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Sample records for agrobacterium-mediated transformation system

  1. An embryogenic suspension cell culture system for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of citrus.

    PubMed

    Dutt, M; Grosser, J W

    2010-11-01

    A method for the genetic transformation of several citrus cultivars is described, including cultivars observed to be recalcitrant to conventional epicotyl-mediated transformation. Embryogenic cell suspension cultures, established from unfertilized ovules were used as target tissues for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Several modifications were made to the culture environment to investigate factors required for efficient transfer of the T-DNA and the subsequent regeneration of transgenic citrus plants. It was determined that co-cultivation of citrus cells and Agrobacterium in EME medium supplemented with maltose (EME-M) and 100 μM acetosyringone for 5 days at 25°C was optimum for transformation of each of the citrus cultivars. Efficient selection was obtained and escapes were prevented when the antibiotic hygromycin B was used as a selection antibiotic following transformation with an Agrobacterium strain containing hptII in the T-DNA region. Transgenic embryo regeneration and development was enhanced in medium that contained a liquid overlay consisting of a 1:2 mixture of 0.6 M BH3 and 0.15 M EME-M media. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed the presence of the T-DNA and the stable integration into the genome of regenerated plants, while RT-PCR demonstrated variable amounts of RNA being transcribed in different transgenic lines. This protocol can create an avenue for insertion of useful traits into any polyembryonic citrus cultivar that can be established as embryogenic cell suspension cultures, including popular specialty mandarins and seedless cultivars. PMID:20711728

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Bernardi-Wenzel, J; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is an important pathogen that is associated with plant diseases and primarily affects aerial plant parts by producing different mycotoxins, which are toxic to humans and animals. Within the last decade, this fungus has also been described as one of the causes of red root rot or sudden death syndrome in soybean, which causes extensive damage to this crop. This study describes the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum as a tool for the disruption of pathogenicity genes. The genetic transformation was performed using two binary vectors (pCAMDsRed and pFAT-GFP) containing the hph (hygromycin B resistance) gene as a selection marker and red and green fluorescence, respectively. The presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane were evaluated for their effect on the transformation efficiency. A mean processing rate of 94% was obtained with 96 h of co-cultivation only in the presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane did not affect the transformation process. Hygromycin B resistance and the presence of the hph gene were confirmed by PCR, and fluorescence due to the expression of GFP and DsRed protein was monitored in the transformants. A high rate of mitotic stability (95%) was observed. The efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum allows the technique to be used for random insertional mutagenesis studies and to analyze fungal genes involved in the infection process. PMID:27323127

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize (Zea mays) immature embryos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is one of the most efficient and simple gene delivery systems for genetic improvement and biology studies in maize. This system has become more widely used by both public and private laboratories. However, transformation efficiencies vary greatly from laboratory to laboratory for the same genotype. Here, we illustrate our advanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method in Hi-II maize using simple binary vectors. The protocol utilizes immature embryos as starting explants and the bar gene as a selectable marker coupled with bialaphos as a selective agent. The protocol offers efficient transformation results with high reproducibility, provided that some experimental conditions are well controlled. This transformation method, with minor modifications, can be also employed to transform certain maize inbreds. PMID:24243211

  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of three freshwater microalgal strains.

    PubMed

    Sanitha, Mary; Radha, Sudhakar; Fatima, Anwar Aliya; Devi, Selvaraju Gayathri; Ramya, Mohandass

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal transformation has gained interest in recent years. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation remains as the most efficient method for the development of transgenic plants and microalgae due to its wide host range, inexpensive procedure and transfer of large segments of DNA. In the present study, three different microalgal species were isolated from freshwater environment and identified based on the morphological characteristics and ITS-2 region amplification. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was successful for the isolates Chlorella sp., Ankistrodesmus sp and Scenedesmus bajacalifornicus. Gene integration and expression was confirmed by PCR amplification of hptII and GUS histochemical assay. A. tumifaciens contamination was checked by amplification of npt II gene (kanamycin resistant) which lies outside the T-border. Based on GUS assay, transformation efficiencies were found to be 12.25% for Chlorella sp. 2.96% for Scenedesmus bajacalifornicus and 3.5% for Ankistrodesmus sp. PMID:25804057

  5. Is VIP1 important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation?

    PubMed

    Shi, Yong; Lee, Lan-Ying; Gelvin, Stanton B

    2014-09-01

    Agrobacterium genetically transforms plants by transferring and integrating T-(transferred) DNA into the host genome. This process requires both Agrobacterium and host proteins. VirE2 interacting protein 1 (VIP1), an Arabidopsis bZIP protein, has been suggested to mediate transformation through interaction with and targeting of VirE2 to nuclei. We examined the susceptibility of Arabidopsis vip1 mutant and VIP1 overexpressing plants to transformation by numerous Agrobacterium strains. In no instance could we detect altered transformation susceptibility. We also used confocal microscopy to examine the subcellular localization of Venus-tagged VirE2 or Venus-tagged VIP1, in the presence or absence of the other untagged protein, in different plant cell systems. We found that VIP1-Venus localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of Arabidopsis roots, agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts and tobacco BY-2 protoplasts, regardless of whether VirE2 was co-expressed. VirE2 localized exclusively to the cytoplasm of tobacco and Arabidopsis protoplasts, whether in the absence or presence of VIP1 overexpression. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants and agroinfiltrated N. benthamina leaves we could occasionally detect small aggregates of the Venus signal in nuclei, but these were likely to be imagining artifacts. The vast majority of VirE2 remained in the cytoplasm. We conclude that VIP1 is not important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation or VirE2 subcellular localization. PMID:24953893

  6. Aboveground insect infestation attenuates belowground Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Lee, Soohyun; Hong, Jaehwa; Choi, Hye Kyung; Hong, Gun Hyong; Bae, Dong-Won; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease. Although Agrobacterium can be popularly used for genetic engineering, the influence of aboveground insect infestation on Agrobacterium induced gall formation has not been investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves were exposed to a sucking insect (whitefly) infestation and benzothiadiazole (BTH) for 7 d, and these exposed plants were inoculated with a tumorigenic Agrobacterium strain. We evaluated, both in planta and in vitro, how whitefly infestation affects crown gall disease. Whitefly-infested plants exhibited at least a two-fold reduction in gall formation on both stem and crown root. Silencing of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, compromised gall formation indicating an involvement of SA in whitefly-derived plant defence against Agrobacterium. Endogenous SA content was augmented in whitefly-infested plants upon Agrobacterium inoculation. In addition, SA concentration was three times higher in root exudates from whitefly-infested plants. As a consequence, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of roots of whitefly-infested plants was clearly inhibited when compared to control plants. These results suggest that aboveground whitefly infestation elicits systemic defence responses throughout the plant. Our findings provide new insights into insect-mediated leaf-root intra-communication and a framework to understand interactions between three organisms: whitefly, N. benthamiana and Agrobacterium. PMID:25676198

  7. Development of an Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation System and Production of Herbicide-Resistant Transgenic Plants in Garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2013-01-01

    The genetic improvement of garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) with agronomical beneficial traits is rarely achieved due to the lack of an applicable transformation system. Here, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure with Danyang, an elite Korean garlic cultivar. Examination of sGFP (synthetic green fluorescence protein) expression revealed that treatment with 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), L-cysteine and/or dithiothreitol (DTT) gives the highest efficiency in transient gene transfer during Agrobacterium co-cultivation with calli derived from the roots of in vitro plantlets. To increase stable transformation efficiency, a two-step selection was employed on the basis of hygromycin resistance and sGFP expression. Of the hygromycin-resistant calli initially produced, only sGFP-expressing calli were subcultured for selection of transgenic calli. Transgenic plantlets produced from these calli were grown to maturity. The transformation efficiency increased up to 10.6% via our optimized procedure. DNA and RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that transgenic garlic plants stably integrated and expressed the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene. A herbicide spraying assay demonstrated that transgenic plants of garlic conferred herbicide resistance, whilst non-transgenic plants and weeds died. These results indicate that our transformation system can be efficiently utilized to produce transgenic garlic plants with agronomic benefits. PMID:23832764

  8. Development of an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system and production of herbicide-resistant transgenic plants in garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2013-08-01

    The genetic improvement of garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) with agronomical beneficial traits is rarely achieved due to the lack of an applicable transformation system. Here, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure with Danyang, an elite Korean garlic cultivar. Examination of sGFP (synthetic green fluorescence protein) expression revealed that treatment with 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), L-cysteine and/or dithiothreitol (DTT) gives the highest efficiency in transient gene transfer during Agrobacterium co-cultivation with calli derived from the roots of in vitro plantlets. To increase stable transformation efficiency, a two-step selection was employed on the basis of hygromycin resistance and sGFP expression. Of the hygromycin-resistant calli initially produced, only sGFP-expressing calli were subcultured for selection of transgenic calli. Transgenic plantlets produced from these calli were grown to maturity. The transformation efficiency increased up to 10.6% via our optimized procedure. DNA and RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that transgenic garlic plants stably integrated and expressed the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene. A herbicide spraying assay demonstrated that transgenic plants of garlic conferred herbicide resistance, whilst nontransgenic plants and weeds died. These results indicate that our transformation system can be efficiently utilized to produce transgenic garlic plants with agronomic benefits. PMID:23832764

  9. Lox-dependent gene expression in transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Shcherbak, N; Kishchenko, O; Sakhno, L; Komarnytsky, I; Kuchuk, M

    2013-01-01

    Lox sites of the Cre/lox recombination system from bacteriophage P1 were analyzed for their ability to affect on transgene expression when inserted upstream from a gene coding sequence adjacent to the right border (RB) of T-DNA. Wild and mutated types of lox sites were tested for their effect upon bar gene expression in plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated and biolistic transformation methods. Lox-mediated expression of bar gene, recognized by resistance of transgenic plants to PPT, occurred only in plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. RT-PCR analysis confirms that PPT-resistant phenotype of transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was caused by activation of bar gene. The plasmid with promoterless gus gene together with the lox site adjacent to the RB was constructed and transferred to Nicotiana tabacum as well. Transgenic plants exhibited GUS activity and expression of gus gene was detected in plant leaves. Expression of bar gene from the vectors containing lox site near RB allowed recovery of numerous PPT-resistant transformants of such important crops as Beta vulgaris, Brassica napus, Lactuca sativa and Solanum tuberosum. Our results demonstrate that the lox site sequence adjacent to the RB can be used to control bar gene expression in transgenic plants. PMID:23821951

  10. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for the cold-adapted fungi Pseudogymnoascus destructans and P. pannorum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Ren, Ping; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms of cold adaptation by fungi remain unknown. This topic is of high interest due to the emergence of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a skin infection of hibernating bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Recent studies indicated that apart from Pd, there is an abundance of other Pseudogymnoascus species in the hibernacula soil. We developed an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system for Pd and a related fungus Pseudogymnoascus pannorum (Pp) to advance experimental studies. URE1 gene encoding the enzyme urease was used as an easy to screen marker to facilitate molecular genetic analyses. A Uracil-Specific Excision Reagent (USER) Friendly pRF-HU2 vector containing Pd or Pp ure1::hygromycin (HYG) disruption cassette was introduced into A. tumefaciens AGL-1 cells by electroporation and the resulting strains were co-cultivated with conidia of Pd or Pp for various durations and temperatures to optimize the ATMT system. Overall, 680 Pd (0.006%) and 1800 Pp (0.018%) transformants were obtained from plating of 10(7) conidia; their recoveries were strongly correlated with the length of the incubation period (96h for Pd; 72h for Pp) and with temperature (15-18°C for Pd; 25°C for Pp). The homologous recombination in transformants was 3.1% for Pd and 16.7% for Pp. The availability of a standardized ATMT system would allow future molecular genetic analyses of Pd and related cold-adapted fungi. PMID:26051491

  11. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via sonication and vacuum infiltration.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Subramanyam, Koona; Sailaja, K V; Srinivasulu, M; Lakshmidevi, K

    2011-03-01

    A reproducible and efficient transformation method was developed for the banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of suckers. Three-month-old banana suckers were used as explant and three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (EHA105, EHA101, and LBA4404) harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301 were used in the co-cultivation. The banana suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered with each of the three A. tumefaciens strains and co-cultivated in the medium containing different concentrations of acetosyringone for 3 days. The transformed shoots were selected in 30 mg/l hygromycin-containing selection medium and rooted in rooting medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 30 mg/l hygromycin. The presence and integration of the hpt II and gus genes into the banana genome were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction, and southern hybridization. Among the different combinations tested, high transformation efficiency (39.4 ± 0.5% GUS positive shoots) was obtained when suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered for 6 min with A. tumefaciens EHA105 in presence of 50 μM acetosyringone followed by co-cultivation in 50 μM acetosyringone-containing medium for 3 days. These results suggest that an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into banana has been developed and that this transformation system could be useful for future studies on transferring economically important genes into banana. PMID:21212957

  12. Mature seed-derived callus of the model indica rice variety Kasalath is highly competent in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2010-12-01

    We previously established an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system using primary calli derived from mature seeds of the model japonica rice variety Nipponbare. We expected that the shortened tissue culture period would reduce callus browning--a common problem with the indica transformation system during prolonged tissue culture in the undifferentiated state. In this study, we successfully applied our efficient transformation system to Kasalath--a model variety of indica rice. The Luc reporter system is sensitive enough to allow quantitative analysis of the competency of rice callus for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We unexpectedly discovered that primary callus of Kasalath exhibits a remarkably high competency for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation compared to Nipponbare. Southern blot analysis and Luc luminescence showed that independent transformation events in primary callus of Kasalath occurred successfully at ca. tenfold higher frequency than in Nipponbare, and single copy T-DNA integration was observed in ~40% of these events. We also compared the competency of secondary callus of Nipponbare and Kasalath and again found superior competency in Kasalath, although the identification and subsequent observation of independent transformation events in secondary callus is difficult due to the vigorous growth of both transformed and non-transformed cells. An efficient transformation system in Kasalath could facilitate the identification of QTL genes, since many QTL genes are analyzed in a Nipponbare × Kasalath genetic background. The higher transformation competency of Kasalath could be a useful trait in the establishment of highly efficient systems involving new transformation technologies such as gene targeting. PMID:20853107

  13. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspensions of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) via a liquid co-cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xia; Huang, Xue-Lin; Xiao, Wang; Zhao, Jie-Tang; Dai, Xue-Mei; Chen, Yun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2007-10-01

    A high efficient protocol of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a major banana variety of the South East Asia region, was developed in this study. Male-flower-derived embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) were co-cultivated in liquid medium with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 carrying nptII and gusA gene in the T-DNA. Depending upon conditions and duration of co-cultivation in liquid medium, 0-490 transgenic plants per 0.5 ml packed cell volume (PCV) of ECS were obtained. The optimum duration of inoculation was 2 h, and the highest transformation frequency was achieved when infected ECS were co-cultivated in liquid medium first for 12 h at 40 rpm and then for 156 h at 100 rpm on a rotary shaker. Co-cultivation for a shorter duration (72 h) or shaking constantly at 100 rpm at the same duration gave 1.6 and 1.8 folds lower transformation efficiency, respectively. No transgenic plants were obtained in parallel experiments carried on semi-solid media. Histochemical GUS assay and molecular analysis in several tissues of the transgenic plants demonstrated that foreign genes were stably integrated into the banana genome. Compared to semi-solid co-cultivation transformation in other banana species, it is remarkable that liquid co-cultivation was much more efficient for transformation of the Mas cultivar, and was at least 1 month faster for regenerating transgenic plants. PMID:17551731

  14. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for the investigation of somatic recombination in the fungal pathogen Armillaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The honey fungus Armillaria mellea is a destructive soil-borne pathogen that affects over 300 plant species, and is of increasing interest due to its ability to decompose lignin. Here we report the transformation of this fungus. A range of techniques was evaluated, and Agrobacterium-mediated trans...

  15. A Fruiting Body Tissue Method for Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Stone, Michelle; Schlagnhaufer, Carl; Romaine, C. Peter

    2000-01-01

    We describe a modified Agrobacterium-mediated method for the efficient transformation of Agaricus bisporus. Salient features of this procedure include cocultivation of Agrobacterium and fruiting body gill tissue and use of a vector with a homologous promoter. This method offers new prospects for the genetic manipulation of this commercially important mushroom species. PMID:11010906

  16. Origin of somatic embryos from repetitively embryogenic cultures of walnut (Juglans regia L.): Implications forAgrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Polito, V S; McGranahan, G; Pinney, K; Leslie, C

    1989-04-01

    Early stages of somatic embryo development from embryogenic cultures ofJuglans regia (Persian or English walnut) are described. Histological examination reveals that secondary somatic embryos arise from cotyledons and hypocotyls of primary embryos cultured in the dark. The embryos originate by transverse to oblique divisions of surface cells. Single-cell origin of the secondary embryos confirms the potential of the repetitive embryogenesis system forAgrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of non-chimeric, transgenic walnut plants. PMID:24233141

  17. Multiple host-cell recombination pathways act in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of plant cells.

    PubMed

    Mestiri, Imen; Norre, Frédéric; Gallego, Maria E; White, Charles I

    2014-02-01

    Using floral-dip, tumorigenesis and root callus transformation assays of both germline and somatic cells, we present here results implicating the four major non-homologous and homologous recombination pathways in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. All four single mutant lines showed similar mild reductions in transformability, but knocking out three of four pathways severely compromised Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Although integration of T-DNA into the plant genome is severely compromised in the absence of known DNA double-strand break repair pathways, it does still occur, suggesting the existence of other pathways involved in T-DNA integration. Our results highlight the functional redundancy of the four major plant recombination pathways in transformation, and provide an explanation for the lack of strong effects observed in previous studies on the roles of plant recombination functions in transformation. PMID:24299074

  18. Strategies to improve low copy transgenic events in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize.

    PubMed

    Sivamani, Elumalai; Li, Xianggan; Nalapalli, Samson; Barron, Yoshimi; Prairie, Anna; Bradley, David; Doyle, Michele; Que, Qiudeng

    2015-12-01

    Transgenic plants containing low copy transgene insertion free of vector backbone are highly desired for many biotechnological applications. We have investigated two different strategies for increasing the percentage of low copy events in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation experiments in maize. One of the strategies is to use a binary vector with two separate T-DNAs, one T-DNA containing an intact E.coli manA gene encoding phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) as selectable marker gene cassette and another T-DNA containing an RNAi cassette of PMI sequences. By using this strategy, low copy transgenic events containing the transgenes were increased from 43 to 60 % in maize. An alternate strategy is using selectable marker gene cassettes containing regulatory or coding sequences derived from essential plant genes such as 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) or MADS box transcription factor. In this paper we demonstrate that higher percentage of low copy transgenic events can be obtained in Agrobacterium-mediated maize transformation experiments using both strategies. We propose that the above two strategies can be used independently or in combination to increase transgenic events that contain low copy transgene insertion in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation experiments. PMID:26338266

  19. A Novel Phenolic Compound, Chloroxynil, Improves Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Transformation in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Cutler, Sean; Isobe, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a commonly used method for plant genetic engineering. However, the limitations of Agrobacterium host-plant interactions and the complexity of plant tissue culture often make the production of transgenic plants difficult. Transformation efficiency in many legume species, including soybean and the common bean, has been reported to be quite low. To improve the transformation procedure in legumes, we screened for chemicals that increase the transformation efficiency of Lotus japonicus, a model legume species. A Chemical library was screened and chemicals that increase in transient transformation efficiency of L. japonicus accession, Miyakojima MG-20 were identified. The transient transformation efficiency was quantified by reporter activity in which an intron-containing reporter gene produces the GUS protein only when the T-DNA is expressed in the plant nuclei. We identified a phenolic compound, chloroxynil, which increased the genetic transformation of L. japonicus by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. Characterization of the mode of chloroxynil action indicated that it enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation through the activation of the Agrobacterium vir gene expression, similar to acetosyringone, a phenolic compound known to improve Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency. Transient transformation efficiency of L. japonicus with 5 μM chloroxynil was 60- and 6- fold higher than that of the control and acetosyringone treatment, respectively. In addition, transgenic L. japonicus lines were successfully generated by 5 μM chloroxynil treatment.Furthermore, we show that chloroxynil improves L. japonicus transformation by Agrobacterium strain GV3101 and rice transformation. Our results demonstrate that chloroxynil significantly improves Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation efficiency of various agriculturally important crops. PMID:26176780

  20. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Volvariella volvacea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Guo, Liqiong; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Qi; Lin, Junfang

    2008-11-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was successfully applied to the edible straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea. Mycelium pellets were transformed to cold stress resistance using the afp gene as both a selective marker and a reporter gene, under the control of a heterologous Lentinula edodes gpd promoter. The efficiency of transformation is over 100 times higher than that previously reported in V. volvacea. Stable integration of the afp gene with 1-4 copy numbers was confirmed in all 10 randomly selected transgenic events by Southern blot analysis. The mitotic stability of the transformants was demonstrated after five successive transfers on PDA medium without selection pressure and the PCR analysis of basidiospores harvested from transformants. PMID:18434137

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Prunus salicina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation from hypocotyls slices of two Prunus salicina varieties, 'Angeleno' and 'Larry Anne', using a modification of the technique previously described for P. domestica. Regeneration rates on thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supp...

  2. Genetic transformation of wheat via Agrobacterium-mediated DNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Caroline A; Doherty, Angela; Jones, Huw D

    2014-01-01

    The method described involves an initial incubation of wheat immature embryos in a liquid culture of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The Agrobacterium strain is engineered to contain a binary vector with a gene of interest and a selectable marker gene placed between the T-DNA borders; the T-DNA is the region transferred to the plant cells, thus harnessing the bacterium's natural ability to deliver specific DNA into host cells. Following the initial inoculation with the Agrobacterium, the embryos are co-cultivated for several days after which the Agrobacterium is selectively destroyed using an antibiotic. Tissue culture of the embryos on plant media with a correct balance of hormones allows embryogenic callus formation followed by regeneration of plantlets, and in the later stages of tissue culture a selectable marker (herbicide) is included to minimize the incidence of non-transformed plants. This protocol has been used successfully to generate transformed plants of a wide range of wheat varieties, both spring and winter bread wheats (T. aestivum L.) and durum wheats (T. turgidum L.). PMID:24243208

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato with the ICE1 transcription factor gene.

    PubMed

    Juan, J X; Yu, X H; Jiang, X M; Gao, Z; Zhang, Y; Li, W; Duan, Y D; Yang, G

    2015-01-01

    ICE1 genes play a very important role in plants in cold conditions. To improve the cold resistance of tomato, the ICE1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana was used to construct the plant expression vector p3301-ICE1, and was overexpressed in tomato through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Five strains of resistant plants were obtained. PCR and half-quantitative results showed that the ICE1 gene was transferred to tomato; three strains tested positive. After low-temperature stress treatment, praline content and peroxide and catalase activities in the transgenic tomato plants were higher compared with non-transgenic controls, while malondialdehyde content was clearly lower. PMID:25729995

  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable embryogenic calli and regeneration of transgenic cassava.

    PubMed

    Bull, S E; Owiti, J A; Niklaus, M; Beeching, J R; Gruissem, W; Vanderschuren, H

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) is the most widely used method to generate transgenic cassava plants. However, this approach has proven to be time-consuming and can lead to changes in the morphology and quality of FEC, influencing regeneration capacity and plant health. Here we present a comprehensive, reliable and improved protocol, taking approximately 6 months, that optimizes Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of FEC from cassava model cultivar TMS60444. We cocultivate the FEC with Agrobacterium directly on the propagation medium and adopt the extensive use of plastic mesh for easy and frequent transfer of material to new media. This minimizes stress to the FEC cultures and permits a finely balanced control of nutrients, hormones and antibiotics. A stepwise increase in antibiotic concentration for selection is also used after cocultivation with Agrobacterium to mature the transformed FEC before regeneration. The detailed information given here for each step should enable successful implementation of this technology in other laboratories, including those being established in developing countries where cassava is a staple crop. PMID:20010938

  5. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of the Recalcitrant Vanda Kasem's Delight Orchid with Higher Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gnasekaran, Pavallekoodi; James Antony, Jessica Jeyanthi; Uddain, Jasim; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2014-01-01

    The presented study established Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation using protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) for the production of transgenic Vanda Kasem's Delight Tom Boykin (VKD) orchid. Several parameters such as PLB size, immersion period, level of wounding, Agrobacterium density, cocultivation period, and concentration of acetosyringone were tested and quantified using gusA gene expression to optimize the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of VKD's PLBs. Based on the results, 3-4 mm PLBs wounded by scalpel and immersed for 30 minutes in Agrobacterium suspension of 0.8 unit at A600nm produced the highest GUS expression. Furthermore, cocultivating infected PLBs for 4 days in the dark on Vacin and Went cocultivation medium containing 200 𝜇M acetosyringone enhanced the GUS expression. PCR analysis of the putative transformants selected in the presence of 250 mg/L cefotaxime and 30 mg/L geneticin proved the presence of wheatwin1, wheatwin2, and nptII genes. PMID:24977213

  6. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of two Serbian potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Dragacevka and cv. Jelica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Serbian potato cultivars Dragacevka and Jelica, enabling the introduction of oryzacystatin genes OCI and OCII, was established. Starting with leaf explants a two-stage transformation protocol combining procedures of Webb and Wenzler...

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Vitis Cv. Monastrell suspension-cultured cells: Determination of critical parameters.

    PubMed

    Chu, Mingyu; Quiñonero, Carmen; Akdemir, Hülya; Alburquerque, Nuria; Pedreño, María Ángeles; Burgos, Lorenzo

    2016-05-01

    Although some works have explored the transformation of differentiated, embryogenic suspension-cultured cells (SCC) to produce transgenic grapevine plants, to our knowledge this is one of the first reports on the efficient transformation of dedifferentiated Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell SCC. This protocol has been developed using the sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT) method. A construct harboring the selectable nptII and the eyfp/IV2 marker genes was used in the study and transformation efficiencies reached over 50 independent transformed SCC per gram of infected cells. Best results were obtained when cells were infected at the exponential phase. A high density plating (500 mg/dish) gave significantly better results. As selective agent, kanamycin was inefficient for the selection of Monastrell transformed SCC since wild type cells were almost insensitive to this antibiotic whereas application of paromomycin resulted in very effective selection. Selected eyfp-expressing microcalli were grown until enough tissue was available to scale up a new transgenic SCC. These transgenic SCC lines were evaluated molecularly and phenotypically demonstrating the presence and integration of both transgenes, the absence of Agrobacterium contamination and the ability of the transformed SCC to grow in highly selective liquid medium. The methodology described here opens the possibility of improving the production of valuable metabolites. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:725-734, 2016. PMID:26871543

  8. Enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiencies in monocot cells is associated with attenuated defense responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wan-Jun; Dewey, Ralph E; Boss, Wendy; Phillippy, Brian Q; Qu, Rongda

    2013-02-01

    Plant defense responses can lead to altered metabolism and even cell death at the sites of Agrobacterium infection, and thus lower transformation frequencies. In this report, we demonstrate that the utilization of culture conditions associated with an attenuation of defense responses in monocot plant cells led to highly improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiencies in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The removal of myo-inositol from the callus culture media in combination with a cold shock pretreatment and the addition of L-Gln prior to and during Agrobacterium-infection resulted in about 84 % of the treated calluses being stably transformed. The omission of myo-inositol from the callus culture media was associated with the failure of certain pathogenesis related genes to be induced after Agrobacterium infection. The addition of a cold shock and supplemental Gln appeared to have synergistic effects on infection and transformation efficiencies. Nearly 60 % of the stably transformed calluses regenerated into green plantlets. Calluses cultured on media lacking myo-inositol also displayed profound physiological and biochemical changes compared to ones cultured on standard growth media, such as reduced lignin within the cell walls, increased starch and inositol hexaphosphate accumulation, enhanced Agrobacterium binding to the cell surface, and less H(2)O(2) production after Agrobacterium infection. Furthermore, the cold treatment greatly reduced callus browning after infection. The simple modifications described in this report may have broad application for improving genetic transformation of recalcitrant monocot species. PMID:23242917

  9. AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION IN THE GREEN ALGA HAEMATOCOCCUS PLUVIALIS (CHLOROPHYCEAE, VOLVOCALES)(1).

    PubMed

    Kathiresan, S; Chandrashekar, A; Ravishankar, G A; Sarada, R

    2009-06-01

    The first successful Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis Flot. using the binary vectors hosting the genes coding for GUS (β-glucuronidase), GFP (green fluorescent protein), and hpt (hygromycin phosphotransferase) is reported here. Colonies resistant to hygromycin at 10 mg · L(-1) expressed β-glucuronidase. The greenish yellow fluorescence of GFP was observed when the hygromycin-resistant cells were viewed with a fluorescent microscope. PCR was used to successfully amplify fragments of the hpt (407 bp) and GUS (515 bp) genes from transformed cells, while Southern blots indicated the integration of the hygromycin gene into the genome of H. pluvialis. SEM indicated that the cell wall of H. pluvialis was altered on infection with Agrobacterium. The transformation achieved here by Agrobacterium does not need treatment with acetosyringone or the wounding of cells. A robust transformation method for this alga would pave the way for manipulation of many important pathways relevant to the food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. PMID:27034041

  10. Improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and high efficiency of root formation from hypocotyl meristem of spring Brassica napus 'Precocity' cultivar.

    PubMed

    Liu, X X; Lang, S R; Su, L Q; Liu, X; Wang, X F

    2015-01-01

    Rape seed (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil seed crops in the world. Genetic manipulation of rapeseed requires a suitable tissue culture system and an efficient method for plant regeneration, as well as an efficient transformation procedure. However, development of transgenic B. napus has been problematic, and current studies are limited to cultivated varieties. In this study, we report a protocol for regeneration of transgenic rape after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hypocotyls from the spring B. napus 'Precocity' cultivar. We analyzed the effects of plant growth regulators in the medium on regeneration. Additionally, factors affecting the transformation efficiency, including seedling age, Agrobacterium concentration, infection time, and co-cultivation time, were assessed by monitoring GUS expression. Results from these experiments revealed that transformation was optimized when the meristematic parts of the hypocotyls were taken from 8 day-old seedlings, cultured on Murashinge and Skoog basal media containing 0.1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine, and incubated in Agrobacterium suspension (OD600 = 0.5) for 3 to 5 min, followed by 2 days of co-cultivation. Integration of T-DNA into the plant genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), b-glucuronidase histochemical staining, and quantitative real-time PCR. The protocols developed for regeneration, transformation, and rooting described in this study could help to accelerate the development of transgenic spring rape varieties with novel features. PMID:26681030

  11. Development of an Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Transformation Method for the Sensitive Plant Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements. PMID:24533121

  12. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation method for the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements. PMID:24533121

  13. Generation of transgenic plants of a potential oilseed crop Camelina sativa by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chaofu; Kang, Jinling

    2008-02-01

    Camelina sativa is an alternative oilseed crop that can be used as a potential low-cost biofuel crop or a source of health promoting omega-3 fatty acids. Currently, the fatty acid composition of camelina does not uniquely fit any particular uses, thus limit its commercial value and large-scale production. In order to improve oil quality and other agronomic characters, we have developed an efficient and simple in planta method to generate transgenic camelina plants. The method included Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of plants at early flowering stage along with a vacuum infiltration procedure. We used a fluorescent protein (DsRed) as a visual selection marker, which allowed us to conveniently screen mature transgenic seeds from a large number of untransformed seeds. Using this method, over 1% of transgenic seeds can be obtained. Genetic analysis revealed that most of transgenic plants contain a single copy of transgene. In addition, we also demonstrated that transgenic camelina seeds produced novel hydroxy fatty acids by transforming a castor fatty acid hydroxylase. In conclusion, our results provide a rapid means to genetically improve agronomic characters of camelina, including fatty acid profiles of its seed oils. Camelina may serve as a potential industrial crop to produce novel biotechnology products. PMID:17899095

  14. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  15. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum cv Stewart) with improved efficiency

    PubMed Central

    He, Y.; Jones, H. D.; Chen, S.; Chen, X. M.; Wang, D. W.; Li, K. X.; Wang, D. S.; Xia, L. Q.

    2010-01-01

    An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated durum wheat transformation system has been developed for the production of 121 independent transgenic lines. This improved system used Agrobacterium strain AGL1 containing the superbinary pGreen/pSoup vector system and durum wheat cv Stewart as the recipient plant. Acetosyringone at 400 μM was added to both the inoculation and cultivation medium, and picloram at 10 mg l−1 and 2 mg l−1 was used in the cultivation and induction medium, respectively. Compared with 200 μM in the inoculation and cultivation media, the increased acetosyringone concentration led to significantly higher GUS (β-glucuronidase) transient expression and T-DNA delivery efficiency. However, no evident effects of acetosyringone concentration on regeneration frequency were observed. The higher acetosyringone concentration led to an improvement in average final transformation efficiency from 4.7% to 6.3%. Furthermore, the concentration of picloram in the co-cultivation medium had significant effects on callus induction and regeneration. Compared with 2 mg l−1 picloram in the co-cultivation medium, increasing the concentration to 10 mg l−1 picloram resulted in improved final transformation frequency from 2.8% to 6.3%, with the highest frequency of 12.3% reached in one particular experiment, although statistical analysis showed that this difference in final transformation efficiency had a low level of significance. Stable integration of foreign genes, their expression, and inheritance were confirmed by Southern blot analyses, GUS assay, and genetic analysis. Analysis of T1 progeny showed that, of the 31 transgenic lines randomly selected, nearly one-third had a segregation ratio of 3:1, while the remainder had ratios typical of two or three independently segregating loci. PMID:20202997

  16. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation using cotyledons in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia)

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ikuko; Sato, Yoshihiko; Saito, Toshihiro; Moriguchi, Takaya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2013-01-01

    Genetic transformation was successfully established producing both transformed adventitious shoots and calli in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) by using cotyledons as explants. Cotyledons of five cultivars were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying the pBIN19-sgfp, which contained a green fluorescent protein gene and the neomycin phosphotransferase gene. In order to increase transformation efficiency, sonication and ethylenedioxybis (ethylamine)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) treatments were applied, which could produce physical wounds across the tissue and prevent plant defense reaction, respectively. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence was evaluated two weeks and five months after Agrobacterium inoculation as measures of transient and stable transformations, respectively. As a result, sonication significantly increased both transient and stable expression of GFP fluorescence, whereas EGTA treatment did not show a positive effect on either. Out of 18 regenerated plantlets obtained, one plant regenerated from ‘Agenosho Shinanashi’ showed stable GFP fluorescence. This plant was confirmed as a transformant by PCR and genomic Southern blotting. Three other transformed regenerated shoots by myb gene showed red color, which were derived from ‘Imamuraaki’ by the same transformation method. Transformation system in this study was shown to be reproducible since plural transformants were obtained. PMID:24273422

  18. Female Reproductive Tissues Are the Primary Target of Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation by the Arabidopsis Floral-Dip Method1

    PubMed Central

    Desfeux, Christine; Clough, Steven J.; Bent, Andrew F.

    2000-01-01

    The floral-dip method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis allows efficient plant transformation without need for tissue culture. To facilitate use with other plant species, we investigated the mechanisms that underlie this method. In manual outcrossing experiments, application of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to pollen donor plants did not produce any transformed progeny, whereas application of Agrobacterium to pollen recipient plants yielded transformants at a rate of 0.48%. Agrobacterium strains with T-DNA carrying gusA (encoding β-glucuronidase [GUS]) under the control of 35S, LAT52, or ACT11 promoters revealed delivery of GUS activity to developing ovules, whereas no GUS staining of pollen or pollen tubes was observed. Transformants derived from the same seed pod contained independent T-DNA integration events. In Arabidopsis flowers, the gynoecium develops as an open, vase-like structure that fuses to form closed locules roughly 3 d prior to anthesis. In correlation with this fact, we found that the timing of Agrobacterium infection was critical. Transformants were obtained and GUS staining of ovules and embryo sacs was observed only if the Agrobacterium were applied 5 d or more prior to anthesis. A 6-fold higher rate of transformation was obtained with a CRABS-CLAW mutant that maintains an open gynoecium. Our results suggest that ovules are the site of productive transformation in the floral-dip method, and further suggest that Agrobacterium must be delivered to the interior of the developing gynoecium prior to locule closure if efficient transformation is to be achieved. PMID:10889238

  19. Genetic transformation of Metroxylon sagu (Rottb.) cultures via Agrobacterium-mediated and particle bombardment.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Evra Raunie; Hossain, Md Anowar; Roslan, Hairul Azman

    2014-01-01

    Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu) is a perennial plant native to Southeast Asia and exploited mainly for the starch content in its trunk. Genetic improvement of sago palm is extremely slow when compared to other annual starch crops. Urgent attention is needed to improve the sago palm planting material and can be achieved through nonconventional methods. We have previously developed a tissue culture method for sago palm, which is used to provide the planting materials and to develop a genetic transformation procedure. Here, we report the genetic transformation of sago embryonic callus derived from suspension culture using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and gene gun systems. The transformed embryoids cells were selected against Basta (concentration 10 to 30 mg/L). Evidence of foreign genes integration and function of the bar and gus genes were verified via gene specific PCR amplification, gus staining, and dot blot analysis. This study showed that the embryogenic callus was the most suitable material for transformation as compared to the fine callus, embryoid stage, and initiated shoots. The gene gun transformation showed higher transformation efficiency than the ones transformed using Agrobacterium when targets were bombarded once or twice using 280 psi of helium pressure at 6 to 8 cm distance. PMID:25295258

  20. Genetic Transformation of Metroxylon sagu (Rottb.) Cultures via Agrobacterium-Mediated and Particle Bombardment

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Evra Raunie

    2014-01-01

    Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu) is a perennial plant native to Southeast Asia and exploited mainly for the starch content in its trunk. Genetic improvement of sago palm is extremely slow when compared to other annual starch crops. Urgent attention is needed to improve the sago palm planting material and can be achieved through nonconventional methods. We have previously developed a tissue culture method for sago palm, which is used to provide the planting materials and to develop a genetic transformation procedure. Here, we report the genetic transformation of sago embryonic callus derived from suspension culture using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and gene gun systems. The transformed embryoids cells were selected against Basta (concentration 10 to 30 mg/L). Evidence of foreign genes integration and function of the bar and gus genes were verified via gene specific PCR amplification, gus staining, and dot blot analysis. This study showed that the embryogenic callus was the most suitable material for transformation as compared to the fine callus, embryoid stage, and initiated shoots. The gene gun transformation showed higher transformation efficiency than the ones transformed using Agrobacterium when targets were bombarded once or twice using 280 psi of helium pressure at 6 to 8 cm distance. PMID:25295258

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and plant regeneration of the hardwood tree species Fraxinus profunda.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Micah E; Pijut, Paula M

    2014-06-01

    This transformation and regeneration protocol provides an integral framework for the genetic improvement of Fraxinus profunda (pumpkin ash) for future development of plants resistant to the emerald ash borer. Using mature hypocotyls as the initial explants, an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation system was successfully developed for pumpkin ash (Fraxinus profunda). This transformation protocol is an invaluable tool to combat the highly aggressive, non-native emerald ash borer (EAB), which has the potential to eliminate native Fraxinus spp. from the natural landscape. Hypocotyls were successfully transformed with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring the pq35GR vector, containing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as well as a fusion gene between neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and gusA. Hypocotyls were cultured for 7 days on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 22.2 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA), 4.5 μM thidiazuron (TDZ), 50 mg L(-1) adenine hemisulfate (AS), and 10 % coconut water (CW) prior to transformation. Hypocotyls were transformed using 90 s sonication plus 10 min vacuum infiltration after Agrobacterium was exposed to 100 μM acetosyringone for 1 h. Adventitious shoots were regenerated on MS medium with 22.2 μM BA, 4.5 μM TDZ, 50 mg L(-1) AS, 10 % CW, 400 mg L(-1) timentin, and 20 mg L(-1) kanamycin. Timentin at 400 and 20 mg L(-1) kanamycin were most effective at controlling Agrobacterium growth and selecting for transformed cells, respectively. The presence of nptII, GUS (β-glucuronidase), and EGFP in transformed plants was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while the expression of EGFP was also confirmed through fluorescent microscopy and reverse transcription-PCR. This transformation protocol provides an integral foundation for future genetic modifications of F. profunda to provide resistance to EAB. PMID:24493252

  2. Hypocotyl-based Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of soybean (Glycine max) and application for RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Wang, Geliang; Xu, Yinong

    2008-07-01

    An efficient system of gene transformation is necessary for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] functional genomics and gene modification by using RNA interference (RNAi) technology. To establish such system, we improved the conditions of tissue culture and transformation for increasing the frequency of adventitious shoots and decreasing the browning and necrosis of hypocotyls. Adding N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and silver nitrate in culture medium enhanced the shoot formation on hypocotyls. BAP increased the frequency of the hypocotyls containing adventitious shoots, while silver nitrate increased the number of shoots on the hypocotyls. As a result, the number of adventitious shoots on hypocotyls cultured in medium containing both BAP and silver nitrate was 5-fold higher than the controls. Adding antioxidants in co-cultivation medium resulted in a significant decrease in occurrence of browning and necrosis of hypocotyls and increase in levels of beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) gene expression. Histochemical assays showed that the apical meristem of hypocotyls was the "target tissue" for Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation of soybean. Gene silencing of functional gene by using RNAi technology was carried out under above conditions. A silencing construct containing an inverted-repeat fragment of the GmFAD2 gene was introduced into soybean by using the A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Several lines with high oleic acid were obtained, in which mean oleic acid content ranged from 71.5 to 81.9%. Our study demonstrates that this transgenic approach could be efficiently used to improve soybean quality and productivity through functional genomics. PMID:18347801

  3. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration system for leaf explants of two elite aspen hybrid clones Populus alba × P. berolinensis and Populus davidiana × P. bolleana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haihai; Wang, Cuiting; Liu, Hua; Tang, Renjie; Zhang, Hongxia

    2011-11-01

    Transgenic technology has been successfully used for gene function analyses and trait improvement in cereal plants. However, its usage is limited in woody plants, especially in the difficult-to-transform but commercially viable hybrid poplar. In this work, an efficient regeneration and transformation system was established for the production of two hybrid aspen clones: Populus alba × P. berolinensis and Populus davidiana × P. bolleana. A plant transformation vector designed to express the reporter gene uidA, encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS), driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, was used to detect transformation event at early stages of plant regeneration, and to optimize the parameters that may affect poplar transformation efficiency. Bacterium strain and age of leaf explant are two major factors that affect transformation efficiency. Addition of thidiazuron (TDZ) improved both regeneration and transformation efficiency. The transformation efficiency is approximately 9.3% for P. alba × P. berolinensis and 16.4% for P. davidiana × P. bolleana. Using this system, transgenic plants were usually produced in less than 1 month after co-cultivation. The growth characteristics and morphology of transgenic plants were identical to the untransformed wild type plants, and the transgenes could be inherited by vegetative propagation, as confirmed by PCR, Southern blotting, RT-PCR and β-glucuronidase staining analyses. The establishment of this system will help to facilitate the studies of gene functions in tree growth and development at a genome level, and as well as the introduction of some valuable traits in aspen breeding. PMID:21717184

  4. Development of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of highly valued hill banana cultivar Virupakshi (AAB) for resistance to BBTV disease.

