaluation of electron transfer kinetics of a surface-confined redox system by means of Fourier transformed square wave voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinjian; Wang, Lishi; Liao, Shijun

    2008-07-15

    A new form of Fourier transformed square wave voltammetry (FT-SWV) is proposed to simplify and accelerate the electron transfer kinetics evaluation procedures for surface-confined redox systems. Even harmonic frequencies, which are derived from the nonlinear Faradaic response, will arise in the power spectrum after Fourier transformation of the current response of FT-SWV. The profile of the even harmonic power spectra is bell-shaped and shows a maximum at a certain frequency. The electrode kinetics-dependent maximum and the corresponding frequency are equivalent to the so-called "quasi-reversible maximum" and "critical frequency" (fmax) in traditional SWV, respectively. The critical frequency can be regarded as a frequency that is synchronized to the electron transfer rate constant (k(0)). As a result, it can serve as a probe of k(0) by means of a very simple equation, k(0) = kmax fmax. Compared with traditional cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, alternating current voltammetry, and several other voltammetric techniques, this method exhibits great advantages for its simplicity, rapidity, and sensitivity.

  6. Complex-plane generalization of scalar Levin transforms: A robust, rapidly convergent method to compute potentials and fields in multi-layered media

    SciTech Connect

    Sainath, Kamalesh; Teixeira, Fernando L.; Donderici, Burkay

    2014-07-15

    We propose the complex-plane generalization of a powerful algebraic sequence acceleration algorithm, the method of weighted averages (MWA), to guarantee exponential-cum-algebraic convergence of Fourier and Fourier–Hankel (F–H) integral transforms. This “complex-plane” MWA, effected via a linear-path detour in the complex plane, results in rapid, absolute convergence of field and potential solutions in multi-layered environments regardless of the source-observer geometry and anisotropy/loss of the media present. In this work, we first introduce a new integration path used to evaluate the field contribution arising from the radiation spectra. Subsequently, we (1) exhibit the foundational relations behind the complex-plane extension to a general Levin-type sequence convergence accelerator, (2) specialize this analysis to one member of the Levin transform family (the MWA), (3) address and circumvent restrictions, arising for two-dimensional integrals associated with wave dynamics problems, through minimal complex-plane detour restrictions and a novel partition of the integration domain, (4) develop and compare two formulations based on standard/real-axis MWA variants, and (5) present validation results and convergence characteristics for one of these two formulations.

  7. Optical nonsubsampled contourlet transform.

    PubMed

    Han, Liang; Zhang, Wen-Li; Pu, Xiujuan; Cheng, Wanqi; Liu, Xia

    2016-09-20

    The nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) is a fully shift-invariant, multiscale, and multidirectional expansion implemented in optics using the Fourier transform of its filters. In this paper, we propose a novel optical NSCT filter design method and the corresponding post-processing method to avoid the use of holographic techniques. The novel optical NSCT filter has real and non-negative Fourier transforms. The input image is placed in the input plane of the VanderLugt 4f correlator, and these real and non-negative Fourier transform NSCT filters are placed in the frequency plane of the VanderLugt 4f correlator. Next, the NSCT result is captured by a CCD in the output plane of the VanderLugt 4f correlator, and its perfect reconstruction is theoretically possible, which is demonstrated by both simulation and optical experiment. PMID:27661604

  8. Recent advances in plant transformation.

    PubMed

    Barampuram, Shyamkumar; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2011-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering has become one of the most important molecular tools in the modern molecular breeding of crops. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in the development of new and efficient transformation methods in plants. Despite a variety of available DNA delivery methods, Agrobacterium- and biolistic-mediated transformation remain the two predominantly employed approaches. In particular, progress in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cereals and other recalcitrant dicot species has been quite remarkable. In the meantime, other transgenic-enabling technologies have emerged, including generation of marker-free transgenics, gene targeting, and chromosomal engineering. Although transformation of some plant species or elite germplasm remains a challenge, further advancement in transformation technology is expected because the mechanisms of governing the regeneration and transformation processes are now better understood and are being creatively applied to designing improved transformation methods or to developing new enabling technologies. PMID:21181522

  9. A Nonfitting Method Using a Spatial Sine Window Transform for Inhomogeneous Effective-Diffusion Measurements by FRAP

    PubMed Central

    Orlova, Darya Y.; Bártová, Eva; Maltsev, Valeri P.; Kozubek, Stanislav; Chernyshev, Andrei V.

    2011-01-01

    Determining averaged effective diffusion constants from experimental measurements of fluorescent proteins in an inhomogeneous medium in the presence of ligand-receptor interactions poses problems of analytical tractability. Here, we introduced a nonfitting method to evaluate the averaged effective diffusion coefficient of a region of interest (which may include a whole nucleus) by mathematical processing of the entire cellular two-dimensional spatial pattern of recovered fluorescence. Spatially and temporally resolved measurements of protein transport inside cells were obtained using the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique. Two-dimensional images of fluorescence patterns were collected by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The method was demonstrated by applying it to an estimation of the mobility of green fluorescent protein-tagged heterochromatin protein 1 in the nuclei of living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. This approach does not require the mathematical solution of a corresponding system of diffusion-reaction equations that is typical of conventional fluorescence recovery after photobleaching data processing, and is most useful for investigating highly inhomogeneous areas, such as cell nuclei, which contain many protein foci and chromatin domains. PMID:21244847

  10. Phosphorus transformations as a function of pedogenesis: A synthesis of soil phosphorus data using Hedley fractionation method

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Post, Wilfred M

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the importance of phosphorus (P) as a limiting nutrient in terrestrial ecosystems, our understanding of terrestrial P dynamics and our ability to model P cycling are hampered by the lack of consistent measurements of soil P. The Hedley fractionation method provides a comprehensive assessment of soil P and has been widely used in recent decades. Here we expand an earlier study that summarized Hedley P data from the literature to create a larger Hedley P database and further investigate the relationships between distributions of different forms of P and the stages of soil development. Our expanded Hedley P database generally supports what the Walker and Syers (1976) conceptual model predicts: the gradual decrease and eventual depletion of primary mineral P (mainly apatite P); the continual increase and eventual dominance of occluded P; and the overall decrease of total P during soil development. However the analysis disagrees with Walker and Syers (1976) in that we found labile inorganic P(Pi) and secondary mineral Pi (non-occluded P in Walker and Syers model) to be a significant fraction of total P throughout all soil orders with different weathering stages. By analyzing the Hedley-labile P and vegetation P demand, we found that the amount of labile P is much greater than vegetation demand, even in highly weathered soils commonly considered P limited. We conclude that labile P measured by Hedley fractionation method should not be defined as plant available P since most of this labile P likely ends up as immobilized by microbes. Our analysis of the database also shows that carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soil organic matter are closely linked in all soil orders, but P is decoupled from C and N in highly weathered soils with larger variations of nitrogen:organic P (N:Po) ratio and higher mean values of N:Po ratio, compared to slightly and intermediately weathered soils.

