USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Increasing availability of genomic data and sophistication of analytical methodology in fungi has elevated the need for functional genomics tools in these organisms. Gene deletion is a critical tool for functional analysis. The targeted deletion of genes requires both a suitable method for the trans...
Krenek, Pavel; Samajova, Olga; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Komis, George; Samaj, Jozef
2015-11-01
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely used as a versatile tool for development of stably transformed model plants and crops. However, the development of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation methods attracted substantial attention in recent years. Transient transformation methods offer several applications advancing stable transformations such as rapid and scalable recombinant protein production and in planta functional genomics studies. Herein, we highlight Agrobacterium and plant genetics factors affecting transfer of T-DNA from Agrobacterium into the plant cell nucleus and subsequent transient transgene expression. We also review recent methods concerning Agrobacterium mediated transient transformation of model plants and crops and outline key physical, physiological and genetic factors leading to their successful establishment. Of interest are especially Agrobacterium based reverse genetics studies in economically important crops relying on use of RNA interference (RNAi) or virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology. The applications of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation technology in biotech industry are presented in thorough detail. These involve production of recombinant proteins (plantibodies, vaccines and therapeutics) and effectoromics-assisted breeding of late blight resistance in potato. In addition, we also discuss biotechnological potential of recombinant GFP technology and present own examples of successful Agrobacterium mediated transient plant transformations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Transformation method and wave control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Zheng; Hu, Jin; Hu, Geng-Kai
2010-12-01
Transformation method provides an efficient way to control wave propagation by materials. The transformed relations for field and material during a transformation are essential to fulfill this method. We propose a systematic method to derive the transformed relations for a general physic process, the constraint conditions are obtained by considering geometrical and physical constraint during a mapping. The proposed method is applied to Navier's equation for elastodynamics, Helmholtz's equation for acoustic wave and Maxwell's equation for electromagnetic wave, the corresponding transformed relations are derived, which can be used in the framework of transformation method for wave control. We show that contrary to electromagnetic wave, the transformed relations are not uniquely determined for elastic wave and acoustic wave, so we have a freedom to choose them differently. Using the obtained transformed relations, we also provide some examples for device design, a concentrator for elastic wave, devices for illusion acoustic and illusion optics are conceived and validated by numerical simulations.
Transformative Mixed Methods Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mertens, Donna M.
2010-01-01
Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…
Transformative Mixed Methods Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mertens, Donna M.
2010-01-01
Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…
Development of an Agrobacterium-based transformation system for Rhizoctonia solani
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
A 8.7 kb binary vector containing the 1.9 kb hygromycin B phosphortransferase (hyg) gene was constructed with promoter and terminator regions from the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate- dehydrogenase (gpd) gene of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 (AG-3) at the 5'- and 3'- gene termini of hyg. Promot...
[Hadamard transform spectrometer mixed pixels' unmixing method].
Yan, Peng; Hu, Bing-Liang; Liu, Xue-Bin; Sun, Wei; Li, Li-Bo; Feng, Yu-Tao; Liu, Yong-Zheng
2011-10-01
Hadamard transform imaging spectrometer is a multi-channel digital transform spectrometer detection technology, this paper based on digital micromirror array device (DMD) of the Hadamard transform spectrometer working principle and instrument structure, obtained by the imaging sensor mixed pixel were analyzed, theory derived the solution of pixel aliasing hybrid method, simulation results show that the method is simple and effective to improve the accuracy of mixed pixel spectrum more than 10% recovery.
Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.
2015-01-01
This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..
Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.
2015-01-01
This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..
Physical methods for genetic plant transformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivera, Ana Leonor; Gómez-Lim, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M.
2012-09-01
Production of transgenic plants is a routine process for many crop species. Transgenes are introduced into plants to confer novel traits such as improved nutritional qualities, tolerance to pollutants, resistance to pathogens and for studies of plant metabolism. Nowadays, it is possible to insert genes from plants evolutionary distant from the host plant, as well as from fungi, viruses, bacteria and even animals. Genetic transformation requires penetration of the transgene through the plant cell wall, facilitated by biological or physical methods. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art of the physical methods used for genetic plant transformation and to describe the basic physics behind them.
Transformative Paradigm: Mixed Methods and Social Justice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mertens, Donna M.
2007-01-01
The intersection of mixed methods and social justice has implications for the role of the researcher and choices of specific paradigmatic perspectives. The transformative paradigm with its associated philosophical assumptions provides a framework for addressing inequality and injustice in society using culturally competent, mixed methods…
Parallel algorithms for the spectral transform method
Foster, I.T.; Worley, P.H.
1997-05-01
The spectral transform method is a standard numerical technique for solving partial differential equations on a sphere and is widely used in atmospheric circulation models. Recent research has identified several promising algorithms for implementing this method on massively parallel computers; however, no detailed comparison of the different algorithms has previously been attempted. In this paper, the authors describe these different parallel algorithms and report on computational experiments that they have conducted to evaluate their efficiency on parallel computers. The experiments used a testbed code that solves the nonlinear shallow water equations on a sphere; considerable care was taken to ensure that the experiments provide a fair comparison of the different algorithms and that the results are relevant to global models. The authors focus on hypercube- and mesh-connected multicomputers with cut-through routing, such as the Intel iPSC/860, DELTA, and Paragon, and the nCUBE/2, but they also indicate how the results extend to other parallel computer architectures. The results of this study are relevant not only to the spectral transform method but also to multidimensional fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and other parallel transforms.
Discrete fourier transform (DFT) analysis for applications using iterative transform methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)
2012-01-01
According to various embodiments, a method is provided for determining aberration data for an optical system. The method comprises collecting a data signal, and generating a pre-transformation algorithm. The data is pre-transformed by multiplying the data with the pre-transformation algorithm. A discrete Fourier transform of the pre-transformed data is performed in an iterative loop. The method further comprises back-transforming the data to generate aberration data.
Fourier transform methods in local gravity modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harrison, J. C.; Dickinson, M.
1989-01-01
New algorithms were derived for computing terrain corrections, all components of the attraction of the topography at the topographic surface and the gradients of these attractions. These algoriithms utilize fast Fourier transforms, but, in contrast to methods currently in use, all divergences of the integrals are removed during the analysis. Sequential methods employing a smooth intermediate reference surface were developed to avoid the very large transforms necessary when making computations at high resolution over a wide area. A new method for the numerical solution of Molodensky's problem was developed to mitigate the convergence difficulties that occur at short wavelengths with methods based on a Taylor series expansion. A trial field on a level surface is continued analytically to the topographic surface, and compared with that predicted from gravity observations. The difference is used to compute a correction to the trial field and the process iterated. Special techniques are employed to speed convergence and prevent oscillations. Three different spectral methods for fitting a point-mass set to a gravity field given on a regular grid at constant elevation are described. Two of the methods differ in the way that the spectrum of the point-mass set, which extends to infinite wave number, is matched to that of the gravity field which is band-limited. The third method is essentially a space-domain technique in which Fourier methods are used to solve a set of simultaneous equations.
Parallel algorithms for the spectral transform method
Foster, I.T.; Worley, P.H.
1994-04-01
The spectral transform method is a standard numerical technique for solving partial differential equations on a sphere and is widely used in atmospheric circulation models. Recent research has identified several promising algorithms for implementing this method on massively parallel computers; however, no detailed comparison of the different algorithms has previously been attempted. In this paper, we describe these different parallel algorithms and report on computational experiments that we have conducted to evaluate their efficiency on parallel computers. The experiments used a testbed code that solves the nonlinear shallow water equations or a sphere; considerable care was taken to ensure that the experiments provide a fair comparison of the different algorithms and that the results are relevant to global models. We focus on hypercube- and mesh-connected multicomputers with cut-through routing, such as the Intel iPSC/860, DELTA, and Paragon, and the nCUBE/2, but also indicate how the results extend to other parallel computer architectures. The results of this study are relevant not only to the spectral transform method but also to multidimensional FFTs and other parallel transforms.
Ensemble transform sensitivity method for adaptive observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yu; Xie, Yuanfu; Wang, Hongli; Chen, Dehui; Toth, Zoltan
2016-01-01
The Ensemble Transform (ET) method has been shown to be useful in providing guidance for adaptive observation deployment. It predicts forecast error variance reduction for each possible deployment using its corresponding transformation matrix in an ensemble subspace. In this paper, a new ET-based sensitivity (ETS) method, which calculates the gradient of forecast error variance reduction in terms of analysis error variance reduction, is proposed to specify regions for possible adaptive observations. ETS is a first order approximation of the ET; it requires just one calculation of a transformation matrix, increasing computational efficiency (60%-80% reduction in computational cost). An explicit mathematical formulation of the ETS gradient is derived and described. Both the ET and ETS methods are applied to the Hurricane Irene (2011) case and a heavy rainfall case for comparison. The numerical results imply that the sensitive areas estimated by the ETS and ET are similar. However, ETS is much more efficient, particularly when the resolution is higher and the number of ensemble members is larger.
Analysis method for Fourier transform spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, J. H.
1983-01-01
A fast Fourier transform technique is given for the simulation of those distortion effects in the instrument line shape of the interferometric spectrum that are due to errors in the measured interferogram. The technique is applied to analyses of atmospheric absorption spectra and laboratory spectra. It is shown that the nonlinear least squares method can retrieve the correct information from the distorted spectrum. Analyses of HF absorption spectra obtained in a laboratory and solar CO absorption spectra gathered by a balloon-borne interferometer indicate that the retrieved amount of absorbing gas is less than the correct value in most cases, if the interferogram distortion effects are not included in the analysis.
Apparatus and method for transforming living cells
Okandan, Murat; Galambos, Paul C.
2003-11-11
An apparatus and method are disclosed for in vitro transformation of living cells. The apparatus, which is formed as a microelectromechanical device by surface micromachining, can be used to temporarily disrupt the cell walls or membrane of host cells one at a time so that a particular substance (e.g. a molecular tag, nucleic acid, bacteria, virus etc.) can be introduced into the cell. Disruption of the integrity of the host cells (i.e. poration) can be performed mechanically or electrically, or by both while the host cells are contained within a flow channel. Mechanical poration is possible using a moveable member which has a pointed or serrated edge and which is driven by an electrostatic actuator to abrade, impact or penetrate the host cell. Electroporation is produced by generating a relatively high electric field across the host cell when the host cell is located in the flow channel between a pair of electrodes having a voltage applied therebetween.
A Transfer Voltage Simulation Method for Generator Step Up Transformers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Funabashi, Toshihisa; Sugimoto, Toshirou; Ueda, Toshiaki; Ametani, Akihiro
It has been found from measurements for 13 sets of GSU transformers that a transfer voltage of a generator step-up (GSU) transformer involves one dominant oscillation frequency. The frequency can be estimated from the inductance and capacitance values of the GSU transformer low-voltage-side. This observation has led to a new method for simulating a GSU transformer transfer voltage. The method is based on the EMTP TRANSFORMER model, but stray capacitances are added. The leakage inductance and the magnetizing resistance are modified using approximate curves for their frequency characteristics determined from the measured results. The new method is validated in comparison with the measured results.
Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Canales, Genevieve
2013-01-01
This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…
Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Canales, Genevieve
2013-01-01
This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…
Soft computing methods for geoidal height transformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akyilmaz, O.; Özlüdemir, M. T.; Ayan, T.; Çelik, R. N.
2009-07-01
Soft computing techniques, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches, have enabled researchers to create precise models for use in many scientific and engineering applications. Applications that can be employed in geodetic studies include the estimation of earth rotation parameters and the determination of mean sea level changes. Another important field of geodesy in which these computing techniques can be applied is geoidal height transformation. We report here our use of a conventional polynomial model, the Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy (or in some publications, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy) Inference System (ANFIS), an ANN and a modified ANN approach to approximate geoid heights. These approximation models have been tested on a number of test points. The results obtained through the transformation processes from ellipsoidal heights into local levelling heights have also been compared.
New inversion methods for the Lorentz Integral Transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreasi, D.; Leidemann, W.; Reiß, C.; Schwamb, M.
2005-06-01
The Lorentz Integral Transform approach allows microscopic calculations of electromagnetic reaction cross-sections without explicit knowledge of final-state wave functions. The necessary inversion of the transform has to be treated with great care, since it constitutes a so-called ill-posed problem. In this work new inversion techniques for the Lorentz Integral Transform are introduced. It is shown that they all contain a regularization scheme, which is necessary to overcome the ill-posed problem. In addition, it is illustrated that the new techniques have a much broader range of application than the present standard inversion method of the Lorentz Integral Transform.
Hough transform method for track finding in center drift chamber
Azmi, K. A. Mohammad Kamal Wan Abdullah, W. A. T. Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin
2016-01-22
Hough transform is a global tracking method used which had been expected to be faster approach for tracking the circular pattern of electron moving in Center Drift Chamber (CDC), by transforming the point of hit into a circular curve. This paper present the implementation of hough transform method for the reconstruction of tracks in Center Drift Chamber (CDC) which have been generated by random number in C language programming. Result from implementation of this method shows higher peak of circle parameter value (xc,yc,rc) that indicate the similarity value of the parameter needed for circular track in CDC for charged particles in the region of CDC.
Hough transform method for track finding in center drift chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azmi, K. A. Mohammad Kamal; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin
2016-01-01
Hough transform is a global tracking method used which had been expected to be faster approach for tracking the circular pattern of electron moving in Center Drift Chamber (CDC), by transforming the point of hit into a circular curve. This paper present the implementation of hough transform method for the reconstruction of tracks in Center Drift Chamber (CDC) which have been generated by random number in C language programming. Result from implementation of this method shows higher peak of circle parameter value (xc,yc,rc) that indicate the similarity value of the parameter needed for circular track in CDC for charged particles in the region of CDC.
Anisotropy minimization via least squares method for transformation optics.
Junqueira, Mateus A F C; Gabrielli, Lucas H; Spadoti, Danilo H
2014-07-28
In this work the least squares method is used to reduce anisotropy in transformation optics technique. To apply the least squares method a power series is added on the coordinate transformation functions. The series coefficients were calculated to reduce the deviations in Cauchy-Riemann equations, which, when satisfied, result in both conformal transformations and isotropic media. We also present a mathematical treatment for the special case of transformation optics to design waveguides. To demonstrate the proposed technique a waveguide with a 30° of bend and with a 50% of increase in its output width was designed. The results show that our technique is simultaneously straightforward to be implement and effective in reducing the anisotropy of the transformation for an extremely low value close to zero.
Direct Linear Transformation Method for Three-Dimensional Cinematography
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shapiro, Robert
1978-01-01
The ability of Direct Linear Transformation Method for three-dimensional cinematography to locate points in space was shown to meet the accuracy requirements associated with research on human movement. (JD)
Cell Phones Transform a Science Methods Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Madden, Lauren
2012-01-01
A science methods instructor intentionally encouraged cell phone use for class work to discover how cell phones can be used as research tools to enhance the content and engage the students. The anecdotal evidence suggested that students who used their smartphones as research tools experienced the science content and pedagogical information…
Cell Phones Transform a Science Methods Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Madden, Lauren
2012-01-01
A science methods instructor intentionally encouraged cell phone use for class work to discover how cell phones can be used as research tools to enhance the content and engage the students. The anecdotal evidence suggested that students who used their smartphones as research tools experienced the science content and pedagogical information…
Data transformation methods for multiplexed assays
Tammero, Lance F. Bentley; Dzenitis, John M; Hindson, Benjamin J
2013-07-23
Methods to improve the performance of an array assay are described. A correlation between fluorescence intensity-related parameters and negative control values of the assay is determined. The parameters are then adjusted as a function of the correlation. As a result, sensitivity of the assay is improved without changes in its specificity.
Analytic solution for Telegraph equation by differential transform method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biazar, J.; Eslami, M.
2010-06-01
In this article differential transform method (DTM) is considered to solve Telegraph equation. This method is a powerful tool for solving large amount of problems (Zhou (1986) [1], Chen and Ho (1999) [2], Jang et al. (2001) [3], Kangalgil and Ayaz (2009) [4], Ravi Kanth and Aruna (2009) [5], Arikoglu and Ozkol (2007) [6]). Using differential transform method, it is possible to find the exact solution or a closed approximate solution of an equation. To illustrate the ability and reliability of the method some examples are provided. The results reveal that the method is very effective and simple.
A method for encapsulating high voltage power transformers
Sanchez, R.O.
1990-01-01
Voltage breakdowns become a major concern in reducing the size of high-voltage power converter transformers. Even the smallest of voids can provide a path for corona discharge which can cause a dielectric breakdown leading to a transformer failure. A method of encapsulating small high voltage transformers has been developed. The method virtually eliminates voids in the impregnation material, provides an exceptional dielectric between windings and provides a mechanically rugged package. The encapsulation material is a CTBN modified mica filled epoxy. The method requires heat/vacuum to impregnate the coil and heat/pressure to cure the encapsulant. The transformer package utilizes a Diallyl Phthalate (DAP) contact assembly in which a coated core/coil assembly is mounted and soldered. This assembly is then loaded into an RTV mold and the encapsulation process begins.
Nonlinearities distribution Laplace transform-homotopy perturbation method.
Filobello-Nino, Uriel; Vazquez-Leal, Hector; Benhammouda, Brahim; Hernandez-Martinez, Luis; Hoyos-Reyes, Claudio; Perez-Sesma, Jose Antonio Agustin; Jimenez-Fernandez, Victor Manuel; Pereyra-Diaz, Domitilo; Marin-Hernandez, Antonio; Diaz-Sanchez, Alejandro; Huerta-Chua, Jesus; Cervantes-Perez, Juan
2014-01-01
This article proposes non-linearities distribution Laplace transform-homotopy perturbation method (NDLT-HPM) to find approximate solutions for linear and nonlinear differential equations with finite boundary conditions. We will see that the method is particularly relevant in case of equations with nonhomogeneous non-polynomial terms. Comparing figures between approximate and exact solutions we show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Transformation of Morinda citrifolia via simple mature seed imbibition method.
Lee, J J; Ahmad, S; Roslan, H A
2013-12-15
Morinda citrifolia, is a valuable medicinal plant with a wide range of therapeutic properties and extensive transformation study on this plant has yet been known. Present study was conducted to establish a simple and reliable transformation protocol for M. citrifolia utilising Agrobacterium tumefaciens via direct seed exposure. In this study, the seeds were processed by tips clipping and dried and subsequently incubated in inoculation medium. Four different parameters during the incubation such as incubation period, bacterial density, temperature and binary vectors harbouring beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (pBI121 and pGSA1131), were tested to examine its effect on transformation efficiency. The leaves from the treated and germinated seedlings were analysed via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), histochemical assay of the GUS gene and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Results of the study showed that Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 with optical density of 1.0 and 2 h incubation period were optimum for M. citrifolia transformation. It was found that various co-cultivation temperatures tested and type of vector used did not affect the transformation efficiency. The highest transformation efficiency for M. citrifolia direct seed transformation harbouring pBI121 and pGSA1131 was determined to be 96.8% with 2 h co-cultivation treatment and 80.4% when using bacterial density of 1.0, respectively. The transformation method can be applied for future characterization study of M. citrifolia.
Non-uniform beam vibration using Differential Transform Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shali, S.; Nagaraja, S. R.; Jafarali, P.
2016-09-01
The paper focuses on the vibration characteristics of non-uniform Euler- Bernoulli beam using Differential Transform Method (DTM). DTM is a numerical method to solve differential equations where the governing equations are reduced into a set of polynomials. Non-uniformity is considered corresponding to linear variation in breadth and height of the beam. The effect of taper ratio on the fundamental frequency of tapered beams is also analysed. The method has proved to be accurate, simple and effective for eigenvalue analysis. For the two cases of non-uniform beam analysed, the frequency computed by the method of differential transform is found to be comparable with the previously available results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Jingwen; Chen, Jiazhen
2007-03-01
A new hyperspectral image compression method of spectral feature classification vector quantization (SFCVQ) and embedded zero-tree of wavelet (EZW) based on Karhunen-Loeve transformation (KLT) and integer wavelet transformation is represented. In comparison with the other methods, this method not only keeps the characteristics of high compression ratio and easy real-time transmission, but also has the advantage of high computation speed. After lifting based integer wavelet and SFCVQ coding are introduced, a system of nearly lossless compression of hyperspectral images is designed. KLT is used to remove the correlation of spectral redundancy as one-dimensional (1D) linear transform, and SFCVQ coding is applied to enhance compression ratio. The two-dimensional (2D) integer wavelet transformation is adopted for the decorrelation of 2D spatial redundancy. EZW coding method is applied to compress data in wavelet domain. Experimental results show that in comparison with the method of wavelet SFCVQ (WSFCVQ), the method of improved BiBlock zero tree coding (IBBZTC) and the method of feature spectral vector quantization (FSVQ), the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of this method can enhance over 9 dB, and the total compression performance is improved greatly.
A novel method for heterocyclic amide–thioamide transformations
Ali, Ibrahim A I; Pazdera, Pavel
2017-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a novel and convenient method for the transformation of heterocyclic amides into heteocyclic thioamides. A two-step approach was applied for this transformation: Firstly, we applied a chlorination of the heterocyclic amides to afford the corresponding chloroheterocycles. Secondly, the chloroherocycles and N-cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate cyclohexylammonium salt were heated in chloroform for 12 h at 61 °C to afford heteocyclic thioamides in excellent yields. PMID:28228858
Transformation-optics simulation method for stimulated Brillouin scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zecca, Roberto; Bowen, Patrick T.; Smith, David R.; Larouche, Stéphane
2016-12-01
We develop an approach to enable the full-wave simulation of stimulated Brillouin scattering and related phenomena in a frequency-domain, finite-element environment. The method uses transformation-optics techniques to implement a time-harmonic coordinate transform that reconciles the different frames of reference used by electromagnetic and mechanical finite-element solvers. We show how this strategy can be successfully applied to bulk and guided systems, comparing the results with the predictions of established theory.
A novel method for heterocyclic amide-thioamide transformations.
Fathalla, Walid; Ali, Ibrahim A I; Pazdera, Pavel
2017-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a novel and convenient method for the transformation of heterocyclic amides into heteocyclic thioamides. A two-step approach was applied for this transformation: Firstly, we applied a chlorination of the heterocyclic amides to afford the corresponding chloroheterocycles. Secondly, the chloroherocycles and N-cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate cyclohexylammonium salt were heated in chloroform for 12 h at 61 °C to afford heteocyclic thioamides in excellent yields.
Spindle extraction method for ISAR image based on Radon transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xia; Zheng, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangyun; Zhu, Daoyuan; Xu, Gaogui
2015-12-01
In this paper, a method of spindle extraction of target in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) image is proposed which depends on Radon Transform. Firstly, utilizing Radon Transform to detect all straight lines which are collinear with these line segments in image. Then, using Sobel operator to detect image contour. Finally, finding all intersections of each straight line and image contour, the two intersections which have maximum distance between them is the two ends of this line segment and the longest line segment of all line segments is spindle of target. According to the proposed spindle extraction method, one hundred simulated ISAR images which are respectively rotated 0 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees in counterclockwise are used to do experiment and the proposed method and the detection results are more close to the real spindle of target than the method based on Hough Transform .
Spatial Fourier transform method for evaluating SQUID gradiometers
Ribeiro, P.C.; Bruno, A.C.; Paulsen, C.C.; Symko, O.G.
1987-08-01
A simple method of measuring the spatial transfer function of a gradiometer, consisting of a flux transformer coupled to a SQUID, is presented and it is compared with theoretical predictions. Based, on this approach, a new method of reporting a gradiometer's performance is proposed; the rejection factor is expressed in decibels obtained directly from the transfer function plot.
Use of the Transformative Framework in Mixed Methods Studies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sweetman, David; Badiee, Manijeh; Creswell, John W.
2010-01-01
A concern exists that mixed methods studies do not contain advocacy stances. Preliminary evidence suggests that this is not the case, but to address this issue in more depth the authors examined 13 mixed methods studies that contained an advocacy, transformative lens. Such a lens consisted of incorporating intent to advocate for an improvement in…
A novel document ranking method using the discrete cosine transform.
Park, Laurence A F; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri
2005-01-01
We propose a new Spectral text retrieval method using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). By taking advantage of the properties of the DCT and by employing the fast query and compression techniques found in vector space methods (VSM), we show that we can process queries as fast as VSM and achieve a much higher precision.
Blind digital watermarking method in the fractional Fourier transform domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lang, Jun; Zhang, Zheng-guang
2014-02-01
In this paper, we proposed a novel blind digital image watermarking algorithm based on the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT), which is a generalization of the ordinary Fourier transform and its output has the mixed time and frequency components of the signal. The original image is segmented into non-overlapping blocks for watermarking, and each block is transformed by the two dimensional fractional Fourier transform with two fractional orders. Then each pixel value of binary watermark is embedded by modifying the back-diagonal FRFT coefficients of each image block at the same location with a random array. After perform an inverse two dimensional fractional Fourier transform, we can obtain the watermarked image and the transform orders can be consider as the encryption keys in this method. A series of attacking experiments are performed on the proposed method. The experiments results show that the proposed algorithm not only is of good imperceptibility and security and is very robust to JPEG compression noise attacks and image manipulation operations, but also can provide protection even under compound attacks.
Transforming Mean and Osculating Elements Using Numerical Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ely, Todd A.
2010-01-01
Mean element propagation of perturbed two body orbits has as its mathematical basis averaging theory of nonlinear dynamical systems. Averaged mean elements define the long-term evolution characteristics of an orbit. Using averaging theory, a near identity transformation can be found that transforms the mean elements back to the osculating elements that contain short period terms in addition to the secular and long period mean elements. The ability to perform the conversion is necessary so that orbit design conducted in mean elements can be converted back into osculating results. In the present work, this near identity transformation is found using the Fast Fourier Transform. An efficient method is found that is capable of recovering the osculating elements to first order
A novel method to transform prokaryotic cells using shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nataraja, K. N.; Udayakumar, M.; Jagadeesh, G.
The transgenic approach that is being used to study gene function or to improve the efficiency of crop plants/organisms involves transformation of a wide range of cells, tissues, and organisms with nucleic acid. In this study we report a new micro- shock assisted prokaryotic cell transformation technique. An underwater electric discharge based shock wave generator (25 kV; 150 m A; high voltage capacitor) has been designed and fabricated to carry out the prokaryotic cell transformation experiments. Test tubes with bacterial cell suspension with appropriate plasmid DNA, immersed in water are exposed to shock wave loading (typical overpressure 130 bar). The transformation efficiency of samples of the prokaryotic cells exposed to shock waves is very high compared to conventional methods.
An in planta biolistic method for stable wheat transformation.
Hamada, Haruyasu; Linghu, Qianyan; Nagira, Yozo; Miki, Ryuji; Taoka, Naoaki; Imai, Ryozo
2017-09-13
The currently favoured method for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) transformation is inapplicable to many elite cultivars because it requires callus culture and regeneration. Here, we developed a simple, reproducible, in planta wheat transformation method using biolistic DNA delivery without callus culture or regeneration. Shoot apical meristems (SAMs) grown from dry imbibed seeds were exposed under a microscope and subjected to bombardment with different-sized gold particles coated with the GFP gene construct, introducing DNA into the L2 cell layer. Bombarded embryos were grown to mature, stably transformed T0 plants and integration of the GFP gene into the genome was determined at the fifth leaf. Use of 0.6-µm particles and 1350-psi pressure resulted in dramatically increased maximum ratios of transient GFP expression in SAMs and transgene integration in the fifth leaf. The transgene was integrated into the germ cells of 62% of transformants, and was therefore inherited in the next generation. We successfully transformed the model wheat cultivar 'Fielder', as well as the recalcitrant Japanese elite cultivar 'Haruyokoi'. Our method could potentially be used to generate stable transgenic lines for a wide range of commercial wheat cultivars.
Physical methods for genetic transformation of fungi and yeast.
Rivera, Ana Leonor; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Gómez-Lim, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M
2014-06-01
The production of transgenic fungi is a routine process. Currently, it is possible to insert genes from other fungi, viruses, bacteria and even animals, albeit with low efficiency, into the genomes of a number of fungal species. Genetic transformation requires the penetration of the transgene through the fungal cell wall, a process that can be facilitated by biological or physical methods. Novel methodologies for the efficient introduction of specific genes and stronger promoters are needed to increase production levels. A possible solution to this problem is the recently discovered shock-wave-mediated transformation. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art of the physical methods used for genetic fungi transformation and to describe some of the basic physics and molecular biology behind them.
Physical methods for genetic transformation of fungi and yeast
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivera, Ana Leonor; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Gómez-Lim, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M.
2014-06-01
The production of transgenic fungi is a routine process. Currently, it is possible to insert genes from other fungi, viruses, bacteria and even animals, albeit with low efficiency, into the genomes of a number of fungal species. Genetic transformation requires the penetration of the transgene through the fungal cell wall, a process that can be facilitated by biological or physical methods. Novel methodologies for the efficient introduction of specific genes and stronger promoters are needed to increase production levels. A possible solution to this problem is the recently discovered shock-wave-mediated transformation. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art of the physical methods used for genetic fungi transformation and to describe some of the basic physics and molecular biology behind them.
Matsuyama, Eri; Tsai, Du-Yih; Lee, Yongbum; Takahashi, Noriyuki
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a conventional discrete wavelet transform (DWT) method and a modified undecimated discrete wavelet transform (M-UDWT) method applied to mammographic image denoising. Mutual information, mean square error, and signal to noise ratio were used as image quality measures of images processed by the two methods. We examined the performance of the two methods with visual perceptual evaluation. A two-tailed F test was used to measure statistical significance. The difference between the M-UDWT processed images and the conventional DWT-method processed images was statistically significant (P<0.01). The authors confirmed the superiority and effectiveness of the M-UDWT method. The results of this study suggest the M-UDWT method may provide better image quality as compared to the conventional DWT.
A method to perform a fast fourier transform with primitive image transformations.
Sheridan, Phil
2007-05-01
The Fourier transform is one of the most important transformations in image processing. A major component of this influence comes from the ability to implement it efficiently on a digital computer. This paper describes a new methodology to perform a fast Fourier transform (FFT). This methodology emerges from considerations of the natural physical constraints imposed by image capture devices (camera/eye). The novel aspects of the specific FFT method described include: 1) a bit-wise reversal re-grouping operation of the conventional FFT is replaced by the use of lossless image rotation and scaling and 2) the usual arithmetic operations of complex multiplication are replaced with integer addition. The significance of the FFT presented in this paper is introduced by extending a discrete and finite image algebra, named Spiral Honeycomb Image Algebra (SHIA), to a continuous version, named SHIAC.
Analysis of integral method for fault detection in transformers
Hijazi, M.E.A.; Basak, A. . Wolfson Centre for Magnetics Technology)
1993-11-01
Test results obtained from using the integral method in transformer differential protection against internal fault current, are presented. The effect of various factors on the transient waveforms are considered and conditions to predict the magnetizing inrush current and a faulty system have been digitally simulated.
Fourier-transform and global contrast interferometer alignment methods
Goldberg, Kenneth A.
2001-01-01
Interferometric methods are presented to facilitate alignment of image-plane components within an interferometer and for the magnified viewing of interferometer masks in situ. Fourier-transforms are performed on intensity patterns that are detected with the interferometer and are used to calculate pseudo-images of the electric field in the image plane of the test optic where the critical alignment of various components is being performed. Fine alignment is aided by the introduction and optimization of a global contrast parameter that is easily calculated from the Fourier-transform.
A New Shape Description Method Using Angular Radial Transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Whoi-Yul
Shape is one of the primary low-level image features in content-based image retrieval. In this paper we propose a new shape description method that consists of a rotationally invariant angular radial transform descriptor (IARTD). The IARTD is a feature vector that combines the magnitude and aligned phases of the angular radial transform (ART) coefficients. A phase correction scheme is employed to produce the aligned phase so that the IARTD is invariant to rotation. The distance between two IARTDs is defined by combining differences in the magnitudes and aligned phases. In an experiment using the MPEG-7 shape dataset, the proposed method outperforms existing methods; the average BEP of the proposed method is 57.69%, while the average BEPs of the invariant Zernike moments descriptor and the traditional ART are 41.64% and 36.51%, respectively.
Frequency-dependent FDTD methods using Z transforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sullivan, Dennis M.
1992-01-01
While the frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain, or (FD)2TD, method can correctly calculate EM propagation through media whose dielectric properties are frequency-dependent, more elaborate applications lead to greater (FD)2TD complexity. Z-transform theory is presently used to develop the mathematical bases of the (FD)2TD method, simultaneously obtaining a clearer formulation and allowing researchers to draw on the existing literature of systems analysis and signal-processing.
Solving systems of fractional differential equations using differential transform method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erturk, Vedat Suat; Momani, Shaher
2008-05-01
This paper presents approximate analytical solutions for systems of fractional differential equations using the differential transform method. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. The application of differential transform method, developed for differential equations of integer order, is extended to derive approximate analytical solutions of systems of fractional differential equations. The solutions of our model equations are calculated in the form of convergent series with easily computable components. Some examples are solved as illustrations, using symbolic computation. The numerical results show that the approach is easy to implement and accurate when applied to systems of fractional differential equations. The method introduces a promising tool for solving many linear and nonlinear fractional differential equations.
A Dynamic Integrated Fault Diagnosis Method for Power Transformers
Gao, Wensheng; Liu, Tong
2015-01-01
In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified. PMID:25685841
A dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method for power transformers.
Gao, Wensheng; Bai, Cuifen; Liu, Tong
2015-01-01
In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified.
A transformation method for constrained-function minimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, S. K.
1975-01-01
A direct method for constrained-function minimization is discussed. The method involves the construction of an appropriate function mapping all of one finite dimensional space onto the region defined by the constraints. Functions which produce such a transformation are constructed for a variety of constraint regions including, for example, those arising from linear and quadratic inequalities and equalities. In addition, the computational performance of this method is studied in the situation where the Davidon-Fletcher-Powell algorithm is used to solve the resulting unconstrained problem. Good performance is demonstrated for 19 test problems by achieving rapid convergence to a solution from several widely separated starting points.
Method for rectifying image deviation based on perspective transformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xin; Li, Shengrong; Bai, Wei; Cui, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Guoqing; Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Chuanyou
2017-09-01
A new method for rectifying image deviation of circular instrument based on perspective transformation is presented in the paper, and the correction of circular instrument image in substation environment is realized. First of all, the digital image processing technology is used to pre-process the site image. Secondly, Canny operator is used for edge detection. According to the edge feature points, the equipment area is detected and the regional parameters can be computed. Then the perspective transformation is used to correct the image, and the positive image of the circular instrument image is obtained. Finally, the corrected tilt image is done by the rotation operation. Experimental results show that the algorithm can realize image rectification, which is simple with fast speed and high precision. The proposed method is helpful for the further recognition.
Parallel image registration method for snapshot Fourier transform imaging spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Shuaishuai; Lin, Jie; Zhu, Feijia; Jin, Peng
2017-08-01
A fast and precise registration method for multi-image snapshot Fourier transform imaging spectroscopy is proposed. This method accomplishes registration of an image array using the positional relationship between homologous points in the subimages, which are obtained offline by preregistration. Through the preregistration process, the registration problem is converted to the problem of using a registration matrix to interpolate subimages. Therefore, the hardware interpolation of graphics processing unit (GPU) texture memory, which has speed advantages for its parallel computing, can be used to significantly enhance computational efficiency. Compared to a central processing unit, GPU performance showed ˜27 times acceleration in registration efficiency.
A method for decoding the neurophysiological spike-response transform.
Stern, Estee; García-Crescioni, Keyla; Miller, Mark W; Peskin, Charles S; Brezina, Vladimir
2009-11-15
Many physiological responses elicited by neuronal spikes-intracellular calcium transients, synaptic potentials, muscle contractions-are built up of discrete, elementary responses to each spike. However, the spikes occur in trains of arbitrary temporal complexity, and each elementary response not only sums with previous ones, but can itself be modified by the previous history of the activity. A basic goal in system identification is to characterize the spike-response transform in terms of a small number of functions-the elementary response kernel and additional kernels or functions that describe the dependence on previous history-that will predict the response to any arbitrary spike train. Here we do this by developing further and generalizing the "synaptic decoding" approach of Sen et al. (1996). Given the spike times in a train and the observed overall response, we use least-squares minimization to construct the best estimated response and at the same time best estimates of the elementary response kernel and the other functions that characterize the spike-response transform. We avoid the need for any specific initial assumptions about these functions by using techniques of mathematical analysis and linear algebra that allow us to solve simultaneously for all of the numerical function values treated as independent parameters. The functions are such that they may be interpreted mechanistically. We examine the performance of the method as applied to synthetic data. We then use the method to decode real synaptic and muscle contraction transforms.
Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation method: an important antioxidant assay.
Gülçin, İlhami
2015-01-01
If we look at the multitude of varied and interesting reaction that constitute biochemistry and bioorganic chemistry, it is possible to classify a great many as either oxidation or reduction reactions. The reducing agent transfers electrons to another substance and is thus it oxidized. And, because it gives electrons, it is also called an electron donor. Electron donors can also form charge transfer complexes with electron acceptors. Reductants in biochemistry are very diverse. For example ferric ions (Fe(3+)) are good reducing agents. Also, different bioanalytical reduction methods are available such as Fe(3+)-ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) reduction method, ferric reducing antioxidant power reducing assay. In this section, Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation will be discussed. Recently there has been growing interest in research into the role of plant-derived antioxidants in food and human health. The beneficial influence of many foodstuffs and beverages including fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, and cacao on human health has been recently recognized to originate from their antioxidant activity. For this purpose, the most commonly method used in vitro determination of reducing capacity of pure food constituents or plant extracts is Fe(3+) reducing ability. This commonly used reducing power method is reviewed and presented in this study. Also, the general chemistry underlying this assay was clarified. Hence, this overview provides a basis and rationale for developing standardized antioxidant capacity methods for the food, nutraceutical, and dietary supplement industries. In addition, the most important advantages of this method were detected and highlighted. The chemical principles of these methods are outlined and critically discussed. The chemical principles of methods of Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation assay are outlined and critically discussed.
Electrocardiogram ST-Segment Morphology Delineation Method Using Orthogonal Transformations
2016-01-01
Differentiation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic transient ST segment events of long term ambulatory electrocardiograms is a persisting weakness in present ischaemia detection systems. Traditional ST segment level measuring is not a sufficiently precise technique due to the single point of measurement and severe noise which is often present. We developed a robust noise resistant orthogonal-transformation based delineation method, which allows tracing the shape of transient ST segment morphology changes from the entire ST segment in terms of diagnostic and morphologic feature-vector time series, and also allows further analysis. For these purposes, we developed a new Legendre Polynomials based Transformation (LPT) of ST segment. Its basis functions have similar shapes to typical transient changes of ST segment morphology categories during myocardial ischaemia (level, slope and scooping), thus providing direct insight into the types of time domain morphology changes through the LPT feature-vector space. We also generated new Karhunen and Lo ève Transformation (KLT) ST segment basis functions using a robust covariance matrix constructed from the ST segment pattern vectors derived from the Long Term ST Database (LTST DB). As for the delineation of significant transient ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes, we present a study on the representation of transient ST segment morphology categories, and an evaluation study on the classification power of the KLT- and LPT-based feature vectors to classify between ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes of the LTST DB. Classification accuracy using the KLT and LPT feature vectors was 90% and 82%, respectively, when using the k-Nearest Neighbors (k = 3) classifier and 10-fold cross-validation. New sets of feature-vector time series for both transformations were derived for the records of the LTST DB which is freely available on the PhysioNet website and were contributed to the LTST DB. The KLT and LPT
Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby
Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Jarvis, E.E.
1997-08-26
Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae. The method includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further, specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae. 2 figs.
Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods.
Slavich, George M; Zimbardo, Philip G
2012-12-01
Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we suggest that these seemingly different strategies share important underlying characteristics and can be viewed as complimentary components of a broader approach to classroom instruction called transformational teaching. Transformational teaching involves creating dynamic relationships between teachers, students, and a shared body of knowledge to promote student learning and personal growth. From this perspective, instructors are intellectual coaches who create teams of students who collaborate with each other and with their teacher to master bodies of information. Teachers assume the traditional role of facilitating students' acquisition of key course concepts, but do so while enhancing students' personal development and attitudes toward learning. They accomplish these goals by establishing a shared vision for a course, providing modeling and mastery experiences, challenging and encouraging students, personalizing attention and feedback, creating experiential lessons that transcend the boundaries of the classroom, and promoting ample opportunities for preflection and reflection. We propose that these methods are synergistically related and, when used together, maximize students' potential for intellectual and personal growth.
Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods
Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.
2012-01-01
Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we suggest that these seemingly different strategies share important underlying characteristics and can be viewed as complimentary components of a broader approach to classroom instruction called transformational teaching. Transformational teaching involves creating dynamic relationships between teachers, students, and a shared body of knowledge to promote student learning and personal growth. From this perspective, instructors are intellectual coaches who create teams of students who collaborate with each other and with their teacher to master bodies of information. Teachers assume the traditional role of facilitating students’ acquisition of key course concepts, but do so while enhancing students’ personal development and attitudes toward learning. They accomplish these goals by establishing a shared vision for a course, providing modeling and mastery experiences, challenging and encouraging students, personalizing attention and feedback, creating experiential lessons that transcend the boundaries of the classroom, and promoting ample opportunities for preflection and reflection. We propose that these methods are synergistically related and, when used together, maximize students’ potential for intellectual and personal growth. PMID:23162369
Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby
Dunahay, Terri Goodman; Roessler, Paul G.; Jarvis, Eric E.
1997-01-01
Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae which includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae.
Zoom synchrosqueezing transform and iterative demodulation: Methods with application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Hongrui; Xi, Songtao; Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Shibin
2016-05-01
Synchrosqueezing is a powerful time-frequency analysis tool for signals with time-varying frequency. However, as it is based on the continuous wavelet transform, its time-frequency representation (TFR) has better time but worse frequency resolution in higher frequency region, while worse time but better frequency resolution in lower frequency region. It makes the synchrosqueezing difficult to accurately estimate IFs with highly oscillating rate but small fluctuation amplitude. To address this issue, a zoom synchrosqueezing transform (ZST) is proposed to generate both excellent time and frequency resolution in a specific frequency region and analyze the mono-component signal in the particular frequency region to obtain accurate IF estimation results. For multi-component signals with nonlinear and close IFs, a ZST based dual iterative demodulation method is proposed, with the inner iteration to gradually refine and accurately extract a concerned mono-component, and the outer iteration to extract all mono-components gradually to alleviate the interference between individual components. Then satisfactory energy concentrated TFRs and accurate IF estimation results of mono-components can be obtained by the proposed ZST. The TFR of the multi-component signal can be gained by superposing the TFRs of all mono-components. The effectiveness of the proposed methods was validated using both simulated signals and a rub-impact signal collected from an engineering machine unit.
Ren, Jun; Lee, Haram; Yoo, Seung Min; Yu, Myeong-Sang; Park, Hansoo; Na, Dokyun
2017-04-01
DNA transformation that delivers plasmid DNAs into bacterial cells is fundamental in genetic manipulation to engineer and study bacteria. Developed transformation methods to date are optimized to specific bacterial species for high efficiency. Thus, there is always a demand for simple and species-independent transformation methods. We herein describe the development of a chemico-physical transformation method that combines a rubidium chloride (RbCl)-based chemical method and sepiolite-based physical method, and report its use for the simple and efficient delivery of DNA into various bacterial species. Using this method, the best transformation efficiency for Escherichia coli DH5α was 4.3×10(6)CFU/μg of pUC19 plasmid, which is higher than or comparable to the reported transformation efficiencies to date. This method also allowed the introduction of plasmid DNAs into Bacillus subtilis (5.7×10(3)CFU/μg of pSEVA3b67Rb), Bacillus megaterium (2.5×10(3)CFU/μg of pSPAsp-hp), Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (1.0×10(2)CFU/μg of pTRKH3-ermGFP), and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (2.2×10(2)CFU/μg of pMSP3535VA). Remarkably, even when the conventional chemical and physical methods failed to generate transformed cells in Bacillus sp. and Enterococcus faecalis, E. malodoratus and E. mundtii, our combined method showed a significant transformation efficiency (2.4×10(4), 4.5×10(2), 2×10(1), and 0.5×10(1)CFU/μg of plasmid DNA). Based on our results, we anticipate that our simple and efficient transformation method should prove usefulness for introducing DNA into various bacterial species without complicated optimization of parameters affecting DNA entry into the cell.
Optimal PMU placement using topology transformation method in power systems.
Rahman, Nadia H A; Zobaa, Ahmed F
2016-09-01
Optimal phasor measurement units (PMUs) placement involves the process of minimizing the number of PMUs needed while ensuring the entire power system completely observable. A power system is identified observable when the voltages of all buses in the power system are known. This paper proposes selection rules for topology transformation method that involves a merging process of zero-injection bus with one of its neighbors. The result from the merging process is influenced by the selection of bus selected to merge with the zero-injection bus. The proposed method will determine the best candidate bus to merge with zero-injection bus according to the three rules created in order to determine the minimum number of PMUs required for full observability of the power system. In addition, this paper also considered the case of power flow measurements. The problem is formulated as integer linear programming (ILP). The simulation for the proposed method is tested by using MATLAB for different IEEE bus systems. The explanation of the proposed method is demonstrated by using IEEE 14-bus system. The results obtained in this paper proved the effectiveness of the proposed method since the number of PMUs obtained is comparable with other available techniques.
Efficient method for Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Artemisia annua L.
Alam, Pravej; Mohammad, Anis; Ahmad, M M; Khan, Mather Ali; Nadeem, Mohd; Khan, Riyazuddeen; Akmal, Mohd; Ahlawat, Seema; Abdin, M Z
2014-01-01
Artemisinin, a potent antimalarial natural products isolated from aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. Many patents have been reported that the demand for artemisinin is exponentially increasing year after year due to increased incidences of drug resistant malaria throughout the world. Leaf explants were used frequently as target tissue to generate transgenic of Artemisia. annua L. However, obtaining a large number of transgenic lines through out the year is a laborious and delicate process. To circumvent this, we have developed a highly efficient leaf explant based Agrobacterium mediated transformation of A. annua L. plant. The gus gene was used as screenable marker to assess and optimize the performance of T-DNA delivery. The age of explant, kind of bacterial inoculation, suspension duration, infection times and co-culture conditions were optimized. The co-culture was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 under desiccation condition in the dark at 25-28 0C for 2-4 days. Complete analysis of transgene insertion demonstrated that the optimized method of transformation from leaf explants of A. annua L. was efficient and highly reproducible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rebenda, Josef; Šmarda, Zdeněk
2013-10-01
In this paper, we will introduce two methods to obtain the numerical solutions for functional differential equations with proportional delays. The first method is the differential transformation method (DTM) and the second method is Adomian decomposition method (ADM). Moreover, we will make comparison between the solutions obtained by the two methods. Consequently, the results of our system tell us the two methods can be alternative ways for solution of the linear and nonlinear functional differential and integro-differential equations. New formulas for DTM were proven for these types of equations.
Spectrum-transformed sequential testing method for signal validation applications
Gross, K.C.; Hoyer, K.K.
1992-06-01
The Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) has proven to be a valuable tool in a variety of reactor applications for signal validation and for sensor and equipment operability surveillance. One drawback of the conventional SPRT method is that its domain of application is limited to signals that are contaminated by gaussian white noise. Nongaussian process variables contaminated by serial correlation can produce higher-than-specified rates of false alarms and missed alarms for SPRT-based surveillance systems. To overcome this difficulty we present here the development and computer implementation of a new technique, the spectrum-transformed sequential testing method. This method retains the excellent surveillance advantage of the SPRT (extremely high sensitivity for very early annunciation of the onset of disturbances in monitored signals), and its false-alarm and missed-alarm probabilities are unaffected by the presence of serial correlation in the data. Example applications of the new method to serially-correlated reactor variables are demonstrated using data recorded from EBR-II.
Spectrum-transformed sequential testing method for signal validation applications
Gross, K.C. ); Hoyer, K.K. . Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Management Sciences)
1992-01-01
The Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) has proven to be a valuable tool in a variety of reactor applications for signal validation and for sensor and equipment operability surveillance. One drawback of the conventional SPRT method is that its domain of application is limited to signals that are contaminated by gaussian white noise. Nongaussian process variables contaminated by serial correlation can produce higher-than-specified rates of false alarms and missed alarms for SPRT-based surveillance systems. To overcome this difficulty we present here the development and computer implementation of a new technique, the spectrum-transformed sequential testing method. This method retains the excellent surveillance advantage of the SPRT (extremely high sensitivity for very early annunciation of the onset of disturbances in monitored signals), and its false-alarm and missed-alarm probabilities are unaffected by the presence of serial correlation in the data. Example applications of the new method to serially-correlated reactor variables are demonstrated using data recorded from EBR-II.
Method and apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer
Pokrywka, Robert J.
2005-01-18
A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of: powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.
Research on ghost imaging method based on wavelet transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Mengying; He, Ruiqing; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua; Zhang, Wenwen
2017-09-01
We present an algorithm of extracting the wavelet coefficients of object based on ghost imaging (GI) system. Through modification of the projected random patterns by using a series of templates, wavelet transform GI (WTGI) can directly measure the high frequency components of wavelet coefficients without needing the original image. In this study, we theoretically and experimentally perform the high frequency components of wavelet coefficients detection with an arrow and a letter A based on GI and WTGI. Comparing with the traditional method, the use of the algorithm proposed in this paper can significantly improve the quality of the image of wavelet coefficients in both cases. The special advantages of GI will make the wavelet coefficient detection based on WTGI very valuable in real applications.
Reversible integer wavelet transform for blind image hiding method
Bibi, Nargis; Mahmood, Zahid; Akram, Tallha; Naqvi, Syed Rameez
2017-01-01
In this article, a blind data hiding reversible methodology to embed the secret data for hiding purpose into cover image is proposed. The key advantage of this research work is to resolve the privacy and secrecy issues raised during the data transmission over the internet. Firstly, data is decomposed into sub-bands using the integer wavelets. For decomposition, the Fresnelet transform is utilized which encrypts the secret data by choosing a unique key parameter to construct a dummy pattern. The dummy pattern is then embedded into an approximated sub-band of the cover image. Our proposed method reveals high-capacity and great imperceptibility of the secret embedded data. With the utilization of family of integer wavelets, the proposed novel approach becomes more efficient for hiding and retrieving process. It retrieved the secret hidden data from the embedded data blindly, without the requirement of original cover image. PMID:28498855
LACKS,S.A.
2003-10-09
Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).
3-D surface profilometry based on modulation measurement by applying wavelet transform method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Min; Chen, Feng; Xiao, Chao; Wei, Yongchao
2017-01-01
A new analysis of 3-D surface profilometry based on modulation measurement technique by the application of Wavelet Transform method is proposed. As a tool excelling for its multi-resolution and localization in the time and frequency domains, Wavelet Transform method with good localized time-frequency analysis ability and effective de-noizing capacity can extract the modulation distribution more accurately than Fourier Transform method. Especially for the analysis of complex object, more details of the measured object can be well remained. In this paper, the theoretical derivation of Wavelet Transform method that obtains the modulation values from a captured fringe pattern is given. Both computer simulation and elementary experiment are used to show the validity of the proposed method by making a comparison with the results of Fourier Transform method. The results show that the Wavelet Transform method has a better performance than the Fourier Transform method in modulation values retrieval.
Baker, W.R.
1959-08-25
Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.
On optimal methods for adiabatic quantum state transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somma, Rolando
2013-03-01
Many problems in science could be solved by preparing the low-energy quantum state (or any eigenstate) of a Hamiltonian. A common example is the Boolean satisfiability problem, where each clause can be mapped to the energy of an interacting many-body system, and the problem reduces to minimizing the energy. In quantum computing, adiabatic quantum state transformations (ASTs) provide a tool for preparing the quantum state. ASTs are conventionally implemented via slow or adiabatic perturbations to the Hamiltonian, relying on the quantum adiabatic theorem. Nevertheless, more efficient implementations of ASTs exist. In this talk I will review recently developed methods for ASTs that are more efficient and require less assumptions on the Hamiltonians than the conventional implementation. Such methods involve measurements of the states along the evolution path and have a best-case implementation cost of L/G, where L is the length of the (evolved) state path and G is a lower bound to the spectral gap of the Hamiltonians. I will show that this cost is optimal and comment on results of the gap amplification problem, where the goal is to reduce the cost by increasing G. We acknowledge support from NSF through the CCF program and the LDRD programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories.