    PubMed

    Elayabalan, Sivalingam; Kalaiponmani, Kalaimughilan; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Panchanathan, Radha; Muthuvelayoutham, Ramlatha; Kumar, Krish K; Balasubramanian, Ponnuswami

    2013-04-01

    One of the most severe viral diseases of hill banana is caused by banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a nanovirus transmitted by the aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa. In this study, we reported the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation on a highly valued hill banana cultivar Virupakshi (AAB) for resistance to BBTV disease. The target of the RNA interference (RNAi) is the rep gene, encoded by the BBTV-DNA1. In order to develop RNAi construct targeting the BBTV rep gene, the full-length rep gene of 870 bp was polymerase chain reaction amplified from BBTV infected hill banana sample DNA, cloned and confirmed by DNA sequencing. The partial rep gene fragment was cloned in sense and anti sense orientation in the RNAi intermediate vector, pSTARLING-A. After cloning in pSTARLING-A, the cloned RNAi gene cassette was released by NotI enzyme digestion and cloned into the NotI site of binary vector, pART27. Two different explants, embryogenic cells and embryogenic cell suspension derived microcalli were used for co-cultivation. Selection was done in presence of 100 mg/L kanamycin. In total, 143 putative transgenic hill banana lines were generated and established in green house condition. The presence of the transgenes was confirmed in the selected putative transgenic hill banana lines by PCR and reverse transcription PCR analyses. Transgenic hill banana plants expressing RNAi-BBTV rep were obtained and shown to resist infection by BBTV. The transformed plants are symptomless, and the replication of challenge BBTV almost completely suppressed. Hence, the RNAi mediating resistances were shown to be effective management of BBTV in hill banana. PMID:23184576

  5. Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Genetic Transformation of Populus angustifolia and Populus balsamifera.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Priti; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated stable genetic transformation of two species of poplar - Populus angustifolia and Populus balsamifera. The binary vector pCAMBIA-Npro-long-Luc containing the luciferase reporter gene was used to transform stem internode and axillary bud explants. Putative transformants were regenerated on selection-free medium using our previously established in vitro regeneration method. Explant type, genotype, effect of pre-culture, Agrobacterium concentration, a time period of infection and varying periods of co-culture with bacteria were tested for the transformation frequency. The highest frequency of transformation was obtained with stem internode explants pre-cultured for 2 days, infected with Agrobacterium culture at the concentration of OD600 = 0.5 for 10 min and co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for 48 h. Out of the two genotypes tested, P. balsamifera exhibited a higher transformation rate in comparison to P. angustifolia. The primary transformants that exhibited luciferase activity in a bioluminescence assay under the CCD camera when subjected to polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis revealed a stable single-copy integration of luc in their genomes. The reported protocol is highly reproducible and can be applied to other species of poplar; it will also be useful for future genetic engineering of one of the most important families of woody plants for sustainable development. PMID:27014319

  6. Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Genetic Transformation of Populus angustifolia and Populus balsamifera

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Priti; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated stable genetic transformation of two species of poplar – Populus angustifolia and Populus balsamifera. The binary vector pCAMBIA-Npro-long-Luc containing the luciferase reporter gene was used to transform stem internode and axillary bud explants. Putative transformants were regenerated on selection-free medium using our previously established in vitro regeneration method. Explant type, genotype, effect of pre-culture, Agrobacterium concentration, a time period of infection and varying periods of co-culture with bacteria were tested for the transformation frequency. The highest frequency of transformation was obtained with stem internode explants pre-cultured for 2 days, infected with Agrobacterium culture at the concentration of OD600 = 0.5 for 10 min and co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for 48 h. Out of the two genotypes tested, P. balsamifera exhibited a higher transformation rate in comparison to P. angustifolia. The primary transformants that exhibited luciferase activity in a bioluminescence assay under the CCD camera when subjected to polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis revealed a stable single-copy integration of luc in their genomes. The reported protocol is highly reproducible and can be applied to other species of poplar; it will also be useful for future genetic engineering of one of the most important families of woody plants for sustainable development. PMID:27014319

  7. Review of methodologies and a protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Huw D; Doherty, Angela; Wu, Huixia

    2005-01-01

    Since the first report of wheat transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in 1997, various factors that influence T-DNA delivery and regeneration in tissue culture have been further investigated and modified. This paper reviews the current methodology literature describing Agrobacterium transformation of wheat and provides a complete protocol that we have developed and used to produce over one hundred transgenic lines in both spring and winter wheat varieties. PMID:16270934

  8. Review of methodologies and a protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat.

    PubMed

    Jones, Huw D; Doherty, Angela; Wu, Huixia

    2005-09-01

    Since the first report of wheat transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in 1997, various factors that influence T-DNA delivery and regeneration in tissue culture have been further investigated and modified. This paper reviews the current methodology literature describing Agrobacterium transformation of wheat and provides a complete protocol that we have developed and used to produce over one hundred transgenic lines in both spring and winter wheat varieties. PMID:16270934

  9. Successful Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Thielaviopsis basicola by optimizing multiple conditions.

    PubMed

    Tzima, Aliki K; Paplomatas, Epaminondas J; Schoina, Charikleia; Domazakis, Emmanouil; Kang, Seogchan; Goodwin, Paul H

    2014-08-01

    Thielaviopsis basicola is a hemibiotrophic root pathogen causing black root rot in a wide range of economically important crops. Our initial attempts to transform T. basicola using standard Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) protocols were unsuccessful. Successful transformation required the addition of V8 juice (to induce germination of T. basicola chlamydospores) and higher concentrations of acetosyringone in the co-cultivation medium, and of chlamydospores/endoconidia, A. tumefaciens cells during co-cultivation. With these modifications, two T. basicola strains were successfully transformed with the green (egfp) or red (AsRed) fluorescent protein genes. Chlamydospores/endoconidia transformed with the egfp gene exhibited strong green fluorescence, but their fluorescence became weaker as the germ tubes emerged. Transformants harbouring the AsRed gene displayed strong red fluorescence in both chlamydospores/endoconidia and germ tubes. Fluorescent microscopic observations of an AsRed-labelled strain colonizing roots of transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants, which express the actin filaments labelled with EGFP, at 24 hours post inoculation showed varying levels of fungal germination and penetration. At this stage, the infection appeared to be biotrophic with the EGFP-labelled host actin filaments not being visibly degraded, even in host root cells in close contact with the hyphae. This is the first report of ATMT of T. basicola, and the use of an AsRed-labelled strain to directly observe the root infection process. PMID:25110130

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of promising oil-bearing marine algae Parachlorella kessleri.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Jayant Pralhad; Prakash, Gunjan; Pandit, Reena; Lali, Arvind M

    2013-11-01

    Parachlorella kessleri is a unicellular alga which grows in fresh as well as marine water and is commercially important as biomass/lipid feedstock and in bioremediation. The present study describes the successful transformation of marine P. kessleri with the help of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transformed marine P. kessleri was able to tolerate more than 10 mg l(-1) hygromycin concentration. Co-cultivation conditions were modulated to allow the simultaneous growth of both marine P. kessleri and A. tumefaciens. For co-cultivation, P. kessleri was shifted from Walne's to tris acetate phosphate medium to reduce the antibiotic requirement during selection. In the present study, the transfer of T-DNA was successful without using acetosyringone. Biochemical and genetic analyses were performed for expression of transgenes by GUS assay and PCR in transformants. Establishment of this protocol would be useful in further genetic modification of oil-bearing Parachlorella species. PMID:24097049

  11. Cadophora finlandia and Phialocephala fortinii: Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and functional GFP expression.

    PubMed

    Gorfer, Markus; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Bandian, Dragana; Strauss, Joseph

    2007-07-01

    Hygromycin B resistance was transferred to the sterile mycelia of Cadophora finlandia and Phialocephala fortinii by co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Constitutively expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) was also introduced using the same vector. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed strong fluorescence of transformants. Both traits were mitotically stable during one year of subculturing on non-selective growth medium. Southern blot analysis showed that the majority of the transformants contained single-copy integrations at random sites in the genome. PMID:17662587

  12. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yumei; Chen, Zikai; Zhu, Detu; Tu, Haitao; Pan, Shen Quan

    2015-01-01

    The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C); knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells. PMID:26425545

  13. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yumei; Chen, Zikai; Zhu, Detu; Tu, Haitao; Pan, Shen Quan

    2015-01-01

    The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C); knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells. PMID:26425545

  14. Enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic calli of upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianzhen; Wu, Shen-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of cotton embryogenic calli (EC) was enhanced by choosing appropriate EC and improving efficiency of coculture, selection cultivation, and plant regeneration. The binary vector pBI121 (containing a neomycin phosphotransferase II gene npt-II as a selection marker and a uidA gene as a reporter gene) was used to research transformation efficiency. After 48 h cocultivation, the number of β-glucuronidase (GUS)-positive calli characterized by yellow, loose, and fine-grained EC was twofold greater than that of gray, brown, and coarse granule EC. It indicated that the efficiency of transient transformation was affected by EC morphology. Transient transformation efficiency also was improved by cocultivation on the medium by adding 50 mg/L acetosyringone at 19°C for 48 h. Subculturing EC on the selection medium with low cell density increased the production of kanamycin-resistant (Km-R) calli lines. From an original 0.3 g EC, an average of 20 Km-R calli lines were obtained from a selection dish, and the GUS-positive rate of Km-R clones was 81.97%. A large number of normal plants were rapidly regenerated on the differentiation medium with dehydration treatments, and the GUS-positive rate of regeneration plants was about 72.6%. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of GUS-positive plantlets revealed a 100% positive detection rate for neomycin phosphotransferase II gene and gus gene. Southern blot of transgenic plants regenerated from different Km-R calli lines demonstrated that the target gene, mostly with the low copy number, was integrated into the cotton genome. PMID:22351014

  15. A simple shoot multiplication procedure using internode explants, and its application for particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in watercress.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Shinjiro; Usui, Miki; Shibutani, Nanae; Kato, Yasuo

    2009-07-01

    A shoot multiplication system derived from internode explants was investigated with the aim of improving genetic characteristics of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.). Internodes of ca. 1 cm excised from in vitro stock shoot culture were placed on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3 muM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as a pre-treatment. Laser scanning microscopy indicated clearly that the first sign of meristematic cell division could be seen after 1-2 days of pre-culture, and meristematic tissues multiplied along the vascular cambium of the internode segment during 7 days of culture. Multiple shoots could be obtained from more than 90% of the pre-treated explants when they were subsequently transferred to MS medium supplemented with 1 muM thidiazuron for 3 weeks. These findings indicate that pre-treatment of the internodes for 7 days promoted their capacity for organogenesis. Using this pre-treatment, frequent generation of transgenic watercress plants was achieved by adapting particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation techniques with a construct expressing a synthetic green florescent protein gene. PMID:19308313

  16. Expression and genomic integration of transgenes after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature barley embryos.

    PubMed

    Uçarlı, C; Tufan, F; Gürel, F

    2015-01-01

    Mature embryos in tissue cultures are advantageous because of their abundance and rapid germination, which reduces genomic instability problems. In this study, 2-day-old isolated mature barley embryos were infected with 2 Agrobacterium hypervirulent strains (AGL1 and EHA105), followed by a 3-day period of co-cultivation in the presence of L-cystein amino acid. Chimeric expression of the b-glucuronidase gene (gusA) directed by a viral promoter of strawberry vein banding virus was observed in coleoptile epidermal cells and seminal roots in 5-day-old germinated seedlings. In addition to varying infectivity patterns in different strains, there was a higher ratio of transient b-glucuronidase expression in developing coleoptiles than in embryonic roots, indicating the high competency of shoot apical meristem cells in the mature embryo. A total of 548 explants were transformed and 156 plants developed to maturity on G418 media after 18-25 days. We detected transgenes in 74% of the screened plant leaves by polymerase chain reaction, and 49% of these expressed neomycin phosphotransferase II gene following AGL1 transformation. Ten randomly selected T0 transformants were analyzed using thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction and 24 fragments ranged between 200-600 base pairs were sequenced. Three of the sequences flanked with transferred-DNA showed high similarity to coding regions of the barley genome, including alpha tubulin5, homeobox 1, and mitochondrial 16S genes. We observed 70-200-base pair filler sequences only in the coding regions of barley in this study. PMID:25730049

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Eucalyptus globulus using explants with shoot apex with introduction of bacterial choline oxidase gene to enhance salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Etsuko; Nanto, Kazuya; Oishi, Masatoshi; Ebinuma, Hiroyasu; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Shimada, Teruhisa

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most economically important plantation hardwoods for paper making. However, its low transformation frequency has prevented genetic engineering of this species with useful genes. We found the hypocotyl section with a shoot apex has the highest regeneration ability among another hypocotyl sections, and have developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method using these materials. We then introduced a salt tolerance gene, namely a bacterial choline oxidase gene (codA) with a GUS reporter gene, into E. globulus. The highest frequency of transgenic shoot regeneration from hypocotyls with shoot apex was 7.4% and the average frequency in four experiments was 4.0%, 12-fold higher than that from hypocotyls without shoot apex. Using about 10,000 explants, over 250 regenerated buds were confirmed as transformants by GUS analysis. Southern blot analysis of 100 elongated shoots confirmed successful generation of stable transformants. Accumulation of glycinebetaine was investigated in 44 selected transgenic lines, which showed 1- to 12-fold higher glycinebetaine levels than non-transgenic controls. Rooting of 16 transgenic lines was successful using a photoautotrophic method under enrichment with 1,000 ppm CO(2). The transgenic whole plantlets were transplanted into potting soil and grown normally in a growth room. They showed salt tolerance to 300 mM NaCl. The points of our system are using explants with shoot apex as materials, inhibiting the elongation of the apex on the selection medium, and regenerating transgenic buds from the side opposite to the apex. This approach may also solve transformation problems in other important plants. PMID:22009051

  18. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brachypodium distachyon inbred line Bd 21-3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is a small grass with biological attributes (rapid generation time, small genome, diploid accessions, small stature and simple growth requirements) that make it suitable for use as a model system. In addition, a growing list of genomic resources have been devel...

  19. Establishment of an Agrobacterium-mediated Inoculation System for Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Minji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Song, Dami; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The infectious full-length cDNA clones of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolates KW and KOM, which were isolated from watermelon and oriental melon, respectively, were constructed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. We successfully inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana with the cloned CGMMV isolates KW and KOM by Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration. Virulence and symptomatic characteristics of the cloned CGMMV isolates KW and KOM were tested on several indicator plants. No obvious differences between two cloned isolates in disease development were observed on the tested indicator plants. We also determined full genome sequences of the cloned CGMMV isolates KW and KOM. Sequence comparison revealed that only four amino acids (at positions 228, 699, 1212, and 1238 of the replicase protein region) differ between the cloned isolates KW and KOM. A previous study reported that the isolate KOM could not infect Chenopodium amaranticolor, but the cloned KOM induced chlorotic spots on the inoculated leaves. When compared with the previously reported sequence of the original KOM isolate, the cloned KOM contained one amino acid mutation (Ala to Thr) at position 228 of the replicase protein, suggesting that this mutation might be responsible for induction of chlorotic spots on the inoculated leaves of C. amaranticolor. PMID:26674677

  20. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of commercially elite rice restorer line using nptII gene as a plant selection marker.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, M; Sairam Reddy, P; Laxmi Narasu, M; Krishna, Gaurav; Rana, Debashis

    2016-01-01

    Transformation of commercially important indica cultivars remains challenging for the scientific community even though Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols for a few indica rice lines have been well established. We report successful transformation of a commercially important restorer line JK1044R of indica rice hybrid JKRH 401. While following existing protocol, we optimized several parameters for callusing, regeneration and genetic transformation of JK1044R. Calli generated from the rice scutellum tissue were used for transformation by Agrobacterium harboring pCAMBIA2201. A novel two tire selection scheme comprising of Geneticin (G418) and Paramomycin were deployed for selection of transgenic calli as well as regenerated plantlets that expressed neomycin phosphotransferase-II gene encoded by the vector. One specific combination of G418 (30 mg l(-1)) and Paramomycin (70 mg l(-1)) was very effective for calli selection. Transformed and selected calli were detected by monitoring the expression of the reporter gene uidA (GUS). Regenerated plantlets were confirmed through PCR analysis of nptII and gus genes specific primers as well as dot blot using gus gene specific as probe. PMID:27186018

  1. Improved cotyledonary node method using an alternative explant derived from mature seed for efficient Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation.

    PubMed

    Paz, Margie M; Martinez, Juan Carlos; Kalvig, Andrea B; Fonger, Tina M; Wang, Kan

    2006-03-01

    The utility of transformation for soybean improvement requires an efficient system for production of stable transgenic lines. We describe here an improved cotyledonary node method using an alternative explant for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated soybean transformation. We use the term "half-seed" to refer to this alternative cotyledonary explant that is derived from mature seed of soybean following an overnight imbibition and to distinguish it from cotyledonary node derived from 5-7-day-old seedlings. Transformation efficiencies using half-seed explants ranged between 1.4 and 8.7% with an overall efficiency of 3.8% based on the number of transformed events that have been confirmed in the T1 generation by phenotypic assay using the herbicide Liberty (active ingredient glufosinate) and by Southern analysis. This efficiency is 1.5-fold higher than the cotyledonary node method used in our laboratory. Significantly, the half-seed system is simple and does not require deliberate wounding of explants, which is a critical and technically demanding step in the cotyledonary node method. PMID:16249869

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. Using leaf explants: bactericidal effect of leaf extracts and counteracting strategies.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anamika; Bakshi, Souvika; Sahoo, Debee Prasad; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2012-04-01

    An optimized protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of patchouli using leaf disk explants is reported. In vitro antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of the plants revealed Agrobacterium sensitivity to the extracts. Fluorometric assay of bacterial cell viability indicated dose-dependent cytotoxic activity of callus extract against Agrobacterium cells. Addition of 0.1% Tween 20 and 2 g/l L-glutamine to Agrobacterium infection medium counteracted the bactericidal effect and significantly increased the T-DNA delivery to explants. A short preculture of explants for 2 days followed by infection with Agrobacterium in medium containing 150 μM of acetosyringone were found essential for efficient T-DNA delivery. Cocultivation for 3 days at 22 °C in conjunction with other optimized factors resulted in maximum T-DNA delivery. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of leaf disk explants were found significantly related to physiological age of the explants, age and origin of the of the donor plant. Leaf explants from second node of the 3-month-old in vivo plants showed highest transformation efficiency (94.3%) revealed by transient GUS expression assay. Plants selected on medium containing 20 mg/l kanamycin showed stable GUS expression in leaves and stem. The elongated shoots readily developed roots on kanamycin-free rooting medium and on transfer to soil, plants were successfully established. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis in putative plants confirmed their transgenic nature. The established transformation method should provide new opportunities for the genetic improvement of patchouli for desirable trait. PMID:22434351

  3. Transient down-regulation of the RNA silencing machinery increases efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bilichak, Andriy; Yao, Youli; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2014-06-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen that is widely used in plant transformation. As the process of transgenesis includes the delivery of single-stranded T-DNA molecule, we hypothesized that transformation rate may negatively correlate with the efficiency of the RNA-silencing machinery. Using mutants compromised in either the transcriptional or post-transcriptional gene-silencing pathways, two inhibitors of stable transformation were revealed-AGO2 and NRPD1a. Furthermore, an immunoprecipitation experiment has shown that NRPD1, a subunit of Pol IV, directly interacts with Agrobacterium T-DNA in planta. Using the Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)--based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique, we demonstrated that the transient down-regulation of the expression of either AGO2 or NRPD1a genes in reproductive organs of Arabidopsis, leads to an increase in transformation rate. We observed a 6.0- and 3.5-fold increase in transformation rate upon transient downregulation of either AGO2 or NRPD1a genes, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the increase in the plant transformation rate via VIGS-mediated transient down-regulation of the components of epigenetic machinery in reproductive tissue. PMID:24472037

  4. Factors influencing somatic embryogenesis, regeneration, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar TME14.

    PubMed

    Nyaboga, Evans N; Njiru, Joshua M; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Routine production of large numbers of transgenic plants is required to fully exploit advances in cassava biotechnology and support development of improved germplasm for deployment to farmers. This article describes an improved, high-efficiency transformation protocol for recalcitrant cassava cultivar TME14 preferred in Africa. Factors that favor production of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) were found to be use of DKW medium, crushing of organized embryogenic structures (OES) through 1-2 mm sized metal wire mesh, washing of crushed OES tissues and short exposure of tyrosine to somatic embryos; and transformation efficiency was enhanced by use of low Agrobacterium density during co-cultivation, co-centrifugation of FEC with Agrobacterium, germination of paramomycin resistant somatic embryos on medium containing BAP with gradual increase in concentration and variations of the frequency of subculture of cotyledonary-stage embryos on shoot elongation medium. By applying the optimized parameters, FEC were produced for cassava cultivar TME14 and transformed using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA2301. About 70-80 independent transgenic lines per ml settled cell volume (SCV) of FEC were regenerated on selective medium. Histochemical GUS assays confirmed the expression of gusA gene in transformed calli, somatic embryos and transgenic plants. The presence and integration of the gusA gene were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, respectively. RT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants confirmed the expression of gusA gene. This protocol demonstrates significantly enhanced transformation efficiency over existing cassava transformation protocols and could become a powerful tool for functional genomics and transferring new traits into cassava. PMID:26113851

  5. Factors influencing somatic embryogenesis, regeneration, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar TME14

    PubMed Central

    Nyaboga, Evans N.; Njiru, Joshua M.; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Routine production of large numbers of transgenic plants is required to fully exploit advances in cassava biotechnology and support development of improved germplasm for deployment to farmers. This article describes an improved, high-efficiency transformation protocol for recalcitrant cassava cultivar TME14 preferred in Africa. Factors that favor production of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) were found to be use of DKW medium, crushing of organized embryogenic structures (OES) through 1–2 mm sized metal wire mesh, washing of crushed OES tissues and short exposure of tyrosine to somatic embryos; and transformation efficiency was enhanced by use of low Agrobacterium density during co-cultivation, co-centrifugation of FEC with Agrobacterium, germination of paramomycin resistant somatic embryos on medium containing BAP with gradual increase in concentration and variations of the frequency of subculture of cotyledonary-stage embryos on shoot elongation medium. By applying the optimized parameters, FEC were produced for cassava cultivar TME14 and transformed using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA2301. About 70–80 independent transgenic lines per ml settled cell volume (SCV) of FEC were regenerated on selective medium. Histochemical GUS assays confirmed the expression of gusA gene in transformed calli, somatic embryos and transgenic plants. The presence and integration of the gusA gene were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, respectively. RT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants confirmed the expression of gusA gene. This protocol demonstrates significantly enhanced transformation efficiency over existing cassava transformation protocols and could become a powerful tool for functional genomics and transferring new traits into cassava. PMID:26113851

  6. Sonication, Vacuum Infiltration and Thiol Compounds Enhance the Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Frequency of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Kapil Dev, Gnajothi; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have established a stable transformation protocol via Agrobacterium tumafacines for the pharmaceutically important Withania somnifera. Six day-old nodal explants were used for 3 day co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the vector pCAMIBA2301. Among the different injury treatments, sonication, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, a vacuum infiltration for 10 min followed by sonication for 10 sec with A. tumefaciens led to a higher transient GUS expression (84% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites). In order to improve gene integration, thiol compounds were added to co-cultivation medium. A combined treatment of L-Cys at 100 mg/l, STS at 125 mg/l, DTT at 75 mg/l resulted in a higher GUS expression (90%) in the nodal explants. After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were subjected to three selection cycles with increasing concentrations of kanamycin [100 to 115 mg/l]. The integration and expression of gusA gene in T0 and T1 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blott analysis. These transformed plants (T0 and T1) were fertile and morphologically normal. From the present investigation, we have achieved a higher transformation efficiency of (10%). Withanolides (withanolide A, withanolide B, withanone and withaferin A) contents of transformed plants (T0 and T1) were marginally higher than control plants. PMID:25927703

  7. Increased Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and rooting efficiencies in canola (Brassica napus L.) from hypocotyl segment explants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardoza, V.; Stewart, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient protocol for the production of transgenic Brassica napus cv. Westar plants was developed by optimizing two important parameters: preconditioning time and co-cultivation time. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was performed using hypocotyls as explant tissue. Two variants of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding gene--mGFP5-ER and eGFP--both under the constitutive expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, were used for the experiments. Optimizing the preconditioning time to 72 h and co-cultivation time with Agrobacterium to 48 h provided the increase in the transformation efficiency from a baseline of 4% to 25%. With mGFP5-ER, the transformation rate was 17% and with eGFP it was 25%. Transgenic shoots were selected on 200 mg/l kanamycin. Rooting efficiency was 100% on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 10 g/l sucrose and 0.5 mg/l indole butyric acid in the presence of kanamycin.

  8. Bacterial Transposons Are Co-Transferred with T-DNA to Rice Chromosomes during Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Ryul; An, Gynheung

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely utilized for delivering a foreign gene into a plant’s genome. We found the bacterial transposon Tn5393 in transgenic rice plants. Analysis of the flanking sequences of the transferred-DNA (T-DNA) identified that a portion of the Tn5393 sequence was present immediately next to the end of the T-DNA. Because this transposon was present in A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404, but not in EHA105 and GV3101, our findings indicated that Tn5393 was transferred from LBA4404 into the rice genome during the transformation process. We also noted that another bacterial transposon, Tn5563, is present in transgenic plants. Analyses of 331 transgenic lines revealed that 26.0% carried Tn5393 and 2.1% contained Tn5563. In most of the lines, an intact transposon was integrated into the T-DNA and transferred to the rice chromosome. More than one copy of T-DNA was introduced into the plants, often at a single locus. This resulted in T-DNA repeats of normal and transposon-carrying T-DNA that generated deletions of a portion of the T-DNA, joining the T-DNA end to the bacterial transposon. Based on these data, we suggest that one should carefully select the appropriate Agrobacterium strain to avoid undesirable transformation of such sequences. PMID:22570148

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the β-subunit gene in 7S globulin protein in soybean using RNAi technology.

    PubMed

    Qu, J; Liu, S Y; Wang, P W; Guan, S Y; Fan, Y G; Yao, D; Zhang, L; Dai, J L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use RNA interference (RNAi) to improve protein quality and decrease anti-nutritional effects in soybean. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was conducted using RNAi and an expression vector containing the 7S globulin β-subunit gene. The BAR gene was used as the selective marker and cotyledonary nodes of soybean genotype Jinong 27 were chosen as explant material. Regenerated plants were detected by molecular biology techniques. Transformation of the β-subunit gene in the 7S protein was detected by PCR, Southern blot, and q-PCR. Positive plants (10 T0, and 6 T1, and 13 T2) were tested by PCR. Hybridization bands were detected by Southern blot analysis in two of the T1 transgenic plants. RNAi expression vectors containing the soybean 7S protein β-subunit gene were successfully integrated into the genome of transgenic plants. qRT-PCR analysis in soybean seeds showed a clear decrease in expression of the soybean β-subunit gene. The level of 7S protein β-subunit expression in transgenic plants decreased by 77.5% as compared to that of the wild-type plants. This study has established a basis for the application of RNAi to improve the anti-nutritional effects of soybean. PMID:27173254

  10. In vitro regeneration and optimization of factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated transformation in Artemisia Pallens, an important medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Alok, Anshu; Shukla, Vishnu; Pala, Zarna; Kumar, Jitesh; Kudale, Subhash; Desai, Neetin

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia pallens is an important medicinal plant. In-vitro regeneration and multiplication of A. pallens have been established using attached cotyledons. Different growth regulators were considered for regeneration of multiple shoots. An average of 36 shoots per explants were obtained by culturing attached cotyledons on Murashige and Skoog's medium containing 2 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L NAA, after 45 days. The shoots were rooted best on half Murashige and Skoog's medium with respect to media containing 1 mg/L IBA or 1 mg/L NAA. Different parameters such as type of bacterial strains, OD600 of bacterial culture, co-cultivation duration, concentration of acetosyringone and explants type were optimized for transient expression of the reporter gene. Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring pCambia1301 plasmid carrying β-glucuronidase as a reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase as plant selectable marker genes were used for genetic transformation of A. pallens. Hygromycin lethality test showed concentration of 15 mg/L were sufficient to inhibit the growth of attached cotyledons and multiple shoot buds of nontransgenics in selection media. Up to 83 % transient transformation was found when attached cotyledons were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strain AGL1 for 2 days at 22 °C on shoot induction medium. The bacterial growth was eliminated by addition of cefotaxime (200 mg/L) in selection media. T0 transgenic plants were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay and further by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using uidA and hpt gene specific primers. The study is useful in establishing technological improvement in A. pallens by genetic engineering. PMID:27436917

  11. Identifying a Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase 4a Gene and Its Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation in Bixa orellana L.

    PubMed

    Sankari, Mohan; Hemachandran, Hridya; Anantharaman, Amirtha; Babu, Subramanian; Madrid, Renata Rivera; C, George Priya Doss; Fulzele, Devanand P; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-07-01

    Carotenoids are metabolized to apocarotenoids through the pathway catalysed by carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs). The apocarotenoids are economically important as it is known to have therapeutic as well as industrial applications. For instance, bixin from Bixa orellana and crocin from Crocus sativus are commercially used as a food colourant and cosmetics since prehistoric time. In our present study, CCD4a gene has been identified and isolated from leaves of B. orellana for the first time and named as BoCCD4a; phylogenetic analysis was carried out using CLUSTAL W. From sequence analysis, BoCCD4a contains two exons and one intron, which was compared with the selected AtCCD4, RdCCD4, GmCCD4 and CmCCD4a gene. Further, the BoCCD4a gene was cloned into pCAMBIA 1301, transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain and subsequently transferred into hypocotyledons and callus of B. orellana by agro-infection. Selection of stable transformation was screened on the basis of PCR detection by using GUS and hptII specific primer, which was followed by histochemical characterization. The percent transient GUS expression in hypocotyledons and callus was 84.4 and 80 %, respectively. The expression of BoCCD4a gene in B. orellana was confirmed through RT-PCR analysis. From our results, the sequence analysis of BoCCD4a gene of B. orellana was closely related to the CsCCD4 gene of C. sativus, which suggests this gene may have a role in various processes such as fragrance, insect attractant and pollination. PMID:26922728

  12. Comparison between Agrobacterium-mediated and direct gene transfer using the gene gun.

    PubMed

    Gao, Caixia; Nielsen, Klaus K

    2013-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and direct gene transfer using the gene gun (microparticle -bombardment) are the two most widely used methods for plant genetic modification. The Agrobacterium method has been successfully practiced in dicots for many years, but only recently have efficient protocols been developed for grasses. Microparticle bombardment has evolved as a method delivering exogenous nucleic acids into plant genome and is a commonly employed technique in plant science. Here these two systems are compared for transformation efficiency, transgene integration, and transgene expression when used to transform tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). The tall fescue transformation protocols lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. PMID:23104329

  13. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of potato using PLRV-rep and PVY CP genes and assessment of replicase mediated resistance against natural infection of PLRV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replicase-and coat protein gene-mediated resistances against potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY), respectively, demonstrated to be an effective way of protecting potato against two major virus problems (PLRV & PVY) world-wide. Potato cultivar Desiree was transformed using Agrobacte...

  14. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato with rolB gene results in enhancement of fruit quality and foliar resistance against fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Waheed; Haq, Ihsan-ul-; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Mirza, Bushra

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the second most important cultivated crop next to potato, worldwide. Tomato serves as an important source of antioxidants in human diet. Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum cause early blight and vascular wilt of tomato, respectively, resulting in severe crop losses. The foremost objective of the present study was to generate transgenic tomato plants with rolB gene and evaluate its effect on plant morphology, nutritional contents, yield and resistance against fungal infection. Tomato cv. Rio Grande was transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring rolB gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. rolB. Biochemical analyses showed considerable improvement in nutritional quality of transgenic tomato fruits as indicated by 62% increase in lycopene content, 225% in ascorbic acid content, 58% in total phenolics and 26% in free radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, rolB gene significantly improved the defence response of leaves of transgenic plants against two pathogenic fungal strains A. solani and F. oxysporum. Contrarily, transformed plants exhibited altered morphology and reduced fruit yield. In conclusion, rolB gene from A. rhizogenes can be used to generate transgenic tomato with increased nutritional contents of fruits as well as improved foliar tolerance against fungal pathogens. PMID:24817272

  15. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Tomato with rolB Gene Results in Enhancement of Fruit Quality and Foliar Resistance against Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Waheed; Haq, Ihsan-ul-; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Mirza, Bushra

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the second most important cultivated crop next to potato, worldwide. Tomato serves as an important source of antioxidants in human diet. Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum cause early blight and vascular wilt of tomato, respectively, resulting in severe crop losses. The foremost objective of the present study was to generate transgenic tomato plants with rolB gene and evaluate its effect on plant morphology, nutritional contents, yield and resistance against fungal infection. Tomato cv. Rio Grande was transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring rolB gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. rolB. Biochemical analyses showed considerable improvement in nutritional quality of transgenic tomato fruits as indicated by 62% increase in lycopene content, 225% in ascorbic acid content, 58% in total phenolics and 26% in free radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, rolB gene significantly improved the defence response of leaves of transgenic plants against two pathogenic fungal strains A. solani and F. oxysporum. Contrarily, transformed plants exhibited altered morphology and reduced fruit yield. In conclusion, rolB gene from A. rhizogenes can be used to generate transgenic tomato with increased nutritional contents of fruits as well as improved foliar tolerance against fungal pathogens. PMID:24817272

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated transient MaFT expression in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Su-Li; Yang, Xiao-Bing; Liu, Li-Qun; Jiang, Tao; Wu, Hai; Su, Chao; Qian, Yong-Hua; Jiao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    To optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation assay in mulberry (Morus alba L.), various infiltration methods, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) strains, and bacterial concentrations were tested in mulberry seedlings. Compared with LBA4404, GV3101 harboring pBE2133 plasmids presented stronger GUS signals at 3 days post infiltration using syringe. Recombinant plasmids pBE2133:GFP and pBE2133:GFP:MaFT were successfully constructed. Transient expression of MaFT:GFP protein was found in leaves, petiole (cross section), and shoot apical meristem (SAM) of mulberry according to the GFP signal. Moreover, MaFT:GFP mRNA was also detected in leaves and SAM via RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. An efficient transient transformation system could be achieved in mulberry seedlings by syringe using A. tumefaciens GV3101 at the OD600 of 0.5. The movement of MaFT expression from leaves to SAM might trigger the precocious flowering of mulberry. PMID:26024368

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) using optimized systems for epicotyls and cotelydons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epicotyl and internodal stem segments provide the predominantly used explants for regeneration of transgenic citrus plants following co-cultivation with Agrobacterium. Previous reports using epicotyls segments from Mexican lime have shown low affinity for Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection which re...

  18. Competence of Immature Maize Embryos for Agrobacterium-Mediated Gene Transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Schlappi, M; Hohn, B

    1992-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of viral sequences to plant cells (agroinfection) was applied to study the susceptibility of immature maize embryos to the pathogen. The shoot apical meristem of immature embryos 10 to 20 days after pollination from four different maize genotypes was investigated for competence for agroinfection. There was a direct correlation between different morphological stages of the unwounded immature embryos and their competence for agroinfection. Agroinfection frequency was highest in the embryogenic line A188. All developmental stages tested showed Agrobacterium virulence gene-inducing activity, whereas bacteriocidal substances were produced at stages of the immature embryos competent for agroinfection. The results suggested that Agrobacterium may require differentiated tissue in the maize shoot apical meristem before wounding for successful T-DNA transfer. This requirement for the young maize embryo has implications for the possible use of Agrobacterium for maize transformation. PMID:12297627

  19. Development of Efficient Plant Regeneration and Transformation System for Impatiens Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Multiple Bud Cultures as Explants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) is a top selling floriculture crop. The potential for genetic transformation of Impatiens to introduce novel flower colors or virus resistance has been limited by its general recalcitrance to tissue culture and transformation manipulations. We have established a regeneration and transformation system for Impatiens that provides new alternatives to genetic improvement of this crop. Results In a first step towards the development of transgenic INSV-resistant Impatiens, we developed an efficient plant regeneration system using hypocotyl segments containing cotyledonary nodes as explants. With this regeneration system, 80% of explants produced an average of 32.3 elongated shoots per initial explant plated, with up to 167 elongated shoots produced per explant. Rooting efficiency was high, and 100% of shoots produced roots within 12 days under optimal conditions, allowing plant regeneration within approximately 8 weeks. Using this regeneration system, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated Impatiens transformation method using in vitro multiple bud cultures as explants and a binary plasmid (pHB2892) bearing gfp and nptII genes. Transgenic Impatiens plants, with a frequency up to 58.9%, were obtained within 12 to 16 weeks from inoculation to transfer of transgenic plants to soil. Transgenic plants were confirmed by Southern blot, phenotypic assays and T1 segregation analysis. Transgene expression was observed in leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruit. The transgenic plants were fertile and phenotypically normal. Conclusion We report the development of a simple and efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for Impatiens. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Impatiens with experimental evidence of stable integration of T-DNA and of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for plants using in vitro maintained multiple bud cultures as

  20. Transformation of somatic embryos of Prunus incisa ‘February Pink’ with a visible reporter gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for the ornamental cherry species Prunus incisa. This system uses both an antibiotic resistance gene (NPTII) and a visible selectable marker, the green fluorescent protein (GFP), to select plants. Cells from leaf and root explants were tr...