  11. A direct comparison between volume and surface tracking methods with a boundary-fitted coordinate transformation and third-order upwinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharioudaki, Maria; Kouris, Charalampos; Dimakopoulos, Yannis; Tsamopoulos, John

    2007-12-01

    A Volume Tracking (VT) and a Front Tracking (FT) algorithm are implemented and compared for locating the interface between two immiscible, incompressible, Newtonian fluids in a tube with a periodically varying, circular cross-section. Initially, the fluids are stationary and stratified in an axisymmetric arrangement so that one is around the axis of the tube (core fluid) and the other one surrounds it (annular fluid). A constant pressure gradient sets them in motion. With both VT and FT, a boundary-fitted coordinate transformation is applied and appropriate modifications are made to adopt either method in this geometry. The surface tension force is approximated using the continuous surface force method. All terms appearing in the continuity and momentum equations are approximated using centered finite differences in space and one-sided forward finite differences in time. In each time step, the incompressibility condition is enforced by a transformed Poisson equation, which is linear in pressure. This equation is solved by either direct LU decomposition or a Multigrid iterative solver. When the two fluids have the same density, the former method is about 3.5 times faster, but when they do not, the Multigrid solver is as much as 10 times faster than the LU decomposition. When the interface does not break and the Reynolds number remains small, the accuracy and rates of convergence of VT and FT are comparable. The well-known failure of centered finite differences arises as the Reynolds number increases and leads to non-physical oscillations in the interface and failure of both methods to converge with mesh refinement. These problems are resolved and computations with Reynolds as large as 500 converged by approximating the convective terms in the momentum equations by third-order upwind differences using Lagrangian Polynomials. When the volume of the core fluid or the Weber number decrease, increasing the importance of interfacial tension and leading to breakup of the

  12. Active Fourier-transform spectroscopy combining the direct RF beating of two fiber-based mode-locked lasers with a novel referencing method.

    PubMed

    Giaccari, Philippe; Deschênes, Jean-Daniel; Saucier, Philippe; Genest, Jérôme; Tremblay, Pierre

    2008-03-17

    A new approach is described to compensate the variations induced by laser frequency instabilities in the recently demonstrated Fourier transform spectroscopy that is based on the RF beating spectra of two frequency combs generated by mode-locked lasers. The proposed method extracts the mutual fluctuations of the lasers by monitoring the beating signal for two known optical frequencies. From this information, a phase correction and a new time grid are determined that allow the full correction of the measured interferograms. A complete mathematical description of the new active spectroscopy method is provided. An implementation with fiberbased mode-locked lasers is also demonstrated and combined with the correction method a resolution of 0.067 cm(-1) (2 GHz) is reported. The ability to use slightly varying and inexpensive frequency comb sources is a significant improvement compared to previous systems that were limited to controlled environment and showed reduced spectral resolution. The fast measurement rate inherent to the RF beating principle and the ease of use brought by the correction method opens the venue to many applications.

  13. Local unitary transformation method for large-scale two-component relativistic calculations. II. Extension to two-electron Coulomb interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2012-10-01

    The local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme at the spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) level [J. Seino and H. Nakai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 244102 (2012), 10.1063/1.4729463], which is based on the locality of relativistic effects, has been extended to a four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. In the previous study, the LUT scheme was applied only to a one-particle IODKH Hamiltonian with non-relativistic two-electron Coulomb interaction, termed IODKH/C. The current study extends the LUT scheme to a two-particle IODKH Hamiltonian as well as one-particle one, termed IODKH/IODKH, which has been a real bottleneck in numerical calculation. The LUT scheme with the IODKH/IODKH Hamiltonian was numerically assessed in the diatomic molecules HX and X2 and hydrogen halide molecules, (HX)n (X = F, Cl, Br, and I). The total Hartree-Fock energies calculated by the LUT method agree well with conventional IODKH/IODKH results. The computational cost of the LUT method is reduced drastically compared with that of the conventional method. In addition, the LUT method achieves linear-scaling with respect to the system size and a small prefactor.

  14. Collision cross sectional areas from analysis of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance line width: a new method for characterizing molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Voelkel, Jacob E; Dearden, David V

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate a technique for determining molecular collision cross sections via measuring the variation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) line width with background damping gas pressure, under conditions where the length of the FTICR transient is pressure limited. Key features of our method include monoisotopic isolation of ions, the pulsed introduction of damping gas to a constant pressure using a pulsed leak valve, short excitation events to minimize collisions during the excitation, and proper choice of damping gas (Xe is superior to He). The measurements are reproducible within a few percent, which is sufficient for distinguishing between many structural possibilities and is comparable to the uncertainty in cross sections calculated from computed molecular structures. These techniques complement drift ion mobility measurements obtained on dedicated instruments. They do not require a specialized instrument, but should be easily performed on any FTICR mass spectrometer equipped with a pulsed leak valve.

  15. Numerical solution for plasticity models using consistency bisection and a transformed-space closest-point return: a nongradient solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homel, Michael A.; Guilkey, James E.; Brannon, Rebecca M.

    2015-10-01

    A new approach is presented for computing the return in numerical solutions for computational plasticity models that ensures convergence through bisection of the plastic consistency parameter, while using a transformed-space closest-point return based on a geometric search that eliminates the need to compute gradients of the yield function or a consistent tangent operator. Numerical solution of the governing equations for computational plasticity is highly-nontrivial for complex constitutive laws. In particular for geomaterials, a predictive model may account for nonlinear elasticity, shear strength that depends nonlinearly on pressure and Lode angle, and nonlinear evolution models for internal variables such as porosity or pore pressure. Traditional gradient-based integration methods may perform poorly when the hardening laws are highly nonlinear or when the yield function has an ill-defined or cumbersome gradient because of high curvature, vertices, or complicated functional form. The application of this new approach to geomaterial modeling is described, along with verification benchmarks.

  16. Probing the A1 to L1{sub 0} transformation in FeCuPt using the first order reversal curve method

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Liu, Kai; Liao, Jung-Wei; Wang, Liang-Wei; Lai, Chih-Huang; Lau, June W.; Klemmer, Timothy J.; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich

    2014-08-01

    The A1-L1{sub 0} phase transformation has been investigated in (001) FeCuPt thin films prepared by atomic-scale multilayer sputtering and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Traditional x-ray diffraction is not always applicable in generating a true order parameter, due to non-ideal crystallinity of the A1 phase. Using the first-order reversal curve (FORC) method, the A1 and L1{sub 0} phases are deconvoluted into two distinct features in the FORC distribution, whose relative intensities change with the RTA temperature. The L1{sub 0} ordering takes place via a nucleation-and-growth mode. A magnetization-based phase fraction is extracted, providing a quantitative measure of the L1{sub 0} phase homogeneity.

  17. [Binding properties of components removable from dental base plate, analysed by Fourier-Transform Surface Plasmon Resonance (FT-SPR) method].

    PubMed

    Bakó, József; Kelemen, Máté; Szalóki, Melinda; Vitályos, Géza; Radics, Tünde; Hegedüs, Csaba

    2015-03-01

    In parallel with the emergence of new dental materials the number of allergic diseases is continuously increasing. Extremely small quantities of the allergens are capable to inducing an allergic reaction. Therefore it is particularly important to examine these materials as antigens and investigate their binding properties to proteins (e.g. formaldehyde, methacrylic acid, benzoyl-peroxide...). The Fourier Transform Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy (FT-SPR) is a suitable examination method for this type of procedure. FT-SPR measurement is performed at a fixed angel of incident light, and reflectivity is measured over a range of wavelength in the near infrared. The advantages of this method are the outstanding sensitivity, the label-free detection capability and the possibility of the real-time testing procedure. Formaldehyde and methacrylic acid are among the most common dental allergens. In our study we examined these molecules by FT-SPR spectroscopy. The aim of this work was to investigate the suitability of this method to the detection of these materials, with special focuses on the analysis and evaluation concentration-dependent measurements. Different concentrations (0.01 %-0.2%) of formaldehyde and methacrylic acid solutions were measured. The individual spectra were measured for all of the solutions, and calibration curves were calculated for the materials for the possibility of the determination of an unknown concentration. The results confirmed that the method is theoretically capable to detect hundred-thousandths scale concentration-changes in the solution flowing above the SPR-chip. The concentration-dependent studies had proved that the method capable to measure directly these materials and can provide appropriate calibration for quantitative determination. These experiments show the broad applicability of the FT-SPR method, which can greatly facilitate the mapping and understanding of biomolecular interactions in the future.