Method of Estimating Continuous Cooling Transformation Curves of Glasses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Ray, Chandra S.; Day, Delbert E.
2006-01-01
A method is proposed for estimating the critical cooling rate and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve from isothermal TTT data of glasses. The critical cooling rates and CCT curves for a group of lithium disilicate glasses containing different amounts of Pt as nucleating agent estimated through this method are compared with the experimentally measured values. By analysis of the experimental and calculated data of the lithium disilicate glasses, a simple relationship between the crystallized amount in the glasses during continuous cooling, X, and the temperature of undercooling, (Delta)T, was found to be X = AR(sup-4)exp(B (Delta)T), where (Delta)T is the temperature difference between the theoretical melting point of the glass composition and the temperature in discussion, R is the cooling rate, and A and B are constants. The relation between the amount of crystallisation during continuous cooling and isothermal hold can be expressed as (X(sub cT)/X(sub iT) = (4/B)(sup 4) (Delta)T(sup -4), where X(sub cT) stands for the crystallised amount in a glass during continuous cooling for a time t when the temperature comes to T, and X(sub iT) is the crystallised amount during isothermal hold at temperature T for a time t.
Integral Transform Methods: A Critical Review of Various Kernels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlandini, Giuseppina; Turro, Francesco
2017-03-01
Some general remarks about integral transform approaches to response functions are made. Their advantage for calculating cross sections at energies in the continuum is stressed. In particular we discuss the class of kernels that allow calculations of the transform by matrix diagonalization. A particular set of such kernels, namely the wavelets, is tested in a model study.
Category's analysis and operational project capacity method of transformation in design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obednina, S. V.; Bystrova, T. Y.
2015-10-01
The method of transformation is attracting widespread interest in fields such contemporary design. However, in theory of design little attention has been paid to a categorical status of the term "transformation". This paper presents the conceptual analysis of transformation based on the theory of form employed in the influential essays by Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas. In the present work the transformation as a method of shaping design has been explored as well as potential application of this term in design has been demonstrated.
Fourier transform methods applied to an optical heterodyne profilometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beltrán-González, A.; García-Torales, G.; Martínez-Ponce, G.
2013-11-01
In this work, theory and experiment describe the performance of a surface profile measurement device based on optical heterodyne interferometry are presented. The object and reference beams propagating through the interferometer are obtained by single-pass through an acousto-optic modulator. The diffraction orders 0 and the Doppler-shifted +1 (object and reference beams, respectively) are manipulated to propagate collinearly towards the interferometer output where a fast photodetector is placed to collect the irradiance. The modulated optical signal is Fourier transformed using a data acquisition card and RF communications software. The peak centered at the acousto-optic frequency in the power spectrum is filtered and averaged. The irregularities on the surface of the reflective sample are proportional to the height of this peak. The profile of a reflective blazed grating has been sketched by translating laterally the sample using a nanopositioning system. Experimental results are compared to the measurement done with a scanning electron microscope. There has been found a good agreement between both methods.
Transformation Methods for Using Combination of Remotely Sensed Data and Cadastral Maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dönmez, Ş. Ö.; Tunc, A.
2016-06-01
In order to examine using cadastral maps as base maps for aerial orthophotos, two different 2D transformation methods were applied between various coordinate systems. Study area was chosen from Kagithane district in Istanbul. The used data is an orthophoto (30 cm spatial resolution), and cadastral map (1:1000) taken from land office, containing the same region. Transformation methods are chosen as; 1st Order Polynomial Transformation and Helmert 2D Transformation within this study. The test points, used to determine the coefficients between the datums, were 26 common traverse points and the check points, used to compare the transformed coordinates to reliable true coordinates, were 10 common block corners. The transformation methods were applied using Matlab software. After applying the methods, residuals were calculated and compared between each transformation method in order to use cadastral maps as reliable vector data.
Methods for performing fast discrete curvelet transforms of data
Candes, Emmanuel; Donoho, David; Demanet, Laurent
2010-11-23
Fast digital implementations of the second generation curvelet transform for use in data processing are disclosed. One such digital transformation is based on unequally-spaced fast Fourier transforms (USFFT) while another is based on the wrapping of specially selected Fourier samples. Both digital transformations return a table of digital curvelet coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation parameter, and a spatial location parameter. Both implementations are fast in the sense that they run in about O(n.sup.2 log n) flops for n by n Cartesian arrays or about O(N log N) flops for Cartesian arrays of size N=n.sup.3; in addition, they are also invertible, with rapid inversion algorithms of about the same complexity.
Andrianov, Alexey; Szabo, Aron; Sergeev, Alexander; Kim, Arkady; Chvykov, Vladimir; Kalashnikov, Mikhail
2016-11-14
We developed an improved approach to calculate the Fourier transform of signals with arbitrary large quadratic phase which can be efficiently implemented in numerical simulations utilizing Fast Fourier transform. The proposed algorithm significantly reduces the computational cost of Fourier transform of a highly chirped and stretched pulse by splitting it into two separate transforms of almost transform limited pulses, thereby reducing the required grid size roughly by a factor of the pulse stretching. The application of our improved Fourier transform algorithm in the split-step method for numerical modeling of CPA and OPCPA shows excellent agreement with standard algorithms.
Physical methods for the transformation of plant cells.
Oard, J H
1991-01-01
Transfer and expression of foreign genes in adult plants and their progeny has been achieved by acceleration of DNA-coated particles or microinjection techniques. Cultured cells or embryoids served as targets for the introduction of marker genes that were stably expressed in the nucleus or the chloroplast. Cloned genes from the maize anthocyanin pathway were regulated in a tissue-specific manner when transferred into maize by particle acceleration. In spite of these successes, stable transformation efficiency was low due to uneven particle distribution and cell death after bombardment. Transferred genes did not always segregate in a Mendelian fashion in the succeeding generation, and additional efforts of embryo rescue or shoot grafts were needed to obtain viable progeny from original transformants. New technical advances such as the helium-driven particle gun may improve transformation rates in the future, but some problems of cell manipulation remain.
ipt Gene transformation in petunia by an Agrobacterium mediated method.
Bai, L J; Ye, C J; Lu, J Y; Yang, D E; Xue, H; Pan, Y; Cao, P X; Wang, B; Liu, M
2009-01-01
To prevent leaf senescence of petunia, the cytokinin biosynthetic gene isopentenyl transferase (ipt) was placed under the control of 35S promoter and introduced into petunia. PCR analysis showed an expected 0.5 Kb fragment of ipt gene in transgenic petunia. RT-PCR analysis indicated the expression of ipt gene in the transgenic lines. Leaves from transgenic plants remained green and healthy in normal culture condition, while the non-transformed plants turned to yellow. Transgenic plants showed a reduction in height and smaller leaf sizes. In transgenic lines, the internodes were shorter, and the roots grew slower than the non-transformed plants.
Strain analysis by mismatch moire method and grid method using Fourier transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morimoto, Y.; Seguchi, Y.; Higashi, T.
1990-01-01
We have formerly presented a new method of the moire analysis of strain using the Fourier transform. It uses the phase information of the moire fringe brightness. By shifting the Fourier spectrum of the image of deformed grating lines, we obtain the “complex moire pattern”. Strain distribution is given as the derivatives of the phases of the complex moire fringes. The analysis is completely automated by digital image processing. All of the laborious and subjective procedures required in the conventional analysis such as fringe sign determination, fringe ordering and fringe interpolation are thus eliminated, and objective, fast and accurate analysis can be made. In this paper, we develop the method to a mismatch method and a grid method. We show some applications for analyzing strain distribution by using this method.
Analysis of temperature rise for piezoelectric transformer using finite-element method.
Joo, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Rho, Jong-Seok; Jung, Hyun-Kyo
2006-08-01
Analysis of heat problem and temperature field of a piezoelectric transformer, operated at steady-state conditions, is described. The resonance frequency of the transformer is calculated from impedance and electrical gain analysis using a finite-element method. Mechanical displacement and electric potential of the transformer at the calculated resonance frequency are used to calculate the loss distribution of the transformer. Temperature distribution using discretized heat transfer equation is calculated from the obtained losses of the transformer. Properties of the piezoelectric material, dependent on the temperature field, are measured to recalculate the losses, temperature distribution, and new resonance characteristics of the transformer. Iterative method is adopted to recalculate the losses and resonance frequency due to the changes of the material constants from temperature increase. Computed temperature distributions and new resonance characteristics of the transformer at steady-state temperature are verified by comparison with experimental results.
Apparatus and methods for continuous beam fourier transform mass spectrometry
McLuckey, Scott A.; Goeringer, Douglas E.
2002-01-01
A continuous beam Fourier transform mass spectrometer in which a sample of ions to be analyzed is trapped in a trapping field, and the ions in the range of the mass-to-charge ratios to be analyzed are excited at their characteristic frequencies of motion by a continuous excitation signal. The excited ions in resonant motions generate real or image currents continuously which can be detected and processed to provide a mass spectrum.
Modeling of a method of parallel hierarchical transformation for fast recognition of dynamic images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timchenko, Leonid I.; Kokryatskaya, Nataliya I.; Shpakovych, Viktoriya V.
2013-12-01
Principles necessary to develop a method and computational facilities for the parallel hierarchical transformation based on high-performance GPUs are discussed in the paper. Mathematic models of the parallel hierarchical (PH) network training for the transformation and a PH network training method for recognition of dynamic images are developed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grimm, C. A.
This document contains two units that examine integral transforms and series expansions. In the first module, the user is expected to learn how to use the unified method presented to obtain Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, complex Fourier series, real Fourier series, and half-range sine series for given piecewise continuous functions. In…
Kawai, Shigeyuki; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku
2010-01-01
Transformation (i.e., genetic modification of a cell by the incorporation of exogenous DNA) is indispensable for manipulating fungi. Here, we review the transformation methods for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida albicans, Pichia pastoris and Aspergillus species and discuss some common modifications to improve transformation efficiency. We also present a model of the mechanism underlying S. cerevisiae transformation, based on recent reports and the mechanism of transfection in mammalian systems. This model predicts that DNA attaches to the cell wall and enters the cell via endocytotic membrane invagination, although how DNA reaches the nucleus is unknown. Polyethylene glycol is indispensable for successful transformation of intact cells and the attachment of DNA and also possibly acts on the membrane to increase the transformation efficiency. Both lithium acetate and heat shock, which enhance the transformation efficiency of intact cells but not that of spheroplasts, probably help DNA to pass through the cell wall. © 2010 Landes Bioscience
Neural net selection methods for Gabor transform detection filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casasent, David P.; Smokelin, John S.
1993-08-01
New Gabor transform (GT) filters to detect candidate object locations independent of the object class, object distortions, and for low contrast objects in clutter are described. A new neural network (NN) technique is described to automate selection of GT parameters and to combine multiple Gabor functions (GFs) into once composite macro GF detection filter. Fusion of real and imaginary GT filter outputs is used to reduce false alarms, (PFA), while maintaining high detection rates (PD). Test results on the TRIM-2 database are provided.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Savoye, Philippe
2009-01-01
In recent years, I started covering difference equations and z transform methods in my introductory differential equations course. This allowed my students to extend the "classical" methods for (ordinary differential equation) ODE's to discrete time problems arising in many applications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Savoye, Philippe
2009-01-01
In recent years, I started covering difference equations and z transform methods in my introductory differential equations course. This allowed my students to extend the "classical" methods for (ordinary differential equation) ODE's to discrete time problems arising in many applications.
Lin, Chin-Feng; Zhu, Jin-De
2012-03-01
Hilbert-Huang transformation, wavelet transformation, and Fourier transformation are the principal time-frequency analysis methods. These transformations can be used to discuss the frequency characteristics of linear and stationary signals, the time-frequency features of linear and non-stationary signals, the time-frequency features of non-linear and non-stationary signals, respectively. The Hilbert-Huang transformation is a combination of empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert spectral analysis. The empirical mode decomposition uses the characteristics of signals to adaptively decompose them to several intrinsic mode functions. Hilbert transforms are then used to transform the intrinsic mode functions into instantaneous frequencies, to obtain the signal's time-frequency-energy distributions and features. Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis can be applied to natural physical signals such as earthquake waves, winds, ocean acoustic signals, mechanical diagnosis signals, and biomedical signals. In previous studies, we examined Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis of the electroencephalogram FPI signals of clinical alcoholics, and 'sharp I' wave-based Hilbert-Huang transformation time-frequency features. In this paper, we discuss the application of Hilbert-Huang transformation-based time-frequency analysis to biomedical signals, such as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram signals, electrogastrogram recordings, and speech signals.
Mechanic-electrical transformations in the Kelvin method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zharkikh, Yu. S.; Lysochenko, S. V.
2017-04-01
To explain the initiation mechanism of alternating current in an electric circuit containing the dynamic capacitor a model of mechanic- electrical transformation is suggested to use. In such a model, electric charges disposed between the capacitor plates serve as a cause of measured signal in contrast to the contact potential difference, which is considered as the main base in the Kelvin's model. If one of the plates moves periodically, then the conditions of the charges screening are changed and thereby the capacitor recharging current is arise. The measuring is based on compensation of the recharging current by current, which generated by a source of electromotive force (EMF). The compensation voltage depends on both the distribution of ions or dipoles over the studied surface and the charges creating the surface potential barrier. This voltage is independent on the bulk electro-physical characteristics of a solid.
Setaria viridis floral-dip: A simple and rapid Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method.
Martins, Polyana Kelly; Nakayama, Thiago Jonas; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Cunha, Bárbara Andrade Dias Brito da; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Harmon, Frank G; Kobayashi, Adilson Kenji; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa
2015-06-01
Setaria viridis was recently described as a new monocotyledonous model species for C4 photosynthesis research and genetic transformation. It has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements) that make it suitable for use as a model plant. We report an alternative method of S. viridis transformation using floral dip to circumvent the necessity of tissue culture phase for transgenic plant regeneration. S. viridis spikes at boot stage were selected to be immersed in Agrobacterium suspension. T1 seeds could be identified in 1.5-2 months after floral dipping. We demonstrated through molecular analysis and RFP expression that seeds and resulting plants from dipped inflorescences were transformed. Our results suggest the feasibility of S. viridis floral dip transformation as a time-saving and cost-effective compared with traditional methods. To our knowledge, this is the first report using floral dip in S. viridis as an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method.
Remote sensing image compression method based on lift scheme wavelet transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Hongjiu; Tang, Xinjian; Liu, Jian; Tian, Jinwen
2003-06-01
Based on lifting scheme and the construction theorem of the integer Haar wavelet and biorthogonal wavelet, we propose a new integer wavelet transform construct method on the basis of lift scheme after introduciton of constructing specific-demand biorthogonal wavelet transform using Harr wavelet and Lazy wavelet. In this paper, we represent the method and algorithm of the lifting scheme, and we also give mathematical formulation on this method and experimental results as well.
Issues and progress in transforming a middle-division classical mechanics/math methods course
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollock, Steven J.; Pepper, Rachel E.; Marino, Alysia D.
2012-02-01
The physics department at the University of Colorado, Boulder has recently begun the transformation of its Classical Mechanics/Math Methods course, a middle-division course taken primarily by sophomore physics majors. We discuss the process of course transformation, including holding faculty meetings to create consensus learning goals and a conceptual diagnostic, and adopting, adapting and creating course materials and structures. We also report preliminary observations of student learning gains, student attitudes towards the transformation, and common student difficulties with the course material. We also discuss ongoing plans for the course transformation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gudmundsson, L.; Bremnes, J. B.; Haugen, J. E.; Engen-Skaugen, T.
2012-09-01
The impact of climate change on water resources is usually assessed at the local scale. However, regional climate models (RCMs) are known to exhibit systematic biases in precipitation. Hence, RCM simulations need to be post-processed in order to produce reliable estimates of local scale climate. Popular post-processing approaches are based on statistical transformations, which attempt to adjust the distribution of modelled data such that it closely resembles the observed climatology. However, the diversity of suggested methods renders the selection of optimal techniques difficult and therefore there is a need for clarification. In this paper, statistical transformations for post-processing RCM output are reviewed and classified into (1) distribution derived transformations, (2) parametric transformations and (3) nonparametric transformations, each differing with respect to their underlying assumptions. A real world application, using observations of 82 precipitation stations in Norway, showed that nonparametric transformations have the highest skill in systematically reducing biases in RCM precipitation.
Design of piezoelectric transformer for DC/DC converter with stochastic optimization method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasic, Dejan; Vido, Lionel
2016-04-01
Piezoelectric transformers were adopted in recent year due to their many inherent advantages such as safety, no EMI problem, low housing profile, and high power density, etc. The characteristics of the piezoelectric transformers are well known when the load impedance is a pure resistor. However, when piezoelectric transformers are used in AC/DC or DC/DC converters, there are non-linear electronic circuits connected before and after the transformer. Consequently, the output load is variable and due to the output capacitance of the transformer the optimal working point change. This paper starts from modeling a piezoelectric transformer connected to a full wave rectifier in order to discuss the design constraints and configuration of the transformer. The optimization method adopted here use the MOPSO algorithm (Multiple Objective Particle Swarm Optimization). We start with the formulation of the objective function and constraints; then the results give different sizes of the transformer and the characteristics. In other word, this method is looking for a best size of the transformer for optimal efficiency condition that is suitable for variable load. Furthermore, the size and the efficiency are found to be a trade-off. This paper proposes the completed design procedure to find the minimum size of PT in need. The completed design procedure is discussed by a given specification. The PT derived from the proposed design procedure can guarantee both good efficiency and enough range for load variation.
Commentary: Using Mixed Methods to Transform Special Education Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trainor, Audrey A.
2011-01-01
Klingner and Boardman (this issue) offer a cogent and compelling argument for opening the door for the acceptance and use of mixed methods in special education research. Self-identifying as pragmatists, they embody this paradigmatic view by focusing on the utility, efficacy, and accuracy of mixed methods, an argument that should appeal to the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, W. L.; Li, Y. W.
2017-09-01
Large-scale dimensional metrology usually requires a combination of multiple measurement systems, such as laser tracking, total station, laser scanning, coordinate measuring arm and video photogrammetry, etc. Often, the results from different measurement systems must be combined to provide useful results. The coordinate transformation is used to unify coordinate frames in combination; however, coordinate transformation uncertainties directly affect the accuracy of the final measurement results. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for improving the accuracy of coordinate transformation, combining the advantages of the best-fit least-square and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. First of all, the configuration of coordinate transformation is introduced and a transformation matrix containing seven variables is obtained. Second, the 3D uncertainty of the transformation model and the residual error variable vector are established based on the best-fit least-square. Finally, in order to optimize the uncertainty of the developed seven-variable transformation model, we used the RBF neural network to identify the uncertainty of the dynamic, and unstructured, owing to its great ability to approximate any nonlinear function to the designed accuracy. Intensive experimental studies were conducted to check the validity of the theoretical results. The results show that the mean error of coordinate transformation decreased from 0.078 mm to 0.054 mm after using this method in contrast with the GUM method.
Transforming student's discourse as a method of teaching science inquiry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Livingston, David
2005-07-01
A qualitative case study on the instructional practice of one secondary science teacher addresses the persistent reluctance of many science teachers to integrate the cultural resources and social practices of professional science communities into the science content they teach. The literature has shown that teachers' hesitation to implement a social and locally situated learning strategy curtails students' ability to draw upon the language of science necessary to co-construct and shape authentic science inquiry and in particular appropriate argument schemes. The study hypothesized that a teacher's dialogic facilitation of a particular social context and instructional practices enhances a students' ability to express verbally the claims and warrants that rise from evidence taken from their inquiries of natural phenomena. The study also tracks students' use of the Key Words and Ideas of this science curriculum for the purpose of assessing the degree of students' assimilation of these terms into their speech and written expressions of inquiry. The theoretical framework is Vygotskian (1978) and the analysis of the qualitative data is founded on Toulmin (1958), Walton (1996), Jimenez-Alexandre et al. (2000) and Shavelson (1996). The dialogic structure of this teacher's facilitation of student's science knowledge is shown to utilize students' presumptive statements to hone their construction of inductive or deductive arguments. This instructional practice may represent teacher-student activity within the zone of proximal development and supports Vygotsky's notion that a knowledgeable other is instrumental in transforming student's spontaneous talk into scientific speech. The tracking of the curriculum's Key Words and Ideas into students' speech and writing indicated that this teachers' ability to facilitate students' presumptuous reasoning into logic statements did not necessarily guarantee that they could post strong written expressions of this verbal know-how in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tary, J. B.; Van der Baan, M.; Herrera, R. H.
2016-12-01
Seismic waves attenuate during their propagation due to Earth anelasticity. Attenuation is usually estimated by frequency domain methods such as the spectral ratio and frequency shift methods. These methods compare large frequency bandwidths of the spectra of two waveforms to compute attenuation. Time-frequency distribution resulting from high-resolution time-frequency transforms are highly localized which prevent their use to compute attenuation with these methods.The peak frequency method only requires the estimation of peak frequencies for a pair of waveforms to estimate attenuation, which is then compatible with high-resolution transforms. We here employ three transforms, namely basis pursuit, synchrosqueezing transform, and complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD). We evaluate their performance regarding attenuation estimation using synthetic examples with different signal-to-noise ratios, and compare their results to those of the spectral ratio and frequency shift methods. In most cases basis pursuit and the synchrosqueezing transform provide accurate results, while CEEMD show a higher sensitivity to the presence of noise.We then apply the three high-resolution transforms and the peak frequency method to two case studies, a seismic reflection profile and a vertical seismic profile (VSP). We employ centroid frequencies instead of peak frequencies because they provide stabler frequency estimates which are then transferred to stabler attenuation estimates. In the case of the seismic reflection profile, the three time-frequency transforms show small increases in centroid frequencies superimposed on a general decreasing trend. This likely corresponds to local tuning effects due to the layering superimposed on the effect of intrinsic attenuation. For the VSP, the three time-frequency transforms show consistent patterns in centroid frequencies and quality factors. These results show the worth of high-resolution transforms for attenuation estimation.
Ogawa, Takahiro; Haseyama, Miki
2013-03-01
A missing texture reconstruction method based on an error reduction (ER) algorithm, including a novel estimation scheme of Fourier transform magnitudes is presented in this brief. In our method, Fourier transform magnitude is estimated for a target patch including missing areas, and the missing intensities are estimated by retrieving its phase based on the ER algorithm. Specifically, by monitoring errors converged in the ER algorithm, known patches whose Fourier transform magnitudes are similar to that of the target patch are selected from the target image. In the second approach, the Fourier transform magnitude of the target patch is estimated from those of the selected known patches and their corresponding errors. Consequently, by using the ER algorithm, we can estimate both the Fourier transform magnitudes and phases to reconstruct the missing areas.
Modified variational iteration method for partial differential equations using Ma's transformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef
2010-03-01
In this paper, we apply the modified variational iteration method (MVIM) for solving partial differential equations using Ma's transformation. The proposed modification is made by introducing He's polynomials in the correction functional of the variational iteration method (VIM). Moreover, we use a very efficient and reliable transformation which is mainly due to Ma and converts the given partial differential equations (PDES) into the corresponding ordinary differential equations (ODES). The proposed MVIM is applied on the re-formulated ODES, which in turn gives the solution in terms of the transformed variables and the application of the inverse transformation yields the required series solution. Several examples are given to re-confirm the efficiency and accuracy of the suggested algorithm. It is observed that Ma's transformation makes the solution procedure very convenient and simple.
A simple and reliable multi-gene transformation method for switchgrass.
Ogawa, Yoichi; Shirakawa, Makoto; Koumoto, Yasuko; Honda, Masaho; Asami, Yuki; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko
2014-07-01
A simple and reliable Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method was developed for switchgrass. Using this method, many transgenic plants carrying multiple genes-of-interest could be produced without untransformed escape. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a promising biomass crop for bioenergy. To obtain transgenic switchgrass plants carrying a multi-gene trait in a simple manner, an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method was established by constructing a Gateway-based binary vector, optimizing transformation conditions and developing a novel selection method. A MultiRound Gateway-compatible destination binary vector carrying the bar selectable marker gene, pHKGB110, was constructed to introduce multiple genes of interest in a single transformation. Two reporter gene expression cassettes, GUSPlus and gfp, were constructed independently on two entry vectors and then introduced into a single T-DNA region of pHKGB110 via sequential LR reactions. Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA101 carrying the resultant binary vector pHKGB112 and caryopsis-derived compact embryogenic calli were used for transformation experiments. Prolonged cocultivation for 7 days followed by cultivation on media containing meropenem improved transformation efficiency without overgrowth of Agrobacterium, which was, however, not inhibited by cefotaxime or Timentin. In addition, untransformed escape shoots were completely eliminated during the rooting stage by direct dipping the putatively transformed shoots into the herbicide Basta solution for a few seconds, designated as the 'herbicide dipping method'. It was also demonstrated that more than 90 % of the bar-positive transformants carried both reporters delivered from pHKGB112. This simple and reliable transformation method, which incorporates a new selection technique and the use of a MultiRound Gateway-based binary vector, would be suitable for producing a large number of transgenic lines carrying multiple genes.
Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.
2012-01-01
Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we…
Advantages of Analytical Transformations in Monte Carlo Methods for Radiation Transport
McKinley, M S; Brooks III, E D; Daffin, F
2004-12-13
Monte Carlo methods for radiation transport typically attempt to solve an integral by directly sampling analog or weighted particles, which are treated as physical entities. Improvements to the methods involve better sampling, probability games or physical intuition about the problem. We show that significant improvements can be achieved by recasting the equations with an analytical transform to solve for new, non-physical entities or fields. This paper looks at one such transform, the difference formulation for thermal photon transport, showing a significant advantage for Monte Carlo solution of the equations for time dependent transport. Other related areas are discussed that may also realize significant benefits from similar analytical transformations.
The first transformation method for the thermo-acidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum.
Baka, Erzsébet; Varga, Sándor; Hobel, Cédric; Knispel, Roland Wilhelm; Fekete, Csaba; Ivanics, Milán; Kriszt, Balázs; Nagy, István; Kukolya, József
2013-11-01
A transformation method yielding up to 10(4) transformants per μg circular DNA was developed for Thermoplasma acidophilum. The method is based on a natural DNA uptake process in which T. acidophilum cells keep their integrity and turn competent at pH 3.5 and 58°C. Shuttle vector maintenance could not be detected, since the used Nov(R) gyraseB gene integrated into its chromosomal counterpart by homologous recombination.
FFT-enhanced IHS transform method for fusing high-resolution satellite images
Ling, Y.; Ehlers, M.; Usery, E.L.; Madden, M.
2007-01-01
Existing image fusion techniques such as the intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) transform and principal components analysis (PCA) methods may not be optimal for fusing the new generation commercial high-resolution satellite images such as Ikonos and QuickBird. One problem is color distortion in the fused image, which causes visual changes as well as spectral differences between the original and fused images. In this paper, a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-enhanced IHS method is developed for fusing new generation high-resolution satellite images. This method combines a standard IHS transform with FFT filtering of both the panchromatic image and the intensity component of the original multispectral image. Ikonos and QuickBird data are used to assess the FFT-enhanced IHS transform method. Experimental results indicate that the FFT-enhanced IHS transform method may improve upon the standard IHS transform and the PCA methods in preserving spectral and spatial information. ?? 2006 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).
Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia
2016-02-18
Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration.
Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia
2016-01-01
Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration. PMID:26901203
Alam, Pravej; Khan, Zainul Abdeen; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Khan, Jawaid A; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Elkholy, Shereen F; Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud A
2017-05-01
Catharanthus roseus is an important medicinal plant known for its pharmacological qualities such as antimicrobial, anticancerous, antifeedant, antisterility, antidiabetic activities. More than 130 bioactive compounds like vinblastine, vindoline and vincristine have been synthesized in this plant. Extensive studies have been carried out for optimization regeneration and transformation protocols. Most of the protocol described are laborious and time-consuming. Due to sophisticated protocol of regeneration and genetic transformation, the production of these bioactive molecules is less and not feasible to be commercialized worldwide. Here we have optimized the efficient protocol for regeneration and transformation to minimize the time scale and enhance the transformation frequency through Agrobacterium and sonication-assisted transformation (SAAT) method. In this study, hypocotyl explants responded best for maximal production of transformed shoots. The callus percentage were recorded 52% with 1.0 mg L(-1) (BAP) and 0.5 mg L(-1) (NAA) while 80% shoot percentage obtained with 4.0 mg L(-1) (BAP) and 0.05 mg L(-1) (NAA). The microscopic studies revealed that the expression of GFP was clearly localized in leaf tissue of the C. roseus after transformation of pRepGFP0029 construct. Consequently, transformation efficiency was revealed on the basis of GFP localization. The transformation efficiency of SAAT method was 6.0% comparable to 3.5% as conventional method. Further, PCR analysis confirmed the integration of the nptII gene in the transformed plantlets of C. roseus.
Methods for transforming and expression screening of filamentous fungal cells with a DNA library
Teter, Sarah; Lamsa, Michael; Cherry, Joel; Ward, Connie
2015-06-02
The present invention relates to methods for expression screening of filamentous fungal transformants, comprising: (a) isolating single colony transformants of a DNA library introduced into E. coli; (b) preparing DNA from each of the single colony E. coli transformants; (c) introducing a sample of each of the DNA preparations of step (b) into separate suspensions of protoplasts of a filamentous fungus to obtain transformants thereof, wherein each transformant contains one or more copies of an individual polynucleotide from the DNA library; (d) growing the individual filamentous fungal transformants of step (c) on selective growth medium, thereby permitting growth of the filamentous fungal transformants, while suppressing growth of untransformed filamentous fungi; and (e) measuring activity or a property of each polypeptide encoded by the individual polynucleotides. The present invention also relates to isolated polynucleotides encoding polypeptides of interest obtained by such methods, to nucleic acid constructs, expression vectors, and recombinant host cells comprising the isolated polynucleotides, and to methods of producing the polypeptides encoded by the isolated polynucleotides.
A method to analyze molecular tagging velocimetry data using the Hough transform.
Sanchez-Gonzalez, R; McManamen, B; Bowersox, R D W; North, S W
2015-10-01
The development of a method to analyze molecular tagging velocimetry data based on the Hough transform is presented. This method, based on line fitting, parameterizes the grid lines "written" into a flowfield. Initial proof-of-principle illustration of this method was performed to obtain two-component velocity measurements in the wake of a cylinder in a Mach 4.6 flow, using a data set derived from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The Hough transform is attractive for molecular tagging velocimetry applications since it is capable of discriminating spurious features that can have a biasing effect in the fitting process. Assessment of the precision and accuracy of the method were also performed to show the dependence on analysis window size and signal-to-noise levels. The accuracy of this Hough transform-based method to quantify intersection displacements was determined to be comparable to cross-correlation methods. The employed line parameterization avoids the assumption of linearity in the vicinity of each intersection, which is important in the limit of drastic grid deformations resulting from large velocity gradients common in high-speed flow applications. This Hough transform method has the potential to enable the direct and spatially accurate measurement of local vorticity, which is important in applications involving turbulent flowfields. Finally, two-component velocity determinations using the Hough transform from experimentally obtained images are presented, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed analysis method.
Refined Fourier-transform method of analysis of full two-dimensional digitized interferograms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovrić, Davorin; Vučić, Zlatko; Gladić, Jadranko; Demoli, Nazif; Mitrović, Slobodan; Milas, Mirko
2003-03-01
A refined Fourier-transform method of analysis of interference patterns is presented. The refinements include a method of automatic background subtraction and a way of treating the problem of heterodyning. The method proves particularly useful for analysis of long sequences of interferograms.
Chen, Chenglong; Ni, Jiangqun; Shen, Zhaoyi; Shi, Yun Qing
2017-06-01
Geometric transformations, such as resizing and rotation, are almost always needed when two or more images are spliced together to create convincing image forgeries. In recent years, researchers have developed many digital forensic techniques to identify these operations. Most previous works in this area focus on the analysis of images that have undergone single geometric transformations, e.g., resizing or rotation. In several recent works, researchers have addressed yet another practical and realistic situation: successive geometric transformations, e.g., repeated resizing, resizing-rotation, rotation-resizing, and repeated rotation. We will also concentrate on this topic in this paper. Specifically, we present an in-depth analysis in the frequency domain of the second-order statistics of the geometrically transformed images. We give an exact formulation of how the parameters of the first and second geometric transformations influence the appearance of periodic artifacts. The expected positions of characteristic resampling peaks are analytically derived. The theory developed here helps to address the gap left by previous works on this topic and is useful for image security and authentication, in particular, the forensics of geometric transformations in digital images. As an application of the developed theory, we present an effective method that allows one to distinguish between the aforementioned four different processing chains. The proposed method can further estimate all the geometric transformation parameters. This may provide useful clues for image forgery detection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Jiangxue; Qi, Lin; Wang, Yaxing
2015-12-01
As one of classic methods of frequency domain based saliency detection, Spectral residual (SR) method has shown several advantages. However, it usually produces higher saliency values at object edges instead of generating maps that uniformly cover the whole object, which results from failing to exploit all the spatial frequency content of the original image. The Two-Dimensional Fractional Fourier transform (2D-FRFT) is a generalized form of the traditional Fourier Transform (FT) which can abstract more meaningful information of the image under certain conditions. Based on this property, we propose a new method which detects the salient region based on 2D-FRFT domain. Moreover, we also use Hough transform detection and a band-pass filter to refine the saliency map. We conduct experiments on a common used dataset: MSRA. The proposed method is compared with several other saliency detection methods and shown to achieve superior result.
Ye, Jingfei; Wang, Wei; Gao, Zhishan; Liu, Zhiying; Wang, Shuai; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C; Yuan, Qun
2015-10-05
Wavefront estimation from the slope-based sensing metrologies zis important in modern optical testing. A numerical orthogonal transformation method is proposed for deriving the numerical orthogonal gradient polynomials as numerical orthogonal basis functions for directly fitting the measured slope data and then converting to the wavefront in a straightforward way in the modal approach. The presented method can be employed in the wavefront estimation from its slopes over the general shaped aperture. Moreover, the numerical orthogonal transformation method could be applied to the wavefront estimation from its slope measurements over the dynamic varying aperture. The performance of the numerical orthogonal transformation method is discussed, demonstrated and verified by the examples. They indicate that the presented method is valid, accurate and easily implemented for wavefront estimation from its slopes.
A Transformer Coupling Method for Imaging Defects in Concentrically Arranged Steel Tubes
Miller, G.; Hussin, H.; Fernandes, B.; Zaid, M.; Gaydecki, P.; El-Madaani, F.
2006-03-06
This paper describes the development of a system that uses a transformer coupling method for imaging defects in the outer tube of a concentric steel tube pair. Transformer coupling is employed where a receiver is mounted opposite to the transmitter. Magnetic field coupling is used, in which the field propagates through the inner steel tube towards the outer steel tube. Defects in the outer section distort the field and the change is detected by the receiver.
Practical Symplectic Methods with Time Transformation for the Few-Body Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikkola, Seppo
1997-02-01
The use of the extended phase space and time transformations for constructing efficient symplectic algorithms for the investigation of long term behavior of hierarchical few-body systems is discussed. Numerical experiments suggest that the time-transformed generalized leap-frog, combined with symplectic correctors, is one of the most efficient methods for such studies. Applications extend from perturbed two-body motion to hierarchical many-body systems with large eccentricities.
2007-11-02
be approved in the near future. The main features of JPEG2000 are use of wavelet transform and ROI (Region of Interest) method. It is expected that... wavelet transform is more effective than Fourier transform for ultrasonic echo signal/image processing. Furthermore, ROI method seems to be appropriate...compression method of medical images. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of wavelet transform compared with DCT (JPEG) and
Kim, Sora; Lee, Young-Chul; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Uk; Huh, Yun Suk; Kim, Geun-Joong; Kim, Hee-Sik
2014-01-01
Genetic engineering in microalgae is gaining attraction but nuclear transformation methods available so far are either inefficient or require special equipment. In this study, we employ positively charged nanoparticles, 3-aminopropyl-functionalized magnesium phyllosilicate (aminoclay, approximate unit cell composition of [H2N(CH2)3]8Si8Mg6O12(OH)4), for nuclear transformation into eukaryotic microalgae. TEM and EDX analysis of the process of transformation reveals that aminoclay coats negatively-charged DNA biomolecules and forms a self-assembled hybrid nanostructure. Subsequently, when this nanostructure is mixed with microalgal cells and plated onto selective agar plates with high friction force, cell wall is disrupted facilitating delivery of plasmid DNA into the cell and ultimately to the nucleus. This method is not only simple, inexpensive, and non-toxic to cells but also provides efficient transformation (5.03×102 transformants/µg DNA), second only to electroporation which needs advanced instrumentation. We present optimized parameters for efficient transformation including pre-treatment, friction force, concentration of foreign DNA/aminoclay, and plasticity of agar plates. It is also confirmed the successful integration and stable expression of foreign gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii through molecular methods. PMID:24988123
Design of high-performance fixed-point transforms using the common factor method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hinds, Arianne T.
2010-08-01
Fixed-point implementations of transforms such as the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) remain as fundamental building blocks of state-of-the-art video coding technologies. Recently, the 16x16 DCT has received focus as a transform suitable for the high efficiency video coding project currently underway in the Joint Collaboration Team - Video Coding. By its definition, the 16x16 DCT is inherently more complex than transforms of traditional sizes such as 4x4 or 8x8 DCTs. However, scaled architectures such as the one employed in the design of the 8x8 DCTs specified in ISO/IEC 23002-2 can also be utilized to mitigate the complexity of fixed-point approximations of higher-order transforms such as the 16x16 DCT. This paper demonstrates the application of the Common Factor method to design two scaled implementations of the 16x16 DCT. One implementation can be characterized by its exceptionally low complexity, while the other can be characterized by its relatively high precision. We review the Common Factor method as a method to arrive at fixed-point implementations that are optimized in terms of complexity and precision for such high performance transforms.
Test of the method for calculation of derating of workshop transformers on engineering plants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shklyarskiy, A. Y.; Bardanov, A. I.
2017-02-01
Today’s innovations in engineering production are aimed at the improvement of equipment efficiency in order to reduce losses and to save environment. It is conventional that the adjustable-speed drive improves electrical and mechanical transients of workshop units, but power electronics’ devices are current harmonics sources. Presence of high harmonic currents in the workshop’s network is a substantial reason for transformer derating. The article discloses the method approbation, the method for calculating additional losses in an idle transformer for non-sine feeding voltage. The approbation was carried out via comparing the calculated data with the experimental data. The article describes the studies method, its strong and weak sides, and it also presents the actual calculation of coefficients for a math model, when calculating losses in a transformer, based on existing experimental data. The conclusion comprises the observation regarding possibility to use the method described to solve practical tasks.
In planta transformation method for T-DNA transfer in orchids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semiarti, Endang; Purwantoro, Aziz; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Anggriasari, Anida M.; Jang, Seonghoe; Suhandono, Sony; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko
2014-03-01
Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro∷PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1α2 pro∷GUS/ A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Butler, Brandon M.; Suh, Yonghee; Scott, Wendy
2015-01-01
In this article, the authors investigate the extent to which 9 elementary social studies methods textbooks present the purpose of teaching and learning social studies. Using Stanley's three perspectives of teaching social studies for knowledge transmission, method of intelligence, and social transformation; we analyze how these texts prepare…
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
A new chemometric method based on absorbance ratios from Fourier transform infrared spectra was devised to analyze multicomponent biodegradable plastics. The method uses the BeerLambert law to directly compute individual component concentrations and weight losses before and after biodegradation of c...
A new rapid method for quantification of PCBs in transformer oil.
Takada, M; Toda, H; Uchida, R
2001-01-01
In order to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the PCB analysis, the DMSO partition and SPE extraction were applied to clean up the PCB-contaminated transformer oils and PCB level was determined by means of the quadrupole GC/MS. The analysis data obtained from this method were compared statistically to that from the standard method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Butler, Brandon M.; Suh, Yonghee; Scott, Wendy
2015-01-01
In this article, the authors investigate the extent to which 9 elementary social studies methods textbooks present the purpose of teaching and learning social studies. Using Stanley's three perspectives of teaching social studies for knowledge transmission, method of intelligence, and social transformation; we analyze how these texts prepare…
A depth estimation method based on geometric transformation for stereo light microscope.
Fan, Shengli; Yu, Mei; Wang, Yigang; Jiang, Gangyi
2014-01-01
Stereo light microscopes (SLM) with narrow vision and shallow depth of field are widely used in micro-domain research. In this paper, we propose a depth estimation method of micro objects based on geometric transformation. By analyzing the optical imaging geometry, the definition of geometric transformation distance is given and the depth-distance relation express is obtained. The parameters of geometric transformation and express are calibrated with calibration board images captured in aid of precise motorized stage. The depth of micro object can be estimated by calculating the geometric transformation distance. The proposed depth-distance relation express is verified using an experiment in which the depth map of an Olanzapine tablet surface is reconstructed.
Olsen, Jeppe
2014-07-21
A novel algorithm is introduced for the transformation of wave functions between the bases of Slater determinants (SD) and configuration state functions (CSF) in the genealogical coupling scheme. By modifying the expansion coefficients as each electron is spin-coupled, rather than performing a single many-electron transformation, the large transformation matrix that plagues previous approaches is avoided and the required number of operations is drastically reduced. As an example of the efficiency of the algorithm, the transformation for a configuration with 30 unpaired electrons and singlet spin is discussed. For this case, the 10 × 10(6) coefficients in the CSF basis is obtained from the 150 × 10(6) coefficients in the SD basis in 1 min, which should be compared with the seven years that the previously employed method is estimated to require.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timchenko, Leonid; Yarovyi, Andrii; Kokriatskaya, Nataliya; Nakonechna, Svitlana; Abramenko, Ludmila; Ławicki, Tomasz; Popiel, Piotr; Yesmakhanova, Laura
2016-09-01
The paper presents a method of parallel-hierarchical transformations for rapid recognition of dynamic images using GPU technology. Direct parallel-hierarchical transformations based on cluster CPU-and GPU-oriented hardware platform. Mathematic models of training of the parallel hierarchical (PH) network for the transformation are developed, as well as a training method of the PH network for recognition of dynamic images. This research is most topical for problems on organizing high-performance computations of super large arrays of information designed to implement multi-stage sensing and processing as well as compaction and recognition of data in the informational structures and computer devices. This method has such advantages as high performance through the use of recent advances in parallelization, possibility to work with images of ultra dimension, ease of scaling in case of changing the number of nodes in the cluster, auto scan of local network to detect compute nodes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shouyu; Yan, Keding; Xue, Liang
2017-01-01
In order to obtain high contrast images and detailed descriptions of label free samples, quantitative interferometric microscopy combining with phase retrieval is designed to obtain sample phase distributions from fringes. As accuracy and efficiency of recovered phases are affected by phase retrieval methods, thus approaches owning higher precision and faster processing speed are still in demand. Here, two dimensional Hilbert transform based phase retrieval method is adopted in cellular phase imaging, it not only reserves more sample specifics compared to classical fast Fourier transform based method, but also overcomes disadvantages of traditional algorithm according to Hilbert transform which is a one dimensional processing causing phase ambiguities. Both simulations and experiments are provided, proving the proposed phase retrieval approach can acquire quantitative sample phases with high accuracy and fast speed.
A method based on IHS cylindrical transform model for quality assessment of image fusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xiaokun; Jia, Yonghong
2005-10-01
Image fusion technique has been widely applied to remote sensing image analysis and processing, and methods for quality assessment of image fusion in remote sensing have also become the research issues at home and abroad. Traditional assessment methods combine calculation of quantitative indexes and visual interpretation to compare fused images quantificationally and qualitatively. However, in the existing assessment methods, there are two defects: on one hand, most imdexes lack the theoretic support to compare different fusion methods. On the hand, there is not a uniform preference for most of the quantitative assessment indexes when they are applied to estimate the fusion effects. That is, the spatial resolution and spectral feature could not be analyzed synchronously by these indexes and there is not a general method to unify the spatial and spectral feature assessment. So in this paper, on the basis of the approximate general model of four traditional fusion methods, including Intensity Hue Saturation(IHS) triangle transform fusion, High Pass Filter(HPF) fusion, Principal Component Analysis(PCA) fusion, Wavelet Transform(WT) fusion, a correlation coefficient assessment method based on IHS cylindrical transform is proposed. By experiments, this method can not only get the evaluation results of spatial and spectral features on the basis of uniform preference, but also can acquire the comparison between fusion image sources and fused images, and acquire differences among fusion methods. Compared with the traditional assessment methods, the new methods is more intuitionistic, and in accord with subjective estimation.
Performance comparison of ISAR imaging method based on time frequency transforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Chunjian; Guo, Chenjiang; Xu, Jiadong
2013-03-01
Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) can image the moving target, especially the target in the air, so it is important in the air defence and missile defence system. Time-frequency Transform was applied to ISAR imaging process widely. Several time frequency transforms were introduced. Noise jamming methods were analysed, and when these noise jamming were added to the echo of the ISAR receiver, the image can become blur even can't to be identify. But the effect is different to the different time frequency analysis. The results of simulation experiment show the Performance Comparison of the method.
Research of on-line monitoring method for insulation condition of power transformer bushing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Jiuyun; Qian, Zheng; Yu, Hao; Yao, Junda
2016-01-01
The power transformer is the key equipment of the power system; its insulation condition will directly influence the security and reliability of the power system. Thus, the on-line monitoring of power transformer is urgently required in order to guarantee the normal operation of the power system. Moreover, the dielectric loss factor is a significant parameter reflecting the condition of transformer bushing, so the on-line measurement of dielectric loss factor is really important. In this paper, the phase-to-phase comparison method is selected as the on-line monitoring method based on the overall analysis and discussion of the existing on-line monitoring methods. At first, the harmonic analysis method is utilized to calculate the dielectric loss of each phase of the three-phase transformer bushing, and then the differences of dielectric loss between every two phases are calculated and analyzed. So the insulation condition of each bushing could be achieved based on the careful analysis of different phase-to-phase dielectric loss. The simulation results of phase-to-phase comparison method are carried out in this paper, and the validity is verified. At last, this method is utilized in an actual equipment of on-line monitoring.
Xie, Qing; Tao, Junhan; Wang, Yongqiang; Geng, Jianghai; Cheng, Shuyi; Lü, Fangcheng
2014-08-01
Fast and accurate positioning of partial discharge (PD) sources in transformer oil is very important for the safe, stable operation of power systems because it allows timely elimination of insulation faults. There is usually more than one PD source once an insulation fault occurs in the transformer oil. This study, which has both theoretical and practical significance, proposes a method of identifying multiple PD sources in the transformer oil. The method combines the two-sided correlation transformation algorithm in the broadband signal focusing and the modified Gerschgorin disk estimator. The method of classification of multiple signals is used to determine the directions of arrival of signals from multiple PD sources. The ultrasonic array positioning method is based on the multi-platform direction finding and the global optimization searching. Both the 4 × 4 square planar ultrasonic sensor array and the ultrasonic array detection platform are built to test the method of identifying and positioning multiple PD sources. The obtained results verify the validity and the engineering practicability of this method.
Nonuniform fast Fourier transform method for numerical diffraction simulation on tilted planes.
Xiao, Yu; Tang, Xiahui; Qin, Yingxiong; Peng, Hao; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Lijing
2016-10-01
The method, based on the rotation of the angular spectrum in the frequency domain, is generally used for the diffraction simulation between the tilted planes. Due to the rotation of the angular spectrum, the interval between the sampling points in the Fourier domain is not even. For the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based methods, a spectrum interpolation is needed to get the approximate sampling value on the equidistant sampling points. However, due to the numerical error caused by the spectrum interpolation, the calculation accuracy degrades very quickly as the rotation angle increases. Here, the diffraction propagation between the tilted planes is transformed into a problem about the discrete Fourier transform on the uneven sampling points, which can be evaluated effectively and precisely through the nonuniform fast Fourier transform method (NUFFT). The most important advantage of this method is that the conventional spectrum interpolation is avoided and the high calculation accuracy can be guaranteed for different rotation angles, even when the rotation angle is close to π/2. Also, its calculation efficiency is comparable with that of the conventional FFT-based methods. Numerical examples as well as a discussion about the calculation accuracy and the sampling method are presented.
Song, Jinzhong; Yan, Hong; Li, Yanjun; Mu, Kaiyu
2010-09-01
Baseline wandering in electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the biggest interferences in visualization and computerized detection of waveforms (especially ST-segment) based on threshold decision. A new method based on wavelet transform, QRS barycenter fitting and regional method was proposed in this paper. Firstly, wavelet transform as a coarse correction was used to remove the baseline wandering, whose frequency bands were non-overlapping with that of ST-segment. Secondly, QRS barycenter fitting was applied as a detailed correction. The third, the regional method was used to transfer baseline to zero. Finally, the method in this paper was proved to perform better than filtering and function fitting methods in baseline wandering correction after the long-term ST database (LTST) verification. In addition, the proposed method is simple and easy to carry out, and in current use.
Xie, Lie-Jun; Zhou, Cai-Lian; Xu, Song
2016-01-01
In this work, an effective numerical method is developed to solve a class of singular boundary value problems arising in various physical models by using the improved differential transform method (IDTM). The IDTM applies the Adomian polynomials to handle the differential transforms of the nonlinearities arising in the given differential equation. The relation between the Adomian polynomials of those nonlinear functions and the coefficients of unknown truncated series solution is given by a simple formula, through which one can easily deduce the approximate solution which takes the form of a convergent series. An upper bound for the estimation of approximate error is presented. Several physical problems are discussed as illustrative examples to testify the validity and applicability of the proposed method. Comparisons are made between the present method and the other existing methods.
[A method of object detection for remote sensing-imagery based on spectral space transformation].
Wu, Gui-Ping; Xiao, Peng-Feng; Feng, Xue-Zhi; Wang, Ke
2013-03-01
Object detection is an intermediate link for remote sensing image processing, which is an important guarantee of remote sensing application and services aspects. In view of the characteristics of remotely sensed imagery in frequency domain, a novel object detection algorithm based on spectral space transformation was proposed in the present paper. Firstly, the Fourier transformation method was applied to transform the image in spatial domain into frequency domain. Secondly, the wedge-shaped sample and overlay analysis methods for frequency energy were used to decompose signal into different frequency spectrum zones, and the center frequency values of object's features were acquired as detection marks in frequency domain. Finally, object information was detected with the matched Gabor filters which have direction and frequency selectivity. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm here performs better and it has good detection capability in specific direction as well.
Detection and location of partial discharges in transformer windings using electrical methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMullan, P. J.
1983-11-01
With the increase in power ratings of modern high voltage transformers has come a corresponding interest in the value of partial discharge testing for quality control, design of HV equipment and fault diagnosis. A critical limitation on the development of electrical methods for the location of partial discharges (PD's) in large transformer windings has been the difficulty of pre-determining the changes at transformer terminals due to known disturbances at unique positions within the unit. A particular location and calibration method which is thought to be an improvement on existing techniques is discussed. The new technique is a built-in calibration system having a controlled source of live partial discharges which may be moved up and down the windings under test. The system is intrinsically safe as all the components are insulating materials.
Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.
1992-07-01
The disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, involves mixing the wastes with pozzolanic grout-forming solid blends. Checking the quality of each blend component and its mix ratio will ensure processibility of the blend and the long-term performance of the resulting waste grout. In earlier work at Hanford laboratories, Fourier transform infrared-transmission method (FTIR-TR) using KBr pellet was applied successfully in the analysis of blends consisting of cement, fly ash, and clays. This method involves time-consuming sample preparation resulting in slow turnaround for repetitive sampling. Because reflection methods do not require elaborate sample preparation, they have the potential to reduce turnaround analysis time. Neat samples may be examined making these methods attractive for quality control. This study investigates the capability of Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance method (FTIR-ATR) to analyze pozzolanic blends.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijaoui, A.