  1. Gateway®-compatible plant transformation vectors.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Mark A; Harwood, Wendy A

    2015-01-01

    Studies in functional genomics and crop improvement programs often rely on the introduction and expression of transgenes in plants. There are two essential components required for in planta transgene expression, a plasmid vector on which the transgene sequence is carried and a delivery system capable of transferring the vector to the target cells. Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation and the binary plasmid vector system is the preferred method of transgene delivery. The cloning technologies used for DNA manipulation underpin many of these studies. Increased demand for efficient high-throughput transformation systems is driving forward improvements in gene cloning techniques. This chapter gives an overview of Gateway(®)-compatible binary vectors for use in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation systems. It describes a fast, efficient, and robust cloning protocol for the production of an over-expression binary vector using Gateway(®) recombinational cloning. PMID:25300827

  2. Environment Control to Improve Recombinant Protein Yields in Plants Based on Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Fujiuchi, Naomichi; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems enable plants to produce a wide range of recombinant proteins on a rapid timescale. To achieve economically feasible upstream production and downstream processing, two yield parameters should be considered: (1) recombinant protein content per unit biomass and (2) recombinant protein productivity per unit area-time at the end of the upstream production. Because environmental factors in the upstream production have impacts on these parameters, environment control is important to maximize the recombinant protein yield. In this review, we summarize the effects of pre- and postinoculation environmental factors in the upstream production on the yield parameters and discuss the basic concept of environment control for plant-based transient expression systems. Preinoculation environmental factors associated with planting density, light quality, and nutrient supply affect plant characteristics, such as biomass and morphology, which in turn affect recombinant protein content and productivity. Accordingly, environment control for such plant characteristics has significant implications to achieve a high yield. On the other hand, postinoculation environmental factors, such as temperature, light intensity, and humidity, have been shown to affect recombinant protein content. Considering that recombinant protein production in Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems is a result of a series of complex biological events starting from T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to protein biosynthesis and accumulation in leaf tissue, we propose that dynamic environment control during the postinoculation process, i.e., changing environmental conditions at an appropriate timing for each event, may be a promising approach to obtain a high yield. Detailed descriptions of plant growth conditions and careful examination of environmental effects will significantly contribute to our knowledge to stably obtain high recombinant

  3. Environment Control to Improve Recombinant Protein Yields in Plants Based on Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Fujiuchi, Naomichi; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems enable plants to produce a wide range of recombinant proteins on a rapid timescale. To achieve economically feasible upstream production and downstream processing, two yield parameters should be considered: (1) recombinant protein content per unit biomass and (2) recombinant protein productivity per unit area–time at the end of the upstream production. Because environmental factors in the upstream production have impacts on these parameters, environment control is important to maximize the recombinant protein yield. In this review, we summarize the effects of pre- and postinoculation environmental factors in the upstream production on the yield parameters and discuss the basic concept of environment control for plant-based transient expression systems. Preinoculation environmental factors associated with planting density, light quality, and nutrient supply affect plant characteristics, such as biomass and morphology, which in turn affect recombinant protein content and productivity. Accordingly, environment control for such plant characteristics has significant implications to achieve a high yield. On the other hand, postinoculation environmental factors, such as temperature, light intensity, and humidity, have been shown to affect recombinant protein content. Considering that recombinant protein production in Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems is a result of a series of complex biological events starting from T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to protein biosynthesis and accumulation in leaf tissue, we propose that dynamic environment control during the postinoculation process, i.e., changing environmental conditions at an appropriate timing for each event, may be a promising approach to obtain a high yield. Detailed descriptions of plant growth conditions and careful examination of environmental effects will significantly contribute to our knowledge to stably obtain high recombinant

  4. Micro-shock Wave Assisted Plant Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Datey, Akshay; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Gopalan, Jagadeesh

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are developed by transforming the desired DNA to plant. There are various methods employed to achieve the required transformation in plants. Agrobacterium mediated transformation and Biolistics or particle bombardment method are the most commonly used methods.

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer and enhanced green fluorescent protein visualization in the mycorrhizal ascomycete Tuber borchii: a first step towards truffle genetics.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Benedetto; de Raaf, Michiel A; Filetici, Patrizia; Ottonello, Simone; Ballario, Paola

    2005-07-01

    Mycorrhizal ascomycetes are ecologically and commercially important fungi that have proved impervious to genetic transformation so far. We report here on the successful transient transformation of Tuber borchii, an ectomycorrhizal ascomycete that colonizes a variety of trees and produces highly prized hypogeous fruitbodies known as "truffles". A hypervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain bearing the binary plasmid pBGgHg was used for transformation. The genes for hygromycin resistance and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), both under the control of vector-borne promoters, were employed as selection markers. Patches of dark and fluorescent hyphae were observed upon fluorescence microscopic examination of hygromycin-resistant mycelia. The presence of EGFP was confirmed by both confocal microscopy and PCR analysis. The lack in the transformed mycelia of the DNA coding for kanamicin resistance (a trait encoded by a vector-borne gene located outside of the T-DNA region) indicates that Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer correctly occurred in T. borchii. PMID:15868150

  6. Reliable transformation system for Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae informed by genome and transcriptome project.

    PubMed

    Toh, Su San; Treves, David S; Barati, Michelle T; Perlin, Michael H

    2016-10-01

    Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae is a member of a species complex infecting host plants in the Caryophyllaceae. It is used as a model system in many areas of research, but attempts to make this organism tractable for reverse genetic approaches have not been fruitful. Here, we exploited the recently obtained genome sequence and transcriptome analysis to inform our design of constructs for use in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation techniques currently available for other fungi. Reproducible transformation was demonstrated at the genomic, transcriptional and functional levels. Moreover, these initial proof-of-principle experiments provide evidence that supports the findings from initial global transcriptome analysis regarding expression from the respective promoters under different growth conditions of the fungus. The technique thus provides for the first time the ability to stably introduce transgenes and over-express target M. lychnidis-dioicae genes. PMID:27215216

  7. Exploration of new perspectives and limitations in Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer technology. Progress report, [June 1, 1992-- May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Marton, L.

    1994-12-31

    This report describes progress aimed at constructing gene-transfer technology for Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Most actual effort as described herein has so far been directed at exploring new perspectives and limitations in Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. Accomplishments are described using a core homologous gene targeting vector.

  8. OPTIMIZING EFFICIENCY AND FLEXIBILITY OF AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF RED CLOVER (TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover (Trifolium pra...

  9. Advances in Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of graminaceous crops.

    PubMed

    Singh, Roshan Kumar; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-05-01

    Steady increase in global population poses several challenges to plant science research, including demand for increased crop productivity, grain yield, nutritional quality and improved tolerance to different environmental factors. Transgene-based approaches are promising to address these challenges by transferring potential candidate genes to host organisms through different strategies. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is one such strategy which is well known for enabling efficient gene transfer in both monocot and dicots. Due to its versatility, this technique underwent several advancements including development of improved in vitro plant regeneration system, co-cultivation and selection methods, and use of hyper-virulent strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring super-binary vectors. The efficiency of this method has also been enhanced by the use of acetosyringone to induce the activity of vir genes, silver nitrate to reduce the Agrobacterium-induced necrosis and cysteine to avoid callus browning during co-cultivation. In the last two decades, extensive efforts have been invested towards achieving efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in cereals. Though high-efficiency transformation systems have been developed for rice and maize, comparatively lesser progress has been reported in other graminaceous crops. In this context, the present review discusses the progress made in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system in rice, maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, sugarcane, Brachypodium, millets, bioenergy and forage and turf grasses. In addition, it also provides an overview of the genes that have been recently transferred to these graminaceous crops using Agrobacterium, bottlenecks in this technique and future possibilities for crop improvement. PMID:26660352

  10. Development of three full-length infectious cDNA clones of distinct brassica yellows virus genotypes for agrobacterium-mediated inoculation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Shu-Wei; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Chen, Xiang-Ru; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2015-02-01

    Brassica yellows virus is a newly identified species in the genus of Polerovirus within the family Luteoviridae. Brassica yellows virus (BrYV) is prevalently distributed throughout Mainland China and South Korea, is an important virus infecting cruciferous crops. Based on six BrYV genomic sequences of isolates from oilseed rape, rutabaga, radish, and cabbage, three genotypes, BrYV-A, BrYV-B, and BrYV-C, exist, which mainly differ in the 5' terminal half of the genome. BrYV is an aphid-transmitted and phloem-limited virus. The use of infectious cDNA clones is an alternative means of infecting plants that allows reverse genetic studies to be performed. In this study, full-length cDNA clones of BrYV-A, recombinant BrYV5B3A, and BrYV-C were constructed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. An agrobacterium-mediated inoculation system of Nicotiana benthamiana was developed using these cDNA clones. Three days after infiltration with full-length BrYV cDNA clones, necrotic symptoms were observed in the inoculated leaves of N. benthamiana; however, no obvious symptoms appeared in the upper leaves. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot detection of samples from the upper leaves showed that the maximum infection efficiency of BrYVs could reach 100%. The infectivity of the BrYV-A, BrYV-5B3A, and BrYV-C cDNA clones was further confirmed by northern hybridization. The system developed here will be useful for further studies of BrYV, such as host range, pathogenicity, viral gene functions, and plant-virus-vector interactions, and especially for discerning the differences among the three genotypes. PMID:25499296

  11. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) transformation using mature embryos.

    PubMed

    Medvecká, Eva; Harwood, Wendy A

    2015-01-01

    In most protocols for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat, the preferred target tissues are immature embryos. However, transformation methods relying on immature embryos require the growth of plants under controlled conditions to provide a continuous supply of good-quality target tissue. The use of mature embryos as a target tissue has the advantage of only requiring good-quality seed as the starting material. Here we describe a transformation method based on the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of callus cultures derived from mature wheat embryos of the genotype Bobwhite S56. PMID:25300842

  12. Mapping the subgenomic RNA promoter of the Citrus leaf blotch virus coat protein gene by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation.

    PubMed

    Renovell, Agueda; Gago, Selma; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Velázquez, Karelia; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Vives, Mari Carmen; Guerri, José

    2010-10-25

    Citrus leaf blotch virus has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) of 8747 nt organized in three open reading frames (ORFs). The ORF1, encoding a polyprotein involved in replication, is translated directly from the gRNA, whereas ORFs encoding the movement (MP) and coat (CP) proteins are expressed via 3' coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs). We characterized the minimal promoter region critical for the CP-sgRNA expression in infected cells by deletion analyses using Agrobacterium-mediated infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The minimal CP-sgRNA promoter was mapped between nucleotides -67 and +50 nt around the transcription start site. Surprisingly, larger deletions in the region between the CP-sgRNA transcription start site and the CP translation initiation codon resulted in increased CP-sgRNA accumulation, suggesting that this sequence could modulate the CP-sgRNA transcription. Site-specific mutational analysis of the transcription start site revealed that the +1 guanylate and the +2 adenylate are important for CP-sgRNA synthesis. PMID:20708769

  13. Recent advances in soybean transformation and their application to molecular breeding and genomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Takagi, Kyoko; Ishimoto, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide-resistant transgenic soybean plants hold a leading market share in the USA and other countries, but soybean has been regarded as recalcitrant to transformation for many years. The cumulative and, at times, exponential advances in genetic manipulation have made possible further choices for soybean transformation. The most widely and routinely used transformation systems are cotyledonary node–Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and somatic embryo–particle-bombardment-mediated transformation. These ready systems enable us to improve seed qualities and agronomic characteristics by transgenic approaches. In addition, with the accumulation of soybean genomic resources, convenient or promising approaches will be requisite for the determination and use of gene function in soybean. In this article, we describe recent advances in and problems of soybean transformation, and survey the current transgenic approaches for applied and basic research in Japan. PMID:23136488

  14. Morphogenetic and chemical stability of long-term maintained Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic Catharanthus roseus plants.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Sharma, Abhishek; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Shanker, Karuna

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Catharanthus roseus plants (transgenic Dhawal [DT] and transgenic Nirmal [NT]) obtained from the Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizognenes-mediated transformations, respectively, have been maintained in vitro for 5 years. Plants were studied at regular intervals for various parameters such as plant height, leaf size, multiplication rate, alkaloid profile and presence of marker genes. DT plant gradually lost the GUS gene expression and it was not detected in the fifth year while NT plant demonstrated the presence of genes rolA, rolB and rolC even in the fifth year, indicating the more stable nature of Ri transgene. Vindoline content in the DT was two times more than in non-transformed control plants. Alkaloid and tryptophan profiles were almost constant during the 5 years. The cluster analysis revealed that the DT plant is more close to the control Nirmal plant followed by NT plant. PMID:25102992

  15. Development of a transgenic hairy root system in jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) with gusA reporter gene through Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated co-transformation.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Tirthartha; Roy, Sheuli; Mitra, Adinpunya; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2011-04-01

    Transgenic hairy root system is important in several recalcitrant plants, where Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation and generation of transgenic plants are problematic. Jute (Corchorus spp.), the major fibre crop in Indian subcontinent, is one of those recalcitrant plants where in vitro tissue culture has provided a little success, and hence, Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation remains to be a challenging proposition in this crop. In the present work, a system of transgenic hairy roots in Corchorus capsularis L. has been developed through genetic transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes harbouring two plasmids, i.e. the natural Ri plasmid and a recombinant binary vector derived from the disarmed Ti plasmid of A. tumefaciens. Our findings indicate that the system is relatively easy to establish and reproducible. Molecular analysis of the independent lines of transgenic hairy roots revealed the transfer of relevant transgenes from both the T-DNA parts into the plant genome, indicating the co-transformation nature of the event. High level expression and activity of the gusA reporter gene advocate that the transgenic hairy root system, thus developed, could be applicable as gene expression system in general and for root functional genomics in particular. Furthermore, these transgenic hairy roots can be used in future as explants for plantlet regeneration to obtain stable transgenic jute plants. PMID:21153028

  16. Transformation based endorsement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudkamp, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Evidential reasoning techniques classically represent support for a hypothesis by a numeric value or an evidential interval. The combination of support is performed by an arithmetic rule which often requires restrictions to be placed on the set of possibilities. These assumptions usually require the hypotheses to be exhausitive and mutually exclusive. Endorsement based classification systems represent support for the alternatives symbolically rather than numerically. A framework for constructing endorsement systems is presented in which transformations are defined to generate and update the knowledge base. The interaction of the knowledge base and transformations produces a non-monotonic reasoning system. Two endorsement based reasoning systems are presented to demonstrate the flexibility of the transformational approach for reasoning with ambiguous and inconsistent information.

  17. Development of efficient catharanthus roseus regeneration and transformation system using agrobacterium tumefaciens and hypocotyls as explants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    overexpression of DAT increased the yield of vindoline in transgenic plants. Conclusions In the present study, we report an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for C. roseus plants with 11% of transformation frequency. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the establishment of A. tumefaciens mediated transformation and regeneration of C. roseus. More importantly, the C. roseus transformation system developed in this work was confirmed in the successful transformation of C. roseus using a key gene DAT involved in TIAs biosynthetic pathway resulting in the higher accumulation of vindoline in transgenic plants. PMID:22748182

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Doi, Motoaki; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    Agroinfiltration was tested as a method of inoculation of chrysanthemum plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd). Binary vectors harboring dimeric CSVd sequences in sense and antisense orientations were constructed, and Agrobacterium transfected with these binary vectors was infiltrated into chrysanthemum leaves. Northern blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that local infection was established within 7 days and systemic infection within 20 days. CSVd polarities showed no difference in infectivity. This study showed that agroinfiltration of chrysanthemum plants is an easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for CSVd inoculation. PMID:27155239

  19. Leading System Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alma

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines progress made towards education transformation in Wales. It explores the way in which tri-level reform is guiding system level change in Wales and looks at the implementation of the School Effectiveness Framework, which is at the heart of the reform process. It describes the way in which professional learning communities are…

  20. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  1. High transformation efficiency in plum (Prunus domestica L.): a new tool for functional genomics studies in Prunus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol in plum (Prunus domestica L.) cv 'Bluebyrd' using hypocotyl slices as source of explants is described. The addition of 2, 4-D to the regeneration media during co-culture allowed us to increase transformation efficiency up to 10 times over p...

  2. Transformation Systems at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray; Fischer, Bernd; Havelund, Klaus; Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, TOm; Roach, Steve; Robinson, Peter; VanBaalen, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the experiences of the Automated Software Engineering Group at the NASA Ames Research Center in the development and application of three different transformation systems. The systems span the entire technology range, from deductive synthesis, to logic-based transformation, to almost compiler-like source-to-source transformation. These systems also span a range of NASA applications, including solving solar system geometry problems, generating data analysis software, and analyzing multi-threaded Java code.

  3. The ABB transformer monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Claiborne, C.; Gorman, M.; Petrie, E.M.

    1996-03-01

    ABB is currently developing a transformer monitoring system that will continuously perform multiple gas-in-oil and partial discharge analyses. The new monitoring system is designed to be simple and reliable. It can be applied to new units or easily retrofitted to existing transformers. The parameters that are monitored are those that are most commonly evaluated when diagnosing the condition of a power transformer. A multiple gas monitor can selectively detect and measure hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and the combination of methane and ethane. The partial discharge monitor employs an electrical method to detect partial discharges that originate from sources only within the transformer. Prototype systems will be field tested in 1995.

  4. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, with virus-derived hairpin RNA constructs confers resistance to Poinsettia mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Spetz, Carl; Haugslien, Sissel; Xing, Shaochen; Dees, Merete W; Moe, Roar; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2008-06-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Ex Klotzsch) is reported here for the first time. Internode stem explants of poinsettia cv. Millenium were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, strain LBA 4404, harbouring virus-derived hairpin (hp) RNA gene constructs to induce RNA silencing-mediated resistance to Poinsettia mosaic virus (PnMV). Prior to transformation, an efficient somatic embryogenesis system was developed for poinsettia cv. Millenium in which about 75% of the explants produced somatic embryos. In 5 experiments utilizing 868 explants, 18 independent transgenic lines were generated. An average transformation frequency of 2.1% (range 1.2-3.5%) was revealed. Stable integration of transgenes into the poinsettia nuclear genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Both single- and multiple-copy transgene integration into the poinsettia genome were found among transformants. Transgenic poinsettia plants showing resistance to mechanical inoculation of PnMV were detected by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Northern blot analysis of low molecular weight RNA revealed that transgene-derived small interfering (si) RNA molecules were detected among the poinsettia transformants prior to inoculation. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methodology developed in the current study should facilitate improvement of this ornamental plant with enhanced disease resistance, quality improvement and desirable colour alteration. Because poinsettia is a non-food, non-feed plant and is not propagated through sexual reproduction, this is likely to be more acceptable even in areas where genetically modified crops are currently not cultivated. PMID:18327592

  5. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, with virus-derived hairpin RNA constructs confers resistance to Poinsettia mosaic virus

    PubMed Central

    Spetz, Carl; Haugslien, Sissel; Xing, Shaochen; Dees, Merete W.; Moe, Roar; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2008-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Ex Klotzsch) is reported here for the first time. Internode stem explants of poinsettia cv. Millenium were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, strain LBA 4404, harbouring virus-derived hairpin (hp) RNA gene constructs to induce RNA silencing-mediated resistance to Poinsettia mosaic virus (PnMV). Prior to transformation, an efficient somatic embryogenesis system was developed for poinsettia cv. Millenium in which about 75% of the explants produced somatic embryos. In 5 experiments utilizing 868 explants, 18 independent transgenic lines were generated. An average transformation frequency of 2.1% (range 1.2–3.5%) was revealed. Stable integration of transgenes into the poinsettia nuclear genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Both single- and multiple-copy transgene integration into the poinsettia genome were found among transformants. Transgenic poinsettia plants showing resistance to mechanical inoculation of PnMV were detected by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Northern blot analysis of low molecular weight RNA revealed that transgene-derived small interfering (si) RNA molecules were detected among the poinsettia transformants prior to inoculation. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methodology developed in the current study should facilitate improvement of this ornamental plant with enhanced disease resistance, quality improvement and desirable colour alteration. Because poinsettia is a non-food, non-feed plant and is not propagated through sexual reproduction, this is likely to be more acceptable even in areas where genetically modified crops are currently not cultivated. PMID:18327592

  6. Long-term stability of attacin E expression in transformed apple after 12 years in the field and effect of the expression of this gene on the fruit characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic trees currently are being produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and biolistics. The future use of transformed trees on a commercial basis depends upon thorough evaluation of the potential environmental and public health impact of the modified plants, transgene stability over ...

  7. Maize transformation technology development for commercial event generation

    PubMed Central

    Que, Qiudeng; Elumalai, Sivamani; Li, Xianggan; Zhong, Heng; Nalapalli, Samson; Schweiner, Michael; Fei, Xiaoyin; Nuccio, Michael; Kelliher, Timothy; Gu, Weining; Chen, Zhongying; Chilton, Mary-Dell M.

    2014-01-01

    Maize is an important food and feed crop in many countries. It is also one of the most important target crops for the application of biotechnology. Currently, there are more biotech traits available on the market in maize than in any other crop. Generation of transgenic events is a crucial step in the development of biotech traits. For commercial applications, a high throughput transformation system producing a large number of high quality events in an elite genetic background is highly desirable. There has been tremendous progress in Agrobacterium-mediated maize transformation since the publication of the Ishida et al. (1996) paper and the technology has been widely adopted for transgenic event production by many labs around the world. We will review general efforts in establishing efficient maize transformation technologies useful for transgenic event production in trait research and development. The review will also discuss transformation systems used for generating commercial maize trait events currently on the market. As the number of traits is increasing steadily and two or more modes of action are used to control key pests, new tools are needed to efficiently transform vectors containing multiple trait genes. We will review general guidelines for assembling binary vectors for commercial transformation. Approaches to increase transformation efficiency and gene expression of large gene stack vectors will be discussed. Finally, recent studies of targeted genome modification and transgene insertion using different site-directed nuclease technologies will be reviewed. PMID:25140170

  8. Agrobacterium mediated transfer of a mutant Arabidopsis acetolactate synthase gene confers resistance to chlorsulfuron in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.).

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, A; Vaucheret, H; Pautot, V; Chupeau, Y

    1992-06-01

    Leaf discs of C. intybus were inoculated with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) gene for kanamycin resistance and a mutant acetolactate synthase gene (csr1-1) from Arabidopsis thaliana conferring resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides. A regeneration medium was optimized which permitted an efficient shoot regeneration from leaf discs. Transgenic shoots were selected on rooting medium containing 100 mg/l kanamycin sulfate. Integration of the csr1-1 gene into genomic DNA of kanamycin resistant chicory plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridizations. Analysis of the selfed progenies (S1 and S2) of two independent transformed clones showed that kanamycin and chlorsulfuron resistances were inherited as dominant Mendelian traits. The method described here for producing transformed plants will allow new opportunities for chicory breeding. PMID:24203132

  9. Cloning and functional characterization of the promoter of PsSEOF1 gene from Pisum sativum under different stress conditions using Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Raikwar, Shailendra; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    PsSEOF1, a SEO (sieve element occlusion) gene family protein (forisome) is calcium powered motor protein and is located close to plasma membrane of sieve element. In sieve element (SE) it senses the calcium ion levels and undergoes ATP-independent conformational shifts. Forisome, meaning gate-bodies (Latin foris: wing of a gate; Greek soma: body). Recent reports show that SEO gene family protein can prevent the loss of nutrient rich photoassimilate upon wound injury. The regulation of SEO protein forisome under abiotic/ biotic stress is still unknown. The analysis of cis-regulatory element present in the upstream region is not well understood. Tissue specific promoters guarantee correct expression when it perceives particular stimuli. Here we report isolation of tissue specific promoter of PsSEOF1 was isolated by gene walking PCR from P. sativum (pea) genomic DNA library constructed by BD genome walker kit. In silico analysis revealed several putative cis element within this promoter sequence like wound response, cold, dehydration. Putative elements which might be required for its vascular tissue specificity has also been identified. The GUS activities of PsSEOF1 promoter-GUS chimeric construct in the agroinfiltrated leaves under different environmental stress abiotic and biotic like wound, cold, salt and phytohormones has shown high level of GUS activity. To identify the activity of PsSEOF1 promoter under different stress condition an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of tobacco plants were subjected to histochemical GUS staining. Stress-inducible nature of PsSEOF1 promoter opens possibility for the study of the PsSEOF1 gene regulation under stress condition. The isolated promoter sequence could serve as an important candidate for tissue specific promoter in genetic engineering of plant under stress conditions. PMID:25763698

  10. Energy systems transformation

    PubMed Central

    Dangerman, A. T. C. Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO2 emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the “Success to the Successful” mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy—the largest business on Earth—expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders. PMID:23297208

  11. Energy systems transformation.

    PubMed

    Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-02-12

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders. PMID:23297208

  12. Set Equation Transformation System.

    2002-03-22

    Version 00 SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations, particularly the reduction of equations by the application of Boolean identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze noncoherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protectionmore » requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system. Two auxiliary programs, SEP and FTD, are included. SEP performs the quantitative analysis of reduced Boolean equations (minimal cut sets) produced by SETS. The user can manipulate and evaluate the equations to find the probability of occurrence of any desired event and to produce an importance ranking of the terms and events in an equation. FTD is a fault tree drawing program which uses the proprietary ISSCO DISSPLA graphics software to produce an annotated drawing of a fault tree processed by SETS. The DISSPLA routines are not included.« less

  13. Production of herbicide-resistant medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza transformed with the bar gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Yang, Shi Xin; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Dong Qing; Zhang, Yong; Deng, Ke Jun; Zheng, Xue Lian

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we successfully performed Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Salvia miltiorrhiza and produced herbicide-resistant transformants. Leaf discs of S. miltiorrhiza were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 harboring pCAMBIA 3301. The pCAMBIA 3301 includes an intron-containing gus reporter and a bar selection marker. To increase stable transformation efficiency, a two-step selection was employed which consists of herbicide resistance and gus expression. Here, we put more attention to the screening step of herbicide resistance. The current study provides an efficient screening system for the transformed plant of S. miltiorrhiza harboring bar gene. To determine the most suitable phosphinothricin concentration for plant selection, non-transformed leaf discs were grown on selection media containing six different phosphinothricin concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 mg/l). Based on the above results of non-transformed calluses, the sensitivity of phosphinothricin (0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 mg/l) was tested in the screening of transgenic S. miltiorrhiza. We identified that 0.6 mg/l phosphinothricin should be suitable for selecting putatively transformed callus because non-transformed callus growth was effectively inhibited under this concentrations. When sprayed with Basta, the transgenic S. miltiorrhiza plants were tolerant to the herbicide. Hence, we report successful transformation of the bar gene conferring herbicide resistance to S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:26364310

  14. Graph transformation expert system (GTES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guiquing; Ge, Qihong; Zhong, Luo; Xie, Weiping

    1996-03-01

    The design of many industrial and engineering systems can often be accomplished using flow graphs of various types. Examples include manufacturing processes and data processing applications, Graph Transformation Expert System, is an expert system which has been developed by WUT for applying techniques of artificial intelligence to the architectural design of data and signal processing systems. Software and hardware architectures may be defined for such systems using data flow graphs, in which nodes represent data processing steps and directed areas represent the `flow' of data between the processing steps. Starting with a user- defined generic processing graphic, this expert will transform the graph by applying transformation rules in order to specialize the processing graph to satisfy specified design goals and/or hardware constraints. Although the particular application for which this expert is designed is that of data and signal processing systems, it can provide an expert system framework for other problems specified graphically; for example, manufacturing systems, information systems, and product distribution systems.

  15. Targeted Mutagenesis in Rice Using TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    PubMed

    Endo, Masaki; Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Toki, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs), such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9) system, are powerful tools for understanding gene function and for developing novel traits in plants. In plant species for which transformation and regeneration systems using protoplasts are not yet established, direct delivery to nuclei of SSNs either in the form of RNA or protein is difficult. Thus, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of SSN expression constructs in cultured cells is a practical means of delivering targeted mutagenesis in some plant species including rice. Because targeted mutagenesis occurs stochastically in transgenic cells and SSN-mediated targeted mutagenesis often leads to no selectable phenotype, identification of highly mutated cell lines is a critical step in obtaining regenerated plants with desired mutations. PMID:27557690

  16. Backflow transformations in inhomogeneous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Rios, Pablo; Ma, Andrea; Drummond, Neil D.; Needs, Richard J.

    2006-03-01

    The quality of trial wave-functions, and of their nodal surface in particular, determines the accuracy of the results obtained within the Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method. Backflow transformations have been proven capable of improving the nodal surface of Slater-Jastrow (SJ) wave-functions in homogeneous systems. In this work we will present the extension of backflow to inhomogeneous systems, along with DMC results for atoms, molecules and solids which show the improved accuracy of this form of trial wave-function. We will also discuss the advantages of using electron-by-electron algorithms to enhance the computational efficiency of QMC with backflow wave-functions.

  17. A dark incubation period is important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature internode explants of sweet orange, grapefruit, citron, and a citrange rootstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Citrus has an extended juvenile phase and trees can take 2-20 years to transition to the adult reproductive phase and produce fruit. For citrus variety development this substantially prolongs the time before adult traits, such as fruit yield and quality, can be evaluated. Methods to...

  18. Complementary DNA cloning of the pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene and agrobacterium-mediated anti-sense genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jing; Dong, Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to genetically modify plantlets of the Chinese yali pear to reduce their expression of ripening-associated 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) and therefore increase the shelf-life of the fruit. Primers were designed with selectivity for the conserved regions of published ACO gene sequences, and yali complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning was performed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The obtained cDNA fragment contained 831 base pairs, encoding 276 amino acid residues, and shared no less than 94% nucleotide sequence identity with other published ACO genes. The cDNA fragment was inversely inserted into a pBI121 expression vector, between the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase terminator, in order to construct the anti‑sense expression vector of the ACO gene; it was transfected into cultured yali plants using Agrobacterium LBA4404. Four independent transgenic lines of pear plantlets were obtained and validated by PCR analysis. A Southern blot assay revealed that there were three transgenic lines containing a single copy of exogenous gene and one line with double copies. The present study provided germplasm resources for the cultivation of novel storage varieties of pears, therefore providing a reference for further applications of anti‑sense RNA technology in the genetic improvement of pears and other fruit. PMID:26460204

  19. Efficient sweet pepper transformation mediated by the BABY BOOM transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Heidmann, Iris; de Lange, Brenda; Lambalk, Joep; Angenent, Gerco C; Boutilier, Kim

    2011-06-01

    Pepper (Capsicum L.) is a nutritionally and economically important crop that is cultivated throughout the world as a vegetable, condiment, and food additive. Genetic transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agrobacterium) is a powerful biotechnology tool that could be used in pepper to develop community-based functional genomics resources and to introduce important agronomic traits. However, pepper is considered to be highly recalcitrant for agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and current transformation protocols are either inefficient, cumbersome or highly genotype dependent. The main bottleneck in pepper transformation is the inability to generate cells that are competent for both regeneration and transformation. Here, we report that ectopic expression of the Brassica napus BABY BOOM AP2/ERF transcription factor overcomes this bottleneck and can be used to efficiently regenerate transgenic plants from otherwise recalcitrant sweet pepper (C. annuum) varieties. Transient activation of BABY BOOM in the progeny plants induced prolific cell regeneration and was used to produce a large number of somatic embryos that could be converted readily to seedlings. The data highlight the utility of combining biotechnology and classical plant tissue culture approaches to develop an efficient transformation and regeneration system for a highly recalcitrant vegetable crop. PMID:21305301

  20. Medicago truncatula transformation using cotyledonary explants.

    PubMed

    Wright, Elane; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Medicago truncatula has been developed into a model species for legumes. The M. truncatula genotype Jemalong A17 has been used for EST and genome sequencing. However, this genotype is difficult to regenerate from callus cultures. By using cotyledons as explants for Agrobacterium infection and direct shoot formation, this protocol allows for rapid production of transgenic plants from Jemalong A17 and other genotypes. Transgenic plants can be regenerated and established in the greenhouse in only 3-4 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transformation frequency was in the range of 5-12 %. PMID:25300829

  1. Recent advances in plant transformation.

    PubMed

    Barampuram, Shyamkumar; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2011-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering has become one of the most important molecular tools in the modern molecular breeding of crops. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in the development of new and efficient transformation methods in plants. Despite a variety of available DNA delivery methods, Agrobacterium- and biolistic-mediated transformation remain the two predominantly employed approaches. In particular, progress in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cereals and other recalcitrant dicot species has been quite remarkable. In the meantime, other transgenic-enabling technologies have emerged, including generation of marker-free transgenics, gene targeting, and chromosomal engineering. Although transformation of some plant species or elite germplasm remains a challenge, further advancement in transformation technology is expected because the mechanisms of governing the regeneration and transformation processes are now better understood and are being creatively applied to designing improved transformation methods or to developing new enabling technologies. PMID:21181522

  2. Transformation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) via sonication and vacuum infiltration of germinated seeds with Agrobacterium harboring a group 3 LEA gene from B. napus.

    PubMed

    Park, Byong-Jin; Liu, Zaochang; Kanno, Akira; Kameya, Toshiaki

    2005-10-01

    A protocol for producing transgenic radish (Raphanus sativus) was obtained by using both ultrasonic and vacuum infiltration assisted, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 contained the binary vector pBI121-LEA (late embyogenesis abundant), which carried a Group 3 LEA gene, from Brassica napus. Among six combinations, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation assisted by a combination of 5-min sonication with 5-min vacuum infiltration resulted in the highest transformation frequency. The existence, integration and expression of transferred LEA gene in transgenic T(1) plants were confirmed by PCR, genomic Southern and Western blot analysis. Transgenic radish demonstrated better growth performance than non-transformed control plants under osmotic and salt stress conditions. Accumulation of Group 3 LEA protein in the vegetative tissue of transgenic radish conferred increased tolerance to water deficit and salt stress. PMID:15843933

  3. Elliptic systems and numerical transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, C. W.; Thompson, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    Properties of a transformation method, which was developed for solving fluid dynamic problems on general two dimensional regions, are discussed. These include construction error of the transformation and applications to mesh generation. An error and stability analysis for the numerical solution of a model parabolic problem is also presented.

  4. Towards the development of better crops by genetic transformation using engineered plant chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Manoj K; Kaul, Sanjana; Kour, Jasmeet

    2011-05-01

    Plant Biotechnology involves manipulation of genetic material to develop better crops. Keeping in view the challenges being faced by humanity in terms of shortage of food and other resources, we need to continuously upgrade the genomic technologies and fine tune the existing methods. For efficient genetic transformation, Agrobacterium-mediated as well as direct delivery methods have been used successfully. However, these methods suffer from many disadvantages especially in terms of transfer of large genes, gene complexes and gene silencing. To overcome these problems, recently, some efforts have been made to develop genetic transformation systems based on engineered plant chromosomes called minichromosomes or plant artificial chromosomes. Two approaches namely, "top-down" or "bottom-up" have been used for minichromosomes. The former involves engineering of the existing chromosomes within a cell and the latter de novo assembling of chromosomes from the basic constituents. While some success has been achieved using these chromosomes as vectors for genetic transformation in maize, however, more studies are needed to extend this technology to crop plants. The present review attempts to trace the genesis of minichromosomes and discusses their potential of development into plant artificial chromosome vectors. The use of these vectors in genetic transformation will greatly ameliorate the food problem and help to achieve the UN Millennium development goals. PMID:21249368

  5. Proof Systems and Transformation Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachrach, Yoram; Zuckerman, Michael; Wooldridge, Michael; Rosenschein, Jeffrey S.

    We introduce Transformation Games (TGs), a form of coalitional game in which players are endowed with sets of initial resources, and have capabilities allowing them to derive certain output resources, given certain input resources. The aim of a TG is to generate a particular target resource; players achieve this by forming a coalition capable of performing a sequence of transformations from its combined set of initial resources to the target resource. After presenting the TG model, and discussing its interpretation, we consider possible restrictions on the transformation chain, resulting in different coalitional games. After presenting the basic model, we consider the computational complexity of several problems in TGs, such as testing whether a coalition wins, checking if a player is a dummy or a veto player, computing the core of the game, computing power indices, and checking the effects of possible restrictions on the coalition. Finally, we consider extensions to the model in which transformations have associated costs.

  6. Cell culture systems to study glial transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, J.P.; Cole, R.; de Vellis, J.

    1980-01-01

    The transformation of two different types of glial cells has been studied using an in vivo-/in vitro model and a complete in vitro model. The purpose of the study and to define in vitro model systems is to study the the neoplastic transformation of pure populations of glial cells. Data are presented to demonstrate that the transformed cells are glial and tumorigenic. (ACR)

  7. Canonical transformations and Hamiltonian evolutionary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ashhab, Samer

    2012-06-15

    In many Lagrangian field theories, one has a Poisson bracket defined on the space of local functionals. We find necessary and sufficient conditions for a transformation on the space of local functionals to be canonical in three different cases. These three cases depend on the specific dimensions of the vector bundle of the theory and the associated Hamiltonian differential operator. We also show how a canonical transformation transforms a Hamiltonian evolutionary system and its conservation laws. Finally, we illustrate these ideas with three examples.

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated disruption of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene in the invertebrate pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae reveals a peptide spore factor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous secondary metabolites have been isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, but the roles of these compounds as virulence factors in disease development are poorly understood. We targeted for disruption by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation a putative n...

  9. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Litynski, John T.; Brickett, Lynn A.; Morreale, Bryan D.

    2015-10-28

    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  10. SETS. Set Equation Transformation System

    SciTech Connect

    Worrel, R.B.

    1992-01-13

    SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations, particularly the reduction of equations by the application of Boolean identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze noncoherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protection requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system.

  11. HERCULES: A Pattern Driven Code Transformation System

    SciTech Connect

    Kartsaklis, Christos; Hernandez, Oscar R; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Ilsche, Thomas; Joubert, Wayne; Graham, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    New parallel computers are emerging, but developing efficient scientific code for them remains difficult. A scientist must manage not only the science-domain complexity but also the performance-optimization complexity. HERCULES is a code transformation system designed to help the scientist to separate the two concerns, which improves code maintenance, and facilitates performance optimization. The system combines three technologies, code patterns, transformation scripts and compiler plugins, to provide the scientist with an environment to quickly implement code transformations that suit his needs. Unlike existing code optimization tools, HERCULES is unique in its focus on user-level accessibility. In this paper we discuss the design, implementation and an initial evaluation of HERCULES.

  12. System for automatically switching transformer coupled lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwinell, W. S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system is presented for automatically controlling transformer coupled alternating current electric lines. The secondary winding of each transformer is provided with a center tap. A switching circuit is connected to the center taps of a pair of secondary windings and includes a switch controller. An impedance is connected between the center taps of the opposite pair of secondary windings. The switching circuit has continuity when the AC lines are continuous and discontinuity with any disconnect of the AC lines. Normally open switching means are provided in at least one AC line. The switch controller automatically opens the switching means when the AC lines become separated.

  13. Efficient transformation and artificial miRNA gene silencing in Lemna minor.

    PubMed

    Cantó-Pastor, A; Mollá-Morales, A; Ernst, E; Dahl, W; Zhai, J; Yan, Y; Meyers, B C; Shanklin, J; Martienssen, R

    2015-01-01

    Despite rapid doubling time, simple architecture and ease of metabolic labelling, a lack of genetic tools in the Lemnaceae (duckweed) has impeded the full implementation of this organism as a model for biological research. Here, we present technologies to facilitate high-throughput genetic studies in duckweed. We developed a fast and efficient method for producing Lemna minor stable transgenic fronds via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration from tissue culture. Additionally, we engineered an artificial microRNA (amiRNA) gene silencing system. We identified a Lemna gibba endogenous miR166 precursor and used it as a backbone to produce amiRNAs. As a proof of concept we induced the silencing of CH42, a magnesium chelatase subunit, using our amiRNA platform. Expression of CH42 in transgenic L. minor fronds was significantly reduced, which resulted in reduction of chlorophyll pigmentation. The techniques presented here will enable tackling future challenges in the biology and biotechnology of Lemnaceae. PMID:24989135

  14. Agrobacterium-Mediated Disruption of a Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Gene in the Invertebrate Pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae Reveals a Peptide Spore Factor▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Yong-Sun; Donzelli, Bruno G. G.; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; McLane, Heather; Griggs, Mike H.; Cooke, Peter; Vandenberg, John D.; Gibson, Donna M.; Churchill, Alice C. L.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous secondary metabolites have been isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, but the roles of these compounds as virulence factors in disease development are poorly understood. We targeted for disruption by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation a putative nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NPS) gene, MaNPS1. Four of six gene disruption mutants identified were examined further. Chemical analyses showed the presence of serinocyclins, cyclic heptapeptides, in the extracts of conidia of control strains, whereas the compounds were undetectable in ΔManps1 mutants treated identically or in other developmental stages, suggesting that MaNPS1 encodes a serinocyclin synthetase. Production of the cyclic depsipeptide destruxins, M. anisopliae metabolites also predicted to be synthesized by an NPS, was similar in ΔManps1 mutant and control strains, indicating that MaNPS1 does not contribute to destruxin biosynthesis. Surprisingly, a MaNPS1 fragment detected DNA polymorphisms that correlated with relative destruxin levels produced in vitro, and MaNPS1 was expressed concurrently with in vitro destruxin production. ΔManps1 mutants exhibited in vitro development and responses to external stresses comparable to control strains. No detectable differences in pathogenicity of the ΔManps1 mutants were observed in bioassays against beet armyworm and Colorado potato beetle in comparison to control strains. This is the first report of targeted disruption of a secondary metabolite gene in M. anisopliae, which revealed a novel cyclic peptide spore factor. PMID:18502925

  15. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Jaindra N.; Oduor, Richard O.; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties “Cavendish Williams” and “Gros Michel” were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of “Sukali Ndiizi” was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000–50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20–70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa. PMID:26635849

  16. Spike-dip transformation of Setaria viridis.

    PubMed

    Saha, Prasenjit; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Traditional method of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation through the generation of tissue culture had limited success for Setaria viridis, an emerging C4 monocot model. Here we present an efficient in planta method for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of S. viridis using spike dip. Pre-anthesis developing spikes were dipped into a solution of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1 harboring the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter to standardize and optimize conditions for transient as well as stable transformations. A transformation efficiency of 0.8 ± 0.1% was obtained after dipping of 5-day-old S3 spikes for 20 min in Agrobacterium cultures containing S. viridis spike-dip medium supplemented with 0.025% Silwet L-77 and 200 μm acetosyringone. Reproducibility of this method was demonstrated by generating stable transgenic lines expressing β-glucuronidase plus (GUSplus), green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed) reporter genes driven by either CaMV35S or intron-interrupted maize ubiquitin (Ubi) promoters from three S. viridis genotypes. Expression of these reporter genes in transient assays as well as in T1 stable transformed plants was monitored using histochemical, fluorometric GUS activity and fluorescence microscopy. Molecular analysis of transgenic lines revealed stable integration of transgenes into the genome, and inherited transgenes expressed in the subsequent generations. This approach provides opportunities for the high-throughput transformation and potentially facilitates translational research in a monocot model plant. PMID:26932666

  17. Large-system acute care transformation.

    PubMed

    Tatman, Judy; Zauner, Janiece

    2014-01-01

    All organizations are steeped in making delivery model changes to address the changing health care landscape specific to the expectations of health care reform. Too often, these changes focus solely on improving processes rather than developing creative and innovative work processes that decrease waste and increase quality. The Providence Health and Services system has embraced the challenge to transform health care services from a large-system perspective, beginning with 1 region. The authors share the beginning stages of this innovative work, the unique contributions to health care processes, and the early outcomes on 2 patient care units. PMID:24317032

  18. Co-Ordinate Transformations for Second Order Systems. Part II: Elementary Structure-Preserving Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, S. D.; Friswell, M. I.; Prells, U.