  18. Transformational leadership.

    PubMed

    Taccetta-Chapnick, M

    1996-01-01

    Rapid changes in the health care system have caused competition among institutions, as organizations are restructured to increase client satisfaction, resulting in the need for a new style of leadership. The transformational leader communicates the mission and vision of the organization and empowers others to effectively resolve conflicts that may arise with change. The health care team that can cope with changes and conflicts views restructuring as a positive transaction and approaches client satisfaction with energy and motivation. Institutions with transformational leadership are the ones that will survive the transition.

  19. Comparison between Hilbert-Huang transform and scalogram methods on non-stationary biomedical signals: application to laser Doppler flowmetry recordings.

    PubMed

    Roulier, Rémy; Humeau, Anne; Flatley, Thomas P; Abraham, Pierre

    2005-11-01

    A significant transient increase in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals is observed in response to a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application on healthy subjects. This reflex may be impaired in diabetic patients. The work presents a comparison between two signal processing methods that provide a clarification of this phenomenon. Analyses by the scalogram and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) of LDF signals recorded at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application are performed on healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. Three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities, are studied at different time intervals in order to take into account the dynamics of the phenomenon. The results show that both the scalogram and the HHT methods lead to the same conclusions concerning the comparisons of the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities-during the progressive pressure and at rest-in healthy and diabetic subjects. However, the HHT shows more details that may be obscured by the scalogram. Indeed, the non-locally adaptative limitations of the scalogram can remove some definition from the data. These results may improve knowledge on the above-mentioned reflex as well as on non-stationary biomedical signal processing methods.

  20. Floral Transformation of Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

    A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

  1. Transformation Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    The program for the march by librarians on America's capital for the American Library Association (ALA) conference is predictably loaded with lobbying, legislation, and DC tours. It also abounds with professional opportunity and reflects the impact of Leslie Burger, one of the most activist ALA presidents in recent history. Her "Transformation"…

  2. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  3. Transforming Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.

    The authors in this book address the issues that relate to the crisis in American education and review some of the proposed solutions. To transform education, schools must be examined as social systems that are interrelated with families, communities, and the world of work. Following the introduction, section 1, "Conditions for Educational…

  4. A novel method to retrieve Aerosol Optical Thickness from high-resolution optical satellite images using an extended version of the Haze Optimized Transform (HOTBAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robin; Milton, Edward; Nield, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) data has many important applications including atmospheric correction of satellite imagery and monitoring of particulate matter air pollution. Current data products are generally available at a kilometre-scale resolution, but many applications require far higher resolutions. For example, particulate matter concentrations vary on a metre-scale, and thus data products at a similar scale are required to provide accurate assessments of particle densities and allow effective monitoring of air quality and analysis of local air quality effects on health. A novel method has been developed which retrieves per-pixel AOT values from high-resolution (~30m) satellite data. This method is designed to work over a wide range of land covers - including both bright and dark surfaces - and requires only standard visible and near-infrared data, making it applicable to a range of data from sensors such as Landsat, SPOT and Sentinel-2. The method is based upon an extension of the Haze Optimized Transform (HOT). The HOT was originally designed for assessing areas of thick haze in satellite imagery by calculating a 'haziness' value for each pixel in an image as the distance from a 'Clear Line' in feature space, defined by the high correlation between visible bands. Here, we adapt the HOT method and use it to provide AOT data instead. Significant extensions include Monte Carlo estimation of the 'Clear Line', object-based correction for land cover, and estimation of AOT from the haziness values through radiative transfer modelling. This novel method will enable many new applications of AOT data that were impossible with previously available low-resolution data, and has the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of the air quality on health, the accuracy of satellite image atmospheric correction and the role of aerosols in the climate system.

  5. Coordinates transformation and learning control for visually-guided voluntary movement with iteration: a Newton-like method in a function space.

    PubMed

    Kawato, M; Isobe, M; Maeda, Y; Suzuki, R

    1988-01-01

    In order to control visually-guided voluntary movements, the central nervous system (CNS) must solve the following three computational problems at different levels: (1) determination of a desired trajectory in the visual coordinates, (2) transformation of the coordinates of the desired trajectory to the body coordinates and (3) generation of motor command. In this paper, the second and the third problems are treated at computational, representational and hardware levels of Marr. We first study the problems at the computational level, and then propose an iterative learning scheme as a possible algorithm. This is a trial and error type learning such as repetitive training of golf swing. The amount of motor command needed to coordinate activities of many muscles is not determined at once, but in a step-wise, trial and error fashion in the course of a set of repetitions. Actually, the motor command in the (n + 1)-th iteration is a sum of the motor command in the n-th iteration plus two modification terms which are, respectively, proportional to acceleration and speed errors between the desired trajectory and the realized trajectory in the n-th iteration. We mathematically formulate this iterative learning control as a Newton-like method in functional spaces and prove its convergence under appropriate mathematical conditions with use of dynamical system theory and functional analysis. Computer simulations of this iterative learning control of a robotic manipulator in the body or visual coordinates are shown. Finally, we propose that areas 2, 5, and 7 of the sensory association cortex are possible sites of this learning control. Further we propose neural network model which acquires transformation matrices from acceleration or velocity to motor command, which are used in these schemes. PMID:3179342

  6. Coordinates transformation and learning control for visually-guided voluntary movement with iteration: a Newton-like method in a function space.

    PubMed

    Kawato, M; Isobe, M; Maeda, Y; Suzuki, R

    1988-01-01

    In order to control visually-guided voluntary movements, the central nervous system (CNS) must solve the following three computational problems at different levels: (1) determination of a desired trajectory in the visual coordinates, (2) transformation of the coordinates of the desired trajectory to the body coordinates and (3) generation of motor command. In this paper, the second and the third problems are treated at computational, representational and hardware levels of Marr. We first study the problems at the computational level, and then propose an iterative learning scheme as a possible algorithm. This is a trial and error type learning such as repetitive training of golf swing. The amount of motor command needed to coordinate activities of many muscles is not determined at once, but in a step-wise, trial and error fashion in the course of a set of repetitions. Actually, the motor command in the (n + 1)-th iteration is a sum of the motor command in the n-th iteration plus two modification terms which are, respectively, proportional to acceleration and speed errors between the desired trajectory and the realized trajectory in the n-th iteration. We mathematically formulate this iterative learning control as a Newton-like method in functional spaces and prove its convergence under appropriate mathematical conditions with use of dynamical system theory and functional analysis. Computer simulations of this iterative learning control of a robotic manipulator in the body or visual coordinates are shown. Finally, we propose that areas 2, 5, and 7 of the sensory association cortex are possible sites of this learning control. Further we propose neural network model which acquires transformation matrices from acceleration or velocity to motor command, which are used in these schemes.

  7. Using the Kramers-Kronig method to determine optical constants and evaluating its suitability as a linear transform for near-normal front-surface reflectance spectra.

    PubMed

    Kocak, A; Berets, S L; Milosevic, V; Milosevic, M

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, the suitability of using the Kramers-Kronig transform to routinely extract optical constants from near-normal incidence reflectance spectra of solids and liquids is demonstrated. In addition, the possibility of utilizing the Kramers-Kronig transform as a linearizing transform for near-normal incidence reflectance spectra is investigated. Also, several commercial Kramers-Kronig software packages were utilized in determining the optical constants from the near-normal incidence reflectance of Plexiglas. Unexpectedly, the results produced by the various packages differed significantly. The near-normal reflectance of water was measured, the Kramers-Kronig transform was applied to extract the optical constants of water, and the result was compared to values found in the literature. Furthermore, the Kramers-Kronig transforms of near-normal incidence reflectance spectra of various concentrations of sugar in water were calculated to evaluate its use as a linearizing transform for quantitative applications.