2013-03-01
The image restoration is today an important part of the astrophysical data analysis. The denoising and the deblurring can be efficiently performed using multiscale transforms. The multiresolution analysis constitutes the fundamental pillar for these transforms. The discrete wavelet transform is introduced from the theory of the approximation by translated functions. The continuous wavelet transform carries out a generalization of multiscale representations from translated and dilated wavelets. The à trous algorithm furnishes its discrete redundant transform. The image denoising is first considered without any hypothesis on the signal distribution, on the basis of the a contrario detection. Different softening functions are introduced. The introduction of a regularization constraint may improve the results. The application of Bayesian methods leads to an automated adaptation of the softening function to the signal distribution. The MAP principle leads to the basis pursuit, a sparse decomposition on redundant dictionaries. Nevertheless the posterior expectation minimizes, scale per scale, the quadratic error. The proposed deconvolution algorithm is based on a coupling of the wavelet denoising with an iterative inversion algorithm. The different methods are illustrated by numerical experiments on a simulated image similar to images of the deep sky. A white Gaussian stationary noise was added with three levels. In the conclusion different important connected problems are tackled.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Luopeng; Dan, Youquan; Wang, Qingyuan
2015-10-01
The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) introduces an expandable spatial and frequency window which can overcome the inferiority of localization characteristic in Fourier transform and windowed Fourier transform. The CWT method is widely applied in the non-stationary signal analysis field including optical 3D shape reconstruction with remarkable performance. In optical 3D surface measurement, the performance of CWT for optical fringe pattern phase reconstruction usually depends on the choice of wavelet function. A large kind of wavelet functions of CWT, such as Mexican Hat wavelet, Morlet wavelet, DOG wavelet, Gabor wavelet and so on, can be generated from Gauss wavelet function. However, so far, application of the Gauss wavelet transform (GWT) method (i.e. CWT with Gauss wavelet function) in optical profilometry is few reported. In this paper, the method using GWT for optical fringe pattern phase reconstruction is presented first and the comparisons between real and complex GWT methods are discussed in detail. The examples of numerical simulations are also given and analyzed. The results show that both the real GWT method along with a Hilbert transform and the complex GWT method can realize three-dimensional surface reconstruction; and the performance of reconstruction generally depends on the frequency domain appearance of Gauss wavelet functions. For the case of optical fringe pattern of large phase variation with position, the performance of real GWT is better than that of complex one due to complex Gauss series wavelets existing frequency sidelobes. Finally, the experiments are carried out and the experimental results agree well with our theoretical analysis.
The unified transform method for the Sasa–Satsuma equation on the half-line
Xu, Jian; Fan, Engui
2013-01-01
We implement the unified transform method to the initial-boundary value (IBV) problem of the Sasa–Satsuma equation on the half line. In addition to presenting the basic Riemann–Hilbert formalism, which linearizes this IBV problem, we also analyse the associated general Dirichlet to Neumann map using the so-called global relation. PMID:24204181
Equivalencing MAT and GRE Scores Using Simple Linear Transformation and Regression Methods.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kagan, Dona M.; Stock, William A.
1980-01-01
Graduate Record Examination and Miller Analogies Test scores were equated using linear transformation and regression methods. Standard deviations of regression equivalence scores were consistently smaller than those actually obtained in the sample, whereas standard deviations of linear equivalence scores were the same as those in the sample.…
An improving fringe analysis method based on the accuracy of S-transform profilometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Qiuju; Chen, Wenjing; Zhong, Min; Su, Xianyu
2014-07-01
The S transform, as a simple and popular technique for spacetime-frequency analysis, has been introduced in optical three-dimensional surface shape measurement in recent years. Based on the S transform, S transform “ridge” method (STR) and S transform filtering method (STF) have been proposed to extract the phase information from the single deformed fringe pattern. This paper focuses on studying the STR in fringe pattern analysis. In previous researches about the STR, a linear constraint, which assumed that the phase was locally expressed as first-order Taylor expansion with respect to x and y directions, was implicitly added. Actually at least the second-order partial derivatives of the phase in each local area should be taken into account because they are related to the local curvature of the height distribution of the tested object. Therefore, the traditional STR has larger phase measuring errors in those areas with the rapid height variation on the tested object. This paper proposes an improved STR method, in which the phase is approximately expressed as a quadric in each local area. The phase extraction formula based on the quadric is derived, and the phase correction is carried out as well. Both the simulations and the experiments verify that a more accurate phase map can be obtained by the improved method compared with that by the traditional STR, especially in the areas where height variation is steep.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long Huynh, Van; Dodd, Nicholas; Zhu, Fangfang
2017-09-01
A 1D numerical model of Nonlinear Shallow Water Equations (NSWEs) coupled to an advection equation for suspended sediment and a bed evolution equation is developed. The moving boundary at the shoreline is treated by a coordinate transformation method (CTM). An absorbing-generating seaward boundary condition in the transformed variables is also developed. The purely hydrodynamic component (NSWEs) is verified against analytical results. The NSWEs plus advection equation is verified quasi-analytical results. The fully-coupled model with bed change due to bed-load is verified against a single swash event and long-term numerical simulation. Excellent agreement is observed in all verifications.
A method of image compression based on lifting wavelet transform and modified SPIHT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Shiliang; Wang, Xiaoqian; Liu, Jinguo
2016-11-01
In order to improve the efficiency of remote sensing image data storage and transmission we present a method of the image compression based on lifting scheme and modified SPIHT(set partitioning in hierarchical trees) by the design of FPGA program, which realized to improve SPIHT and enhance the wavelet transform image compression. The lifting Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) architecture has been selected for exploiting the correlation among the image pixels. In addition, we provide a study on what storage elements are required for the wavelet coefficients. We present lena's image using the 3/5 lifting scheme.
Lane detection and tracking based on improved Hough transform and least-squares method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Peng; Chen, Hui
2014-11-01
Lane detection and tracking play important roles in lane departure warning system (LDWS). In order to improve the real-time performance and obtain better lane detection results, an improved algorithm of lane detection and tracking based on combination of improved Hough transform and least-squares fitting method is proposed in this paper. In the image pre-processing stage, firstly a multi-gradient Sobel operator is used to obtain the edge map of road images, secondly adaptive Otsu algorithm is used to obtain binary image, and in order to meet the precision requirements of single pixel, fast parallel thinning algorithm is used to get the skeleton map of binary image. And then, lane lines are initially detected by using polar angle constraint Hough transform, which has narrowed the scope of searching. At last, during the tracking phase, based on the detection result of the previous image frame, a dynamic region of interest (ROI) is set up, and within the predicted dynamic ROI, least-squares fitting method is used to fit the lane line, which has greatly reduced the algorithm calculation. And also a failure judgment module is added in this paper to improve the detection reliability. When the least-squares fitting method is failed, the polar angle constraint Hough transform is restarted for initial detection, which has achieved a coordination of Hough transform and least-squares fitting method. The algorithm in this paper takes into account the robustness of Hough transform and the real-time performance of least-squares fitting method, and sets up a dynamic ROI for lane detection. Experimental results show that it has a good performance of lane recognition, and the average time to complete the preprocessing and lane recognition of one road map is less than 25ms, which has proved that the algorithm has good real-time performance and strong robustness.
Study on identifying deciduous forest by the method of feature space transformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xuexia; Wu, Pengfei
2009-10-01
The thematic remotely sensed information extraction is always one of puzzling nuts which the remote sensing science faces, so many remote sensing scientists devotes diligently to this domain research. The methods of thematic information extraction include two kinds of the visual interpretation and the computer interpretation, the developing direction of which is intellectualization and comprehensive modularization. The paper tries to develop the intelligent extraction method of feature space transformation for the deciduous forest thematic information extraction in Changping district of Beijing city. The whole Chinese-Brazil resources satellite images received in 2005 are used to extract the deciduous forest coverage area by feature space transformation method and linear spectral decomposing method, and the result from remote sensing is similar to woodland resource census data by Chinese forestry bureau in 2004.
[An automatic peak detection method for LIBS spectrum based on continuous wavelet transform].
Chen, Peng-Fei; Tian, Di; Qiao, Shu-Jun; Yang, Guang
2014-07-01
Spectrum peak detection in the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an essential step, but the presence of background and noise seriously disturb the accuracy of peak position. The present paper proposed a method applied to automatic peak detection for LIBS spectrum in order to enhance the ability of overlapping peaks searching and adaptivity. We introduced the ridge peak detection method based on continuous wavelet transform to LIBS, and discussed the choice of the mother wavelet and optimized the scale factor and the shift factor. This method also improved the ridge peak detection method with a correcting ridge method. The experimental results show that compared with other peak detection methods (the direct comparison method, derivative method and ridge peak search method), our method had a significant advantage on the ability to distinguish overlapping peaks and the precision of peak detection, and could be be applied to data processing in LIBS.
Gu Junhua; Xu Haiguang; Wang Jingying; Chen Wen; An Tao
2013-08-10
We propose a continuous wavelet transform based non-parametric foreground subtraction method for the detection of redshifted 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization. This method works based on the assumption that the foreground spectra are smooth in frequency domain, while the 21 cm signal spectrum is full of saw-tooth-like structures, thus their characteristic scales are significantly different. We can distinguish them in the wavelet coefficient space easily and perform the foreground subtraction. Compared with the traditional spectral fitting based method, our method is more tolerant to complex foregrounds. Furthermore, we also find that when the instrument has uncorrected response error, our method can also work significantly better than the spectral fitting based method. Our method can obtain similar results with the Wp smoothing method, which is also a non-parametric method, but our method consumes much less computing time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Junhua; Xu, Haiguang; Wang, Jingying; An, Tao; Chen, Wen
2013-08-01
We propose a continuous wavelet transform based non-parametric foreground subtraction method for the detection of redshifted 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization. This method works based on the assumption that the foreground spectra are smooth in frequency domain, while the 21 cm signal spectrum is full of saw-tooth-like structures, thus their characteristic scales are significantly different. We can distinguish them in the wavelet coefficient space easily and perform the foreground subtraction. Compared with the traditional spectral fitting based method, our method is more tolerant to complex foregrounds. Furthermore, we also find that when the instrument has uncorrected response error, our method can also work significantly better than the spectral fitting based method. Our method can obtain similar results with the Wp smoothing method, which is also a non-parametric method, but our method consumes much less computing time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Achintya Kumar; Nooijen, Marcel; Neese, Frank; Izsák, Róbert
2017-02-01
An efficient scheme for the automatic selection of an active space for similarity transformed equations of motion (STEOM) coupled cluster method is proposed. It relies on state averaged configuration interaction singles (CIS) natural orbitals and makes it possible to use STEOM as a black box method. The performance of the new scheme is tested for singlet and triplet valence, charge transfer, and Rydberg excited states.
Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei
2014-01-01
Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale.
Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei
2014-01-01
Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168
A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states
Yu, Hua-Gen
2014-12-28
A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos (cFOL) polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the originalmore » Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO₂, and compared to previous calculations.« less
A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states
Yu, Hua-Gen
2014-12-28
A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos (cFOL) polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the original Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO₂, and compared to previous calculations.
Transformation-cost time-series method for analyzing irregularly sampled data.
Ozken, Ibrahim; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Marwan, Norbert; Bagci, G Baris; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-06-01
Irregular sampling of data sets is one of the challenges often encountered in time-series analysis, since traditional methods cannot be applied and the frequently used interpolation approach can corrupt the data and bias the subsequence analysis. Here we present the TrAnsformation-Cost Time-Series (TACTS) method, which allows us to analyze irregularly sampled data sets without degenerating the quality of the data set. Instead of using interpolation we consider time-series segments and determine how close they are to each other by determining the cost needed to transform one segment into the following one. Using a limited set of operations-with associated costs-to transform the time series segments, we determine a new time series, that is our transformation-cost time series. This cost time series is regularly sampled and can be analyzed using standard methods. While our main interest is the analysis of paleoclimate data, we develop our method using numerical examples like the logistic map and the Rössler oscillator. The numerical data allows us to test the stability of our method against noise and for different irregular samplings. In addition we provide guidance on how to choose the associated costs based on the time series at hand. The usefulness of the TACTS method is demonstrated using speleothem data from the Secret Cave in Borneo that is a good proxy for paleoclimatic variability in the monsoon activity around the maritime continent.
Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu
2014-01-01
The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements.
Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu
2014-01-01
The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements. PMID:24533121
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Changdong; Liu, Zhigang; Jiang, Hua
2017-05-01
The quality of image enhancement plays an important role in the catenary fault diagnosis system based on the image processing technique. It is necessary to enhance the low contrast image of catenary for better detecting the state of catenary part. The Non-subsampled Contourlet transform (NSCT) is the improved Contourlet transform (CT), which can effectively solve the problem of artifact phenomenon in the enhanced catenary image. Besides, choosing the enhancement function and the filter of the NSCT will directly influence the image enhancement effect. In this paper, the proposed method is implemented by combining the NSCT with the nonlinear enhancement function to enhance the catenary image. First, how to choose the filter of the NSCT is discussed. Second, the NSCT is used to decompose the image. Then, the chosen nonlinear enhancement function is used to process the decomposed coefficient of the NSCT. Finally, the NSCT is inversed to obtain the enhanced image. In this paper, we evaluate our algorithm using the lifting wavelet transform, retinex enhancement method, dark channel enhancement method, curvelet transform, and CT method as a comparison to enhance a group of randomly selected low contrast catenary images, respectively. The results of comparative experiments conducted show that the proposed method can effectively enhance the catenary image, the contrast of image is improved, the catenary parts are obvious, and the artifact phenomenon is effectively eliminated, where image details (edges, textures, or smooth areas) are also well preserved. Besides, the values (detail variance-background variance, signal-to-noise ratio, and edge preservation index) of measuring the image enhancement capacity are improved, while the mean squared error value is decreased when compared to the CT method. These indicate that the proposed method is an excellent catenary image enhancement approach.
Wu, Changdong; Liu, Zhigang; Jiang, Hua
2017-05-01
The quality of image enhancement plays an important role in the catenary fault diagnosis system based on the image processing technique. It is necessary to enhance the low contrast image of catenary for better detecting the state of catenary part. The Non-subsampled Contourlet transform (NSCT) is the improved Contourlet transform (CT), which can effectively solve the problem of artifact phenomenon in the enhanced catenary image. Besides, choosing the enhancement function and the filter of the NSCT will directly influence the image enhancement effect. In this paper, the proposed method is implemented by combining the NSCT with the nonlinear enhancement function to enhance the catenary image. First, how to choose the filter of the NSCT is discussed. Second, the NSCT is used to decompose the image. Then, the chosen nonlinear enhancement function is used to process the decomposed coefficient of the NSCT. Finally, the NSCT is inversed to obtain the enhanced image. In this paper, we evaluate our algorithm using the lifting wavelet transform, retinex enhancement method, dark channel enhancement method, curvelet transform, and CT method as a comparison to enhance a group of randomly selected low contrast catenary images, respectively. The results of comparative experiments conducted show that the proposed method can effectively enhance the catenary image, the contrast of image is improved, the catenary parts are obvious, and the artifact phenomenon is effectively eliminated, where image details (edges, textures, or smooth areas) are also well preserved. Besides, the values (detail variance-background variance, signal-to-noise ratio, and edge preservation index) of measuring the image enhancement capacity are improved, while the mean squared error value is decreased when compared to the CT method. These indicate that the proposed method is an excellent catenary image enhancement approach.
A method extracting solar cell parameters from spectral response by inverse laplace transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuominen, E.; Acerbis, M.; Hovinen, A.; Siirtola, T.; Sinkkonen, J.
1997-01-01
A mathematical method to interpret spectral responses measured from solar cells has been developed. Taking an inverse Laplace transform from the spectral response of a solar cell the spatial dependent collection efficiency of the cell can be obtained. Several important material parameters of the solar cell can be extracted from this function. Applying this method the properties of the solar cell can be investigated without applying characterization methods to the cell itself. We have applied the method both to simulated solar cells andto real solar cells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Fabin; Wang, Anbo
2006-02-01
The numerical calculation of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral is investigated. The implementation of a fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) based direct integration (FFT-DI) method is presented, and Simpson's rule is used to improve the calculation accuracy. The sampling interval, the size of the computation window, and their influence on numerical accuracy and on computational complexity are discussed for the FFT-DI and the FFT-based angular spectrum (FFT-AS) methods. The performance of the FFT-DI method is verified by numerical simulation and compared with that of the FFT-AS method.
New approach application of data transformation in mean centering of ratio spectra method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Issa, Mahmoud M.; Nejem, R.'afat M.; Van Staden, Raluca Ioana Stefan; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y.
2015-05-01
Most of mean centering (MCR) methods are designed to be used with data sets whose values have a normal or nearly normal distribution. The errors associated with the values are also assumed to be independent and random. If the data are skewed, the results obtained may be doubtful. Most of the time, it was assumed a normal distribution and if a confidence interval includes a negative value, it was cut off at zero. However, it is possible to transform the data so that at least an approximately normal distribution is attained. Taking the logarithm of each data point is one transformation frequently used. As a result, the geometric mean is deliberated a better measure of central tendency than the arithmetic mean. The developed MCR method using the geometric mean has been successfully applied to the analysis of a ternary mixture of aspirin (ASP), atorvastatin (ATOR) and clopidogrel (CLOP) as a model. The results obtained were statistically compared with reported HPLC method.
Locke, Jonathan; White, Paul R
2011-10-01
The analysis of cetacean vocalizations is considered using Fourier-based techniques that employ chirp functions in their decomposition. In particular, the paper considers a short-time methods based on the fractional Fourier transform for detecting frequency modulated narrow-band signals, such as dolphin whistles, and compares this to the classical short-time Fourier methods. The fractional Fourier technique explored computes transforms associated with a range of chirp rates and automatically selects the rate for the final analysis. This avoids the need for prior knowledge of signal's chirp rate. An analysis is presented that details the performance of both methods as signal detectors and allows one to determine their detection thresholds. These thresholds are then used to measure the detectability of synthetic signals. This principle is then extended to measure performance on a set of recordings of narrow-band vocalizations from a range of cetacean species.
Are we on the brink of a major transformation of clinical method?
McWhinney, I R
1986-01-01
The traditional clinical method, which has served medicine well for over 100 years, had its origins in the integration of physical examination with morbid anatomy in early 19th-century France. Now this method is showing signs of failing to meet some contemporary needs. In particular, there is no means for understanding the inner experience of patients. Previous models of a transformed method have not grappled with the problem of validation. Data on the inner experience of patients are not open to empiric validation in the same way as clinical data. The process of understanding the meaning of an illness is not, therefore, scientific in the conventional sense. There are, none the less, rigorous methods for validating the results of this form of inquiry, notably those of phenomenology. A transformed method should aim to understand the meaning of an illness for the patient as well as provide a clinical diagnosis. The transformation will require a change in the epistemology of medicine and an educational process that encourages reflection and growth of self-knowledge. PMID:3756718
Benhammouda, Brahim
2015-01-01
The solution of higher-index Hessenberg differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) is of great importance since this type of DAEs often arises in applications. Higher-index DAEs are known to be numerically and analytically difficult to solve. In this paper, we present a new analytical method for the solution of two classes of higher-index Hessenberg DAEs. The method is based on Adomian polynomials and the differential transform method (DTM). First, the DTM is applied to the DAE where the differential transforms of nonlinear terms are calculated using Adomian polynomials. Then, based on the index condition, the resulting recursion system is transformed into a nonsingular linear algebraic system. This system is then solved to obtain the coefficients of the power series solution. The main advantage of the proposed technique is that it does not require an index reduction nor a linearization. Two test problems are solved to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. In addition, to extend the domain of convergence of the approximate series solution, we propose a post-treatment with Laplace-Padé resummation method.
Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Basu, Supratim; Sengupta, Dibyendu N
2009-10-01
The efficiencies of different transformation methods of E. coli DH5Qalpha train, induced by several cations like Mg2+, Mn2+ Rb+ and especially Ca2+, with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were compared using the two commonly used plasmid vectors pCAMBIA1201 and pBI121. The widely used calcium chloride (CaCl2) method appeared to be the most efficient procedure, while rubidium chloride (RbCl) method was the least effective. The improvements in the classical CaCl2 method were found to further augment the transformation efficiency (TR)E for both the vectors like repeated alternate cycles of heat shock, followed by immediate cold, at least up to the third cycle; replacement of the heat shock step by a single microwave pulse and even more by double microwave treatment and administration of combined heat shock-microwave treatments. The pre-treatment of CaCl2-competent cells with 5% (v/v) ethanol, accompanied by single heat shock also triggered the (TR)E, which was further enhanced, when combined heat shock-microwave was applied. The minor alterations or improved approaches in CaCl2 method suggested in the present study may thus find use in more efficient E. coli transformation.
An automatic recognition method of pointer instrument based on improved Hough transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Li; Fang, Tian; Gao, Xiaoyu
2015-10-01
For the automatic recognition of pointer instrument, the method for the automatic recognition of pointer instrument based on improved Hough Transform was proposed in this paper. The automatic recognition of pointer instrument is applied to all kinds of lighting conditions, but the accuracy of it binaryzation will be influenced when the light is too strong or too dark. Therefore, the improved Ostu method was suggested to realize recognition for adaptive thresholding of pointer instrument under all kinds of lighting conditions. On the basis of dial image characteristics, Otsu method is used to get the value of maximum between-cluster variance and initial threshold than analyze its maximum between-cluster variance value to determine the light and shade of the image. When the images are too bright or too dark, the smaller pixels should be given up and then calculate the initial threshold by Otsu method again and again until the best binaryzation image was obtained. Hence, transform the pointer straight line of the binaryzation image to Hough parameter space through improved Hough Transform to determine the position of the pointer straight line by searching the maximum value of arrays of the same angle. Finally, according to angle method, the pointer reading was obtained by the linear relationship for the initial scale and angle of the pointer instrument. Results show that the improved Otsu method make pointer instrument possible to obtained the accuracy binaryzation image even though the light is too bright or too dark , which improves the adaptability of pointer instrument to automatic recognize the light under different conditions. For the pressure gauges with range of 60MPa, the relative error identification reached to 0.005 when use the improved Hough Transform Algorithm.
Method to Eliminate Flux Linkage DC Component in Load Transformer for Static Transfer Switch
2014-01-01
Many industrial and commercial sensitive loads are subject to the voltage sags and interruptions. The static transfer switch (STS) based on the thyristors is applied to improve the power quality and reliability. However, the transfer will result in severe inrush current in the load transformer, because of the DC component in the magnetic flux generated in the transfer process. The inrush current which is always 2~30 p.u. can cause the disoperation of relay protective devices and bring potential damage to the transformer. The way to eliminate the DC component is to transfer the related phases when the residual flux linkage of the load transformer and the prospective flux linkage of the alternate source are equal. This paper analyzes how the flux linkage of each winding in the load transformer changes in the transfer process. Based on the residual flux linkage when the preferred source is completely disconnected, the method to calculate the proper time point to close each phase of the alternate source is developed. Simulation and laboratory experiments results are presented to show the effectiveness of the transfer method. PMID:25133255
Method to eliminate flux linkage DC component in load transformer for static transfer switch.
He, Yu; Mao, Chengxiong; Lu, Jiming; Wang, Dan; Tian, Bing
2014-01-01
Many industrial and commercial sensitive loads are subject to the voltage sags and interruptions. The static transfer switch (STS) based on the thyristors is applied to improve the power quality and reliability. However, the transfer will result in severe inrush current in the load transformer, because of the DC component in the magnetic flux generated in the transfer process. The inrush current which is always 2 ~ 30 p.u. can cause the disoperation of relay protective devices and bring potential damage to the transformer. The way to eliminate the DC component is to transfer the related phases when the residual flux linkage of the load transformer and the prospective flux linkage of the alternate source are equal. This paper analyzes how the flux linkage of each winding in the load transformer changes in the transfer process. Based on the residual flux linkage when the preferred source is completely disconnected, the method to calculate the proper time point to close each phase of the alternate source is developed. Simulation and laboratory experiments results are presented to show the effectiveness of the transfer method.
A new stationary gridline artifact suppression method based on the 2D discrete wavelet transform
Tang, Hui; Tong, Dan; Bao, Xudong; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis
2015-01-01
Purpose In digital X-ray radiography, an anti-scatter grid is inserted between the patient and the image receptor to reduce scattered radiation. If the anti-scatter grid is used in a stationary way, gridline artifacts will appear in the final image. In most of the gridline removal image processing methods, the useful information with spatial frequencies close to that of the gridline is usually lost or degraded. In this study, a new stationary gridline suppression method is designed to preserve more of the useful information. Methods The method is as follows. The input image is first recursively decomposed into several smaller sub-images using a multi-scale 2D discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The decomposition process stops when the gridline signal is found to be greater than a threshold in one or several of these sub-images using a gridline detection module. An automatic Gaussian band-stop filter is then applied to the detected sub-images to remove the gridline signal. Finally, the restored image is achieved using the corresponding 2D inverse discrete wavelet transform (IDWT). Results The processed images show that the proposed method can remove the gridline signal efficiently while maintaining the image details. The spectra of a 1-dimensional Fourier transform of the processed images demonstrate that, compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method has better information preservation after the removal of the gridline artifacts. Additionally, the performance speed is relatively high. Conclusions The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method can preserve more information within an acceptable execution time. PMID:25832061
A new stationary gridline artifact suppression method based on the 2D discrete wavelet transform
Tang, Hui; Tong, Dan; Dong Bao, Xu; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis
2015-04-15
Purpose: In digital x-ray radiography, an antiscatter grid is inserted between the patient and the image receptor to reduce scattered radiation. If the antiscatter grid is used in a stationary way, gridline artifacts will appear in the final image. In most of the gridline removal image processing methods, the useful information with spatial frequencies close to that of the gridline is usually lost or degraded. In this study, a new stationary gridline suppression method is designed to preserve more of the useful information. Methods: The method is as follows. The input image is first recursively decomposed into several smaller subimages using a multiscale 2D discrete wavelet transform. The decomposition process stops when the gridline signal is found to be greater than a threshold in one or several of these subimages using a gridline detection module. An automatic Gaussian band-stop filter is then applied to the detected subimages to remove the gridline signal. Finally, the restored image is achieved using the corresponding 2D inverse discrete wavelet transform. Results: The processed images show that the proposed method can remove the gridline signal efficiently while maintaining the image details. The spectra of a 1D Fourier transform of the processed images demonstrate that, compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method has better information preservation after the removal of the gridline artifacts. Additionally, the performance speed is relatively high. Conclusions: The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method can preserve more information within an acceptable execution time.
High-capacity method for hiding data in the discrete cosine transform domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qazanfari, Kazem; Safabakhsh, Reza
2013-10-01
Steganography is the art and science of hiding data in different media such as texts, audios, images, and videos. Data hiding techniques are generally divided into two groups: spatial and frequency domain techniques. Spatial domain methods generally have low security and, as a result, are less attractive to researchers. Discrete cosine transform (DCT) is the most common transform domain used in steganography and JPEG compression. Since a large number of the DCT coefficients of JPEG images are zero, the capacity of DCT domain-based steganography methods is not very high. We present a high-capacity method for hiding messages in the DCT domain. We describe the method in two classes where the receiver has and where the receiver does not have the cover image. In each class, we consider three cases for each coefficient. By considering n coefficients, there are 3n different situations. The method embeds ⌊log2 3n⌋ bits in these n coefficients. We show that the maximum reachable capacity by our method is 58% higher than the other general steganography methods. Experimental results show that the histogram-based steganalysis methods cannot detect the stego images produced by the proposed method while the capacity is increased significantly.
Face transformation with harmonic models by the finite-volume method with delaunay triangulation.
Li, Zi-Cai; Chiang, John Y; Suen, Ching Y
2010-12-01
To carry out face transformation, this paper presents new numerical algorithms, which consist of two parts, namely, the harmonic models for changes of face characteristics and the splitting techniques for grayness transition. The main method in this paper is a combination of the finite-volume method (FVM) with Delaunay triangulation to solve the Laplace equations in the harmonic transformation of face images. The advantages of the FVM with Delaunay triangulation are given as follows: 1) easy to formulate the linear algebraic equations; 2) good in retaining the pertinent geometric and physical need; and 3) less central processing unit time needed. Numerical and graphical experiments have been conducted for the face transformation from a female (woman) to a male (man), and vice versa. The computed sequential errors are O(N⁻³/²), where N² is the division number of a pixel into subpixels. These computed errors coincide with the analysis on the splitting-shooting method (SSM) with piecewise constant interpolation in the previous paper of Li and Bai. In computation, the average absolute errors of restored pixel grayness can be smaller than 2 out of 256 grayness levels. The FVM is as simple as the finite-difference method (FDM) and as flexible as the finite-element method (FEM). Hence, the FVM is particularly useful when dealing with large face images with a huge number of pixels in shape distortion. The numerical transformation of face images in this paper can be used not only in pattern recognition but also in resampling, image morphing, and computer animation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwata, Tetsuo; Shibata, Hironobu; Araki, Tsutomu
2007-01-01
We propose a new band-extrapolation method using an iterative Hilbert-transform procedure, which is applicable for band-limited complex-frequency data obtained from a Fourier-transform phase-modulation fluorometer (FT-PMF). Without the band limitation, the real and the imaginary parts of the complex-frequency data obtained from the FT-PMF form a Hilbert-transform pair because of causality. However, the Hilbert-transform relation cannot actually hold because of the inevitable band limitation in the instrument. In order to alleviate this problem, we propose the band-extrapolation method. First, the real part of the complex-frequency data is Hilbert-transformed and the partial frequency data inside the band are replaced by the imaginary ones actually measured while those outside are kept as they are. Next, the corrected imaginary-frequency data are inverse-Hilbert-transformed again and the real-frequency data inside the band are replaced by those measured while those outside are kept. Such a procedure is iterated until changes in shapes of respective frequency waveforms are sufficiently small. Finally, we can obtain a desired time-domain waveform by the inverse Fourier transform of the pair of the extrapolated complex-frequency data. Numerical simulations showed that the proposed method was valid. A good agreement between two fluorescence decay waveforms of fluo-5N in calcium ion buffer, one obtained from the proposed method and the other obtained from the conventional time-correlated single-photon counting method, showed that the proposed method was useful.
Trace projection transformation: a new method for measurement of debris flow surface velocity fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Yan; Cui, Peng; Guo, Xiaojun; Ge, Yonggang
2016-12-01
Spatiotemporal variation of velocity is important for debris flow dynamics. This paper presents a new method, the trace projection transformation, for accurate, non-contact measurement of a debris-flow surface velocity field based on a combination of dense optical flow and perspective projection transformation. The algorithm for interpreting and processing is implemented in C ++ and realized in Visual Studio 2012. The method allows quantitative analysis of flow motion through videos from various angles (camera positioned at the opposite direction of fluid motion). It yields the spatiotemporal distribution of surface velocity field at pixel level and thus provides a quantitative description of the surface processes. The trace projection transformation is superior to conventional measurement methods in that it obtains the full surface velocity field by computing the optical flow of all pixels. The result achieves a 90% accuracy of when comparing with the observed values. As a case study, the method is applied to the quantitative analysis of surface velocity field of a specific debris flow.
Kamalian, Morteza; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Le, Son Thai; Turitsyn, Sergei K
2016-08-08
In this work, we introduce the periodic nonlinear Fourier transform (PNFT) method as an alternative and efficacious tool for compensation of the nonlinear transmission effects in optical fiber links. In the Part I, we introduce the algorithmic platform of the technique, describing in details the direct and inverse PNFT operations, also known as the inverse scattering transform for periodic (in time variable) nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). We pay a special attention to explaining the potential advantages of the PNFT-based processing over the previously studied nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT) based methods. Further, we elucidate the issue of the numerical PNFT computation: we compare the performance of four known numerical methods applicable for the calculation of nonlinear spectral data (the direct PNFT), in particular, taking the main spectrum (utilized further in Part II for the modulation and transmission) associated with some simple example waveforms as the quality indicator for each method. We show that the Ablowitz-Ladik discretization approach for the direct PNFT provides the best performance in terms of the accuracy and computational time consumption.
Applications of asynoptic space - Time Fourier transform methods to scanning satellite measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lait, Leslie R.; Stanford, John L.
1988-01-01
A method proposed by Salby (1982) for computing the zonal space-time Fourier transform of asynoptically acquired satellite data is discussed. The method and its relationship to other techniques are briefly described, and possible problems in applying it to real data are outlined. Examples of results obtained using this technique are given which demonstrate its sensitivity to small-amplitude signals. A number of waves are found which have previously been observed as well as two not heretofore reported. A possible extension of the method which could increase temporal and longitudinal resolution is described.
Ergen, Burhan
2014-01-01
This paper proposes two edge detection methods for medical images by integrating the advantages of Gabor wavelet transform (GWT) and unsupervised clustering algorithms. The GWT is used to enhance the edge information in an image while suppressing noise. Following this, the k-means and Fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithms are used to convert a gray level image into a binary image. The proposed methods are tested using medical images obtained through Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) devices, and a phantom image. The results prove that the proposed methods are successful for edge detection, even in noisy cases. PMID:24790590
Use of the fast Fourier transform method for analyzing linear and equispaced Fizeau fringes.
Lai, G; Yatagai, T
1994-09-01
The Fourier transform method is applied to analyze the initial phase of linear and equispaced Fizeau fringes. We develop an algorithm for high-precision phase measurement by using the Fourier coefficient that corresponds to the spatial frequency of the Fizeau fringes, and we describe methods for determining the fringe carrier frequency. Errors caused by carrier frequency fluctuation and data truncation are studied theoretically and by computer simulation. To demonstrate the method we apply it to the real-time calibration of a piezoelectric transducer mirror in a Twyman-Green interferometer.
Free vibration investigation of nano mass sensor using differential transformation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zarepour, Misagh; Hosseini, S. Amirhosein; Ghadiri, Majid
2017-03-01
In the present study, transverse vibration of nano-cantilever beam with attached mass and two rotational and transverse springs at its end is studied. Resonance frequency of vibrating system is influenced by changing mass particle and stiffness coefficients. Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, nonlocal constitutive equations of Eringen, and Hamilton's principle are used to develop equations of motion. Differential transformation method (DTM) is applied to solve the governing equations of the nanobeam with attached mass particle. Accurate results with minimum mathematical calculation are the advantages of DTM. A detailed parametric study is conducted to investigate the influences of nonlocal parameter. The results can be used in designing of nanoelectromechanical systems. To verify the results, some comparisons are presented between differential transform method results and open literature to show the accuracy of this new approach.
[Decomposition and analysis of the natural source SLF spectrum using curvelet transform method].
Jiang, Hong-bo; Chen, Chao; Qin, Qi-ming
2012-02-01
Because natural source super low frequency (SLF) electromagnetic detection equipment receives wideband multi-source signal, how to decompose the signal to filter out the interference signal was a key factor for the application of natural source SLF electromagnetic detection technology. In the present article, the detection equipment developed by Peking University was used to survey the coal bed methane data in the Qinshui basin, Shanxi province, and the curvelet transform method was employed to decompose those data. The analysis results indicated that the high-frequency information coming from the decomposition is the interference signals mainly generated by lightning in the atmospheric and directly received by the detection equipment, while the low frequency signal mainly contains the target information. So the reconstructed curve based on the low-frequency information was more favorable for the interpretation of the target, compared with the original spectrum curve. But the curvelet transform method could not remove the artificial frequency signal.
Jing, Zhang; Sheng, Kang Bao
2016-01-01
To assist physicians to quickly find the required 3D model from the mass medical model, we propose a novel retrieval method, called DRFVT, which combines the characteristics of dimensionality reduction (DR) and feature vector transformation (FVT) method. The DR method reduces the dimensionality of feature vector; only the top M low frequency Discrete Fourier Transform coefficients are retained. The FVT method does the transformation of the original feature vector and generates a new feature vector to solve the problem of noise sensitivity. The experiment results demonstrate that the DRFVT method achieves more effective and efficient retrieval results than other proposed methods. PMID:27293478
Jing, Zhang; Sheng, Kang Bao
2015-01-01
To assist physicians to quickly find the required 3D model from the mass medical model, we propose a novel retrieval method, called DRFVT, which combines the characteristics of dimensionality reduction (DR) and feature vector transformation (FVT) method. The DR method reduces the dimensionality of feature vector; only the top M low frequency Discrete Fourier Transform coefficients are retained. The FVT method does the transformation of the original feature vector and generates a new feature vector to solve the problem of noise sensitivity. The experiment results demonstrate that the DRFVT method achieves more effective and efficient retrieval results than other proposed methods.
Zhang, Yu-xin; Cheng, Zhi-feng; Xu, Zheng-ping; Bai, Jing
2015-01-01
In order to solve the problems such as complex operation, consumption for the carrier gas and long test period in traditional power transformer fault diagnosis approach based on dissolved gas analysis (DGA), this paper proposes a new method which is detecting 5 types of characteristic gas content in transformer oil such as CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6 and H2 based on photoacoustic Spectroscopy and C2H2/C2H4, CH4/H2, C2H4/C2H6 three-ratios data are calculated. The support vector machine model was constructed using cross validation method under five support vector machine functions and four kernel functions, heuristic algorithms were used in parameter optimization for penalty factor c and g, which to establish the best SVM model for the highest fault diagnosis accuracy and the fast computing speed. Particles swarm optimization and genetic algorithm two types of heuristic algorithms were comparative studied in this paper for accuracy and speed in optimization. The simulation result shows that SVM model composed of C-SVC, RBF kernel functions and genetic algorithm obtain 97. 5% accuracy in test sample set and 98. 333 3% accuracy in train sample set, and genetic algorithm was about two times faster than particles swarm optimization in computing speed. The methods described in this paper has many advantages such as simple operation, non-contact measurement, no consumption for the carrier gas, long test period, high stability and sensitivity, the result shows that the methods described in this paper can instead of the traditional transformer fault diagnosis by gas chromatography and meets the actual project needs in transformer fault diagnosis.
Notes on a method to transform digitized coordinates to geographic coordinates
Evenden, Gerald I.
1991-01-01
The process of conversion of coordinates (typically carte- sian) obtained from digitizing devices into application de- ned coordinate systems is discussed. Application of a secondary function representing the transformation of the application coordinate system to and from cartesian space will greatly simplify conversion of highly non-linear sys- tems. Although emphasis is given to cartographic conver- sions the method will work with a wide variety of digitizing problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Dinkar; Singh, Prince; Chauhan, Shubha
2017-06-01
In this paper, a combined form of the Laplace transform method with the homotopy perturbation method is applied to solve nonlinear fifth order Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equations. The method is known as homotopy perturbation transform method (HPTM). The nonlinear terms can be easily handled by the use of He's polynomials. Two test examples are considered to illustrate the present scheme. Further the results are compared with Homotopy perturbation method (HPM).
[A wavelet-transform-based method for the automatic detection of late-type stars].
Liu, Zhong-tian; Zhao, Rrui-zhen; Zhao, Yong-heng; Wu, Fu-chao
2005-07-01
The LAMOST project, the world largest sky survey project, urgently needs an automatic late-type stars detection system. However, to our knowledge, no effective methods for automatic late-type stars detection have been reported in the literature up to now. The present study work is intended to explore possible ways to deal with this issue. Here, by "late-type stars" we mean those stars with strong molecule absorption bands, including oxygen-rich M, L and T type stars and carbon-rich C stars. Based on experimental results, the authors find that after a wavelet transform with 5 scales on the late-type stars spectra, their frequency spectrum of the transformed coefficient on the 5th scale consistently manifests a unimodal distribution, and the energy of frequency spectrum is largely concentrated on a small neighborhood centered around the unique peak. However, for the spectra of other celestial bodies, the corresponding frequency spectrum is of multimodal and the energy of frequency spectrum is dispersible. Based on such a finding, the authors presented a wavelet-transform-based automatic late-type stars detection method. The proposed method is shown by extensive experiments to be practical and of good robustness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moonon, Altan-Ulzii; Hu, Jianwen; Li, Shutao
2015-12-01
The remote sensing image fusion is an important preprocessing technique in remote sensing image processing. In this paper, a remote sensing image fusion method based on the nonsubsampled shearlet transform (NSST) with sparse representation (SR) is proposed. Firstly, the low resolution multispectral (MS) image is upsampled and color space is transformed from Red-Green-Blue (RGB) to Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS). Then, the high resolution panchromatic (PAN) image and intensity component of MS image are decomposed by NSST to high and low frequency coefficients. The low frequency coefficients of PAN and the intensity component are fused by the SR with the learned dictionary. The high frequency coefficients of intensity component and PAN image are fused by local energy based fusion rule. Finally, the fused result is obtained by performing inverse NSST and inverse IHS transform. The experimental results on IKONOS and QuickBird satellites demonstrate that the proposed method provides better spectral quality and superior spatial information in the fused image than other remote sensing image fusion methods both in visual effect and object evaluation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goudarzi, Alireza; Riahi, Mohammad Ali
2012-12-01
One of the most crucial challenges in seismic data processing is the reduction of the noise in the data or improving the signal-to-noise ratio. In this study, the 1D undecimated discrete wavelet transform (UDWT) has been acquired to attenuate random noise and ground roll. Wavelet domain ground roll analysis (WDGA) is applied to find the ground roll energy in the wavelet domain. The WDGA will be a substitute method for thresholding in seismic data processing. To compare the effectiveness of the WDGA method, we apply the 1D double density discrete wavelet transform (DDDWT) using soft thresholding in the random noise reduction and ground roll attenuation processes. Seismic signals intersect with ground roll in the time and frequency domains. Random noise and ground roll have many undesirable effects on pre-stack seismic data, and result in an inaccurate velocity analysis for NMO correction. In this paper, the UDWT by using the WDGA technique and DDDWT (using the soft thresholding technique) and the regular Fourier based method as f-k transform will be used and compared for seismic denoising.
Chan, Weng-Tat; Verma, Chandra S; Lane, David P; Gan, Samuel Ken-En
2013-12-12
DNA manipulation routinely requires competent bacteria that can be made using one of numerous methods. To determine the best methods, we compared four commonly used chemical methods (DMSO, MgCl2-CaCl2, CaCl2 and Hanahan's methods) on frequently used Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains: DH5α, XL-1 Blue, SCS110, JM109, TOP10 and BL21-(DE3)-PLysS. Hanahan's method was found to be most effective for DH5α, XL-1 Blue and JM109 strains (P<0.05), whilst the CaCl2 method was best for SCS110, TOP10 and BL21 strains (P<0.05). The use of SOB (super optimal broth) over LB [Luria-Bertani (broth)] growth media was found to enhance the competency of XL-1 Blue (P<0.05), dampened JM109's competency (P<0.05), and had no effect on the other strains (P>0.05). We found no significant differences between using 45 or 90 s heat shock across all the six strains (P>0.05). Through further optimization by means of concentrating the aliquots, we were able to get further increases in transformation efficiencies. Based on the optimized parameters and methods, these common laboratory E. coli strains attained high levels of TrE (transformation efficiency), thus facilitating the production of highly efficient and cost-effective competent bacteria.
Fujiki, Yasuhisa; Yokota, Shigefumi; Okada, Yasumasa; Oku, Yoshitaka; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Ishiguro, Makio; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu
2013-01-01
Functional fluorescence imaging has been widely applied to analyze spatio-temporal patterns of cellular dynamics in the brain and spinal cord. However, it is difficult to integrate spatial information obtained from imaging data in specific regions of interest across multiple samples, due to large variability in the size, shape and internal structure of samples. To solve this problem, we attempted to standardize transversely sectioned spinal cord images focusing on the laminar structure in the gray matter. We employed three standardization methods, the affine transformation (AT), the angle-dependent transformation (ADT) and the combination of these two methods (AT+ADT). The ADT is a novel non-linear transformation method developed in this study to adjust an individual image onto the template image in the polar coordinate system. We next compared the accuracy of these three standardization methods. We evaluated two indices, i.e., the spatial distribution of pixels that are not categorized to any layer and the error ratio by the leave-one-out cross validation method. In this study, we used neuron-specific marker (NeuN)-stained histological images of transversely sectioned cervical spinal cord slices (21 images obtained from 4 rats) to create the standard atlas and also to serve for benchmark tests. We found that the AT+ADT outperformed other two methods, though the accuracy of each method varied depending on the layer. This novel image standardization technique would be applicable to optical recording such as voltage-sensitive dye imaging, and will enable statistical evaluations of neural activation across multiple samples.
Scammon, Debra L; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Day, Rachel L; Day, Julie; Kim, Jaewhan; Waitzman, Norman J; Farrell, Timothy W; Magill, Michael K
2013-01-01
Objective. To demonstrate the value of mixed methods in the study of practice transformation and illustrate procedures for connecting methods and for merging findings to enhance the meaning derived. Data Source/Study Setting. An integrated network of university-owned, primary care practices at the University of Utah (Community Clinics or CCs). CC has adopted Care by Design, its version of the Patient Centered Medical Home. Study Design. Convergent case study mixed methods design. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. Analysis of archival documents, internal operational reports, in-clinic observations, chart audits, surveys, semistructured interviews, focus groups, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services database, and the Utah All Payer Claims Database. Principal Findings. Each data source enriched our understanding of the change process and understanding of reasons that certain changes were more difficult than others both in general and for particular clinics. Mixed methods enabled generation and testing of hypotheses about change and led to a comprehensive understanding of practice change. Conclusions. Mixed methods are useful in studying practice transformation. Challenges exist but can be overcome with careful planning and persistence. PMID:24279836
Method of Global Transformation and its Role in Turning Point Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McArthur, Raymond Peter
In this monograph, we introduce an asymptotic technique which can be used to obtain uniform asymptotic solutions of certain types of second-order, linear ordinary differential equations which may arise in wave propagation problems in non-homogeneous media. Of particular interest are those physical phenomenon which lead to simple and non-simple turning point problems where the nature of the fundamental solution undergoes a sudden metamorphosis of character at the turning point. We begin by giving a few examples which under certain conditions admit turning point behavior. The general theory of the method of global transformation is then introduced. After giving a preview of the method, a historical account of the idea of comparison equation is given which systematically leads to our generalization of the concept. Next, we transform the original problem to an appropriate comparison equation using new dependent and independent variables. This leads to a non-linear differential equation in the transformed coordinate. This non-linear equation has the property that its solution can be determined in the form of uniformly convergent series. We take advantage of this unique property and develop an iterative technique to obtain the solution of the original problem. In applying our iterative technique, the zero -order solution so obtained reproduces exactly the dominant solutions as given by WKBJ or method of stationary phase. We then obtain the higher-order solutions of the non-linear equation which yield new transformations. Use of these transformations in conjunction with the comparison equation give us higher-order correction terms in the asymptotic series solution of the original problem. These higher -order terms correspond to the higher-order terms which one would obtain by using the method of steepest descent. After giving an account of the well-known connection problem using our zero-order solution of the Airy equation, we conclude by giving an illustrative example of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, H.; Srinivasan, S.; Li, L.; Bryant, S. L.
2013-12-01
Uncertainty in prediction of flow performance stems from the uncertainty in model parameters such as conductivity, porosity etc., to a large extent, while the characterization of the model parameters is demanding due to the inherent heterogeneity of geologic structures. Inverse modeling approaches attempt to identify the unknown model structures and corresponding parameters by integrating observation data. Several inverse methods have been proposed in the literature ranging from trial-and-error methods to advanced ensemble Kalman filter assimilation, including those that use multiple point statistics to characterize complex geologic structures. However, these methods are hindered by the huge amount of data accumulated with time, for instance, the pressure data are recorded at very fine time intervals from the very early stage of bore hole drilling to mature production period. Assimilation of such large amount of data can be a computational burden to the inverse methods. The object of this work is to propose a computationally efficient approach to analyze the long observation records in order to recognize the subsurface structures, especially flow connectivity which plays a critical role in transport prediction. Wavelet transform is found to be a powerful technique that transforms data into different components and analyzes each component at corresponding scale. By analyzing the components transformed we relate the characteristics of the heterogeneity to signature in the production/injection records. Combining components at different scales we are able to recognize connectivity between wells, and thereby identify complex structure in aquifers. The method is demonstrated in a synthetic example where CO2 is injected into a deep saline aquifer for sequestration. The method is computationally efficient since it involves no iterative forward simulation or sensitivity matrix computation. Once the important episodes have been identified in the dynamic data, inverse
Laplace transform homotopy perturbation method for the approximation of variational problems.
Filobello-Nino, U; Vazquez-Leal, H; Rashidi, M M; Sedighi, H M; Perez-Sesma, A; Sandoval-Hernandez, M; Sarmiento-Reyes, A; Contreras-Hernandez, A D; Pereyra-Diaz, D; Hoyos-Reyes, C; Jimenez-Fernandez, V M; Huerta-Chua, J; Castro-Gonzalez, F; Laguna-Camacho, J R
2016-01-01
This article proposes the application of Laplace Transform-Homotopy Perturbation Method and some of its modifications in order to find analytical approximate solutions for the linear and nonlinear differential equations which arise from some variational problems. As case study we will solve four ordinary differential equations, and we will show that the proposed solutions have good accuracy, even we will obtain an exact solution. In the sequel, we will see that the square residual error for the approximate solutions, belongs to the interval [0.001918936920, 0.06334882582], which confirms the accuracy of the proposed methods, taking into account the complexity and difficulty of variational problems.
Niece, Krista L.
2015-01-01
Colistin use has increased in response to the advent of infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. It is administered parenterally as an inactive prodrug, colistin methanesulfonate (CMS). Various formulations of CMS and labeling conventions can lead to confusion about colistin dosing, and questions remain about the pharmacokinetics of CMS. Since CMS does not have strong UV absorbance, current methods employ a laborious process of chemical conversion to colistin followed by precolumn derivatization to detect formed colistin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Here, we report a method for direct quantification of colistin methanesulfonate by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FTIR). PMID:26124160
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vatsala, Aghalaya S.; Sowmya, M.
2017-01-01
Study of nonlinear sequential fractional differential equations of Riemann-Lioville type and Caputo type initial value problem are very useful in applications. In order to develop any iterative methods to solve the nonlinear problems, we need to solve the corresponding linear problem. In this work, we develop Laplace transform method to solve the linear sequential Riemann-Liouville fractional differential equations as well as linear sequential Caputo fractional differential equations of order nq which is sequential of order q. Also, nq is chosen such that (n-1) < nq < n. All our results yield the integer results as a special case when q tends to 1.
Method of multiple references for 3D imaging with Fourier transform interferometry.
Lally, Evan; Gong, Jianmin; Wang, Anbo
2010-08-16
This letter presents an improved phase referencing technique, called Method of Multiple References, for optical profilometry. Based on a lookup table, the method eliminates several major drawbacks of single-reference Fourier Transform Interferometry by enabling surface error correction for steep slopes and step discontinuities, and by allowing mapping of multiple discrete objects using a single image set. The algorithm is tested using a fiber optic coupler-based FTI system and shown to have RMS surface error less than 0.03 mm.
Jones, Cynthia G; Silverman, Joseph; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Neta, Pedatsur; Poster, Dianne L
2003-12-15
Used electrical transformer oils containing low or high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were treated using electron, gamma, and ultraviolet radiation, and the conditions for complete dechlorination were developed. Dechlorination was determined by analysis of the inorganic chloride formed and the concentrations of remaining PCBs. Transformer oil containing approximately 95 microg g(-1) PCB (approximately 3.5 mmol L(-1) Cl) is completely dechlorinated by irradiation with 600 kGy after the addition of 10% triethylamine (TEA). Transformer oil containing >800,000 microg g(-1) PCB (17.7 mol L(-1) Cl) requires an additional solvent to prevent solidification. When this oil is diluted with 2-propanol (2-PrOH) and TEA (v/v/v, 1/79/20), complete dechlorination is achieved with a dose of 2500 kGy. Ultraviolet photolysis of the same oil/2-PrOH/TEA solutions led to 90% dechlorination after exposure for 120 h in our experimental setup. Such yields were obtained by radiolysis with a dose of 2000 kGy (300 h in our Gammacell). Replacing TEA with KOH in 2-PrOH solutions greatly increases the yield of dechlorination in both the radiolytic and the photolytic experiments, demonstrating that a chain reaction plays a role in both of these treatment methods and suggesting that both methods deserve further consideration for large-scale application.