    2002-12-01

    It has been shown in a previous paper that there is a real-valued transformation from the general N -degree-of-freedom second order system to a second order system characterized by diagonal matrices. An immediate extension of this fact is that for any second order system, there is a set of real-valued transformations (the structure-preserving transformations) which transform this system to a different second order system having identical characteristic behaviour. There are several possible reasons why it may be very useful to achieve a particular structure in the transformed system. It is obvious that a diagonal structure is extremely useful and a method has been devised for determining the diagonalizing transformation from the solution of the usual (complex) eigenvalue-eigenvector problem. This paper begins by outlining the usefulness of some other structures. Then it defines a class of elementary structure-preserving co-ordinate transformations that transform from one N -degree-of-freedom second order system to another. The term elementary is applied because any one of these transformations is the minimum-rank modification of the identity transformation. The changes occurring in the system matrices as a result of the application of one such elementary transformation transpire to be very simple in form, they are low rank, and they can be computed very efficiently. This paper provides the fundamental tools to enable the design of structure-preserving co-ordinate transformations which transform a second order system originally characterized by three general matrices in stages into a mathematically similar second order system characterized by three diagonal matrices. The procedure by which the individual elementary transformations are obtained is still under development and it is not discussed in this paper. However, an illustration is given of a five-degree-of-freedom self-adjoint system being transformed into tridiagonal form.

  19. Unlocking the potential of tropical root crop biotechnology in east Africa by establishing a genetic transformation platform for local farmer-preferred cassava cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Nyaboga, Evans; Njiru, Joshua; Nguu, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Herve; Tripathi, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Cassava genetic transformation capacity is still mostly restricted to advanced laboratories in the USA, Europe and China; and its implementation and maintenance in African laboratories has remained scarce. The impact of transgenic technologies for genetic improvement of cassava will depend largely on the transfer of such capabilities to researchers in Africa, where cassava has an important socioeconomic niche. A major constraint to the development of genetic transformation technologies for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite the success achieved in genetic modification of few cassava cultivars, including the model cultivar 60444, transgenic cassava production remains difficult for farmer-preferred cultivars. In this study, a protocol for cultivar 60444 developed at ETH Zurich was successfully implemented and optimized to establish transformation of farmer-preferred cassava cultivars popular in east Africa. The conditions for production and proliferation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were optimized for three east African farmer-preferred cultivars (Ebwanatereka, Kibandameno and Serere). Our results demonstrated transformation efficiencies of about 14–22 independent transgenic lines per 100 mg of FEC for farmer-preferred cultivars in comparison to 28 lines per 100 mg of the model cultivar 60444. The presence, integration and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot analysis and histochemical GUS assay. This study reports the establishment of a cassava transformation platform at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) hosted by Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) hub in Kenya and provides the basis for transferring important traits such as virus resistance and prolonged shelf-life to farmer-preferred cultivars in east Africa. We anticipate that such platform will also be instrumental to transfer

  20. In vitro plant regeneration and genetic transformation of Dichanthium annulatum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jitendra; Shukla, Sharad M; Bhat, Vishnu; Gupta, Sanjay; Gupta, M G

    2005-11-01

    Optimization of in vitro plant regeneration and genetic transformation of apomictic species such as Dichanthium annulatum would enable transfer of desirable genes. Seven genotypes of this grass species were screened through mature seed explant for embryogenic callus induction, callus growth and quality (color and texture), and shoot induction. Genotype IG-1999, which produced highly embryogenic, rapidly growing good-quality callus capable of regenerating at a high frequency, was selected for transformation experiments. Using a binary vector (pCAMBIA1305), frequency of GUS expression was compared between two methods of transformation. Bombardment of embryogenic calli with gold particles coated with pCAMBIA1305 at a distance of 11 cm, pressure of 4 bars, and vacuum of 27 Hg passing through 100 muM mesh produced maximum GUS expression (23%). Agrobacterium infection was maximum at an optical density of 2.0 when cocultured under vacuum for 15 min and cocultivated for 3 days at 28 degrees C in constant dark on MS medium of pH 5.8 with 3 mg/l 2,4-D, and 400 muM acetosyringone. Among two binary vectors used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, pCAMBIA1301 showed higher frequency of GUS expression while pCAMBIA1305 recorded more of the GUS spots per callus. Supplementation of acetosyringone in the cocultivation medium was found indispensable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Injuring the calli through gold particle bombardment before their cocultivation with Agrobacterium improved the transformation efficiency. Several transgenic plants were developed using the PIG method, while stable GUS-expressing calli were multiplied during selection on MS medium containing 250 mg/l cefotaxime and 50 mg/l hygromycin, incubated in constant dark. A highly significant difference was observed between two methods of transformation for both frequency of GUS expression and GUS spots per callus. PIG-mediated transformation resulted in higher GUS expression compared to the

  1. Humans transforming the global water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vörösmarty, C.; Lettenmaier, D.; Leveque, C.; Meybeck, M.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Alcamo, J.; Cosgrove, W.; Grassl, H.; Hoff, H.; Kabat, P.; Lansigan, F.; Lawford, R.; Naiman, R.

    2004-11-01

    Fresh water figures prominently in the machinery of the Earth system and is key to understanding the full scope of global change. Greenhouse warming with a potentially accelerated hydrologic cycle is already a well-articulated science issue, with strong policy implications. A broad array of other anthropogenic factors—widespread land cover change, engineering of river channels, irrigation and other consumptive losses, aquatic habitat disappearance, and pollution—also influences the water system in direct and important ways. A rich history of site-specific research demonstrates the clear impact of such factors on local environments. Evidence now shows that humans are rapidly intervening in the basic character of the water cycle over much broader domains. The collective significance of these many transformations on both the Earth system and human society remains fundamentally unknown [Framing Committee of the GWSP, 2004].

  2. Genetic transformation of Vitis vinifera via organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mezzetti, Bruno; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Navacchi, Oriano; Landi, Lucia

    2002-01-01

    Background Efficient transformation and regeneration methods are a priority for successful application of genetic engineering to vegetative propagated plants such as grape. The current methods for the production of transgenic grape plants are based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation followed by regeneration from embryogenic callus. However, grape embryogenic calli are laborious to establish and the phenotype of the regenerated plants can be altered. Results Transgenic grape plants (V. vinifera, table-grape cultivars Silcora and Thompson Seedless) were produced using a method based on regeneration via organogenesis. In vitro proliferating shoots were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of N6-benzyl adenine. The apical dome of the shoot was removed at each transplantation which, after three months, produced meristematic bulk tissue characterized by a strong capacity to differentiate adventitious shoots. Slices prepared from the meristematic bulk were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grape plants with the gene DefH9-iaaM. After rooting on kanamycin containing media and greenhouse acclimatization, transgenic plants were transferred to the field. At the end of the first year of field cultivation, DefH9-iaaM grape plants were phenotypically homogeneous and did not show any morphological alterations in vegetative growth. The expression of DefH9-iaaM gene was detected in transgenic flower buds of both cultivars. Conclusions The phenotypic homogeneity of the regenerated plants highlights the validity of this method for both propagation and genetic transformation of table grape cultivars. Expression of the DefH9-iaaM gene takes place in young flower buds of transgenic plants from both grape cultivars. PMID:12354328

  3. A high-throughput transformation system in plum (Prunus domestica L.) provides a powerful tool for functional genomics in Rosaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An improved Agrobacterium-mediated protocol in plum (Prunus domestica L.) is described, whereby, the addition of 2,4-D to the regeneration media increased the regeneration efficiency of independent transgenic plants up to 10 fold over previous reports. DNA blot analysis of putative transgenic shoot...

  4. A high-throughput transformation system in plum (Prunus domestica L.) for functional genomics research in Rosaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed an improved Agrobacterium-mediated protocol in plum (Prunus domestica L.) through the addition of 2, 4-D to the regeneration media. This method has increased the regeneration efficiency of independent transgenic plants up to 10 fold over previous reports. DNA blot analysis of put...

  5. A high-throughput transformation system in plum (Prunus domestica L.) useful for functional genomics in Rosaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed an improved Agrobacterium-mediated protocol in plum (Prunus domestica L.) through the addition of 2,4-D to the regeneration media. This method has increased the regeneration efficiency of independent transgenic plants up to 10 fold over previous reports. DNA blot analysis of puta...

  6. A systems approach to managing transformation.

    PubMed

    Porter-O'Grady, T

    1994-12-01

    The complexity and depth of change confronting the leader today demands a different approach to change and to the role of the manager in leading it. Many factors influence the ability of the manager to address the vagaries of change in a transforming organization. Because the whole system is shifting toward a new organizational reality, the approach to making change must reflect the breadth of the change process. Some simple systems principles that can assist the leader in addressing the complexities of changing the organization are outlined in this article. Step-by-step addressing of the stages of change and the impact on the leader form the basis for understanding how to manage change effectively. Focus on the impact on resources and people provide a backdrop for the suggestions regarding appropriate implementation of change and personal leadership in it. PMID:7704647

  7. Optimization of in vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with heat-resistant cDNA in Brassica oleracea subsp. italica cv. Green Marvel.

    PubMed

    Ravanfar, Seyed Ali; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Abdullah, Janna Ong

    2015-11-01

    An efficient system for shoot regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Brassica oleracea cv. Green Marvel cultivar is described. This study focuses on developing shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants of broccoli cv. Green Marvel using thidiazuron (TDZ), zeatin, and kinetin, the optimization of factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the hypocotyl explants with heat-resistant cDNA, followed by the confirmation of transgenicity of the regenerants. High shoot regeneration was observed in 0.05-0.1 mg dm(-3) TDZ. TDZ at 0.1 mg dm(-3) produced among the highest percentage of shoot regeneration (96.67 %) and mean number of shoot formation (6.17). The highest percentage (13.33 %) and mean number (0.17) of putative transformant production were on hypocotyl explants subjected to preculture on shoot regeneration medium (SRM) with 200 µM acetosyringone. On optimization of bacterial density and inoculation time, the highest percentage and mean number of putative transformant production were on hypocotyl explants inoculated with a bacterial dilution of 1:5 for 30 min. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay indicated a transformation efficiency of 8.33 %. The luciferase assay showed stable integration of the Arabidopsis thaliana HSP101 (AtHSP101) cDNA in the transgenic broccoli regenerants. Three out of five transgenic lines confirmed through PCR showed positive hybridization bands of the AtHSP101 cDNA through Southern blot analysis. The presence of AtHSP101 transcripts in the three transgenic broccoli lines indicated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed the expression of the gene. In conclusion, an improved regeneration system has been established from hypocotyl explants of broccoli followed by successful transformation with AtHSP101 for resistance to high temperature. PMID:25986972

  8. Transformers and the Electric Utility System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2005-01-01

    For electric energy to get from the generating station to a home, it must pass through a transformer, a device that can change voltage levels easily. This article describes how transformers work, covering the following topics: (1) the magnetism-electricity link; (2) transformer basics; (3) the energy seesaw; (4) the turns ratio rule; and (5)…

  9. Development of an efficient transformation method by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and high throughput spray assay to identify transgenic plants for woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) using NPTII selection.

    PubMed

    Pantazis, Christopher J; Fisk, Sarah; Mills, Kerri; Flinn, Barry S; Shulaev, Vladimir; Veilleux, Richard E; Dan, Yinghui

    2013-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We developed an efficient Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method using an Ac/Ds transposon tagging construct for F. vesca and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to identify its transformants for strawberry functional genomics. Genomic resources for Rosaceae species are now readily available, including the Fragaria vesca genome, EST sequences, markers, linkage maps, and physical maps. The Rosaceae Genomic Executive Committee has promoted strawberry as a translational genomics model due to its unique biological features and transformability for fruit trait improvement. Our overall research goal is to use functional genomic and metabolic approaches to pursue high throughput gene discovery in the diploid woodland strawberry. F. vesca offers several advantages of a fleshy fruit typical of most fruit crops, short life cycle (seed to seed in 12-16 weeks), small genome size (206 Mbb/C), small plant size, self-compatibility, and many seeds per plant. We have developed an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated strawberry transformation method using kanamycin selection, and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to efficiently identify transgenic strawberry plants. Using our kanamycin transformation method, we were able to produce up to 98 independent kanamycin resistant insertional mutant lines using a T-DNA construct carrying an Ac/Ds transposon Launchpad system from a single transformation experiment involving inoculation of 22 leaf explants of F. vesca accession 551572 within approx. 11 weeks (from inoculation to soil). Transgenic plants with 1-2 copies of a transgene were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Using our paromomycin spray assay, transgenic F. vesca plants were rapidly identified within 10 days after spraying. PMID:23160638

  10. Transforming Research Management Systems at Mayo Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Steven C.; Gronseth, Darren L.

    2011-01-01

    In order for research programs at academic medical centers and universities to survive and thrive in the increasingly challenging economic, political and regulatory environment, successful transformation is extremely important. Transformation and quality management techniques are increasingly well established in medical practice organizations. In…

  11. A simple Gateway-assisted construction system of TALEN genes for plant genome editing.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Hiroaki; Onodera, Hitomi; Kihira, Miho; Aoki, Hiromi; Matsuzaki, Hikaru; Shimada, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    TALEN is an artificial nuclease being applied for sequence-specific genome editing. For the plant genome editing, a pair of TALEN genes is expressed in the cells, and a binary plasmid for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation should be assembled. We developed a novel procedure using the Gateway-assisted plasmids, named Emerald-Gateway TALEN system. We constructed entry vectors, pPlat plasmids, for construction of a desired TALEN gene using Platinum Gate TALEN kit. We also created destination plasmid, pDual35SGw1301, which allowed two TALEN genes to both DNA strands to recruit using Gateway technology. Resultant TALEN genes were evaluated by the single-strand annealing (SSA) assay in E. coli cells. By this assay, the TALENs recognized the corresponding targets in the divided luciferase gene, and induced a specific recombination to generate an active luciferase gene. Using the TALEN genes constructed, we created a transformant potato cells in which a site-specific mutation occurred at the target site of the GBSS gene. This suggested that our system worked effectively and was applicable as a convenient tool for the plant genome editing. PMID:27452606

  12. A simple Gateway-assisted construction system of TALEN genes for plant genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Kusano, Hiroaki; Onodera, Hitomi; Kihira, Miho; Aoki, Hiromi; Matsuzaki, Hikaru; Shimada, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    TALEN is an artificial nuclease being applied for sequence-specific genome editing. For the plant genome editing, a pair of TALEN genes is expressed in the cells, and a binary plasmid for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation should be assembled. We developed a novel procedure using the Gateway-assisted plasmids, named Emerald–Gateway TALEN system. We constructed entry vectors, pPlat plasmids, for construction of a desired TALEN gene using Platinum Gate TALEN kit. We also created destination plasmid, pDual35SGw1301, which allowed two TALEN genes to both DNA strands to recruit using Gateway technology. Resultant TALEN genes were evaluated by the single-strand annealing (SSA) assay in E. coli cells. By this assay, the TALENs recognized the corresponding targets in the divided luciferase gene, and induced a specific recombination to generate an active luciferase gene. Using the TALEN genes constructed, we created a transformant potato cells in which a site-specific mutation occurred at the target site of the GBSS gene. This suggested that our system worked effectively and was applicable as a convenient tool for the plant genome editing. PMID:27452606

  13. Quantum number theoretic transforms on multipartite finite systems.

    PubMed

    Vourdas, A; Zhang, S

    2009-06-01

    A quantum system composed of p-1 subsystems, each of which is described with a p-dimensional Hilbert space (where p is a prime number), is considered. A quantum number theoretic transform on this system, which has properties similar to those of a Fourier transform, is studied. A representation of the Heisenberg-Weyl group in this context is also discussed. PMID:19488175

  14. Multi-view coordinate system transformation based on robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Li-mei; Wang, Peng-qiang; Xi, Jiang-tao; Guo, Qing-hua; Tang, Huan; Li, Jing; Li, Xiao-jie; Zhu, Teng-da

    2015-11-01

    The registration of point cloud is important for large object measurement. A measurement method for coordinate system transformation based on robot is proposed in this paper. Firstly, for obtaining extrinsic parameters, the robot moves to three different positions to capture the images of three targets. Then the transformation matrix X between camera and tool center point (TCP) coordinate systems can be calculated by using the known parameters of robot and the extrinsic parameters, and finally the multi-view coordinate system can be transformed into robot coordinate system by the transformation matrix X. With the help of robot, the multi-view point cloud can be easily transformed into a unified coordinate system. By using robot, the measurement doesn't need any mark. Experimental results show that the method is effective.

  15. Transforming the structure of a health system.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    In starting the planning process for an organization's transformation or restructuring, healthcare finance leaders should: Identify strategic imperatives for the organization and physicians, Remember the organization's core area of business, Define the starting point and create clear objectives, Develop a strategy that engages front-line employees to change the culture of the organization. PMID:22734323

  16. Information retrieval system utilizing wavelet transform

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, Mary E.; Miller, Nancy E.

    2000-01-01

    A method for automatically partitioning an unstructured electronically formatted natural language document into its sub-topic structure. Specifically, the document is converted to an electronic signal and a wavelet transform is then performed on the signal. The resultant signal may then be used to graphically display and interact with the sub-topic structure of the document.

  17. Suitability of non-lethal marker and marker-free systems for development of transgenic crop plants: present status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Manimaran, P; Ramkumar, G; Sakthivel, K; Sundaram, R M; Madhav, M S; Balachandran, S M

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified crops are one of the prudent options for enhancing the production and productivity of crop plants by safeguarding from the losses due to biotic and abiotic stresses. Agrobacterium-mediated and biolistic transformation methods are used to develop transgenic crop plants in which selectable marker genes (SMG) are generally deployed to identify 'true' transformants. The commonly used SMG obtained from prokaryotic sources when employed in transgenic plants pose risks due to their lethal nature during selection process. In the recent past, some non-lethal SMGs have been identified and used for selection of transformants with increased precision and high selection efficiency. Considering the concerns related to bio-safety of the environment, it is desirable to remove the SMG in order to maximize the commercial success through wide adoption and public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food crops. In this review, we examine the availability, and the suitability of wide range of non-lethal selection markers and elimination of SMG methods to develop marker-free transgenics for achieving global food security. As the strategies for marker-free plants are still in proof-of-concept stage, adaptation of new genomics tools for identification of novel non-lethal marker systems and its application for developing marker-free transgenics would further strengthen the crop improvement program. PMID:21672619

  18. Equipotential transformation of multipole systems to dipole systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W. X.

    1987-01-01

    The vector sum of fields produced by a set of magnetic dipoles with different magnetic moments that are both tilted from the planetary spin axis and offset from the planetary center by different amounts can be used to completely represent a planetary magnetic field in the conventional form of spherical harmonic expansion. The scalar equipotential transformation analytically results in 24 equations that may subsequently be solved for the 24 adjustable parameters in dipole systems with the predetermined main dipole. Attention is given to this method's application to the Jovian magnetic field.

  19. Stable Nuclear Transformation System for the Coccolithophorid Alga Pleurochrysis carterae

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Hirotoshi; Yoshida, Megumi; Uji, Toshiki; Saga, Naotsune; Inoue, Koji; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Of the three dominant marine microalgal groups, dinoflagellates and diatoms can undergo genetic transformation; however, no transformation method has been established for haptophytes to date. Here, we report the first stable genetic transformation of a coccolithophore, Pleurochrysis carterae, by means of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transfer of a bacterial hygromycin B-resistance gene. Together with the novel transient green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression system, this approach should facilitate further molecular-based research in this phylum. PMID:26947136

  20. Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and regeneration of garlic (Allium sativum) immature leaf tissue.

    PubMed

    Kenel, Fernand; Eady, Colin; Brinch, Sheree

    2010-03-01

    Transgenic garlic (Allium sativum) plants have been recovered directly from immature leaf material by selective culture following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This method involved the use of a binary vector containing the mgfp-ER reporter gene and hpt selectable marker, and followed a similar protocol developed previously for the transformation of immature onion embryos. The choice of tissue and post-transformation selection procedure resulted in a large increase in recovery of transgenic plants compared with previously confirmed allium transformation protocols. The presence of transgenes in the genome of the plants was confirmed using Southern analysis. This improvement in frequency and the use of clonal commercial "Printanor" germplasm now makes possible the integration of useful agronomic and quality traits into this crop. PMID:20099065

  1. Model Transformation for a System of Systems Dependability Safety Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Judy; Driskell, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Software plays an increasingly larger role in all aspects of NASA's science missions. This has been extended to the identification, management and control of faults which affect safety-critical functions and by default, the overall success of the mission. Traditionally, the analysis of fault identification, management and control are hardware based. Due to the increasing complexity of system, there has been a corresponding increase in the complexity in fault management software. The NASA Independent Validation & Verification (IV&V) program is creating processes and procedures to identify, and incorporate safety-critical software requirements along with corresponding software faults so that potential hazards may be mitigated. This Specific to Generic ... A Case for Reuse paper describes the phases of a dependability and safety study which identifies a new, process to create a foundation for reusable assets. These assets support the identification and management of specific software faults and, their transformation from specific to generic software faults. This approach also has applications to other systems outside of the NASA environment. This paper addresses how a mission specific dependability and safety case is being transformed to a generic dependability and safety case which can be reused for any type of space mission with an emphasis on software fault conditions.

  2. In planta transformation method for T-DNA transfer in orchids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiarti, Endang; Purwantoro, Aziz; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Anggriasari, Anida M.; Jang, Seonghoe; Suhandono, Sony; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko

    2014-03-01

    Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro∷PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1α2 pro∷GUS/ A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.

  3. Bioluminescence-based system for rapid detection of natural transformation.

    PubMed

    Santala, Ville; Karp, Matti; Santala, Suvi

    2016-07-01

    Horizontal gene transfer plays a significant role in bacterial evolution and has major clinical importance. Thus, it is vital to understand the mechanisms and kinetics of genetic transformations. Natural transformation is the driving mechanism for horizontal gene transfer in diverse genera of bacteria. Our study introduces a simple and rapid method for the investigation of natural transformation. This highly sensitive system allows the detection of a transformation event directly from a bacterial population without any separation step or selection of cells. The system is based on the bacterial luciferase operon from Photorhabdus luminescens The studied molecular tools consist of the functional modules luxCDE and luxAB, which involve a replicative plasmid and an integrative gene cassette. A well-established host for bacterial genetic investigations, Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, is used as the model bacterium. We show that natural transformation followed by homologous recombination or plasmid recircularization can be readily detected in both actively growing and static biofilm-like cultures, including very rare transformation events. The system allows the detection of natural transformation within 1 h of introducing sample DNA into the culture. The introduced method provides a convenient means to study the kinetics of natural transformation under variable conditions and perturbations. PMID:27190150

  4. Code orange: Towards transformational leadership of emergency management systems.

    PubMed

    Caro, Denis H J

    2015-09-01

    The 21(st) century calls upon health leaders to recognize and respond to emerging threats and systemic emergency management challenges through transformative processes inherent in the LEADS in a caring environment framework. Using a grounded theory approach, this qualitative study explores key informant perspectives of leaders in emergency management across Canada on pressing needs for relevant systemic transformation. The emerging model points to eight specific attributes of transformational leadership central to emergency management and suggests that contextualization of health leadership is of particular import. PMID:26135294

  5. Using systems thinking to support clinical system transformation.

    PubMed

    Best, Allan; Berland, Alex; Herbert, Carol; Bitz, Jennifer; van Dijk, Marlies W; Krause, Christina; Cochrane, Douglas; Noel, Kevin; Marsden, Julian; McKeown, Shari; Millar, John

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The British Columbia Ministry of Health's Clinical Care Management initiative was used as a case study to better understand large-scale change (LSC) within BC's health system. Using a complex system framework, the purpose of this paper is to examine mechanisms that enable and constrain the implementation of clinical guidelines across various clinical settings. Design/methodology/approach - Researchers applied a general model of complex adaptive systems plus two specific conceptual frameworks (realist evaluation and system dynamics mapping) to define and study enablers and constraints. Focus group sessions and interviews with clinicians, executives, managers and board members were validated through an online survey. Findings - The functional themes for managing large-scale clinical change included: creating a context to prepare clinicians for health system transformation initiatives; promoting shared clinical leadership; strengthening knowledge management, strategic communications and opportunities for networking; and clearing pathways through the complexity of a multilevel, dynamic system. Research limitations/implications - The action research methodology was designed to guide continuing improvement of implementation. A sample of initiatives was selected; it was not intended to compare and contrast facilitators and barriers across all initiatives and regions. Similarly, evaluating the results or process of guideline implementation was outside the scope; the methods were designed to enable conversations at multiple levels - policy, management and practice - about how to improve implementation. The study is best seen as a case study of LSC, offering a possible model for replication by others and a tool to shape further dialogue. Practical implications - Recommended action-oriented strategies included engaging local champions; supporting local adaptation for implementation of clinical guidelines; strengthening local teams to guide implementation; reducing

  6. TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  7. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  8. TRANSFORMER

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  9. The classical Korteweg capillarity system: geometry and invariant transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C.; Schief, W. K.

    2014-08-01

    A class of invariant transformations is presented for the classical Korteweg capillarity system. The invariance is an extension of a kind originally introduced in an anisentropic gasdynamics context. In a particular instance, application of the invariant transformation leads to a deformed one-parameter class of Kármán-Tsien-type capillarity laws associated with a deformation of an integrable nonlinear Schrödinger-type equation which incorporates a de Broglie-Bohm potential. The latter and another integrable case associated with the classical Boussinesq equation may be linked to the motion of curves in Euclidean and projective space so that both the invariant transformation and the Galilean invariance of the capillarity system may be interpreted in a geometric and soliton-theoretic manner. The work is set in the broader context of other connections of invariant transformations in gasdynamics with soliton theory.

  10. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  11. Improved efficiency of the walnut somatic embryo gene transfer system.

    PubMed

    McGranahan, G H; Leslie, C A; Uratsu, S L; Dandekar, A M

    1990-01-01

    AnAgrobacterium-mediated gene transfer system which relies on repetitive embryogenesis to regenerate transgenic walnut plants has been made more efficient by using a more virulent strain ofAgrobacterium and vectors containing genes for both kanamycin resistance and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity to facilitate early screening and selection. Two plasmids (pCGN7001 and pCGN7314) introduced individually into the disarmedAgrobacterium host strain EHA101 were used as inoculum. Embryos maintained on medium containing 100 mg/l kanamycin after co-cultivation produced more transformed secondary embryos than embryos maintained on kanamycin-free medium. Of the 186 GUS-positive secondary embryo lines identified, 70% were regenerated from 3 out of 16 primary embryos inoculated with EHA101/pCGN7314 and grown on kanamycin- containing medium, 28% from 4 out of 17 primary embryos inoculated with EHA101/ pCGN7001 and grown on kanamycin medium, and 2% from one out of 13 primary embryos inoculated with EHA101/pCGN7001 but not exposed to kanamycin. Because kanamycin inhibits but does not completely block new embryo formation in controls, identification of transformants formerly required repetitive selection on kanamycin for several months. Introduction of the GUS marker gene allowed positive identification of transformant secondary embryos as early as 5-6 weeks after inoculation. DNA analysis of a representative subset of lines (n=13) derived from secondary embryos confirmed transformation and provided evidence for multiple insertion events in single inoculated primary embryos. PMID:24226275

  12. Transformers: Shape-Changing Space Systems Built with Robotic Textiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Prior approaches to transformer-like robots had only very limited success. They suffer from lack of reliability, ability to integrate large surfaces, and very modest change in overall shape. Robots can now be built from two-dimensional (2D) layers of robotic fabric. These transformers, a new kind of robotic space system, are dramatically different from current systems in at least two ways. First, the entire transformer is built from a single, thin sheet; a flexible layer of a robotic fabric (ro-fabric); or robotic textile (ro-textile). Second, the ro-textile layer is foldable to small volume and self-unfolding to adapt shape and function to mission phases.

  13. Comparison of Soybean Transformation Efficiency and Plant Factors Affecting Transformation during the Agrobacterium Infection Process

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yuying; Yao, Xingdong; Zhao, Mingzhe; Zhao, Qiang; Du, Yanli; Yu, Cuimei; Xie, Futi

    2015-01-01

    The susceptibility of soybean genotype to Agrobacterium infection is a key factor for the high level of genetic transformation efficiency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the plant factors related to transformation in cotyledonary nodes during the Agrobacterium infection process. This study selected three genotypes (Williams 82, Shennong 9 and Bert) with high transformation efficiency, which presented better susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection, and three low transformation efficiency genotypes (General, Liaodou 16 and Kottman), which showed a relatively weak susceptibility. Gibberellin (GA) levels and soybean GA20ox2 and CYP707A2 transcripts of high-efficiency genotypes increased and were higher than those of low-efficiency genotypes; however, the opposite performance was shown in abscisic acid (ABA). Higher zeatin riboside (ZR) content and DNA quantity, and relatively higher expression of soybean IPT5, CYCD3 and CYCA3 were obtained in high-efficiency genotypes. High-efficiency genotypes had low methyl jasmonate (MeJA) content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, and relatively lower expression of soybean OPR3, PPO1 and PRX71. GA and ZR were positive plant factors for Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation by facilitating germination and growth, and increasing the number of cells in DNA synthesis cycle, respectively; MeJA, PPO, POD and ABA were negative plant factors by inducing defence reactions and repressing germination and growth, respectively. PMID:26262617

  14. A Superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing

    SciTech Connect

    Godeke, A.; Dietderich, D. R.; Joseph, J. M.; Lizarazo, J.; Prestemon, S. O.; Miller, G.; Weijers, H. W.

    2010-02-15

    This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10 464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples.

  15. Prevention Service System Transformation Using "Communities That Care"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eric C.; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael W.; Briney, John S.; Fagan, Abigail A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines prevention system transformation as part of a community-randomized controlled trial of Communities That Care (CTC). Using data from surveys of community leaders, we examine differences between CTC and control communities 4.5 years after CTC implementation. Significantly higher levels of adopting a science-based approach to…

  16. Transforming Domain Knowledge: A Systemic View at the School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hameyer, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    "What happens to domain knowledge on its way into the school curriculum?" The article explores this question from a systems view of the knowledge transformation process. This process is not only bound to "contextual knowledge" about "social forces" but also to the school's own "educational knowledge" framework. Further, utilizing knowledge depends…

  17. A superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing.

    PubMed

    Godeke, A; Dietderich, D R; Joseph, J M; Lizarazo, J; Prestemon, S O; Miller, G; Weijers, H W

    2010-03-01

    This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10,464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples. PMID:20370213

  18. The AECT FutureMinds Initiative: Transforming America's School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reigeluth, Charles M., Ed.; Duffy, Francis M.

    2008-01-01

    This article opens by discussing what paradigm change is and why it is needed. Then it describes the new AECT initiative, "FutureMinds: Transforming America's School Systems," beginning with its purpose (to help state departments of education to facilitate paradigm change in school districts), the fundamental ideas underlying the initiative (e.g.,…

  19. Transforming the Education System: The 1997 Education Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Improvement efforts in American education must be supported and sustained. The 1997 "Education Agenda" identifies the Education Commission of the States' priorities for 1997-98 and describes the broader context within which education systems exist. It provides an overview of the following transformational forces in education: the impacts of brain…

  20. Transformation and Transport Processes of Nitrogen in Agricultural Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transformation and transport processes of nitrogen (N) in agricultural systems are discussed and information is provided on overall reservoir sizes for N. Nitrogen is ubiquitous in the environment and is required for the survival of all living things. It is also one of the most important essen...

  1. Model Transformation for a System of Systems Dependability Safety Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Judy; Driskell, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The presentation reviews the dependability and safety effort of NASA's Independent Verification and Validation Facility. Topics include: safety engineering process, applications to non-space environment, Phase I overview, process creation, sample SRM artifact, Phase I end result, Phase II model transformation, fault management, and applying Phase II to individual projects.

  2. Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.

    2013-01-01

    A Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system and its basic principles are proposed. The CCD is put at the exact Fourier transform plane of the pupil of the eye lens. The spherical curvature introduced by the optics except the eye lens itself is eliminated. The CCD is also at image plane of the target. The point-spread function of the system is directly recorded, making it easier to determine the correct guide-star hologram. Also, the light signal will be stronger at the CCD, especially for phase-aberration sensing. Numerical propagation is avoided. The sensor aperture has nothing to do with the resolution and the possibility of using low coherence or incoherent illumination is opened. The system becomes more efficient and flexible. Although it is intended for ophthalmic use, it also shows potential application in microscopy. The robustness and feasibility of this compact system are demonstrated by simulations and experiments using scattering objects. PMID:23262541

  3. Linear transformation and oscillation criteria for Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhaowen

    2007-08-01

    Using a linear transformation similar to the Kummer transformation, some new oscillation criteria for linear Hamiltonian systems are established. These results generalize and improve the oscillation criteria due to I.S. Kumari and S. Umanaheswaram [I. Sowjaya Kumari, S. Umanaheswaram, Oscillation criteria for linear matrix Hamiltonian systems, J. Differential Equations 165 (2000) 174-198], Q. Yang et al. [Q. Yang, R. Mathsen, S. Zhu, Oscillation theorems for self-adjoint matrix Hamiltonian systems, J. Differential Equations 190 (2003) 306-329], and S. Chen and Z. Zheng [Shaozhu Chen, Zhaowen Zheng, Oscillation criteria of Yan type for linear Hamiltonian systems, Comput. Math. Appl. 46 (2003) 855-862]. These criteria also unify many of known criteria in literature and simplify the proofs.

  4. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Yue; Li Binhong

    2011-02-15

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site.

  5. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yue; Li, Bin Hong

    2011-02-01

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site. PMID:21361633

  6. Transformational System Concepts and Technologies for Our Future in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Mankins, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Continued constrained budgets and growing national and international interests in the commercialization and development of space requires NASA to be constantly vigilant, to be creative, and to seize every opportunity for assuring the maximum return on space infrastructure investments. Accordingly, efforts are underway to forge new and innovative approaches to transform our space systems in the future to ultimately achieve two or three or five times as much with the same resources. This bold undertaking can be achieved only through extensive cooperative efforts throughout the aerospace community and truly effective planning to pursue advanced space system design concepts and high-risk/high-leverage research and technology. Definitive implementation strategies and roadmaps containing new methodologies and revolutionary approaches must be developed to economically accommodate the continued exploration and development of space. Transformation can be realized through modular design and stepping stone development. This approach involves sustainable budget levels and multi-purpose systems development of supporting capabilities that lead to a diverse amy of sustainable future space activities. Transformational design and development requires revolutionary advances by using modular designs and a planned, stepping stone development process. A modular approach to space systems potentially offers many improvements over traditional one-of-a-kind space systems comprised of different subsystem element with little standardization in interfaces or functionality. Modular systems must be more flexible, scaleable, reconfigurable, and evolvable. Costs can be reduced through learning curve effects and economies of scale, and by enabling servicing and repair that would not otherwise be feasible. This paper briefly discusses achieving a promising approach to transforming space systems planning and evolution into a meaningful stepping stone design, development, and implementation process

  7. Transforming health care: an approach to system-wide implementation.

    PubMed

    Bengoa, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    There are enormous financial, demographic, epidemiological and clinical safety pressures on health care systems around the world. These pressures are well known and are increasing every day. This perspective paper describes one possible way forward to meeting these pressures undertaken through the system-wide transformation of the health care system in the Basque Country to a population of over 2.3 million people. The overall goal has been to turn the health care system to become more proactive than reactive and more collaborative than fragmented. This ambitious plan started in 2009. PMID:24179458

  8. Transforming health care: an approach to system-wide implementation

    PubMed Central

    Bengoa, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    There are enormous financial, demographic, epidemiological and clinical safety pressures on health care systems around the world. These pressures are well known and are increasing every day. This perspective paper describes one possible way forward to meeting these pressures undertaken through the system-wide transformation of the health care system in the Basque Country to a population of over 2.3 million people. The overall goal has been to turn the health care system to become more proactive than reactive and more collaborative than fragmented. This ambitious plan started in 2009. PMID:24179458

  9. Twisted kinks, Dirac transparent systems, and Darboux transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, F.; Jakubský, V.

    2014-12-01

    Darboux transformations are employed in construction and analysis of Dirac Hamiltonians with pseudoscalar potentials. By this method, we build a four-parameter class of reflectionless systems. Their potentials correspond to the composition of complex kinks, also known as twisted kinks, that play an important role in the 1 +1 Gross-Neveu and Nambu-Jona-Lasinio field theories. The twisted kinks turn out to be multisolitonic solutions of the integrable Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur hierarchy. Consequently, all the spectral properties of the Dirac reflectionless systems are reflected in a nontrivial conserved quantity, which can be expressed in a simple way in terms of Darboux transformations. We show that the four-parameter pseudoscalar systems reduce to well-known models for specific choices of the parameters. An associated class of transparent nonrelativistic models described by a matrix Schrödinger Hamiltonian is studied and the rich algebraic structure of their integrals of motion is discussed.

  10. A simple, flexible and high-throughput cloning system for plant genome editing via CRISPR-Cas system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeran; Kim, Sang-Tae; Ryu, Jahee; Choi, Min Kyung; Kweon, Jiyeon; Kang, Beum-Chang; Ahn, Hyo-Min; Bae, Suji; Kim, Jungeun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 system is now widely used to edit a target genome in animals and plants. Cas9 protein derived from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) cleaves double-stranded DNA targeted by a chimeric single-guide RNA (sgRNA). For plant genome editing, Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transformation has been broadly used to express Cas9 proteins and sgRNAs under the control of CaMV 35S and U6/U3 promoter, respectively. We here developed a simple and high-throughput binary vector system to clone a 19-20 bp of sgRNA, which binds to the reverse complement of a target locus, in a large T-DNA binary vector containing an SpCas9 expressing cassette. Two-step cloning procedures: (1) annealing two target-specific oligonucleotides with overhangs specific to the AarI restriction enzyme site of the binary vector; and (2) ligating the annealed oligonucleotides into the two AarI sites of the vector, facilitate the high-throughput production of the positive clones. In addition, Cas9-coding sequence and U6/U3 promoter can be easily exchanged via the Gateway(TM) system and unique EcoRI/XhoI sites on the vector, respectively. We examined the mutation ratio and patterns when we transformed these constructs into Arabidopsis thaliana and a wild tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata. Our vector system will be useful to generate targeted large-scale knock-out lines of model as well as non-model plant. PMID:26946469

  11. Establishment of invasive and non-invasive reporter systems to investigate American elm-Ophiostoma novo-ulmi interactions.