  8. Capillary electrophoresis-fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for the identification of cationic metabolites via a pH-mediated stacking-transient isotachophoretic method.

    PubMed

    Baidoo, Edward E K; Benke, Peter I; Neusüss, Christian; Pelzing, Matthias; Kruppa, Gary; Leary, Julie A; Keasling, Jay D

    2008-05-01

    Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is still widely regarded as an emerging tool in the field of metabolomics and metabolite profiling. A major reason for this is a reported lack of sensitivity of CE-MS when compared to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC/MS and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The problems caused by the lack of sensitivity are exacerbated when CE is coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), due to the relatively low data acquisition rate of FT-ICR MS. Here, we demonstrate the use of an online CE sample preconcentration method that uses a combination of pH-mediated stacking and transient isotachophoresis, coupled with FT-ICR MS to improve the overall detection of cationic metabolites in the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. This method showed a significant increase in signal-to-noise ratio when compared to CE normal sample stacking, while providing good separation efficiency, reproducibility, and linearity. Detection limits for selected amino acids were between 0.1 and 2 microM. Furthermore, FT-ICR MS detection consistently demonstrated good mass resolution and sub-ppm mass accuracy.

  9. RF transformer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  10. Intercomparison of terrain-following coordinate transformation and immersed boundary methods in large-eddy simulation of wind fields over complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jiannong; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    Accurate modeling of complex terrain, especially steep terrain, in the simulation of wind fields remains a challenge. It is well known that the terrain-following coordinate transformation method (TFCT) generally used in atmospheric flow simulations is restricted to non-steep terrain with slope angles less than 45 degrees. Due to the advantage of keeping the basic computational grids and numerical schemes unchanged, the immersed boundary method (IBM) has been widely implemented in various numerical codes to handle arbitrary domain geometry including steep terrain. However, IBM could introduce considerable implementation errors in wall modeling through various interpolations because an immersed boundary is generally not co-located with a grid line. In this paper, we perform an intercomparison of TFCT and IBM in large-eddy simulation of a turbulent wind field over a three-dimensional (3D) hill for the purpose of evaluating the implementation errors in IBM. The slopes of the three-dimensional hill are not steep and, therefore, TFCT can be applied. Since TFCT is free from interpolation-induced implementation errors in wall modeling, its results can serve as a reference for the evaluation so that the influence of errors from wall models themselves can be excluded. For TFCT, a new algorithm for solving the pressure Poisson equation in the transformed coordinate system is proposed and first validated for a laminar flow over periodic two-dimensional hills by comparing with a benchmark solution. For the turbulent flow over the 3D hill, the wind-tunnel measurements used for validation contain both vertical and horizontal profiles of mean velocities and variances, thus allowing an in-depth comparison of the numerical models. In this case, TFCT is expected to be preferable to IBM. This is confirmed by the presented results of comparison. It is shown that the implementation errors in IBM lead to large discrepancies between the results obtained by TFCT and IBM near the surface

  11. Near-infrared and fourier transform infrared chemometric methods for the quantification of crystalline tacrolimus from sustained-release amorphous solid dispersion.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Bykadi, Srikant; Khan, Mansoor A

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)-based chemometric models in quantifying crystalline and amorphous tacrolimus from its sustained-release amorphous solid dispersion (ASD). ASD contained ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, and lactose monohydrate as carriers, and amorphous form of tacrolimus in it was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction. Crystalline physical mixture was mixed with ASD in various proportions to prepare sample matrices containing 0%-100% amorphous/crystalline tacrolimus. NIR and FTIR of the samples were recorded, and data were mathematically pretreated using multiple scattering correction, standard normal variate, or Savitzky-Golay before multivariate analysis, partial-least-square regression (PLSR), and principle component regression (PCR). The PLSR models were more accurate than PCR for NIR and FTIR data as indicated by low value of root-mean-squared error of prediction, standard error of prediction and bias, and high value of R(2). Additionally, NIR data-based models were more accurate and precise than FTIR data models. In conclusion, NIR chemometric models provide simple and fast method to quantitate crystalline tacrolimus in the ASD formulation.

  12. Near-infrared and fourier transform infrared chemometric methods for the quantification of crystalline tacrolimus from sustained-release amorphous solid dispersion.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Bykadi, Srikant; Khan, Mansoor A

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)-based chemometric models in quantifying crystalline and amorphous tacrolimus from its sustained-release amorphous solid dispersion (ASD). ASD contained ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, and lactose monohydrate as carriers, and amorphous form of tacrolimus in it was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction. Crystalline physical mixture was mixed with ASD in various proportions to prepare sample matrices containing 0%-100% amorphous/crystalline tacrolimus. NIR and FTIR of the samples were recorded, and data were mathematically pretreated using multiple scattering correction, standard normal variate, or Savitzky-Golay before multivariate analysis, partial-least-square regression (PLSR), and principle component regression (PCR). The PLSR models were more accurate than PCR for NIR and FTIR data as indicated by low value of root-mean-squared error of prediction, standard error of prediction and bias, and high value of R(2). Additionally, NIR data-based models were more accurate and precise than FTIR data models. In conclusion, NIR chemometric models provide simple and fast method to quantitate crystalline tacrolimus in the ASD formulation. PMID:24931728

  13. Adaptive fusion method of visible light and infrared images based on non-subsampled shearlet transform and fast non-negative matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weiwei; Lei, Yang; Zhao, Huaixun

    2014-11-01

    The issue of visible light and infrared images fusion has been an active topic in both military and civilian areas, and a great many relevant algorithms and techniques have been developed accordingly. This paper addresses a novel adaptive approach to the above two patterns of images fusion problem, employing multi-scale geometry analysis (MGA) of non-subsampled shearlet transform (NSST) and fast non-negative matrix factorization (FNMF) together. Compared with other existing conventional MGA tools, NSST owns not only better feature-capturing capabilities, but also much lower computational complexities. As a modification version of the classic NMF model, FNMF overcomes the local optimum property inherent in NMF to a large extent. Furthermore, use of the FNMF with a less complex structure and much fewer iteration numbers required leads to the enhancement of the overall computational efficiency, which is undoubtedly meaningful and promising in so many real-time applications especially the military and medical technologies. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is superior to other current popular ones in both aspects of subjective visual and objective performance.

  14. Improved Transformation of Anthurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to increase transformation efficiency and yields of transgenic Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex. André hybrids were sought while effecting gene transfer for resistance to the two most important pests, bacterial blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae) and nematodes (Radopholus simili...

  15. Hamlet's Transformation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  16. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  17. Development of a method to produce hemoglobin in a bioreactor culture of Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) transformed with a plasmid containing Plesiomonas shigelloides heme transport genes and modified human hemoglobin genes.

    PubMed

    Smith, B J Z; Gutierrez, P; Guerrero, E; Brewer, C J; Henderson, D P

    2011-09-01

    We describe a method for production of recombinant human hemoglobin by Escherichia coli grown in a bioreactor. E. coli BL21(DE3) transformed with a plasmid containing hemoglobin genes and Plesiomonas shigelloides heme transport genes reached a cell dry weight of 83.64 g/liter and produced 11.92 g/liter of hemoglobin in clarified lysates.