Yamamoto, Takashi; Noma, Yukio; Yasuhara, Akio; Sakai, Shin-ichi
2003-10-31
We present the first study on the analytical methods of phenyltin compounds (PTs) in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-based transformer oil samples. Tetraphenyltin (TePhT) has been used as stabilizer for some kinds of PCBs-based transformer oil formulations. Monophenyltin (MPhT), diphenyltin (DPhT) and triphenyltin (TrPhT) could have been formed from TePhT during long-term use. TePhT was directly measured by gas chromatograph (GC) connected with three types of detectors, a mass spectrometer (MS), a flame photometric detector (FPD) and an atomic emission detector (AED) after dilution with hexane. MPhT, DPhT and TrPhT were propylated with Grignard reagent before measurement. The MS was the most sensitive of the detectors, with detection limits of phenyltin compounds of 30 ng/ml (MPhT), 9.8 ng/ml (DPhT), 5.5 ng/ml (TrPhT) and 0.60 ng/ml (TePhT), respectively. From the viewpoint of selectivity, MS was slightly worse than other detectors, but interference from PCBs matrices was not significant under ordinary analytical conditions. Two used transformer oil samples were analyzed using the analytical methods developed in this study. TePhT and TrPhT were found in both samples.
Motion artifact reduction using hybrid Fourier transform with phase-shifting methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Beiwen; Liu, Ziping; Zhang, Song
2016-08-01
We propose to combine the Fourier transform profilometry (FTP) and phase-shifting profilometry (PSP) to reduce motion induced artifacts. The proposed method can be divided into three steps: Step 1 is to obtain a temporarily unwrapped absolute phase map of the entire scene using the FTP method, albeit the absolute phase map has motion introduced artifacts; Step 2 is to generate continuous relative phase maps without motion artifacts for each isolated object by spatially unwrapping each isolated phase map retrieved from the FTP method; and Step 3 is to determine the absolute phase map for each isolate region by referring to the temporally unwrapped phase using PSP method. Experimental results demonstrated success of the proposed method for measuring rapidly moving multiple isolated objects.
Lifting of the Vlasov-Maxwell bracket by Lie-transform method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brizard, A. J.; Morrison, P. J.; Burby, J. W.; de Guillebon, L.; Vittot, M.
2016-12-01
The Vlasov-Maxwell equations possess a Hamiltonian structure expressed in terms of a Hamiltonian functional and a functional bracket. In the present paper, the transformation (`lift') of the Vlasov-Maxwell bracket induced by the dynamical reduction of single-particle dynamics is investigated when the reduction is carried out by Lie-transform perturbation methods. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide an explicit pathway to the Hamiltonian formulations for the guiding-centre and gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell equations, which have found important applications in our understanding of turbulent magnetized plasmas. Here, it is shown that the general form of the reduced Vlasov-Maxwell equations possesses a Hamiltonian structure defined in terms of a reduced Hamiltonian functional and a reduced bracket that automatically satisfies the standard bracket properties.
Wavelet transform and real-time learning method for myoelectric signal in motion discrimination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Haihua; Chen, Xinhao; Chen, Yaguang
2005-01-01
This paper discusses the applicability of the Wavelet transform for analyzing an EMG signal and discriminating motion classes. In many previous works, researchers have dealt with steady EMG and have proposed suitable analyzing methods for the EMG, for example FFT and STFT. Therefore, it is difficult for the previous approaches to discriminate motions from the EMG in the different phases of muscle activity, i.e., pre-activity, in activity, postactivity phases, as well as the period of motion transition from one to another. In this paper, we introduce the Wavelet transform using the Coiflet mother wavelet into our real-time EMG prosthetic hand controller for discriminating motions from steady and unsteady EMG. A preliminary experiment to discriminate three hand motions from four channel EMG in the initial pre-activity and in activity phase is carried out to show the effectiveness of the approach. However, future research efforts are necessary to discriminate more motions much precisely.
Improved Sensitivity Testing of Explosives Using Transformed Up-Down Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Geoffrey
2013-06-01
Sensitivity tests provide data that help establish guidelines for the safe handling of explosives. Any sensitivity test is based on assumptions to simplify the method or reduce the number of individual sample evaluations. Two common assumptions that are not typically checked after testing are 1) explosive response is linear in the applied stimulus levels and 2) the chosen test level spacing is close to the standard deviation of the explosive response function (for Bruceton Up-Down testing). In this work we present efforts to improve sensitivity testing by addressing these assumptions using Transformed Up-Down (TUD) test methods augmented with simple algorithms. TUD methods have been developed extensively for psychometric testing applications over the past 50 years and generally use multiple tests at a given level to determine whether to increase or decrease the applied stimulus. In the context of our work, we can use TUD methods that concentrate testing around useful probability levels and augment them with algorithms for adjusting test level spacing during the evaluation. Transformed methods that we have developed to address the assumptions noted above will be examined and evaluated with simulation to highlight their properties and assess their usefulness.
A Fourier transformation based method to mine peptide space for antimicrobial activity.
Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Kaushik, Navodit; Murali, Beddhu; Zhang, Chaoyang; Lakhera, Sanyogita; Elasri, Mohamed O; Deng, Youping
2006-09-26
Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides are currently being explored as potential candidate peptide drugs. Since antimicrobial peptides are part of the innate immune system of every living organism, it is possible to discover new candidate peptides using the available genomic and proteomic data. High throughput computational techniques could also be used to virtually scan the entire peptide space for discovering out new candidate antimicrobial peptides. We have identified a unique indexing method based on biologically distinct characteristic features of known antimicrobial peptides. Analysis of the entries in the antimicrobial peptide databases, based on our indexing method, using Fourier transformation technique revealed a distinct peak in their power spectrum. We have developed a method to mine the genomic and proteomic data, for the presence of peptides with potential antimicrobial activity, by looking for this distinct peak. We also used the Euclidean metric to rank the potential antimicrobial peptides activity. We have parallelized our method so that virtually any given protein space could be data mined, in search of antimicrobial peptides. The results show that the Fourier transform based method with the property based coding strategy could be used to scan the peptide space for discovering new potential antimicrobial peptides.
[A phase error correction method for the new Fourier transforms spectrometer].
Wang, Ning; Gong, Tian-Cheng; Chen, Jian-Jun; Li, Yang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Wei-Min
2014-11-01
To decrease the distortion of the recovered spectrum, improve the quantity of the recovered spectrum and decrease the influence of the phase error of the new spectrum detection system based on MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) micro-mirrors, a new phase error correction method for this system is proposed in the present paper. The source of phase error of the spectrum detection system based on MEMS micro-mirrors is analyzed firstly. The analyzed result indicated that the phase error of the new spectral Fourier transform detection system is the zero drift of the optical path difference, and the phase error can be corrected by Zero-crossing sampling which is realized by improving the structure of the interferometer system and Mertz product The spectrum detection system is set up and the phase error correction method is verified by this system. The experiment result is show that the quantity of the recovered spectrum of the spectrum detection is improved obviously by using the improved interferometer system and Mertz product, and the recovered spectrum has no negative peaks and the side lobes is suppressed markedly. This correction method can reduce the influence caused by phase error to the system performance well and improve the spectral detection performance effectively. In this paper, the origin of the system phase error based on the new MEMS micromirror Fourier transform spectroscopy detection system is analyzed, and the phase error correction method is proposed. This method can improve the performance of the spectrum detection system.
Cluster Variation Method as a Theoretical Tool for the Study of Phase Transformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohri, Tetsuo
2017-02-01
Cluster variation method (CVM) has been widely employed to calculate alloy phase diagrams. The atomistic feature of the CVM is consistent with first-principles electronic structure calculations, and the combination of CVM with electronic structure calculation enables one to formulate free energy from the first-principles. CVM free energy conveys affluent information of a given system, and the second-order derivative traces the stability locus against configurational fluctuation. The kinetic extension of the CVM is the path probability method (PPM) which is utilized to calculate transformation and relaxation kinetics associated with the temperature change. Hence, the CVM and PPM are coherent methods to perform a synthetic study from initial non-equilibrium to final equilibrium states. By utilizing CVM free energy as a homogeneous free energy density term, one can calculate the time evolution of ordered domains within the phase field method. Finally, continuous displacement cluster variation method (CDCVM) is discussed as the recent development of CVM. CDCVM is capable of introducing the local lattice displacement into the free energy. Moreover, it is shown that CDCVM can be extended to study collective atomic displacements leading to displacive phase transformation.
Scammon, Debra L; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Day, Rachel L; Day, Julie; Kim, Jaewhan; Waitzman, Norman J; Farrell, Timothy W; Magill, Michael K
2013-12-01
To demonstrate the value of mixed methods in the study of practice transformation and illustrate procedures for connecting methods and for merging findings to enhance the meaning derived. An integrated network of university-owned, primary care practices at the University of Utah (Community Clinics or CCs). CC has adopted Care by Design, its version of the Patient Centered Medical Home. Convergent case study mixed methods design. Analysis of archival documents, internal operational reports, in-clinic observations, chart audits, surveys, semistructured interviews, focus groups, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services database, and the Utah All Payer Claims Database. Each data source enriched our understanding of the change process and understanding of reasons that certain changes were more difficult than others both in general and for particular clinics. Mixed methods enabled generation and testing of hypotheses about change and led to a comprehensive understanding of practice change. Mixed methods are useful in studying practice transformation. Challenges exist but can be overcome with careful planning and persistence. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Cluster Variation Method as a Theoretical Tool for the Study of Phase Transformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohri, Tetsuo
2017-06-01
Cluster variation method (CVM) has been widely employed to calculate alloy phase diagrams. The atomistic feature of the CVM is consistent with first-principles electronic structure calculations, and the combination of CVM with electronic structure calculation enables one to formulate free energy from the first-principles. CVM free energy conveys affluent information of a given system, and the second-order derivative traces the stability locus against configurational fluctuation. The kinetic extension of the CVM is the path probability method (PPM) which is utilized to calculate transformation and relaxation kinetics associated with the temperature change. Hence, the CVM and PPM are coherent methods to perform a synthetic study from initial non-equilibrium to final equilibrium states. By utilizing CVM free energy as a homogeneous free energy density term, one can calculate the time evolution of ordered domains within the phase field method. Finally, continuous displacement cluster variation method (CDCVM) is discussed as the recent development of CVM. CDCVM is capable of introducing the local lattice displacement into the free energy. Moreover, it is shown that CDCVM can be extended to study collective atomic displacements leading to displacive phase transformation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zhou; Zhu, Yunpeng; Ren, Hongrui; Zhang, Yimin
2015-03-01
Reliability allocation of computerized numerical controlled(CNC) lathes is very important in industry. Traditional allocation methods only focus on high-failure rate components rather than moderate failure rate components, which is not applicable in some conditions. Aiming at solving the problem of CNC lathes reliability allocating, a comprehensive reliability allocation method based on cubic transformed functions of failure modes and effects analysis(FMEA) is presented. Firstly, conventional reliability allocation methods are introduced. Then the limitations of direct combination of comprehensive allocation method with the exponential transformed FMEA method are investigated. Subsequently, a cubic transformed function is established in order to overcome these limitations. Properties of the new transformed functions are discussed by considering the failure severity and the failure occurrence. Designers can choose appropriate transform amplitudes according to their requirements. Finally, a CNC lathe and a spindle system are used as an example to verify the new allocation method. Seven criteria are considered to compare the results of the new method with traditional methods. The allocation results indicate that the new method is more flexible than traditional methods. By employing the new cubic transformed function, the method covers a wider range of problems in CNC reliability allocation without losing the advantages of traditional methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haris, A.; Morena, V.; Riyanto, A.; Zulivandama, S. R.
2017-07-01
Non-stationer signal from the seismic survey is difficult to be directly interpreted in time domain analysis. Spectral decomposition is one of the spectral analysis methods that can analyze the non-stationer signal in frequency domain. The Fast Fourier Transform method was commonly used for spectral decomposition analysis, however, this method had a limitation in the scaled window analysis and produced pure quality for low-frequency shadow. The S-Transform and Empirical the Mode Decomposition (EMD) is another method of spectral decomposition that can be used to enhanced low-frequency shadows. In this research, comparison of the S-Transform and the EMD methods that can show the difference imaging result of low-frequency shadows zone is applied to Eldo Field, Jambi Province. The spectral decomposition result based on the EMD method produced better imaging of low-frequency shadows zone in tuning thickness compared to S-Transform methods.
Schurig, David
2007-02-21
I will explain how the transformation design method can yield a material specification that possesses the same electromagnetic behavior as a fairly general set of imagined space-time topologies. This method has been used to design invisibility cloaks, but the method is quite general and can be used to design a wide variety of interesting devices that guide, concentrate or shape electromagnetic fields in ways that would be difficult to manage with other design methodologies. Applications range from stealth to energy conversion and distribution to wireless communications to biomedical imaging. The drawback of the method is the complexity of the material specifications that it produces, which are in general anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Only with recent advances in the field of metamaterials can these specifications be realized. I will discuss how metamaterials accomplish this and what their limitations are, e.g. bandwidth, loss, frequency range etc. I will discuss in detail the recent implementation of an invisibility cloak in the microwave spectrum.
Wu, Linzhi
2016-01-01
Recently, the ray tracing method has been used to derive the non-singular cylindrical invisibility cloaks for out-of-plane shear waves, which is impossible via the transformation method directly owing to the singular push-forward mapping. In this paper, the method is adopted to design a kind of non-singular acoustic cloak. Based on Hamilton's equations of motion, eikonal equation and pre-designed ray equations, we derive several constraint equations for bulk modulus and density tensor. On the premise that the perfect matching conditions are satisfied, a series of non-singular physical profiles can be obtained by arranging the singular terms reasonably. The physical profiles derived by the ray tracing method will degenerate to the transformation-based solutions when taking the transport equation into consideration. This illuminates the essence of the newly designed cloaks that they are actually the so-called eikonal cloaks that can accurately control the paths of energy flux but with small disturbance in energy distribution along the paths. The near-perfect invisible performance has been demonstrated by the numerical ray tracing results and the pressure distribution snapshots. Finally, a kind of reduced cloak is conceived, and the good invisible performance has been measured quantitatively by the normalized scattering width. PMID:27118884
A seismic interpolation and denoising method with curvelet transform matching filter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Hongyuan; Long, Yun; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Fengjiao; Chen, Zubin
2017-09-01
A new seismic interpolation and denoising method with a curvelet transform matching filter, employing the fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm (FISTA), is proposed. The approach treats the matching filter, seismic interpolation, and denoising all as the same inverse problem using an inversion iteration algorithm. The curvelet transform has a high sparseness and is useful for separating signal from noise, meaning that it can accurately solve the matching problem using FISTA. When applying the new method to a synthetic noisy data sets and a data sets with missing traces, the optimum matching result is obtained, noise is greatly suppressed, missing seismic data are filled by interpolation, and the waveform is highly consistent. We then verified the method by applying it to real data, yielding satisfactory results. The results show that the method can reconstruct missing traces in the case of low SNR (signal-to-noise ratio). The above three problems can be simultaneously solved via FISTA algorithm, and it will not only increase the processing efficiency but also improve SNR of the seismic data.
Non-contact radio frequency shielding and wave guiding by multi-folded transformation optics method
Madni, Hamza Ahmad; Zheng, Bin; Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Zhang, Xianmin; Yin, Wenyan; Li, Erping; Chen, Hongsheng
2016-01-01
Compared with conventional radio frequency (RF) shielding methods in which the conductive coating material encloses the circuits design and the leakage problem occurs due to the gap in such conductive material, non-contact RF shielding at a distance is very promising but still impossible to achieve so far. In this paper, a multi-folded transformation optics method is proposed to design a non-contact device for RF shielding. This “open-shielded” device can shield any object at a distance from the electromagnetic waves at the operating frequency, while the object is still physically open to the outer space. Based on this, an open-carpet cloak is proposed and the functionality of the open-carpet cloak is demonstrated. Furthermore, we investigate a scheme of non-contact wave guiding to remotely control the propagation of surface waves over any obstacles. The flexibilities of such multi-folded transformation optics method demonstrate the powerfulness of the method in the design of novel remote devices with impressive new functionalities. PMID:27841358
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuehua; Gao, Duntang; Shen, Qinghong; Li, Xingguo
2001-11-01
The method of range profile for step frequency MMW radar targets based on wavelet transform power spectrum estimator is studied. We show how the Fourier power spectrum can be detected by using the wavelet function coefficients (WFC) of the DWT. This method can successfully measure the power spectrum in samples for which traditional methods often fail because the sample are finite sized, have a complex geometry, or are varyingly sampled. We demonstrate that the spectrum features, such as the power law index, the magnitude, and the typical scales can be determined by the DWT reconstructed spectrum. We apply this method to the practical step frequency MMW radar target echo signals, and on the condition of the same sampling frequency and sampling data length, it can achieve one dimensional range profile with profile"s resolution superior to FFT"s, so the one dimensional range profile of targets can be analyzed with high resolution, the detail algorithm of range profiles spectrum estimation based on wavelet transforming multirange cells is proposed. Compare with FFT algorithm, using wavelet spectrum estimator of short data series, we can achieves high resolution, high accuracy, and low SNR threshold. The Experiment results make clear that the DWT estimator is a sensitive tool in range profile of step frequency MMW radar.
[A novel method to determine the redshifts of active galaxies based on wavelet transform].
Tu, Liang-Ping; Luo, A-Li; Jiang, Bin; Wei, Peng; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Liu, Rong
2012-10-01
Automatically determining redshifts of galaxies is very important for astronomical research on large samples, such as large-scale structure of cosmological significance. Galaxies are generally divided into normal galaxies and active galaxies, and the spectra of active galaxies mostly have more obvious emission lines. In the present paper, the authors present a novel method to determine spectral redshifts of active galaxies rapidly based on wavelet transformation mainly, and it does not need to extract line information accurately. This method includes the following steps: Firstly, we denoised a spectrum to be processed; Secondly, the low-frequency spectrum was extracted based on wavelet transform, and then we could get the residual spectrum through the denoised spectrum subtracting the low-frequency spectrum; Thirdly, the authors calculated the standard deviation of the residual spectrum and determined a threshold value T, then retained the wavelength set whose corresponding flux was greater than T; Fourthly, according to the wavelength form of all the standard lines, we calculated all the candidate redshifts; Finally, utilizing the density estimation method based on Parzen window, we determined the redshift point with maximum density, and the average value of its neighborhood would be the final redshift of this spectrum. The experiments on simulated data and real data from SDSS-DR7 show that this method is robust and its correct rate is encouraging. And it can be expected to be applied in the project of LAMOST.
Non-contact radio frequency shielding and wave guiding by multi-folded transformation optics method.
Madni, Hamza Ahmad; Zheng, Bin; Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Zhang, Xianmin; Yin, Wenyan; Li, Erping; Chen, Hongsheng
2016-11-14
Compared with conventional radio frequency (RF) shielding methods in which the conductive coating material encloses the circuits design and the leakage problem occurs due to the gap in such conductive material, non-contact RF shielding at a distance is very promising but still impossible to achieve so far. In this paper, a multi-folded transformation optics method is proposed to design a non-contact device for RF shielding. This "open-shielded" device can shield any object at a distance from the electromagnetic waves at the operating frequency, while the object is still physically open to the outer space. Based on this, an open-carpet cloak is proposed and the functionality of the open-carpet cloak is demonstrated. Furthermore, we investigate a scheme of non-contact wave guiding to remotely control the propagation of surface waves over any obstacles. The flexibilities of such multi-folded transformation optics method demonstrate the powerfulness of the method in the design of novel remote devices with impressive new functionalities.
Gao, Penglin; Wu, Linzhi
2016-02-01
Recently, the ray tracing method has been used to derive the non-singular cylindrical invisibility cloaks for out-of-plane shear waves, which is impossible via the transformation method directly owing to the singular push-forward mapping. In this paper, the method is adopted to design a kind of non-singular acoustic cloak. Based on Hamilton's equations of motion, eikonal equation and pre-designed ray equations, we derive several constraint equations for bulk modulus and density tensor. On the premise that the perfect matching conditions are satisfied, a series of non-singular physical profiles can be obtained by arranging the singular terms reasonably. The physical profiles derived by the ray tracing method will degenerate to the transformation-based solutions when taking the transport equation into consideration. This illuminates the essence of the newly designed cloaks that they are actually the so-called eikonal cloaks that can accurately control the paths of energy flux but with small disturbance in energy distribution along the paths. The near-perfect invisible performance has been demonstrated by the numerical ray tracing results and the pressure distribution snapshots. Finally, a kind of reduced cloak is conceived, and the good invisible performance has been measured quantitatively by the normalized scattering width.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nourazar, S. S.; Nazari-Golshan, A.
2015-01-01
A hybrid of Fourier transform and new modified homotopy perturbation method based on the Adomian method is developed to solve linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. The Taylor series expansion is used to expand nonlinear term of partial differential equation and the Adomian polynomial incorporated into homotopy perturbation method combined with Fourier transform, is used to solve partial differential equations. Three case study problems, partial differential equations, are handled using homotopy perturbation method and Fourier transform modified homotopy perturbation method (FTMHPM). Results obtained are compared with exact solution. The comparison reveals that for same components of recursive sequences, errors associated with Fourier transform modified method are much less than the other and are valid for a large range of x-axis coordinates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, S. H.; Chen, Y. H.
2016-12-01
The iron sulfide nano-minerals possess advantages of high abundance, low cost, and low toxicity. These advantages make them be competitive in the magnetic, electronic, and photoelectric applications. Mackinawite can be used in soil or water remediations. Greigite is very important for paleomagnetic and geochemical environment studies and the anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Besides, greigite is also utilized for hyperthermia and biomedicine. Pyrrhotite can be applied as geothermometry. Due to the above-mentioned reasons, iron sulfide minerals have specific significances and they must be further investigated, like their phase transformations, magnetic properties, and etc. In this study, the iron sulfide minerals were synthesized by using a hydrothermal method. The ex-situ and in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to examine the crystal structure and phase transformation of iron sulfide minerals. The Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) were carried out to investigate their morphology and magnetic properties, respectively. The results suggested that the phase transformation sequence was followed the order: mackinawite → greigite → (smythite) → pyrrhotite. Two pure mineral phases of greigite and pyrrhotite were obtained under the hydrothermal conditions. The morphology of the pure greigite is granular aggregates with a particle size of approximately 30 nm and pyrrhotite presented a hexagonal sheet stacking with a particle size of thousands nanometers. The greigite had a ferri-magnetic behavior and pyrrhotite was weak ferro-magnetic. Both of them had a pseudo-single magnetic domain (PSD) based on the Day's plot from SQUID data. The complete phase-transformation pathways and high magnetization of iron sulfide minerals are observed in this study and these kind of iron sulfide minerals are worthy to further study.
Tsuboyama, Shoko; Kodama, Yutaka
2014-01-01
The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. is being developed as an emerging model plant, and several transformation techniques were recently reported. Examples are biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods. Here, we report a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sporelings, and it is termed Agar-utilized Transformation with Pouring Solutions (AgarTrap). The procedure of the AgarTrap was carried out by simply exchanging appropriate solutions in a Petri dish, and completed within a week, successfully yielding sufficient numbers of independent transformants for molecular analysis (e.g. characterization of gene/protein function) in a single experiment. The AgarTrap method will promote future molecular biological study in M. polymorpha.
Nanoscale displacement measurement by a digital nano-moiré method with wavelet transformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chia-Ming; Chen, Lien-Wen; Wang, Ching-Cheng
2006-09-01
A digital nano-moiré method with wavelet transformation is explored to measure nanoscale in-plane displacement fields. By applying e-beam lithography, a periodic PMMA nanostructure array is fabricated directly on the specimen and used as the specimen grating. Moiré patterns are generated by overlapping the images of the PMMA specimen grating obtained from AFM scanning and the virtual reference grating produced by a digital image generating process. Then, the overlapped images are filtered by the 2D wavelet transformation (WT) to capture the target moiré patterns. Existing methods, by overlapping the monitor-generated scanning lines with the image of the specimen grating, cause a mismatch problem. Previously, the carrier moiré method was explored with the aim of curing the mismatch problem. Unfortunately, the carrier moiré method, in addition to suffering from increased complexity of mathematical calculations, is incapable of directly obtaining the displacement field. Thus, the mismatch problem will result in inconveniences and restrictions in the practical application. Instead of using monitor-generated scanning lines, the proposed method applies the virtual reference grating, and thus puts the mismatch problem to rest. Nevertheless, the resultant moiré image suffers from low contrast which, if left untreated, might distort the measurement result. Therefore, the WT, known for its sharpened abilities of characteristic and edge detection, is used to capture the target moiré patterns and improve the measurement accuracy. The proposed method has been carried out in the laboratory. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method is convenient and efficient for nanoscale displacement measurement.
Golner, Thomas M.; Mehta, Shirish P.
2005-07-26
A method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a super-conducting transformer is provided that includes a first super-conducting coil set, a second super-conducting coil set, and a third super-conducting coil set. The first, second and third super-conducting coil sets are connected via an insulated interconnect system that includes insulated conductors and insulated connectors that are utilized to connect the first, second, and third super-conducting coil sets to the high voltage leads.
Samoilov, V.M.; Frolov, V.I.; Kotosonov, A.S.; Ostronov, B.G.; Rumyantsev, S.M.
1983-01-01
The amount of ..cap alpha../sub 1/ fraction, the concentration of paramagnetic centers, and the width of the line of the ESR signal have been determined for samples of mesophase pitches obtained by treating an initial petroleum pitch at 400-440/sup 0/C. The applicability of the ESR method for studying the kinetics and mechanism of the process of mesophase transformations has been shown. From the change in the parameters studied the rate constants and activation energies of the processes of the formation and growth of the aromatic regions of polyconjugation and of the accumulation of mesophase have been calculated.
Transform methods for precision continuum and control models of flexible space structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lupi, Victor D.; Turner, James D.; Chun, Hon M.
1991-01-01
An open loop optimal control algorithm is developed for general flexible structures, based on Laplace transform methods. A distributed parameter model of the structure is first presented, followed by a derivation of the optimal control algorithm. The control inputs are expressed in terms of their Fourier series expansions, so that a numerical solution can be easily obtained. The algorithm deals directly with the transcendental transfer functions from control inputs to outputs of interest, and structural deformation penalties, as well as penalties on control effort, are included in the formulation. The algorithm is applied to several structures of increasing complexity to show its generality.
Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.
2011-01-01
Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.
A Fourier Transform Method for Vsin i Estimations under Nonlinear Limb-darkening Laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levenhagen, R. S.
2014-12-01
Star rotation offers us a large horizon for the study of many important physical issues pertaining to stellar evolution. Currently, four methods are widely used to infer rotation velocities, namely those related to line width calibrations, on the fitting of synthetic spectra, interferometry, and on Fourier transforms (FTs) of line profiles. Almost all of the estimations of stellar projected rotation velocities using the Fourier method in the literature have been addressed with the use of linear limb-darkening (LD) approximations during the evaluation of rotation profiles and their cosine FTs, which in certain cases, lead to discrepant velocity estimates. In this work, we introduce new mathematical expressions of rotation profiles and their Fourier cosine transforms assuming three nonlinear LD laws—quadratic, square-root, and logarithmic—and study their applications with and without gravity-darkening (GD) and geometrical flattening (GF) effects. Through an analysis of He I models in the visible range accounting for both limb and GD, we find out that, for classical models without rotationally driven effects, all the Vsin i values are too close to each other. On the other hand, taking into account GD and GF, the Vsin i obtained with the linear law result in Vsin i values that are systematically smaller than those obtained with the other laws. As a rule of thumb, we apply these expressions to the FT method to evaluate the projected rotation velocity of the emission B-type star Achernar (α Eri).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Qinzhuo; Zhang, Dongxiao; Tchelepi, Hamdi
2017-06-01
In numerical modeling of subsurface flow and transport problems, formation properties may not be deterministically characterized, which leads to uncertainty in simulation results. In this study, we propose a sparse grid collocation method, which adopts nested quadrature rules with delay and transformation to quantify the uncertainty of model solutions. We show that the nested Kronrod-Patterson-Hermite quadrature is more efficient than the unnested Gauss-Hermite quadrature. We compare the convergence rates of various quadrature rules including the domain truncation and domain mapping approaches. To further improve accuracy and efficiency, we present a delayed process in selecting quadrature nodes and a transformed process for approximating unsmooth or discontinuous solutions. The proposed method is tested by an analytical function and in one-dimensional single-phase and two-phase flow problems with different spatial variances and correlation lengths. An additional example is given to demonstrate its applicability to three-dimensional black-oil models. It is found from these examples that the proposed method provides a promising approach for obtaining satisfactory estimation of the solution statistics and is much more efficient than the Monte-Carlo simulations.
A Fourier transform method for Vsin i estimations under nonlinear Limb-Darkening laws
Levenhagen, R. S.
2014-12-10
Star rotation offers us a large horizon for the study of many important physical issues pertaining to stellar evolution. Currently, four methods are widely used to infer rotation velocities, namely those related to line width calibrations, on the fitting of synthetic spectra, interferometry, and on Fourier transforms (FTs) of line profiles. Almost all of the estimations of stellar projected rotation velocities using the Fourier method in the literature have been addressed with the use of linear limb-darkening (LD) approximations during the evaluation of rotation profiles and their cosine FTs, which in certain cases, lead to discrepant velocity estimates. In this work, we introduce new mathematical expressions of rotation profiles and their Fourier cosine transforms assuming three nonlinear LD laws—quadratic, square-root, and logarithmic—and study their applications with and without gravity-darkening (GD) and geometrical flattening (GF) effects. Through an analysis of He I models in the visible range accounting for both limb and GD, we find out that, for classical models without rotationally driven effects, all the Vsin i values are too close to each other. On the other hand, taking into account GD and GF, the Vsin i obtained with the linear law result in Vsin i values that are systematically smaller than those obtained with the other laws. As a rule of thumb, we apply these expressions to the FT method to evaluate the projected rotation velocity of the emission B-type star Achernar (α Eri).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silenko, Alexander J.
2016-02-01
General properties of the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation which is widely used in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry are considered. Merits and demerits of the original Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation method are analyzed. While this method does not satisfy the Eriksen condition of the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, it can be corrected with the use of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. We show a possibility of such a correction and propose an appropriate algorithm of calculations. An applicability of the corrected Foldy-Wouthuysen method is restricted by the condition of convergence of a series of relativistic corrections.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arshad, Muhammad; Lu, Dianchen; Wang, Jun
2017-07-01
In this paper, we pursue the general form of the fractional reduced differential transform method (DTM) to (N+1)-dimensional case, so that fractional order partial differential equations (PDEs) can be resolved effectively. The most distinct aspect of this method is that no prescribed assumptions are required, and the huge computational exertion is reduced and round-off errors are also evaded. We utilize the proposed scheme on some initial value problems and approximate numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear time fractional PDEs are obtained, which shows that the method is highly accurate and simple to apply. The proposed technique is thus an influential technique for solving the fractional PDEs and fractional order problems occurring in the field of engineering, physics etc. Numerical results are obtained for verification and demonstration purpose by using Mathematica software.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, Trushit; Meher, Ramakanta
2017-09-01
In this paper, we consider a Roseland approximation to radiate heat transfer, Darcy's model to simulate the flow in porous media and finite-length fin with insulated tip to study the thermal performance and to predict the temperature distribution in a vertical isothermal surface. The energy balance equations of the porous fin with several temperature dependent properties are solved using the Adomian Decomposition Sumudu Transform Method (ADSTM). The effects of various thermophysical parameters, such as the convection-conduction parameter, Surface-ambient radiation parameter, Rayleigh numbers and Hartman number are determined. The results obtained from the ADSTM are further compared with the fourth-fifth order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method and Least Square Method(LSM) (Hoshyar et al. 2016 ) to determine the accuracy of the solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trautmann, L.; Petrausch, S.; Bauer, M.
2005-09-01
The functional transformation method (FTM) is an established mathematical method for accurate simulation of multidimensional physical systems from various fields of science, including optics, heat and mass transfer, electrical engineering, and acoustics. It is a frequency-domain method based on the decomposition into eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies of the underlying physical problem. In this article, the FTM is applied to real-time simulations of vibrating strings which are ideally fixed at one end while the fixing at the other end is modeled by a frequency-dependent input impedance. Thus, boundary conditions of third kind are applied to the model at the end fixed with the input impedance. It is shown that accurate and stable simulations are achieved with nearly the same computational cost as with strings ideally fixed at both ends.
Improved sensitivity testing of explosives using transformed Up-Down methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Geoffrey W.
2014-05-01
Sensitivity tests provide data that help establish guidelines for the safe handling of explosives. Any sensitivity test is based on assumptions to simplify the method or reduce the number of individual sample evaluations. Two common assumptions that are not typically checked after testing are 1) explosive response follows a normal distribution as a function of the applied stimulus levels and 2) the chosen test level spacing is close to the standard deviation of the explosive response function (for Bruceton Up-Down testing for example). These assumptions and other limitations of traditional explosive sensitivity testing can be addressed using Transformed Up-Down (TUD) test methods. TUD methods have been developed extensively for psychometric testing over the past 50 years and generally use multiple tests at a given level to determine how to adjust the applied stimulus. In the context of explosive sensitivity we can use TUD methods that concentrate testing around useful probability levels. Here, these methods are explained and compared to Bruceton Up-Down testing using computer simulation. The results show that the TUD methods are more useful for many cases but that they do require more tests as a consequence. For non-normal distributions, however, the TUD methods may be the only accurate assessment method.
Pillai, I; Ritchie, L; Heywood, R; Wilson, G; Pahlavanpour, B; Setford, S; Saini, S
2005-02-04
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are natural constituents of transformer oils and are essential in prolonging transformer in-service lifetime. Issues concerning PAH carcinogenicity demand methods that provide qualitative and quantitative information on the PAH composition of new and in-service oils to allow informed operational decisions to be made. However, current analytical methods focus on PAH fingerprinting, as opposed to quantitative analysis and are also cumbersome, relying on the use of large (>100 ml) volumes of organic solvents, some of which are hazardous. This paper reports a method for the improved quantification of carcinogenic PAHs in transformer oils that is both simple and repeatable. The method uses commercially available solid-phase extraction columns and millilitre volumes of relatively non-hazardous solvents. Extraction efficiencies of > or =74% were obtained for the Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs. The method has potential for automation and high-throughput analysis and thus is of interest to industries that use transformer oils.
Yang, Aifu; Su, Qiao; An, Lijia
2009-03-01
The presence of selectable marker genes and vector backbone sequences has affected the safe assessment of transgenic plants. In this study, the ovary-drip method for directly generating vector- and selectable marker-free transgenic plants was described, by which maize was transformed with a linear GFP cassette (Ubi-GFP-nos). The key features of this method center on the complete removal of the styles and the subsequent application of a DNA solution directly to the ovaries. The movement of the exogenous DNA was monitored using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled DNA, which showed that the time taken by the exogenous DNA to enter the ovaries was shortened compared to that of the pollen-tube pathway. This led to an improved transformation frequency of 3.38% compared to 0.86% for the pollen-tube pathway as determined by PCR analysis. The use of 0.05% surfactant Silwet L-77 + 5% sucrose as a transformation solution further increased the transformation frequency to 6.47%. Southern blot analysis showed that the transgenic plants had low transgene copy number and simple integration pattern. Green fluorescence was observed in roots and immature embryos of transgenic plants by fluorescence microscopy. Progeny analysis showed that GFP insertions were inherited in T(1) generation. The ovary-drip method would become a favorable choice for directly generating vector- and marker-free transgenic maize expressing functional genes of agronomic interest.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grgic, M.; Varga, M.; Bašić, T.
2015-12-01
Several coordinate transformation models enable performing of the coordinate transformations between the historical astro-geodetic datums, which were utilized before the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) technologies were developed, and datums related to the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS), which today are most often used to determine the position. The decision on the most appropriate coordinate transformation model is influenced by many factors, such as: required accuracy, available computational resources, possibility of the model application regarding the size and shape of the territory, coordinate distortion that very often exist in historical astro-geodetic datums, etc. This study is based on the geodetic data of the Republic of Croatia in both, historical and ITRS-related datum. It investigates different transformation models, including conformal Molodensky 3 parameters (p) and 5p (standard and abridged) transformation models, 7p transformation models (Bursa-Wolf and Molodensky-Badekas model), Affine transformation models (8p, 9p, 12p), and Multiple Regression Equation approach. Besides, it investigates the 7p, 8p, 9p, and 12p transformation models extended with distortion modeling, and the grid based only transformation model (NTv2 model). Furthermore, several distortion modeling methods were used to produce various models of distortion shifts in different resolutions. Thereafter, their performance and the performance of the transformation models was evaluated using summary statistics derived from the remained positional residuals that were computed for the independent control spatial data set. Lastly, the most appropriate method(s) of distortion modeling and most appropriate coordinate transformation model(s) were defined regarding the required accuracy for the Croatian case.
Method for simulating dose reduction in digital mammography using the Anscombe transformation.
Borges, Lucas R; Oliveira, Helder C R de; Nunes, Polyana F; Bakic, Predrag R; Maidment, Andrew D A; Vieira, Marcelo A C
2016-06-01
This work proposes an accurate method for simulating dose reduction in digital mammography starting from a clinical image acquired with a standard dose. The method developed in this work consists of scaling a mammogram acquired at the standard radiation dose and adding signal-dependent noise. The algorithm accounts for specific issues relevant in digital mammography images, such as anisotropic noise, spatial variations in pixel gain, and the effect of dose reduction on the detective quantum efficiency. The scaling process takes into account the linearity of the system and the offset of the detector elements. The inserted noise is obtained by acquiring images of a flat-field phantom at the standard radiation dose and at the simulated dose. Using the Anscombe transformation, a relationship is created between the calculated noise mask and the scaled image, resulting in a clinical mammogram with the same noise and gray level characteristics as an image acquired at the lower-radiation dose. The performance of the proposed algorithm was validated using real images acquired with an anthropomorphic breast phantom at four different doses, with five exposures for each dose and 256 nonoverlapping ROIs extracted from each image and with uniform images. The authors simulated lower-dose images and compared these with the real images. The authors evaluated the similarity between the normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and power spectrum (PS) of simulated images and real images acquired with the same dose. The maximum relative error was less than 2.5% for every ROI. The added noise was also evaluated by measuring the local variance in the real and simulated images. The relative average error for the local variance was smaller than 1%. A new method is proposed for simulating dose reduction in clinical mammograms. In this method, the dependency between image noise and image signal is addressed using a novel application of the Anscombe transformation. NNPS, PS, and local noise
Applications of Crank-Nicolson method with ADI in laser transformation hardening
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kartono, Agus; Tofany, Novan; Ahmad, Mohammad Fadhli; Mamat, Mustafa; Husain, Mohd Lokman
2012-12-01
A two-dimensional numerical solution for pulsed laser transformation hardening is developed using the finite difference method (FDM). The FDM has been developed using Crank-Nicolson scheme which solved by using alternating-direction implicit method. If this present model was compared to the analytical solution, then the Crank-Nicolson scheme showed better results in terms of accuracy, consistency, stability, convergence, and performance than to the explicit scheme. The longer heating duration, higher laser beam intensity, and greater number of pulse had influences on increasing the maximum temperature. The repetitive heating had influences on extending the heat duration and increasing the initial temperature of domain. The shorter cooling duration in repetitive pulse produced higher maximum temperature. The thinner material's thickness increased the cooling rate, which finally increased the possibility of austenite to transform into martensite phase. In addition, it was also found that the higher maximum temperature always reduced the cooling rate value when temperature cools down toward to the starting temperature of martensite formation. It reduced the possibility of martensite formation. It was also seen that the heat was conducted more effective to the axial direction than to the radial direction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baca, R. G.; Chung, J. N.; Mulla, D. J.
1997-03-01
A new computational method is developed for numerical solution of the Richards equation for flow in variably saturated porous media. The new method, referred to as the mixed transform finite element method, employs the mixed formulation of the Richards equation but expressed in terms of a partitioned transform. An iterative finite element algorithm is derived using a Newton-Galerkin weak statement. Specific advantages of the new method are demonstrated with applications to a set of one- dimensional test problems. Comparisons with the modified Picard method show that the new method produces more robust solutions for a broad range of soil- moisture regimes, including flow in desiccated soils, in heterogeneous media and in layered soils with formation of perched water zones. In addition, the mixed transform finite element method is shown to converge faster than the modified Picard method in a number of cases and to accurately represent pressure head and moisture content profiles with very steep fronts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ludanov, K. I.
The author proposes a new method for the transformation of solar radiation energy into electric power, which is alternative for photo-transformation. Ukrpatents's positive decisions are obtained for the method and for the installation for its realization. The method includes two phases: concentration of solar radiation by paraboloid mirrors with high potential heat obtaining in the helio receiver and the next heat transformation into electric power in the framework of the thermal cycle "high temperature electrolytic steam decomposition on the components (H2 and O2) + electrochemical generation by the way of the water recombination from H2 and O2 in the low temperature fuel cell". The new method gives the double superiority in comparison with the photo-transformation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Lian-Jun; Yang, Jing; Cheng, Jian-Chun
2005-04-01
A method based on a combination of wavelet transform (WT) and artificial neural networks (ANN) is presented to evaluate the cohesive quality in bonded plates using laser-generated guided waves in two-layer composite plates. The transient waveforms obtained by numerical simulations are taken as the sample database of ANN for training and learning, and the WT is used to extract the eigenvectors from the guided wave signals to simplify the structure of the ANN. The researches show that it is available to classify three kinds of interfaces, as the rigid, the weak and the slip interfaces of the adhesive layer. As to the weak interface situation, a more detailed quantitative work proves the effectiveness of the inversion of stiffness coefficients from the transient guided waves. This method provides a new promising way for the characterization of the cohesive quality in bonded plates by laser-generated guided wave detection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trautmann, L.; Rabenstein, R.
2004-12-01
The functional transformation method (FTM) is a well-established mathematical method for accurate simulations of multidimensional physical systems from various fields of science, including optics, heat and mass transfer, electrical engineering, and acoustics. This paper applies the FTM to real-time simulations of transversal vibrating strings. First, a physical model of a transversal vibrating lossy and dispersive string is derived. Afterwards, this model is solved with the FTM for two cases: the ideally linearly vibrating string and the string interacting nonlinearly with the frets. It is shown that accurate and stable simulations can be achieved with the discretization of the continuous solution at audio rate. Both simulations can also be performed with a multirate approach with only minor degradations of the simulation accuracy but with preservation of stability. This saves almost 80% of the computational cost for the simulation of a six-string guitar and therefore it is in the range of the computational cost for digital waveguide simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Zhili; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Kuixia; Chen, Xudong; Chen, Mingyu; Pu, Jixiong
2016-06-01
For an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) system, the light intensity distribution in the hohlraum is key to the initial plasma excitation and later laser-plasma interaction process. Based on the concept of coordinate transformation of spatial points and vector, we present a robust method with a detailed procedure that makes the calculation of the three dimensional (3D) light intensity distribution in hohlraum easily. The method is intuitive but powerful enough to solve the complex cases of random number of laser beams with arbitrary polarization states and incidence angles. Its application is exemplified in the Shenguang III Facility (SG-III) that verifies its effectiveness and it is useful for guiding the design of hohlraum structure parameter.
Rieppo, Jarno; Hyttinen, Mika M; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Helminen, Heikki J
2004-01-01
Fourier transform infrared imaging (FT-IRI) is a novel technique for characterization of the biochemical composition of biological tissues, e.g., articular cartilage. The use of cryosections is preferred in FT-IRI. Unfortunately, significant variation in section thickness often impairs the suitability of cryosections for quantitative FT-IRI analysis. The present study introduces an inexpensive reference sample method for quantitative analysis. In this technique, specimen absorption is normalized with that of nitrocellulose membrane embedded and cryosectioned with the sample. Mean variation of the infrared absorption in cartilage specimens was 11.5%, 12.1%, and 20.6% for 5 microm, 10 microm, and 14 microm thick sections, respectively, without normalization. Normalization reduced the variation to 5.2%, 4.0%, and 4.6% for the same sections, respectively. The normalization method enables usage of cryosections for quantitative work and significantly reduces the cost and time needed for FT-IRI analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Yingjie; Zhang, Jinhai; Yao, Zhenxing
2016-06-01
The symplectic integration method is popular in high-accuracy numerical simulations when discretizing temporal derivatives; however, it still suffers from time-dispersion error when the temporal interval is coarse, especially for long-term simulations and large-scale models. We employ the inverse time dispersion transform (ITDT) to the third-order symplectic integration method to reduce the time-dispersion error. First, we adopt the pseudospectral algorithm for the spatial discretization and the third-order symplectic integration method for the temporal discretization. Then, we apply the ITDT to eliminate time-dispersion error from the synthetic data. As a post-processing method, the ITDT can be easily cascaded in traditional numerical simulations. We implement the ITDT in one typical exiting third-order symplectic scheme and compare its performances with the performances of the conventional second-order scheme and the rapid expansion method. Theoretical analyses and numerical experiments show that the ITDT can significantly reduce the time-dispersion error, especially for long travel times. The implementation of the ITDT requires some additional computations on correcting the time-dispersion error, but it allows us to use the maximum temporal interval under stability conditions; thus, its final computational efficiency would be higher than that of the traditional symplectic integration method for long-term simulations. With the aid of the ITDT, we can obtain much more accurate simulation results but with a lower computational cost.
An accelerated hologram calculation using the wavefront recording plane method and wavelet transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arai, Daisuke; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Nishitsuji, Takashi; Kakue, Takashi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi
2017-06-01
Fast hologram calculation methods are critical in real-time holography applications such as three-dimensional (3D) displays. We recently proposed a wavelet transform-based hologram calculation called WASABI. Even though WASABI can decrease the calculation time of a hologram from a point cloud, it increases the calculation time with increasing propagation distance. We also proposed a wavefront recoding plane (WRP) method. This is a two-step fast hologram calculation in which the first step calculates the superposition of light waves emitted from a point cloud in a virtual plane, and the second step performs a diffraction calculation from the virtual plane to the hologram plane. A drawback of the WRP method is in the first step when the point cloud has a large number of object points and/or a long distribution in the depth direction. In this paper, we propose a method combining WASABI and the WRP method in which the drawbacks of each can be complementarily solved. Using a consumer CPU, the proposed method succeeded in performing a hologram calculation with 2048 × 2048 pixels from a 3D object with one million points in approximately 0.4 s.
Research on preprocessing method of tractor wheel speed signal based on wavelet transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhili, Zhou; Yao, Liu; Liyou, Xu
2017-09-01
As one of the most important parameters in the measurement of tractor slip ratio, wheel speed signal must ensure its accuracy in order to accurately measure the tractor slip ratio. Noises make tractor wheel speed signal a significant fluctuation, which may cause control system failure. Fault points elimination method suitable for tractor wheel speed signal was determined based on the characteristics of tractor wheel speed signal during working process. Meanwhile, soft-hard compromise threshold function wavelet denoising method is designed according to the characteristics of tractor wheel speed signal and trials. We use Carsim simulation software to get actual tractor wheel speed signal, and add white noise which SNR (signal to noise ratio) is 60 to the original signal. From the results of several wavelet denoising methods we can conclude that the soft-hard compromise threshold function wavelet denoising method is better than any other ordinary wavelet denoising methods. The SNR of denoised signal is 56.440 and the MSE (mean square error) is 0.0042. The wavelet transform denoising method is feasible to remove noise from tractor driving wheel speed signal.
W-transform method for feature-oriented multiresolution image retrieval
Kwong, M.K.; Lin, B.
1995-07-01
Image database management is important in the development of multimedia technology. Since an enormous amount of digital images is likely to be generated within the next few decades in order to integrate computers, television, VCR, cables, telephone and various imaging devices. Effective image indexing and retrieval systems are urgently needed so that images can be easily organized, searched, transmitted, and presented. Here, the authors present a local-feature-oriented image indexing and retrieval method based on Kwong, and Tang`s W-transform. Multiresolution histogram comparison is an effective method for content-based image indexing and retrieval. However, most recent approaches perform multiresolution analysis for whole images but do not exploit the local features present in the images. Since W-transform is featured by its ability to handle images of arbitrary size, with no periodicity assumptions, it provides a natural tool for analyzing local image features and building indexing systems based on such features. In this approach, the histograms of the local features of images are used in the indexing, system. The system not only can retrieve images that are similar or identical to the query images but also can retrieve images that contain features specified in the query images, even if the retrieved images as a whole might be very different from the query images. The local-feature-oriented method also provides a speed advantage over the global multiresolution histogram comparison method. The feature-oriented approach is expected to be applicable in managing large-scale image systems such as video databases and medical image databases.
Hallisey, Elaine; Tai, Eric; Berens, Andrew; Wilt, Grete; Peipins, Lucy; Lewis, Brian; Graham, Shannon; Flanagan, Barry; Lunsford, Natasha Buchanan
2017-08-07
Transforming spatial data from one scale to another is a challenge in geographic analysis. As part of a larger, primary study to determine a possible association between travel barriers to pediatric cancer facilities and adolescent cancer mortality across the United States, we examined methods to estimate mortality within zones at varying distances from these facilities: (1) geographic centroid assignment, (2) population-weighted centroid assignment, (3) simple areal weighting, (4) combined population and areal weighting, and (5) geostatistical areal interpolation. For the primary study, we used county mortality counts from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and population data by census tract for the United States to estimate zone mortality. In this paper, to evaluate the five mortality estimation methods, we employed address-level mortality data from the state of Georgia in conjunction with census data. Our objective here is to identify the simplest method that returns accurate mortality estimates. The distribution of Georgia county adolescent cancer mortality counts mirrors the Poisson distribution of the NCHS counts for the U.S. Likewise, zone value patterns, along with the error measures of hierarchy and fit, are similar for the state and the nation. Therefore, Georgia data are suitable for methods testing. The mean absolute value arithmetic differences between the observed counts for Georgia and the five methods were 5.50, 5.00, 4.17, 2.74, and 3.43, respectively. Comparing the methods through paired t-tests of absolute value arithmetic differences showed no statistical difference among the methods. However, we found a strong positive correlation (r = 0.63) between estimated Georgia mortality rates and combined weighting rates at zone level. Most importantly, Bland-Altman plots indicated acceptable agreement between paired arithmetic differences of Georgia rates and combined population and areal weighting rates. This research contributes to
2013-01-01
Background Lepidium campestre is an undomesticated oilseed species with a great potential to become a new crop for both food and industrial feedstocks production. Genetic modification is needed for further improving the oil quantity and quality of Lepidium. Studies on in vitro shoot regeneration of Lepidium are very limited and there is no transformation protocol available. Results We have investigated the effects of different factors, especially the type, concentration and combination of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro shoot regeneration of Lepidium. The results showed that the 2,4-D treatment was crucial to shoot regeneration from different explants. The duration of 2,4-D exposure between 2-4 days did not show significant difference in shoot regeneration, while the effect of 2,4-D concentration varied greatly depending on the type of explants and cytokinins used, for example, the low concentration of 2,4-D combined with TDZ significantly increased the regeneration frequency of hypocotyls. Cotyledon and hypocotyl explants responded differently to cytokinin, for example, TDZ was more effective than zeatin in promoting shoot regeneration from hypocotyls, but did not affect the regeneration of cotyledons which was more affected by high concentration of zeatin. The results also showed that NAA was not effective for shoot regeneration. Germination in light increased the regeneration frequency compared to that in dark. After optimization of the different conditions, an efficient regeneration protocol was developed with the regeneration efficiency of 92.7%. Using this protocol, the transformation frequency of 6% in average was achieved. The presence of transgenes in the transgenic lines was confirmed by GUS staining, PCR and Southern blot analyses. Conclusion Through systematic investigation of important factors affecting in vitro shoot regeneration, we have developed an efficient regeneration and transformation protocol for the genetic modification of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Messer, Sheila R.; Agzarian, John; Abbott, Derek
2001-05-01
Phonocardiograms (PCGs) have many advantages over traditional auscultation (listening to the heart) because they may be replayed, may be analyzed for spectral and frequency content, and frequencies inaudible to the human ear may be recorded. However, various sources of noise may pollute a PCG including lung sounds, environmental noise and noise generated from contact between the recording device and the skin. Because PCG signals are known to be nonlinear and it is often not possible to determine their noise content, traditional de-noising methods may not be effectively applied. However, other methods including wavelet de-noising, wavelet packet de-noising and averaging can be employed to de-noise the PCG. This study examines and compares these de-noising methods. This study answers such questions as to which de-noising method gives a better SNR, the magnitude of signal information that is lost as a result of the de-noising process, the appropriate uses of the different methods down to such specifics as to which wavelets and decomposition levels give best results in wavelet and wavelet packet de-noising. In general, the wavelet and wavelet packet de-noising performed roughly equally with optimal de-noising occurring at 3-5 levels of decomposition. Averaging also proved a highly useful de- noising technique; however, in some cases averaging is not appropriate. The Hilbert Transform is used to illustrate the results of the de-noising process and to extract instantaneous features including instantaneous amplitude, frequency, and phase.