    PubMed

    Sherif, S; Jones, A M P; Shukla, M R; Saxena, P K

    2014-10-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by ascomycete fungi in the Ophiostoma genus, is the most devastating disease of American elm (Ulmus americana) trees. Cerato ulmin (CU), a hydrophobin secreted by the fungus, has been implicated in the development of DED, but its role in fungal pathogenicity and virulence remains uncertain and controversial. Here, we describe reporter systems based on the CU promoter and three reporter proteins (GFP, GUS and LUC), developed as research tools for quantitative and qualitative studies of DED in vitro, in vivo and in planta. A strain of the aggressive species Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was transformed with the reporter constructs using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and the fungal transformants, namely M75-GFP, M75-GUS and M75-LUC, were examined for mitotic stability after repeated subcultures. The intensity of GFP fluorescence was strong in M75-GFP spores and hyphae, allowing microscopic investigations of spore structure, fungal morphogenesis and fungal development. The interaction of M75-GFP and U. americana callus cells was explored with scanning laser confocal microscopy facilitating qualitative studies on fungal strategies for the invasion and penetration of elm cells. M75-GUS was generated to provide an invasive, yet quantitative approach to study fungal-plant interactions in vitro and in planta. The generation of M75-LUC transformants was aimed at providing a non-destructive quantitative approach to study the role of CU in vivo. The sensitivity, low background signal and linearity of LUC assays all predict a very reliable approach to investigate and re-test previously claimed roles of this CU in fungal pathogenicity. These reporter systems provide new tools to investigate plant-pathogen interactions in this complex pathosystem and may aid in better understanding the development of DED. PMID:25139300

  12. On the Hilbert-Huang Transform Data Processing System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Flatley, Thomas P.; Huang, Norden E.; Cornwell, Evette; Smith, Darell

    2003-01-01

    One of the main heritage tools used in scientific and engineering data spectrum analysis is the Fourier Integral Transform and its high performance digital equivalent - the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The Fourier view of nonlinear mechanics that had existed for a long time, and the associated FFT (fairly recent development), carry strong a-priori assumptions about the source data, such as linearity and of being stationary. Natural phenomena measurements are essentially nonlinear and nonstationary. A very recent development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), known as the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) proposes a novel approach to the solution for the nonlinear class of spectrum analysis problems. Using the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) followed by the Hilbert Transform of the empirical decomposition data (HT), the HHT allows spectrum analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary data by using an engineering a-posteriori data processing, based on the EMD algorithm. This results in a non-constrained decomposition of a source real value data vector into a finite set of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that can be further analyzed for spectrum interpretation by the classical Hilbert Transform. This paper describes phase one of the development of a new engineering tool, the HHT Data Processing System (HHTDPS). The HHTDPS allows applying the "T to a data vector in a fashion similar to the heritage FFT. It is a generic, low cost, high performance personal computer (PC) based system that implements the HHT computational algorithms in a user friendly, file driven environment. This paper also presents a quantitative analysis for a complex waveform data sample, a summary of technology commercialization efforts and the lessons learned from this new technology development.

  13. Discrete Wavelet Transform for Fault Locations in Underground Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apisit, C.; Ngaopitakkul, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, a technique for detecting faults in underground distribution system is presented. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) based on traveling wave is employed in order to detect the high frequency components and to identify fault locations in the underground distribution system. The first peak time obtained from the faulty bus is employed for calculating the distance of fault from sending end. The validity of the proposed technique is tested with various fault inception angles, fault locations and faulty phases. The result is found that the proposed technique provides satisfactory result and will be very useful in the development of power systems protection scheme.

  14. Transformational Systems Concepts and Technologies for Our Future in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. T.; George,P.; Mankins, J. C. (Editor); Christensen, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    NASA is constantly searching for new ideas and approaches yielding opportunities for assuring maximum returns on space infrastructure investments. Perhaps the idea of transformational innovation in developing space systems is long overdue. However, the concept of utilizing modular space system designs combined with stepping-stone development processes has merit and promises to return several times the original investment since each new space system or component is not treated as a unique and/or discrete design and development challenge. New space systems can be planned and designed so that each builds on the technology of previous systems and provides capabilities to support future advanced systems. Subsystems can be designed to use common modular components and achieve economies of scale, production, and operation. Standards, interoperability, and "plug and play" capabilities, when implemented vigorously and consistently, will result in systems that can be upgraded effectively with new technologies. This workshop explored many building-block approaches via way of example across a broad spectrum of technology discipline areas for potentially transforming space systems and inspiring future innovation. Details describing the workshop structure, process, and results are contained in this Conference Publication.

  15. [Genetic transformation of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) with chimeric GFP-TUA6 gene for visualisation of microtubules].

    PubMed

    Shisha, E N; Korkhovoĭ, V I; Baer, G Ia; Guzenko, E V; Lemesh, V A; Kartel', N A; Emets, A I; Blium, Ia B

    2013-01-01

    The data of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of some Linum usitatissimum cultivars zoned on the territories of Belarus and Ukraine with the plasmid carrying chimeric GFP-TUA6 gene and nptII gene as selectable marker conferring resistance to kanamycin are presented in this study. Transformation was affected by a number of factors including optical density (OD600), time of inoculation of explants with Agrobacterium and co-culture conditions. Transgenic nature of obtained lines was confirmed by PCR analysis. Expression of GFP-TUA6 gene was detected with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The obtained transgenic lines can be used for further functional studies the role of microtubules in the processes of building the flax fibres and resistance to wind. PMID:23745358

  16. Transformation of the Adult Education System in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švec, Štefan

    1998-07-01

    This article examines trends in adult education in Slovakia since it became a separate republic in 1993. Economic and social transformations during this period have led to a re-thinking of the adult education system. The author describes four basic modalities for providing adult education in Slovakia: (1) schools and colleges; (2) cultural centres and similar institutions; (3) institutions for vocational training; (4) voluntary organizations such as trade unions, political parties and ethnic minority groups.

  17. Classification of Transient Phenomena in Distribution System using wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, Alireza

    2014-05-01

    An efficient procedure for classification of transient phenomena in distribution systems is proposed in this paper. The proposed method has been applied to classify some transient phenomena such as inrush current, load switching, capacitor switching and single phase to ground fault. The new scheme is based on wavelet transform algorithm. All of the events for feature extraction and test are simulated using Electro Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP). Results show high accuracy of proposed method.

  18. Fast Fourier transform analysis of rotor-bearing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, K. C.; Gunter, E. J.; Allaire, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    Nonlinear transient analysis of rotor-bearing systems is becoming increasingly important in the analysis of modern-day rotating machinery to model such phenomena as oil film whirl. This paper develops an analysis technique incorporating modal analysis and fast Fourier transform techniques to analyze rotors with residual shaft bow and realistic nonlinear bearings. The technique is demonstrated on single-mass and three-mass rotor examples. Comparisons of the theoretical results with experimental data give excellent agreement.

  19. Graph Transformation with Dependencies for the Specification of Interactive Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradini, Andrea; Foss, Luciana; Ribeiro, Leila

    We propose a notion of Graph Transformation Systems ( gts) with dependency relation, more expressive than a previously proposed one, and suitable for the specification of interactions. We show how a specification using gts with dependencies can be implemented, at a lower level of abstraction, by a transactional gts, that is, a gts equipped with the notion of observable (stable) items in which computations that correspond to “complete” interactions are characterized as transactions.

  20. Leadership and transformational change in healthcare organisations: a qualitative analysis of the North East Transformation System.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Jonathan; Hunter, David J; Small, Adrian; Hicks, Chris; McGovern, Tom; Lugsden, Ed; Whitty, Paula; Steen, Nick; Eccles, Martin Paul

    2013-02-01

    The research project 'An Evaluation of Transformational Change in NHS North East' examines the progress and success of National Health Service (NHS) organisations in north east England in implementing and embedding the North East Transformation System (NETS), a region-wide programme to improve healthcare quality and safety, and to reduce waste, using a combination of Vision, Compact, and Lean-based Method. This paper concentrates on findings concerning the role of leadership in enabling tranformational change, based on semi-structured interviews with a mix of senior NHS managers and quality improvement staff in 14 study sites. Most interviewees felt that implementing the NETS requires committed, stable leadership, attention to team-building across disciplines and leadership development at many levels. We conclude that without senior leader commitment to continuous improvement over a long time scale and serious efforts to distribute leadership tasks to all levels, healthcare organisations are less likely to achieve positive changes in managerial-clinical relations, sustainable improvements to organisational culture and, ultimately, the region-wide step change in quality, safety and efficiency that the NETS was designed to deliver. PMID:25594999

  1. Wigner distribution moments in fractional Fourier transform systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaans, Martin J.; Alieva, Tatiana

    2002-09-01

    It is shown how all global Wigner distribution moments of arbitrary order in the output plane of a (generally anamorphic) two-dimensional fractional Fourier transform system can be expressed in terms of the moments in the input plane. Since Wigner distribution moments are identical to derivatives of the ambiguity function at the origin, a similar relation holds for these derivatives. The general input-output relationship is then broken down into a number of rotation-type input-output relationships between certain combinations of moments. It is shown how the Wigner distribution moments (or ambiguity function derivatives) can be measured as intensity moments in the output planes of a set of appropriate fractional Fourier transform systems and thus be derived from the corresponding fractional power spectra. The minimum number of (anamorphic) fractional power spectra that are needed for the determination of these moments is derived. As an important by-product we get a number of moment combinations that are invariant under (anamorphic) fractional Fourier transformation.

  2. Transformational trends confounding the South Asian health systems.

    PubMed

    Bonu, Sekhar; Gutierrez, Leah C; Borghis, Alain; Roche, Frederick C

    2009-05-01

    Already overwhelmed by the burden of communicable diseases, the health systems in South Asia face six global and regional transformational trends, which pose opportunities, challenges and threats. These six trends discussed in the paper are: (i) economic growth and globalization; (ii) technological changes; (iii) labor market changes; (iv) private sector growth; (v) demographic changes; and (vi) epidemiological changes. These trends have created dual challenges for the health systems in South Asia: (i) to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) relating to child and maternal health, and communicable diseases and (ii) to deal with the emerging challenges posed by the six transformational trends. The paper suggests and proposes the use of the transformational trends framework to investigate the various opportunities and challenges, and to design effective policy responses. The capacities and resources of the governments in the region are already stretched by legacy challenges posed by communicable diseases. Hence, effective responses to new challenges will need flexible and innovative approaches including partnership with private sector, civil society, and regional cooperation. The opportunities from the trends are more likely to benefit the richer sections of the society. Therefore, pro-poor measures are necessary to ensure inclusive development. PMID:19038473

  3. Wigner distribution moments in fractional Fourier transform systems.

    PubMed

    Bastiaans, Martin J; Alieva, Tatiana

    2002-09-01

    It is shown how all global Wigner distribution moments of arbitrary order in the output plane of a (generally anamorphic) two-dimensional fractional Fourier transform system can be expressed in terms of the moments in the input plane. Since Wigner distribution moments are identical to derivatives of the ambiguity function at the origin, a similar relation holds for these derivatives. The general input-output relationship is then broken down into a number of rotation-type input-output relationships between certain combinations of moments. It is shown how the Wigner distribution moments (or ambiguity function derivatives) can be measured as intensity moments in the output planes of a set of appropriate fractional Fourier transform systems and thus be derived from the corresponding fractional power spectra. The minimum number of (anamorphic) fractional power spectra that are needed for the determination of these moments is derived. As an important by-product we get a number of moment combinations that are invariant under (anamorphic) fractional Fourier transformation. PMID:12216870

  4. An image localization system based on gradient Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Jun; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-12-01

    With the development of image processing and computer vision, automatic target locating in computer vision has been matured and replaced the manual target locating in some fields. Complex background image localization has many important applications in traffic control and management, industrial assembly, industrial control, and other fields. In this paper, we built an image localization system based on Gradient Hough Transform applied in circular device detection and localization in industrial control. This system aimed to correcting the mechanical deviation by using image localization. This image localization system includes image preprocessing, edge extraction, circle detection, localization of the center of the circular device, deviation calculation and feedback. According to the experimental result, the accuracy of this method in the actual system less than 0.3mm, and the system can basically achieve the real-time detection.

  5. Microbial transformations of halolactones with p-menthane system.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Marcelina; Grudniewska, Aleksandra; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2015-01-01

    Biologically active piperitone-derived racemic iodo-, bromo- and chlorolactones (1-3) were transformed with the use of microbial enzymatic systems. Four strains of filamentous fungi Absidia glauca AM254, Absidia cylindrospora AM336, Mortierella vinaceae AM149 and Nigrospora oryzae AM8 transformed halolactones (1-3) to four new halohydroxylactones (4-7). In all biotransformations the hydroxy group was incorporated in inactivated methine carbon atom at isopropyl substituent. In N. oryzae AM8 culture the bromolactone with additional hydroxy group in α-position, relative to CO bond in γ-lactone ring, was also formed as a product. The structures of new compounds were established on the basis of spectral data. PMID:25027724

  6. Large-System Transformation in Health Care: A Realist Review

    PubMed Central

    Best, Allan; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Lewis, Steven; Saul, Jessie E; Carroll, Simon; Bitz, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Context An evidence base that addresses issues of complexity and context is urgently needed for large-system transformation (LST) and health care reform. Fundamental conceptual and methodological challenges also must be addressed. The Saskatchewan Ministry of Health in Canada requested a six-month synthesis project to guide four major policy development and strategy initiatives focused on patient- and family-centered care, primary health care renewal, quality improvement, and surgical wait lists. The aims of the review were to analyze examples of successful and less successful transformation initiatives, to synthesize knowledge of the underlying mechanisms, to clarify the role of government, and to outline options for evaluation. Methods We used realist review, whose working assumption is that a particular intervention triggers particular mechanisms of change. Mechanisms may be more or less effective in producing their intended outcomes, depending on their interaction with various contextual factors. We explain the variations in outcome as the interplay between context and mechanisms. We nested this analytic approach in a macro framing of complex adaptive systems (CAS). Findings Our rapid realist review identified five “simple rules” of LST that were likely to enhance the success of the target initiatives: (1) blend designated leadership with distributed leadership; (2) establish feedback loops; (3) attend to history; (4) engage physicians; and (5) include patients and families. These principles play out differently in different contexts affecting human behavior (and thereby contributing to change) through a wide range of different mechanisms. Conclusions Realist review methodology can be applied in combination with a complex system lens on published literature to produce a knowledge synthesis that informs a prospective change effort in large-system transformation. A collaborative process engaging both research producers and research users contributes to local

  7. Transformational derivation of programs using the Focus system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Uday S.

    1988-01-01

    A program derivation support system called Focus is being constructed. It will formally derive programs using the paradigm of program transformation. The following issues are discussed: (1) the integration of validation and program derivation activities in the Focus system; (2) its tree-based user interface; (3) the control of search spaces in program derivation; and (4) the structure and organization of program derivation records. The inference procedures of the system are based on the integration of functional and logic programming principles. This brings about a synthesis of paradigms that were heretofore considered far apart, such as logical and executable specifications and constructive and transformational approaches to program derivation. A great emphasis has been placed, in the design of Focus, on achieving small search spaces during program derivation. The program manipulation operations such as expansion, simplification and rewriting were designed with this objective. The role of operations that are expensive in search spaces, such as folding, has been reduced. Program derivations are documented in Focus in a way that the high level descriptions of derivations are expressed only using program level information. All the meta-level information, together with dependencies between derivations of program components, is automatically recorded by the system at a lower level of description for its own use in replay.

  8. Module Ten: Transformers; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The module introduces a very important electrical device, the transformer. The module is divided into six lessons: transformer construction, transformer theory and operation, turns and voltage ratios, power and current, transformer efficiency, and semiconductor rectifiers. Each lesson consists of an overview, a list of study resources, lesson…

  9. Action as an invariant of Bäcklund transformations for Lagrangian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marikhin, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    We construct a general theory of Bäcklund transformations for Lagrangian systems under the condition that the action is preserved by these transformations. We discuss the known Bäcklund transformations for classical soliton equations from the standpoint of this approach and obtain a new Bäcklund transformation for the Tzitzéica equation.

  10. Status Report on Power System Transformation: A 21st Century Power Partnership Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mackay; Martinot, Eric; Cox, Sadie; Speer, Bethany; Zinaman, Owen; Booth, Sam; Zissler, Romain; Cochran, Jaquelin; Soonee, S. K.; Audinet, Pierre; Munuera, Luis; Arent, Doug

    2015-05-27

    This report has three primary goals: (1) to articulate the concept of power system transformation; (2) to explore the current global landscape of ‘innovations’ that constitute power system transformation and provide evidence of how these innovations are emerging; and (3) to suggest an analytical framework for assessing the status of power system transformation on an on-going basis.

  11. The Gradual Transformation of the Polish Public Science System.

    PubMed

    Heinecke, Steffi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates institutional change in the Polish public science system (PPSS) in the past twenty years. Employing macro-statistical data, the paper argues that this change process has unfolded stepwise and relatively late despite major political and economic transformations in post-socialist Poland. Using a historical-institutionalist perspective, the paper focuses on processes of institutional change, including layering, displacement, and dismantling. One major finding is that the speed and depth of the gradual transformation differs considerably between the three research performing sectors of the Polish public science system. As the Polish Academy of Sciences was reproduced institutionally, the former governmental units for applied R&D were partly dismantled and displaced by private sector R&D units. In contrast, the Higher Education sector underwent a strong expansion and, thus, layering of new research activities and fields. Since policy shifts within the PPSS occurred relatively late, the more than two decades following the collapse of communism are of special interest to scholars of incremental, yet cumulative, institutional change. PMID:27077386

  12. The Gradual Transformation of the Polish Public Science System

    PubMed Central

    Heinecke, Steffi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates institutional change in the Polish public science system (PPSS) in the past twenty years. Employing macro-statistical data, the paper argues that this change process has unfolded stepwise and relatively late despite major political and economic transformations in post-socialist Poland. Using a historical-institutionalist perspective, the paper focuses on processes of institutional change, including layering, displacement, and dismantling. One major finding is that the speed and depth of the gradual transformation differs considerably between the three research performing sectors of the Polish public science system. As the Polish Academy of Sciences was reproduced institutionally, the former governmental units for applied R&D were partly dismantled and displaced by private sector R&D units. In contrast, the Higher Education sector underwent a strong expansion and, thus, layering of new research activities and fields. Since policy shifts within the PPSS occurred relatively late, the more than two decades following the collapse of communism are of special interest to scholars of incremental, yet cumulative, institutional change. PMID:27077386

  13. Quantitative transformation for implementation of adder circuits in physical systems.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeff; Whiting, James G H; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Computing devices are composed of spatial arrangements of simple fundamental logic gates. These gates may be combined to form more complex adding circuits and, ultimately, complete computer systems. Implementing classical adding circuits using unconventional, or even living substrates such as slime mould Physarum polycephalum, is made difficult and often impractical by the challenges of branching fan-out of inputs and regions where circuit lines must cross without interference. In this report we explore whether it is possible to avoid spatial propagation, branching and crossing completely in the design of adding circuits. We analyse the input and output patterns of a single-bit full adder circuit. A simple quantitative transformation of the input patterns which considers the total number of bits in the input string allows us to map the respective input combinations to the correct outputs patterns of the full adder circuit, reducing the circuit combinations from a 2:1 mapping to a 1:1 mapping. The mapping of inputs to outputs also shows an incremental linear progression, suggesting its implementation in a range of physical systems. We demonstrate an example implementation, first in simulation, inspired by self-oscillatory dynamics of the acellular slime mould P. polycephalum. We then assess the potential implementation using plasmodium of slime mould itself. This simple transformation may enrich the potential for using unconventional computing substrates to implement digital circuits. PMID:26007225

  14. Optimization of beam transformation system for laser-diode bars.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junhong; Guo, Linhui; Wu, Hualing; Wang, Zhao; Gao, Songxin; Wu, Deyong

    2016-08-22

    An optimized beam transformation system (BTS) is proposed to improve the beam quality of laser-diode bars. Through this optimized design, the deterioration of beam quality after the BTS can be significantly reduced. Both the simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the optimized system enables the beam quality of a mini-bar (9 emitters) approximately equal to 5.0 mm × 3.6 mrad in the fast-axis and slow-axis. After beam shaping by the optimized BTS, the laser-diode beam can be coupled into a 100 μm core, 0.15 numerical aperture (NA) fiber with an output power of over 100 W and an electric-optical efficiency of 46.8%. PMID:27557249

  15. Philosophy of enlarge and transform of process system

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y.D.; Han, F.Y.; Ding, J.S.; Dong, Z.C.

    1996-12-31

    Enlarge and Transform of Process System (ETPS) would be met frequently for many commercial process system with challenge. Because ETPS is related to many departments and disciplines, it is important to organize and cooperate in completion of ETPS. In this paper, based upon the authors` long experience in ETPS, the significance of ETPS, the bottleneck of process, the methods to find the bottleneck, the principles, strategy and procedure to complete ETPS are discussed respectively. It is concluded that the computer simulation analysis and the consultation and argue among members of the project group are the key factors making sure ETPS successful. Sometimes, small and/or middle scale test would be needed to solve technologic problem during ETPS process.

  16. Towards a Unifying Framework for Pattern Transformation in Swarm Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Blesson; McKee, Gerard

    2009-03-01

    This paper identifies the major challenges in the area of pattern formation. The work is also motivated by the need for development of a single framework to surmount these challenges. A framework based on the control of macroscopic parameters is proposed. The issue of transformation of patterns is specifically considered. A definition for transformation and four special cases, namely elementary and geometrical transformations by repositioning all or some robots in the pattern are provided. Two feasible tools for pattern transformation namely, a macroscopic parameter method and a mathematical tool—Moebius transformation also known as the linear fractional transformation are introduced. The realization of the unifying framework considering planning and communication is reported.

  17. Transformation of legacy network management system to service oriented architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyan, Jithesh; Shenoy, Krishnananda

    2007-09-01

    Service providers today are facing the challenge of operating and maintaining multiple networks, based on multiple technologies. Network Management System (NMS) solutions are being used to manage these networks. However the NMS is tightly coupled with Element or the Core network components. Hence there are multiple NMS solutions for heterogeneous networks. Current network management solutions are targeted at a variety of independent networks. The wide spread popularity of IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a clear indication that all of these independent networks will be integrated into a single IP-based infrastructure referred to as Next Generation Networks (NGN) in the near future. The services, network architectures and traffic pattern in NGN will dramatically differ from the current networks. The heterogeneity and complexity in NGN including concepts like Fixed Mobile Convergence will bring a number of challenges to network management. The high degree of complexity accompanying the network element technology necessitates network management systems (NMS) which can utilize this technology to provide more service interfaces while hiding the inherent complexity. As operators begin to add new networks and expand existing networks to support new technologies and products, the necessity of scalable, flexible and functionally rich NMS systems arises. Another important factor influencing NMS architecture is mergers and acquisitions among the key vendors. Ease of integration is a key impediment in the traditional hierarchical NMS architecture. These requirements trigger the need for an architectural framework that will address the NGNM (Next Generation Network Management) issues seamlessly. This paper presents a unique perspective of bringing service orientated architecture (SOA) to legacy network management systems (NMS). It advocates a staged approach in transforming a legacy NMS to SOA. The architecture at each stage is detailed along with the technical advantages and

  18. Optimal PMU placement using topology transformation method in power systems.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nadia H A; Zobaa, Ahmed F

    2016-09-01

    Optimal phasor measurement units (PMUs) placement involves the process of minimizing the number of PMUs needed while ensuring the entire power system completely observable. A power system is identified observable when the voltages of all buses in the power system are known. This paper proposes selection rules for topology transformation method that involves a merging process of zero-injection bus with one of its neighbors. The result from the merging process is influenced by the selection of bus selected to merge with the zero-injection bus. The proposed method will determine the best candidate bus to merge with zero-injection bus according to the three rules created in order to determine the minimum number of PMUs required for full observability of the power system. In addition, this paper also considered the case of power flow measurements. The problem is formulated as integer linear programming (ILP). The simulation for the proposed method is tested by using MATLAB for different IEEE bus systems. The explanation of the proposed method is demonstrated by using IEEE 14-bus system. The results obtained in this paper proved the effectiveness of the proposed method since the number of PMUs obtained is comparable with other available techniques. PMID:27489729

  19. Floral-dip transformation of flax (Linum usitatissimum) to generate transgenic progenies with a high transformation rate.

    PubMed

    Bastaki, Nasmah K; Cullis, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation via floral-dip is a widely used technique in the field of plant transformation and has been reported to be successful for many plant species. However, flax (Linum usitatissimum) transformation by floral-dip has not been reported. The goal of this protocol is to establish that Agrobacterium and the floral-dip method can be used to generate transgenic flax. We show that this technique is simple, inexpensive, efficient, and more importantly, gives a higher transformation rate than the current available methods of flax transformation. In summary, inflorescences of flax were dipped in a solution of Agrobacterium carrying a binary vector plasmid (T-DNA fragment plus the Linum Insertion Sequence, LIS-1) for 1 - 2 min. The plants were laid flat on their side for 24 hr. Then, plants were maintained under normal growth conditions until the next treatment. The process of dipping was repeated 2 - 3 times, with approximately 10 - 14 day intervals between dipping. The T1 seeds were collected and germinated on soil. After approximately two weeks, treated progenies were tested by direct PCR; 2 - 3 leaves were used per plant plus the appropriate T-DNA primers. Positive transformants were selected and grown to maturity. The transformation rate was unexpectedly high, with 50 - 60% of the seeds from treated plants being positive transformants. This is a higher transformation rate than those reported for Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species, using floral-dip transformation. It is also the highest, which has been reported so far, for flax transformation using other methods for transformation. PMID:25549243

  20. CHEMICAL AND PHOTOCHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION OF SELECTED PESTICIDES IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of laboratory studies to quantitatively predict chemical and photochemical transformation rates and products of pesticides in water. It includes a general discussion of relevant transformation processes and associated kinetic expressions. The proc...

  1. Decision support system for diabetic retinopathy using discrete wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Noronha, K; Acharya, U R; Nayak, K P; Kamath, S; Bhandary, S V

    2013-03-01

    Prolonged duration of the diabetes may affect the tiny blood vessels of the retina causing diabetic retinopathy. Routine eye screening of patients with diabetes helps to detect diabetic retinopathy at the early stage. It is very laborious and time-consuming for the doctors to go through many fundus images continuously. Therefore, decision support system for diabetic retinopathy detection can reduce the burden of the ophthalmologists. In this work, we have used discrete wavelet transform and support vector machine classifier for automated detection of normal and diabetic retinopathy classes. The wavelet-based decomposition was performed up to the second level, and eight energy features were extracted. Two energy features from the approximation coefficients of two levels and six energy values from the details in three orientations (horizontal, vertical and diagonal) were evaluated. These features were fed to the support vector machine classifier with various kernel functions (linear, radial basis function, polynomial of orders 2 and 3) to evaluate the highest classification accuracy. We obtained the highest average classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of more than 99% with support vector machine classifier (polynomial kernel of order 3) using three discrete wavelet transform features. We have also proposed an integrated index called Diabetic Retinopathy Risk Index using clinically significant wavelet energy features to identify normal and diabetic retinopathy classes using just one number. We believe that this (Diabetic Retinopathy Risk Index) can be used as an adjunct tool by the doctors during the eye screening to cross-check their diagnosis. PMID:23662341

  2. System for electronic transformation and geographic correlation of satellite television information. [cloud cover photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubenskiy, V. P.; Nemkovskiy, B. L.; Rodionov, B. N.

    1974-01-01

    An electronic transformation and correlation system has been developed for the Meteor space weather system which provides transformation and scaling of the original picture, accounts for satellite flight altitude and inclinations of the optical axes of the transmitting devices, and simultaneously superposes the geographical coordinate grid on the transformed picture.

  3. Stability of linear systems in second-order form based on structure preserving similarity transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Pommer, Christian; Kliem, Wolfhard

    2015-10-31

    This paper deals with two stability aspects of linear systems of the form I ¨ x +B˙ x +Cx = 0 given by the triple (I;B;C). A general transformation scheme is given for a structure and Jordan form preserving transformation of the triple. We investigate how a system can be transformed by suitable choices of the transformation parameters into a new system (I;B1;C1) with a symmetrizable matrix C1. This procedure facilitates stability investigations. We also consider systems with a Hamiltonian spectrum which discloses marginal stability after a Jordan form preserving transformation.

  4. PHELIX: design of transformer-driven linear implosion system

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, Peter J; Atchison, Walter L; Rousculp, Chris L; Reinovsky, Robert E

    2008-01-01

    Experiments involving electromagnetically-imploded, solid-density liners can be achieved at reduced cost and energy if we start with a scale-size based on diagnostic resolution, rather than on the largest capacitor bank or generator we could bring to bear. For minimum resolution of 100 microns or less, many useful experiments could be performed with initial liner diameters that are factors of two to three smaller than used on high-energy systems, such as Atlas, thereby reducing energy requirements to sub-megajoule levels. Reduction in scale-size, however, also decreases the inductance change associated with liner motion relative to other inductances in the circuit. To improve coupling efficiency to liner kinetic energy, we invoke a current step-up transformer. Scaling relations have been developed for reducing the size and energy of such systems and compared with detailed numerical simulations. We discuss these calculations and describe the engineering embodiment of the resulting design for a system called PHELIX (Precision High Energy-density Liner Implosion eXperiment).

  5. Genetic transformation of Diaporthe phaseolorum, an endophytic fungus found in mangrove forests, mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Sebastianes, Fernanda L S; Lacava, Paulo T; Fávaro, Léia C L; Rodrigues, Maria B C; Araújo, Welington L; Azevedo, João L; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline A

    2012-02-01

    We describe the genetic transformation of the mycelial tissue of Diaporthe phaseolorum, an endophytic fungus isolated from the mangrove species Laguncularia racemosa, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT). ATMT uses both the hygromycin B resistant (hph) gene and green fluorescent protein as the selection agents. The T-DNA integration into the fungal genome was assessed by both PCR and Southern blotting. All transformants examined were mitotically stable. An analysis of the T-DNA flanking sequences by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR) demonstrated that the disrupted genes in the transformants had similarities with conserved domains in proteins involved in antibiotic biosynthesis pathways. A library of 520 transformants was generated, and 31 of these transformants had no antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus, an important human pathogen. The protocol described here, using ATMT in D. phaseolorum, will be useful for the identification and analysis of fungal genes controlling pathogenicity and antibiotic pathways. Moreover, this protocol may be used as a reference for other species in the Diaporthe genus. This is the first report to describe Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of D. phaseolorum as a tool for insertional mutagenesis. PMID:22210192

  6. Modeling of Solid State Transformer for the FREEDM System Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Youyuan

    The Solid State Transformer (SST) is an essential component in the FREEDM system. This research focuses on the modeling of the SST and the controller hardware in the loop (CHIL) implementation of the SST for the support of the FREEDM system demonstration. The energy based control strategy for a three-stage SST is analyzed and applied. A simplified average model of the three-stage SST that is suitable for simulation in real time digital simulator (RTDS) has been developed in this study. The model is also useful for general time-domain power system analysis and simulation. The proposed simplified av-erage model has been validated in MATLAB and PLECS. The accuracy of the model has been verified through comparison with the cycle-by-cycle average (CCA) model and de-tailed switching model. These models are also implemented in PSCAD, and a special strategy to implement the phase shift modulation has been proposed to enable the switching model simulation in PSCAD. The implementation of the CHIL test environment of the SST in RTDS is described in this report. The parameter setup of the model has been discussed in detail. One of the dif-ficulties is the choice of the damping factor, which is revealed in this paper. Also the grounding of the system has large impact on the RTDS simulation. Another problem is that the performance of the system is highly dependent on the switch parameters such as voltage and current ratings. Finally, the functionalities of the SST have been realized on the platform. The distributed energy storage interface power injection and reverse power flow have been validated. Some limitations are noticed and discussed through the simulation on RTDS.

  7. Photometric transformation from RGB Bayer filter system to Johnson-Cousins BVR filter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Woojin; Pak, Soojong; Shim, Hyunjin; Le, Huynh Anh N.; Im, Myungshin; Chang, Seunghyuk; Yu, Joonkyu

    2016-01-01

    The RGB Bayer filter system consists of a mosaic of R, G , and B filters on the grid of the photo sensors which typical commercial DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) cameras and CCD cameras are equipped with. Lot of unique astronomical data obtained using an RGB Bayer filter system are available, including transient objects, e.g. supernovae, variable stars, and solar system bodies. The utilization of such data in scientific research requires that reliable photometric transformation methods are available between the systems. In this work, we develop a series of equations to convert the observed magnitudes in the RGB Bayer filter system (RB,GB , and BB) into the Johnson-Cousins BVR filter system (BJ,VJ , and RC). The new transformation equations derive the calculated magnitudes in the Johnson-Cousins filters (BJcal,VJcal , and RCcal) as functions of RGB magnitudes and colors. The mean differences between the transformed magnitudes and original magnitudes, i.e. the residuals, are Δ (BJ -BJcal) = 0.064 mag, Δ (VJ -VJcal) = 0.041 mag, and Δ (RC -RCcal) = 0.039 mag. The calculated Johnson-Cousins magnitudes from the transformation equations show a good linear correlation with the observed Johnson-Cousins magnitudes.

  8. High-Performance Work Systems: American Models of Workplace Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelbaum, Eileen; Batt, Rosemary

    Rising competition in world and domestic markets for the past 2 decades has necessitated that U.S. companies undergo significant transformations to improve their performance with respect to a wide array of efficiency and quality indicators. Research on the transformations recently undertaken by some U.S. companies to boost performance revealed two…

  9. Rethinking health systems strengthening: key systems thinking tools and strategies for transformational change.

    PubMed

    Swanson, R Chad; Cattaneo, Adriano; Bradley, Elizabeth; Chunharas, Somsak; Atun, Rifat; Abbas, Kaja M; Katsaliaki, Korina; Mustafee, Navonil; Mason Meier, Benjamin; Best, Allan

    2012-10-01

    While reaching consensus on future plans to address current global health challenges is far from easy, there is broad agreement that reductionist approaches that suggest a limited set of targeted interventions to improve health around the world are inadequate. We argue that a comprehensive systems perspective should guide health practice, education, research and policy. We propose key 'systems thinking' tools and strategies that have the potential for transformational change in health systems. Three overarching themes span these tools and strategies: collaboration across disciplines, sectors and organizations; ongoing, iterative learning; and transformational leadership. The proposed tools and strategies in this paper can be applied, in varying degrees, to every organization within health systems, from families and communities to national ministries of health. While our categorization is necessarily incomplete, this initial effort will provide a valuable contribution to the health systems strengthening debate, as the need for a more systemic, rigorous perspective in health has never been greater. PMID:23014154

  10. Efficient Transformation of Oil Palm Protoplasts by PEG-Mediated Transfection and DNA Microinjection

    PubMed Central

    Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Noll, Gundula A.; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Prüfer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic engineering remains a major challenge in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) because particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation are laborious and/or inefficient in this species, often producing chimeric plants and escapes. Protoplasts are beneficial as a starting material for genetic engineering because they are totipotent, and chimeras are avoided by regenerating transgenic plants from single cells. Novel approaches for the transformation of oil palm protoplasts could therefore offer a new and efficient strategy for the development of transgenic oil palm plants. Methodology/Principal Findings We recently achieved the regeneration of healthy and fertile oil palms from protoplasts. Therefore, we focused on the development of a reliable PEG-mediated transformation protocol for oil palm protoplasts by establishing and validating optimal heat shock conditions, concentrations of DNA, PEG and magnesium chloride, and the transfection procedure. We also investigated the transformation of oil palm protoplasts by DNA microinjection and successfully regenerated transgenic microcalli expressing green fluorescent protein as a visible marker to determine the efficiency of transformation. Conclusions/Significance We have established the first successful protocols for the transformation of oil palm protoplasts by PEG-mediated transfection and DNA microinjection. These novel protocols allow the rapid and efficient generation of non-chimeric transgenic callus and represent a significant milestone in the use of protoplasts as a starting material for the development of genetically-engineered oil palm plants. PMID:24821306

  11. Transient expression systems for plant-derived biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Komarova, Tatiana V; Baschieri, Selene; Donini, Marcello; Marusic, Carla; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Dorokhov, Yuri L

    2010-08-01

    In the molecular farming area, transient expression approaches for pharmaceutical proteins production, mainly recombinant monoclonal antibodies and vaccines, were developed almost two decades ago and, to date, these systems basically depend on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery and virus expression machinery. We survey here the current state-of-the-art of this research field. Several vectors have been designed on the basis of DNA- and RNA-based plant virus genomes and viral vectors are used both as single- and multicomponent expression systems in different combinations depending on the protein of interest. The obvious advantages of these systems are ease of manipulation, speed, low cost and high yield of proteins. In addition, Agrobacterium-mediated expression also allows the production in plants of complex proteins assembled from subunits. Currently, the transient expression methods are preferential over any other transgenic system for the exploitation of large and unrestricted numbers of plants in a contained environment. By designing optimal constructs and related means of delivery into plant cells, the overall technology plan considers scenarios that envisage high yield of bioproducts and ease in monitoring the whole spectrum of upstream production, before entering good manufacturing practice facilities. In this way, plant-derived bioproducts show promise of high competitiveness towards classical eukaryotic cell factory systems. PMID:20673010

  12. Transformation of visual direction requires the cognitive visual system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgeman, Bruce

    2001-06-01

    We differentiate a cognitive branch of the visual system form a sensorimotor branch with the Roelofs effect, a perception that a target's position is biased in the direction opposite the offset of a surrounding fame. When a small fixed target is presented inside a frame that is offset to one side, normal humans perceive the target to be deviated in the direction opposite the frame's offset. They can still jab the target accurately, however, even though it is perceptually mislocalized. This dissociation indicates that motor coordinates are coded in a 'sensorimotor', possibly dorsal, pathway containing visual information that can be inconsistent with perceived information in a 'cognitive', possibly ventral pathway. Lack of a Roelofs effect indicates use of information in the sensorimotor pathway, independent from perception. We ask whether the sensorimotor pathway can handle a transformation of target position, in an anti-jabbing task analogous to anti-saccade tasks: the observer jabs a position symmetrically opposite the target's position, relative to the midline of the head. A 1 deg left or right. Observers were to jab the symmetrically opposite position as soon as the target disappeared. The result was a large and consistent Roelofs effect for an open-loop motor task, indicating that information from the cognitive pathway must be used to perform this task.

  13. CMYK transformation with black preservation in color management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao

    2001-12-01

    A color calibration process and system for CMYK printing with black preservation is described in this paper. This approach is used to create a 4-D lookup table (LUT) off time for a closed-loop workflow or a deviceLink ICC profile at real-time by a smart color management module (CMM) for ICC color management workflow. The output K' in the 4-D LUT or the deviceLink profile is decided by the lightness or density mapping between the input K and the output K' and the black usage of the output printer, and K' is proportional to K. The calibration processes are: 1) to convert the input CMYK (e.g. SWOP CMYK) into a device-independent color space (e.g. CIE CAM97s Jab, CIE L*a*b*, or MLab); 2) gamut mapping; and 3) to convert the in-gamut device-independent color into the output CMYK color space. A major difference of this approach over existing methods is that the input K is carried to the second and the third steps to determine the amount of the output K. Therefore the input K information is not lost during the color transformation. This approach can be applied to both closed-loop color architecture and ICC color management.

  14. An Overview of HATS: A Language Independent High Assurance Transformation System

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, V.L.

    1998-10-16

    Transformations that are based on syntax directed rewriting systems can have a significant impact on the construction of high assurance systems. However, in order for a transformational approach to be useful to a particular problem domain, a (general) transformation system must be adapted to the notation of that particular domain. A transformation system that can be easily adapted to various domain notations has the potential of having a wide range of applicability. In this paper we dissus why transforrmtion is attractive horn a high assurance perspective, as well as some issues surrounding automated transformation within specific problem domains. We then give an overview of a language independent High Assurance Transformation System (HATS) that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  15. Propagation properties of Bessel and Bessel-Gaussian beams in a fractional Fourier transform optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chengliang; Huang, Kaikai; Lu, Xuanhui

    2010-03-01

    The properties of Bessel-Gaussian beams (BGBs) and Bessel beams (BBs) propagating through a fractional Fourier transform (FRT) optical system have been investigated. The analytical transformation formulae for BBs and BGBs propagation through a FRT optical system are derived based on definition of the FRT in the cylindrical coordinate system. By using the derived formula, numerical examples are illustrated.