  18. Transformational leadership and the employee discipline process.

    PubMed

    Haddock, C C

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses what is meant by the term "transformational leadership" and suggests a method of employee discipline consistent with the transformational leadership concept. This nonpunitive method of employee discipline, called discipline without punishment, encourages worker commitment and facilitates transformational leadership. A description of the philosophy and procedures of discipline without punishment is presented, and potential advantages to employers are outlined.

  19. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  20. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Norden E.

    2005-05-31

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  1. Walsh transforms and signal detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    The detection of signals using Walsh power spectral estimates is analyzed. In addition, a generalization of this method of estimation is evaluated. The conclusion is that Walsh transforms are not suitable tools for the detection of weak signals in noise.

  2. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  3. Quantum transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, A.E.; Matone, M.

    1998-01-09

    We show that the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be written in the classical form with the spatial derivative {partial_derivative}{sub q} replaced by {partial_derivative}{sub q} with dq = dq/{radical}1{minus}{beta}{sup 2}(q), where {beta}{sup 2}(q) is strictly related to the quantum potential. This can be seen as the opposite of the problem of finding the wave function representation of classical mechanics as formulated by Schiller and Rosen. The structure of the above {open_quotes}quantum transformation{close_quotes}, related to the recently formulated equivalence principle, indicates that the potential deforms space geometry. In particular, a result by Flanders implies that both W(q) = V(q) {minus} E and the quantum potential Q are proportional to the curvatures {kappa}{sub W} and {kappa}{sub Q} which arise as natural invariants in an equivalence problem for curves in the projective line. In this formulation the Schroedinger equation takes the geometrical form ({partial_derivative}{sub q}{sup 2} + {kappa}{sub W}){psi} = 0.

  4. Teacher Education as or for Social and Ecological Transformation: Place-Based Reflections on Local and Global Participatory Methods and Collaborative Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve; Dippo, Don; Zandvliet, David B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers reflections on two transformative teacher education projects. The first a global communities module is set in a university in Vancouver and utilizes the lens of social ecology to examine the roles of teachers in bringing an awareness of local/global issues to their students' learning experiences. The second, a Canadian…

  5. Transforming giants.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  6. General linear chirplet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Gang; Zhou, Yiqi

    2016-03-01

    Time-frequency (TF) analysis (TFA) method is an effective tool to characterize the time-varying feature of a signal, which has drawn many attentions in a fairly long period. With the development of TFA, many advanced methods are proposed, which can provide more precise TF results. However, some restrictions are introduced inevitably. In this paper, we introduce a novel TFA method, termed as general linear chirplet transform (GLCT), which can overcome some limitations existed in current TFA methods. In numerical and experimental validations, by comparing with current TFA methods, some advantages of GLCT are demonstrated, which consist of well-characterizing the signal of multi-component with distinct non-linear features, being independent to the mathematical model and initial TFA method, allowing for the reconstruction of the interested component, and being non-sensitivity to noise.

  7. Microbial transformation of sesquiterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Haq N; Zubair, Muhammad; Rasool, Nasir; Hassan, Zahid; Ahmad, Viqar U

    2009-08-01

    Biotransformations are useful methods for producing medicinal and agricultural chemicals from both active and inactive natural products with the introduction of chemical functions into remote sites of the molecules. Research on microbial biotransformations of commonly available sesquiterpenoids into more valuable derivatives has always been of interest because of their economical potential to the perfume, food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Fungal transformations of sesquiterpenoids have been less frequently studied compared with many other natural products. In recent years, however, much attention has been given to the exploitation of new products with enhanced biological activity using microorganisms. This review, covering the period from 1990 to 2006, summarizes our knowledge of the biotransformations of sesquiterpenoids by various fungi. Such transformations could lead to the discovery of new reaction pathways that might be useful in the design of new value-added products.

  8. Comparison of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) Methods for Determining Stable Isotope Ratios of Atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubierna Lopez, N.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Griffith, D. W.; Mount, G. H.; Cousins, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    Worldwide, biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) are determined using eddy-covariance methods. Information from isotopic CO2 measurements provides valuable constraints to partition NEE into its component fluxes. Stable isotope measurements have traditionally been constrained in frequency by the need to collect and analyze field samples in a laboratory using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (MS). New techniques based on absorption spectroscopy allow for high temporal sampling resolution in the field, but with concerns about precision and accuracy of the isotope-ratios. We tested two absorption spectroscopy systems, a Fourier transformed infrared analyzer (FTIR, Vector 22, Bruker Optics, Ettlingen, Germany) and a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS, model TGA 100, Campbell Scientific, Inc. Logan, UT, USA), by comparing them with continuous-flow MS (Delta plus XP IRMS, ThermoFinnigan, Bremen, Germany). We conducted a laboratory comparison of gases mixed with various CO2 concentrations and isotopic signatures as well as field-collected samples. The mixed tanks were balanced in ultra-zero air with CO2 concentrations ranging from 353 to 553 ppm, and isotopic compositions (δ13C) between -11.7% to -39.3%. The field samples were collected at four different locations (forest, wheat field, dairy farm, and paper mill) by pumping ambient air into 44- L tanks. Gas from each sample tank was simultaneously delivered to the FTIR and TDLAS systems and subsequently analyzed with continuous-flow MS. The [CO2] determined with the TDLAS or FTIR differed by <1 ppm for CO2-tanks and <2.4 ppm for ambient air samples. The δ13C offset of the CO2 tanks between the MS and the TDLAS and FTIR were on average 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively. However, the offset in TDLAS δ13C values increased for ambient air samples to values of 0.4%, with a maximum of 0.9% for the dairy farm and paper mill samples. Ambient air samples analyzed with the FTIR were on

  9. The Bargmann transform and canonical transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2002-05-01

    This paper concerns a relationship between the kernel of the Bargmann transform and the corresponding canonical transformation. We study this fact for a Bargmann transform introduced by Thomas and Wassell [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5480-5505 (1995)]—when the configuration space is the two-sphere S2 and for a Bargmann transform that we introduce for the three-sphere S3. It is shown that the kernel of the Bargmann transform is a power series in a function which is a generating function of the corresponding canonical transformation (a classical analog of the Bargmann transform). We show in each case that our canonical transformation is a composition of two other canonical transformations involving the complex null quadric in C3 or C4. We also describe quantizations of those two other canonical transformations by dealing with spaces of holomorphic functions on the aforementioned null quadrics. Some of these quantizations have been studied by Bargmann and Todorov [J. Math. Phys. 18, 1141-1148 (1977)] and the other quantizations are related to the work of Guillemin [Integ. Eq. Operator Theory 7, 145-205 (1984)]. Since suitable infinite linear combinations of powers of the generating functions are coherent states for L2(S2) or L2(S3), we show finally that the studied Bargmann transforms are actually coherent states transforms.

  10. Transform coding for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Data compression coding requirements for aerospace applications differ somewhat from the compression requirements for entertainment systems. On the one hand, entertainment applications are bit rate driven with the goal of getting the best quality possible with a given bandwidth. Science applications are quality driven with the goal of getting the lowest bit rate for a given level of reconstruction quality. In the past, the required quality level has been nothing less than perfect allowing only the use of lossless compression methods (if that). With the advent of better, faster, cheaper missions, an opportunity has arisen for lossy data compression methods to find a use in science applications as requirements for perfect quality reconstruction runs into cost constraints. This paper presents a review of the data compression problem from the space application perspective. Transform coding techniques are described and some simple, integer transforms are presented. The application of these transforms to space-based data compression problems is discussed. Integer transforms have an advantage over conventional transforms in computational complexity. Space applications are different from broadcast or entertainment in that it is desirable to have a simple encoder (in space) and tolerate a more complicated decoder (on the ground) rather than vice versa. Energy compaction with new transforms are compared with the Walsh-Hadamard (WHT), Discrete Cosine (DCT), and Integer Cosine (ICT) transforms.