Malterud, K
1994-06-01
A clinical communicative method designed to promote the doctor's understanding of women's "undefined" disorders is presented and discussed. The method is composed of key questions, which are problem-oriented speech acts, inviting the patient to share with the doctor her conception of illness. The questions are directed towards specific clinical problems, and are not meant as global devices for better doctor-patient communication in general. The clinical method is the outcome of a procedure where key questions are systematically developed. The procedure starts with individual successful communicative experiences and moves towards questions that are applicable towards various patients presenting the actual clinical problem. The procedure is described qualitatively, and delivers cues from which the modes of asking can be adjusted and employed by other doctors. The procedure consists of these steps: 1) declaring the clinical problem for investigation, 2) specifying a relevant communicative intention, 3) assigning fertile themes of knowledge, 4) identifying an efficacious utterance for further refinement, and 5) expanding the validity of the utterance. By making visible, systematizing and refining the doctor's tacit conversational skills, the clinical method represents a model for transforming individual clinical experiences into medical knowledge. Premises for generalization of the method towards clinical problems beyond women's "undefined" disorders are discussed.
Analysis of trabecular bone texture by modified Hurst orientation transform method.
Podsiadlo, P; Stachowiak, G W
2002-04-01
There is a growing need for noninvasive and inexpensive methods that can effectively be used on a large scale, to detect an onset of early osteoarthritis in human knee joints. Of many possible options, fractal analysis of two-dimensional projection x-ray images of trabecular bone (TB) texture, appears as one of the best approaches. However, there are some problems associated with the characterization of the roughness and anisotropy of the bone texture. To resolve these problems, a modified Hurst orientation transform (HOT) method, previously developed by the authors, has been used in this study. The advantages of the HOT method over other techniques used to analyze bone texture, are that it calculates a two-dimensional fractal dimension in all possible directions and also provides a measure of anisotropy for both surfaces exhibiting strong anisotropy and surfaces exhibiting weak anisotropy. In this study, the accuracy of the HOT method in measuring the bone texture roughness and anisotropy; together with the effects of image noise, blur, exposure, magnification, and projection angle on its performance were investigated. Computer-generated images of fractal surfaces and x-ray images obtained for a human tibia head were used. Results obtained show that the HOT method can effectively be used to characterize the roughness and anisotropy (isotropy) of TB texture.
Fujita, Yurika; Kasamatsu, Toshio; Ikeda, Naohiro; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Honda, Hiroshi
2016-01-15
Although in vitro chromosomal aberration tests and micronucleus tests have been widely used for genotoxicity evaluation, false-positive results have been reported under strong cytotoxic conditions. To reduce false-positive results, the new Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline (TG) recommends the use of a new cytotoxicity index, relative increase in cell count or relative population doubling (RICC/RPD), instead of the traditionally used index, relative cell count (RCC). Although the use of the RICC/RPD may result in different outcomes and require re-evaluation of tested substances, it is impractical to re-evaluate all existing data. Therefore, we established a method to estimate test results from existing RCC data. First, we developed formulae to estimate RICC/RPD from RCC without cell counts by considering cell doubling time and experiment time. Next, the accuracy of the cytotoxicity index transformation formulae was verified by comparing estimated RICC/RPD and measured RICC/RPD for 3 major chemicals associated with false-positive genotoxicity test results: ethyl acrylate, eugenol and p-nitrophenol. Moreover, 25 compounds with false-positive in vitro chromosomal aberration (CA) test results were re-evaluated to establish a retrospective evaluation method based on derived estimated RICC/RPD values. The estimated RICC/RPD values were in good agreement with the measured RICC/RPD values for every concentration and chemical, and the estimated RICC suggested the possibility that 12 chemicals (48%) with previously judged false-positive results in fact had negative results. Our method enables transformation of RCC data into RICC/RPD values with a high degree of accuracy and will facilitate comprehensive retrospective evaluation of test results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ashcraft, C. Chace; Niederhaus, John Henry; Robinson, Allen C.
2016-01-29
We present a verification and validation analysis of a coordinate-transformation-based numerical solution method for the two-dimensional axisymmetric magnetic diffusion equation, implemented in the finite-element simulation code ALEGRA. The transformation, suggested by Melissen and Simkin, yields an equation set perfectly suited for linear finite elements and for problems with large jumps in material conductivity near the axis. The verification analysis examines transient magnetic diffusion in a rod or wire in a very low conductivity background by first deriving an approximate analytic solution using perturbation theory. This approach for generating a reference solution is shown to be not fully satisfactory. A specialized approach for manufacturing an exact solution is then used to demonstrate second-order convergence under spatial refinement and tem- poral refinement. For this new implementation, a significant improvement relative to previously available formulations is observed. Benefits in accuracy for computed current density and Joule heating are also demonstrated. The validation analysis examines the circuit-driven explosion of a copper wire using resistive magnetohydrodynamics modeling, in comparison to experimental tests. The new implementation matches the accuracy of the existing formulation, with both formulations capturing the experimental burst time and action to within approximately 2%.
Lifting of the Vlasov-Maxwell Bracket by Lie-transform Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brizard, A. J.; Morrison, P. J.; Burby, J. W.
2016-10-01
The Vlasov-Maxwell equations possess a Hamiltonian structure expressed in terms of a Hamiltonian functional and a functional bracket. The transformation (``lift'') of the Vlasov-Maxwell bracket induced by the dynamical reduction of single-particle dynamics is investigated when the reduction is carried out by Lie-transform perturbation methods. The ultimate goal of this work is to derive explicit Hamiltonian formulations for the guiding-center and gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell equations that have important applications in our understanding of turbulent magnetized plasmas. In particular, we investigate how the Hamiltonian properties of the reduced Vlasov-Maxwell bracket survive (1) the closure problem: the process of truncation of the guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell bracket at a finite order in ɛ (so far expressions have been derived at all orders in ɛ) and (2) the averaging problem: the process by which which the gyroangle is eliminated from the guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell bracket (since guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell equations do not involve the fast gyromotion time scale). Work supported by Grants from US DoE.
High-throughput transformation method for Yarrowia lipolytica mutant library screening.
Leplat, Christophe; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Rossignol, Tristan
2015-09-01
As a microorganism of major biotechnological importance, the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is subjected to intensive genetic engineering and functional genomic analysis. Future advancements in this area, however, require a system that will generate a large collection of mutants for high-throughput screening. Here, we report a rapid and efficient method for high-throughput transformation of Y. lipolytica in 96-well plates. We developed plasmids and strains for the large-scale screening of overexpression mutant strains, using Gateway® vectors that were adapted for specific locus integration in Y. lipolytica. As an example, a collection of mutants that overexpressed the alkaline extracellular protease (AEP) was obtained in a single transformation experiment. The platform strain that we developed to receive the overexpression cassette was designed to constitutively express a fluorescent protein as a convenient growth reporter for screening in non-translucid media. An example of growth comparison in skim milk-based medium between AEP overexpression and deletion mutants is provided.
Method for simulating dose reduction in digital mammography using the Anscombe transformation
Borges, Lucas R.; de Oliveira, Helder C. R.; Nunes, Polyana F.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Vieira, Marcelo A. C.
2016-01-01
Purpose: This work proposes an accurate method for simulating dose reduction in digital mammography starting from a clinical image acquired with a standard dose. Methods: The method developed in this work consists of scaling a mammogram acquired at the standard radiation dose and adding signal-dependent noise. The algorithm accounts for specific issues relevant in digital mammography images, such as anisotropic noise, spatial variations in pixel gain, and the effect of dose reduction on the detective quantum efficiency. The scaling process takes into account the linearity of the system and the offset of the detector elements. The inserted noise is obtained by acquiring images of a flat-field phantom at the standard radiation dose and at the simulated dose. Using the Anscombe transformation, a relationship is created between the calculated noise mask and the scaled image, resulting in a clinical mammogram with the same noise and gray level characteristics as an image acquired at the lower-radiation dose. Results: The performance of the proposed algorithm was validated using real images acquired with an anthropomorphic breast phantom at four different doses, with five exposures for each dose and 256 nonoverlapping ROIs extracted from each image and with uniform images. The authors simulated lower-dose images and compared these with the real images. The authors evaluated the similarity between the normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and power spectrum (PS) of simulated images and real images acquired with the same dose. The maximum relative error was less than 2.5% for every ROI. The added noise was also evaluated by measuring the local variance in the real and simulated images. The relative average error for the local variance was smaller than 1%. Conclusions: A new method is proposed for simulating dose reduction in clinical mammograms. In this method, the dependency between image noise and image signal is addressed using a novel application of the Anscombe
A novel analysis method for near infrared spectroscopy based on Hilbert-Huang transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Zhenyu; Yang, Hongyu; Liu, Yun; Ruan, Zongcai; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui; Lu, Zuhong
2007-05-01
Near Infrared Imager (NIRI) has been widely used to access the brain functional activity non-invasively. We use a portable, multi-channel and continuous-wave NIR topography instrument to measure the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species and map cerebral cortex functional activation. By extracting some essential features from the BOLD signals, optical tomography is able to be a new way of neuropsychological studies. Fourier spectral analysis provides a common framework for examining the distribution of global energy in the frequency domain. However, this method assumes that the signal should be stationary, which limits its application in non-stationary system. The hemoglobin species concentration changes are of such kind. In this work we develop a new signal processing method using Hilbert-Huang transform to perform spectral analysis of the functional NIRI signals. Compared with wavelet based multi-resolution analysis (MRA), we demonstrated the extraction of task related signal for observation of activation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in vision stimulation experiment. This method provides a new analysis tool for functional NIRI signals. Our experimental results show that the proposed approach provides the unique method for reconstructing target signal without losing original information and enables us to understand the episode of functional NIRI more precisely.
Spectral transform methods for solving the shallow-water equations on the sphere
Swarztrauber, P.N.
1996-04-01
The accuracy of computed solutions to several formulations of the shallow-water equations is compared. The shallow-water equations can be written in a number of different forms that are obtained by (a) combining terms into differential expressions; (b) raising the order of the differential equations, for example, the vorticity-divergence formulation, and (c) transforming both independent and dependent variables. Although the exact solutions to the formulations are identical, the properties of the computed solutions vary depending on the formulation and the method of solution. Nine methods are examined, all of which provide satisfactory accuracy for a steady-state test case. The exact solution corresponds to a steady zonal wind that is tilted relative to the computational spherical coordinate system. The resulting wind passes over the North Pole, providing a test of the `pole problem.` Computational details are presented as well as the accuracy of a 5-day computation in both 32- and 64-bit arithmetic. Stability and accuracy are shown to depend on the polar smoothing induced by resynthesis, which is also the accepted method for eliminating nonlinear aliasing. Eight of the nine methods mimic the exact solution by computing a numerical steady-state solution. 19 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.
Greene, Samuel M; Batista, Victor S
2017-09-12
We introduce the "tensor-train split-operator Fourier transform" (TT-SOFT) method for simulations of multidimensional nonadiabatic quantum dynamics. TT-SOFT is essentially the grid-based SOFT method implemented in dynamically adaptive tensor-train representations. In the same spirit of all matrix product states, the tensor-train format enables the representation, propagation, and computation of observables of multidimensional wave functions in terms of the grid-based wavepacket tensor components, bypassing the need of actually computing the wave function in its full-rank tensor product grid space. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the TT-SOFT method as applied to propagation of 24-dimensional wave packets, describing the S1/S2 interconversion dynamics of pyrazine after UV photoexcitation to the S2 state. Our results show that the TT-SOFT method is a powerful computational approach for simulations of quantum dynamics of polyatomic systems since it avoids the exponential scaling problem of full-rank grid-based representations.
Mitz, Charles; Thome, Christopher; Thompson, Jeroen; Manzon, Richard G; Wilson, Joanna Y; Boreham, Douglas R
2017-04-01
We present a method to characterize variable thermal regimes in terms of an equivalent or effective temperature. Our method is based on a first order exponential transformation of a time series of temperatures to yield an exponentially-weighted mean temperature characteristic of the regime and independent of any particular species or end point. The resulting effective temperature or exponential mean, Te¯, offers an improved method for summarizing mean temperature where biological response scales exponentially to temperature. The exponential mean allows growth under varying thermal regimes to be predicted using constant temperature models and offers a compact descriptor communicating the growth capacity of variable thermal regimes. The method combines mathematical simplicity with translatability to different Q10 values without recourse to the underlining time series data. It also provides a quantitative baseline that improves on mean temperature by incorporating the effect of Jensen's inequality and it remains applicable at near zero temperatures where thermal sums lack accuracy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
A new method to calculate the beam charge for an integrating current transformer
Wu Yuchi; Han Dan; Zhu Bin; Dong Kegong; Tan Fang; Gu Yuqiu
2012-09-15
The integrating current transformer (ICT) is a magnetic sensor widely used to precisely measure the charge of an ultra-short-pulse charged particle beam generated by traditional accelerators and new laser-plasma particle accelerators. In this paper, we present a new method to calculate the beam charge in an ICT based on circuit analysis. The output transfer function shows an invariable signal profile for an ultra-short electron bunch, so the function can be used to evaluate the signal quality and calculate the beam charge through signal fitting. We obtain a set of parameters in the output function from a standard signal generated by an ultra-short electron bunch (about 1 ps in duration) at a radio frequency linear electron accelerator at Tsinghua University. These parameters can be used to obtain the beam charge by signal fitting with excellent accuracy.
Dziopa, Florian; Galy, Guillaume; Bauler, Stephanie; Vincent, Benoit; Crochon, Sarah; Tall, Mamadou Lamine; Pirot, Fabrice; Pivot, Christine
2013-06-01
Chemotherapy products in hospitals include a reconstitution step of manufactured drugs providing an adapted dosage to each patient. The administration of highly iatrogenic drugs raises the question of patients' safety and treatment efficiency. In order to reduce administration errors due to faulty preparations, we introduced a new qualitative and quantitative routine control based on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. This automated method enabled fast and specific control for 14 anticancer drugs. A 1.2 mL sample was used to assay and identify each preparation in less than 90 sec. Over a two-year period, 9370 controlled infusion bags showed a 1.49% nonconformity rate, under 15% tolerance from the theoretical concentration and 96% minimum identification matching factor. This study evaluated the reliability of the control process, as well as its accordance to chemotherapy deliverance requirements. Thus, corrective measures were defined to improve the control process.
A hybrid group method of data handling with discrete wavelet transform for GDP forecasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isa, Nadira Mohamed; Shabri, Ani
2013-09-01
This study is proposed the application of hybridization model using Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) in time series forecasting. The objective of this paper is to examine the flexibility of the hybridization GMDH in time series forecasting by using Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A time series data set is used in this study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the forecasting model. This data are utilized to forecast through an application aimed to handle real life time series. This experiment compares the performances of a hybrid model and a single model of Wavelet-Linear Regression (WR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and conventional GMDH. It is shown that the proposed model can provide a promising alternative technique in GDP forecasting.
Decoupling the NLO-coupled QED⊗QCD, DGLAP evolution equations, using Laplace transform method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mottaghizadeh, Marzieh; Eslami, Parvin; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh
2017-05-01
We analytically solved the QED⊗QCD-coupled DGLAP evolution equations at leading order (LO) quantum electrodynamics (QED) and next-to-leading order (NLO) quantum chromodynamics (QCD) approximations, using the Laplace transform method and then computed the proton structure function in terms of the unpolarized parton distribution functions. Our analytical solutions for parton densities are in good agreement with those from CT14QED (1.2952 < Q2 < 1010) (Ref. 6) global parametrizations and APFEL (A PDF Evolution Library) (2 < Q2 < 108) (Ref. 4). We also compared the proton structure function, F2p(x,Q2), with the experimental data released by the ZEUS and H1 collaborations at HERA. There is a nice agreement between them in the range of low and high x and Q2.
Fukuda, Yoshiyuki; Schrod, Nikolas; Schaffer, Miroslava; Feng, Li Rebekah; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Lucic, Vladan
2014-08-01
Correlative microscopy allows imaging of the same feature over multiple length scales, combining light microscopy with high resolution information provided by electron microscopy. We demonstrate two procedures for coordinate transformation based correlative microscopy of vitrified biological samples applicable to different imaging modes. The first procedure aims at navigating cryo-electron tomography to cellular regions identified by fluorescent labels. The second procedure, allowing navigation of focused ion beam milling to fluorescently labeled molecules, is based on the introduction of an intermediate scanning electron microscopy imaging step to overcome the large difference between cryo-light microscopy and focused ion beam imaging modes. These methods make it possible to image fluorescently labeled macromolecular complexes in their natural environments by cryo-electron tomography, while minimizing exposure to the electron beam during the search for features of interest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Isospin-violating nucleon-nucleon forces using the method of unitary transformation
Evgeny Epelbaum; Ulf-G. Meissner
2005-02-01
Recently, we have derived the leading and subleading isospin-breaking three-nucleon forces using the method of unitary transformation. In the present work we extend this analysis and consider the corresponding two-nucleon forces using the same approach. Certain contributions to the isospin-violating one- and two-pion exchange potential have already been discussed by various groups within the effective field theory framework. Our findings agree with the previously obtained results. In addition, we present the expressions for the subleading charge-symmetry-breaking two-pion exchange potential which were not considered before. These corrections turn out to be numerically important. Together with the three-nucleon force results presented in our previous work, the results of the present study specify completely isospin-violating nuclear force up to the order {Lambda}{sup 5}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teranishi, Kenji; Suzuki, Susumu; Itoh, Haruo
2004-09-01
A novel generation method of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) using a piezoelectric transformer (PT) is proposed. Spatio-temporal variations of microdischarges were investigated and discussed on the basis of the observations using a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. As an example of a practical application of the DBD to a plasma reactor, an ozonizer using the PT was developed and ozone productions were performed in air and oxygen. Maximum ozone concentrations of 3.38 and 20.3 g/Nm3 were obtained in air and oxygen, respectively. The ozonizer can be designed in a compact configuration and driven with low applied voltages because the PT serves as both a high-voltage generator and a discharge electrode.
Instrumental phase-based method for Fourier transform spectrometer measurements processing
Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco
2011-04-20
Phase correction is a critical procedure for most space-borne Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) whose accuracy (owing to often poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) can be jeopardized from many uncontrollable environmental conditions. This work considers the phase correction in an FTS working under significant temperature change during the measurement and affected by mechanical disturbances. The implemented method is based on the identification of an instrumental phase that is dependent on the interferometer temperature and on the extraction of a linear phase component through a least-squares approach. The use of an instrumental phase parameterized with the interferometer temperature eases the determination of the linear phase that can be extracted using only a narrow spectral region selected to be immune from disturbances. The procedure, in this way, is made robust against phase errors arising from instrumental effects, a key feature to reduce the disturbances through spectra averaging. The method was specifically developed for the Mars IR Mapper spectrometer, that was designed for operation onboard a rover on the Mars surface; the validation was performed using ground and in-flight measurements of the Fourier transform IR spectrometer planetary Fourier spectrometer, onboard the MarsExpress mission. The symmetrization has been exploited also for the spectra calibration, highlighting the issues deriving from the cases of relevant beamsplitter emission. The applicability of this procedure to other instruments is conditional to the presence in the spectra of at least one spectral region with a large SNR along with a negligible (or known) beamsplitter emission. For the PFS instrument, the processing of data with relevant beamsplitter emission has been performed exploiting the absorption carbon dioxide bands present in Martian spectra.
Application of the contact transformation method to torsional problems in methyl silane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.; Ozier, I.
1987-11-01
The effect of the torsional degree of freedom on redundancies in the Hamiltonian and on the dipole operator has been investigated for methyl silane-like molecules. By applying a rotational contact transformation to the torsion-rotation Hamiltonian HTR for the ground vibrational state, a systematic method is demonstrated for treating the redundancies that relate different terms in HTR. In general, with this method, the experimentally accessible molecular parameters in the reduced Hamiltonian can be related to the physically significant molecular parameters in the untransformed Hamiltonian. It is shown that HTR contains a new term which has matrix elements with selection rules (Δ K = ±3), (Δ σ = 0), and Δ vT arbitrary, where vT and σ label the torsional levels and sublevels, respectively. As a result of this term, the distortion dipole constant μD which characterizes (Δ K = ±3) matrix elements in C3 v molecules cannot, in systems like CH 3SiH 3, be ascribed entirely to centrifugal distortion but can contain a significant contribution from torsional effects. Furthermore, new transitions can appear in the pure torsional bands which may be strong enough to observe in low barrier molecules. By applying a vibrational contact transformation, the form is derived of the leading torsional terms in the dipole moment expansion. The four dipole distortion constants μ0T, μ2T, μ|;T, and μΛT which characterize these terms are related to the molecular parameters that enter the Coriolis, centrifugal distortion, and anharmonicity contributions to the vibration-torsion-rotation Hamiltonian.
A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply
Yang, L.; Yang, J. Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Chen, D. Z.
2014-06-15
An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Shengqian; Liu, Siqi; Yuan, Fei; Zheng, Zhenrong
2017-01-01
Since optical distortion has been a big trouble for various kinds of imaging systems, finding a simple correction method with wide applications is of significant importance. In this paper, we propose a unified and simple correction method, performing well for both photographic and projective imaging systems. The basic idea is regarding the optical distortion as geometrical deformation between the object and image, without considering the specific features of an optical system. First of all, a calibration template is employed to establish the geometrical transformation model (GTM) for the distortion of a built optical system. Two alternative algorithms are given to estimate the GTM in algebraic form. The computation is very simple because no intrinsic parameters of the optical system are needed to establish the GTM. Besides, the errors introduced by the fabricating and assembling process can be eliminated. Then, the corrected image of the photographic system or the pre-distorted image of the projective systems can be obtained accordingly utilizing the GTM. Experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method with wide applications.
A stochastic Galerkin method for the Euler equations with Roe variable transformation
Pettersson, Per; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Nordström, Jan
2014-01-15
The Euler equations subject to uncertainty in the initial and boundary conditions are investigated via the stochastic Galerkin approach. We present a new fully intrusive method based on a variable transformation of the continuous equations. Roe variables are employed to get quadratic dependence in the flux function and a well-defined Roe average matrix that can be determined without matrix inversion. In previous formulations based on generalized polynomial chaos expansion of the physical variables, the need to introduce stochastic expansions of inverse quantities, or square roots of stochastic quantities of interest, adds to the number of possible different ways to approximate the original stochastic problem. We present a method where the square roots occur in the choice of variables, resulting in an unambiguous problem formulation. The Roe formulation saves computational cost compared to the formulation based on expansion of conservative variables. Moreover, the Roe formulation is more robust and can handle cases of supersonic flow, for which the conservative variable formulation fails to produce a bounded solution. For certain stochastic basis functions, the proposed method can be made more effective and well-conditioned. This leads to increased robustness for both choices of variables. We use a multi-wavelet basis that can be chosen to include a large number of resolution levels to handle more extreme cases (e.g. strong discontinuities) in a robust way. For smooth cases, the order of the polynomial representation can be increased for increased accuracy.
Discrete Wavelet Transform Method for High Flux n-γ Discrimination With Liquid Scintillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Harleen; Mehra, Rohit
2017-07-01
A Novel method based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for n-γ discrimination in high radiation flux is presented. We investigated the behavior of higher order wavelets from different families such as the Daubechies family, symlets, and coiflet type wavelets for pulse shape discrimination. A DWT-based average pulse analysis of neutron and γ-ray pulses suggests less sensitivity of db2, db3, sym4, and coif1 wavelets over the widely used Haar wavelet and the charge comparison method for the pile-up events. The DWT method with proposed wavelets is applied to a mixed radiation field at an energy threshold of 500 keVee obtained from an americium-beryllium source exposed to BC501 liquid scintillator which was coupled to a 12-b digital oscilloscope with sampling rate of 2.5 GSamples/s. The proposed wavelets require a short processing gate and are more suitable when applied to high count rate measurement with large fraction of pile-up events in the data set. Furthermore, these wavelets are very stable toward the variation in the width of processing gate in DWT. This feature is very helpful in the optimization of processing gate for the real-time applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aono, Yuko; Sakurai, Junpei; Shimokohbe, Akira; Hata, Seiichi
2011-06-01
A novel characterization method for the two-way martensitic transformation temperatures of thin-film shape memory alloys (SMAs) is proposed. The method uses thermography to detect the transformation as a change in emissivity. The proposed method was demonstrated for a Ti-Pd-Ni thin-film SMA along with electrical resistivity monitoring. Definite emissivity changes were observed during both heating and cooling. Furthermore, the changes in emissivity corresponded to changes in the electrical resistivity. To confirm the validity of the proposed method, the results were compared with results obtained using conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The reverse-martensitic transformation temperature was found to agree with the results of the proposed method. However, the martensitic transformation temperature did not agree well. The reason for this disagreement is the differences in the definition of the transformation temperature and stress conditions used. We expect that the proposed method will enable high-throughput characterization of SMAs by a combinatorial approach in the future.
Romanowski, Gerd; Lorenz, Michael G.; Sayler, Gary; Wackernagel, Wilfried
1992-01-01
The persistence and stability of free plasmid pUC8-ISP DNA introduced into 10-g samples of various soils and kept at 23°C were monitored over a period of 60 days. The soils were sampled at a plant science farm and included a loamy sand soil (no. 1), a clay soil (no. 2), and a silty clay soil (no. 3). Four different methods allowed monitoring of (i) the production of acid-soluble radioactive material from [3H]thymidine-labeled plasmid DNA, (ii) the decrease of hybridizing nucleotide sequences in slot blot analysis, (iii) the loss of plasmid integrity measured by Southern hybridization, and (iv) the decay of the biological activity as determined by transformation of Ca2+-treated Escherichia coli cells with the DNA extracted from soil. Acid-soluble material was not produced within the first 24 h but then increased to 45% (soil no. 1), 27% (soil no. 2), and 77% (soil no. 3) until the end of incubation. A quite parallel loss of material giving a slot blot hybridization signal was observed. Southern hybridization indicated that after 1 h in the soils, plasmid DNA was mostly in the form of circular and full-length linear molecules but that, depending on the soil type, after 2 to 5 days full-length plasmid molecules were hardly detectable. The transforming activity of plasmid DNA reextracted from the soils followed inactivation curves over 2 to 4 orders of magnitude and dropped below the detection limit after 10 days. The inactivation was slower in soil no. 2 (28.2-h half-life time of the transforming activity of a plasmid molecule) than in soils no. 3 (15.1 h) and no. 1 (9.1 h). The studies provide data on the persistence of free DNA molecules in natural bacterial soil habitats. The data suggest that plasmid DNA may persist long enough to be available for uptake by competent recipient cells in situ. Images PMID:16348772
Yan, Chenguang; Hao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Baohui; Zheng, Tao
2015-01-01
Power transformer rupture and fire resulting from an arcing fault inside the tank usually leads to significant security risks and serious economic loss. In order to reveal the essence of tank deformation or explosion, this paper presents a 3-D numerical computational tool to simulate the structural dynamic behavior due to overpressure inside transformer tank. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 17.3 MJ and a 6.3 MJ arcing fault were simulated on a real full-scale 360MVA/220kV oil-immersed transformer model, respectively. By employing the finite element method, the transformer internal overpressure distribution, wave propagation and von-Mises stress were solved. The numerical results indicate that the increase of pressure and mechanical stress distribution are non-uniform and the stress tends to concentrate on connecting parts of the tank as the fault time evolves. Given this feature, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of transformer tank rupture through limiting the fault energy and enhancing the mechanical strength of the local stress concentrative areas. The theoretical model and numerical simulation method proposed in this paper can be used as a substitute for risky and costly field tests in fault overpressure analysis and tank mitigation design of transformers.
Yan, Chenguang; Hao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Baohui; Zheng, Tao
2015-01-01
Power transformer rupture and fire resulting from an arcing fault inside the tank usually leads to significant security risks and serious economic loss. In order to reveal the essence of tank deformation or explosion, this paper presents a 3-D numerical computational tool to simulate the structural dynamic behavior due to overpressure inside transformer tank. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 17.3MJ and a 6.3MJ arcing fault were simulated on a real full-scale 360MVA/220kV oil-immersed transformer model, respectively. By employing the finite element method, the transformer internal overpressure distribution, wave propagation and von-Mises stress were solved. The numerical results indicate that the increase of pressure and mechanical stress distribution are non-uniform and the stress tends to concentrate on connecting parts of the tank as the fault time evolves. Given this feature, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of transformer tank rupture through limiting the fault energy and enhancing the mechanical strength of the local stress concentrative areas. The theoretical model and numerical simulation method proposed in this paper can be used as a substitute for risky and costly field tests in fault overpressure analysis and tank mitigation design of transformers. PMID:26230392
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Wenjing
2017-08-01
This paper uses Fourier’s triple integral transform method to simplify the calculation of the non-homogeneous wave equations of the time-varying electromagnetic field. By adding several special definite conditions to the wave equation, it becomes a mathematical problem of definite condition. Then by using Fourier’s triple integral transform method, this three-dimension non-homogeneous partial differential wave equation is changed into an ordinary differential equation. Through the solution to this ordinary differential equation, the expression of the relationship between the time-varying scalar potential and electromagnetic wave excitation source is developed precisely. This method simplifies the solving process effectively.
Sandiego, Christine M.; Weinzimmer, David; Carson, Richard E.
2012-01-01
An important step in PET brain kinetic analysis is the registration of functional data to an anatomical MR image. Typically, PET-MR registrations in nonhuman primate neuroreceptor studies used PET images acquired early post-injection, (e.g., 0–10 min) to closely resemble the subject’s MR image. However, a substantial fraction of these registrations (~25%) fail due to the differences in kinetics and distribution for various radiotracer studies and conditions (e.g., blocking studies). The Multi-Transform Method (MTM) was developed to improve the success of registrations between PET and MR images. Two algorithms were evaluated, MTM-I and MTM-II. The approach involves creating multiple transformations by registering PET images of different time intervals, from a dynamic study, to a single reference (i.e., MR image) (MTM-I) or to multiple reference images (i.e., MR and PET images pre-registered to the MR) (MTM-II). Normalized mutual information was used to compute similarity between the transformed PET images and the reference image(s) to choose the optimal transformation. This final transformation is used to map the dynamic dataset into the animal’s anatomical MR space, required for kinetic analysis. The chosen transformed from MTM-I and MTM-II were evaluated using visual rating scores to assess the quality of spatial alignment between the resliced PET and reference. One hundred twenty PET datasets involving eleven different tracers from 3 different scanners were used to evaluate the MTM algorithms. Studies were performed with baboons and rhesus monkeys on the HR+, HRRT, and Focus-220. Successful transformations increased from 77.5%, 85.8%, to 96.7% using the 0–10 min method, MTM-I, and MTM-II, respectively, based on visual rating scores. The Multi-Transform Methods proved to be a robust technique for PET-MR registrations for a wide range of PET studies. PMID:22926293
A new selection method for pepper transformation: callus-mediated shoot formation.
Lee, Y H; Kim, H S; Kim, J Y; Jung, M; Park, Y S; Lee, J S; Choi, S H; Her, N H; Lee, J H; Hyung, N I; Lee, C H; Yang, S G; Harn, C H
2004-08-01
We used two genes, TMV-CP and PPI1 (pepper-PMMV interaction 1 transcription factor), to transform commercially important chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) inbred lines (P915, P409) by means of Agrobacterium co-culture. Eighteen independently transformed T0 plants were obtained. The most critical point in the pepper transformation protocol was the selection of shoots growing on calli--referred to as callus-mediated shoot formation (indirect shooting)--because shoots not grown from the callus (direct shooting from the wounded surface) developed into non-transformants. Selection of the correct right callus type also proved to be an important requirement for obtaining transformed peppers. Six different types of callus developed during the selection process. Shoots regenerated from two of these types, while one type regenerated significantly more shoots than the other types, suggesting that the capacity for shoot formation is callus type-specific. Although the transformation rate was low, transformation via callus-mediated shoot formation proved to be reproducible and was confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analyses. Based on the experimental data, we have succeeded in developing a new protocol for the selection and transformation of pepper and expect that it will be used in the future for pepper transformation.
Xia, D. H.; Huang, M.; Zhou, J.; Rao, J.; Zhuang, G.
2013-10-15
Polarizers are widely used to change the polarization of millimeter waves on the electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive (ECRH and CD) systems. A new method based on the coordinate transformation and the Fourier expansion (the so-called C-method) has been developed for design of polarizers on the HL-2A ECRH and CD systems. This method transforms the grating problem to an eigenvalue problem, making it easy and clear to understand and solve. The comparison between the C-method, the integral method, and the low power test results is presented. It indicates that the C-method can be considered as a rigorous numerical method for the design of polarizers. Finally, two polarizers were designed based on the C-method which can be used together to achieve almost arbitrary polarization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Zhi-Zhong
2015-05-01
We develop a general recursion-transform (R-T) method for a two-dimensional resistor network with a zero resistor boundary. As applications of the R-T method, we consider a significant example to illuminate the usefulness for calculating resistance of a rectangular m ×n resistor network with a null resistor and three arbitrary boundaries, a problem never solved before, since Green's function techniques and Laplacian matrix approaches are invalid in this case. Looking for the exact calculation of the resistance of a binary resistor network is important but difficult in the case of an arbitrary boundary since the boundary is like a wall or trap which affects the behavior of finite network. In this paper we obtain several general formulas of resistance between any two nodes in a nonregular m ×n resistor network in both finite and infinite cases. In particular, 12 special cases are given by reducing one of the general formulas to understand its applications and meanings, and an integral identity is found when we compare the equivalent resistance of two different structures of the same problem in a resistor network.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z.; Zhou, Z. B.; Li, Z. X.; Luo, J.
2014-05-01
The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.
Natalello, Antonino; Sasso, Francesco; Secundo, Francesco
2013-01-01
Transesterification of triglycerides with short chain alcohols is the key reaction in biodiesel production, in addition to other applications in chemical synthesis. However, it is crucial to optimize reaction conditions to make enzymatic transesterification a cost-effective and competitive process. In this work, a new, easy Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic approach for monitoring the transesterification reaction is reported and compared with a gas-chromatographic method. The concentration of the total methyl esters in the reaction mixture is determined from the peak intensity at ∼1435 cm(-1) in the second derivatives of the FTIR absorption spectra using a linear regression calibration. Interestingly, we found that the use of second derivatives allows an accurate determination of the methyl esters without the interference of free fatty acids. Moreover, information on substrate hydrolysis can be obtained within the same measurement by the infrared absorption at ∼1709 cm(-1) . We applied this approach to monitor methanolysis and hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by different commercial lipases, which displayed different sensitivities to methanol inhibition. Therefore, the FTIR approach reported in this work represents a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate method to monitor enzymatic transesterification, requiring very limited sample preparation and a simple statistical analysis of the spectroscopic data. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Y. F.; Wang, Y. S.; Shi, L.; Guo, H.; Chen, H.
2016-01-01
According to the human perceptional characteristics, a method combined by the optimal wavelet-packet transform and artificial neural network, so-called OWPT-ANN model, for psychoacoustical recognition is presented. Comparisons of time-frequency analysis methods are performed, and an OWPT with 21 critical bands is designed for feature extraction of a sound, as is a three-layer back-propagation ANN for sound quality (SQ) recognition. Focusing on the loudness and sharpness, the OWPT-ANN model is applied on vehicle noises under different working conditions. Experimental verifications show that the OWPT can effectively transfer a sound into a time-varying energy pattern as that in the human auditory system. The errors of loudness and sharpness of vehicle noise from the OWPT-ANN are all less than 5%, which suggest a good accuracy of the OWPT-ANN model in SQ recognition. The proposed methodology might be regarded as a promising technique for signal processing in the human-hearing related fields in engineering.
Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z. Zhou, Z. B. Li, Z. X.; Luo, J.
2014-05-15
The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.
Method for calibrating a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer
Smith, Richard D.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Tolmachev, Aleksey
2003-08-19
A method for improving the calibration of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer wherein the frequency spectrum of a sample has been measured and the frequency (f) and intensity (I) of at least three species having known mass to charge (m/z) ratios and one specie having an unknown (m/z) ratio have been identified. The method uses the known (m/z) ratios, frequencies, and intensities at least three species to calculate coefficients A, B, and C, wherein the mass to charge ratio of a least one of the three species (m/z).sub.i is equal to ##EQU1## wherein f.sub.i is the detected frequency of the specie, G(I.sub.i) is a predetermined function of the intensity of the species, and Q is a predetermined exponent. Using the calculated values for A, B, and C, the mass to charge ratio of the unknown specie (m/z).sub.ii is calculated as the sum of ##EQU2## wherein f.sub.ii is the measured frequency of the unknown specie, and (I.sub.ii) is the measured intensity of the unknown specie.
Applications of the conformal transformation method in studies of composed superconducting systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krzyzosiak, Mateusz; Gonczarek, Ryszard; Gonczarek, Adam; Jacak, Lucjan
2016-12-01
A framework for analytical studies of superconducting systems is presented and illustrated. The formalism, based on the conformal transformation of momentum space, allows one to study the effects of both the dispersion relation and the structure of the pairing interaction in two-dimensional anisotropic high- T c superconductors. In this method, the number of employed degrees of freedom coincides with the dimension of the momentum space, which is different compared to that in the standard Van Hove scenario with a single degree of freedom. A new function, the kernel of the density of states, is defined and its relation to the standard density of states is explained. The versatility of the method is illustrated by analyzing coexistence and competition between spin-singlet and spin-triplet order parameters in superconducting systems with a tight-binding-type dispersion relation and an anisotropic pairing potential. Phase diagrams of stable superconducting states in the coordinates Î· (the ratio of hopping parameters) and n (the carrier concentration) are presented and discussed. Moreover, the role of attractive and repulsive on-site interactions for the stability of the s-wave order parameter is explained.
Image restoration method based on Hilbert transform for full-field optical coherence tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Na, Jihoon; Choi, Woo June; Choi, Eun Seo; Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Byeong Ha
2008-01-01
A full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) system utilizing a simple but novel image restoration method suitable for a high-speed system is demonstrated. An en-face image is retrieved from only two phase-shifted interference fringe images through using the mathematical Hilbert transform. With a thermal light source, a high-resolution FF-OCT system having axial and transverse resolutions of 1 and 2.2 μm, respectively, was implemented. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is confirmed by presenting the obtained en-face images of biological samples such as a piece of garlic and a gold beetle. The proposed method is robust to the error in the amount of the phase shift and does not leave residual fringes. The use of just two interference images and the strong immunity to phase errors provide great advantages in the imaging speed and the system design flexibility of a high-speed high-resolution FF-OCT system.
[Calculating the stark broadening of welding arc spectra by Fourier transform method].
Pan, Cheng-Gang; Hua, Xue-Ming; Zhang, Wang; Li, Fang; Xiao, Xiao
2012-07-01
It's the most effective and accurate method to calculate the electronic density of plasma by using the Stark width of the plasma spectrum. However, it's difficult to separate Stark width from the composite spectrum linear produced by several mechanisms. In the present paper, Fourier transform was used to separate the Lorentz linear from the spectrum observed, thus to get the accurate Stark width. And we calculated the distribution of the TIG welding arc plasma. This method does not need to measure arc temperature accurately, to measure the width of the plasma spectrum broadened by instrument, and has the function to reject the noise data. The results show that, on the axis, the electron density of TIG welding arc decreases with the distance from tungsten increasing, and changes from 1.21 X 10(17) cm(-3) to 1.58 x 10(17) cm(-3); in the radial, the electron density decreases with the distance from axis increasing, and near the tungsten zone the biggest electronic density is off axis.
Kitsak, M A; Kitsak, A I
2008-04-30
The cross modulation method of transformation of the spatial coherence of low-power pulsed laser radiation in a nonlinear medium is proposed. The method is realised experimentally in a multimode optical fibre. The estimates of the degree of spatial coherence of radiation subjected to the phase cross modulation demonstrated the high efficiency of this radiation decorrelation mechanism. (control of laser radiation parameters)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruz Hernández, Andrés; Campos Guillén, Juan
2012-09-01
Physical methods for genetic transformation in plants. The most commonly applied methods in plant transformation include Agrobacterium infection and protoplast or microprojectile bombardment. A plant transformation system is a prerequisite for the development of a plant improvement program. The global area utilized for biotech crops increases every year.
Clark, James E; Osborne, Jason W; Gallagher, Peter; Watson, Stuart
2016-07-01
Neuroendocrine data are typically positively skewed and rarely conform to the expectations of a Gaussian distribution. This can be a problem when attempting to analyse results within the framework of the general linear model, which relies on assumptions that residuals in the data are normally distributed. One frequently used method for handling violations of this assumption is to transform variables to bring residuals into closer alignment with assumptions (as residuals are not directly manipulated). This is often attempted through ad hoc traditional transformations such as square root, log and inverse. However, Box and Cox (Box & Cox, ) observed that these are all special cases of power transformations and proposed a more flexible method of transformation for researchers to optimise alignment with assumptions. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the benefits of the infinitely flexible Box-Cox transformation on neuroendocrine data using syntax in spss. When applied to positively skewed data typical of neuroendocrine data, the majority (~2/3) of cases were brought into strict alignment with Gaussian distribution (i.e. a non-significant Shapiro-Wilks test). Those unable to meet this challenge showed substantial improvement in distributional properties. The biggest challenge was distributions with a high ratio of kurtosis to skewness. We discuss how these cases might be handled, and we highlight some of the broader issues associated with transformation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pawloski, Janice S.
2001-01-01
This project uses the integral transform technique to model the problem of nanotube behavior as an axially symmetric system of shells. Assuming that the nanotube behavior can be described by the equations of elasticity, we seek a stress function x which satisfies the biharmonic equation: del(exp 4) chi = [partial deriv(r(exp 2)) + partial deriv(r) + partial deriv(z(exp 2))] chi = 0. The method of integral transformations is used to transform the differential equation. The symmetry with respect to the z-axis indicates that we only need to consider the sine transform of the stress function: X(bar)(r,zeta) = integral(from 0 to infinity) chi(r,z)sin(zeta,z) dz.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pawloski, Janice S.
2001-01-01
This project uses the integral transform technique to model the problem of nanotube behavior as an axially symmetric system of shells. Assuming that the nanotube behavior can be described by the equations of elasticity, we seek a stress function x which satisfies the biharmonic equation: del(exp 4) chi = [partial deriv(r(exp 2)) + partial deriv(r) + partial deriv(z(exp 2))] chi = 0. The method of integral transformations is used to transform the differential equation. The symmetry with respect to the z-axis indicates that we only need to consider the sine transform of the stress function: X(bar)(r,zeta) = integral(from 0 to infinity) chi(r,z)sin(zeta,z) dz.
Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung Park, Kyihwan
2014-09-15
Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung; Park, Kyihwan
2014-09-01
Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response.
Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung; Park, Kyihwan
2014-09-01
Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response.
de Vetten, Nick; Wolters, Anne-Marie; Raemakers, Krit; van der Meer, Ingrid; ter Stege, Renaldo; Heeres, Els; Heeres, Paul; Visser, Richard
2003-04-01
It is generally thought that transformation of plant cells using Agrobacterium tumefaciens occurs at a very low frequency. Therefore, selection marker genes are used to identify the rare plants that have taken up foreign DNA. Genes encoding antibiotic and herbicide resistance are widely used for this purpose in plant transformation. Over the past several years, consumer and environmental groups have expressed concern about the use of antibiotic- and herbicide-resistance genes from an ecological and food safety perspective. Although no scientific basis has been determined for these concerns, generating marker-free plants would certainly contribute to the public acceptance of transgenic crops. Several methods have been reported to create marker gene-free transformed plants, for example co-transformation, transposable elements, site-specific recombination, or intrachromosomal recombination. Not only are most of these systems time-consuming and inefficient, but they are also employed on the assumption that isolation of transformants without a selective marker gene is not feasible. Here we present a method that permits the identification of transgenic plants without the use of selectable markers. This strategy relies on the transformation of tissue explants or cells with a virulent A. tumefaciens strain and selection of transformed cells or shoots after PCR analysis. Incubation of potato explants with A. tumefaciens strain AGL0 resulted in transformed shoots at an efficiency of 1-5% of the harvested shoots, depending on the potato genotype used. Because this system does not require genetic segregation or site-specific DNA-deletion systems to remove marker genes, it may provide a reliable and efficient tool for generating transgenic plants for commercial use, especially in vegetatively propagated species like potato and cassava.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, D.; Liao, Q.
2016-12-01
The Bayesian inference provides a convenient framework to solve statistical inverse problems. In this method, the parameters to be identified are treated as random variables. The prior knowledge, the system nonlinearity, and the measurement errors can be directly incorporated in the posterior probability density function (PDF) of the parameters. The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is a powerful tool to generate samples from the posterior PDF. However, since the MCMC usually requires thousands or even millions of forward simulations, it can be a computationally intensive endeavor, particularly when faced with large-scale flow and transport models. To address this issue, we construct a surrogate system for the model responses in the form of polynomials by the stochastic collocation method. In addition, we employ interpolation based on the nested sparse grids and takes into account the different importance of the parameters, under the condition of high random dimensions in the stochastic space. Furthermore, in case of low regularity such as discontinuous or unsmooth relation between the input parameters and the output responses, we introduce an additional transform process to improve the accuracy of the surrogate model. Once we build the surrogate system, we may evaluate the likelihood with very little computational cost. We analyzed the convergence rate of the forward solution and the surrogate posterior by Kullback-Leibler divergence, which quantifies the difference between probability distributions. The fast convergence of the forward solution implies fast convergence of the surrogate posterior to the true posterior. We also tested the proposed algorithm on water-flooding two-phase flow reservoir examples. The posterior PDF calculated from a very long chain with direct forward simulation is assumed to be accurate. The posterior PDF calculated using the surrogate model is in reasonable agreement with the reference, revealing a great improvement in terms of
Mehta, N C; Scharlemann, E T; Stevens, C G
2001-04-02
Application of a novel transform operator, the Sticklet transform, to the quantitative estimation of trace chemicals in industrial effluent plumes is reported. The sticklet transform is a superset of the well-known derivative operator and the Haar wavelet, and is characterized by independently adjustable lobe width and separation. Computer simulations demonstrate that they can make accurate and robust concentration estimates of multiple chemical species in industrial effluent plumes in the presence of strong clutter background, interferent chemicals and random noise. In this paper they address the application of the sticklet transform in estimating chemical concentrations in effluent plumes in the presence of atmospheric transmission effects. They show that this transform retains the ability to yield accurate estimates using on-plume/off-plume measurements that represent atmospheric differentials up to 10% of the full atmospheric attenuation.
Chen, Xiaojing; Wu, Di; He, Yong; Liu, Shou
2009-04-06
Glycerol monolaurate (GML) products contain many impurities, such as lauric acid and glucerol. The GML content is an important quality indicator for GML production. A hybrid variable selection algorithm, which is a combination of wavelet transform (WT) technology and modified uninformative variable eliminate (MUVE) method, was proposed to extract useful information from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) transmission spectroscopy for the determination of GML content. FT-IR spectra data were compressed by WT first; the irrelevant variables in the compressed wavelet coefficients were eliminated by MUVE. In the MUVE process, simulated annealing (SA) algorithm was employed to search the optimal cutoff threshold. After the WT-MUVE process, variables for the calibration model were reduced from 7366 to 163. Finally, the retained variables were employed as inputs of partial least squares (PLS) model to build the calibration model. For the prediction set, the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9910 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 4.8617 were obtained. The prediction result was better than the PLS model with full-spectra data. It was indicated that proposed WT-MUVE method could not only make the prediction more accurate, but also make the calibration model more parsimonious. Furthermore, the reconstructed spectra represented the projection of the selected wavelet coefficients into the original domain, affording the chemical interpretation of the predicted results. It is concluded that the FT-IR transmission spectroscopy technique with the proposed method is promising for the fast detection of GML content.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vosika, Z.; Mitić, V. V.; Vasić, A.; Lazović, G.; Matija, L.; Kocić, Lj. M.
2017-03-01
In this paper, Caputo based Michaelis-Menten kinetic model based on Time Scale Calculus (TSC) is proposed. The main reason for its consideration is a study of tumor cells population growth dynamics. In the particular case discrete-continuous time kinetics, Michaelis-Menten model is numerically treated, using a new algorithm proposed by authors, called multistep generalized difference transformation method (MSGDETM). In addition numerical simulations are performed and is shown that it represents the upgrade of the multi-step variant of generalized differential transformation method (MSGDTM). A possible conditions for its further development are discussed and possible experimental verification is described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tachioka, Yuuki; Narita, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Shinji
2015-12-01
The recently released REverberant Voice Enhancement and Recognition Benchmark (REVERB) challenge includes a reverberant automatic speech recognition (ASR) task. This paper describes our proposed system based on multi-channel speech enhancement preprocessing and state-of-the-art ASR techniques. For preprocessing, we propose a single-channel dereverberation method with reverberation time estimation, which is combined with multichannel beamforming that enhances direct sound compared with the reflected sound. In addition, this paper also focuses on state-of-the-art ASR techniques such as discriminative training of acoustic models including the Gaussian mixture model, subspace Gaussian mixture model, and deep neural networks, as well as various feature transformation techniques. Although, for the REVERB challenge, it is necessary to handle various acoustic environments, a single ASR system tends to be overly tuned for a specific environment, which degrades the performance in the mismatch environments. To overcome this mismatch problem with a single ASR system, we use a system combination approach using multiple ASR systems with different features and different model types because a combination of various systems that have different error patterns is beneficial. In particular, we use our discriminative training technique for system combination that achieves better generalization by making systems complementary with the modified discriminative criteria. Experiments show the effectiveness of these approaches, reaching 6.76 and 18.60 % word error rates on the REVERB simulated and real test sets. These are 68.8 and 61.5 % relative improvements over the baseline.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giachetti, A.; Daffara, C.; Reghelin, C.; Gobbetti, E.; Pintus, R.
2015-06-01
In this paper we analyze some problems related to the acquisition of multiple illumination images for Polynomial Texture Maps (PTM) or generic Reflectance Transform Imaging (RTI). We show that intensity and directionality nonuniformity can be a relevant issue when acquiring manual sets of images with the standard highlight-based setup both using a flash lamp and a LED light. To maintain a cheap and flexible acquisition setup that can be used on field and by non-experienced users we propose to use a dynamic calibration and correction of the lights based on multiple intensity and direction estimation around the imaged object during the acquisition. Preliminary tests on the results obtained have been performed by acquiring a specifically designed 3D printed pattern in order to see the accuracy of the acquisition obtained both for spatial discrimination of small structures and normal estimation, and on samples of different types of paper in order to evaluate material discrimination. We plan to design and build from our analysis and from the tools developed and under development a set of novel procedures and guidelines that can be used to turn the cheap and common RTI acquisition setup from a simple way to enrich object visualization into a powerful method for extracting quantitative characterization both of surface geometry and of reflective properties of different materials. These results could have relevant applications in the Cultural Heritage domain, in order to recognize different materials used in paintings or investigate the ageing status of artifacts' surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dohe, S.; Sherlock, V.; Hase, F.; Gisi, M.; Robinson, J.; Sepúlveda, E.; Schneider, M.; Blumenstock, T.