  16. Progress of cereal transformation technology mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Monocotyledonous plants were believed to be not transformable by the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens until two decades ago, although convenient protocols for infection of leaf disks and subsequent regeneration of transgenic plants had been well established in a number of dicotyledonous species by then. This belief was reinforced by the fact that monocotyledons are mostly outside the host range of crown gall disease caused by the bacterium and by the failures in trials in monocotyledons to mimic the transformation protocols for dicotyledons. However, a key reason for the failure could have been the lack of active cell divisions at the wound sites in monocotyledons. The complexity and narrow optimal windows of critical factors, such as genotypes of plants, conditions of the plants from which explants are prepared, tissue culture methods and culture media, pre-treatments of explants, strains of A. tumefaciens, inducers of virulence genes, transformation vectors, selection marker genes and selective agents, kept technical hurdles high. Eventually it was demonstrated that rice and maize could be transformed by co-cultivating cells of callus cultures or immature embryos, which are actively dividing or about to divide, with A. tumefaciens. Subsequently, these initial difficulties were resolved one by one by many research groups, and the major cereals are now transformed quite efficiently. As many as 15 independent transgenic events may be regenerated from a single piece of immature embryo of rice. Maize transformation protocols are well established, and almost all transgenic events deregulated for commercialization after 2003 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Wheat, barley, and sorghum are also among those plants that can be efficiently transformed by A. tumefaciens. PMID:25426132

  17. Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Alzheimer's Disease Using Different Discrete Transform Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dessouky, Mohamed M; Elrashidy, Mohamed A; Taha, Taha E; Abdelkader, Hatem M

    2016-05-01

    The different discrete transform techniques such as discrete cosine transform (DCT), discrete sine transform (DST), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and mel-scale frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) are powerful feature extraction techniques. This article presents a proposed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for extracting the most effective and significant features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using these different discrete transform techniques and MFCC techniques. Linear support vector machine has been used as a classifier in this article. Experimental results conclude that the proposed CAD system using MFCC technique for AD recognition has a great improvement for the system performance with small number of significant extracted features, as compared with the CAD system based on DCT, DST, DWT, and the hybrid combination methods of the different transform techniques. PMID:26371347

  18. Mechanism for the primary transformation of acetaminophen in a soil/water system.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chuanzhou; Lan, Zhonghui; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Yingbao

    2016-07-01

    The transformation of acetaminophen (APAP) in a soil/water system was systematically investigated by a combination of kinetic studies and a quantitative analysis of the reaction intermediates. Biotransformation was the predominant pathway for the elimination of APAP, whereas hydrolysis or other chemical transformation, and adsorption processes made almost no contribution to the transformation under a dark incubation. Bacillus aryabhattai strain 1-Sj-5-2-5-M, Klebsiella pneumoniae strain S001, and Bacillus subtilis strain HJ5 were the main bacteria identified in the biotransformation of APAP. The soil-to-water ratio and soil preincubation were able to alter the transformation kinetic pattern. Light irradiation promoted the overall transformation kinetics through enhanced biotransformation and extra photosensitized chemical reactions. The transformation pathways were strongly dependent on the initial concentration of APAP. The main primary transformation products were APAP oligomers and p-aminophenol, with the initial addition of 26.5 and 530 μM APAP, respectively. APAP oligomers accounted for more than 95% of transformed APAP, indicating that almost no bound residues were generated through the transformation of APAP in the soil/water system. The potential environmental risks of APAP could increase following the transformation of APAP in the soil/water system because of the higher toxicity of the transformation intermediates. PMID:27107139

  19. Drought-tolerant rice germplasm developed from an Oryza officinalis transformation-competent artificial chromosome clone.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Zhang, H H; Chen, Z X; Shahid, M Q; Fu, X L; Liu, X D

    2015-01-01

    Oryza officinalis has proven to be a natural gene reservoir for the improvement of domesticated rice as it carries many desirable traits; however, the transfer of elite genes to cultivated rice by conventional hybridization has been a challenge for rice breeders. In this study, the conserved sequence of plant stress-related NAC transcription factors was selected as a probe to screen the O. officinalis genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome library by Southern blot; 11 positive transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones were subsequently detected. By Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an indica rice variety, Huajingxian 74 (HJX74), was transformed with a TAC clone harboring a NAC gene-positive genomic fragment from O. officinalis. Molecular analysis revealed that the O. officinalis genomic fragment was integrated into the genome of HJX74. The transgenic lines exhibited high tolerance to drought stress. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of stress-related transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones, coupled with a transgenic validation approach, is an effective method of transferring agronomically important genes from O. officinalis to cultivated rice. PMID:26535682

  20. An efficient Foxtail mosaic virus vector system with reduced environmental risk

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant viral vectors offer high-yield expression of pharmaceutical and commercially important proteins with a minimum of cost and preparation time. The use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been introduced to deliver the viral vector as a transgene to each plant cell via a simple, nonsterile infiltration technique called "agroinoculation". With agroinoculation, a full length, systemically moving virus is no longer necessary for excellent protein yield, since the viral transgene is transcribed and replicates in every infiltrated cell. Viral genes may therefore be deleted to decrease the potential for accidental spread and persistence of the viral vector in the environment. Results In this study, both the coat protein (CP) and triple gene block (TGB) genetic segments were eliminated from Foxtail mosaic virus to create the "FECT" vector series, comprising a deletion of 29% of the genome. This viral vector is highly crippled and expresses little or no marker gene within the inoculated leaf. However, when co-agroinoculated with a silencing suppressor (p19 or HcPro), FECT expressed GFP at 40% total soluble protein in the tobacco host, Nicotiana benthamiana. The modified FoMV vector retained the full-length replicase ORF, the TGB1 subgenomic RNA leader sequence and either 0, 22 or 40 bases of TGB1 ORF (in vectors FECT0, FECT22 and FECT40, respectively). As well as N. benthamiana, infection of legumes was demonstrated. Despite many attempts, expression of GFP via syringe agroinoculation of various grass species was very low, reflecting the low Agrobacterium-mediated transformation rate of monocots. Conclusions The FECT/40 vector expresses foreign genes at a very high level, and yet has a greatly reduced biohazard potential. It can form no virions and can effectively replicate only in a plant with suppressed silencing. PMID:21162736

  1. Phase Transformation Hysteresis in a Plutonium Alloy System: Modeling the Resistivity during the Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Haslam, J J; Wall, M A; Johnson, D L; Mayhall, D J; Schwartz, A J

    2001-11-14

    We have induced, measured, and modeled the {delta}-{alpha}' martensitic transformation in a Pu-Ga alloy by a resistivity technique on a 2.8-mm diameter disk sample. Our measurements of the resistance by a 4-probe technique were consistent with the expected resistance obtained from a finite element analysis of the 4-point measurement of resistivity in our round disk configuration. Analysis by finite element methods of the postulated configuration of {alpha}' particles within model {delta} grains suggests that a considerable anisotropy in the resistivity may be obtained depending on the arrangement of the {alpha}' lens shaped particles within the grains. The resistivity of these grains departs from the series resistance model and can lead to significant errors in the predicted amount of the {alpha}' phase present in the microstructure. An underestimation of the amount of {alpha}' in the sample by 15%, or more, appears to be possible.

  2. Co-transformation of canola by chimeric chitinase and tlp genes towards improving resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Rustam; Zamani, Mohammadreza; Motallebi, Mostafa; Moradyar, Mehdi; Moghadassi Jahromi, Zahra

    2016-09-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) plants were co-transformed with two pathogenesis-related protein genes expressing a Trichoderma atroviride chitinase with a chitin-binding domain (chimeric chitinase) and a thaumatin-like protein (tlp) from Oryza sativa conferring resistance to phytopatogenic fungi by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The putative transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR. After measuring the specific activity of the chimeric chitinase and glucanase activity for tlp genes, transgenic plants with high specific activity were selected for southern blot analysis to confirm the copy number of the genes. In vitro assays, the antifungal activity of crude extracted protein against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum showed that the inhibition percentage in double transgenic plants was between 55 and 62, whereas the inhibition percentage in single-gene transformants (chimeric chitinase) ranged from 35 to 45 percent. Importantly, in greenhouse conditions, the double transgenic plants showed significant resistance than the single-gene transformant and wild type plants. The results in T2 generation using the intact leaf inoculation method showed that the average lesion diameters were 10, 14.7 and 29 mm for the double transformant, single-gene transformant and non-transgenic plants, respectively. Combined expression of chimeric chitinase and tlp in transgenic plants showed significantly enhanced resistance against S. sclerotiorum than the one that express single-gene transformant plants. These results suggest that the co-expression of chimeric chitinase and tlp can confer enhanced disease resistance in canola plant. PMID:27430511

  3. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. ); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. ); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. ); Shah, N.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. )

    1991-09-01

    The technical objectives of this project are: (1) To define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and to characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail. (2) To elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and (3) to develop, based on the information required in (1) and (2), a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products. 26 refs., 151 figs., 51 tabs.

  4. The Little School System That Could: Transforming a City School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    "The Little School System That Could" is a story about transformation. In 1995, equipped with not much more than a vision of the quality education that urban students deserved, Tom DeBolt, the new superintendent of the Manassas Park School System, set into motion a series of reforms that transformed the district. By 2005 every school was…

  5. Darboux transformation of the Drinfeld–Sokolov–Satsuma–Hirota system and exact solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Xianguo; Li, Ruomeng

    2015-10-15

    A Darboux transformation for the Drinfeld–Sokolov–Satsuma–Hirota system of coupled equations is constructed with the aid of gauge transformations between the Lax pairs. As an application, several types of solutions of the Drinfeld–Sokolov–Satsuma–Hirota system are obtained, including soliton solutions, periodic solutions, rational solutions and others.

  6. Construction of Hermes shuttle vectors: a versatile system useful for genetic complementation of transformable and non-transformable Neisseria mutants.

    PubMed

    Kupsch, E M; Aubel, D; Gibbs, C P; Kahrs, A F; Rudel, T; Meyer, T F

    1996-03-20

    A versatile shuttle system has been developed for genetic complementation with cloned genes of transformable and non-transformable Neisseria mutants. By random insertion of a selectable marker into the conjugative Neisseria plasmid ptetM25.2, a site within this plasmid was identified that is compatible with plasmid replication and with conjugative transfer of plasmid. Regions flanking the permissive insertion site of ptetM25.2 were cloned in Escherichia coli and served as a basis for the construction of the Hermes vectors. Hermes vectors are composed of an E. coli replicon that does not support autonomous replication in Neisseria, e.g. ColE1, p15A, or ori(fd), fused with a shuttle consisting of a selectable marker and a multiple cloning site flanked by the integration region of ptetM25.2. Complementation of a non-transformable Neisseria strain involves a three-step process: (i) insertion of the desired gene into a +Hermes vector; (ii) transformation of Hermes into a Neisseria strain containing ptetM25.2 to create a hybrid ptetM25.2 via gene replacement by the Hermes shuttle cassette; and (iii) conjugative transfer of the hybrid ptetM25.2 into the final Neisseria recipient. Several applications for the genetic manipulation of pathogenic Neisseriae are described. PMID:8676859

  7. Establishment of the straightforward electro-transformation system for Phytophthora infestans and its comparison with the improved PEG/CaCl₂ transformation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lei; Zhu, Xiangyuan; Cui, Haichen; Ojika, Makoto; Wang, Ruigang; Liu, Huirong

    2015-05-01

    Phytophthora infestans is the most devastating pathogen of potato. For the biology study of P. infestans at the molecular level, one of the difficulties is the technique for the genetic transformation. In this study, the straightforward electro-transformation system was established for P. infestans with a green fluorescent protein expression vector and compared with the improved PEG/CaCl2 mediated protoplast transformation system. The results showed that the straightforward electro-transformation could work in P. infestans and 32 positive transformants were obtained per about 1.10×10(6) zoospores. The transformants per μg of vector DNA were 1.08. The transformation efficiency of the straightforward electro-transformation was approximately 2 times higher than that of the improved PEG/CaCl2 mediated protoplast transformation (17 positive transformants per about 1.05×10(6) protoplasts, 0.58 transformants per μg of vector DNA) according to the reported procedures. Furthermore, compared with the improved PEG/CaCl2 transformation, the straightforward electroporation is simpler and requires less starting materials and operating time from collecting material to obtaining the resistant transformants. Our work will lay a foundation for the biology study of P. infestans in the future. PMID:25783995

  8. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Msikita, Weston; Ihemere, Uzoma; Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard T

    2006-01-01

    During the last three years the generation of stably transformed cassava plants having value-added traits has become a reality. Currently, two Agrobacterium-mediated transformation systems are routinely used to engineer cassava. These systems use either somatic embryos or friable embryogenic calli. This paper presents detailed protocols for the transformation of cassava using primary somatic embryos. The effects of explant types, tissue culture conditions, and bacterial and plasmid related factors on transformation efficiency are discussed. PMID:17033047

  9. Fate and transformation of silver nanoparticles in urban wastewater systems.

    PubMed

    Kaegi, Ralf; Voegelin, Andreas; Ort, Christoph; Sinnet, Brian; Thalmann, Basilius; Krismer, Jasmin; Hagendorfer, Harald; Elumelu, Maline; Mueller, Elisabeth

    2013-08-01

    Discharge of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from textiles and cosmetics, todays major application areas for metallic Ag-NP, into wastewater is inevitable. Transformation and removal processes in sewers and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) will determine the impact of Ag-NP on aquatic and terrestrial environments, via the effluents of the WWTP and via the use of digested sludge as fertilizer. We thus conducted experiments addressing the behavior of Ag-NP in sewers and in WWTP. We spiked Ag-NP to a 5 km long main trunk sewer and collected 40 wastewater samples after 500 m, 2400 m and 5000 m each according to the expected travel times of the Ag-NP. Excellent mass closure of the Ag derived by multiplying the measured Ag concentrations times the volumetric flow rates indicate an efficient transport of the Ag-NP without substantial losses to the sewer biofilm. Ag-NP reacted with raw wastewater in batch experiments were sulfidized to roughly 15% after 5 h reaction time as revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). However, acid volatile sulfide (AVS) concentrations were substantially higher in the sewer channel (100 μM) compared to the batch experiments (3 μM; still sufficient to sulfidize spiked 2 μM Ag) possibly resulting in a higher degree of sulfidation in the sewer channel. We further investigated the removal efficiency of 10 nm and 100 nm Ag- and gold (Au)-NP coated with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone in activated sludge batch experiments. We obtained very high removal efficiencies (≈ 99%) irrespective of size and coating for Ag- and Au-NP, the latter confirming that the particle type was of minor importance with respect to the degree of NP removal. We observed a strong size dependence of the sulfidation kinetics. We conclude that Ag-NP discharged to the wastewater stream will become sulfidized to various degrees in the sewer system and are efficiently transported to the WWTP. The sulfidation of the Ag-NP will continue in the WWTP, but primarily

  10. Toward Transformative Change: Finding a Path to Systemic Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Major changes in society--from the global financial meltdown to demographic patterns to the emergence of a world economy--argue that higher education should embrace faster and more significant change than it currently does in order to remain competitive and relevant. Transformative change is needed. A key part of successful large-scale change…

  11. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION OF SELECTED ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN NATURAL AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for describing the microbial degradation of xenobiotics through the use of a second-order reaction equation was tested in several water bodies in the United States and Russia. he experiment was aimed at studying the microbial transformation of a herbicide widely used in ...

  12. Rapid Business Transformations in Health Care: A Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulaiba, Refaat A.

    2011-01-01

    The top two priorities of health care business leaders are to constantly improve the quality of health care while striving to contain and reduce the high cost of health care. The Health Care industry, similar to all businesses, is motivated to deliver innovative solutions that accelerate business transformation and increase business capabilities. …

  13. Simulation Test System of Non-Contact D-dot Voltage Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Jingang; Luo, Ruixi; Gao, Can; Songnong, Li; Kongjun, Zhou

    2016-04-01

    The development trend of future voltage transformer in smart grid is non-contact measurement, miniaturization and intellectualization. This paper proposes one simulation test system of non-contact D-dot transformer for voltage measurement. This simulation test system consists of D-dot transformer, signal processing circuit and ground PC port. D-dot transformer realizes the indirect voltage measurement by measuring the change rate of electric displacement vector, a non-contact means (He et al. 2004, Principles and experiments of voltage transformer based on self-integrating D-dot probe. Proc CSEE 2014;15:2445-51). Specific to the characteristics of D-dot transformer signals, signal processing circuits with strong resistance to interference and distortion-free amplified sensor output signal are designed. WIFI wireless network is used to transmit the voltage detection to LabVIEW-based ground collection port and LabVIEW technology is adopted for signal reception, data processing and analysis and other functions. Finally, a test platform is established to simulate the performance of the whole test system of single-phase voltage transformer. Test results indicate that this voltage transformer has sound real-time performance, high accuracy and fast response speed and the simulation test system is stable and reliable and can be a new prototype of voltage transformers.

  14. Efficient transformations from geodetic to UTM coordinate systems

    SciTech Connect

    Toms, R.M.

    1996-08-07

    The problem of efficiently performing transformations from geocentric to geodetic coordinates has been addressed at previous DIS (Distributed Interactive Simulation) workshops. This paper extends the work presented at the 14th DIS Workshop. As a consequence of the new algorithm for geocentric to geodetic coordinate conversion, a subsequent conversion to Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates is made considerably more efficient. No additional trigonometric or square root evaluations are required and accuracy is not degraded.

  15. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boni, A.A.; Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G. ); Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. ); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L. ); Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. )

    1990-11-01

    Objectives of this project are: (1) define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and (2) characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail; elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and develop, based on the information required in a. and b. above, a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products. The work discussed highlights recent accomplishments in modeling synthetic char particle combustion times and temperatures with allowance for oxygen dissociation in the char boundary layer; in developing a continuum model for residual ash information and char fragmentation, permitting a more detailed time-resolved study of ash coalescence within a burning char particle; and in continuing development of the engineering model for ash particle formation. 40 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. An Admissions Process Transformed with Technology: WSU's New System Takes the Frustration Out of Matriculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lavon R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes Washington State University's (WSU) successful use of the World Wide Web to transform its student admissions process, highlighting: strategic administrative objectives that formed the context for transforming WSU's admissions process; Web services for prospective students (information pages, the Cougar TRACS transfer credit system,…

  17. Single-channel color information security system using LU decomposition in gyrator transform domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq

    2014-07-01

    A novel single-channel color information security system based on LU decomposition in gyrator transform domains is proposed. The original color image to be encoded is separated into its red, green and blue channels. They are modulated by corresponding random phase functions and then independently Fourier transformed. The transformed images of red and green channels are multiplied and then inverse Fourier transformed. The resulting image is phase- and amplitude truncated to obtain an encrypted image and an asymmetric decryption key, respectively. The encrypted image is multiplied by transformed image of blue channel and then performed LU decomposition. Finally, L and U parts are individually gyrator transformed at different transformation angles, which can be assigned to two different authorized users. The proposed single-channel encryption system is more compact than conventional three-channel encryption systems. Additionally, the ciphertexts are not color images but they are gray images which have obscure properties. The presented LU form is asymmetric. The two transformation angles of GT, three decryption keys for three channels and one asymmetric decryption key significantly improve the security and robustness of the proposed method. The encryption system can be realized digitally or optically. Numerical simulations demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the suggested algorithms.

  18. Molecular transformation, gene cloning, and gene expression systems for filamentous fungi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Scott E.; Duick, John W.; Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter discusses the molecular transformation, gene cloning, and gene expression systems for filamentous fungi. Molecular transformation involves the movement of discrete amounts of DNA into cells, the expression of genes on the transported DNA, and the sustainable replication of the transforming DNA. The ability to transform fungi is dependent on the stable replication and expression of genes located on the transforming DNA. Three phenomena observed in bacteria, that is, competence, plasmids, and restriction enzymes to facilitate cloning, were responsible for the development of molecular transformation in fungi. Initial transformation success with filamentous fungi, involving the complementation of auxotrophic mutants by exposure to sheared genomic DNA or RNA from wt isolates, occurred with low transformation efficiencies. In addition, it was difficult to retrieve complementing DNA fragments and isolate genes of interest. This prompted the development of transformation vectors and methods to increase efficiencies. The physiological studies performed with fungi indicated that the cell wall could be removed to generate protoplasts. It was evident that protoplasts could be transformed with significantly greater efficiencies than walled cells.

  19. Prioritizing the restoration of network distribution transformers using distribution system loading and network reliability indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardowar, Roupchan

    A method is proposed to prioritize the repair or replacement of out-of-service transformers that feed a heavily meshed secondary grid. The priority assigned to the restoration of a specific transformer is based on the reduction in risk that results from this replacement. Risk is equated to the number of customer outages that would occur if the transformer remains out of service. This risk addresses both the possibility of network collapse following feeder failures (occasioned by load-induced failure of transformers or feeders) and local customer outages on the secondary network. This prediction of risk makes extensive use of load predictions for feeder sections, distribution transformers and secondary mains. A software tool that implements the equations proposed in this paper gives system planners and operators the ability to quickly and economically select the next transformer to be repaired or replaced.

  20. Fourier transform spectrometry for fiber-optic sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn; Tuma, Margaret L.; Sotomayor, Jorge L.; Flatico, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used as a Fourier transform spectrometer to analyze the input and output spectra of a temperature-sensing thin-film etalon. This type of spectrometer has an advantage over conventional grating spectrometers because it is better suited for use with time-division-multiplexed sensor networks. In addition, this spectrometer has the potential for low cost due to its use of a component that could be manufactured in large quantities for the optical communications industry.

  1. Comparison between wavelet and wavelet packet transform features for classification of faults in distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvind, Pratul

    2012-11-01

    The ability to identify and classify all ten types of faults in a distribution system is an important task for protection engineers. Unlike transmission system, distribution systems have a complex configuration and are subjected to frequent faults. In the present work, an algorithm has been developed for identifying all ten types of faults in a distribution system by collecting current samples at the substation end. The samples are subjected to wavelet packet transform and artificial neural network in order to yield better classification results. A comparison of results between wavelet transform and wavelet packet transform is also presented thereby justifying the feature extracted from wavelet packet transform yields promising results. It should also be noted that current samples are collected after simulating a 25kv distribution system in PSCAD software.

  2. Bäcklund transformations for Darboux integrable differential systems: Examples and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ian M.; Fels, Mark E.

    2016-04-01

    In this article we demonstrate a new symmetry based method for constructing Bäcklund transformations by finding explicit Bäcklund transformations between Darboux integrable systems. This results in a number of new examples of Bäcklund transformations which are quite different in character than those typically found in the literature. The relation between the intermediate integrals for Darboux integrable systems and the differential invariants of the Vessiot group is also illustrated. We then show that a well known class of Bäcklund transformations between a Darboux integrable Monge-Ampère system and the wave equation always arises by this method. The results of this paper build upon the presentation of Darboux integrable systems as quotients of differential systems by symmetry groups.

  3. Kinetics of phase transformation in glass forming systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chandra S.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to (1) develop computer models for realistic simulations of nucleation and crystal growth in glasses, which would also have the flexibility to accomodate the different variables related to sample characteristics and experimental conditions, and (2) design and perform nucleation and crystallization experiments using calorimetric measurements, such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) to verify these models. The variables related to sample characteristics mentioned in (1) above include size of the glass particles, nucleating agents, and the relative concentration of the surface and internal nuclei. A change in any of these variables changes the mode of the transformation (crystallization) kinetics. A variation in experimental conditions includes isothermal and nonisothermal DSC/DTA measurements. This research would lead to develop improved, more realistic methods for analysis of the DSC/DTA peak profiles to determine the kinetic parameters for nucleation and crystal growth as well as to assess the relative merits and demerits of the thermoanalytical models presently used to study the phase transformation in glasses.

  4. Development of fault diagnosis system for transformer based on multi-class support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jian; Qian, Suxiang; Hu, Hongsheng; Yan, Gongbiao

    2007-12-01

    The support vector machine (SVM) is an algorithm based on structure risk minimizing principle and having high generalization ability. It is strong to solve the problem with small sample, nonlinear and high dimension. The fundamental theory of DGA (Dissolved Gas Analysis, DGA) and fault characteristic of transformer is firstly researched in this paper, and then the disadvantages of traditional method of transformer fault diagnosis are analyzed, finally, a new fault diagnosis method using multi-class support vector machines (M-SVMs) based on DGA theory for transformer is put forward. Then the fault diagnosis model based on M-SVMs for transformer is established. At the same time, the fault diagnosis system based on M-SVMs for transformer is developed. The system can realize the acquisition of the dissolving gas in the transformer oil and data timely and low cost transmission by GPRS (General Packet Radio Service, GPRS). And it can identify out the transformer running state according to the acquisition data. The test results show that the method proposed has an excellent performance on correct ratio. And it can overcome the disadvantage of the traditional three-ratio method which lacks of fault coding and no fault types in the existent coding. Combining the wireless communication technology with the monitoring technology, the designed and developed system can greatly improve the real-time and continuity for the transformer' condition monitoring and fault diagnosis.

  5. Climate change induced transformations of agricultural systems: insights from a global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclère, D.; Havlík, P.; Fuss, S.; Schmid, E.; Mosnier, A.; Walsh, B.; Valin, H.; Herrero, M.; Khabarov, N.; Obersteiner, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change might impact crop yields considerably and anticipated transformations of agricultural systems are needed in the coming decades to sustain affordable food provision. However, decision-making on transformational shifts in agricultural systems is plagued by uncertainties concerning the nature and geography of climate change, its impacts, and adequate responses. Locking agricultural systems into inadequate transformations costly to adjust is a significant risk and this acts as an incentive to delay action. It is crucial to gain insight into how much transformation is required from agricultural systems, how robust such strategies are, and how we can defuse the associated challenge for decision-making. While implementing a definition related to large changes in resource use into a global impact assessment modelling framework, we find transformational adaptations to be required of agricultural systems in most regions by 2050s in order to cope with climate change. However, these transformations widely differ across climate change scenarios: uncertainties in large-scale development of irrigation span in all continents from 2030s on, and affect two-thirds of regions by 2050s. Meanwhile, significant but uncertain reduction of major agricultural areas affects the Northern Hemisphere’s temperate latitudes, while increases to non-agricultural zones could be large but uncertain in one-third of regions. To help reducing the associated challenge for decision-making, we propose a methodology exploring which, when, where and why transformations could be required and uncertain, by means of scenario analysis.

  6. Use of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 18r12v and paromomycin selection for transformation of Brachypodium distachyon and Brachypodium sylvaticum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Collier, Ray; Bragg, Jennifer; Hernandez, Bryan T.; Vogel, John P.; Thilmony, Roger

    2016-05-24

    In this study, the genetic transformation of monocot grasses is a resource intensive process, the quality and efficiency of which is dependent in part upon the method of DNA introduction, as well as the ability to effectively separate transformed from wildtype tissue. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brachypodium has relied mainly on Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1. Currently the antibiotic hygromycin B has been the selective agent of choice for robust identification of transgenic calli in Brachypodium distachyon and Brachypodium sylvaticum but few other chemicals have been shown to work as well for selection of transgenic Brachypodium cells in tissue culture. This studymore » demonstrates that Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 18r12v and paromomycin selection can be successfully used for the efficient generation of transgenic B. distachyon and B. sylvaticurn. Additionally we observed that the transformation rates were similar to or higher than those obtained with A. turnefaciens strain AGL1 and hygromycin selection. The A. rhizogenes strain 18r12v harboring the pARS1 binary vector and paromomycin selection is an effective means of generating transgenic Brachypodium plants. This novel approach will facilitate the transgenic complementation of T-DNA knockout mutants of B. distachyon which were created using hygromycin selection, as well as aid the implementation of more complex genome manipulation strategies which require multiple rounds of transformation.« less

  7. Use of Agrobacterium rhizogenes Strain 18r12v and Paromomycin Selection for Transformation of Brachypodium distachyon and Brachypodium sylvaticum

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Ray; Bragg, Jennifer; Hernandez, Bryan T.; Vogel, John P.; Thilmony, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The genetic transformation of monocot grasses is a resource intensive process, the quality and efficiency of which is dependent in part upon the method of DNA introduction, as well as the ability to effectively separate transformed from wildtype tissue. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brachypodium has relied mainly on Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1. Currently the antibiotic hygromycin B has been the selective agent of choice for robust identification of transgenic calli in Brachypodium distachyon and Brachypodium sylvaticum but few other chemicals have been shown to work as well for selection of transgenic Brachypodium cells in tissue culture. This study demonstrates that Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 18r12v and paromomycin selection can be successfully used for the efficient generation of transgenic B. distachyon and B. sylvaticum. Additionally we observed that the transformation rates were similar to or higher than those obtained with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 and hygromycin selection. The A. rhizogenes strain 18r12v harboring the pARS1 binary vector and paromomycin selection is an effective means of generating transgenic Brachypodium plants. This novel approach will facilitate the transgenic complementation of T-DNA knockout mutants of B. distachyon which were created using hygromycin selection, as well as aid the implementation of more complex genome manipulation strategies which require multiple rounds of transformation. PMID:27252729

  8. Regulation of astaxanthin and its intermediates through cloning and genetic transformation of β-carotene ketolase in Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Kathiresan, S; Chandrashekar, Arun; Ravishankar, G A; Sarada, R

    2015-02-20

    Astaxanthin, a high-value ketocarotenoid used in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries is mainly produced from green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis. It is biosynthesized by the action of key enzyme, β-carotene ketolase (BKT) on β-carotene through intermediates echinenone and canthaxanthin. In this study, the β-carotene ketolase (bkt) gene was isolated from H. pluvialis and cloned in a vector pRT100 and further mobilized to a binary vector pCAMBIA 1304. The T-DNA of pCAMBIA 1304, which consists of cloned bkt, was successfully transformed to H. pluvialis through Agrobacterium mediation. The cloning and transformation of bkt in H. pluvialis was confirmed by Southern blotting and also by PCR analysis. Total carotenoids and astaxanthin content in the transformed cells were found to be 2-3-fold higher, while the intermediates like echinenone and canthaxanthin were found to be 8-10-fold higher than in the control cells. The expression level of carotenogenic genes like phytoene synthase (psy), phytoene desaturase (pds), lycopene cyclase (lcy), bkt, and β-carotene hydroxylase (bkh) were found to be higher in transformed cells compared to the non-transformed (NT) H. pluvialis. PMID:25612872

  9. Morpho-anatomical characterization of mature embryo-derived callus of rice (Oryza sativa L.) suitable for transformation.

    PubMed

    Bevitori, R; Popielarska-Konieczna, M; dos Santos, E M; Grossi-de-Sá, M F; Petrofeza, S

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to morpho-anatomically characterize embryogenic rice calli during early induction of somatic embryogenesis of three Brazilian rice cultivars. Herein, we explored embryogenic units (EUs) from 2-week-old cut proliferated calli to verify whether they were suitable for Agrobacterium tumefasciens-mediated transformation. Histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze these types of calli during early rice callogenesis in the cultivars BRS Primavera, BRS Bonança, and BRS Caiapó. The characteristics of the embryogenic cells were preserved in the EUs, which showed a globular, compact structure that contained tightly packed cells and thus rendered the cells suitable for transformation. The EUs of BRS Caiapó also maintained the characteristics of the non-embryogenic callus, such as an elongated morphology and a lack of cellular organization. In general, the observations of the histological sections corresponded with those of the SEM images. The histological analysis suggested that all cultivars used in these experiments have morphogenic potential. The EUs from proliferated 2-week-old cut calli maintained their embryogenic features. The EUs were subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, which exhibited a regeneration frequency of 58 % for transformed hygromycin-resistant cell lines. These results show that EUs from proliferated 2-week-old cut calli are suitable for plant transformation. PMID:24085343

  10. Early Anthropogenic Transformation of the Danube-Black Sea System

    PubMed Central

    Giosan, Liviu; Coolen, Marco J. L.; Kaplan, Jed O.; Constantinescu, Stefan; Filip, Florin; Filipova-Marinova, Mariana; Kettner, Albert J.; Thom, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Over the last century humans have altered the export of fluvial materials leading to significant changes in morphology, chemistry, and biology of the coastal ocean. Here we present sedimentary, paleoenvironmental and paleogenetic evidence to show that the Black Sea, a nearly enclosed marine basin, was affected by land use long before the changes of the Industrial Era. Although watershed hydroclimate was spatially and temporally variable over the last ~3000 years, surface salinity dropped systematically in the Black Sea. Sediment loads delivered by Danube River, the main tributary of the Black Sea, significantly increased as land use intensified in the last two millennia, which led to a rapid expansion of its delta. Lastly, proliferation of diatoms and dinoflagellates over the last five to six centuries, when intensive deforestation occurred in Eastern Europe, points to an anthropogenic pulse of river-borne nutrients that radically transformed the food web structure in the Black Sea. PMID:22937219

  11. Synthesis of Arbitrary Unitary Transformations in Quantum Systems by Householder Reflections

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2007-12-26

    We demonstrate that Householder reflections emerge naturally in the propagator of a coherently driven degenerate two-level system. Such reflections are a very powerful tool for constructing arbitrary unitary transformations of an N-state quantum system. We present examples for construction of discrete Fourier transforms, superposition-to-superposition navigation between pure states, engineering of arbitrary mixed states, and entanglement of trapped ions.

  12. Transforming XML-based electronic patient records for use in medical case based reasoning systems.

    PubMed

    Abidi, S S; Manickam, S

    2000-01-01

    Electronic patient records (EPR) can be regarded as an implicit source of clinical behaviour and problem-solving knowledge, systematically compiled by clinicians. We present an approach, together with its computational implementation, to pro-actively transform XML-based EPR into specialised Clinical Cases (CC) in the realm of Medical Case Base Systems. The 'correct' transformation of EPR to CC involves structural, terminological and conceptual standardisation, which is achieved by a confluence of techniques and resources, such as XML, UMLS (meta-thesaurus) and medical knowledge ontologies. We present below the functional architecture of a Medical Case-Base Reasoning Info-Structure (MCRIS) that features two distinct, yet related, functionalities: (1) a generic medical case-based reasoning system for decision-support activities; and (2) an EPR-CC transformation system to transform typical EPR's to CC. PMID:11187645

  13. T-DNA transfer and T-DNA integration efficiencies upon Arabidopsis thaliana root explant cocultivation and floral dip transformation.

    PubMed

    Ghedira, Rim; De Buck, Sylvie; Van Ex, Frédéric; Angenon, Geert; Depicker, Ann

    2013-12-01

    T-DNA transfer and integration frequencies during Agrobacterium-mediated root explant cocultivation and floral dip transformations of Arabidopsis thaliana were analyzed with and without selection for transformation-competent cells. Based on the presence or absence of CRE recombinase activity without or with the CRE T-DNA being integrated, transient expression versus stable transformation was differentiated. During root explant cocultivation, continuous light enhanced the number of plant cells competent for interaction with Agrobacterium and thus the number of transient gene expression events. However, in transformation competent plant cells, continuous light did not further enhance cotransfer or cointegration frequencies. Upon selection for root transformants expressing a first T-DNA, 43-69 % of these transformants showed cotransfer of another non-selected T-DNA in two different light regimes. However, integration of the non-selected cotransferred T-DNA occurred only in 19-46 % of these transformants, indicating that T-DNA integration in regenerating root cells limits the transformation frequencies. After floral dip transformation, transient T-DNA expression without integration could not be detected, while stable T-DNA transformation occurred in 0.5-1.3 % of the T1 seedlings. Upon selection for floral dip transformants with a first T-DNA, 8-34 % of the transformants showed cotransfer of the other non-selected T-DNA and in 93-100 % of them, the T-DNA was also integrated. Therefore, a productive interaction between the agrobacteria and the female gametophyte, rather than the T-DNA integration process, restricts the floral dip transformation frequencies. PMID:23975012

  14. Computer transformation of partial differential equations into any coordinate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The use of tensors to provide a compact way of writing partial differential equations in a form valid in all coordinate systems is discussed. In order to find solutions to the equations with their boundary conditions they must be expressed in terms of the coordinate system under consideration. The process of arriving at these expressions from the tensor formulation was automated by a software system, TENSR. An allied system that analyzes the resulting expressions term by term and drops those that are negligible is also described.

  15. Surprises of the Transformer as a Coupled Oscillator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, J. P.; Silvestre, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    We study a system of two RLC oscillators coupled through a variable mutual inductance. The system is interesting because it exhibits some peculiar features of coupled oscillators: (i) there are two natural frequencies; (ii) in general, the resonant frequencies do not coincide with the natural frequencies; (iii) the resonant frequencies of both…

  16. Cloning of TPS gene from eelgrass species Zostera marina and its functional identification by genetic transformation in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Li, Qiuying; Weng, Manli; Wang, Xiuliang; Guo, Baotai; Wang, Li; Wang, Wei; Duan, Delin; Wang, Bin

    2013-12-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence (2613 bp) of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) gene of eelgrass Zostera marina (ZmTPS) was identified and cloned. Z. marina is a kind of seed-plant growing in sea water during its whole life history. The open reading frame (ORF) region of ZmTPS gene encodes a protein of 870 amino acid residues and a stop codon. The corresponding genomic DNA sequence is 3770 bp in length, which contains 3 exons and 2 introns. The ZmTPS gene was transformed into rice variety ZH11 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. After antibiotic screening, molecular characterization, salt-tolerance and trehalose content determinations, two transgenic lines resistant to 150 mM NaCL solutions were screened. Our study results indicated that the ZmTPS gene was integrated into the genomic DNA of the two transgenic rice lines and could be expressed well. Moreover, the detection of the transformed ZmTPS gene in the progenies of the two transgenic lines was performed from T1 to T4 generations; and results suggested that the transformed ZmTPS gene can be transmitted from parent to the progeny in transgenic rice. PMID:24035935

  17. AgarTrap-mediated genetic transformation using intact gemmae/gemmalings of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Tanaka, Shoko; Kodama, Yutaka

    2015-03-01

    The dioecious liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha L., is an emerging model plant. Various molecular biological techniques have been optimized for M. polymorpha for the past several years, and recently we reported a simplified Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method using sporelings (immature thalli from spores) of M. polymorpha. This method, termed AgarTrap (Agar-utilized Transformation with Pouring Solutions), completed by exchanging appropriate solutions on a single Petri dish to produce a sufficient number of independent transgenic sporelings. However, because spores are produced by crosses between males and females, the genetic backgrounds of resulting transgenic sporelings are not uniform. To easily produce transgenic liverworts with a uniform genetic background using AgarTrap, we developed an AgarTrap-mediated transformation method using intact gemmae/gemmalings produced by asexual reproduction. Using AgarTrap with male and female gemmae/gemmalings produced a sufficient number of independent transgenic gemmalings with uniform genetic backgrounds. The optimized transformation efficiencies were approximately 30 and 50 % in males and females, respectively. As with AgarTrap using sporelings, AgarTrap using intact gemmae/gemmalings will be useful in promoting studies of the molecular biology of M. polymorpha. PMID:25663453

  18. Development of a transformation system for the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata.

    PubMed

    Voronovsky, Andriy A; Abbas, Charles A; Fayura, Lyubov R; Kshanovska, Barbara V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Sybirna, Kateryna A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2002-08-01

    Riboflavin-overproducing mutants of the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata are used for industrial riboflavin production. This paper describes the development of an efficient transformation system for this species. Leucine-deficient mutants have been isolated from C. famata VKM Y-9 wild-type strain. Among them leu2 mutants were identified by transformation to leucine prototrophy with plasmids YEp13 and PRpL2 carrying the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LEU2 gene. DNA fragments (called CfARSs) conferring increased transformation frequencies and extrachromosomal replication were isolated from a C. famata gene library constructed on the integrative vector containing the S. cerevisiae LEU2 gene as a selective marker. The smallest cloned fragment (CfARS16) has been sequenced. This one had high adenine plus thymine (A+T) base pair content and a sequence homologous to the S. cerevisiae ARS Consensus Sequence. Methods for spheroplast transformation and electrotransformation of the yeast C. famata were optimized. They conferred high transformation frequencies (up to 10(5) transformants per microg DNA) with a C. famata leu2 mutant using replicative plasmids containing the S. cerevisiae LEU2 gene as a selective marker. Riboflavin-deficient mutants were isolated from the C. famata leu2 strain and their biochemical identification was carried out. Using the developed transformation system, several C. famata genomic fragments complementing mutations of structural genes for riboflavin biosynthesis (coding for GTP cyclohydrolase, reductase, dihydroxybutanone phosphate synthase and riboflavin synthase, respectively) have been cloned. PMID:12702288

  19. A novel gateway-compatible binary vector series (PC-GW) for flexible cloning of multiple genes for genetic transformation of plants.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Jyoti; Yalamanchili, Roopa; La Hovary, Christophe; Ji, Mikyoung; Rodriguez-Welsh, Maria; Aslett, Denise; Ganapathy, Sowmya; Grunden, Amy; Sederoff, Heike; Qu, Rongda

    2015-09-01

    The rapidly advancing field of plant synthetic biology requires transforming plants with multiple genes. This has sparked a growing interest in flexible plant transformation vectors, which can be used for multi-gene transformations. We have developed a novel binary vector series, named the PC-GW series (GenBank: KP826769-KP826773), for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. The PC-GW vectors use the pCAMBIA vector backbone, and contain NPTII, hpt, bar, mCherry or egfp genes as selectable markers for plant transformation. In a modified multiple cloning site (MCS) of the T-DNA region, we have placed the attR1, attR2 and ccdB sequences for rapid cloning of one to four genes by Gateway™-assisted recombination. In addition, we have introduced four meganuclease sites, and other restriction sites for multi-gene vector construction. Finally, we have placed a CaMV 35S promoter and a 35S terminator on the 5' and 3' ends of the MCS. The CaMV 35S promoter is flanked by PstI restriction sites that can be used to replace it with another promoter sequence if needed. The PC-GW vectors provide choices for selectable markers, cloning methods, and can accommodate up to eight gene constructs in a single T-DNA, thereby significantly reducing the number of transformations or crosses needed to generate multi-transgene expressing plants. PMID:26188330

  20. Optical cryptographic system employing multiple reference-based joint transform correlation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammed Nazrul; Karim, Mohammad Ataul; Alam, Mohammad Showkat; Asari, K. Vijayan

    2011-06-01

    An optical joint transform correlation-based cryptographic system is a used to feed multiple phase-shifted encryption keys into four parallel channels along with a to-be-encrypted signal in the form of an image. The resulting joint power spectra (JPS) signals are phase-shifted and then combined to yield a modified JPS signal. Inverse Fourier transformation of the modified JPS signal yields the secured encrypted image. For decryption purpose, the received encrypted signal is first Fourier transformed and multiplied by the encryption key used in encryption. The derived signal is then inverse Fourier transformed to generate the output signal. The proposed system offers a nonlinear encryption without the involvement of any complex mathematical operation on the encryption key otherwise required in similar encryption techniques and is invariant to noise. Computer simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme with binary, as well as gray images in both noise-free and noisy environment.

  1. "NONLINEAR DYNAMIC SYSTEMS RESPONSE TO NON-STATIONARY EXCITATION USING THE WAVELET TRANSFORM"

    SciTech Connect

    SPANOS, POL D.