  11. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.; Gueceri, S. I.; Farkas, D.; Labdon, M. B.; Nagaswami, N.; Pregger, B.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was determined. The following major elements were studied: (1) identification of congruently transforming alloys and thermochemical property measurements; (2) development of a precise and convenient method for measuring volume change during phase transformation and thermal expansion coefficients; (3) development of a numerical modeling routine for calculating heat flow in cylindrical heat exchangers containing phase change materials; and (4) identification of materials that could be used to contain the metal alloys. Several eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation from data obtained during one continuous experimental test. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented. The development of the numerical modeling method is presented and results are discussed for both salt and metal alloy phase change media.

  12. Virtual Enterprise: Transforming Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgese, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Entrepreneurship education is ripe for utilizing experiential learning methods. Experiential methods are best learned when there is constant immersion into the subject matter. One such transformative learning methodology is Virtual Enterprise (VE). Virtual Enterprise is a multi-faceted, experiential learning methodology disseminated by the City…

  13. Discrete Fourier transforms of nonuniformly spaced data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    Time series or spatial series of measurements taken with nonuniform spacings have failed to yield fully to analysis using the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). This is due to the fact that the formal DFT is the convolution of the transform of the signal with the transform of the nonuniform spacings. Two original methods are presented for deconvolving such transforms for signals containing significant noise. The first method solves a set of linear equations relating the observed data to values defined at uniform grid points, and then obtains the desired transform as the DFT of the uniform interpolates. The second method solves a set of linear equations relating the real and imaginary components of the formal DFT directly to those of the desired transform. The results of numerical experiments with noisy data are presented in order to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the methods.

  14. Transforming learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    launch of the new Institute for Learning and Teaching in York. This has been established with the aim of raising standards of teaching in higher education and improving learning and teaching methods in universities and colleges. Teaching is felt to be at least as important as research in higher education, and the new Institute will oversee the quality of training programmes for higher education teachers, highlight examples of good practice throughout the UK, as well as recognize and reward good teaching. It will also help to administer teaching and learning support schemes on behalf of the Higher Education Funding Council for England, including a new #1m a year fund for national teaching fellowships. The Institute has been set up in response to recommendations in the Dearing Report on higher education, and will be an independent body supported by the teaching organisations, universities and colleges of higher education and the funding councils. Besides accrediting programmes of training and development, it will provide a range of services for members. Membership will be open to those engaged in teaching or learning support who have completed accredited training programmes or provided other evidence of eligibility. It is expected that membership of the institute will become a normal requirement for new teachers in higher education. Further information about the Institute may be obtained from the Institute for Learning and Teaching, Genesis 3, York Science Park, York YO10 5DQ (tel: 01904 434222, e-mail: enquiries@ilt.ac.uk).

  15. Transformation systems in insects.

    PubMed

    O'Brochta, David A; Atkinson, Peter W

    2004-01-01

    Genetic transformation is an important technology that provides unique opportunities to find, isolate, and analyze genes, as well as to create organisms with unique functional characteristics. Insect biologists have been developing genetic transformation technologies that rely extensively on transposable elements. A number of class II transposable elements isolated originally from insects have been converted into broad host range insect gene vectors. Class II transposable elements are particularly amenable to gene vector development, although they suffer from some limitations such as low rates of recombination. Use of these gene vectors requires the physical introduction of the vectors into developing insect embryos by microinjection. Microinjection methods vary to accommodate the unique physical and developmental characteristics of the target insects. All methods rely on the use of fine glass needles in conjunction with micromanipulators and a microscope. A serious constraint on the use of existing systems can be the inefficiency of successfully delivering the gene vectors to the germ cells of the developing embryo. The general method for vector delivery to insect germ cells is described, as well as variations that are useful under some conditions.

  16. [The coding correction of slit diffraction in Hadamard transform spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wang, Shu-Rong; Huang, Yu; Wang, Jun-Bo

    2013-08-01

    According to the principles of Hadamard transform spectrometer and the slit diffraction characteristics, the influence of spectrometer entrance slit diffraction of Hadamard transform spectrometer on the measurement result was analyzed, for the diffraction case, the Hadamard transform spectrometer instrument structure matrix was studied, and the Hadamard transform spectrometer encoding/decoding method was established. The analysis of incident spectral verified the correctness of the coding/ decoding. This method is very important for the high precision measurement of Hadamard transform spectrometer.

  17. Transforming the Way We Teach Function Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkenberry, Eileen Durand; Faulkenberry, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss "function," a well-defined rule that relates inputs to outputs. They have found that by using the input-output definition of "function," they can examine transformations of functions simply by looking at changes to input or output and the respective changes to the graph. Applying transformations to the input…

  18. An Improved Single-Step Cloning Strategy Simplifies the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation (ATMT)-Based Gene-Disruption Method for Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Xing, Haiying; Hua, Chenlei; Guo, Hui-Shan; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The soilborne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae infects a broad range of plant species to cause severe diseases. The availability of Verticillium genome sequences has provided opportunities for large-scale investigations of individual gene function in Verticillium strains using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT)-based gene-disruption strategies. Traditional ATMT vectors require multiple cloning steps and elaborate characterization procedures to achieve successful gene replacement; thus, these vectors are not suitable for high-throughput ATMT-based gene deletion. Several advancements have been made that either involve simplification of the steps required for gene-deletion vector construction or increase the efficiency of the technique for rapid recombinant characterization. However, an ATMT binary vector that is both simple and efficient is still lacking. Here, we generated a USER-ATMT dual-selection (DS) binary vector, which combines both the advantages of the USER single-step cloning technique and the efficiency of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase negative-selection marker. Highly efficient deletion of three different genes in V. dahliae using the USER-ATMT-DS vector enabled verification that this newly-generated vector not only facilitates the cloning process but also simplifies the subsequent identification of fungal homologous recombinants. The results suggest that the USER-ATMT-DS vector is applicable for efficient gene deletion and suitable for large-scale gene deletion in V. dahliae. PMID:26780432

  19. An Improved Single-Step Cloning Strategy Simplifies the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation (ATMT)-Based Gene-Disruption Method for Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Xing, Haiying; Hua, Chenlei; Guo, Hui-Shan; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The soilborne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae infects a broad range of plant species to cause severe diseases. The availability of Verticillium genome sequences has provided opportunities for large-scale investigations of individual gene function in Verticillium strains using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT)-based gene-disruption strategies. Traditional ATMT vectors require multiple cloning steps and elaborate characterization procedures to achieve successful gene replacement; thus, these vectors are not suitable for high-throughput ATMT-based gene deletion. Several advancements have been made that either involve simplification of the steps required for gene-deletion vector construction or increase the efficiency of the technique for rapid recombinant characterization. However, an ATMT binary vector that is both simple and efficient is still lacking. Here, we generated a USER-ATMT dual-selection (DS) binary vector, which combines both the advantages of the USER single-step cloning technique and the efficiency of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase negative-selection marker. Highly efficient deletion of three different genes in V. dahliae using the USER-ATMT-DS vector enabled verification that this newly-generated vector not only facilitates the cloning process but also simplifies the subsequent identification of fungal homologous recombinants. The results suggest that the USER-ATMT-DS vector is applicable for efficient gene deletion and suitable for large-scale gene deletion in V. dahliae.