2013-04-01
The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) has been established to provide ground-based remote sensing measurements of the column-average dry air mole fractions of key greenhouse gases. To ensure the network wide consistency, biases between Fourier Transform spectrometers at different sites have to be well controlled. In this study we investigate a fundamental correction scheme for errors in the sampling of the interferogram. This is a two-step procedure in which the laser sampling error (LSE) is quantified using a subset of suitable interferograms and then used to resample all the interferograms in the timeseries. Timeseries of measurements acquired at the TCCON sites Izaña and Lauder are used to demonstrate the method. At both sites the sampling error histories show changes in LSE due to instrument interventions. Estimated LSE are in good agreement with sampling errors inferred from lamp measurements of the ghost to parent ratio (Lauder). The LSE introduce retrieval biases which are minimised when the interferograms are resampled. The original timeseries of Xair and XCO2 at both sites show discrepancies of 0.2-0.5% due to changes in the LSE associated with instrument interventions or changes in the measurement sample rate. After resampling discrepancies are reduced to 0.1% at Lauder and 0.2% at Izaña. In the latter case, coincident changes in interferometer alignment may also contribute to the residual difference.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dohe, S.; Sherlock, V.; Hase, F.; Gisi, M.; Robinson, J.; Sepúlveda, E.; Schneider, M.; Blumenstock, T.
2013-08-01
The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) has been established to provide ground-based remote sensing measurements of the column-averaged dry air mole fractions (DMF) of key greenhouse gases. To ensure network-wide consistency, biases between Fourier transform spectrometers at different sites have to be well controlled. Errors in interferogram sampling can introduce significant biases in retrievals. In this study we investigate a two-step scheme to correct these errors. In the first step the laser sampling error (LSE) is estimated by determining the sampling shift which minimises the magnitude of the signal intensity in selected, fully absorbed regions of the solar spectrum. The LSE is estimated for every day with measurements which meet certain selection criteria to derive the site-specific time series of the LSEs. In the second step, this sequence of LSEs is used to resample all the interferograms acquired at the site, and hence correct the sampling errors. Measurements acquired at the Izaña and Lauder TCCON sites are used to demonstrate the method. At both sites the sampling error histories show changes in LSE due to instrument interventions (e.g. realignment). Estimated LSEs are in good agreement with sampling errors inferred from the ratio of primary and ghost spectral signatures in optically bandpass-limited tungsten lamp spectra acquired at Lauder. The original time series of Xair and XCO2 (XY: column-averaged DMF of the target gas Y) at both sites show discrepancies of 0.2-0.5% due to changes in the LSE associated with instrument interventions or changes in the measurement sample rate. After resampling, discrepancies are reduced to 0.1% or less at Lauder and 0.2% at Izaña. In the latter case, coincident changes in interferometer alignment may also have contributed to the residual difference. In the future the proposed method will be used to correct historical spectra at all TCCON sites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanskrityayn, Abhishek; Suk, Heejun; Kumar, Naveen
2017-04-01
In this study, analytical solutions of one-dimensional pollutant transport originating from instantaneous and continuous point sources were developed in groundwater and riverine flow using both Green's Function Method (GFM) and pertinent coordinate transformation method. Dispersion coefficient and flow velocity are considered spatially and temporally dependent. The spatial dependence of the velocity is linear, non-homogeneous and that of dispersion coefficient is square of that of velocity, while the temporal dependence is considered linear, exponentially and asymptotically decelerating and accelerating. Our proposed analytical solutions are derived for three different situations depending on variations of dispersion coefficient and velocity, respectively which can represent real physical processes occurring in groundwater and riverine systems. First case refers to steady solute transport situation in steady flow in which dispersion coefficient and velocity are only spatially dependent. The second case represents transient solute transport in steady flow in which dispersion coefficient is spatially and temporally dependent while the velocity is spatially dependent. Finally, the third case indicates transient solute transport in unsteady flow in which both dispersion coefficient and velocity are spatially and temporally dependent. The present paper demonstrates the concentration distribution behavior from a point source in realistically occurring flow domains of hydrological systems including groundwater and riverine water in which the dispersivity of pollutant's mass is affected by heterogeneity of the medium as well as by other factors like velocity fluctuations, while velocity is influenced by water table slope and recharge rate. Such capabilities give the proposed method's superiority about application of various hydrological problems to be solved over other previously existing analytical solutions. Especially, to author's knowledge, any other solution doesn
Kraus, H.G. )
1991-08-01
This paper discusses methods for calculating Fraunhofer intensity fields resulting from diffraction through one- and two-dimensional apertures are presented. These methods are based on the geometric concept of finite elements and on Fourier and Abbe transforms. The geometry of the two-dimensional diffracting aperture(s) is based on biquadratic isoparametric elements, which are used to define aperture(s) of complex geometry. These elements are also used to build complex amplitude and phase functions across the aperture(s) which may be of continuous or discontinuous form. The transform integrals are accurately and efficiently integrated numerically using Gaussian quadrature. The power of these methods is most evident in two dimensions, where several examples are presented which include secondary obstructions, straight and curved secondary spider supports, multiple-mirror arrays, synthetic aperture arrays, segmented mirrors, apertures covered by screens, apodization, and phase plates. Typically, the finite element Abbe transform method results in significant gains in computational efficiency over the finite element Fourier transform method, but is also subject to some loss in generality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scherer, Philipp O. J.
Fourier transformation is a very important tool for signal analysis but also helpful to simplify the solution of differential equations or the calculation of convolution integrals. An important numerical method is the discrete Fourier transformation which can be used for trigonometric interpolation and also as a numerical approximation to the continuous Fourier integral. It can be realized efficiently by Goertzel's algorithm or the family of fast Fourier transformation methods. For real valued even functions the computationally simpler discrete cosine transformation can be applied. Several computer experiments demonstrate the principles of trigonometric interpolation and nonlinear filtering.
Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors
Crissman, Harry A.; Gadbois, Donna M.; Tobey, Robert A.; Bradbury, E. Morton
1993-01-01
A G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G.sub.1 cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G.sub.1 phase, suggesting that such G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.
Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors
Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.
1993-02-09
A G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G[sub 1] cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G[sub 1] phase, suggesting that such G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.
Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors
Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.
1991-12-31
A G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G{sub 1} cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G{sub 1} phase, suggesting that such G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silenko, Alexander J.
2015-02-01
A general method of the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation is developed. This method is applicable to relativistic particles with any spin in arbitrarily strong external fields. It can be used when the de Broglie wavelength is much smaller than the characteristic distance. Contrary to previously developed relativistic methods, the present method satisfies the condition of the exact Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation and is well substantiated. The derived relativistic Foldy-Wouthuysen Hamiltonian is expanded in powers of the Planck constant. In this expansion, terms proportional to the zero and first powers are determined exactly in accordance with the above condition, and terms proportional to higher powers are not specified. The obtained result agrees with the corresponding formula for the Foldy-Wouthuysen Hamiltonian previously deduced by an iterative relativistic method and proves the validity of results obtained with this formula.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lang, Jun; Hao, Zhengchao
2014-01-01
In this paper, we first propose the discrete multi-parameter fractional random transform (DMPFRNT), which can make the spectrum distributed randomly and uniformly. Then we introduce this new spectrum transform into the image fusion field and present a new approach for the remote sensing image fusion, which utilizes both adaptive pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) and the discrete multi-parameter fractional random transform in order to meet the requirements of both high spatial resolution and low spectral distortion. In the proposed scheme, the multi-spectral (MS) and panchromatic (Pan) images are converted into the discrete multi-parameter fractional random transform domains, respectively. In DMPFRNT spectrum domain, high amplitude spectrum (HAS) and low amplitude spectrum (LAS) components carry different informations of original images. We take full advantage of the synchronization pulse issuance characteristics of PCNN to extract the HAS and LAS components properly, and give us the PCNN ignition mapping images which can be used to determine the fusion parameters. In the fusion process, local standard deviation of the amplitude spectrum is chosen as the link strength of pulse coupled neural network. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate that the proposed method is more reliable and superior than several existing methods based on Hue Saturation Intensity representation, Principal Component Analysis, the discrete fractional random transform etc.
Selective Weighted Least Squares Method for Fourier Transform Infrared Quantitative Analysis.
Wang, Xin; Li, Yan; Wei, Haoyun; Chen, Xia
2016-10-26
Classical least squares (CLS) regression is a popular multivariate statistical method used frequently for quantitative analysis using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry. Classical least squares provides the best unbiased estimator for uncorrelated residual errors with zero mean and equal variance. However, the noise in FT-IR spectra, which accounts for a large portion of the residual errors, is heteroscedastic. Thus, if this noise with zero mean dominates in the residual errors, the weighted least squares (WLS) regression method described in this paper is a better estimator than CLS. However, if bias errors, such as the residual baseline error, are significant, WLS may perform worse than CLS. In this paper, we compare the effect of noise and bias error in using CLS and WLS in quantitative analysis. Results indicated that for wavenumbers with low absorbance, the bias error significantly affected the error, such that the performance of CLS is better than that of WLS. However, for wavenumbers with high absorbance, the noise significantly affected the error, and WLS proves to be better than CLS. Thus, we propose a selective weighted least squares (SWLS) regression that processes data with different wavenumbers using either CLS or WLS based on a selection criterion, i.e., lower or higher than an absorbance threshold. The effects of various factors on the optimal threshold value (OTV) for SWLS have been studied through numerical simulations. These studies reported that: (1) the concentration and the analyte type had minimal effect on OTV; and (2) the major factor that influences OTV is the ratio between the bias error and the standard deviation of the noise. The last part of this paper is dedicated to quantitative analysis of methane gas spectra, and methane/toluene mixtures gas spectra as measured using FT-IR spectrometry and CLS, WLS, and SWLS. The standard error of prediction (SEP), bias of prediction (bias), and the residual sum of squares of the errors
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... Measured quantity Test systemaccuracy Power Losses ±3.0% Voltage ±0.5% Current ±0.5% Resistance ±0.5... establish the winding temperature at the time of the winding resistance measurement. (b) Measure the direct current resistance (Rdc) of transformer windings by one of the methods outlined in section 3.3....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... Measured quantity Test systemaccuracy Power Losses ± 3.0% Voltage ± 0.5% Current ± 0.5% Resistance ± 0.5... establish the winding temperature at the time of the winding resistance measurement. (b) Measure the direct current resistance (Rdc) of transformer windings by one of the methods outlined in section 3.3....
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehrabi Pari, Sharareh; Javidan, Kurosh; Taghavi Shahri, Fatemeh
2016-05-01
The "Laplace Transform Method" is used to solve the Fokker-Plank equation for finding the time evolution of the heavy quarks distribution functions such as charm and bottom in quark gluon plasma. These solutions will lead us to calculation of nuclear suppression factor RAA. The results have good agreement with available experiment data from the PHENIX collaboration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...% Temperature ± 1.0 °C (b) Only instrument transformers meeting the 0.3 metering accuracy class, or better, may... establish the winding temperature at the time of the winding resistance measurement. (b) Measure the direct... methods of section 3.5 must be used to correct load losses to the applicable reference temperature from...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Atkinson Duina, Angela
2013-01-01
New regulations attached to ARRA funding of federal School Improvement Fund grants aimed at producing rapid turnaround of low performing schools were highly criticized as unsuitable for rural schools. This mixed-methods study looked at the implementation of the School Improvement Fund Transformation Model in two rural Maine high schools during the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha Ray, S.
2013-12-01
In this paper, the modified fractional reduced differential transform method (MFRDTM) has been proposed and it is implemented for solving fractional KdV (Korteweg-de Vries) equations. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. In this paper, the reduced differential transform method is modified to be easily employed to solve wide kinds of nonlinear fractional differential equations. In this new approach, the nonlinear term is replaced by its Adomian polynomials. Thus the nonlinear initial-value problem can be easily solved with less computational effort. In order to show the power and effectiveness of the present modified method and to illustrate the pertinent features of the solutions, several fractional KdV equations with different types of nonlinearities are considered. The results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple for obtaining approximate solutions of fractional KdV equations.
Tripathi, Rajnee; Mishra, Hradyesh Kumar
2016-01-01
In this communication, we describe the Homotopy Perturbation Method with Laplace Transform (LT-HPM), which is used to solve the Lane-Emden type differential equations. It's very difficult to solve numerically the Lane-Emden types of the differential equation. Here we implemented this method for two linear homogeneous, two linear nonhomogeneous, and four nonlinear homogeneous Lane-Emden type differential equations and use their appropriate comparisons with exact solutions. In the current study, some examples are better than other existing methods with their nearer results in the form of power series. The Laplace transform used to accelerate the convergence of power series and the results are shown in the tables and graphs which have good agreement with the other existing method in the literature. The results show that LT-HPM is very effective and easy to implement.
Al Khawaja, U.
2010-05-15
We derive the integrability conditions of nonautonomous nonlinear Schroedinger equations using the Lax pair and similarity transformation methods. We present a comparative analysis of these integrability conditions with those of the Painleve method. We show that while the Painleve integrability conditions restrict the dispersion, nonlinearity, and dissipation/gain coefficients to be space independent and the external potential to be only a quadratic function of position, the Lax Pair and the similarity transformation methods allow for space-dependent coefficients and an external potential that is not restricted to the quadratic form. The integrability conditions of the Painleve method are retrieved as a special case of our general integrability conditions. We also derive the integrability conditions of nonautonomous nonlinear Schroedinger equations for two- and three-spacial dimensions.
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a method to study lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts
2014-01-01
Background Oleaginous microorganisms, such as different yeast and algal species, can represent a sustainable alternative to plant oil for the production of biodiesel. They can accumulate fatty acids (FA) up to 70% of their dry weight with a predominance of (mono)unsaturated species, similarly to what plants do, but differently from animals. In addition, their growth is not in competition either with food, feed crops, or with agricultural land. Despite these advantages, the exploitation of the single cell oil system is still at an early developmental stage. Cultivation mode and conditions, as well as lipid extraction technologies, represent the main limitations. The monitoring of lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms is consequently crucial to develop and validate new approaches, but at present the majority of the available techniques is time consuming, invasive and, when relying on lipid extraction, can be affected by FA degradation. Results In this work the fatty acid accumulation of the oleaginous yeasts Cryptococcus curvatus and Rhodosporidium toruloides and of the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (as a negative control) was monitored in situ by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Indeed, this spectroscopic tool can provide complementary information to those obtained by classical techniques, such as microscopy, flow cytometry and gas chromatography. As shown in this work, through the analysis of the absorption spectra of intact oleaginous microorganisms it is possible not only to monitor the progression of FA accumulation but also to identify the most represented classes of the produced lipids. Conclusions Here we propose FTIR microspectroscopy - supported by multivariate analysis - as a fast, reliable and non invasive method to monitor and analyze FA accumulation in intact oleaginous yeasts. The results obtained by the FTIR approach were in agreement with those obtained by the other classical methods like flow cytometry and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Fansen; Chen, Ruheng
2004-01-01
A new combined method based on wavelet transformation, fuzzy logic and neuro-networks is proposed for fault diagnosis of a triplex. The failure characteristics of the fluid- and dynamic-end can be divided into wavelet transform in different scales at the same time (in: Jun Zhu et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of an International Conference on Condition Monitoring. National Defense Industry Press, Beijing, 1997, pp. 271-275). Therefore, the characteristic variables can be constructed making use of the coefficients of Edgeworth asymptotic spectrum expansion formula and fuzzified to train the neuro-network to identify the faults of fluid- and dynamic-end of triplex pump in fuzzy domain. Tests indicate that the information of wavelet transformation in scale 2 is related to the meshing state of the gear and the information in scales 4 and 5 is related to the running state of fluid-end. Good agreement between analytical and experimental results has been obtained.
A Method of Speech Periodicity Enhancement Using Transform-domain Signal Decomposition☆
Lee, Tan; Kleijn, W. Bastiaan; Kong, Ying-Yee
2015-01-01
Periodicity is an important property of speech signals. It is the basis of the signal’s fundamental frequency and the pitch of voice, which is crucial to speech communication. This paper presents a novel framework of periodicity enhancement for noisy speech. The enhancement is applied to the linear prediction residual of speech. The residual signal goes through a constant-pitch time warping process and two sequential lapped-frequency transforms, by which the periodic component is concentrated in certain transform coefficients. By emphasizing the respective transform coefficients, periodicity enhancement of noisy residual signal is achieved. The enhanced residual signal and estimated linear prediction filter parameters are used to synthesize the output speech. An adaptive algorithm is proposed for adjusting the weights for the periodic and aperiodic components. Effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated via experimental evaluation. It is observed that harmonic structure of the original speech could be properly restored to improve the perceptual quality of enhanced speech. PMID:26150679
A Method of Speech Periodicity Enhancement Using Transform-domain Signal Decomposition.
Huang, Huang; Lee, Tan; Kleijn, W Bastiaan; Kong, Ying-Yee
2015-03-01
Periodicity is an important property of speech signals. It is the basis of the signal's fundamental frequency and the pitch of voice, which is crucial to speech communication. This paper presents a novel framework of periodicity enhancement for noisy speech. The enhancement is applied to the linear prediction residual of speech. The residual signal goes through a constant-pitch time warping process and two sequential lapped-frequency transforms, by which the periodic component is concentrated in certain transform coefficients. By emphasizing the respective transform coefficients, periodicity enhancement of noisy residual signal is achieved. The enhanced residual signal and estimated linear prediction filter parameters are used to synthesize the output speech. An adaptive algorithm is proposed for adjusting the weights for the periodic and aperiodic components. Effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated via experimental evaluation. It is observed that harmonic structure of the original speech could be properly restored to improve the perceptual quality of enhanced speech.
An asymmetric color image encryption method by using deduced gyrator transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Lili; Yuan, Caojin; Qiang, Junjie; Feng, Shaotong; Nie, Shouping
2017-02-01
An encryption algorithm is proposed by using the properties of deduced gyrator transform (GT). After being transformed by the GT algorithm and multiplied by a phase distribution p*, the spectrum modulus of the input image is considered to be the encrypted image by further performing Fourier transformation. To resist the attack from iterative phase retrieval, the red, green and blue components of the input image is modulated by a random phase mask and then combined using convolution. The encryption result is real-valued, which is convenient for display, transmission and storage. In the decryption process, the three original color components can be recovered with decryption keys which are different from the encryption keys. An optoelectronic hybrid system for the encryption process is also presented. Computer simulations are presented to demonstrate its performance, and the security of the proposed system is analyzed as well.
Pandey, Sonika; Mishra, Avinash; Patel, Manish Kumar; Jha, Bhavanath
2013-09-01
Cumin is an annual herbaceous medicinally important plant having diverse applications. An efficient and reproducible method of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was herein established for the first time. A direct regeneration method without callus induction was optimised using embryos as explant material in Gamborg's B5 medium supplemented with 0.5-μM 6-benzyladenine and 2.0-μM α-naphthalene acetic acid. About 1,020 embryos (a mean of 255 embryos per batch) were used for the optimisation of transformation conditions. These conditions were an Agrobacterium cell suspension of 0.6 OD600, a co-cultivation time of 72 h, 300-μM acetosyringone and wounding of explants using a razor blade. Pre-cultured elongated embryos were treated using optimised conditions. About 720 embryos (a mean of 180 embryos per batch) were used for transformation and 95 % embryos showed transient β-glucuronidase expression after co-cultivation. Putative transformed embryos were cultured on B5 medium for shoot proliferation and 21 regenerated plants were obtained after selection and allowed to root. T0 plantlets showed β-glucuronidase expression and gene integration was confirmed via PCR amplification of 0.96 and 1.28 kb fragments of the hygromycin-phosphotransferase II and β-glucuronidase genes, respectively. In this study, a transformation efficiency of 1.5 % was demonstrated and a total of 11 transgenic plants were obtained at the hardening stage, however, only four plants acclimatised during hardening. Gene copy number was analysed by Southern blot analysis of hardened plants and single-copy gene integration was observed. This is the first successful attempt of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of cumin.
Sandiego, Christine M; Weinzimmer, David; Carson, Richard E
2013-01-01
An important step in PET brain kinetic analysis is the registration of functional data to an anatomical MR image. Typically, PET-MR registrations in nonhuman primate neuroreceptor studies used PET images acquired early post-injection, (e.g., 0-10 min) to closely resemble the subject's MR image. However, a substantial fraction of these registrations (~25%) fail due to the differences in kinetics and distribution for various radiotracer studies and conditions (e.g., blocking studies). The Multi-Transform Method (MTM) was developed to improve the success of registrations between PET and MR images. Two algorithms were evaluated, MTM-I and MTM-II. The approach involves creating multiple transformations by registering PET images of different time intervals, from a dynamic study, to a single reference (i.e., MR image) (MTM-I) or to multiple reference images (i.e., MR and PET images pre-registered to the MR) (MTM-II). Normalized mutual information was used to compute similarity between the transformed PET images and the reference image(s) to choose the optimal transformation. This final transformation is used to map the dynamic dataset into the animal's anatomical MR space, required for kinetic analysis. The chosen transforms from MTM-I and MTM-II were evaluated using visual rating scores to assess the quality of spatial alignment between the resliced PET and reference images. One hundred twenty PET datasets involving eleven different tracers from 3 different scanners were used to evaluate the MTM algorithms. Studies were performed with baboons and rhesus monkeys on the HR+, HRRT, and Focus-220. Successful transformations increased from 77.5%, 85.8%, to 96.7% using the 0-10 min method, MTM-I, and MTM-II, respectively, based on visual rating scores. The Multi-Transform Methods proved to be a robust technique for PET-MR registrations for a wide range of PET studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Watanabe, Ryosuke; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Yuji
2016-01-20
Computer generated hologram (CGH) animations can be made by switching many CGHs on an electronic display. Some fast calculation methods for CGH animations have been proposed, but one for viewpoint movement has not been proposed. Therefore, we designed a fast calculation method of CGH animations for viewpoint parallel shifts and rotation. A Fourier transform optical system was adopted to expand the viewing angle. The results of experiments were that the calculation time of our method was over 6 times faster than that of the conventional method. Furthermore, the degradation in CGH animation quality was found to be sufficiently small.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Jonathan A.
2005-01-01
High-throughput measurement techniques are reviewed for solid phase transformation from materials produced by combinatorial methods, which are highly efficient concepts to fabricate large variety of material libraries with different compositional gradients on a single wafer. Combinatorial methods hold high potential for reducing the time and costs associated with the development of new materials, as compared to time-consuming and labor-intensive conventional methods that test large batches of material, one- composition at a time. These high-throughput techniques can be automated to rapidly capture and analyze data, using the entire material library on a single wafer, thereby accelerating the pace of materials discovery and knowledge generation for solid phase transformations. The review covers experimental techniques that are applicable to inorganic materials such as shape memory alloys, graded materials, metal hydrides, ferric materials, semiconductors and industrial alloys.
Nam, Jaewook
2011-01-01
We present a method to solve a convection-reaction system based on a least-squares finite element method (LSFEM). For steady-state computations, issues related to recirculation flow are stated and demonstrated with a simple example. The method can compute concentration profiles in open flow even when the generation term is small. This is the case for estimating hemolysis in blood. Time-dependent flows are computed with the space-time LSFEM discretization. We observe that the computed hemoglobin concentration can become negative in certain regions of the flow; it is a physically unacceptable result. To prevent this, we propose a quadratic transformation of variables. The transformed governing equation can be solved in a straightforward way by LSFEM with no sign of unphysical behavior. The effect of localized high shear on blood damage is shown in a circular Couette-flow-with-blade configuration, and a physiological condition is tested in an arterial graft flow. PMID:21709752
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burde, Georgy I.
2017-07-01
Studying properties of evolution equations arising in different physical contexts commonly starts from assuming the traveling wave (TW) solution form which reduces the problem to an ordinary differential equation (ODE). A variety of direct methods for finding such solutions have been designed but usually there is no algorithmic way to proceed further from this stage. In the present study, a method, which allows constructing non-traveling wave solutions of an evolution equation from known traveling wave solutions, is developed and applied to some types of equations. The transformations yielded by the method can be naturally used for finding new solutions of a given equation. Having the TW solutions (for example, solitary wave solutions) defined in an explicit form, more general non-TW solutions can be also explicitly determined. The transformations can also give insight into some general properties of the equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Jonathan A.
2005-01-01
High-throughput measurement techniques are reviewed for solid phase transformation from materials produced by combinatorial methods, which are highly efficient concepts to fabricate large variety of material libraries with different compositional gradients on a single wafer. Combinatorial methods hold high potential for reducing the time and costs associated with the development of new materials, as compared to time-consuming and labor-intensive conventional methods that test large batches of material, one- composition at a time. These high-throughput techniques can be automated to rapidly capture and analyze data, using the entire material library on a single wafer, thereby accelerating the pace of materials discovery and knowledge generation for solid phase transformations. The review covers experimental techniques that are applicable to inorganic materials such as shape memory alloys, graded materials, metal hydrides, ferric materials, semiconductors and industrial alloys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, J. H.; Lee, Sang Young
2006-10-01
In obtaining the intrinsic surface resistance (RS) from the effective surface resistance (RS,eff) measured at microwave frequencies by using the dielectric resonator method, the impedance transformation method reported by Klein et al. [N. Klein, H. Chaloupka, G. Muller, S. Orbach, H. Piel, B. Roas, L. Schultz, U. Klein, M. Peiniger, J. Appl. Phys. 67 (1990) 6940] has been very useful. Here we compared the RS of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films on dielectric substrates obtained by a rigorous field analysis based on the TE-mode matching method with those by the impedance transformation method. The two methods produced almost the same RS,eff vs. RS relation in most practical cases of the substrate thickness being less than 1 mm and sapphire and rutile used as the materials for the dielectric rod. However, when the resonant frequency of the dielectric resonator became close to that of the resonant structure formed by the substrates and the metallic surroundings, the RS,eff vs. RS relations appeared strikingly different between the two methods. Effects of the TE011-mode cutoff frequency inside the substrate region, which could not be considered in the impedance transformation method, on the relation between the RS,eff and RS of superconductor films are also investigated. We confirmed our arguments by demonstrating a case where existence of evanescent modes should be considered for obtaining the RS of YBCO films from the RS,eff.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearce, Craig L.; Sims, Henry P., Jr.; Cox, Jonathan F.; Ball, Gail; Schnell, Eugene; Smith, Ken A.; Trevino, Linda
2003-01-01
To extend the transactional-transformational model of leadership, four theoretical behavioral types of leadership were developed based on literature review and data from studies of executive behavior (n=253) and subordinate attitudes (n=208). Confirmatory factor analysis of a third data set (n=702) support the existence of four leadership types:…
Apparatus and method for controlling the temperature of the core of a super-conducting transformer
Golner, Thomas; Pleva, Edward; Mehta, Shirish
2006-10-10
An apparatus for controlling the temperature of a core of a transformer is provided that includes a core, a shield surrounding the core, a cast formed between the core and the shield, and tubing positioned on the shield. The cast directs heat from the core to the shield and cooling fluid is directed through the tubing to cool the shield.
Setaria viridis floral-dip: A simple and rapid Agrobacterium-medicated transformation method
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Setaria viridis was recently described as a new monocotyledonous model species for C4 photosynthesis research and genetic transformation. It has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements) that make it suitable for use as a model plan...
What Does a Transformative Lens Bring to Credible Evidence in Mixed Methods Evaluations?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mertens, Donna M.
2013-01-01
Credibility in evaluation is a multifaceted concept that involves consideration of diverse stakeholders' perspectives and purposes. The use of a transformative lens is proposed as a means to bringing issues of social justice and human rights to the foreground in decisions about methodology, credibility of evidence, and use of evaluation…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearce, Craig L.; Sims, Henry P., Jr.; Cox, Jonathan F.; Ball, Gail; Schnell, Eugene; Smith, Ken A.; Trevino, Linda
2003-01-01
To extend the transactional-transformational model of leadership, four theoretical behavioral types of leadership were developed based on literature review and data from studies of executive behavior (n=253) and subordinate attitudes (n=208). Confirmatory factor analysis of a third data set (n=702) support the existence of four leadership types:…
Microtiter plate transformation using the LiAc/SS carrier DNA/PEG method.
Gietz, R Daniel; Schiestl, Robert H
2007-01-01
Here, we describe a protocol that has been adapted for the transformation of yeast cells in 96-well microtiter plates. This protocol can be tailored for multiple applications and is suitable for high-throughput applications. It can be completed in 2-3 h, once the yeast cells have been grown depending on the heat shock used.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Le Patner, Michelle B.
2012-01-01
This study examined the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act federal mandate of the Transformation Intervention Model (TIM) outlined by the School Improvement Grant, which was designed to turn around persistently lowest achieving schools. The study was conducted in four high schools in a large Southern California urban district that selected the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Xin; Zhou, Dongming; Yao, Shaowen; Nie, Rencan; Yu, Chuanbo; Ding, Tingting
2016-04-01
In CIELab color space, we propose a remote sensing image fusion technique based on nonsubsampled shearlet transform (NSST) and pulse coupled neural network (PCNN), which aim to improve the efficiency and performance of the remote sensing image fusion by combining the excellent properties of the two methods. First, panchromatic (PAN) and multispectral (MS) are transformed into CIELab color space to get different color components. Second, PAN and L component of MS are decomposed by the NSST to obtain corresponding the low-frequency coefficients and high-frequency coefficients. Third, the low-frequency coefficients are fused by intersecting cortical model (ICM); the high-frequency coefficients are divided into several sub-blocks to calculate the average gradient (AG), and the linking strength β of PCNN model is determined by the AG, so that the parameters β can be adaptively set according to the quality of the sub-block images, then the sub-blocks image are input into PCNN to get the oscillation frequency graph (OFG), the method can get the fused high-frequency coefficients according to the OFG. Finally, the fused L component is obtained by inverse NSST, and the fused RGB color image is obtained through inverse CIELab transform. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method provide better effect compared with other common methods.
Ferris, Frederick L; Miller, Kellee M; Glassman, Adam R; Beck, Roy W
2010-08-01
To evaluate a logarithmic transformation of retinal thickness measurements from optical coherence tomography as a new approach to assess clinically meaningful changes in retinal thickness. Methodologic, evidence-based review. Standard published approaches for assessing change in retinal thickness over time, as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT), were compared with a new approach based on a logarithmic transformation of the retinal thickness data. Comparative examples were derived using published data from a clinical trial comparing intravitreal corticosteroid injections for diabetic macular edema with standard laser treatment. Comparative examples using Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network data. Logarithmic transformation of retinal thickness data results in a more normalized distribution of OCT data and allows for data analyses assessing proportionate changes in retinal thickness during follow-up. For analysis of grouped data, a logarithmic transformation of the OCT retinal thickness measurements (logOCT) provides several analytic advantages. Distributions of retinal thickness in groups of eyes with diabetic macular edema, and many other causes of macular thickening, tend to be skewed to the right; the logOCT transformation tends to normalize these distributions, which has value for statistical comparisons. For assessing whether the observed OCT change in a patient is real (and not due to testing variability), a 1-step log scale change exceeds the measurement error for all degrees of retinal thickness in current instruments. In addition, this log scale is similar to the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) scale used for visual acuity. Steps on the log scale for change in thickness seem to be better related to clinical importance than the actual change in microns because each step on the log scale is the same proportionate change in thickness, with a 3-step change equaling a halving or doubling of thickness, regardless of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomigashi, Yoshio; Hida, Hajime; Ueyama, Kenji
To reduce costs of inverters, a current detection method using a single shunt resistor is required for motor drive systems in home electrical appliances. In this paper, a method is proposed to correct a voltage reference vector by converting coordinates from a rotating reference frame into a fixed reference frame. Also proposed is a new coordinate transformation method that is appropriate for the correction. Authors focused on the undetectable area that exists every 60 degrees in α-β coordinates. When the α-β coordinates in an nπ/3 rotation are defined as αn-βn, the αn-axis can be defined as the central axis in an undetectable area. We propose a coordinate transformation method that converts the voltage vector in the d-q coordinates into uvw phase voltages through αn-βn coordinates then correct it. This method corrects the voltage vector by a very simple algorithm that limits the αn-βn elements. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by simulation and experiment. Currents were clearly detected by using the proposed method. This shows that the proposed method is suitable for position sensor-less drives in permanent magnet synchronous motors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakeri, Fatemeh; Zoej, Mohammad Javad Valadan
2015-01-01
Because of the effect of speckles in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, its reduction has been considered by many researchers to obtain reliable information. This paper proposes a method based on the curvelet transform to reduce speckles in SAR images. This study is based on the thresholding neural network (TNN) technique, which has been previously used in wavelet transformation. In addition, an adaptive learning TNN with remarkable time saving was introduced. Comparing the obtained results from the method with conventional speckle filters such as Lee, Kuan, Frost, and Gamma filters, curvelet-based, nonadaptive despeckling, wavelet-based TNN despeckling, and curvelet-based particle swarm optimization show better achievement of the proposed algorithm. For instance, noise mean value, noise standard deviation, mean square difference, equivalent number of looks, and β (an edge-preserving criterion) improved 2%, 9%, 21%, 35%, and 9%, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gagatsos, Christos N.; Karanikas, Alexandros I.; Kordas, Georgios; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2016-02-01
In spite of their simple description in terms of rotations or symplectic transformations in phase space, quadratic Hamiltonians such as those modelling the most common Gaussian operations on bosonic modes remain poorly understood in terms of entropy production. For instance, determining the quantum entropy generated by a Bogoliubov transformation is notably a hard problem, with generally no known analytical solution, while it is vital to the characterisation of quantum communication via bosonic channels. Here we overcome this difficulty by adapting the replica method, a tool borrowed from statistical physics and quantum field theory. We exhibit a first application of this method to continuous-variable quantum information theory, where it enables accessing entropies in an optical parametric amplifier. As an illustration, we determine the entropy generated by amplifying a binary superposition of the vacuum and a Fock state, which yields a surprisingly simple, yet unknown analytical expression.
Application of the Analog Method to Modelling Heat Waves: A Case Study with Power Transformers
2017-04-21
3 Northeast US Electrical Grid Network Representation using “Betweenness” 5 4 Locations of transformers and weather stations 10 5 Cumulative...observed heat wave days. 19 vii This page intentionally left blank. 1. INTRODUCTION Electricity forms the backbone of the nearly every modern society. It...is the one sector that most other sectors depend on for their fundamental operations [2, 3]; without electricity , society grinds to a halt. This is
Nelson, Beverly A; Massey, Robert
2010-04-01
Bedside nurses are well positioned to make changes that positively affect operations and practice. Using Transforming Care at the Bedside processes and methods, the authors describe the clinical nurse-led development, testing, and implementation of an electronic template and process for change-of-shift report. Outcomes included a reduction in time spent in change-of-shift reports, reduced end-of-shift overtime, and a more standardized process, with staff perceived improved information quality and satisfaction with the process.
2012-02-01
public release; distribution is unlimited. NOTICES Disclaimers The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of...using z-transform methods. The determinant of the resulting global system matrix in the z-space |Am| is a palindromic polynomial with real...Alcalá Park, San Diego, CA 92110, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 14 March 2011 Received in revised form 1 August 2011 Accepted 5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hébert, Mathieu
2014-01-01
The well-known Yule-Nielsen modified spectral Neugebauer model is one of the most accurate predictive models for the spectral reflectance of printed halftone colors which expresses the spectral reflectance of halftones raised to the power 1/n as a linear combination of the spectral reflectance of the fulltone colors (Neugebauer primaries) also raised to the power 1/n, where n is a tunable real number. The power 1/n transform, characteristic of the Yule-Nielsen transform, empirically models the nonlinear relationship between the spectral reflectances of halftones and fulltones due to the internal propagation of light by scattering into the printing support, a phenomenon known as "optical dot gain" or "Yule- Nielsen effect". In this paper, we propose a graphical method permitting to observe this non-linear relationship in the case of single-ink halftones and to experimentally check the capacity of the Yule-Nielsen model to predict it accurately. In the case where the Yule-Nielsen transform is not well adapted to the considered type of prints, we propose alternative transforms in order to improve the prediction accuracy.
Ma, Liyan; Qiu, Bo; Cui, Mingyue; Ding, Jianwei
2017-01-01
Depth image-based rendering (DIBR), which is used to render virtual views with a color image and the corresponding depth map, is one of the key techniques in the 2D to 3D conversion process. Due to the absence of knowledge about the 3D structure of a scene and its corresponding texture, DIBR in the 2D to 3D conversion process, inevitably leads to holes in the resulting 3D image as a result of newly-exposed areas. In this paper, we proposed a structure-aided depth map preprocessing framework in the transformed domain, which is inspired by recently proposed domain transform for its low complexity and high efficiency. Firstly, our framework integrates hybrid constraints including scene structure, edge consistency and visual saliency information in the transformed domain to improve the performance of depth map preprocess in an implicit way. Then, adaptive smooth localization is cooperated and realized in the proposed framework to further reduce over-smoothness and enhance optimization in the non-hole regions. Different from the other similar methods, the proposed method can simultaneously achieve the effects of hole filling, edge correction and local smoothing for typical depth maps in a united framework. Thanks to these advantages, it can yield visually satisfactory results with less computational complexity for high quality 2D to 3D conversion. Numerical experimental results demonstrate the excellent performances of the proposed method. PMID:28407027
Liu, Wei; Ma, Liyan; Qiu, Bo; Cui, Mingyue; Ding, Jianwei
2017-01-01
Depth image-based rendering (DIBR), which is used to render virtual views with a color image and the corresponding depth map, is one of the key techniques in the 2D to 3D conversion process. Due to the absence of knowledge about the 3D structure of a scene and its corresponding texture, DIBR in the 2D to 3D conversion process, inevitably leads to holes in the resulting 3D image as a result of newly-exposed areas. In this paper, we proposed a structure-aided depth map preprocessing framework in the transformed domain, which is inspired by recently proposed domain transform for its low complexity and high efficiency. Firstly, our framework integrates hybrid constraints including scene structure, edge consistency and visual saliency information in the transformed domain to improve the performance of depth map preprocess in an implicit way. Then, adaptive smooth localization is cooperated and realized in the proposed framework to further reduce over-smoothness and enhance optimization in the non-hole regions. Different from the other similar methods, the proposed method can simultaneously achieve the effects of hole filling, edge correction and local smoothing for typical depth maps in a united framework. Thanks to these advantages, it can yield visually satisfactory results with less computational complexity for high quality 2D to 3D conversion. Numerical experimental results demonstrate the excellent performances of the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bang, Jeongho; Yoo, Seokwon
2014-12-01
We propose a genetic-algorithm-based method to find the unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation. We formulate a simple genetic algorithm by introducing the "genetic parameter vector" of the unitary transformations to be found. In the genetic algorithm process, all components of the genetic parameter vectors are supposed to evolve to the solution parameters of the unitary transformations. We apply our method to find the optimal unitary transformations and to generalize the corresponding quantum algorithms for a realistic problem, the one-bit oracle decision problem, or the often-called Deutsch problem. By numerical simulations, we can faithfully find the appropriate unitary transformations to solve the problem by using our method. We analyze the quantum algorithms identified by the found unitary transformations and generalize the variant models of the original Deutsch's algorithm.
Benhammouda, Brahim; Vazquez-Leal, Hector
2016-01-01
This work presents an analytical solution of some nonlinear delay differential equations (DDEs) with variable delays. Such DDEs are difficult to treat numerically and cannot be solved by existing general purpose codes. A new method of steps combined with the differential transform method (DTM) is proposed as a powerful tool to solve these DDEs. This method reduces the DDEs to ordinary differential equations that are then solved by the DTM. Furthermore, we show that the solutions can be improved by Laplace-Padé resummation method. Two examples are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed technique. The main advantage of this technique is that it possesses a simple procedure based on a few straight forward steps and can be combined with any analytical method, other than the DTM, like the homotopy perturbation method.
Elmer, J.W.; Wong, J.; Froba, M.; Waide, P.A.; Larson, E.M.
1995-05-26
Although welding is an established technology used in many industrial settings, it is least understand terms of the phases that actually exist, the variation of their spatial disposition with time, and the rate of transformation from one phase to another at various thermal coordinates in the vicinity of the weld. With the availability of high flux and, more recently, high brightness synchrotron x-radiation sources, a number of diffraction and spectroscopic methods have been developed for structural characterization with improved spatial and temporal resolutions to enable in-situ measurements of phases under extreme temperature, pressure and other processing conditions not readily accessible with conventional sources. This paper describes the application of spatially resolved x-ray diffraction (SRXRD) for in-situ investigations of phase transformations in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of fusion welds. Results are presented for gas tungsten (GTA) welds in commercially pure titanium that show the existence of the high temperature bcc {beta}-phase in a 3.3 {plus_minus} 0.3 mm wide HA band adjacent to the liquid weld pool. Phase concentration profiles derived from the SRXRD data further show the co-existence of both the low temperature hcp ({alpha}-phase and the {beta}-phase in the partially, transformed region of the HA. These results represent the first direct observations of solid state phase transformations and mapping of phase boundaries in fusion welds. SRXRD experiments of this type are needed as experimental input for modeling of kinetics of phase transformations and microstructural evolution under the highly non-isothermal conditions produced during welding.
Kim, Misun; Kim, Seong-Cheol; Song, Kwan Jeong; Kim, Ho Bang; Kim, In-Jung; Song, Eun-Young; Chun, Seung-Jong
2010-12-01
Genetic transformation using a micro-cross section (MCS) technique was conducted to improve the carotenoid content in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward). The introduced carotenoid biosynthetic genes include geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPS), phytoene desaturase (PDS), ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS), β-carotene hydroxylase (CHX), and phytoene synthase (PSY). The transformed explants were selected on half-strength MS medium containing 0.001 mg l(-1) of 2,4-D and 0.1 mg l(-1) of zeatin, either 5 mg l(-1) hygromycin or 25 mg l(-1) kanamycin, and 500 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. The genomic PCR, genomic Southern blot analysis, and RT-PCR were performed to confirm the integration and expression of the transgenes. The transformation efficiencies of either kanamycin- or hygromycin-resistant shoots ranged from 2.9 to 22.1% depending on the target genes, and from 2.9 to 24.2% depending on the reporter genes. The selection efficiencies ranged from 66.7 to 100% for the target genes and from 95.8 to 100% for the reporter genes. Changes of carotenoid content in the several PCR-positive plants were determined by UPLC analysis. As a result, transgenic plants expressing either GGPS or PSY increased about 1.2- to 1.3-fold in lutein or β-carotene content compared to non-transgenic plants. Our results suggest that the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency of kiwifruit can be greatly increased by this MCS method and that the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway can be modified in kiwifruit by genetic transformation. Our results further suggest that GGPS and PSY genes could be major target genes to increase carotenoid contents in kiwifruit.
Zhao, Guoliang; Sun, Kaibiao; Li, Hongxing
2013-01-01
This paper proposes new methodologies for the design of adaptive integral-sliding mode control. A tensor product model transformation based adaptive integral-sliding mode control law with respect to uncertainties and perturbations is studied, while upper bounds on the perturbations and uncertainties are assumed to be unknown. The advantage of proposed controllers consists in having a dynamical adaptive control gain to establish a sliding mode right at the beginning of the process. Gain dynamics ensure a reasonable adaptive gain with respect to the uncertainties. Finally, efficacy of the proposed controller is verified by simulations on an uncertain nonlinear system model.
Time transformations and Cowell's method. [for numerical integration of satellite motion equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Velez, C. E.; Hilinski, S.
1978-01-01
The precise numerical integration of Cowell's equations of satellite motion is frequently performed with an independent variable s defined by an equation of the form dt = cr to the n-th power ds, where t represents time, r the radial distance from the center of attraction, c is a constant, and n is a parameter. This has been primarily motivated by the 'uniformizing' effects of such a transformation resulting in desirable 'analytic' stepsize control for elliptical orbits. This report discusses the 'proper' choice of the parameter n defining the independent variable s for various types of orbits and perturbation models, and develops a criterion for its selection.
Zhao, Guoliang; Li, Hongxing
2013-01-01
This paper proposes new methodologies for the design of adaptive integral-sliding mode control. A tensor product model transformation based adaptive integral-sliding mode control law with respect to uncertainties and perturbations is studied, while upper bounds on the perturbations and uncertainties are assumed to be unknown. The advantage of proposed controllers consists in having a dynamical adaptive control gain to establish a sliding mode right at the beginning of the process. Gain dynamics ensure a reasonable adaptive gain with respect to the uncertainties. Finally, efficacy of the proposed controller is verified by simulations on an uncertain nonlinear system model. PMID:24453897
Pendar, Hodjat; Socha, John J
2015-01-01
Flow-through respirometry systems provide accurate measurement of gas exchange over long periods of time. However, these systems have limitations in tracking rapid changes. When an animal infuses a metabolic gas into the respirometry chamber in a short burst, diffusion and airflow in the chamber gradually alter the original signal before it arrives at the gas analyzer. For single or multiple bursts, the recorded signal is smeared or mixed, which may result in dramatically altered recordings compared to the emitted signal. Recovering the original metabolic signal is a difficult task because of the inherent ill conditioning problem. Here, we present two new methods to recover the fast dynamics of metabolic patterns from recorded data. We first re-derive the equations of the well-known Z-transform method (ZT method) to show the source of imprecision in this method. Then, we develop a new model of analysis for respirometry systems based on the experimentally determined impulse response, which is the response of the system to a very short unit input. As a result, we present a major modification of the ZT method (dubbed the 'EZT method') by using a new model for the impulse response, enhancing its precision to recover the true metabolic signals. The second method, the generalized Z-transform (GZT) method, was then developed by generalizing the EZT method; it can be applied to any flow-through respirometry system with any arbitrary impulse response. Experiments verified that the accuracy of recovering the true metabolic signals is significantly improved by the new methods. These new methods can be used more broadly for input estimation in variety of physiological systems.
Vakilian, M.; Degeneff, R.C.; Kupferschmid, M.
1995-10-01
An EHV transformer`s insulation structure must be designed to withstand the internal stresses generated during transients. Computer models are employed for predetermination of these stresses. This paper develops a detailed transformer model and solution method which represents the nonlinear, saturable characteristic of the magnetic core during transients. The resulting set of stiff nonlinear differential algebraic equations (DAE`s) are solved by application of Gear`s method. Part 1 describes the transformer model and the necessary set of equations based on linearization of the iron core`s saturable magnetic characteristic each time interval. Part 2 presents data verifying the methodology.
Clapper-Gowdy, M.; Dermirgian, J.; Robitaille, G.
1995-06-01
This paper describes a novel Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method that can be used to rapidly screen soil samples from potentially hazardous waste sites. Samples are heated in a thermal desorption unit and the resultant vapors are collected and analyzed in a long-path gas cell mounted in a FTIR. Laboratory analysis of a soil sample by FTIR takes approximately 10 minutes. This method has been developed to identify and quantify microgram concentrations of explosives in soil samples and is directly applicable to the detection of selected volatile organics, semivolatile organics, and pesticides.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batzias, Dimitris F.
2012-12-01
Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) can be used for technology transfer when the relevant problem (called 'top even' in FTA) is solved in a technology centre and the results are diffused to interested parties (usually Small Medium Enterprises - SMEs) that have not the proper equipment and the required know-how to solve the problem by their own. Nevertheless, there is a significant drawback in this procedure: the information usually provided by the SMEs to the technology centre, about production conditions and corresponding quality characteristics of the product, and (sometimes) the relevant expertise in the Knowledge Base of this centre may be inadequate to form a complete fault tree. Since such cases are quite frequent in practice, we have developed a methodology for transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram, which is more flexible and less strict in establishing causal chains, because it uses a surface phenomenological level with a limited number of categories of faults. On the other hand, such an Ishikawa diagram can be extended to simulate a fault tree as relevant knowledge increases. An implementation of this transformation, referring to anodization of aluminium, is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chongxuan; Szecsody, Jim E.; Zachara, John M.; Ball, William P.
The generalized integral transform technique (GITT) is applied to solve the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) in heterogeneous porous media coupled with either linear or nonlinear sorption and decay. When both sorption and decay are linear, analytical solutions are obtained using the GITT for one-dimensional ADEs with spatially and temporally variable flow and dispersion coefficient and arbitrary initial and boundary conditions. When either sorption or decay is nonlinear the solutions to ADEs with the GITT are hybrid analytical-numerical. In both linear and nonlinear cases, the forward and inverse integral transforms for the problems described in the paper are apparent and straightforward. Some illustrative examples with linear sorption and decay are presented to demonstrate the application and check the accuracy of the derived analytical solutions. The derived hybrid analytical-numerical solutions are checked against a numerical approach and demonstratively applied to a nonlinear transport example, which simulates a simplified system of iron oxide bioreduction with nonlinear sorption and nonlinear reaction kinetics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiba, Ryoichi
2016-02-01
The transient natural convection of a viscous fluid in a heated vertical tube is studied using the two-dimensional differential transform method (DTM). A time-dependent Dirichlet boundary condition is imposed for tube wall temperature. The partial differential equations for the velocity and temperature fields within the tube are solved by the DTM while considering temperature-dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity of the fluid. As a result, tractable solutions in double-series form are derived for the temperature and flow velocity. The transformed functions included in the solutions are obtained through a simple recursive procedure. Numerical results illustrate the effects of temperature-dependent properties on transient temperature and flow behaviour, including the Nusselt number and volumetric flow rate. The DTM gives accurate series solutions without any special functions for nonlinear transient heat transfer problems which are advantageous in finding the derivative or integral.
Study of {sup 3}He(e,e{prime}) longitudinal response functions with the integral-transform method
Dobretsov, V.Yu.; Efros, V.D.; Shao, B.
1995-09-01
The method of integral transforms is first applied to study of the {sup 3}He longitudinal response functions. The transforms are calculated from localized bound-state type solutions to an inhomogenous three-body equation. {sup 3}N dynamics and the conventional charge density operator serve as an input. The final-state interaction the contribution of the T = 3/2 final states to the problem suppressed and amounts to about 15%. This might be ascribed to symmetry properties of the final-state wave functions. The contributions of the p-wave N/N interaction and of the Coulomb interaction to the problem are studied and found to amount to several percent. Uncertainties due to different choices of s-wave NN forces are found to be of a similar magnitude. For q = 300 MeV/c, the results obtained agree with experiment. For q = 500 MeV/c, noticeable differences are detected. 20 refs., 3 figs.
Phase transformation mechanisms in (AuCu)1-xPdx pseudobinary alloys by direct aging method.
Hernandez, R I; Udoh, K; Tanaka, Y; Takuma, Y; Winn, H; Hisatsune, K
1999-09-01
Phase transformation mechanisms in the AuCu-Pd pseudobinary system were studied by means of electrical resistivity measurements, hardness tests, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. A direct aging method was employed to eliminate the otherwise unavoidable ordering that takes place rapidly during quenching into ice brine, hence it is important to distinguish the ordering processes with and without an incubation period. Three phase transformation modes occurred, namely; ordering at grain boundaries and in the grain interior with nucleation and growth mechanism after incubation, and spinodal ordering without any incubation period. The age-hardening of the alloys examined was attributed to AuCu I ordering. Nucleation and growth mechanism followed by twinning occurred in the specimens aged at higher temperatures, while spinodal ordering was seen in specimens aged in lower temperature. The spinodal ordering temperature of AuCu-Pd alloys increased according to Pd content.
Pendar, Hodjat; Socha, John J.
2015-01-01
Flow-through respirometry systems provide accurate measurement of gas exchange over long periods of time. However, these systems have limitations in tracking rapid changes. When an animal infuses a metabolic gas into the respirometry chamber in a short burst, diffusion and airflow in the chamber gradually alter the original signal before it arrives at the gas analyzer. For single or multiple bursts, the recorded signal is smeared or mixed, which may result in dramatically altered recordings compared to the emitted signal. Recovering the original metabolic signal is a difficult task because of the inherent ill conditioning problem. Here, we present two new methods to recover the fast dynamics of metabolic patterns from recorded data. We first re-derive the equations of the well-known Z-transform method (ZT method) to show the source of imprecision in this method. Then, we develop a new model of analysis for respirometry systems based on the experimentally determined impulse response, which is the response of the system to a very short unit input. As a result, we present a major modification of the ZT method (dubbed the ‘EZT method’) by using a new model for the impulse response, enhancing its precision to recover the true metabolic signals. The second method, the generalized Z-transform (GZT) method, was then developed by generalizing the EZT method; it can be applied to any flow-through respirometry system with any arbitrary impulse response. Experiments verified that the accuracy of recovering the true metabolic signals is significantly improved by the new methods. These new methods can be used more broadly for input estimation in variety of physiological systems. PMID:26466361
A Restoration of the Image Contaminated with the Photon Shot Noise by an M-Transform Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoshino, Kazuhiro; Takaichi, Masato; Nishimura, Toshihiro
We propose a novel approach for the photon shot noise reduction in image sensors inspired from an M-transform method. In our proposed method, the photon shot noise is transfered to small amplitude random signals. Then the small amplitude random signals are removed by the ε filter. The Sobel method was used for the edge detection and the edge was preserved by not applying the ε filter into the edge. After the noise reduction, the signals are restored to the image by a reverse M-transform. We compared our method with the smoothing filter, the median filter and the Wiener filter. In the photon shot noise according to the Poisson distribution, we changed the incidence number of photons and created the noise image by the simulation. In cases where the number of the maximum incidence photons was 128 pieces (illumination of about 2 lux), the proposal technique indicated the PSNR (Peak-Signal to Noise Ratio) value better than the Wiener filter. Furthermore, the proposal technique confirmed better than the smoothing filter subjectively according to the effect of edge preservation also under dark environment. As the result, our method is confirmed effective for the photon shot noise reduction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, M.