    2006-01-15

    The objective of this research project has been the development of techniques for estimating the power spectra of stochastic processes using wavelet transform, and the development of related techniques for determining the response of linear/nonlinear systems to excitations which are described via the wavelet transform. Both of the objectives have been achieved, and the research findings have been disseminated in papers in archival journals and technical conferences.

  2. Transforming Energy Systems and Indian Initiatives in Intelligent Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razdan, Anil

    2014-07-01

    Ancient words of wisdom have remarkable clarity, brevity, universality and timelessness in their applicability. They cut across civilizations, systems, and situations, almost effortlessly. The positive take is that mistakes can be committed, but can be rectified. What may be appropriate in one situation, has to change in another context. Two proverbs from diverse civilizations are very relevant in the current context...

  3. Educating a New Majority: Transforming America's Educational System for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Laura I., Ed.; Hope, Richard O., Ed.

    This book presents 20 papers on the current status and future needs of disadvantaged minority students in the elementary, secondary, and higher education systems. Papers are grouped into four sections: current challenges to minority education; restructuring schools to foster minority student success; reforming higher education; and leadership…

  4. Note: An improved calibration system with phase correction for electronic transformers with digital output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Han-miao; Li, Hong-bin

    2015-08-01

    The existing electronic transformer calibration systems employing data acquisition cards cannot satisfy some practical applications, because the calibration systems have phase measurement errors when they work in the mode of receiving external synchronization signals. This paper proposes an improved calibration system scheme with phase correction to improve the phase measurement accuracy. We employ NI PCI-4474 to design a calibration system, and the system has the potential to receive external synchronization signals and reach extremely high accuracy classes. Accuracy verification has been carried out in the China Electric Power Research Institute, and results demonstrate that the system surpasses the accuracy class 0.05. Furthermore, this system has been used to test the harmonics measurement accuracy of all-fiber optical current transformers. In the same process, we have used an existing calibration system, and a comparison of the test results is presented. The system after improvement is suitable for the intended applications.

  5. Note: An improved calibration system with phase correction for electronic transformers with digital output

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Han-miao Li, Hong-bin

    2015-08-15

    The existing electronic transformer calibration systems employing data acquisition cards cannot satisfy some practical applications, because the calibration systems have phase measurement errors when they work in the mode of receiving external synchronization signals. This paper proposes an improved calibration system scheme with phase correction to improve the phase measurement accuracy. We employ NI PCI-4474 to design a calibration system, and the system has the potential to receive external synchronization signals and reach extremely high accuracy classes. Accuracy verification has been carried out in the China Electric Power Research Institute, and results demonstrate that the system surpasses the accuracy class 0.05. Furthermore, this system has been used to test the harmonics measurement accuracy of all-fiber optical current transformers. In the same process, we have used an existing calibration system, and a comparison of the test results is presented. The system after improvement is suitable for the intended applications.

  6. Note: An improved calibration system with phase correction for electronic transformers with digital output.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Han-miao; Li, Hong-bin

    2015-08-01

    The existing electronic transformer calibration systems employing data acquisition cards cannot satisfy some practical applications, because the calibration systems have phase measurement errors when they work in the mode of receiving external synchronization signals. This paper proposes an improved calibration system scheme with phase correction to improve the phase measurement accuracy. We employ NI PCI-4474 to design a calibration system, and the system has the potential to receive external synchronization signals and reach extremely high accuracy classes. Accuracy verification has been carried out in the China Electric Power Research Institute, and results demonstrate that the system surpasses the accuracy class 0.05. Furthermore, this system has been used to test the harmonics measurement accuracy of all-fiber optical current transformers. In the same process, we have used an existing calibration system, and a comparison of the test results is presented. The system after improvement is suitable for the intended applications. PMID:26329248

  7. Carbon Nanotube Computer: Transforming Scientific Discoveries into Working Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Subhasish

    2014-03-01

    The miniaturization of electronic devices has been the principal driving force behind the semiconductor industry, and has brought about major improvements in computational power and energy efficiency. Although advances with silicon-based electronics continue to be made, alternative technologies are being explored. Digital circuits based on transistors fabricated from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to outperform silicon by improving the energy- delay product, a metric of energy efficiency, by more than an order of magnitude. Hence, CNTs are an exciting complement to existing semiconductor technologies. However, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are subject to substantial inherent imperfections that pose major obstacles to the design of robust and very large-scale CNFET digital systems: (i) It is nearly impossible to guarantee perfect alignment and positioning of all CNTs. This limitation introduces stray conducting paths, resulting in incorrect circuit functionality. (ii) CNTs can be metallic or semiconducting depending on chirality. Metallic CNTs cause shorts resulting in excessive leakage and incorrect circuit functionality. A combination of design and processing technique overcomes these challenges by creating robust CNFET digital circuits that are immune to these inherent imperfections. This imperfection-immune design paradigm enables the first experimental demonstration of the carbon nanotube computer, and, more generally, arbitrary digital systems that can be built using CNFETs. The CNT computer is capable of performing multitasking: as a demonstration, we perform counting and integer-sorting simultaneously. In addition, we emulate 20 different instructions from the commercial MIPS instruction set to demonstrate the generality of our CNT computer. This is the most complex carbon-based electronic system yet demonstrated. It is a considerable advance because CNTs are prominent among a variety of emerging technologies that are being considered for the next

  8. The Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, K. J.; Bryce, J. G.; Brown, D.; Darwish, A.; Finkel, L.; Froburg, E.; Furman, T.; Guertin, L.; Hale, S. R.; Johnson, J.; Porter, W.; Smith, M.; Varner, R.; von Damm, K.

    2007-12-01

    A partnership between the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Dillard University, Elizabeth City State University, and Pennsylvania State University has been established to prepare middle and high school teachers to teach Earth and environmental sciences from a processes and systems approach. Specific project goals include: providing Earth system science content instruction; assisting teachers in implementing Earth system science in their own classrooms; and creating opportunities for pre-service teachers to experience authentic research with Earth scientists. TESSE programmatic components comprise (1) a two-week intensive summer institutes for current and future teachers; (2) eight-week research immersion experiences that match preservice teachers with Earth science faculty mentors; and (3) a science liaison program involving the pairing of inservice teachers with graduate students or future teachers. The first year of the program supported a total of 49 participants (42 inservice and preservice teachers, as well as 7 graduate fellows). All participants in the program attended an intensive two-week summer workshop at UNH, and the academic-year science liaison program is underway. In future summers, all partnering institutions will hold similar two-week summer institutes. UNH will offer a more advanced course geared towards "hot topics" and research techniques in the Earth and environmental sciences.

  9. Combining discrete cosine transform with clipping for PAPR reduction in intensity-modulated OFDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong-peng; Chen, Shou-fa; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Ming; Tang, Jin; Chen, Lin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal is reduced by combining the discrete cosine transform (DCT) with clipping in optical intensity-modulated direct-detection (IM/DD) OFDM systems. First, the data are transformed into new modified data by DCT. Second, the proposed scheme utilizes the clipping technique to further reduce the PAPR of OFDM signal. We experimentally demonstrate that the optical OFDM transmission system with this proposed scheme can achieve significant performance improvement in terms of PAPR and bit error rate (BER) compared with the original optical OFDM systems.

  10. A polarized digital shearing speckle pattern interferometry system based on temporal wavelet transformation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ziang; Gao, Zhan; Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Shengjia; Yang, Dong; Yuan, Hao; Qin, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Digital shearing speckle pattern interferometry (DSSPI) has been recognized as a practical tool in testing strain. The DSSPI system which is based on temporal analysis is attractive because of its ability to measure strain dynamically. In this paper, such a DSSPI system with Wollaston prism has been built. The principles and system arrangement are described and the preliminary experimental result of the displacement-derivative test of an aluminum plate is shown with the wavelet transformation method and the Fourier transformation method. The simulations have been conducted with the finite element method. The comparison of the results shows that quantitative measurement of displacement-derivative has been realized. PMID:26429424

  11. Transformation formulas relating geodetic coordinates to a tangent to Earth, plane coordinate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, L.

    1981-01-01

    Formulas and their approximation were developed to map geodetic position to an Earth tangent plane with an airport centered rectangular coordinate system. The transformations were developed for use in a terminal area air traffic model with deterministic aircraft traffic. The exact configured vehicle's approximation equations used in their precision microwave landing system navigation experiments.

  12. REMOTE MEASUREMENT OF GASEOUS POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS USING A MOBILE FOURIER TRANSFORM INTERFEROMETER SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A commercial Fourier transform interferometer system with telescopic optics has been installed in a van and used to make long-path absorption and single-ended emission measurements of gaseous pollutant concentrations at a number of geographical locations. The system covers the in...

  13. The Transformation of Ergonomic Affordances into Cultural Affordances: The Case of the Alnuset System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappini, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to study the ergonomic affordances offered by a system designed for educational aims and their transformation into cultural affordances? To this purpose, what references can we adopt? This work describes the theoretical framework used to realise this study referring to AlNuSet, a system realised within the EC ReMath project to…

  14. The Relationship between Chief Information Officer Transformational Leadership and Computing Platform Operating Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, George W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to relate the strength of Chief Information Officer (CIO) transformational leadership behaviors to 1 of 5 computing platform operating systems (OSs) that may be selected for a firm's Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) business system. Research shows executive leader behaviors may promote innovation through the use of…

  15. Step-up-to-Excellence: A Change Navigation Protocol for Transforming School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Francis M.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a protocol change leaders can use to navigate whole-system change in their school districts. The information describing the protocol will help change leaders in school districts and policymakers interested in whole-district change answer the question, "How do we transform our entire school system"? The protocol is…

  16. Holographic security system based on image domain joint transform correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Michael; Odinokov, Sergey B.; Bondarev, Leonid A.; Kurakin, Sergey V.; Matveyev, Sergey V.; Belyaev, V. S.

    2002-04-01

    We describe holographic security system providing machine reading of the holographic information and matching it with the reference one by optical means. The security holographic mark includes several test holograms and should be applied to a carrier: ID-card, paper seal etc. Each of the holograms stores a part of entire image, stored in the reference hologram. Image domain JTC is used to match the images retrieved from the holograms. Being recorded and retrieved, the images provides correlation peaks with special positions, with a strict dependence on the tested and reference holograms mutual shifts. The system proposed works like usual JTC with a few useful differences. The image domain recognizing is a result of Fresnel holographic technique of the images recording. It provides more effective usage of the light addressed SLM (LASLM) work pupil and resolution in more simple and compact device. Few correlation peaks enhances the device recognizing probability. We describe the real-time experimental arrangement based on LASLM. The experimental results are in a good correspondence with computer simulations. We also show in practice that good results may be obtained while using the image domain JTC technique in despite of the low LASLM resolution and the device compact size.

  17. Transforming the NAS: The Next Generation Air Traffic Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    The next-generation air traffic control system must be designed to safely and efficiently accommodate the large growth of traffic expected in the near future. It should be sufficiently scalable to contend with the factor of 2 or more increase in demand expected by the year 2020. Analysis has shown that the current method of controlling air traffic cannot be scaled up to provide such levels of capacity. Therefore, to achieve a large increase in capacity while also giving pilots increased freedom to optimize their flight trajectories requires a fundamental change in the way air traffic is controlled. The key to achieving a factor of 2 or more increase in airspace capacity is to automate separation monitoring and control and to use an air-ground data link to send trajectories and clearances directly between ground-based and airborne systems. In addition to increasing capacity and offering greater flexibility in the selection of trajectories, this approach also has the potential to increase safety by reducing controller and pilot errors that occur in routine monitoring and voice communication tasks.

  18. Gauge transformations for dynamical systems with first- and second-class constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, R. ); Kimura, T. )

    1990-02-15

    Gauge theories with second-class constraints are investigated. The relation between primary first-class constraints and gauge degrees of freedom is shown. Next, a method to obtain the generator of the gauge transformation is presented. The generator is expressed in terms of a linear combination of constraints. In the expression, all constraints are employed without distinguishing the first- from the second-class ones. The generator consists of the generator of the pure gauge transformation and that of global symmetry transformations with constant parameters. The method to construct the generator can be applied to a system having only second-class constraints, and extended Noether currents (generators) with constant parameters are obtained. If the first-class constraints and the Hamiltonian are in involution, the generator of pure gauge transformations can be obtained using only the first-class constraints.

  19. Mechanism of Occurring Over-Voltage Phenomena in Distributed Power System on Energization of Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakachi, Yoshiki; Ueda, Fukashi; Kajikawa, Takuya; Amau, Tooru; Kameyama, Hirokazu; Ito, Hisanori

    This paper verifies the mechanism of occurring over voltage phenomena in the distributed power system on energizing the transformer. This over-voltage, which is observed at the actual distributed power system, with heavy inrush current is found to occur at about 0.1-0.2sec after the energizing and continue for a duration of more than 0.1[sec]. There is a concern that this over-voltage may operate the protection relay and deteriorate the insulation of apparatus. It is basically caused by the resonance between the shunt capacitors and saturated/unsaturated magnetizing inductance of transformer, system inductance. By using analytical formulation of a simple equivalent circuit, its mechanism has been verified through simulations carried out by using EMTP. Moreover, the sympathetic interaction between transformers is prolonged the duration of the over-voltage by the field test data is discussed in this paper.

  20. Children's behavioral health system transformation: one state's context and strategies for sustained change.

    PubMed

    Harburger, Deborah S; Stephan, Sharon H; Kaye, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the State of Maryland as a case study of sustained change efforts in the service delivery system for children with significant behavioral health needs and their families. A punctuated equilibrium paradigm is introduced to describe Maryland's behavioral health system transformation over the course of three decades. The context and specific strategies that characterized Maryland's execution of its recent Mental Health Transformation State Incentive Grant are highlighted. There is a discussion of one of the pinnacle achievements of Maryland's transformation efforts, the recent statewide establishment of care management entities for children with behavioral health challenges, and its implications for behavioral health in the context of health care reform changes. This case study illustrates how a state can systematically and incrementally develop systems of care for children and families that are values-based, sustainable, and flexible. PMID:23657753

  1. Spatial instability of the rift in the St. Paul multifault transform fracture system, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, S. Yu.; Zaraiskaya, Yu. A.; Mazarovich, A. O.; Efimov, V. N.; Sokolov, N. S.

    2016-05-01

    The structure of the acoustic basement of the eastern part of the St. Paul multifault transform fracture system hosts rift paleovalleys and a paleonodal depression that mismatch the position of the currently active zones. This displacement zone, which is composed of five fault troughs, is unstable in terms of the position of the rift segments, which jumped according to redistribution of stresses. The St. Paul system is characterized by straightening of the transform transition between two remote segments of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The eastern part of the system contains anomalous bright-spot-like reflectors on the flattened basement, which is a result of atypical magmatism, that forms the standard ridge relief of the acoustic basement. Deformations of the acoustic basement have a presedimentation character. The present-day deformations with lower amplitude in comparison to the basement are accompanied by acoustic brightening of the sedimentary sequence. The axial Bouguer anomalies in the east of the system continue to the north for 120 km from the active segments of the St. Paul system. Currently seismically active segments of the spreading system are characterized by increasing amplitudes of the E-W displacement along the fault troughs. Cross-correlation of the lengths of the active structural elements of the MAR zone (segments of the ridge and transform fracture zones of displacement) indicates that, statistically, the multifault transform fracture system is a specific type of oceanic strike-slip faults.

  2. Fuel salt and container material studies for MOSART transforming system

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatiev, V.; Feynberg, O.; Merzlyakov, A.; Surenkov, A.; Zagnitko, A.; Afonichkin, V.; Bovet, A.; Khokhlov, V.; Subbotin, V.; Gordeev, M.; Panov, A.; Toropov, A.

    2013-07-01

    A study is under progress to examine the feasibility of single stream Molten Salt Actinide Recycling and Transmuting system without and with Th support (MOSART) fuelled with different compositions of actinide tri-fluorides (AnF{sub 3}) from used LWR fuel. New fast-spectrum design options with homogeneous core and fuel salts with high enough solubility for AnF{sub 3} are being examined because of new goals. The flexibility of single fluid MOSART concept with Th support is underlined, particularly, possibility of its operation in self-sustainable mode (Conversion Ratio: CR=1) using different loadings and make up. The paper summarizes the most current status of fuel salt and container material data for the MOSART concept received within ISTC-3749 and ROSATOM-MARS projects. Key physical and chemical properties of various fluoride fuel salts are reported. The issues like salt purification, the electroreduction of U(IV) to U(III) in LiF-ThF{sub 4} and the electroreduction of Yb(III) to Yb(II) in LiF-NaF are detailed.

  3. Two-dimensional phase transformation probed by second harmonic generation: Oscillatory transformation of the K/Al(111) system

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, Z.C.; Plummer, E.W. |

    1995-12-31

    The technique of optical second harmonic generation is used to study phase transformations at two-dimensional surfaces and interfaces. Examples are given to illustrate that changes in surface symmetry, adsorption configuration, and electronic structure can be detected by this nonlinear optical technique. An oscillatory phase transformation of potassium adsorbed atoms on Al(111) probed by second harmonic generation is analyzed in detail.

  4. Diagnosis System Based on Wavelet Transform, Fractal Dimension and Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ramsisi, Abdallah M.; Khalil, Hassan A.

    In this study we introduce a diagnosis system based on wavelet and fractal dimension for diagnose the Heart Mitral Valve Diseases. This study deals with the feature extraction from the Doppler signal waveform at heart mitral valve using ultrasound. Wavelet packet transforms, Fourier transform and Fractal Dimension methods are used for feature extraction from the DHS signals. The back-propagation neural network is used to classify the extracted features. The system has been evaluated in 162 samples that contain 89 normal and 73 abnormal. The results showed that the classification was about 91% for normal and abnormal cases.

  5. A Population Health Approach to System Transformation for Children's Healthy Development.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Paul H; Sood, Aradhana Bela

    2016-04-01

    What if the goal of child health services was not "merely" treating, or even preventing, childhood diseases and disorders, but was expanded to that of promoting children's optimal healthy development? Pediatrics has evolved from an exclusive focus on the treatment of illness to the opportunity to promote children's healthy development. This evolution has profound implications for the content of child health services and programs, for system transformation, and for public policy. Enhanced understanding of the impact of social determinants on children's health and developmental outcomes underscores the importance of an evolving framework for system transformation with key policy implications. PMID:26980132

  6. A new inducible expression system in a transformed green alga, Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Niu, Y F; Zhang, M H; Xie, W H; Li, J N; Gao, Y F; Yang, W D; Liu, J S; Li, H Y

    2011-01-01

    Genetic transformation is useful for basic research and applied biotechnology. However, genetic transformation of microalgae is usually quite difficult due to the technical limitations of existing methods. We cloned the promoter and terminator of the nitrate reductase gene from the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum and used them for optimization of a transformation system of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris. This species has been used for food production and is a promising candidate as a bioreactor for large-scale production of value-added proteins. A construct was made containing the CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) reporter gene driven by the nitrate reductase promoter. This construct was transferred into the C. vulgaris genome by electroporation. Expression of CAT in transgenic Chlorella conferred resistance to the antibiotic chloramphenicol and enabled growth in selective media. Overall efficiency for the transformation was estimated to be approximately 0.03%, which is relatively high compared with other available Chlorella transformation systems. Expression of CAT was induced in the presence of nitrate and inhibited in the presence of ammonium as a sole nitrogen source. This study presented an inducible recombinant gene expression system, also providing more gene regulation elements with potential for biotechnological applications. PMID:22033900

  7. Color information verification system based on singular value decomposition in gyrator transform domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq

    2014-06-01

    A new color image security system based on singular value decomposition (SVD) in gyrator transform (GT) domains is proposed. In the encryption process, a color image is decomposed into red, green and blue channels. Each channel is independently modulated by random phase masks and then separately gyrator transformed at different parameters. The three gyrator spectra are joined by multiplication to get one gray ciphertext. The ciphertext is separated into U, S, and V parts by SVD. All the three parts are individually gyrator transformed at different transformation angles. The three encoded information can be assigned to different authorized users for highly secure verification. Only when all the authorized users place the U, S, and V parts in correct multiplication order in the verification system, the correct information can be obtained with all the right keys. In the proposed method, SVD offers one-way asymmetrical decomposition algorithm and it is an optimal matrix decomposition in a least-square sense. The transformation angles of GT provide very sensitive additional keys. The pre-generated keys for red, green and blue channels are served as decryption (private) keys. As all the three encrypted parts are the gray scale ciphertexts with stationary white noise distributions, which have camouflage property to some extent. These advantages enhance the security and robustness. Numerical simulations are presented to support the viability of the proposed verification system.

  8. Mental Health System Transformation: Drivers for Change, Organizational Preparation, Engaging Partners and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Corring, Deborah J; Whittall, Sandy; MustinPowell, Jill; Jarmain, Sarah; Chapman, Patty; Sussman, Sam

    2016-01-01

    St. Joseph's Health Care London (hereafter referred to as St. Joseph's) is a publicly funded hospital that has led mental health (MH) service system transformation in south west Ontario following directives from the Health Services Restructuring Commission (HSRC) (Sinclair 2000). This paper documents how provincial policy; HSRC directives; use of change management activities; organizational planning; and partnerships with other hospitals, community agencies and LHINs drove, shaped and accomplished the transformational change. The transformation included divestment of beds and related ambulatory services to four other hospitals, closure of beds and employment services and the construction of two state-of-the-art facilities. This paper documents the tracking of system performance measures and the outcomes that resulted. PMID:26854541

  9. System design of Fourier transform imaging spectrometer using tunable lateral shearing splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xin; Li, Jianxin; Bai, Caixun; Zhu, Rihong

    2015-04-01

    The Fourier transform spectrometer without slit has the advantages of high radiation throughput and high spatial resolution. It can be used for detecting more details of the spectral and spatial information. We present the initial structure of the collimator and objective based on the analysis of the principle of the Fourier transform spectrometer. Then the collimator and objective are optimized by Zemax. The MTF of the cut-off frequency is great than 0.7. The tunable lateral shearing splitter is used as the interferometer, which makes the system more compact compared with the system using Sagnac lateral shearing splitter. The method to calculate the geometric dimension of the splitter is presented. Then the complete Fourier transform spectrometer is designed. The MTF of the cut-off frequency is great than 0.6. And the largest RMS of the spot is less than 6μm.

  10. Performance of Dower's inverse transform and Frank lead system for Identification of Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Aranda, A; Bonizzi, P; Karel, J; Peeters, R

    2015-08-01

    This study performs a comparison between Dower's inverse transform and Frank lead system for Myocardial Infarction (MI) identification. We have selected a set of relevant features for MI detection from the vectorcardiogram and used the lasso method after that to build a model for the Dower's inverse transform and one for the Frank leads system. Then we analyzed the performance between both models on MI detection. The proposed methods have been tested using PhysioNet PTB database that contains 550 records from which 368 are MIs. Two main conclusions are coming from this study. The first one is that Dower's inverse transform performs equally well than Frank leads in identification of MI patients. The second one is that lead positions have a large influence on the accuracy of MI patient identification. PMID:26737293

  11. Memory effects in noninteracting isolated systems from dynamical geometry transformations in ultracold quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chen-Yen; Chien, Chin-Chun

    Memory effects have been of broad interest and particularly relevant in condensate matter systems where dynamical properties depend on history. Here we explore possibilities of observing memory effects in simple isolated quantum systems undergoing geometry transformations. By transforming into lattices supporting flat-bands consisting of localized states, memory effects could be observed in ultracold atoms in optical lattices due to different time scales of localized and mobile atoms. As an optical lattice is continuously transformed from a triangular lattice into a kagome or square lattice, the system reach a non-thermal quasi-steady state. In the absence of interactions and dissipations, the emergence of steady states are highly nontrivial and crucial in identifying memory effects unambiguously. Moreover, when the lattices transform from a triangular lattice into a kagome lattice with a flat band, history-dependent density distributions even in noninteracting systems can be observed in fermionic as well as bosonic systems. Rapid growth of cold atom technology and possibilities of various mechanisms for inducing memory effect promise interesting applications of novel quantum devices utilizing memory effect, especially in the thriving field of atomtronics. (arXiv:1510.08978)

  12. Image compensation using wavelet transform for tilt servo control in holographic data storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jang Hyun; Yang, Hyunseok

    2015-09-01

    A holographic data storage system is very important in the division of a mass storage device. In this regard, tilt servo control is the main problem in the study of holographic data storage system. Tracking servo and tilt servo control are very important research area in holographic data storage system. In this paper, we propose two algorithms. The first algorithm is image compensation using the wavelet transform method and the second algorithm is intelligent servo control using fuzzy rules for the exact tilt control in the holographic data storage system. We need to obtain a good pattern in binary data using a CMOS camera. We have developed two step-by-step operations. Firstly, to obtain exact image data, image data compensation carried out by the wavelet transform method. Finally, we have realized an intelligence control model using fuzzy rules, which was generated by a subtractive clustering algorithm. Therefore, we control radial and tangential tilt servo control using fuzzy rules in a holographic data storage system and perform image data compensation by the wavelet transform method. Our system does not require responses in the tilt servo control system. Therefore, this system has the advantage terms of time. Consequently, the practical pattern of tilt servo control was found by an intelligence algorithm through image processing in the holographic data storage system.

  13. Postdispersion system for astronomical observations with Fourier transform spectrometers in the thermal infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedermann, Guenter; Jennings, D. E.; Hanel, R. H.; Kunde, V. G.; Moseley, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    A postdispersion system for astronomical observations with Fourier transform spectrometers in the thermal infrared has been developed which improves the sensitivity of radiation noise limited observations by reducing the spectral range incident on the detector. Special attention is given to the first-generation blocked impurity band detector. Planetary, solar, and stellar observations are reported.

  14. Laplace and Z transforms of linear dynamical systems and conic sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, Marianito R.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the solution trajectories of linear continuous and discrete dynamical systems and show that in the Laplace and Z transform spaces, respectively, they lie on the intersections of hypersurfaces described by second-degree polynomial equations. In particular, in two dimensions, these intersections are conic sections whose types are determined by the eigenvalues of the coefficient matrices.

  15. Chemical Transformation System: Cloud Based Cheminformatic Services to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems that account for the fate/transport of organics frequently require physicochemical properties as well as transformation products. A myriad of chemical property databases exist but these can be difficult to access and often do not co...

  16. Setting the Foundation for Transforming the U.S. Energy System

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jon M.; Virden, Jud W.; Walton, Terry L.; Brog, Terrence K.; Stiles, Dennis L.; Alderson, Karis P.; Melland, Jodi C.; Hobbs, Lori L.; Martinez, Sam J.; Quadrel, Marilyn J.; Quinn, Rod K.

    2008-12-29

    Setting the Foundation for Transforming the U.S. Energy System: Three Federal Action Plans for Near- and Long-term Success is a short document written for the incoming U.S. Federal Administration's Transistion Team. The document represents what we believe to be foundational elements of a broad campaign to make rapid progress towards these goals for the longterm transformation necessary to meet our national economic, security, and environmental goals. The three immediate action plans include: * Creating Tomorrow’s Electricity Infrastructure * Decarbonizing the Energy Economy *Enabling Science-Based Policy

  17. The 3D representation of the new transformation from the terrestrial to the celestial system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, V.; de Viron, O.; Capitaine, N.

    2006-08-01

    To study the sky from the Earth or to use navigation satellites, we need two reference systems, a celestial reference system, as fixed as possible with respect to the inertial frame, and a terrestrial reference system, rotating with the Earth. Additionally, we need a way to go from one reference system to the other. This transformation involves the Earth rotation rate, the polar motion, and the precession-nutation. This transformation is done using an intermediate system, in which the Earth rotation it-self is corrected for. Previously one used an intermediate system related to the equinox; the new paradigm involved a point, denoted the Celestial Intermediate Origin (CIO), which, due to its kinematical property of "Non Rotating Origin", allows better describing the length-of-day of the Earth. The use or not of the CIO only affects this intermediate frame. The new transformation system involving the CIO is additionally much simpler. Moreover, the use of the CIO allows an elegant separation between the polar motion, the precession nutation and the rotation rate variation. In this presentation we will show 3D representations that explain all this.

  18. Transforming to a computerized system for nursing care: organizational success within Magnet idealism.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Carolyn L; Elie, Leslie G; Vidal, Elizabeth C; Vasserman, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In reaching the goal for standardized, quality care, a not-for-profit healthcare system consisting of seven institutional entities is transforming nursing practice guidelines, patient care workflow, and patient documents into electronic, online, real-time modalities for use across departments and all healthcare delivery entities of the system. Organizational structure and a strategic plan were developed for the 2-year Clinical Transformation Project. The Siemens Patient Care Document System was adopted and adapted to the hospitals' documentation and information needs. Two fast-track sessions of more than 100 nurses and representatives from other health disciplines were held to standardize assessments, histories, care protocols, and interdisciplinary plans of care for the top 10 diagnostic regulatory groups. Education needs of the users were addressed. After the first year, a productive, functional system is evidenced. For example, the bar-coded Medication Administration Check System is in full use on the clinical units of one of the hospitals, and the other institutional entities are at substantial stages of implementation of Patient Care Documentation System. The project requires significant allocation of personnel and financial resources for a highly functional informatics system that will transform clinical care. The project exemplifies four of the Magnet ideals and serves as a model for others who may be deciding about launching a similar endeavor. PMID:20182156

  19. Microscopic pathway of a polymorphic transformation in Al90 Sm10 system by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ye, Zhuo; Mendelev, Mikhail; Ott, Ryan; Kramer, Matthew; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2015-03-01

    When as-quenched amorphous Al-10.at%Sm alloy is isochronally heated up, it can display a nearly perfect polymorphic transformation into a complex cubic phase. Knowledge about the pathway of this transformation plays a key role for understanding the phase selection in this system driven far from equilibrium. We successfully simulated the growth of this crystalline phase from the amorphous state using molecular dynamics, with the help of a preexisting crystalline seed. The as-grown structure is in good agreement with experimental X-ray diffraction measurement. By analyzing the atomic trajectories during growth, we show the microscopic pathway linking the amorphous and crystalline phases and how the transformation is controlled by the driving force, atomic diffusivities and structural topologies.

  20. ABCD matrices as similarity transformations of Wigner matrices and periodic systems in optics.

    PubMed

    Başkal, S; Kim, Y S

    2009-09-01

    It is shown that every ray transfer matrix, often called the ABCD matrix, can be written as a similarity transformation of one of the Wigner matrices that dictate the internal space-time symmetries of relativistic particles, while the transformation matrix is a rotation preceded by a squeeze. The implementation of this mathematical procedure is described, and how it facilitates the calculations for scattering processes in periodic systems is explained. Multilayer optics and resonators such as laser cavities are discussed in detail. For both cases, the one-cycle transfer matrix is written as a similarity transformation of one of the Wigner matrices, rendering the computation of the ABCD matrix for an arbitrary number of cycles tractable. PMID:19721691

  1. Investigation of a --> w transformation in the Zr-Hf system to 42 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Li-chung; Manghnani, Murli H.; Katahara, Keith W.

    1981-03-01

    Structural transformations in pure Zr and Hf and their alloys with 5.2, 21.1, 42.9, and 71.3 at . % Hf have been investigated up to 42 GPa (1 GPa = 10 kbar) at room temperature (˜22 °C) by in situ high-pressure x-ray diffraction techniques, using a diamond-anvil pressure cell. The pressure of transformation a→w increases rapidly with increasing Hf content. On extrapolation, the pressure of transformation a→w for Hf is estimated to be in the order of 60 GPa. Values of the c0/a0 ratio of the pressure-induced w phase for Zr and its alloys are 0.621±0.002, in good agreement with those of heat-treated w phases in the Zr-Nb system.

  2. Performance analysis of a finite radon transform in OFDM system under different channel models

    SciTech Connect

    Dawood, Sameer A.; Anuar, M. S.; Fayadh, Rashid A.; Malek, F.; Abdullah, Farrah Salwani

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a class of discrete Radon transforms namely Finite Radon Transform (FRAT) was proposed as a modulation technique in the realization of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). The proposed FRAT operates as a data mapper in the OFDM transceiver instead of the conventional phase shift mapping and quadrature amplitude mapping that are usually used with the standard OFDM based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), by the way that ensure increasing the orthogonality of the system. The Fourier domain approach was found here to be the more suitable way for obtaining the forward and inverse FRAT. This structure resulted in a more suitable realization of conventional FFT- OFDM. It was shown that this application increases the orthogonality significantly in this case due to the use of Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) twice, namely, in the data mapping and in the sub-carrier modulation also due to the use of an efficient algorithm in determining the FRAT coefficients called the optimal ordering method. The proposed approach was tested and compared with conventional OFDM, for additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, flat fading channel, and multi-path frequency selective fading channel. The obtained results showed that the proposed system has improved the bit error rate (BER) performance by reducing inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-carrier interference (ICI), comparing with conventional OFDM system.

  3. Classification of the quantum two-dimensional superintegrable systems with quadratic integrals and the Staeckel transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Daskaloyannis, C. Tanoudis, Y.

    2008-05-15

    The two-dimensional quantum superintegrable systems with quadratic integrals of motion on a manifold are classified by using the quadratic associative algebra of the integrals of motion. There are six general fundamental classes of quantum superintegrable systems corresponding to the classical ones. Analytic formulas for the involved integrals are calculated in all the cases. All the known quantum superintegrable systems with quadratic integrals are classified as special cases of these six general classes. The coefficients of the quadratic associative algebra of integrals are calculated and they are compared to the coefficients of the corresponding coefficients of the Poisson quadratic algebra of the classical systems. The quantum coefficients are similar to the classical ones multiplied by a quantum coefficient -{h_bar}{sup 2} plus a quantum deformation of order {h_bar}{sup 4} and {h_bar}{sup 6}. The systems inside the classes are transformed using Staeckel transforms in the quantum case as in the classical case. The general form of the Staeckel transform between superintegrable systems is discussed.

  4. Thermal Constraints on the Rheology of Segmented Oceanic Transform Fault Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfson-Schwehr, M. L.; Boettcher, M. S.; Behn, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridge transform fault (RTF) systems may be comprised of two or more fault segments that are physically offset by an extensional basin or intra-transform spreading center. These intra-transform offsets affect the thermal structure underlying the transform fault and may act as barriers to rupture propagation. The seismogenic zone of RTFs is thermally controlled and limited by the 600°C isotherm, as evidenced by earthquake hypocentral depths and laboratory friction experiments. Observations from a recent ocean bottom seismic study found that RTF earthquakes rarely occur above ~2 km depth. These findings suggest that the seismogenic zone on RTFs likely extends from ~2 km to the 600°C isotherm. Here we utilize finite element analysis to model the thermal structure of a RTF system comprised of two transform fault segments separated by an extensional offset. The mantle is assumed to have a visco-plastic rheology to simulate brittle failure at temperatures <600°C. We vary offset length, spreading rate, and degree of hydrothermal circulation to examine how these parameters control the underlying thermal structure of segmented RTFs. Longer offsets and faster spreading rates result in warmer thermal structures. Enhanced hydrothermal circulation efficiently cools shallow regions, resulting in an increased area of brittle deformation, and may have a complex effect on the seismogenic zone due to the possible creation of weak, velocity-strengthening alteration phases such as serpentine and talc, and/or changes in fault zone porosity. Incorporating these processes into our model, we are able to assess the potential for an intra-transform offset to act as a barrier to rupture propagation. As a case study, we focus on the Discovery transform fault, located at 4°S on the East Pacific Rise. Discovery consists of two sub-parallel fault segments with lengths of 36 km and 27 km, separated by a 6 km intra-transform spreading center. On a number of intermediate- and fast

  5. Developing a new transformer fault diagnosis system through evolutionary fuzzy logic

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.C.; Huang, C.L.; Yang, H.T.

    1997-04-01

    To improve the diagnosis accuracy of the conventional dissolved gas analysis (DGA) approaches, this paper proposes an evolutionary programming (EP) based fuzzy system development technique to identify the incipient faults of the power transformers. Using the IEC/IEEE DGA criteria as references, a preliminary framework of the fuzzy diagnosis system is first built. Based on previous dissolved gas test records and their actual fault types, the proposed EP-based development technique is then employed to automatically modify the fuzzy if-then rules and simultaneously adjust the corresponding membership functions. In comparison to results of the conventional DGA and the artificial neural networks (ANN) classification methods, the proposed method has been verified to possess superior performance both in developing the diagnosis system and in identifying the practical transformer fault cases.

  6. Quantum memory effects in noninteracting cold-atom systems: Hysteresis loop and lattice transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Chihchun; Metcalf, Mekena; Lai, Chenyen

    2016-05-01

    Memory effects are observable in magnetization, rechargeable batteries, and many systems exhibiting history-dependent states. Quantum memory effects are observable, for instance, in atomic superfluids. A counter-intuitive question is whether quantum memory effects can exist in noninteracting systems. Here we present two examples of cold-atom systems demonstrating memory effects in noninteracting systems. The first example is a ring-shaped potential loaded with noninteracting fermions. An artificial vector potential drives a current and with a tunable dissipative background, the current lags behind the driving and exhibits hysteresis loops. The dissipative energy can be controlled by the coupling between the fermions and the background. In the second example, cold atoms loaded in a tunable optical lattice transformed from the triangular to the kagome geometry. The kagome lattice supports a flat-band consisting of degenerate localized states. Quantum memory effects are observable after a lattice transformation as the steady-state density depends on the rate of the transformation. The versatility of memory effects in cold-atom systems promises novel applications in atomtronics.

  7. Transport and transformation of de-icing urea from airport runways in a constructed wetland system.

    PubMed

    Thorén, A K; Legrand, C; Herrmann, J

    2003-01-01

    Urea, NH2-CO-NH2, is used as a de-icing agent at Kalmar Airport, southeast Sweden. During 1998-2001, urea contributed on average 30% of the yearly nitrogen (N) transport of 41,000 kg via Törnebybäcken stream to the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. In order to reduce stream transport of N from airport, agricultural and other diffuse sources, a wetland was constructed in 1996. Annual wetland retention of total-N varied in the range of 2,500-8,100 kg (6-36% of influent) during 1998-2001, according to mass balances calculated from monthly sampling. During airport de-icing, January-March 2001,660 kg urea-N out of 2,600 kg applied urea-N reached the wetland according to daily sampling. This indicated that 75% of the urea was transformed before entering the wetland. Urea was found to be only a minor part (8%) of total-N in the wetland influent. Calculations of cumulative urea-N loads at the wetland inlet and outlet respectively, showed a significant urea transformation during February 2001 with approximately 40% of the incoming urea-N being transformed in the wetland system. These results show that significant amounts of urea can be transformed in a wetland system at air temperatures around 0 degree C. PMID:14621175

  8. Versatile Transformation System That Is Applicable to both Multiple Transgene Expression and Gene Targeting for Thraustochytrids

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Keishi; Matsuda, Takanori; Kobayashi, Takumi; Ohara, Jun-ichiro; Hamaguchi, Rie; Abe, Eriko; Nagano, Naoki; Hayashi, Masahiro; Ueda, Mayumi; Honda, Daiske; Okita, Yuji; Taoka, Yousuke; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Okino, Nozomu

    2012-01-01

    A versatile transformation system for thraustochytrids, a promising producer for polyunsaturated fatty acids and fatty acid-derived fuels, was established. G418, hygromycin B, blasticidin, and zeocin inhibited the growth of thraustochytrids, indicating that multiple selectable marker genes could be used in the transformation system. A neomycin resistance gene (neor), driven with an ubiquitin or an EF-1α promoter-terminator from Thraustochytrium aureum ATCC 34304, was introduced into representatives of two thraustochytrid genera, Aurantiochytrium and Thraustochytrium. The neor marker was integrated into the chromosomal DNA by random recombination and then functionally translated into neor mRNA. Additionally, we confirmed that another two genera, Parietichytrium and Schizochytrium, could be transformed by the same method. By this method, the enhanced green fluorescent protein was functionally expressed in thraustochytrids. Meanwhile, T. aureum ATCC 34304 could be transformed by two 18S ribosomal DNA-targeting vectors, designed to cause single- or double-crossover homologous recombination. Finally, the fatty acid Δ5 desaturase gene was disrupted by double-crossover homologous recombination in T. aureum ATCC 34304, resulting in an increase of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3n-6) and eicosatetraenoic acid (C20:4n-3), substrates for Δ5 desaturase, and a decrease of arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3), products for the enzyme. These results clearly indicate that a versatile transformation system which could be applicable to both multiple transgene expression and gene targeting was established for thraustochytrids. PMID:22344656

  9. Versatile transformation system that is applicable to both multiple transgene expression and gene targeting for Thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Keishi; Matsuda, Takanori; Kobayashi, Takumi; Ohara, Jun-Ichiro; Hamaguchi, Rie; Abe, Eriko; Nagano, Naoki; Hayashi, Masahiro; Ueda, Mayumi; Honda, Daiske; Okita, Yuji; Taoka, Yousuke; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2012-05-01

    A versatile transformation system for thraustochytrids, a promising producer for polyunsaturated fatty acids and fatty acid-derived fuels, was established. G418, hygromycin B, blasticidin, and zeocin inhibited the growth of thraustochytrids, indicating that multiple selectable marker genes could be used in the transformation system. A neomycin resistance gene (neo(r)), driven with an ubiquitin or an EF-1α promoter-terminator from Thraustochytrium aureum ATCC 34304, was introduced into representatives of two thraustochytrid genera, Aurantiochytrium and Thraustochytrium. The neo(r) marker was integrated into the chromosomal DNA by random recombination and then functionally translated into neo(r) mRNA. Additionally, we confirmed that another two genera, Parietichytrium and Schizochytrium, could be transformed by the same method. By this method, the enhanced green fluorescent protein was functionally expressed in thraustochytrids. Meanwhile, T. aureum ATCC 34304 could be transformed by two 18S ribosomal DNA-targeting vectors, designed to cause single- or double-crossover homologous recombination. Finally, the fatty acid Δ5 desaturase gene was disrupted by double-crossover homologous recombination in T. aureum ATCC 34304, resulting in an increase of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C(20:3n-6)) and eicosatetraenoic acid (C(20:4n-3)), substrates for Δ5 desaturase, and a decrease of arachidonic acid (C(20:4n-6)) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C(20:5n-3)), products for the enzyme. These results clearly indicate that a versatile transformation system which could be applicable to both multiple transgene expression and gene targeting was established for thraustochytrids. PMID:22344656

  10. Dynamic interferometer alignment and its utility in UV Fourier transform spectrometer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorval, Rick K.; Engel, James R.; Wyntjes, Geert J.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic alignment has been demonstrated as a practical approach to alignment maintenance for systems in the infrared region of the spectrum. On the basis of work done by OPTRA, this technique was introduced in commercial Fourier transform spectrometer systems in 1982 and in various forms is now available from a number of manufacturers. This paper reports on work by OPTRA to extend the basic technique to systems operating in the ultraviolet. In addition, this paper reports the preliminary results of the development of an alignment system using a laser diode in place of a gas laser normally found in dynamic alignment systems. A unique optical system and spatial heterodyne technique allows for achievement of a metrology system with characteristics that fully satisfy the requirements of an ultraviolet spectrometer system.