  20. Coupling the Phase Field Method for diffusive transformations with dislocation density-based crystal plasticity: Application to Ni-based superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottura, M.; Appolaire, B.; Finel, A.; Le Bouar, Y.

    2016-09-01

    A phase field model is coupled to strain gradient crystal plasticity based on dislocation densities. The resulting model includes anisotropic plasticity and the size-dependence of plastic activity, required when plasticity is confined in region below few microns in size. These two features are important for handling microstructure evolutions during diffusive phase transformations that involve plastic deformation occurring in confined areas such as Ni-based superalloys undergoing rafting. The model also uses a storage-recovery law for the evolution of the dislocation density of each glide system and a hardening matrix to account for the short-range interactions between dislocations. First, it is shown that the unstable modes during the morphological destabilization of a growing misfitting circular precipitate are selected by the anisotropy of plasticity. Then, the rafting of γ‧ precipitates in a Ni-based superalloy is investigated during [100] creep loadings. Our model includes most of the important physical phenomena accounted for during the microstructure evolution, such as the presence of different crystallographic γ‧ variants, their misfit with the γ matrix, the elastic inhomogeneity and anisotropy, the hardening, anisotropy and viscosity of plasticity. In agreement with experiments, the model predicts that rafting proceeds perpendicularly to the tensile loading axis and it is shown that plasticity slows down significantly the evolution of the rafts.

  1. A signal filtering method for improved quantification and noise discrimination in fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry-based metabolomics data.

    PubMed

    Payne, Tristan G; Southam, Andrew D; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Viant, Mark R

    2009-06-01

    Direct-infusion electrospray-ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (DI ESI FT-ICR MS) is increasingly being utilized in metabolomics, including the high sensitivity selected ion monitoring (SIM)-stitching approach. Accurate signal quantification and the discrimination of real signals from noise remain major challenges for this approach, with both adversely affected by factors including ion suppression during electrospray, ion-ion interactions in the detector cell, and thermally-induced white noise. This is particularly problematic for complex mixture analysis where hundreds of metabolites are present near the noise level. Here we address relative signal quantification and noise discrimination issues in SIM-stitched DI ESI FT-ICR MS-based metabolomics. Using liver tissue, we first optimized the number of scans (n) acquired per SIM window to address the balance between quantification accuracy versus acquisition time (and thus sample throughput); a minimum of n = 5 is recommended. Secondly, we characterized and computationally-corrected an effect whereby an ion's intensity is dependent upon its location within a SIM window, exhibiting a 3-fold higher intensity at the high m/z end. This resulted in significantly improved quantification accuracy. Finally, we thoroughly characterized a three-stage filter to discriminate noise from real signals, which comprised a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) hard threshold, then a "replicate" filter (retaining only peaks in r-out-of-3 replicate analyses), and then a "sample" filter (retaining only peaks in >s% of biological samples). We document the benefits of three-stage filtering versus one- and two-stage filters, and show the importance of selecting filter parameters that balance the confidence that a signal is real versus the total number of peaks detected.

  2. Non-parametric linear regression of discrete Fourier transform convoluted chromatographic peak responses under non-ideal conditions of internal standard method.

    PubMed

    Korany, Mohamed A; Maher, Hadir M; Galal, Shereen M; Fahmy, Ossama T; Ragab, Marwa A A

    2010-11-15

    This manuscript discusses the application of chemometrics to the handling of HPLC response data using the internal standard method (ISM). This was performed on a model mixture containing terbutaline sulphate, guaiphenesin, bromhexine HCl, sodium benzoate and propylparaben as an internal standard. Derivative treatment of chromatographic response data of analyte and internal standard was followed by convolution of the resulting derivative curves using 8-points sin x(i) polynomials (discrete Fourier functions). The response of each analyte signal, its corresponding derivative and convoluted derivative data were divided by that of the internal standard to obtain the corresponding ratio data. This was found beneficial in eliminating different types of interferences. It was successfully applied to handle some of the most common chromatographic problems and non-ideal conditions, namely: overlapping chromatographic peaks and very low analyte concentrations. For example, a significant change in the correlation coefficient of sodium benzoate, in case of overlapping peaks, went from 0.9975 to 0.9998 on applying normal conventional peak area and first derivative under Fourier functions methods, respectively. Also a significant improvement in the precision and accuracy for the determination of synthetic mixtures and dosage forms in non-ideal cases was achieved. For example, in the case of overlapping peaks guaiphenesin mean recovery% and RSD% went from 91.57, 9.83 to 100.04, 0.78 on applying normal conventional peak area and first derivative under Fourier functions methods, respectively. This work also compares the application of Theil's method, a non-parametric regression method, in handling the response ratio data, with the least squares parametric regression method, which is considered the de facto standard method used for regression. Theil's method was found to be superior to the method of least squares as it assumes that errors could occur in both x- and y-directions and

  3. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  4. The Transformation of Human Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Recent studies in the development of professionalism suggest that western society witnesses a transformation of professional practices in human services that deeply affects how professionals experience their work. This paper describes key aspects of this development and presents an account of how it can be explained. Method: The paper…

  5. One-way transformation of information

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for one-way transformation of data according to multiplication and/or exponentiation modulo a prime number. An implementation of the invention permits the one way residue transformation, useful in encryption and similar applications, to be implemented by n-bit computers substantially with no increase in difficulty or complexity over a natural transformation thereby, using a modulus which is a power of two.

  6. Transformation through Knowledge--Knowledge through Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadena, Felix

    1991-01-01

    Defines systematization as the process of creating critical knowledge (conscientization), a form of transformative research. Explains how systematization contributes to popular education and presents the form components of the process: identifying limits of research, obtaining data, interpretation, and socialization. (SK)

  7. Accelerating electrostatic interaction calculations with graphical processing units based on new developments of Ewald method using non-uniform fast Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Chun; Wang, Yong-Lei; Jiao, Gui-Sheng; Qian, Hu-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Yuan

    2016-01-30

    We present new algorithms to improve the performance of ENUF method (F. Hedman, A. Laaksonen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 425, 2006, 142) which is essentially Ewald summation using Non-Uniform FFT (NFFT) technique. A NearDistance algorithm is developed to extensively reduce the neighbor list size in real-space computation. In reciprocal-space computation, a new algorithm is developed for NFFT for the evaluations of electrostatic interaction energies and forces. Both real-space and reciprocal-space computations are further accelerated by using graphical processing units (GPU) with CUDA technology. Especially, the use of CUNFFT (NFFT based on CUDA) very much reduces the reciprocal-space computation. In order to reach the best performance of this method, we propose a procedure for the selection of optimal parameters with controlled accuracies. With the choice of suitable parameters, we show that our method is a good alternative to the standard Ewald method with the same computational precision but a dramatically higher computational efficiency. PMID:26584145

  8. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    PubMed

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-20

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component.

  9. Static Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Schardt, Michael; Murr, Patrik J; Rauscher, Markus S; Tremmel, Anton J; Wiesent, Benjamin R; Koch, Alexander W

    2016-04-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy has established itself as the standard method for spectral analysis of infrared light. Here we present a robust and compact novel static Fourier transform spectrometer design without any moving parts. The design is well suited for measurements in the infrared as it works with extended light sources independent of their size. The design is experimentally evaluated in the mid-infrared wavelength region between 7.2 μm and 16 μm. Due to its large etendue, its low internal light loss, and its static design it enables high speed spectral analysis in the mid-infrared.

  10. Conditional unitary transformation on biphotons

    SciTech Connect

    Brida, G.; Genovese, M.; Gramegna, M.; Chekhova, M.V.; Krivitsky, L.A.; Kulik, S.P.