1981-01-01
It is noted that in the case of low-level injection, space-charge quasi-neutrality, and spatially constant material parameters (including an electrostatic field), the individual layer can be treated analytically and the basic solar cell performance parameters can be evaluated from three equations. The first equation represents the transformation of the transport velocity across the layer from the other layer boundary. The second establishes the light-generated current output from the layer interface, under the influence of the transport velocities and minority-carrier density at both layer boundaries and of bulk recombination. The third equation describes the flow of these carriers across other layers. The power of the approach is considered to lie in its facility for analysis of the solar cell's performance layer by layer, giving a clear picture of the individual layer's influence on cell efficiency.
On a Chirplet Transform Based Method for Co-channel Voice Separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dugnol, B.; Fernández, C.; Galiano, G.; Velasco, J.
We use signal and image theory based algorithms to produce estimations of the number of wolves emitting howls or barks in a given field recording as an individuals counting alternative to the traditional trace collecting methodologies. We proceed in two steps. Firstly, we clean and enhance the signal by using PDE based image processing algorithms applied to the signal spectrogram. Secondly, assuming that the wolves chorus may be modelled as an addition of nonlinear chirps, we use the quadratic energy distribution corresponding to the Chirplet Transform of the signal to produce estimates of the corresponding instantaneous frequencies, chirp-rates and amplitudes at each instant of the recording. We finally establish suitable criteria to decide how such estimates are connected in time.
Transform methods for developing parallel algorithms for cyclic-block signal processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, T. G., Jr.
A class of FIR and IIR single and multirate parallel filtering algorithms is introduced in which blocks of inputs and outputs are processed on-the-fly in a cyclic manner. There is no inherent latency introduced by the decomposition procedure giving the parallelism, the system latency being primarily due to the component processors. The structure is particularly well-suited for systems in which the component processors are the familiar DSP chips optimized for convolution although other component structures can be accommodated. In particular, the automatic data shifting feature of the TMS320 series processors can be utilized in these algorithms. A transform notation, introduced for digital filter banks, is recast in the desired form for this application. The resulting structure of the system, in this notation, is a circulant matrix for FIR filtering or a related matrix in other cases. The cyclic properties of the system and useful implementation flexibility result from this matrix structure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, M.
1981-01-01
It is noted that in the case of low-level injection, space-charge quasi-neutrality, and spatially constant material parameters (including an electrostatic field), the individual layer can be treated analytically and the basic solar cell performance parameters can be evaluated from three equations. The first equation represents the transformation of the transport velocity across the layer from the other layer boundary. The second establishes the light-generated current output from the layer interface, under the influence of the transport velocities and minority-carrier density at both layer boundaries and of bulk recombination. The third equation describes the flow of these carriers across other layers. The power of the approach is considered to lie in its facility for analysis of the solar cell's performance layer by layer, giving a clear picture of the individual layer's influence on cell efficiency.
Regional regularization method for ECT based on spectral transformation of Laplacian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Z. H.; Kan, Z.; Lv, D. C.; Shao, F. Q.
2016-10-01
Image reconstruction in electrical capacitance tomography is an ill-posed inverse problem, and regularization techniques are usually used to solve the problem for suppressing noise. An anisotropic regional regularization algorithm for electrical capacitance tomography is constructed using a novel approach called spectral transformation. Its function is derived and applied to the weighted gradient magnitude of the sensitivity of Laplacian as a regularization term. With the optimum regional regularizer, the a priori knowledge on the local nonlinearity degree of the forward map is incorporated into the proposed online reconstruction algorithm. Simulation experimentations were performed to verify the capability of the new regularization algorithm to reconstruct a superior quality image over two conventional Tikhonov regularization approaches. The advantage of the new algorithm for improving performance and reducing shape distortion is demonstrated with the experimental data.
Aggarwal, Namita; Rana, Bharti; Agrawal, R K; Kumaran, Senthil
2015-01-01
In this paper, we propose a three-phased method for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease using the structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In first phase, gray matter tissue probability map is obtained from every brain MRI volume. Further, five regions of interest (ROIs) are extracted as per prior knowledge. In second phase, features are extracted from each ROI using 3D dual-tree discrete wavelet transform. In third phase, relevant features are selected using minimum redundancy maximum relevance features selection technique. The decision model is built with features so obtained, using a classifier. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, experiments are performed with four well-known classifiers on four data sets, built from a publicly available OASIS database. The performance is evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity and classification accuracy. It was observed that the proposed method outperforms existing methods in terms of all three performance measures. This is further validated with statistical tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Yu-zhen; Li, Chao; Sun, Qian; Huang, Meng; Li, Cheng-rong; Qi, Bo
2016-11-01
Dispersion stability of nanoparticles in the liquid media is of great importance to the utilization in practice. This study aims to investigate the effects of mechanical dispersion method on the dispersibility of functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles in the transformer oil. Dispersion methods, including stirring, ultrasonic bath, and probe processes, were systematically tested to verify their versatility for preparing stable nanofluid. The test results reveal that the combination of ultrasonic bath process and stirring method has the best dispersion efficiency and the obtained nanofluid possesses the highest AC breakdown strength. Specifically, after aging for 168 h, the size of nanoparticles in the nanofluid prepared by the combination method has no obvious change, while those obtained by the other three paths are increased obviously.
Lv, Yu-Zhen; Li, Chao; Sun, Qian; Huang, Meng; Li, Cheng-Rong; Qi, Bo
2016-12-01
Dispersion stability of nanoparticles in the liquid media is of great importance to the utilization in practice. This study aims to investigate the effects of mechanical dispersion method on the dispersibility of functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles in the transformer oil. Dispersion methods, including stirring, ultrasonic bath, and probe processes, were systematically tested to verify their versatility for preparing stable nanofluid. The test results reveal that the combination of ultrasonic bath process and stirring method has the best dispersion efficiency and the obtained nanofluid possesses the highest AC breakdown strength. Specifically, after aging for 168 h, the size of nanoparticles in the nanofluid prepared by the combination method has no obvious change, while those obtained by the other three paths are increased obviously.
Nakajima, Yuya; Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi
2013-12-28
In this study, the analytical energy gradient for the spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) method at the levels of the Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional theory (DFT), and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) is developed. Furthermore, adopting the local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme for the IODKH method improves the efficiency in computation of the analytical energy gradient. Numerical assessments of the present gradient method are performed at the HF, DFT, and MP2 levels for the IODKH with and without the LUT scheme. The accuracies are examined for diatomic molecules such as hydrogen halides, halogen dimers, coinage metal (Cu, Ag, and Au) halides, and coinage metal dimers, and 20 metal complexes, including the fourth-sixth row transition metals. In addition, the efficiencies are investigated for one-, two-, and three-dimensional silver clusters. The numerical results confirm the accuracy and efficiency of the present method.
The Fe removal through mineralogical phase transformation of pyrite by physicochemical method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, BongJu; Cho, Kanghee; Jo, JiYu; Bak, GeonYeong; Choi, NagChoul; Park*, Cheonyoung
2015-04-01
Gold is often associated with sulfide minerals (arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena) as ''invisible'' gold that is thought to consist either of submicrometer metallic particles or to be bound to sulfur in metal sulfide lattice. Pyrite is one of the major minerals accumulating gold in most ores, although a solubility of Au in nonarsenian pyrite is minor, and increased concentrations of gold are associated with arsenic content and iron deficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the Fe removal through mineralogical phase transformation of pyrite by physical treatment (high frequency) and chemical leaching (ammonia solvent). The high frequency treatment experiment for the pyrite showed that (1) the pyrite phase was transformed pyrrhotite and magnetite, (2) mass loss of the sample by volatilization of included sulfur(S) in pyrite. The treated pyrite by high frequency was observed rim structure from photomicrograph result. Fe removal experiments for were performed under various conditions of high frequency exposure (10~60min), grain size (+140 mesh~-325mesh), sulfuric acid concentration (0.5~3.0M), ammonia sulfate concentration (1.7~6.8M), hydrogen peroxide concentration (0.5~3.0M). Increasing the high frequency exposure produced a positive effect on Fe removal in arsenopyrite. The highest percentage Fe removal of 95.53% was obtained under the following conditions by ammonia solvent: grain size = -325mesh, sulfuric acid concentration = 2.0M, ammonia sulfate concentration = 5.1M, hydrogen peroxide concentration = 1.0M. This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment(MOE) as "Advanced Technology Program for Environmental Industry".
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Wei; Li, Dongsheng; Zhang, Shuaifang; Ou, Jinping
2017-07-01
This paper presents a hybrid method that combines the B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI) finite element method and spectral analysis based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) to study wave propagation in One-Dimensional (1D) structures. BSWI scaling functions are utilized to approximate the theoretical wave solution in the spatial domain and construct a high-accuracy dynamic stiffness matrix. Dynamic reduction on element level is applied to eliminate the interior degrees of freedom of BSWI elements and substantially reduce the size of the system matrix. The dynamic equations of the system are then transformed and solved in the frequency domain through FFT-based spectral analysis which is especially suitable for parallel computation. A comparative analysis of four different finite element methods is conducted to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed method when utilized in high-frequency wave problems. Other numerical examples are utilized to simulate the influence of crack and delamination on wave propagation in 1D rods and beams. Finally, the errors caused by FFT and their corresponding solutions are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aprilianto, Mohammada; Abdurohman, Maman
2014-04-01
Text is a media that is often used to convey information in both wired and wireless-based network. One limitation of the wireless system is the network bandwidth. In this study we implemented a text compression application with lossless compression technique using combination of Burrows wheeler transform, move to front, and Huffman coding methods. With the addition of the compression of the text, it is expected to save network resources. This application provides information about compression ratio. From the testing process, it concludes that text compression with only Huffman coding method will be efficient when the number of text characters are above 400 characters, meanwhile text compression with burrows wheeler transform, move to front, and Huffman coding methods will be efficient when the number of text characters are above 531 characters. Combination of these methods are more efficient than just Huffman coding when the number of text characters are above 979 characters. The more characters that are compressed and the more patterns of the same symbol, the better the compression ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ondra, V.; Sever, I. A.; Schwingshackl, C. W.
2017-01-01
This paper presents a method for detection and characterisation of structural non-linearities from a single frequency response function using the Hilbert transform in the frequency domain and artificial neural networks. A frequency response function is described based on its Hilbert transform using several common and newly introduced scalar parameters, termed non-linearity indexes, to create training data of the artificial neural network. This network is subsequently used to detect the existence of non-linearity and classify its type. The theoretical background of the method is given and its usage is demonstrated on different numerical test cases created by single degree of freedom non-linear systems and a lumped parameter multi degree of freedom system with a geometric non-linearity. The method is also applied to several experimentally measured frequency response functions obtained from a cantilever beam with a clearance non-linearity and an under-platform damper experimental rig with a complex friction contact interface. It is shown that the method is a fast and noise-robust means of detecting and characterising non-linear behaviour from a single frequency response function.
Zhao, Jinghong; Wang, Hailong; Liu, Wenmin; Zhou, Yansheng; Guan, Yafeng
2004-05-01
The partition coefficients of dissolved gases in transformer oil were determined using a phase ratio variation method and static headspace gas chromatography (GC). A pressure balancing and gas volume-metering device was connected to the vent of a sample loop on a six-port injection valve of the GC. The gas phase sample from the headspace vial of 25 mL was transferred to an 80 microL sample-loop through a fused silica capillary of 0.53 mm i.d., and then separated and determined quantitatively by GC. A 2 m x 1 mm i.d. GDX502 micro-packed column was used for the separation. Five different gas-liquid volume ratios in the headspace vials were measured at different equilibrium concentrations. The partition coefficients of hydrocarbon gases including methane, acetylene, ethylene, ethane and propane dissolved in transformer oil were determined by using linear regression analysis at 20 degrees C and 50 degrees C separately. The errors between the real values and regression values from experimental data were less than 4.14% except methane. Fundamental data for on-line measurement of dissolved gases in transformer oil are provided by GC.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Rosemarie; Braud, William
2011-01-01
Research approaches in the field of transpersonal psychology can be transformative for researchers, participants, and the audience of a project. This book offers these transformative approaches to those conducting research across the human sciences and the humanities. Rosemarie Anderson and William Braud first described such methods in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Rosemarie; Braud, William
2011-01-01
Research approaches in the field of transpersonal psychology can be transformative for researchers, participants, and the audience of a project. This book offers these transformative approaches to those conducting research across the human sciences and the humanities. Rosemarie Anderson and William Braud first described such methods in…
Method for transforming CT images for attenuation correction in PET/CT imaging
Carney, Jonathan P.J.; Townsend, David W.; Rappoport, Vitaliy; Bendriem, Bernard
2006-04-15
A tube-voltage-dependent scheme is presented for transforming Hounsfield units (HU) measured by different computed tomography (CT) scanners at different x-ray tube voltages (kVp) to 511 keV linear attenuation values for attenuation correction in positron emission tomography (PET) data reconstruction. A Gammex 467 electron density CT phantom was imaged using a Siemens Sensation 16-slice CT, a Siemens Emotion 6-slice CT, a GE Lightspeed 16-slice CT, a Hitachi CXR 4-slice CT, and a Toshiba Aquilion 16-slice CT at kVp ranging from 80 to 140 kVp. All of these CT scanners are also available in combination with a PET scanner as a PET/CT tomograph. HU obtained for various reference tissue substitutes in the phantom were compared with the known linear attenuation values at 511 keV. The transformation, appropriate for lung, soft tissue, and bone, yields the function 9.6x10{sup -5}{center_dot}(HU+1000) below a threshold of {approx}50 HU and a{center_dot}(HU+1000)+b above the threshold, where a and b are fixed parameters that depend on the kVp setting. The use of the kVp-dependent scaling procedure leads to a significant improvement in reconstructed PET activity levels in phantom measurements, resolving errors of almost 40% otherwise seen for the case of dense bone phantoms at 80 kVp. Results are also presented for patient studies involving multiple CT scans at different kVp settings, which should all lead to the same 511 keV linear attenuation values. A linear fit to values obtained from 140 kVp CT images using the kVp-dependent scaling plotted as a function of the corresponding values obtained from 80 kVp CT images yielded y=1.003x-0.001 with an R{sup 2} value of 0.999, indicating that the same values are obtained to a high degree of accuracy.
A Bridge Health Monitoring Method Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform: A Case Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, Norden E.; Chiang, Weiling; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
We have developed a new method for nondestructive instrument method to monitor the health of a bridge. This new method is based on a transient test load and simple data collection. The nuclear of the method is the new invented nonstationary and nonlinear time series analysis method, the Empirical Mode Decomposition and Hilbert Spectral Analysis. The final decision on the health of the bridge structure is based on the nonlinear characteristic of the data, and on the comparison between the free and the forced vibration frequencies. Thus this alternative method enjoys many advantages: (1) no a priori data required, (2) simple data collection, and (3) minimum traffic disruption. Results from a case study of the Shing-Nan Bridge in Hou-Wei will be reported.
A Bridge Health Monitoring Method Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform: A Case Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, Norden E.; Chiang, Weiling; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
We have developed a new method for nondestructive instrument method to monitor the health of a bridge. This new method is based on a transient test load and simple data collection. The nuclear of the method is the new invented nonstationary and nonlinear time series analysis method, the Empirical Mode Decomposition and Hilbert Spectral Analysis. The final decision on the health of the bridge structure is based on the nonlinear characteristic of the data, and on the comparison between the free and the forced vibration frequencies. Thus this alternative method enjoys many advantages: (1) no a priori data required, (2) simple data collection, and (3) minimum traffic disruption. Results from a case study of the Shing-Nan Bridge in Hou-Wei will be reported.
Addison, Paul S
2015-01-01
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been proposed as a suitable technique for the analysis of cerebral autoregulation as it provides a simpler acquisition methodology and more artifact-free signal. A number of sophisticated wavelet transform methods have recently emerged to quantify the cerebral autoregulation mechanism using NIRS and blood pressure signals. These provide an enhanced partitioning of signal information via the time-frequency plane, which facilitates improved extraction of the components of interest. This area is reviewed, and enhancements to this form of analysis are suggested.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Studenikin, S. A.; Golego, Nickolay; Cocivera, Michael
1998-11-01
Slow relaxation of the photoconductivity over a period of days was studied in polycrystalline ZnO and TiO2 films prepared by spray pyrolysis. The phenomenon is described by a model involving deep sensitizing hole traps in the forbidden gap. The trap state distribution based on this model was calculated using an improved Laplace transform method. For ZnO and TiO2 films, the density of states was shown to have a peak-like distribution with a maximum near the lower third of the energy gap.
Infinitesimal base transformations method for calculating the k.p Hamiltonian of monolayer MoS2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beiranvand, Khadijeh; Ghalambor Dezfuli, Abdolmohammad; Sabaeian, Mohammad
2017-10-01
In this work, we present the study of monolayer MoS2 band structure using k.p method based on infinitesimal basis transformations perturbation theory. We also study the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the band structure. We have calculated the low energy k.p Hamiltonian and derived the dispersion relations for the last valance band and the first conduction band at K and -K points of the first Brillouin zone. The results clearly show the electron-hole asymmetry and trigonal warping effects. The results also indicate the spin-splitting of the first conduction band.
Sheu, Yae-lin; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Wu, Hau-tieng; Li, Peng-Cheng; Chu, Shih-I
2014-11-15
This study introduces a new adaptive time-frequency (TF) analysis technique, the synchrosqueezing transform (SST), to explore the dynamics of a laser-driven hydrogen atom at an ab initio level, upon which we have demonstrated its versatility as a new viable venue for further exploring quantum dynamics. For a signal composed of oscillatory components which can be characterized by instantaneous frequency, the SST enables rendering the decomposed signal based on the phase information inherited in the linear TF representation with mathematical support. Compared with the classical type of TF methods, the SST clearly depicts several intrinsic quantum dynamical processes such as selection rules, AC Stark effects, and high harmonic generation.
Aota, Arata; Date, Yasumoto; Terakado, Shingo; Ohmura, Naoya
2013-01-01
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that are present in the insulating oil inside a large number of transformers. To aid in eliminating PCB-contaminated transformers, PCBs in oil need to be measured using a rapid and cost-effective analytical method. We previously reported a pretreatment method for the immunoassay of PCBs in oil using a large-scale multilayer column and a microchip with multiple microrecesses, which permitted concentrated solvent extraction. In this paper, we report on a more rapid and facile pretreatment method, without an evaporation process, by improving the column and the microchip. In a miniaturized column, the decomposition and separation of oil were completed in 2 min. PCBs can be eluted from the capillary column at concentrations seven-times higher than those from the previous column. The total volume of the microrecesses was increased by improving the microrecess structure, the enabling extraction of four-times the amount of PCBs achieved with the previous system. By interfacing the capillary column with the improved microchip, PCBs in the eluate from the column were extracted into dimethyl sulfoxide in microrecesses with high enrichment and without the need for evaporation. Pretreatment was completed within 20 min. The pretreated oil was analyzed using a flow-based kinetic exclusion immunoassay. The limit of detection of PCBs in oil was 0.15 mg kg(-1), which satisfies the criterion set in Japan of 0.5 mg kg(-1).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder, Markus; Meyer, Hans-Dieter
2017-08-01
We propose a Monte Carlo method, "Monte Carlo Potfit," for transforming high-dimensional potential energy surfaces evaluated on discrete grid points into a sum-of-products form, more precisely into a Tucker form. To this end we use a variational ansatz in which we replace numerically exact integrals with Monte Carlo integrals. This largely reduces the numerical cost by avoiding the evaluation of the potential on all grid points and allows a treatment of surfaces up to 15-18 degrees of freedom. We furthermore show that the error made with this ansatz can be controlled and vanishes in certain limits. We present calculations on the potential of HFCO to demonstrate the features of the algorithm. To demonstrate the power of the method, we transformed a 15D potential of the protonated water dimer (Zundel cation) in a sum-of-products form and calculated the ground and lowest 26 vibrationally excited states of the Zundel cation with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method.
Lin, Xinping; Liu, Sasa; Bao, Ruiqi; Gao, Ning; Zhang, Sufang; Zhu, Rongqian; Zhao, Zongbao Kent
2017-04-06
Oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi, a promising strain of great biotechnical importance, is able to accumulate over 60% of its cell biomass as triacylglycerols (TAGs). It is promising to directly produce the derivatives of TAGs, such as long-chain fatty acid methyl esters and alkanes, in L. starkeyi. However, techniques for genetic modification of this oleaginous yeast are lacking, thus, further research is needed to develop genetic tools and functional elements. Here, we used two exogenous promoters (pGPD and pPGK) from oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides to establish a simpler Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) method for L. starkeyi. Hygromycin-resistant transformants were obtained on antibiotic-contained plate. Mitotic stability test, genotype verification by PCR, and protein expression confirmation all demonstrated the success of this method. Furthermore, the strength of these two promoters was evaluated at the phenotypic level on a hygromycin-gradient plate and at the transcriptional level by real-time quantitative PCR. The PGK promoter strength was 2.2-fold as that of GPD promoter to initiate the expression of the hygromycin-resistance gene. This study provided an easy and efficient genetic manipulation method and elements of the oleaginous yeast L. starkeyi for constructing superior strains to produce advanced biofuels.
Transformational Learners: Transformational Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Marguerite
2009-01-01
Transformational learning, according to Mezirow (1981), involves transforming taken-for-granted frames of reference into more discriminating, flexible "habits of mind". In teacher education, transformative learning impacts on the development of students' action theories, self-efficacy and professional attributes. Although considered…
The Transformations of Transformations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Francis Y.
2000-01-01
Harris's original idea of transformations has been changed several times in Chomsky's work. This article explicates these transformations, arguing that though their motivations are highly understandable, these transformations are not necessary for understanding the workings of natural languages. (Author/VWL)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prayuni, Kinasih; Dwivany, Fenny M.
2015-09-01
Banana is classified as a climateric fruit, whose ripening is regulated by ethylene. Ethylene is synthesized from ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) by ACC oxidase enzyme which is encoded by ACO gene. Controling an important gene expression in ethylene biosynthesis pathway has became a target to delay the ripening process. Therefore in the previous study we have designed a MaACO-RNAi construct to control MaACO gene expression. In this research, we study the effectiveness of different transient transformation methods to deliver the construct. Direct injection, with or no vaccum infiltration methods were used to deliver MaACO-RNAi construct. All of the methods succesfully deliver the construct into banana fruits based on RT-PCR result.
Kozlov, Denis; Besov, Alexey
2011-08-01
A new method of spectral subtraction for gas-phase Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra was developed for long-path gas measurements. The method is based on minimization of the length of the spectrum that results from subtracting the spectrum of an individual component of a gas mixture (water, CO(2), etc.) from the experimental spectrum of the mixture. For this purpose a subtraction coefficient (k(min)) is found for which the length of the resulting spectrum is minimized. A mathematical simulation with two Lorentzian absorption bands was conducted and the limits of application for the proposed method were determined. Two experimental examples demonstrate that a successful result could be achieved in the case when the subtrahend spectrum contains a number of narrow absorption bands (such as the spectrum of water vapor).
Patel, Trushit; Meher, Ramakanta
2016-01-01
In this paper, Adomian decomposition sumudu transform method is introduced and used to solve the temperature distribution in a solid and porous fin with the temperature dependent internal heat generation for a fractional order energy balance equation. In this study, we assume heat generation as a variable of fin temperature for solid and porous fin and the heat transfer through porous media is simulated by using Darcy's model. The results are presented for the temperature distribution for the range of values of parameters appeared in the mathematical formulation and also compared with numerical solutions in order to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. It is found that the proposed method is in good agreement with direct numerical solution.
The Method of Unitary Clothing Transformations in the Theory of Nucleon-Nucleon Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubovyk, I.; Shebeko, O.
2010-12-01
The clothing procedure, put forward in quantum field theory (QFT) by Greenberg and Schweber, is applied for the description of nucleon-nucleon ( N- N) scattering. We consider pseudoscalar ( π and η), vector ( ρ and ω) and scalar ( δ and σ) meson fields interacting with 1/2 spin ( N and {bar{N}}) fermion ones via the Yukawa-type couplings to introduce trial interactions between “bare” particles. The subsequent unitary clothing transformations are found to express the total Hamiltonian through new interaction operators that refer to particles with physical (observable) properties, the so-called clothed particles. In this work, we are focused upon the Hermitian and energy-independent operators for the clothed nucleons, being built up in the second order in the coupling constants. The corresponding analytic expressions in momentum space are compared with the separate meson contributions to the one-boson-exchange potentials in the meson theory of nuclear forces. In order to evaluate the T matrix of the N- N scattering we have used an equivalence theorem that enables us to operate in the clothed particle representation (CPR) instead of the bare particle representation with its large amount of virtual processes. We have derived the Lippmann-Schwinger type equation for the CPR elements of the T-matrix for a given collision energy in the two-nucleon sector of the Hilbert space {mathcal{H}} of hadronic states.
Wavelet transform-based methods for denoising of Coulter counter signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jagtiani, Ashish V.; Sawant, Rupesh; Carletta, Joan; Zhe, Jiang
2008-06-01
A process based on discrete wavelet transforms is developed for denoising and baseline correction of measured signals from Coulter counters. Given signals from a particular Coulter counting experiment, which detect passage of particles through a fluid-filled microchannel, the process uses a cross-validation procedure to pick appropriate parameters for signal denoising; these parameters include the choice of the particular wavelet, the number of levels of decomposition, the threshold value and the threshold strategy. The process is demonstrated on simulated and experimental single channel data obtained from a particular multi-channel Coulter counter processing. For these example experimental signals from 20 µm polymethacrylate and Cottonwood/Eastern Deltoid pollen particles and the simulated signals, denoising is aimed at removing Gaussian white noise, 60 Hz power line interference and low frequency baseline drift. The process can be easily adapted for other Coulter counters and other sources of noise. Overall, wavelets are presented as a tool to aid in accurate detection of particles in Coulter counters.
A simple method to fabricate lenses for in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treffman, Lia M.; Morrison, Philip W., Jr.
1996-04-01
A process has been developed to hand grind and polish infrared KBr lenses with a wide choice of focal lengths. These lenses are designed for coupling the infrared (IR) beam from a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer into a hot filament chemical vapor deposition reactor. These IR lenses are ground using a glass lens as a mold; the mold lens is a commercial glass lens used for spectacles and is available in a wide range of focal lengths. Rough grinding begins with ♯100 sandpaper and followed by a sequence of fine grinding steps under ethanol: ♯400 SiC powder, ♯600 SiC powder, and emery powder. Polishing is done with a CeO slurry in water followed by a chamois cloth moistened with ethanol. As an indication of the surface finish of the lenses, a flat KBr window that is hand ground and polished in the above manner has a transmission of ≳89% at 8000 cm-1 and ≳91% at 500 cm-1; the commercially polished KBr window has a transmittance of 92% throughout this spectral range.
The method of unitary clothing transformations in the theory of nucleon-nucleon scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubovyk, I.; Shebeko, A.
2010-04-01
The clothing procedure, put forward in quantum field theory (QFT) by Greenberg and Schweber, is applied for the description of nucleon-nucleon (N -N) scattering. We consider pseudoscalar (π and η), vector (ρ and ω) and scalar (δ and σ) meson fields interacting with 1/2 spin (N and N) fermion ones via the Yukawa-type couplings to introduce trial interactions between “bare” particles. The subsequent unitary clothing transformations (UCTs) are found to express the total Hamiltonian through new interaction operators that refer to particles with physical (observable) properties, the so-called clothed particles. In this work, we are focused upon the Hermitian and energy-independent operators for the clothed nucleons, being built up in the second order in the coupling constants. The corresponding analytic expressions in momentum space are compared with the separate meson contributions to the one-boson-exchange potentials in the meson theory of nuclear forces. In order to evaluate the T matrix of the N-N scattering we have used an equivalence theorem that enables us to operate in the clothed particle representation (CPR) instead of the bare particle representation (BPR) with its huge amount of virtual processes. We have derived the Lippmann-Schwinger(LS)-type equation for the CPR elements of the T-matrix for a given collision energy in the two-nucleon sector of the Hilbert space H of hadronic states and elaborated a code for its numerical solution in momentum space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández-Tenorio, C.; Serkin, V. N.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Peña-Moreno, R.; Morales-Lara, L.
2015-01-01
The nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) model with an external harmonic potential is one of the most important in modern science. This model makes it possible to analyze a variety of nonlinear phenomena, in nonlinear optics and laser physics, biophysics and in the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation of atoms. It is shown that the main specific feature of the dynamics of dark GP matter wave solitons in a parabolic trap is the formation of solitons with dynamically changing form-factors producing the periodic variation in the modulation depth (the degree of "blackness") of dark solitons. In general, the period of dark soliton oscillations in trapping potential depends on the specific conditions of the experiment and does not coincide with the oscillation period of a linear quantum-mechanical oscillator. In the case of an immobile pedestal in the trap, the oscillation period of the black soliton considerably increases because of the periodic transformation of the black soliton to the gray one and vice versa. Surprisingly, that if the dark soliton is superimposed on the base pedestal oscillating in the trap and displaced from the trap center, the oscillation period of the dark soliton coincides with the period of oscillations of the linear harmonic oscillator, while the dynamics of the dark soliton is similar to that of a classical particle obeying the Newton mechanics laws.
Moriguchi, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Shinji; Ohmine, Yuta; Suzuki, Katsunori
2016-01-01
Trans-kingdom conjugation is a phenomenon by which DNA is transferred into a eukaryotic cell by a bacterial conjugal transfer system. Improvement in this method to facilitate the rapid co-cultivation of donor bacterial and recipient eukaryotic cell cultures could make it the simplest transformation method, requiring neither isolation of vector DNA nor preparation of competent recipient cells. To evaluate this potential advantage of trans-kingdom conjugation, we examined this simple transformation method using vector combinations, helper plasmids, and recipient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Mixing donor Escherichia coli and recipient S. cerevisiae overnight cultures (50 μL each) consistently yielded on the order of 101 transformants using the popular experimental strain BY4742 derived from S288c and a shuttle vector for trans-kingdom conjugation. Transformation efficiency increased to the order of 102 using a high receptivity trans-kingdom conjugation strain. In addition, either increasing the amount of donor cells or pretreating the recipient cells with thiols such as dithiothreitol improved the transformation efficiency by one order of magnitude. This simple trans-kingdom conjugation-mediated transformation method could be used as a practical yeast transformation method upon enrichment of available vectors and donor E. coli strains. PMID:26849654
Paliwal, Himanshu; Shirts, Michael R
2011-12-13
There is a significant need for improved tools to validate thermophysical quantities computed via molecular simulation. In this paper we present the initial version of a benchmark set of testing methods for calculating free energies of molecular transformation in solution. This set is based on molecular changes common to many molecular design problems, such as insertion and deletion of atomic sites and changing atomic partial charges. We use this benchmark set to compare the statistical efficiency, reliability, and quality of uncertainty estimates for a number of published free energy methods, including thermodynamic integration, free energy perturbation, the Bennett acceptance ratio (BAR) and its multistate equivalent MBAR. We identify MBAR as the consistently best performing method, though other methods are frequently comparable in reliability and accuracy in many cases. We demonstrate that assumptions of Gaussian distributed errors in free energies are usually valid for most methods studied. We demonstrate that bootstrap error estimation is a robust and useful technique for estimating statistical variance for all free energy methods studied. This benchmark set is provided in a number of different file formats with the hope of becoming a useful and general tool for method comparisons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafari, Nasrin; Azhari, Mojtaba
2016-11-01
In this paper, the stability analysis of moderately thick time-dependent viscoelastic plates with various shapes is studied using the Laplace-Carson transformation and simple hp cloud meshless method. The shear effect of the plate is described by the first order shear deformation theory. The mechanical properties of the materials are supposed to be linear viscoelastic based on the constant bulk modulus. The displacement field is assumed to be the product of two functions, one being a function of geometrical parameters and the other a known exponential function of time. The simple hp cloud method is used for discretization which is based on Kronecker-delta properties. Thus, the essential boundary conditions can be imposed directly. A numerical investigation is made by employing the inverse of Laplace-Carson transformation. The time history of buckling coefficients of viscoelastic plates of various shapes with different boundary conditions is considered. Moreover, a number of numerical results are presented to study the effect of thickness, aspect ratio, different boundary conditions, and various shapes on the time history of buckling coefficients of the viscoelastic plate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafari, Nasrin; Azhari, Mojtaba
2017-08-01
In this paper, the stability analysis of moderately thick time-dependent viscoelastic plates with various shapes is studied using the Laplace-Carson transformation and simple hp cloud meshless method. The shear effect of the plate is described by the first order shear deformation theory. The mechanical properties of the materials are supposed to be linear viscoelastic based on the constant bulk modulus. The displacement field is assumed to be the product of two functions, one being a function of geometrical parameters and the other a known exponential function of time. The simple hp cloud method is used for discretization which is based on Kronecker-delta properties. Thus, the essential boundary conditions can be imposed directly. A numerical investigation is made by employing the inverse of Laplace-Carson transformation. The time history of buckling coefficients of viscoelastic plates of various shapes with different boundary conditions is considered. Moreover, a number of numerical results are presented to study the effect of thickness, aspect ratio, different boundary conditions, and various shapes on the time history of buckling coefficients of the viscoelastic plate.
Cuevas, Erik; Díaz, Margarita
2015-01-01
In this paper, a new method for robustly estimating multiple view relations from point correspondences is presented. The approach combines the popular random sampling consensus (RANSAC) algorithm and the evolutionary method harmony search (HS). With this combination, the proposed method adopts a different sampling strategy than RANSAC to generate putative solutions. Under the new mechanism, at each iteration, new candidate solutions are built taking into account the quality of the models generated by previous candidate solutions, rather than purely random as it is the case of RANSAC. The rules for the generation of candidate solutions (samples) are motivated by the improvisation process that occurs when a musician searches for a better state of harmony. As a result, the proposed approach can substantially reduce the number of iterations still preserving the robust capabilities of RANSAC. The method is generic and its use is illustrated by the estimation of homographies, considering synthetic and real images. Additionally, in order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach within a real engineering application, it is employed to solve the problem of position estimation in a humanoid robot. Experimental results validate the efficiency of the proposed method in terms of accuracy, speed, and robustness.
Cuevas, Erik; Díaz, Margarita
2015-01-01
In this paper, a new method for robustly estimating multiple view relations from point correspondences is presented. The approach combines the popular random sampling consensus (RANSAC) algorithm and the evolutionary method harmony search (HS). With this combination, the proposed method adopts a different sampling strategy than RANSAC to generate putative solutions. Under the new mechanism, at each iteration, new candidate solutions are built taking into account the quality of the models generated by previous candidate solutions, rather than purely random as it is the case of RANSAC. The rules for the generation of candidate solutions (samples) are motivated by the improvisation process that occurs when a musician searches for a better state of harmony. As a result, the proposed approach can substantially reduce the number of iterations still preserving the robust capabilities of RANSAC. The method is generic and its use is illustrated by the estimation of homographies, considering synthetic and real images. Additionally, in order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach within a real engineering application, it is employed to solve the problem of position estimation in a humanoid robot. Experimental results validate the efficiency of the proposed method in terms of accuracy, speed, and robustness. PMID:26339228
Short-time Fourier transform method for online glass ream inspection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Anding; Chen, Youping; Xie, Jingming
2016-08-01
In the float glass defect inspection system based on machine vision, the common defects can be detected and classified correctly. However, the online glass ream inspection is still a problem to be solved, and the accuracy cannot fulfill the requirement of glass grading. As the glass ream is a rather slight optical distortion in most cases, it should be amplified so that it can be checked out easily. A Moiré method based on the theory of superposition shadow is proposed, which can magnify the distortion effectively without increasing the system complexity, and a STFT method is presented to analyze the distortion according to the characteristics of Moiré fringe pattern. With this method, the vision interference angle of glass ribbon can be calculated out accurately in real time, which makes it suitable for online glass ream inspection.
Zhou, Liming; Yang, Yuxing; Yuan, Shiying
2006-02-01
A new algorithm, the coordinates transform iterative optimizing method based on the least square curve fitting model, is presented. This arithmetic is used for extracting the bio-impedance model parameters. It is superior to other methods, for example, its speed of the convergence is quicker, and its calculating precision is higher. The objective to extract the model parameters, such as Ri, Re, Cm and alpha, has been realized rapidly and accurately. With the aim at lowering the power consumption, decreasing the price and improving the price-to-performance ratio, a practical bio-impedance measure system with double CPUs has been built. It can be drawn from the preliminary results that the intracellular resistance Ri increased largely with an increase in working load during sitting, which reflects the ischemic change of lower limbs.
2009-01-01
Many species of streptococci secrete and use a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) to initiate quorum sensing for induction of genetic competence, bacteriocin production, and other activities. These signaling molecules are small, unmodified peptides that induce powerful strain-specific activity at nano-molar concentrations. This feature has provided an excellent opportunity to explore their structure–function relationships. However, CSP variants have also been identified in many species, and each specifically activates its cognate receptor. How such minor changes dramatically affect the specificity of these peptides remains unclear. Structure–activity analysis of these peptides may provide clues for understanding the specificity of signaling peptide–receptor interactions. Here, we use the Streptococcus mutans CSP as an example to describe methods of analyzing its structure–activity relationship. The methods described here may provide a platform for studying quorum-sensing signaling peptides of other naturally transformable streptococci. PMID:19517207
Yao, Jingfeng; Yuan, Chengxun E-mail: zhouzx@hit.edu.cn; Gao, Ruilin; Jia, Jieshu; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhongxiang E-mail: zhouzx@hit.edu.cn; Wang, Xiaoou; Wu, Jian; Li, Hui
2016-08-15
This study focuses on the transmission of normal-incidence electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals. Using the Maxwell's equations in a medium, a method that is based on the concept of impendence is employed to perform the simulation. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by simulating a one-layer plasma and conventional photonic crystal. In frequency-domain, the transmission and reflection coefficients in the unmagnetized plasma photonic crystal were calculated, and the influence factors on plasma photonic crystals including dielectric constants of dielectric, spatial period, filling factor, plasma frequency, and collision frequency were studied.
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Most efforts to harness the power of big data for ecology and environmental sciences focus on data and metadata sharing, standardization, and accuracy. However, many scientists have not accepted the data deluge as an integral part of their research because the current scientific method is not scalab...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
He, Yong
2013-01-01
Common test items play an important role in equating multiple test forms under the common-item nonequivalent groups design. Inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores for IRT true score equating. Current methods extensively focus on detection and elimination of outlying common items, which…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
He, Yong
2013-01-01
Common test items play an important role in equating multiple test forms under the common-item nonequivalent groups design. Inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores for IRT true score equating. Current methods extensively focus on detection and elimination of outlying common items, which…
Vakilian, M.; Degeneff, R.C.; Kupferschmid, M.
1995-05-01
An EHV transformer`s insulation structure must be designed to withstand the internal electrical stresses generated during system transients. Computer models are employed for predetermination of these stresses. Part 1 of this paper developed a detailed transformer model and solution method representing the nonlinear, saturable characteristic of the core during transients. The resulting set of stiff nonlinear differential algebraic equations (DAE`s) are solved by application of Gear`s method. Part 2 presents the verification of this methodology. This is accomplished by comparing the computed and measured response of a 765/345/34.5 kV 500MVA autotransformer during energization and transient excitation.
Extraction of weak PcP phases using the slant-stacklet transform - I: method and examples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ventosa, Sergi; Romanowicz, Barbara
2015-04-01
In order to study fine scale structure of the Earth's deep interior, it is necessary to extract generally weak body wave phases from seismograms that interact with various discontinuities and heterogeneities. The recent deployment of large-scale dense arrays providing high-quality data, in combination with efficient seismic data processing techniques, may provide important and accurate observations over large portions of the globe poorly sampled until now. Major challenges are low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and interference with unwanted neighbouring phases. We address these problems by introducing scale-dependent slowness filters that preserve time-space resolution. We combine complex wavelet and slant-stack transforms to obtain the slant-stacklet transform. This is a redundant high-resolution directional wavelet transform with a direction (here slowness) resolution that can be adapted to the signal requirements. To illustrate this approach, we use this expansion to design coherence-driven filters that allow us to obtain clean PcP observations (a weak phase often hidden in the coda of the P wave), for events with magnitude Mw > 5.4 and distances up to 80°. In this context, we then minimize a linear misfit between P and PcP waveforms to improve the quality of PcP-P traveltime measurements as compared to a standard cross-correlation method. This significantly increases both the quantity and the quality of PcP-P differential traveltime measurements available for the modelling of structure near the core-mantle boundary. The accuracy of our measurements is limited mainly by the highest frequencies of the signals used and the level of noise. We apply this methodology to two examples of high-quality data from dense arrays located in north America. While focusing here on body-wave separation, the tools we propose are more general and may contribute to enhancing seismic signal observations in global seismology in situations of low SNR and high signal interference.
Xu, Huile; Liu, Jinyi; Hu, Haibo; Zhang, Yi
2016-01-01
Wearable sensors-based human activity recognition introduces many useful applications and services in health care, rehabilitation training, elderly monitoring and many other areas of human interaction. Existing works in this field mainly focus on recognizing activities by using traditional features extracted from Fourier transform (FT) or wavelet transform (WT). However, these signal processing approaches are suitable for a linear signal but not for a nonlinear signal. In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for dealing with activity data with properties such as nonlinearity and non-stationarity. A multi-features extraction method based on HHT is then proposed to improve the effect of activity recognition. The extracted multi-features include instantaneous amplitude (IA) and instantaneous frequency (IF) by means of empirical mode decomposition (EMD), as well as instantaneous energy density (IE) and marginal spectrum (MS) derived from Hilbert spectral analysis. Experimental studies are performed to verify the proposed approach by using the PAMAP2 dataset from the University of California, Irvine for wearable sensors-based activity recognition. Moreover, the effect of combining multi-features vs. a single-feature are investigated and discussed in the scenario of a dependent subject. The experimental results show that multi-features combination can further improve the performance measures. Finally, we test the effect of multi-features combination in the scenario of an independent subject. Our experimental results show that we achieve four performance indexes: recall, precision, F-measure, and accuracy to 0.9337, 0.9417, 0.9353, and 0.9377 respectively, which are all better than the achievements of related works. PMID:27918414
Xu, Huile; Liu, Jinyi; Hu, Haibo; Zhang, Yi
2016-12-02
Wearable sensors-based human activity recognition introduces many useful applications and services in health care, rehabilitation training, elderly monitoring and many other areas of human interaction. Existing works in this field mainly focus on recognizing activities by using traditional features extracted from Fourier transform (FT) or wavelet transform (WT). However, these signal processing approaches are suitable for a linear signal but not for a nonlinear signal. In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for dealing with activity data with properties such as nonlinearity and non-stationarity. A multi-features extraction method based on HHT is then proposed to improve the effect of activity recognition. The extracted multi-features include instantaneous amplitude (IA) and instantaneous frequency (IF) by means of empirical mode decomposition (EMD), as well as instantaneous energy density (IE) and marginal spectrum (MS) derived from Hilbert spectral analysis. Experimental studies are performed to verify the proposed approach by using the PAMAP2 dataset from the University of California, Irvine for wearable sensors-based activity recognition. Moreover, the effect of combining multi-features vs. a single-feature are investigated and discussed in the scenario of a dependent subject. The experimental results show that multi-features combination can further improve the performance measures. Finally, we test the effect of multi-features combination in the scenario of an independent subject. Our experimental results show that we achieve four performance indexes: recall, precision, F-measure, and accuracy to 0.9337, 0.9417, 0.9353, and 0.9377 respectively, which are all better than the achievements of related works.
Osipovich, Nikolai P; Poznyak, Sergei K; Lesnyak, Vladimir; Gaponik, Nikolai
2016-04-21
The application of electrochemical methods for the characterization of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) attracts considerable attention as these methods may allow for monitoring of some crucial parameters, such as energetic levels of conduction and valence bands as well as surface traps and ligands under real conditions of colloidal solution. In the present work we extend the applications of cyclic voltammetry (CV) to in situ monitoring of degradation processes of water-soluble CdTe QDs. This degradation occurs under lowering of pH to the values around 5, i.e. under conditions relevant to bioimaging applications of these QDs, and is accompanied by pronounced changes of their photoluminescence. Observed correlations between characteristic features of CV diagrams and the fluorescence spectra allowed us to propose mechanisms responsible for evolution of the photoluminescence properties as well as degradation pathway of CdTe QDs at low pH.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamini, S.; Priya, P. Sakthi; Gunaseelan, M.; Senthilselvan, J.
2017-05-01
KYF4:10%Er3+ upconversion nanoparticles was synthesized by hydrothermal method with potassium hydroxides (KOH) as precursor. Prepared samples were calcined at 600 °C using double crucible method. XRD patterns of as prepared KYF4 and KYF4:Er3+ samples confirm the tetragonal structure, which is well matched with the standard data. Surface morphology is recorded for 600 °C calcined samples using High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) shows spheroidal shape with particle sizes of ˜80 nm. From UV-Visible and EDX spectroscopy presence of Er3+ in KYF4:10%Er3+ is confirmed. The prepared KYF4:10%Er3+ can be used to improve efficiency of solar cells, display devices and fiber optical telecommunication applications.
An implicit fast Fourier transform method for integration of the time dependent Schrodinger equation
Riley, M.E.; Ritchie, A.B.
1997-12-31
One finds that the conventional exponentiated split operator procedure is subject to difficulties when solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for Coulombic systems. By rearranging the kinetic and potential energy terms in the temporal propagator of the finite difference equations, one can find a propagation algorithm for three dimensions that looks much like the Crank-Nicholson and alternating direction implicit methods for one- and two-space-dimensional partial differential equations. The authors report investigations of this novel implicit split operator procedure. The results look promising for a purely numerical approach to certain electron quantum mechanical problems. A charge exchange calculation is presented as an example of the power of the method.
Peng, Dan; Xu, Ke-Xin
2010-02-01
In the present paper, a new method named response variable transform (RVT) is proposed to reduce the effect of scattering in the NIR spectroscopy measurement. In the RVT method, the rates of the change in light intensity at different spatial positions with the concentration of the investigated composition are firstly sampled. Then, based on the sampled changing rates of light intensity, the absorption coefficients, which are used as new response variable, are calculated using the inverse adding-double (IAD) algorithm. Finally, through the partial least squares (PLS) regression, the calibration models for the investigated compositions are established using these new response variables. To validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, the RVT method is applied to reduce the effect of scattering during the process of composition concentration measurement in milk. First, the relationships between the absorption coefficient and the concentrations of major compositions including fat and protein are analyzed. Then, with Monte Carlo simulations for different concentration levels of fat and protein, the influence of scattering on the relationship between the absorbency and the concentration is investigated and verified. Finally, for comparison, both the RVT method and the traditional preprocessing techniques are used to reduce the effect of scattering during the process of prediction model establishment. Experimental results showed that the prediction precision for fat and protein with the RVT method is increased by up to 33.9% and 46.5% than that with multiplicative signal correction (MSC) algorithm, and the prediction precision for fat and protein with the RVT method is increased by up to 55.9% and 33.7% than that with standard normal variate (SNV) algorithm, which also indicates that the RVT method is an effective method for eliminating the interference of scattering in the NIR spectroscopy measurement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Win, Khin Yadanar; Choomchuay, Somsak; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko
2017-06-01
The automated segmentation of cell nuclei is an essential stage in the quantitative image analysis of cell nuclei extracted from smear cytology images of pleural fluid. Cell nuclei can indicate cancer as the characteristics of cell nuclei are associated with cells proliferation and malignancy in term of size, shape and the stained color. Nevertheless, automatic nuclei segmentation has remained challenging due to the artifacts caused by slide preparation, nuclei heterogeneity such as the poor contrast, inconsistent stained color, the cells variation, and cells overlapping. In this paper, we proposed a watershed-based method that is capable to segment the nuclei of the variety of cells from cytology pleural fluid smear images. Firstly, the original image is preprocessed by converting into the grayscale image and enhancing by adjusting and equalizing the intensity using histogram equalization. Next, the cell nuclei are segmented using OTSU thresholding as the binary image. The undesirable artifacts are eliminated using morphological operations. Finally, the distance transform based watershed method is applied to isolate the touching and overlapping cell nuclei. The proposed method is tested with 25 Papanicolaou (Pap) stained pleural fluid images. The accuracy of our proposed method is 92%. The method is relatively simple, and the results are very promising.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedadouche, M.; Thomas, M.; Tahan, A.
2016-12-01
The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is a noise assisted method that may sometimes provide a significant improvement on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). However, the amplitude and number of added noise need to be selected when applying the EEMD method. Furthermore, the computation time which depends on the number of ensemble trails is very high compared to the EMD. In this paper, a new way for choosing the appropriate added noise is presented. Conversely, a recently-developed method called the Empirical Wavelet Transform (EWT) is investigated. A comparative study between the EMD and EWT methods is conducted. The results show that the EWT is better than the EEMD and EMD on mode estimates and computation time is significantly reduced. An experimental study on bearing diagnosis is conducted. The EWT is applied to experimental data coming from damaged bearings. In the paper, an index selection is introduced that allows for the automatic selection of the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that should be used to perform the envelope spectrum. It is shown that choosing all the IMF selected by the index is more efficient than only choosing the best one. The envelope of the sum of the selected IMF clearly reveals the bearing frequencies and its harmonics which are excited by the defect. This approach seems to be an effective and efficient method for processing bearing fault signals.
Guo, Yanjie; Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Shibin; Sun, Ruobin; Zhao, Zhibin
2017-01-01
The gearbox is one of the key components in wind turbines. Gearbox fault signals are usually nonstationary and highly contaminated with noise. The presence of amplitude-modulated and frequency-modulated (AM-FM) characteristics compound the difficulty of precise fault diagnosis of wind turbines, therefore, it is crucial to develop an effective fault diagnosis method for such equipment. This paper presents an improved diagnosis method for wind turbines via the combination of synchrosqueezing transform and local mean decomposition. Compared to the conventional time-frequency analysis techniques, the improved method which is performed in non-real-time can effectively reduce the noise pollution of the signals and preserve the signal characteristics, and hence is suitable for the analysis of nonstationary signals with high noise. This method is further validated by simulated signals and practical vibration data measured from a 1.5 MW wind turbine. The results confirm that the proposed method can simultaneously control the noise and increase the accuracy of time-frequency representation. PMID:28524090
Clapper-Gowdy, M.; Demirgian, J.; Lang, K.; Robaittaille, G.
1992-09-01
The current methods for hazardous waste site characterization are time consuming, cumbersome, and expensive. Typically, characterization requires a preliminary site assessment and subsequent sampling of potentially contaminated soils and waters. The samples are sent to laboratories for analysis using EPA-certified methods. It is often necessary to repeat the entire sampling-analysis cycle to characterize a site completely and accurately. For these reasons, new methods of site assessment and characterization are continually being researched. TWs paper describes a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy method that rapidly screens soil samples from potentially hazardous waste sites. Analysis of a soil sample by FTIR takes approximately 10 minutes. The method has been developed to identify and quantify explosives in the field and is directly applicable to selected volatile organics, semivolatile organics, and pesticides. The soil samples are desorbed in a CDS 122 thermal desorption unit under vacuum into a variable pathlength, long-path cell heated to 180{degrees}C. The spectral data, 128 co-added scans at I cm{sup {minus}l} resolution, are collected and stored using a Nicolet 60SX FTIR spectrometer. Classical least squares (CLS) analysis has been used to obtain quantitative results.
Clapper-Gowdy, M.; Demirgian, J. ); Lang, K.; Robaittaille, G. )
1992-01-01
The current methods for hazardous waste site characterization are time consuming, cumbersome, and expensive. Typically, characterization requires a preliminary site assessment and subsequent sampling of potentially contaminated soils and waters. The samples are sent to laboratories for analysis using EPA-certified methods. It is often necessary to repeat the entire sampling-analysis cycle to characterize a site completely and accurately. For these reasons, new methods of site assessment and characterization are continually being researched. TWs paper describes a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy method that rapidly screens soil samples from potentially hazardous waste sites. Analysis of a soil sample by FTIR takes approximately 10 minutes. The method has been developed to identify and quantify explosives in the field and is directly applicable to selected volatile organics, semivolatile organics, and pesticides. The soil samples are desorbed in a CDS 122 thermal desorption unit under vacuum into a variable pathlength, long-path cell heated to 180{degrees}C. The spectral data, 128 co-added scans at I cm{sup {minus}l} resolution, are collected and stored using a Nicolet 60SX FTIR spectrometer. Classical least squares (CLS) analysis has been used to obtain quantitative results.
Guo, Yanjie; Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Shibin; Sun, Ruobin; Zhao, Zhibin
2017-05-18
The gearbox is one of the key components in wind turbines. Gearbox fault signals are usually nonstationary and highly contaminated with noise. The presence of amplitude-modulated and frequency-modulated (AM-FM) characteristics compound the difficulty of precise fault diagnosis of wind turbines, therefore, it is crucial to develop an effective fault diagnosis method for such equipment. This paper presents an improved diagnosis method for wind turbines via the combination of synchrosqueezing transform and local mean decomposition. Compared to the conventional time-frequency analysis techniques, the improved method which is performed in non-real-time can effectively reduce the noise pollution of the signals and preserve the signal characteristics, and hence is suitable for the analysis of nonstationary signals with high noise. This method is further validated by simulated signals and practical vibration data measured from a 1.5 MW wind turbine. The results confirm that the proposed method can simultaneously control the noise and increase the accuracy of time-frequency representation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vella, K.; Kurata, N.; Soloviev, A.; Matt, S.; Shivji, M.; Tartar, A.
2012-12-01
The sea surface microlayer represents the interface between the atmosphere and the ocean and it can serve as a collection point for organic materials, such as surfactants. In this work, we present an improved method for the identification of the microbial community structure present in both the sea surface microlayer and the corresponding water column, in relation to surfactant production/transformation. Bacterial samples were collected from the sea surface microlayer with an improved sampling method, which minimized sample contamination from the research platform and the subsurface water. This novel sampling approach was developed by using polycarbonate membrane filters attached to fly fishing line, which provided finer control of the filter touching only the sea surface. Sampling was conducted at open ocean (approximately five miles offshore) and coastal water sites (approximately one mile from coastline) in the Straits of Florida to compare surfactant-producing bacterial populations present in these two regions. The microlayer sampling was planned to coincide with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite overpasses (COSMO SkyMed). By establishing bacterial groups that influence the presence of surfactants, remote sensing techniques which involve monitoring the surface of the ocean will be enhanced. This is because surfactants are capable of suppressing short gravity-capillary ocean surface waves, which affect radar back-scatter. SAR remote sensing thus may provide additional information on the state of the upper ocean ecosystem. Microbial composition was determined using DNA analysis of 16S rRNA genes. Preliminary analysis of bay samples suggested the presence of bacteria related to a strain of uncultured gammaproteobacteria, previously isolated from coastal sediment along a hydrocarbon contamination gradient. Many genera of the gammaproteobacteria are known to be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. We are further exploring and quantifying the presence of
Banach, Zbigniew; Larecki, Wieslaw; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech
2009-10-01
Under the assumption of Callaway's model of the Boltzmann-Peierls equation, the Chapman-Enskog method for a phonon gas forms the basis to derive various hydrodynamic equations for the energy density and the drift velocity of interest when normal processes dominate over resistive ones. The first three levels of the expansion (i.e., the zeroth-, first-, and second-order approximations) are satisfactory in that they are entropy consistent and ensure linear stability of the rest state. However, the entropy density contains a weakly nonlocal term, the entropy production is a degenerate function of variables, and the next order in the Chapman-Enskog expansion gives the equations with linearly unstable rest solutions. In the context of Burnett and super-Burnett equations, a similar type of problem was recognized by several authors who proposed different ways to deal with it. Here we report on yet another possible device for obtaining more satisfactory equations. Namely, inspired by the fact that there exists no unique way to truncate the Chapman-Enskog expansion, we combine the Chapman-Enskog procedure with the method of variable transformation and subsequently find a class of epsilon -dependent transformations through which it is possible to derive the second-order equations possessing a local entropy density and nondegenerate expression for the entropy production. Regardless of this result, we also show that although the method cannot be used to construct linearly stable third-order equations, it can be used to make the originally stable first-order equations asymptotically stable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Songting; Payne, Nicholas
2017-07-01
We present an effective asymptotic method for approximating the density of particles for kinetic equations with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) relaxation operator in the large scale hyperbolic limit. The density of particles is transformed via a Hopf-Cole transformation, where the phase function is expanded as a power series with respect to the Knudsen number. The expansion terms can be determined by solving a sequence of equations. In particular, it has been proved in [3] that the leading order term is the viscosity solution of an effective Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and we show that the higher order terms can be formally determined by solving a sequence of transport equations. Both the effective Hamilton-Jacobi equation and the transport equations are independent of the Knudsen number, and are formulated in the physical space, where the effective Hamiltonian is obtained as the solution of a nonlinear equation that is given as an integral in the velocity variable, and the coefficients of the transport equations are given as integrals in the velocity variable. With appropriate Gauss quadrature rules for evaluating these integrals effectively, the effective Hamilton-Jacobi equation and the transport equations can be solved efficiently to obtain the expansion terms for approximating the density function. In this work, the zeroth, first and second order terms in the expansion are used to obtain second order accuracy with respect to the Knudsen number. The proposed method balances efficiency and accuracy, and has the potential to deal with kinetic equations with more general BGK models. Numerical experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Wang, Xuzhu; Chan, Robert K Y; Cheng, Amelia S K
2008-12-01
A near UV-near IR Fourier transform spectrometer based on a beam-folding position-tracking method realized by using retroreflectors is reported. The use of retroreflectors maintains all beams in the beam-fold arrangement in parallel with the incident beams. The beam-folding interferometer used for position tracking is arranged to have optical path symmetry with the measurement interferometer in the zero path difference position of the measurement interferometer, and the vertex of the movable retroreflector in the measurement interferometer is arranged very close to the midpoint of the vertices of two movable retroreflectors in the position-tracking interferometer. These measures keep the equivalent optical axis of the position-tracking interferometer well in line with that of the measurement interferometer even with translational misalignments. Therefore, the change in the optical path difference of the position-tracking interferometer is always synchronous to that of the measurement interferometer during the scanning process. That is, the position-tracking error can be suppressed to very small values during a scan. We have demonstrated a UV-near IR Fourier transform spectrometer with a standard quality ball-bearing translation stage achieving a resolution close to the theoretical resolution of approximately 0.28 cm(-1) at the He-Ne laser wavelength when the scan distance reaches the travel distance of over 2 cm. This was achieved without the need for elaborate optics, sophisticated detecting electronics, and high-precision servomotion control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Shiqi; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yiting; Wang, Rongrong
2017-03-01
The principle of hyperspectral imaging leads to a variety of stripe noise in hyperspectral images, especially the wide-stripe noise, which brings great obstacles to the interpretation and application of hyperspectral images. Aiming at the wide-stripe noise of hyperspectral images of two-level production data, considering from the effect of filtering noise and the ability of protecting detail, this paper proposed a fused wide-stripe removal method based on the wavelet transform and local interpolation (WTLI), called the WTLI algorithm. On one hand, it uses the wavelet transform to remove the stripe noise as much as possible; on the other hand, it uses the local interpolation to protect more geometric and detailed information, so as to achieve the purpose of removing noise and protecting the useful information. A series of comparative experiments were carried out with hyperspectral image data. Not only have good experimental results been obtained, but also this shows that the WTLI algorithm has better stability and universality.
Maury, Augusto; Revilla, Reynier I
2015-08-01
Cosmic rays (CRs) occasionally affect charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors, introducing large spikes with very narrow bandwidth in the spectrum. These CR features can distort the chemical information expressed by the spectra. Consequently, we propose here an algorithm to identify and remove significant spikes in a single Raman spectrum. An autocorrelation analysis is first carried out to accentuate the CRs feature as outliers. Subsequently, with an adequate selection of the threshold, a discrete wavelet transform filter is used to identify CR spikes. Identified data points are then replaced by interpolated values using the weighted-average interpolation technique. This approach only modifies the data in a close vicinity of the CRs. Additionally, robust wavelet transform parameters are proposed (a desirable property for automation) after optimizing them with the application of the method in a great number of spectra. However, this algorithm, as well as all the single-spectrum analysis procedures, is limited to the cases in which CRs have much narrower bandwidth than the Raman bands. This might not be the case when low-resolution Raman instruments are used.
Klaseboer, Evert; Sepehrirahnama, Shahrokh; Chan, Derek Y C
2017-08-01
The general space-time evolution of the scattering of an incident acoustic plane wave pulse by an arbitrary configuration of targets is treated by employing a recently developed non-singular boundary integral method to solve the Helmholtz equation in the frequency domain from which the space-time solution of the wave equation is obtained using the fast Fourier transform. The non-singular boundary integral solution can enforce the radiation boundary condition at infinity exactly and can account for multiple scattering effects at all spacings between scatterers without adverse effects on the numerical precision. More generally, the absence of singular kernels in the non-singular integral equation confers high numerical stability and precision for smaller numbers of degrees of freedom. The use of fast Fourier transform to obtain the time dependence is not constrained to discrete time steps and is particularly efficient for studying the response to different incident pulses by the same configuration of scatterers. The precision that can be attained using a smaller number of Fourier components is also quantified.
Pigna, Gaia; Dhillon, Taniya; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Yuan, Joshua S; Gorman, Connor; Morandini, Piero; Lenaghan, Scott C; Stewart, C Neal
2016-12-01
Arundo donax L. is a promising biofuel feedstock in the Mediterranean region. Despite considerable interest in its genetic improvement, Arundo tissue culture and transformation remains arduous. The authors developed methodologies for cell- and tissue culture and genetic engineering in Arundo. A media screen was conducted, and a suspension culture was established using callus induced from stem axillary bud explants. DBAP medium, containing 9 µM 2,4-D and 4.4 µM BAP, was found to be the most effective medium among those tested for inducing cell suspension cultures, which resulted in a five-fold increase in tissue mass over 14 days. In contrast, CIM medium containing 13 µM 2,4-D, resulted in just a 1.4-fold increase in mass over the same period. Optimized suspension cultures were superior to previously-described solidified medium-based callus culture methods for tissue mass increase. Suspension cultures proved to be very effective for subsequent protoplast isolation. Protoplast electroporation resulted in a 3.3 ± 1.5% transformation efficiency. A dual fluorescent reporter gene vector enabled the direct comparison of the CAMV 35S promoter with the switchgrass ubi2 promoter in single cells of Arundo. The switchgrass ubi2 promoter resulted in noticeably higher reporter gene expression compared with that conferred by the 35S promoter in Arundo.
A comparison of feature extraction methods for Sentinel-1 images: Gabor and Weber transforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stan, Mihaela; Popescu, Anca; Stoichescu, Dan Alexandru
2015-10-01
The purpose of this paper is to compare the performance of two feature extraction methods when applied on high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired with the new ESA mission SENTINEL-1 (S-1). The feature extraction methods were previously tested on high and very high resolution SAR data (imaged by TerraSAR-X) and had a good performance in discriminating between a relevant numbers of land cover classes (tens of classes). Based on the available spatial resolution (10x10m) of S-1 Interferometric Wide (IW) Ground Range Detected (GRD) images the number of detectable classes is much lower. Moreover, the overall heterogeneity of the images is much lower as compared to the high resolution data, the number of observable details is smaller, and this favors the choice of a smaller window size for the analysis: between 10 and 50 pixels in range and azimuth. The size of the analysis window ensures the consistency with the previous results reported in the literature in very high resolution data (as the size on the ground is comparable and thus the number of contributing objects in the window is similar). The performance of Gabor filters and the Weber Local Descriptor (WLD) was investigated in a twofold approach: first the descriptors were computed directly over the IW GRD images and secondly on the sub-sampled version of the same data (in order to determine the effect of the speckle correlation on the overall class detection probability).
Semansky, Rafael M.; Goodkind, Jessica; Sommerfeld, David H.; Willging, Cathleen E.
2014-01-01
In 2005, New Mexico created a single health plan to administer all publicly-funded behavioral health services. Our mixed-method study combined surveys, document review, and ethnography to examine this reform’s influence on culturally competent services (CCS). Participants were executives, providers, and support staff of behavioral healthcare agencies. Key variables included language access services and organizational supports, i.e., training, self-assessments of CCS, and maintenance of client-level data. Survey and document review suggested minimal effects on statewide capacity for CCS during the first three years of the reform. Ethnographic research helped explain these findings: (1) state government, the managed behavioral health plan and agencies failed to champion CCS; and (2) increased administrative requirements minimized time and financial resources for CCS. There was also insufficient appreciation among providers for CCS. Although agencies made progress in addressing language assistance services, availability and quality remained limited. PMID:25937679
Reaugh, J E; Lee, E L
2002-07-01
Mixture rules for partially reacted explosives differ amongst various models. For instance, JWL++ uses a partial pressure addition to compute an average zonal pressure, Ignition and Growth requires pressure equilibration and thermal equilibration of temperature dependent JWL EOSs, CHEETAH In Line RF also assumes temperature and pressure equilibration. It has been suggested in the past that a more realistic equilibration scheme should comprise isentropic pressure equilibration of the separate reacted and unreacted phases. This turns out not to be a proper path for equilibration. Rather, we find that the only internally consistent method is the evaluation of the equilibrium pressure that satisfies the particular conditions of reactant and product resulting from deflagration in a fixed volume.
Ruíz, A; Ayora Cañada, M J; Lendl, B
2001-02-01
The development of an automated, rapid and highly precise method for determination of the peroxide value in edible oils based on a continuous flow system and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic detection is described. The sample stream was mixed with a solvent mixture consisting of 25% (v/v) toluene in hexanol which contained triphenylphosphine (TPP). The hydroperoxides present in the sample reacted stoichiometrically with TPP to give triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) which has a characteristic and intense absorption band at 542 cm-1. A 10% (m/v) TPP solution in the solvent mixture and a 100 cm reaction coil were necessary for complete reaction. FTIR transmission spectra were recorded using a flow cell equipped with CsI windows having an optical pathlength of 100 microns. By using tert-butyl hydroperoxide spiked oil standards and evaluation of the band formed at 542 cm-1 a linear calibration graph covering the range 1-100 PV (peroxide value; mequiv O2 kg-1 oil) was obtained. The relative standard deviation was 0.23% (n = 11) and the throughput 24 samples h-1. The developed system was also applied to the determination of PV in olive, sunflower and corn oils, showing good agreement with the official reference method of the European Community which is based on titration using organic solvents. The results obtained clearly show that the developed method is superior to the standard wet chemical method, hence suggesting its application in routine analysis and quality control.
Mirghani, M E S; Che Man, Y B; Jinap, S; Baharin, B S; Bakar, J
2002-01-01
A simple and rapid Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method has been developed for the quantitative determination of malondialdehyde as secondary oxidation product in a palm olein system. The FTIR method was based on a sodium chloride transmission cell and utilised a partial least square statistical approach to derive a calibration model. The frequency region combinations that gave good calibration were 2900-2800, and 1800-1600 cm-1. The precision and accuracy, in the range 0-60 mumol malondialdehyde/kg oil, were comparable to those of the modified distillation method with a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.9891 and standard error of calibration of 1.49. The calibration was cross-validated and produced an r2 of 0.9786 and standard error of prediction of 2.136. The results showed that the FTIR method is versatile, efficient and accurate, and suitable for routine quality control analysis with the result obtainable in about 2 min from a sample of less than 2 mL.
Sun, Yongkang; Wu, Zhongwei; Hu, Bing; Wang, Wei; Ye, Hong; Sun, Yi; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong
2014-08-08
A new method for determining the relative crystallinity (RC) of chickpea starch was developed by using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, based on hypotheses as described as follows: there is a Gaussian holocrystalline-peak (HCP) in the 800-1,300 cm(-1) region of FT-IR spectrum of starch which is divided into amorphous region and crystalline region; the crystalline region of HCP is the overlap of the HCP and the FT-IR spectrum of starch; the RC of starch is the ratio of the area of crystalline region to the area of HCP. It was found that there was no significant difference between the RC determined by FT-IR method and that determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.998 (p=0.000, n=9) and the 95% confidence interval was 0.992-1.000 for the RC determined by XRD and FT-IR. Furthermore, the developed method showed good repeatability (coefficient of variation (CV), 1.1-2.9%) and good intermediate precision (CV, 2.8%).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Arvind; Singh, Upendra Kumar
2017-02-01
This paper deals with the application of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and Euler deconvolution methods to estimate the source depth using magnetic anomalies. These methods are utilized mainly to focus on the fundamental issue of mapping the major coal seam and locating tectonic lineaments. The main aim of the study is to locate and characterize the source of the magnetic field by transferring the data into an auxiliary space by CWT. The method has been tested on several synthetic source anomalies and finally applied to magnetic field data from Jharia coalfield, India. Using magnetic field data, the mean depth of causative sources points out the different lithospheric depth over the study region. Also, it is inferred that there are two faults, namely the northern boundary fault and the southern boundary fault, which have an orientation in the northeastern and southeastern direction respectively. Moreover, the central part of the region is more faulted and folded than the other parts and has sediment thickness of about 2.4 km. The methods give mean depth of the causative sources without any a priori information, which can be used as an initial model in any inversion algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yingfeng; Ye, Lei; Dai, Zongliang; Xiao, Xiaotao; Wang, Shaojie
2017-08-01
The electrostatic gyrokinetic nonlinear turbulence code NLT, which is based on a numerical Lie-transform perturbation method, is developed. For improving the computational efficiency and avoiding the numerical instabilities, field-aligned coordinates and a Fourier filter are adopted in the NLT code. Nonlinear tests of the ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with adiabatic electrons are performed for verifying the NLT code by comparing with other gyrokinetic codes. The time evolution of the ion heat diffusivity and the relation between the ion heat diffusivity and the ion temperature gradient are compared in the nonlinear tests. Good agreements are achieved from the nonlinear benchmarks between the NLT code and other codes. The mode structures of the perturbed electric potential representing different phases have been simulated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Zhiming; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Qunshan
2014-05-01
Full waveform inversion (FWI) has the potential to provide preferable subsurface model parameters. The main barrier of its applications to real seismic data is heavy computational amount. Numerical modelling methods are involved in both forward modelling and backpropagation of wavefield residuals, which spend most of computational time in FWI. We develop a time-space domain finite-difference (FD) method and adaptive variable-length spatial operator scheme in numerical simulation of viscoacoustic equation and extend them into the viscoacoustic FWI. Compared with conventional FD methods, different operator lengths are adopted for different velocities and quality factors, which can reduce the amount of computation without reducing accuracy. Inversion algorithms also play a significant role in FWI. In conventional single-scale methods, it is likely to converge to local minimums especially when the initial model is far from the real model. To tackle the problem, we introduce the second generation wavelet transform to implement the multiscale FWI. Compared to other multiscale methods, our method has advantages of ease of implementation and better time-frequency local analysis ability. The L2 norm is widely used in FWI and gives invalid model estimates when the data is contaminated with strong non-uniform noises. We apply the L1-norm and the Huber-norm criteria in the time-domain FWI to improve its antinoise ability. Our strategies have been successfully applied in synthetic experiments to both onshore and offshore reflection seismic data. The results of the viscoacoustic Marmousi example indicate that our new FWI scheme consumes smaller computer resources. In addition, the viscoacoustic Overthrust example shows its better convergence and more reasonable velocity and quality factor structures. All these results demonstrate that our method can improve inversion accuracy and computational efficiency of FWI.
Guo, Ya'nan; Dong, Min; Yang, Zhen; Gao, Xiaoli; Wang, Keju; Luo, Chongfan; Ma, Yide; Zhang, Jiuwen
2016-07-01
Mammography analysis is an effective technology for early detection of breast cancer. Micro-calcification clusters (MCs) are a vital indicator of breast cancer, so detection of MCs plays an important role in computer aided detection (CAD) system, this paper proposes a new hybrid method to improve MCs detection rate in mammograms. The proposed method comprises three main steps: firstly, remove label and pectoral muscle adopting the largest connected region marking and region growing method, and enhance MCs using the combination of double top-hat transform and grayscale-adjustment function; secondly, remove noise and other interference information, and retain the significant information by modifying the contourlet coefficients using nonlinear function; thirdly, we use the non-linking simplified pulse-coupled neural network to detect MCs. In our work, we choose 118 mammograms including 38 mammograms with micro-calcification clusters and 80 mammograms without micro-calcification to demonstrate our algorithm separately from two open and common database including the MIAS and JSMIT; and we achieve the higher specificity of 94.7%, sensitivity of 96.3%, AUC of 97.0%, accuracy of 95.8%, MCC of 90.4%, MCC-PS of 61.3% and CEI of 53.5%, these promising results clearly demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the current state-of-the-art algorithms. In addition, this method is verified on the 20 mammograms from the People's Hospital of Gansu Province, the detection results reveal that our method can accurately detect the calcifications in clinical application. This proposed method is simple and fast, furthermore it can achieve high detection rate, it could be considered used in CAD systems to assist the physicians for breast cancer diagnosis in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sung, Lung-Yu; Lu, Chia-Jung
2014-09-01
This study introduced a quantitative method that can be used to measure the concentration of analytes directly from a single-beam spectrum of open-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR). The peak shapes of the analytes in a single-beam spectrum were gradually canceled (i.e., "titrated") by dividing an aliquot of a standard transmittance spectrum with a known concentration, and the sum of the squared differential synthetic spectrum was calculated as an indicator for the end point of this titration. The quantity of a standard transmittance spectrum that is needed to reach the end point can be used to calculate the concentrations of the analytes. A NIST traceable gas standard containing six known compounds was used to compare the quantitative accuracy of both this titration method and that of a classic least square (CLS) using a closed-cell FTIR spectrum. The continuous FTIR analysis of industrial exhausting stack showed that concentration trends were consistent between the CLS and titration methods. The titration method allowed the quantification to be performed without the need of a clean single-beam background spectrum, which was beneficial for the field measurement of OP-FTIR. Persistent constituents of the atmosphere, such as NH3, CH4 and CO, were successfully quantified using the single-beam titration method with OP-FTIR data that is normally inaccurate when using the CLS method due to the lack of a suitable background spectrum. Also, the synthetic spectrum at the titration end point contained virtually no peaks of analytes, but it did contain the remaining information needed to provide an alternative means of obtaining an ideal single-beam background for OP-FTIR.
Yu, Xiao; Ding, Enjie; Chen, Chunxu; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Li
2015-01-01
Because roller element bearings (REBs) failures cause unexpected machinery breakdowns, their fault diagnosis has attracted considerable research attention. Established fault feature extraction methods focus on statistical characteristics of the vibration signal, which is an approach that loses sight of the continuous waveform features. Considering this weakness, this article proposes a novel feature extraction method for frequency bands, named Window Marginal Spectrum Clustering (WMSC) to select salient features from the marginal spectrum of vibration signals by Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT). In WMSC, a sliding window is used to divide an entire HHT marginal spectrum (HMS) into window spectrums, following which Rand Index (RI) criterion of clustering method is used to evaluate each window. The windows returning higher RI values are selected to construct characteristic frequency bands (CFBs). Next, a hybrid REBs fault diagnosis is constructed, termed by its elements, HHT-WMSC-SVM (support vector machines). The effectiveness of HHT-WMSC-SVM is validated by running series of experiments on REBs defect datasets from the Bearing Data Center of Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). The said test results evidence three major advantages of the novel method. First, the fault classification accuracy of the HHT-WMSC-SVM model is higher than that of HHT-SVM and ST-SVM, which is a method that combines statistical characteristics with SVM. Second, with Gauss white noise added to the original REBs defect dataset, the HHT-WMSC-SVM model maintains high classification accuracy, while the classification accuracy of ST-SVM and HHT-SVM models are significantly reduced. Third, fault classification accuracy by HHT-WMSC-SVM can exceed 95% under a Pmin range of 500–800 and a m range of 50–300 for REBs defect dataset, adding Gauss white noise at Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) = 5. Experimental results indicate that the proposed WMSC method yields a high REBs fault classification accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez-Úbeda, Juan Pedro; Calvache, María Luisa; Duque, Carlos; López-Chicano, Manuel
2016-11-01
A new methodology has been developed to obtain tidal-filtered time series of groundwater levels in coastal aquifers. Two methods used for oceanography processing and forecasting of sea level data were adapted for this purpose and compared: HA (Harmonic Analysis) and CWT (Continuous Wavelet Transform). The filtering process is generally comprised of two main steps: the detection and fitting of the major tide constituents through the decomposition of the original signal and the subsequent extraction of the complete tidal oscillations. The abilities of the optional HA and CWT methods to decompose and extract the tidal oscillations were assessed by applying them to the data from two piezometers at different depths close to the shoreline of a Mediterranean coastal aquifer (Motril-Salobreña, SE Spain). These methods were applied to three time series of different lengths (one month, one year, and 3.7 years of hourly data) to determine the range of detected frequencies. The different lengths of time series were also used to determine the fit accuracies of the tidal constituents for both the sea level and groundwater heads measurements. The detected tidal constituents were better resolved with increasing depth in the aquifer. The application of these methods yielded a detailed resolution of the tidal components, which enabled the extraction of the major tidal constituents of the sea level measurements from the groundwater heads (e.g., semi-diurnal, diurnal, fortnightly, monthly, semi-annual and annual). In the two wells studied, the CWT method was shown to be a more effective method than HA for extracting the tidal constituents of highest and lowest frequencies from groundwater head measurements.
Yu, Xiao; Ding, Enjie; Chen, Chunxu; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Li
2015-11-03
Because roller element bearings (REBs) failures cause unexpected machinery breakdowns, their fault diagnosis has attracted considerable research attention. Established fault feature extraction methods focus on statistical characteristics of the vibration signal, which is an approach that loses sight of the continuous waveform features. Considering this weakness, this article proposes a novel feature extraction method for frequency bands, named Window Marginal Spectrum Clustering (WMSC) to select salient features from the marginal spectrum of vibration signals by Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT). In WMSC, a sliding window is used to divide an entire HHT marginal spectrum (HMS) into window spectrums, following which Rand Index (RI) criterion of clustering method is used to evaluate each window. The windows returning higher RI values are selected to construct characteristic frequency bands (CFBs). Next, a hybrid REBs fault diagnosis is constructed, termed by its elements, HHT-WMSC-SVM (support vector machines). The effectiveness of HHT-WMSC-SVM is validated by running series of experiments on REBs defect datasets from the Bearing Data Center of Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). The said test results evidence three major advantages of the novel method. First, the fault classification accuracy of the HHT-WMSC-SVM model is higher than that of HHT-SVM and ST-SVM, which is a method that combines statistical characteristics with SVM. Second, with Gauss white noise added to the original REBs defect dataset, the HHT-WMSC-SVM model maintains high classification accuracy, while the classification accuracy of ST-SVM and HHT-SVM models are significantly reduced. Third, fault classification accuracy by HHT-WMSC-SVM can exceed 95% under a Pmin range of 500-800 and a m range of 50-300 for REBs defect dataset, adding Gauss white noise at Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) = 5. Experimental results indicate that the proposed WMSC method yields a high REBs fault classification accuracy and a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Weiping
2016-10-01
A variety of dynamics in nature and society can be approximately treated as a driven and damped parametric oscillator. An intensive investigation of this time-dependent model from an algebraic point of view provides a consistent method to resolve the classical dynamics and the quantum evolution in order to understand the time-dependent phenomena that occur not only in the macroscopic classical scale for the synchronized behaviors but also in the microscopic quantum scale for a coherent state evolution. By using a Floquet U-transformation on a general time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian, we exactly solve the dynamic behaviors of a driven and damped parametric oscillator to obtain the optimal solutions by means of invariant parameters of Ks to combine with Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant method. This approach can discriminate the external dynamics from the internal evolution of a wave packet by producing independent parametric equations that dramatically facilitate the parametric control on the quantum state evolution in a dissipative system. In order to show the advantages of this method, several time-dependent models proposed in the quantum control field are analyzed in detail.
Li, Zhongyu; Wu, Junjie; Huang, Yulin; Yang, Haiguang; Yang, Jianyu
2017-01-23
Bistatic forward-looking SAR (BFSAR) is a kind of bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system that can image forward-looking terrain in the flight direction of an aircraft. Until now, BFSAR imaging theories and methods for a stationary scene have been researched thoroughly. However, for moving-target imaging with BFSAR, the non-cooperative movement of the moving target induces some new issues: (I) large and unknown range cell migration (RCM) (including range walk and high-order RCM); (II) the spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters (including the Doppler centroid and high-order Doppler) are not only unknown, but also nonlinear for different point-scatterers. In this paper, we put forward an adaptive moving-target imaging method for BFSAR. First, the large and unknown range walk is corrected by applying keystone transform over the whole received echo, and then, the relationships among the unknown high-order RCM, the nonlinear spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters, and the speed of the mover, are established. After that, using an optimization nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS) technique, not only can the unknown high-order RCM be accurately corrected, but also the nonlinear spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters can be balanced. At last, a high-order polynomial filter is applied to compress the whole azimuth data of the moving target. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nam, Haewon; Lee, Dongha; Doo Lee, Jong; Park, Hae-Jeong
2011-08-01
Spatial smoothing using isotropic Gaussian kernels to remove noise reduces spatial resolution and increases the partial volume effect of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI), thereby reducing localization power. To minimize these limitations, we propose a novel anisotropic smoothing method for fMRI data. To extract an anisotropic tensor for each voxel of the functional data, we derived an intensity gradient using the distance transformation of the segmented gray matter of the fMRI-coregistered T1-weighted image. The intensity gradient was then used to determine the anisotropic smoothing kernel at each voxel of the fMRI data. Performance evaluations on both real and simulated data showed that the proposed method had 10% higher statistical power and about 20% higher gray matter localization compared to isotropic smoothing and robustness to the registration errors (up to 4 mm translations and 4° rotations) between T1 structural images and fMRI data. The proposed method also showed higher performance than the anisotropic smoothing with diffusion gradients derived from the fMRI intensity data.
Li, Zhongyu; Wu, Junjie; Huang, Yulin; Yang, Haiguang; Yang, Jianyu
2017-01-01
Bistatic forward-looking SAR (BFSAR) is a kind of bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system that can image forward-looking terrain in the flight direction of an aircraft. Until now, BFSAR imaging theories and methods for a stationary scene have been researched thoroughly. However, for moving-target imaging with BFSAR, the non-cooperative movement of the moving target induces some new issues: (I) large and unknown range cell migration (RCM) (including range walk and high-order RCM); (II) the spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters (including the Doppler centroid and high-order Doppler) are not only unknown, but also nonlinear for different point-scatterers. In this paper, we put forward an adaptive moving-target imaging method for BFSAR. First, the large and unknown range walk is corrected by applying keystone transform over the whole received echo, and then, the relationships among the unknown high-order RCM, the nonlinear spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters, and the speed of the mover, are established. After that, using an optimization nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS) technique, not only can the unknown high-order RCM be accurately corrected, but also the nonlinear spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters can be balanced. At last, a high-order polynomial filter is applied to compress the whole azimuth data of the moving target. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:28125000
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Shaolun; Yan, Zheng; Zhao, Xiaobo; Zhang, Liang; Feng, Donghan; Xu, Xiaoyuan
2016-06-01
The expected rise of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) will lead to a significant additional demand on low voltage distribution systems, and PEVs can challenge power quality and reliability of power systems if their charging is not coordinated. The PEV aggregator, acting as an intermedium between customers and the grid operator, can solve the charging management problem effectively. In this study, a decentralized scheduling scheme of aggregators for PEV charging based on Lagrange Relaxation method is proposed. At the same time, a centralized model of aggregators is also formulated in the same situation in order to make comparisons with the proposed scheme. The two charging models are both aimed at maximizing the charging profit of PEV aggregators considering constraints including users' electricity demand, charging time, available capacity of distribution transformers, etc. A number of charging scenarios are simulated to evaluate the proposed method. The economic benefits, computational complexity and efficiency are compared and analyzed between the centralized charging and the decentralized charging. Simulation results verify that the decentralized charging strategy based on Lagrange Relaxation method gains charging profit close to the centralized charging yet is more efficient and realizable than the centralized charging.
Schullcke, Benjamin; Gong, Bo; Krueger-Ziolek, Sabine; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich; Moeller, Knut
2016-01-01
Lung EIT is a functional imaging method that utilizes electrical currents to reconstruct images of conductivity changes inside the thorax. This technique is radiation free and applicable at the bedside, but lacks of spatial resolution compared to morphological imaging methods such as X-ray computed tomography (CT). In this article we describe an approach for EIT image reconstruction using morphologic information obtained from other structural imaging modalities. This leads to recon- structed images of lung ventilation that can easily be superimposed with structural CT or MRI images, which facilitates image interpretation. The approach is based on a Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) of an image of the considered transversal thorax slice. The use of DCT enables reduction of the dimensionality of the reconstruction and ensures that only conductivity changes of the lungs are reconstructed and displayed. The DCT based approach is well suited to fuse morphological image information with functional lung imaging at low computational costs. Results on simulated data indicate that this approach preserves the morphological structures of the lungs and avoids blurring of the solution. Images from patient measurements reveal the capabilities of the method and demonstrate benefits in possible applications. PMID:27181695
Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi
2013-07-21
In order to perform practical electron correlation calculations, the local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme at the spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) level [J. Seino and H. Nakai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 244102 (2012); and ibid. 137, 144101 (2012)], which is based on the locality of relativistic effects, has been combined with the linear-scaling divide-and-conquer (DC)-based Hartree-Fock (HF) and electron correlation methods, such as the second-order Mo̸ller-Plesset (MP2) and the coupled cluster theories with single and double excitations (CCSD). Numerical applications in hydrogen halide molecules, (HX)n (X = F, Cl, Br, and I), coinage metal chain systems, Mn (M = Cu and Ag), and platinum-terminated polyynediyl chain, trans,trans-{(p-CH3C6H4)3P}2(C6H5)Pt(C≡C)4Pt(C6H5){(p-CH3C6H4)3P}2, clarified that the present methods, namely DC-HF, MP2, and CCSD with the LUT-IODKH Hamiltonian, reproduce the results obtained using conventional methods with small computational costs. The combination of both LUT and DC techniques could be the first approach that achieves overall quasi-linear-scaling with a small prefactor for relativistic electron correlation calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schullcke, Benjamin; Gong, Bo; Krueger-Ziolek, Sabine; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich; Moeller, Knut
2016-05-01
Lung EIT is a functional imaging method that utilizes electrical currents to reconstruct images of conductivity changes inside the thorax. This technique is radiation free and applicable at the bedside, but lacks of spatial resolution compared to morphological imaging methods such as X-ray computed tomography (CT). In this article we describe an approach for EIT image reconstruction using morphologic information obtained from other structural imaging modalities. This leads to recon- structed images of lung ventilation that can easily be superimposed with structural CT or MRI images, which facilitates image interpretation. The approach is based on a Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) of an image of the considered transversal thorax slice. The use of DCT enables reduction of the dimensionality of the reconstruction and ensures that only conductivity changes of the lungs are reconstructed and displayed. The DCT based approach is well suited to fuse morphological image information with functional lung imaging at low computational costs. Results on simulated data indicate that this approach preserves the morphological structures of the lungs and avoids blurring of the solution. Images from patient measurements reveal the capabilities of the method and demonstrate benefits in possible applications.
Cebi, Nur; Durak, M Zeki; Toker, Omer Said; Sagdic, Osman; Arici, Muhammet
2016-01-01
The objective of this research was to develop a rapid spectroscopic technique as an alternative method for the differentiation and authentication of gelatin sources in food products by using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra combined with chemometrics. Clear discrimination and classification of all the studied gelatin sources (bovine, porcine, and fish) were achieved by hierarchical cluster and principle component analysis (PCA). Amide-I (1700-1600 cm(-1)) and Amide-II (1565-1520 cm(-1)) spectral bands were used in a chemometric method. Moreover, ATR-FTIR spectral data successfully discriminated pure bovine gelatin from mixture of bovine and porcine gelatins, which is very important for the food industry. The method that we adopted could be beneficial for rapid, simple and economic determination of both gelatin presence and its origin from food products such as yogurt, ice cream, milk dessert or other gelatin containing products such as pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dafflon, B.; Wu, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Daley, T. M.; Pugh, J. D.; Peterson, J.; Trautz, R. C.
2011-12-01
A risk factor of CO2 storage in deep geological formations includes its potential to leak into shallow formations and impact groundwater geochemistry and quality. In particular, CO2 decreases groundwater pH, which can potentially mobilize naturally occurring trace metals and ions commonly absorbed to or contained in sediments. Here, geophysical studies (primarily complex electrical method) are being carried out at both laboratory and field scales to evaluate the sensitivity of geophysical methods for monitoring dissolved CO2 distribution and geochemical transformations that may impact water quality. Our research is performed in association with a field test that is exploring the effects of dissolved CO2 intrusion on groundwater geochemistry. Laboratory experiments using site sediments (silica sand and some fraction of clay minerals) and groundwater were initially conducted under field relevant CO2 partial pressures (pCO2). A significant pH drop was observed with inline sensors with concurrent changes in fluid conductivity caused by CO2 dissolution. Electrical resistivity and electrical phase responses correlated well with the CO2 dissolution process at various pCO2. Specifically, resistivity decreased initially at low pCO2 condition resulting from CO2 dissolution followed by a slight rebound because of the transition of bicarbonate into non-dissociated carbonic acid at lower pH slightly reducing the total concentration of dissociated species. Continuous electrical phase decreases were also observed, which are interpreted to be driven by the decrease of surface charge density (due to the decrease of pH, which approaches the PZC of the sediments). In general, laboratory experiments revealed the sensitivity of electrical signals to CO2 intrusion into groundwater formations and can be used to guide field data interpretation. Cross well complex electrical data are currently being collected periodically throughout a field experiment involving the controlled release of
Cho, Yi-Gil; Kim, Jin-You; Cho, Hoon-Hwe; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Suh, Dong-Woo; Lee, Jae Kon; Han, Heung Nam
2012-01-01
An implicit finite element model was developed to analyze the deformation behavior of low carbon steel during phase transformation. The finite element model was coupled hierarchically with a phase field model that could simulate the kinetics and micro-structural evolution during the austenite-to-ferrite transformation of low carbon steel. Thermo-elastic-plastic constitutive equations for each phase were adopted to confirm the transformation plasticity due to the weaker phase yielding that was proposed by Greenwood and Johnson. From the simulations under various possible plastic properties of each phase, a more quantitative understanding of the origin of transformation plasticity was attempted by a comparison with the experimental observation.
Cho, Yi-Gil; Kim, Jin-You; Cho, Hoon-Hwe; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Suh, Dong-Woo; Lee, Jae Kon; Han, Heung Nam
2012-01-01
An implicit finite element model was developed to analyze the deformation behavior of low carbon steel during phase transformation. The finite element model was coupled hierarchically with a phase field model that could simulate the kinetics and micro-structural evolution during the austenite-to-ferrite transformation of low carbon steel. Thermo-elastic-plastic constitutive equations for each phase were adopted to confirm the transformation plasticity due to the weaker phase yielding that was proposed by Greenwood and Johnson. From the simulations under various possible plastic properties of each phase, a more quantitative understanding of the origin of transformation plasticity was attempted by a comparison with the experimental observation. PMID:22558295
AC losses in high pressure synthesized MgB2 bulk rings measured by a transformer method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meerovich, V.; Sokolovsky, V.; Prikhna, T.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.
2013-03-01
Recently developed manufacturing technologies use high pressure and various doping additions to prepare bulk MgB2-based materials with a high critical current density measured by the magnetization method. We use a contactless transformer method, which is based on studying the superconductor response to an induced transport current, to measure AC losses in bulk MgB2 rings synthesized under high pressure. The obtained dependence of the losses on the primary current (applied magnetic field) is fitted by a power law with an exponent of ˜2.1 instead of the cubic dependence predicted by Bean’s model and power law electric field-current density (E-J) characteristics with a large exponent. An unusually strong dependence of the AC losses on the frequency is also observed. It is shown that the E-J characteristic of bulk MgB2 is well fitted by the dependence used in the extended critical state model based on account of the viscous vortex motion in the flux flow regime. Numerical simulation using this E-J characteristic gives current and frequency AC loss dependences that agree well with the experimental results.
Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.
2015-08-14
We extend the solid-state nudged elastic band method to handle a non-conserved order parameter, in particular, magnetization, that couples to volume and leads to many observed effects in magnetic systems. We apply this formalism to the well-studied magneto-volume collapse during the pressure-induced transformation in iron—from ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) austenite to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensite. We also find a bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa, with the transition-state enthalpy of 156 meV/Fe at this pressure. A discontinuity in magnetization and coherent stress occurs at the transition state, which has a form of a cusp on the potential-energy surface (yetmore » all the atomic and cell degrees of freedom are continuous); the calculated pressure jump of 25 GPa is related to the observed 25 GPa spread in measured coexistence pressures arising from martensitic and coherency stresses in samples. Furthermore, our results agree with experiments, but necessarily differ from those arising from drag and restricted parametrization methods having improperly constrained or uncontrolled degrees of freedom.« less
Zarkevich, N A; Johnson, D D
2015-08-14
We extend the solid-state nudged elastic band method to handle a non-conserved order parameter, in particular, magnetization, that couples to volume and leads to many observed effects in magnetic systems. We apply this formalism to the well-studied magneto-volume collapse during the pressure-induced transformation in iron-from ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) austenite to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensite. We find a bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa, with the transition-state enthalpy of 156 meV/Fe at this pressure. A discontinuity in magnetization and coherent stress occurs at the transition state, which has a form of a cusp on the potential-energy surface (yet all the atomic and cell degrees of freedom are continuous); the calculated pressure jump of 25 GPa is related to the observed 25 GPa spread in measured coexistence pressures arising from martensitic and coherency stresses in samples. Our results agree with experiments, but necessarily differ from those arising from drag and restricted parametrization methods having improperly constrained or uncontrolled degrees of freedom.
Recursion-Transform method to a non-regular m×n cobweb with an arbitrary longitude
Tan, Zhi-Zhong
2015-01-01
A general Recursion-Transform method is put forward and is applied to resolving a difficult problem of the two-point resistance in a non-regular m × n cobweb network with an arbitrary longitude (or call radial), which has never been solved before as the Green’s function technique and the Laplacian matrix approach are difficult in this case. Looking for the explicit solutions of non-regular lattices is important but difficult, since the non-regular condition is like a wall or trap which affects the behavior of finite network. This paper gives several general formulae of the resistance between any two nodes in a non-regular cobweb network in both finite and infinite cases by the R-T method which, is mainly composed of the characteristic roots, is simpler and can be easier to use in practice. As applications, several interesting results are deduced from a general formula, and a globe network is generalized. PMID:26073882
Zarkevich, N. A. E-mail: ddj@ameslab.gov; Johnson, D. D. E-mail: ddj@ameslab.gov
2015-08-14
We extend the solid-state nudged elastic band method to handle a non-conserved order parameter, in particular, magnetization, that couples to volume and leads to many observed effects in magnetic systems. We apply this formalism to the well-studied magneto-volume collapse during the pressure-induced transformation in iron—from ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) austenite to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensite. We find a bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa, with the transition-state enthalpy of 156 meV/Fe at this pressure. A discontinuity in magnetization and coherent stress occurs at the transition state, which has a form of a cusp on the potential-energy surface (yet all the atomic and cell degrees of freedom are continuous); the calculated pressure jump of 25 GPa is related to the observed 25 GPa spread in measured coexistence pressures arising from martensitic and coherency stresses in samples. Our results agree with experiments, but necessarily differ from those arising from drag and restricted parametrization methods having improperly constrained or uncontrolled degrees of freedom.
Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.
2015-08-14
We extend the solid-state nudged elastic band method to handle a non-conserved order parameter, in particular, magnetization, that couples to volume and leads to many observed effects in magnetic systems. We apply this formalism to the well-studied magneto-volume collapse during the pressure-induced transformation in iron—from ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) austenite to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensite. We also find a bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa, with the transition-state enthalpy of 156 meV/Fe at this pressure. A discontinuity in magnetization and coherent stress occurs at the transition state, which has a form of a cusp on the potential-energy surface (yet all the atomic and cell degrees of freedom are continuous); the calculated pressure jump of 25 GPa is related to the observed 25 GPa spread in measured coexistence pressures arising from martensitic and coherency stresses in samples. Furthermore, our results agree with experiments, but necessarily differ from those arising from drag and restricted parametrization methods having improperly constrained or uncontrolled degrees of freedom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cortés, J.-C.; Romero, J.-V.; Roselló, M.-D.; Villanueva, R.-J.
2017-09-01
Generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) is a spectral technique in random space to represent random variables and stochastic processes in terms of orthogonal polynomials of the Askey scheme. One of its most fruitful applications consists of solving random differential equations. With gPC, stochastic solutions are expressed as orthogonal polynomials of the input random parameters. Different types of orthogonal polynomials can be chosen to achieve better convergence. This choice is dictated by the key correspondence between the weight function associated to orthogonal polynomials in the Askey scheme and the probability density functions of standard random variables. Otherwise, adaptive gPC constitutes a complementary spectral method to deal with arbitrary random variables in random differential equations. In its original formulation, adaptive gPC requires that both the unknowns and input random parameters enter polynomially in random differential equations. Regarding the inputs, if they appear as non-polynomial mappings of themselves, polynomial approximations are required and, as a consequence, loss of accuracy will be carried out in computations. In this paper an extended version of adaptive gPC is developed to circumvent these limitations of adaptive gPC by taking advantage of the random variable transformation method. A number of illustrative examples show the superiority of the extended adaptive gPC for solving nonlinear random differential equations. In addition, for the sake of completeness, in all examples randomness is tackled by nonlinear expressions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitsak, M. A.; Kitsak, A. I.
2008-04-01
The cross modulation method of transformation of the spatial coherence of low-power pulsed laser radiation in a nonlinear medium is proposed. The method is realised experimentally in a multimode optical fibre. The estimates of the degree of spatial coherence of radiation subjected to the phase cross modulation demonstrated the high efficiency of this radiation decorrelation mechanism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonhivers, Jean-Christophe
The increase in production of goods over the last decades has led to the need for improving the management of natural resources management and the efficiency of processes. As a consequence, heat integration methods for industry have been developed. These have been successful for the design of new plants: the integration principles are largely employed, and energy intensity has dramatically decreased in many processes. Although progress has also been achieved in integration methods for retrofit, these methods still need further conceptual development. Furthermore, methodological difficulties increase when trying to retrofit heat exchange networks that are closely interrelated to water networks, such as the case of pulp and paper mills. The pulp and paper industry seeks to increase its profitability by reducing production costs and optimizing supply chains. Recent process developments in forestry biorefining give this industry the opportunity for diversification into bio-products, increasing potential profit margins, and at the same time modernizing its energy systems. Identification of energy strategies for a mill in a changing environment, including the possibility of adding a biorefinery process on the industrial site, requires better integration methods for retrofit situations. The objective of this thesis is to develop an energy integration method for the retrofit of industrial systems and the transformation of pulp and paper mills, ant to demonstrate the method in case studies. Energy is conserved and degraded in a process. Heat can be converted into electricity, stored as chemical energy, or rejected to the environment. A systematic analysis of successive degradations of energy between the hot utilities until the environment, through process operations and existing heat exchangers, is essential in order to reduce the heat consumption. In this thesis, the "Bridge Method" for energy integration by heat exchanger network retrofit has been developed. This method
Daneshgar, Parandis; Norouzi, Parviz; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Ordikhani-Seyedlar, Amin; Eshraghi, Hasan
2009-01-01
A new detection technique called the fast Fourier transform square-wave voltammetry (FFT-SWV) is based on the measurements of electrode admittance as a function of potential. The response of the detector (microelectrode) is fast, which makes the method suitable for most applications involving flowing electrolytes. The carbon paste electrode was modified by nanostructures to improve better sensitivity. The response is generated by a redox processes. The redox property of L-dopa was used for determination of it in human serum and urine samples. The support electrolyte that provided a more defined and intense peak current for L-dopa determination was at 0.05 mol l(-1) acetate buffer pH 7.0. Synthesized dysprosium nanowires make more effective surface like nanotubes [P.M. Ajayan, S. Iijima, Nature 361 (1993) 333; I.A. Merkoc, Microchim. Acta 152 (2006) 157; F.H. Wu, G.C. Zhao, X.W. Wei, Z.S. Yang, Microchim. Acta 144 (2004) 243; L. Liu, J. Song, Anal. Biochem. 354 (2006) 22] so they are good candidates for using as a modifier for electrochemical reactions. The drug presented one irreversible oxidation peaks at 360 mV versus Ag/AgCl by modified nanowire carbon paste electrode which produced high current and reduced the oxidation potential about 80 mV. Furthermore, signal-to-noise ratio has significantly increased by application of discrete fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, background subtraction and two-dimensional integration of the electrode response over a selected potential range and time window. To obtain the much sensitivity the effective parameters such as frequency, amplitude and pH was optimized. As a result, C(DL) of 4.0 x 10(-9)M and an LOQ of 7.0 x 10(-9) M were found for determination for L-dopa. A good recovery was obtained for assay spiked urine samples and a good quantification of L-dopa was achieved in a commercial formulation.
Monteiro, Carlos E; Cobelo-Garcia, Antonio; Caetano, Miguel; Correia Dos Santos, Margarida M
2017-12-01
The determination of Platinum-group elements (PGE) in relevant environmental matrices is a challenging task. Sensitive and accurate analytical procedures for simultaneous determination of Pt and Rh are still needed. In this study, we report for the first time on the use of second derivative signal transformation to the ultra-trace simultaneous determination of Pt and Rh by Adsorptive Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (AdCSV). With that step, the ill-defined peaks typically observed in the original voltammograms are transformed into well-shaped peaks, resulting in accurate detection. The experimental conditions were investigated and optimised: a suitable electrolyte for both elements, with less reagents consumption, (0.25M H2SO4, 0.05M HCl, 0.01M FA and 0.5mM HZ), deposition time (td) and deposition potential (Ed). For td = 120s and Ed = -0.75V, linear relationships r > 0.999 were obtained in the concentration range up to 5.8ngL(-1) (27 pM) for Pt and up to 3.4ngL(-1) (34 pM) for Rh. Limits of detection were 0.2ngL(-1) for Pt and 0.08ngL(-1) for Rh. Lower values can be achieved by increasing the deposition time. Limits of quantification, LOQ, calculated as 3 times LOD, were 0.5ngL(-1) for Pt and 0.2ngL(-1) for Rh. The sensitivity of Pt was affected by elevated Zn concentrations, whereas a minor effect was observed for Rh. However, Pt and Rh determinations were not influenced using the standard addition method. Precision as intermediate precision and expressed as relative standard deviation, based on Pt and Rh spiked solutions and digested road dust CRM BCR-723 was 17% and 20% for Pt and Rh, respectively. Recoveries of CRM were around 90% for both elements. The method was successfully applied in the simultaneous determination of Pt and Rh in sediments from Tagus estuary and, for the first time, dissolved Rh was determined in water samples of a waste water treatment plant. Application of this technique in a multidisciplinary approach will be a relevant contribution to
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hofmann, Richard J.
The primary objectives of this paper are pedagogical: to provide a reliable semi-subjective transformation procedure that might be used without difficulty by beginning students in factor analysis; to clarify and extend the existing knowledge of oblique transformations in general; and to provide a brief but meaningful explication of the general…