    2004-09-01

    A conditional unitary transformation (90 deg. polarization rotation) is performed at single-photon level. The transformation is realized by rotating polarization for one of the photons of a polarization-entangled biphoton state (signal photon) by means of a Pockel cell triggered by the detection of the other (idler) photon after polarization selection. As a result, the state of the signal photon is losslessly changed from being completely unpolarized to being partially polarized, so that the final polarization degree is given by the idler detector quantum efficiency. This experiment can be used for developing a different method of absolute quantum efficiency calibration.

  11. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    PubMed

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component. PMID:26805830

  12. Note: Tesla transformer damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, J. L.

    2012-07-01

    Unexpected heavy damping in the two winding Tesla pulse transformer is shown to be due to small primary inductances. A small primary inductance is a necessary condition of operability, but is also a refractory inefficiency. A 30% performance loss is demonstrated using a typical "spiral strip" transformer. The loss is investigated by examining damping terms added to the transformer's governing equations. A significant alteration of the transformer's architecture is suggested to mitigate these losses. Experimental and simulated data comparing the 2 and 3 winding transformers are cited to support the suggestion.

  13. Utility transformer reliability not always related to loading practices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    Transformer reliability is not a function of loading in a majority of utility situations. Transformer loading problems are generally the result of either the designer not understanding the load conditions and environment or the operator not operating the transformer within the proper design constraints. A corporate engineering advisor describes transformer reliability in terms of common folklore, then makes computer simulation comparisons of five transformers made between 1942 and 1982 to illustrate various methods of determining optimum loading. 1 table.

  14. A sensitive and robust method for the determination of alkylphenol polyethoxylates and their carboxylic acids and their transformation in a trickling filter wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Koh, Yoong K K; Chiu, Tze Y; Boobis, Alan R; Cartmell, Elise; Pollard, Simon J T; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Lester, John N

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents a method for the determination of alkylphenols, alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO) and alkylphenol ethoxycarboxylates (APEC) in the aqueous and particulate phase of wastewater samples. Quantification was achieved by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The sensitivity of the method is demonstrated by low detection limits, in the dissolved phase 1.2-9.6ngl(-1) for alkylphenol, AP1-3EO and APEC and 0.1-4.1ngl(-1) for longer chain alkylphenol polyethoxylates. The method detection limit for particulate phase samples ranged from 6 to 60ngg(-1) for AP, AP1-3EO and APEC; with the longer chain APEO being from 0.5 to 20ngg(-1). Matrix effects were noted in complex matrix rich samples. There was a distinct change in the distribution of alkylphenol ethoxylates during biological treatment of the wastewater, with the major biotransformation products observed being carboxylated derivatives at concentrations of up to 1768ngl(-1). Shorter chain APEO were present in higher proportions in the suspended solids, due to their higher affinity to particulate matter compared to the long-chain oligomers. PMID:18657288

  15. Multiple peak reference method for polarized Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection spectroscopy to determine the three-dimensional orientation of a uniaxially drawn poly(trimethylene 2,6-naphthalate) film.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yongri; Choi, Ki Woon; Lee, Han Sup

    2008-12-01

    The polarized Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection (FT-IR-ATR) technique is a very useful infrared spectroscopic method for characterizing the three-dimensional orientation of thick samples, to which the conventional transmission FT-IR method cannot easily be applied. To quantitatively analyze polarized FT-IR-ATR spectra, the dependence of the optical contact between the sample and the ATR crystal during the clamping and reclamping processes must be controlled. In this work, a new multiple peak reference (MPR) method is proposed and used to carry out a three-dimensional analysis of a poly(trimethylene 2,6-naphthalate) (PTN) polymer sample. The conventional single peak reference (SPR) analysis technique cannot be applied to such a sample due to the lack of an established reference peak. A new artificial reference band was generated by the MPR method using two different infrared bands, at 1602 cm(-1) and 917 cm(-1), in identical spectra with a combination constant of 0.95. The new artificial reference band was successfully used to calculate the three-dimensional orientation of various infrared bands of a uniaxially drawn PTN film, which has not previously been studied by three-dimensional orientation analyses using the polarized FT-IR-ATR method.

  16. A broadband transformation-optics metasurface lens

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Xiang; Xiang Jiang, Wei; Feng Ma, Hui; Jun Cui, Tie

    2014-04-14

    We present a transformational metasurface Luneburg lens based on the quasi-conformal mapping method, which has weakly anisotropic constitutive parameters. We design the metasurface lens using inhomogeneous artificial structures to realize the required surface refractive indexes. The transformational metasurface Luneburg lens is fabricated and the measurement results demonstrate very good performance in controlling the radiated surface waves.

  17. Biochemical transformation of solid carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Mow S.; Premuzic, Eugene T.

    2001-09-25

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  18. Transformational Leadership: Development and Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servais, Kristine A.

    2006-01-01

    Leadership is about transformation. It is the opportunity to transform people, places, and possibilities. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to identify means to assess leadership development and performance. Although leadership development and performance can be assessed, school systems often lack consistent methods,…

  19. A differential optical absorption spectroscopy method for retrieval from ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers measurements of the direct solar beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Yanfeng; Duan, Minzheng; Tian, Wenshou; Min, Qilong

    2015-08-01

    A differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)-like algorithm is developed to retrieve the column-averaged dryair mole fraction of carbon dioxide from ground-based hyper-spectral measurements of the direct solar beam. Different to the spectral fitting method, which minimizes the difference between the observed and simulated spectra, the ratios of multiple channel-pairs—one weak and one strong absorption channel—are used to retrieve from measurements of the shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. Based on sensitivity tests, a super channel-pair is carefully selected to reduce the effects of solar lines, water vapor, air temperature, pressure, instrument noise, and frequency shift on retrieval errors. The new algorithm reduces computational cost and the retrievals are less sensitive to temperature and H2O uncertainty than the spectral fitting method. Multi-day Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) measurements under clear-sky conditions at two sites (Tsukuba and Bremen) are used to derive xxxx for the algorithm evaluation and validation. The DOAS-like results agree very well with those of the TCCON algorithm after correction of an airmass-dependent bias.

  20. Transforming beliefs and practices: Elementary teacher candidates' development through shared authentic teaching and reflection experiences within an innovative science methods course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo, Kara

    Elementary teachers are criticized for failing to incorporate meaningful science instruction in their classrooms or avoiding science instruction altogether. The lack of adequate science instruction in elementary schools is partially attributed to teacher candidates' anxiety, poor content and pedagogical preparation, and low science teaching self-efficacy. The central premise of this study was that many of these issues could be alleviated through course modifications designed to address these issues. The design tested and presented here provided prospective elementary educators' authentic science teaching experiences with elementary students in a low-stakes environment with the collaboration of peers and science teacher educators. The process of comprehensive reflection was developed for and tested in this study. Comprehensive reflection is individual and collective, written and set in dialogic discourse, focused on past and future behavior, and utilizes video recordings from shared teaching experiences. To test the central premise, an innovative science methods course was designed, implemented and evaluated using a one-group mixed-method design. The focus of the analysis was on changes in self-efficacy, identity and teaching practices as a function of authentic science teaching experiences and comprehensive reflection. The quantitative tools for analysis were t-tests and repeated-measures ANOVA on the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (STEBI-B) and weekly self-rating on confidence as a learner and a teacher of science, respectively. The tools used to analyze qualitative data included thematic analysis and interpretative phenomenological analysis. In addition, theoretically grounded tools were developed and used in a case study to determine the ways one prospective educator's science teaching identity was influenced by experiences in the course. The innovative course structure led the development of teacher candidates' science teaching identity