  11. Theory of the amplitude-phase retrieval in any linear-transform system and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guozhen; Gu, Ben-Yuan; Dong, Bi-Zhen

    1992-12-01

    This paper is a summary of the theory of the amplitude-phase retrieval problem in any linear transform system and its applications based on our previous works in the past decade. We describe the general statement on the amplitude-phase retrieval problem in an imaging system and derive a set of equations governing the amplitude-phase distribution in terms of the rigorous mathematical derivation. We then show that, by using these equations and an iterative algorithm, a variety of amplitude-phase problems can be successfully handled. We carry out the systematic investigations and comprehensive numerical calculations to demonstrate the utilization of this new algorithm in various transform systems. For instance, we have achieved the phase retrieval from two intensity measurements in an imaging system with diffraction loss (non-unitary transform), both theoretically and experimentally, and the recovery of model real image from its Hartley-transform modulus only in one and two dimensional cases. We discuss the achievement of the phase retrieval problem from a single intensity only based on the sampling theorem and our algorithm. We also apply this algorithm to provide an optimal design of the phase-adjusted plate for a phase-adjustment focusing laser accelerator and a design approach of single phase-only element for implementing optical interconnect. In order to closely simulate the really measured data, we examine the reconstruction of image from its spectral modulus corrupted by a random noise in detail. The results show that the convergent solution can always be obtained and the quality of the recovered image is satisfactory. We also indicated the relationship and distinction between our algorithm and the original Gerchberg- Saxton algorithm. From these studies, we conclude that our algorithm shows great capability to deal with the comprehensive phase-retrieval problems in the imaging system and the inverse problem in solid state physics. It may open a new way to

  12. Classification of lossless first-order optical systems and the linear canonical transformation.

    PubMed

    Bastiaans, Martin J; Alieva, Tatiana

    2007-04-01

    Based on the eigenvalues of the ray transformation matrix, a classification of ABCD systems is proposed and some nuclei (i.e., elementary members) in each class are described. In the one-dimensional case, possible nuclei are the magnifier, the lens, and the fractional Fourier transformer. In the two-dimensional case we have-in addition to the obvious concatenations of one-dimensional nuclei-the four combinations of a magnifier or a lens with a rotator or a shearing operator, where the rotator and the shearer are obviously inherently two-dimensional. Any ABCD system belongs to one of the classes described in this paper and is similar (in the sense of matrix similarity of the ray transformation matrices) to the corresponding nucleus. Knowledge of a nucleus may be helpful in finding eigenfunctions of the corresponding class of first-order optical systems: one only has to find eigenfunctions of the nucleus and to determine how these functions propagate through a first-order optical system. PMID:17361291

  13. Co-transforming bar and CsLEA enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiyu; Duan, Zhen; Zhang, Daiyu; Zhang, Jianquan; Di, Hongyan; Wu, Fan; Wang, Yanrong

    2016-03-25

    Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict alfalfa productivity. A dehydrin protein, CsLEA, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica was transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the bar gene as a selectable marker, and the drought and salt stress tolerances of the transgenic plants were assessed. Thirty-nine of 119 transformants were positive, as screened by Basta, and further molecularly authenticated using PCR and RT-PCR. Phenotype observations revealed that the transgenic plants grew better than the wild-type (WT) plants after 15d of drought stress and 10d of salt stress: the leaves of WT alfalfa turned yellow, whereas the transgenic alfalfa leaves only wilted; after rewatering, the transgenic plants returned to a normal state, though the WT plants could not be restored. Evaluation of physiologic and biochemical indices during drought and salt stresses showed a relatively lower Na(+) content in the leaves of the transgenic plants, which would reduce toxic ion effects. In addition, the transgenic plants were able to maintain a higher relative water content (RWC), higher shoot biomass, fewer photosystem changes, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress injury. These results demonstrate that overexpression of the CsLEA gene can enhance the drought and salt tolerance of transgenic alfalfa; in addition, carrying the bar gene in the genome may increase herbicide resistance. PMID:26906624

  14. Current transformer model with hysteresis for improving the protection response in electrical transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matussek, Robert; Dzienis, Cezary; Blumschein, Jörg; Schulte, Horst

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a generic enhanced protection current transformer (CT) model with saturation effects and transient behavior is presented. The model is used for the purpose of analysis and design of power system protection algorithms. Three major classes of protection CT have been modeled which all take into account the nonlinear inductance with remanence effects. The transient short-circuit currents in power systems are simulated under CT saturation condition. The response of a common power system protection algorithm with respect to robustness to nominal parameter variations and sensitivity against maloperation is demonstrated by simulation studies.

  15. Kernel functions and Baecklund transformations for relativistic Calogero-Moser and Toda systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hallnaes, Martin; Ruijsenaars, Simon

    2012-12-15

    We obtain kernel functions associated with the quantum relativistic Toda systems, both for the periodic version and for the nonperiodic version with its dual. This involves taking limits of previously known results concerning kernel functions for the elliptic and hyperbolic relativistic Calogero-Moser systems. We show that the special kernel functions at issue admit a limit that yields generating functions of Baecklund transformations for the classical relativistic Calogero-Moser and Toda systems. We also obtain the nonrelativistic counterparts of our results, which tie in with previous results in the literature.

  16. The role of infrastructure in the transformation of child-adolescent mental health systems.

    PubMed

    Stelk, Wayne; Slaton, Elaine

    2010-03-01

    There is a widespread recognition that the mental health system is not effective in meeting the needs of the children, adolescents, and families who seek its services. In response to this recognition, researchers and policy makers are developing and implementing strategies to transform mental health systems. This paper suggests that transformational interventions should not proceed faster than our understanding of the complexities of a mental health system. In a complex system, all component parts are interactive and interdependent. Problems with one component cannot be solved in isolation from other components. The inter-relationships between problems create inter-dependencies; and changes in the balance of these inter-dependencies can cause dramatic shifts in policy priorities, such as when managers of mental health systems respond to budget reductions in a recessionary economy. This paper examines the problem domains in mental health systems that are affected by complexity dynamics, and proposes that a well-built infrastructure is a necessary foundation for structural change in a child-adolescent mental health system. The concept of metastructure is proposed to account for the rule-based processes that govern the actions of agents within a system. PMID:20151194

  17. Manufactured Nanoparticle Behavior and Transformations in Aquatic Systems. Importance of Natural Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Loosli, Frédéric; Omar, Fatehah Mohd; Carnal, Fabrice; Oriekhova, Olena; Clavier, Arnaud; Chai, Zhi; Stoll, Serge

    2014-11-01

    Major concerns to elucidate the fate of nanomaterials and manufactured nanoparticles in aquatic systems are related to the lack of data on nanoparticle transformations under relevant environmental conditions. The present article discusses some of the important physicochemical processes controlling the behavior of manufactured nanoparticles in aqueous systems by focusing on their interaction with natural organic matter, which is expected to play a crucial role when adsorbing at the nanoparticle surface. The precise knowledge and consequences of such adsorption processes are important not only to predict the nanoparticle stability and dispersion state but also to evaluate their chemical reactivity and ecotoxicology. Most importantly, findings indicate that the presence of natural organic matter, at typical environmental concentrations, can induce significant disagglomeration of large nanoparticle agglomerates into small fragments. Such a result constitutes an important outcome with regard to the risk associated with the possible transformation and redispersion of large assemblies containing manufactured nanoparticles. PMID:26508485

  18. Experimental study on superconducting fault current limiting transformer for fault current suppression and system stability improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, H.; Hayakawa, N.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.; Okubo, H.

    2002-08-01

    We have been developing a superconducting fault current limiting transformer (SFCLT) with 3-phase, 500/275 kV, 625 MVA and optimized the main parameters by EMTP simulation. In this paper, we designed and fabricated an experimental scale-down model of SFCLT with 3-phase, 275/105 V, 6.25 kVA, using NbTi superconducting wire. We introduced the experimental model SFCLT into a transient network analyzer consisted of synchronous generators, transformers, transmission lines, circuit breakers and an infinite bus. It was revealed that experimental model had effective function-parameters as was simulated and experimental results clarified the effectiveness of SFCLT having both functions of the fault current suppression and the system stability improvement in a future superconducting power system.

  19. An inconvenient truth: a sustainable healthcare system requires chronic disease prevention and management transformation.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Matthew W; Zamora, Nicholas E; Hindmarsh, Michael F

    2007-01-01

    Canada's initial success at shortening wait times will not transform our healthcare system unless it is matched with equal success in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. A growing body of evidence highlights the significant gap between recommended care and actual care received for those at risk for or living with chronic illnesses. This quality gap not only results in significant preventable morbidity and mortality but also lengthens wait times for healthcare services and threatens the sustainability of our healthcare system. A national strategy on chronic disease prevention and management (CDPM) that leverages the federal, provincial and territorial (FPT) response to wait times will not only transform chronic illness care but also help to ensure the sustainability of our healthcare system. We begin this paper by highlighting some of the facts behind this inconvenient truth. We then review and provide examples of several best practices in CDPM. We suggest that these best practices provide the foundation for a national CDPM strategy and argue that the FPT mandate for wait times be expanded to encompass CDPM and result in "care guarantees." We conclude with a high-level preliminary analysis of costs and benefits of this strategy to transform CDPM in Canada. PMID:17595546

  20. Transform and relax sampling for highly anisotropic systems: Application to protein domain motion and folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitao, Akio

    2011-07-01

    Transform and relax sampling (TRS) is proposed as a conformational sampling method to enhance "soft" fluctuation in highly anisotropic systems using molecular dynamics simulation. This method consists of three stages; transform, relax, and sampling. In the transform stage, molecular dynamics simulation is performed with randomly assigned force bias to enhance the fluctuations along relatively soft collective movements, as expected from the linear response theory. After relaxing the heated system to equilibrium without force bias in the relax stage, Monte Carlo-type determination is made as to whether the generated state is accepted or not. The sampling stage is then conducted for conformational sampling by conventional molecular dynamics simulation. TRS is first applied for the idealized multidimensional double-well Cα model to mimic protein open-close transition. Subsequently, it is applied to three different all-atom protein systems in an explicit solvent model; T4 lysozyme, glutamine binding protein, and a mini-protein chignolin. Investigation of structural variations in the hinge angle of T4 lysozyme in crystals is demonstrated by TRS. The liganded close structure of the glutamine binding protein is sampled starting from the unliganded open form. Chignolin is shown to fold into a native structure multiple times starting from highly extended structures within 100 ns. It is concluded that TRS sampled a reasonable conformational space within a relatively short simulation time in these cases. Possible future extensions of TRS are also discussed.

  1. Joint transform correlator optical encryption system: Extensions of the recorded encrypted signal and its inverse Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galizzi, Gustavo E.; Cuadrado-Laborde, Christian

    2015-10-01

    In this work we study the joint transform correlator setup, finding two analytical expressions for the extensions of the joint power spectrum and its inverse Fourier transform. We found that an optimum efficiency is reached, when the bandwidth of the key code is equal to the sum of the bandwidths of the image plus the random phase mask (RPM). The quality of the decryption is also affected by the ratio between the bandwidths of the RPM and the input image, being better as this ratio increases. In addition, the effect on the decrypted image when the detection area is lower than the encrypted signal extension was analyzed. We illustrate these results through several numerical examples.

  2. Tele-Operation of a Mobile Haptic System Using Dynamical Modal Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanouchi, Wataru; Katsura, Seiichiro

    Recent advances in control technology have contributed to the development of robot systems for communication. Robot systems recognize their environment on the basis of audio-visual information. Recognition methods based on audio-visual feedback have been developed by many researchers. Apart from auditory and visual information, haptic information has recently attracted attention as the third type of multimedia information. The sense of touch is useful for remote manipulation. Feedback of haptic information is realized by bilateral control. In conventional research, most systems are constructed using a master-slave system in which the master-slave systems have the same mechanical structure. However, very few studies have been carried out on force feedback systems with different mechanical structures. This paper proposes a novel control method for mobile-hapto, which involves force feedback using mobility systems. In this study, the mobile-hapto consists of a mobile robot that can move in an infinite area for motion and a joystick that is fixed at a given position and can be operated manually. To realize of force feedback in the mobile-hapto, a modal transformation matrix for bilateral control is proposed. The proposed modal transformation matrix is able to change the dimension of the controlled value. The joystick is treated as a pedal by changing two dimensions of the mobile robot position. The mobile-hapto is possible to be subjected to intuitive manipulation. The validity of the proposed method is experimentally verified.

  3. Generation and Inheritance of Targeted Mutations in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using the CRISPR/Cas System

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Nathaniel M.; Atkins, Paul A.; Voytas, Daniel F.; Douches, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Genome editing using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) offers an alternative approach to conventional genetic engineering and an opportunity to extend the benefits of genetic engineering in agriculture. Currently available SSN platforms, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated systems (Cas)) have been used in a range of plant species for targeted mutagenesis via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) are just beginning to be explored in crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum Group Tuberosum L.). In this study, CRISPR/Cas reagents expressing one of two single-guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting the potato ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE1 (StALS1) gene were tested for inducing targeted mutations in callus and stable events of diploid and tetraploid potato using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with either a conventional T-DNA or a modified geminivirus T-DNA. The percentage of primary events with targeted mutations ranged from 3–60% per transformation and from 0–29% above an expected threshold based on the number of ALS alleles. Primary events with targeted mutation frequencies above the expected threshold were used for mutation cloning and inheritance studies using clonal propagation and crosses or selfing. Four of the nine primary events used for mutation cloning had more than one mutation type, and eight primary events contained targeted mutations that were maintained across clonal generations. Somatic mutations were most evident in the diploid background with three of the four primary events having more than two mutation types at a single ALS locus. Conversely, in the tetraploid background, four of the five candidates carried only one mutation type. Single targeted mutations were inherited through the germline of both diploid and tetraploid primary events with transmission percentages ranging from 87–100%. This

  4. Generation and Inheritance of Targeted Mutations in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using the CRISPR/Cas System.

    PubMed

    Butler, Nathaniel M; Atkins, Paul A; Voytas, Daniel F; Douches, David S

    2015-01-01

    Genome editing using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) offers an alternative approach to conventional genetic engineering and an opportunity to extend the benefits of genetic engineering in agriculture. Currently available SSN platforms, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated systems (Cas)) have been used in a range of plant species for targeted mutagenesis via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) are just beginning to be explored in crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum Group Tuberosum L.). In this study, CRISPR/Cas reagents expressing one of two single-guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting the potato ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE1 (StALS1) gene were tested for inducing targeted mutations in callus and stable events of diploid and tetraploid potato using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with either a conventional T-DNA or a modified geminivirus T-DNA. The percentage of primary events with targeted mutations ranged from 3-60% per transformation and from 0-29% above an expected threshold based on the number of ALS alleles. Primary events with targeted mutation frequencies above the expected threshold were used for mutation cloning and inheritance studies using clonal propagation and crosses or selfing. Four of the nine primary events used for mutation cloning had more than one mutation type, and eight primary events contained targeted mutations that were maintained across clonal generations. Somatic mutations were most evident in the diploid background with three of the four primary events having more than two mutation types at a single ALS locus. Conversely, in the tetraploid background, four of the five candidates carried only one mutation type. Single targeted mutations were inherited through the germline of both diploid and tetraploid primary events with transmission percentages ranging from 87-100%. This demonstration

  5. Remote Fourier transform-infrared spectral imaging system with hollow-optical fiber bundle.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenhui; Kino, Saiko; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2012-10-10

    A spectral imaging system consisting of a Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer, a high-speed infrared camera, and a bundle of hollow-optical fibers transmitting infrared radiation images was constructed. Infrared transmission spectra were obtained by carefully processing multiple interferograms taken by high-speed photography. Infrared spectral images of a variety of samples captured by the system were measured. We successfully detected existence maps of the oil and fat of biological samples by mapping the transmission of specific wavelengths in the spectrum. PMID:23052066

  6. [Establishment of high efficiency genetic transformation system of maize mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens].

    PubMed

    WEI, Kai-Fa

    2009-11-01

    In order to establish high-frequency regeneration and high-efficiency genetic transformation system in maize, the significance of the 11 factors influencing maize embryonic callus induction and 9 factors affecting embryonic callus differentiation was researched by orthogonal experiment. The results showed that genotype had highly significant impact on induction of embryonic callus. The concentration of 6-BA, AgNO3, 2,4-D, ABA, and medium are the significant factors. The Multi-comparison showed that ABA 2 mg/L has a significant influence. Among the callus differentiation factors, the genotype and 6-BA concentration showed a strong main effect, the concentrations of NAA, medium, KT and 2,4-D had significant impacts on callus differentiation. Southern blotting analysis demonstrated that the resistant callus rate under the selection pressure of 25 mg/L hygromycin was a reliable indicator for system optimization in resistance screening. The concentration of acetosyringone (AS) showed sensitive differences among genotypes. The highest transformation rate was found with the optimized combination of 24-25 degrees C for co-culture temperature, 0.7 ODx15 min for Agrobacterium tumefa-ciens concentration and incubation-time, and pH 5.5-6.2. By this optimized combination, the survival rate of resistant calli as an index for the stable transformation rates of inbred lines Huangzao 4 and Zong 31 by introducing GUS gene into maize inbred lines was as high as 48.6% and 46.2%, respectively. PMID:19933098

  7. Secretion of a pneumococcal type II secretion system pilus correlates with DNA uptake during transformation

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Murat; Bättig, Patrick; Muschiol, Sandra; Tirier, Stephan M.; Wartha, Florian; Normark, Staffan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen that successfully adapts to the host environment via an efficient uptake system for free DNA liberated from other organisms in the upper respiratory tract, facilitating immune evasion and drug resistance. Although the initial signaling events leading to pneumococcal competence for DNA transformation and the fate of DNA when it has been taken up have been extensively studied, the actual mechanism by which DNA in the environment may traverse the thick capsular and cell wall layers remains unknown. Here we visualize that induction of competence results in the formation of a native morphologically distinct pilus structure on the bacterial surface. This plaited pilus is encoded by the competence (com)G locus, and, after assembly, it is rapidly released into the surrounding medium. Heterologous pneumococcal pilus expression in Escherichia coli was obtained by replacing the pulE-K putative pilin genes of the Klebsiella oxytoca type II secretion system with the complete comG locus. In the pneumococcus, the coordinated secretion of pili from the cells correlates to DNA transformation. A model for DNA transformation is proposed whereby pilus assembly “drills” a channel across the thick cell wall that becomes transiently open by secretion of the pilus, providing the entry port for exogenous DNA to gain access to DNA receptors associated with the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:24550320

  8. FPGA implementation of 2-D discrete cosine transforms algorithm using systemC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yifei; Ding, Mingyue

    2007-12-01

    Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is widely applied in image and video compression. This paper presented the software and hardware co-design method based on SystemC. As a case of study, a two dimension (2D) DCT Algorithm was implemented on Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) chip. The short simulation time and verification process greatly increases the design efficiency of SystemC, making the product designed by SystemC more quickly into the market. The design effect using SystemC is compared between the expertise hardware designer and the software designer with little hardware knowledge. The result shows SystemC is an excellent and high efficiency hardware design method for an expertise hardware designer.

  9. Enhanced iterative learning control for a piezoelectric actuator system using wavelet transform filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Chiang-Ju; Lee, Fu-Shin; Wang, Jhen-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    For trajectory tracking of a piezoelectric actuator system, an enhanced iterative learning control (ILC) scheme based on wavelet transform filtering (WTF) is proposed in this research. The enhanced ILC scheme incorporates a state compensation in the ILC formula. Combining state compensation with iterative learning, the scheme enhances tracking accuracies substantially, in comparison to the conventional D-type ILC and a proportional control-aided D-type ILC. The wavelet transform is adopted to filter learnable tracking errors without phase shift. Based on both a time-frequency analysis of tracking errors and a convergence bandwidth analysis of ILC, a two-level WTF is chosen for ILC in this study. The enhanced ILC scheme using WTF was applied to track two desired trajectories, one with a single frequency and the other with multiple frequencies, respectively. Experimental results validate the efficacy of the enhanced ILC in terms of the speed of convergence and the level of long-term tracking errors.

  10. Reference line extraction for automated data-entry system using wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitwong, Sakreya; Phonsri, Seksan; Thitimajshima, Punya

    1999-12-01

    It is common that most document forms opt for the use of straight line as a reference position for filled information. The automated data-entry systems of such documents require an ability to search these reference lines so that the location of information in the forms can be known. This paper proposes a wavelet-based algorithm for extracting these reference lines in business forms. Stationary wavelet transform is used to transform a gray-level document image into different frequency-band images. The horizontal detail subband is then selected and passed through a post-processing to produce a binary bitmap of reference lines. The experimental results on synthetic and real document images will be given to illustrate the usefulness of such an algorithm.

  11. Integrated system for image storage, retrieval, and transmission using wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dan; Liu, Yawen; Mu, Ray Y.; Yang, Shi-Qiang

    1998-12-01

    Currently, much work has been done in the area of image storage and retrieval. However, the overall performance has been far from practical. A highly integrated wavelet-based image management system is proposed in this paper. By integrating wavelet-based solutions for image compression and decompression, content-based retrieval and progressive transmission, much higher performance can be achieved. The multiresolution nature of the wavelet transform has been proven to be a powerful tool to represent images. The wavelet transform decomposes the image into a set of subimages with different resolutions. From here three solutions for key aspects of image management are reached. The content-based image retrieval (CBIR) features of our system include the color, contour, texture, sample, keyword and topic information of images. The first four features can be naturally extracted from the wavelet transform coefficients. By scoring the similarity of users' requests with images in the database, those who have higher scores are noted and the user receives feedback. Image compression and decompression. Assuming that details at high resolution and diagonal directions are less visible to the human eye, a good compression ratio can be achieved. In each subimage, the wavelet coefficients are vector quantized (VQ), using the LGB algorithm, which is improved in our approach to accelerate the process. Higher compression ratio can be achieved with DPCM and entropy coding method applied together. With YIQ representation, color images can also be effectively compressed. There is a very low load on the network bandwidth by transmitting compressed image data across the network. Progressive transmission is possible by employment of the multiresolution nature of the wavelet, which makes the system respond faster and the user-interface more friendly. The system shows a high overall performance by exploring the excellent features of wavelet, and integrating key aspects of image management. An

  12. Stock, turnover and functions of carbon in heavily weathered soils under lowland rainforest transformation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforest are experiencing worldwide a strong lost through deforestation and transformation into agricultural systems. Land use changes in such ecosystems leads to major modifications of soils properties and processes. One indication of it are the losses of organic carbon content (Corg); an important soil fertility parameter in heavily weathered soil. Between 1985 and 2007, Sumatra (Indonesia) has lost half of his remaining natural rainforest, which currently covers only 30% the island. The deforestation is still ongoing and the main drivers of deforestation are oil palm, rubber and timber industries. Our study aims to identify and quantify the impacts of lowland rainforest transformation systems (TS): oil palm, rubber and jungle rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON) quality, turnover and stocks and so, on soil fertility and functions. We hypothesize that transformation of natural lowland rainforest changes not only C stock and budget throughout quantity and quality of C input, but also DOM production and water consumption by vegetation, leading to a relocation of C in the subsoil. This should be reflected in C and N content in soil profile horizons as well as their δ13C and δ15N isotopic signatures. We will evaluate also C stability through biological, thermal and chemical stability in bulk soil and aggregate fractions. The TS investigated, including lowland rainforest as reference sites, are located in Jambi Province (Sumatra). Soil has been described and sampled per horizon on 4 replicates of each TS in 2 different regions (32 sites) in Autumn 2012. As hypothesized, first results show strong effects of forest transformation on C and N content, as well as on isotopic signatures of soil. Those results will also be used further to select DOM sampling depths and adequate horizons to perform sorption and incubation experiments.

  13. Design of an airborne Fourier transform visible hyperspectral imaging system for light aircraft environmental remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Leonard John, III; Butler, Eugene W.; Rafert, Bruce; Sellar, R. Glenn

    1995-06-01

    Kestrel Corporation and the Florida Institute of Technology have designed, and are now manufacturing, a Fourier transform visible hyperspectral imager system for use in a single engine light aircraft. The system is composed of a Sagnac-based interferometer optical subsystem, a data management system, and an aircraft attitude and current position sybsystem. The system is designed to have better than 5 nm spectral resolution at 450 nm, operates over the 440 nm to 1150 nm spectral band and has a 2D spatial resolution of 0.8 mrad. An internal calibration source is recorded with every frame of data to retain radiometric accuracy. The entire system fits into a Cessna 206 and uses a conventional downward looking view port located in the baggage compartment. During operation, data are collected at a rate of 15 Mbytes per second and stored direct to a disk array. Data storage has been sized to accommodate 56 minutes of observations. Designed for environmental mapping, this Fourier transform imager has uses in emergency response and military operations.

  14. A Preliminary Application of Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter System to Rainfall Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, Wang

    2014-05-01

    WangTie(1,2),YangXiaofeng(1),ZangXin(1),GengLining(1),ZhouYan(1) (1)NanJing China-Spacenet Satellite Telecom CO., Ltd, Nanjing, 210061, China,(2)Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Beijing, 100029, China The Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter(ETKF) method is applied to WRF model(Weather Research & Forecast Model system) Version 3.5.1, and the ETKF based data assimilation system is constructed. The accurate of forecast result and the sensitivity of initial data error on a heavy rainfall from 5th to 7th July 2003 in Jiangsu province China are investigated. The numerical result indicated that the ETKF method could decrease the forecast error and improves the forecast result either the synoptic scale system and the meso-scale system, the RMSEs of wind decrease less than 18 percent, while the temperature and humidity decrease about 6 precent. The forecast of precipitation, especially the 12h accumulated precipitation is improved significant after ETKF assimilation. Keywords: intense rainfall, prediction error, Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter(ETKF), WRF model

  15. Transformation of Ground Vibration Signal for Debris-Flow Monitoring and Detection in Alarm Systems

    PubMed Central

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems. PMID:22666064

  16. Transformation of ground vibration signal for debris-flow monitoring and detection in alarm systems.

    PubMed

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems. PMID:22666064

  17. Genetic transformation of Fusarium avenaceum by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation and the development of a USER-Brick vector construction system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungus Fusarium avenaceum causes considerable in-field and post-field losses worldwide due to its infections of a wide range of different crops. Despite its significant impact on the profitability of agriculture production and a desire to characterize the infection process at the molecular biological level, no genetic transformation protocol has yet been established for F. avenaceum. In the current study, it is shown that F. avenaceum can be efficiently transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. In addition, an efficient and versatile single step vector construction strategy relying on Uracil Specific Excision Reagent (USER) Fusion cloning, is developed. Results The new vector construction system, termed USER-Brick, is based on a limited number of PCR amplified vector fragments (core USER-Bricks) which are combined with PCR generated fragments from the gene of interest. The system was found to have an assembly efficiency of 97% with up to six DNA fragments, based on the construction of 55 vectors targeting different polyketide synthase (PKS) and PKS associated transcription factor encoding genes in F. avenaceum. Subsequently, the ΔFaPKS3 vector was used for optimizing A. tumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT) of F. avenaceum with respect to six variables. Acetosyringone concentration, co-culturing time, co-culturing temperature and fungal inoculum were found to significantly impact the transformation frequency. Following optimization, an average of 140 transformants per 106 macroconidia was obtained in experiments aimed at introducing targeted genome modifications. Targeted deletion of FaPKS6 (FA08709.2) in F. avenaceum showed that this gene is essential for biosynthesis of the polyketide/nonribosomal compound fusaristatin A. Conclusion The new USER-Brick system is highly versatile by allowing for the reuse of a common set of building blocks to accommodate seven different types of genome

  18. Comment on paper: "Generation of dark hollow beams by using a fractional radial Hilbert transform system"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ez-zariy, L.; Nebdi, H.; Belafhal, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper comments on a recently published work dealing with: "Generation of dark hollow beams by using a radial Hilbert transform system" by Q. Xie and D. Zhao, Opt. Commun. 275 (2007) 394. The authors have applied an integral, valid only for the integer orders, in cases of fractional ones. In addition, in their main result established by Eq. (11), the authors have neglected the dependence of some terms on the parameter summation. So, in the actual comment, we will give the main exact closed-form of the considered theory.

  19. The Application of The Wavelet Transform to The Low Bit Rate Speech Coding System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mriai, Shogo; Hanazaki, Izumi

    In the analysis-synthesis coding of speech signals, realization of the high quality in the low bit rate coding depends on the extraction of its characteristic parameters in the pre-processing. The precise extraction of the fundamental frequency, one of the parameters of the source information, guarantees the quality in the speech synthesis. But its extraction is difficult because of the influence of the consonant, non-periodicity of vocal cords vibration, wide range of the fundamental frequency, etc.. In this paper, we will propose a new fundamental frequency extraction with the criterion based on its harmonics structure and low bit rate speech coding system using the Wavelet transform.

  20. A High Precision Scanning Control System For A VUV Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    De Oliveira, N.; Nahon, L.; Polack, F.; Joyeux, D.; Phalippou, D.; Rodier, J. C.; Vervloeet, M.

    2007-01-19

    A VUV Fourier transform spectrometer based on a wavefront division interferometer has been built. Our ultimate goal is to provide a high resolution absorption spectrometer in the 140 - 40 nm range using the new third generation French synchrotron source Soleil as the background continuum. Here, we present the design and latest performance of the instrument scanning control system. It is based on multiple reflections of a monomode, frequency-stabilized HeNe laser between two plane mirrors allowing the required sensitivity on the displacement of the interferometer mobile arm. The experimental results on the sampling precision show an rms error below 5 nm for a travel length of 7.5 mm.

  1. Statistical theory of phase transformations in the lithium-nitrogen-hydrogen system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matysina, Z. A.; Zaginaichenko, S. Yu.; Shchur, D. V.

    2011-12-01

    A statistical theory of phase transformations in the course of chemical reactions of hydrogen absorption-desorption in lithium nitride with the formation of lithium amide and hydride has been developed. Free energies of all phases involved in the reactions have been calculated and their dependences on temperature, pressure, hydrogen concentration, and energy parameters have been determined. The solubility of hydrogen in the related phases has been calculated; some features of its temperature dependence have been established. A phase diagram of the system has been constructed. The possibility of the manifestation of a hysteresis effect has been substantiated. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental data available in the literature.

  2. A FPGA system for QRS complex detection based on Integer Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanović, R.; Karadaglić, D.; Mirković, M.; Milošević, D.

    2011-01-01

    Due to complexity of their mathematical computation, many QRS detectors are implemented in software and cannot operate in real time. The paper presents a real-time hardware based solution for this task. To filter ECG signal and to extract QRS complex it employs the Integer Wavelet Transform. The system includes several components and is incorporated in a single FPGA chip what makes it suitable for direct embedding in medical instruments or wearable health care devices. It has sufficient accuracy (about 95%), showing remarkable noise immunity and low cost. Additionally, each system component is composed of several identical blocks/cells what makes the design highly generic. The capacity of today existing FPGAs allows even dozens of detectors to be placed in a single chip. After the theoretical introduction of wavelets and the review of their application in QRS detection, it will be shown how some basic wavelets can be optimized for easy hardware implementation. For this purpose the migration to the integer arithmetic and additional simplifications in calculations has to be done. Further, the system architecture will be presented with the demonstrations in both, software simulation and real testing. At the end, the working performances and preliminary results will be outlined and discussed. The same principle can be applied with other signals where the hardware implementation of wavelet transform can be of benefit.

  3. A system for multi-locus chromosomal integration and transformation-free selection marker rescue

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Michael S.; Choksi, Atri; Smolke, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    Yeast integrating plasmids (YIPs) are a versatile tool for stable integration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, current YIP systems necessitate time- and labor-intensive methods for cloning and selection marker rescue. Here we describe the design, construction, and validation of a new YIP system capable of accelerating the stable integration of multiple expression constructs into different loci in the yeast S. cerevisiae. These “directed pop-out” plasmids enable a simple, two-step integration protocol that results in a scarless integration alongside a complete rescue of the selection marker. These plasmids combine three key features: a dedicated “YIPout” fragment directs a recombination event that rescues the selection marker while avoiding undesired excision of the target DNA sequence, a multi-fragment modular DNA assembly system simplifies cloning, and a new set of counterselectable markers enables serial integration followed by a transformation-free marker rescue event. We constructed and tested directed pop-out YIPs for integration of fluorescent reporter genes into four yeast loci. We validated our new YIP design by integrating three reporter genes into three different loci with transformation-free rescue of selection markers. These new YIP designs will facilitate the construction of yeast strains that express complex heterologous metabolic pathways. PMID:25226817

  4. An Intelligent Dynamic Alignment System for Interferometer of Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Zeng, Libo

    An intelligent dynamic alignment system for a Michelson interferometer which is applied to a Mid-infrared band Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) is presented. Three photodiodes are used to detect the tilt of moving mirror opposite to fixed mirror with the assistance of the interfered signal of a reference He-Ne laser. This technique is based on detecting the phase difference of laser signal between every two diodes in two perpendicular directions. And four magnetic actuators behind the mounting brace of fixed mirror are used to change the pose of fixed mirror. The system is controlled by a digital signal processor (DSP) in real-time. A feedback algorithm is used to tilt fixed mirror following the action of moving mirror so as to keep both mirror planes in perpendicular. Experiment result shows that the relative tilt between two reflecting mirrors can be restricted in a range no more than ±1.5×10-6rad. This system is effective and reliable to be applied to scanning interferometer of Fourier transform spectrometer.

  5. A Two-Particle Cluster Theory of the Transformed Chiral System for Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhidong, Zhang; Jinwei, Liu; Wu, Zhang

    The chiral molecules are confined to the sites of a simple cubic lattice with their long axes in the XY-plane and the helix axis along the Z direction. The intermolecular interaction takes the form proposed by van der Meer et al. which is the simplest possible for chiral nematic liquid crystals. The chiral potential can thus be transformed to that for an achiral system but with different interactions between molecules in the same layer and those in neighboring layers. We have presented a generalized two-particle cluster theory which is suited for treating the model system with different neighboring intermolecular interactions. Such a theory has been used to study the transformed chiral system. The equation for the equilibrium distribution is solved by an iterative method. The temperature dependences of the order parameters T2 and T4 and of the internal energy per particle are calculated. The single orientational distribution function is shown at the scaled temperature t=2.3, i.e. near the phase transition in the simulation. The present theory, taking into account the short range correlations between molecules, yields improved results compared with the mean field theory.

  6. Like daughter, like son? Fertility decline and the transformation of gender systems in the family

    PubMed Central

    Allendorf, Keera

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND An important question for population research is whether fertility decline transforms gender systems. OBJECTIVE This paper contributes to answering this broad question by examining how fertility decline may change the relative value and roles of daughters and sons in families. First, I outline theoretical pathways, suggesting that a key factor is the gender composition of families. As fertility declines, the proportion of families with children of only one gender increases, which may facilitate greater gender symmetry between daughters and sons. Second, I explore how fertility decline may have contributed to the transformation of the relative value and roles of sons and daughters in practice in one place. METHODS The analysis draws primarily on semi-structured interviews with 30 respondents living in one Indian village. This village is located in a district where fertility has declined to at least the replacement level. RESULTS Respondents perceive changes in the gender system, including less son preference, more equal schooling for sons and daughters, more freedom in marriage and premarital relationships, and perhaps greater daughter support of parents in old age. CONCLUSIONS The results describe changes in the relative value, treatment, and behavior of sons and daughters that are consistent with the theorized effects of fertility decline. Future research is needed, however, to determine whether fertility decline makes a causal contribution to changes in the gender system. PMID:27147902

  7. Stable reduced-order models of generalized dynamical systems using coordinate-transformed Arnoldi algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Silveira, L.M.; Kamon, M.; Elfadel, I.; White, J.

    1996-12-31

    Model order reduction based on Krylov subspace iterative methods has recently emerged as a major tool for compressing the number of states in linear models used for simulating very large physical systems (VLSI circuits, electromagnetic interactions). There are currently two main methods for accomplishing such a compression: one is based on the nonsymmetric look-ahead Lanczos algorithm that gives a numerically stable procedure for finding Pade approximations, while the other is based on a less well characterized Arnoldi algorithm. In this paper, we show that for certain classes of generalized state-space systems, the reduced-order models produced by a coordinate-transformed Arnoldi algorithm inherit the stability of the original system. Complete Proofs of our results will be given in the final paper.

  8. Observation of the continuous transformation of a four level laser into a two level system

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, J. D.; Readle, J. D.; Eden, J. G.

    2012-08-13

    A longstanding and fundamental question of laser and maser physics concerns the energy separation ({Delta}{epsilon}) required between the pumped and lasing states of a three (or four) level system. We observe a four level laser gradually transform into a two level (nonlasing) system by photoassociating Cs-Ar thermal atomic pairs and monitoring subsequent stimulated emission on the 6p{sup 2}P{sub 3/2} {yields} 6s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} (D{sub 2}) transition of Cs at 852.1 nm. Laser excitation spectra demonstrate that the value of {Delta}{epsilon} below which the system rapidly assumes the form of a two level structure and lasing ceases is {approx}0.7kT which corresponds to a Boltzmann factor (exp[-{Delta}{epsilon}/kT]) of 0.5.

  9. Collusion-Resistant Audio Fingerprinting System in the Modulated Complex Lapped Transform Domain

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Feregrino-Uribe, Claudia; Cumplido, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios. PMID:23762455

  10. Collusion-resistant audio fingerprinting system in the modulated complex lapped transform domain.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Feregrino-Uribe, Claudia; Cumplido, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios. PMID:23762455

  11. Nanowire humidity optical sensor system based on fast Fourier transform technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota-Rodrigo, S.; Pérez-Herrera, R.; Lopez-Aldaba, A.; López Bautista, M. C.; Esteban, O.; López-Amo, M.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a new sensor system for relative humidity measurements based on its interaction with the evanescent field of a nanowire is presented. The interrogation of the sensing head is carried out by monitoring the fast Fourier transform phase variations of one of the nanowire interference frequencies. This method is independent of the signal amplitude and also avoids the necessity of tracking the wavelength evolution in the spectrum, which can be a handicap when there are multiple interference frequency components with different sensitivities. The sensor is operated within a wide humidity range (20%-70% relative humidity) with a maximum sensitivity achieved of 0.14rad/% relative humidity. Finally, due to the system uses an optical interrogator as unique active element, the system presents a cost-effective feature.

  12. Engagement in system redesign: A wellness example to enable a cultural transformation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Bradley; Hansson, Wendy Kai

    2016-09-01

    For the past several years, Interior Health (IH) has worked collaboratively with Aboriginal leaders to build strong relationships and develop an environment of reciprocal accountability and knowledge exchange. All partners are committed to working together to change the healthcare system so that it responds appropriately and effectively to the needs of a population of people with the poorest health outcomes. The development of the IH Aboriginal Health and Wellness Strategy is an example of meaningful engagement with First Nations communities in the IH region at the system level. The strategy was built by IH, led by First Nations, and developed in collaboration with First Nations, Urban, and Métis partners. It aims to address the shared long-term goal of improving the overall health and wellness of Aboriginal people and enable a cultural transformation to overcome the barriers that are stopping Aboriginal people from seeking care from a shared healthcare system. PMID:27576857

  13. Automated cervical precancerous cells screening system based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusman, Yessi; Mat Isa, Nor Ashidi; Ng, Siew-Cheok; Hasikin, Khairunnisa; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2016-07-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique can detect the abnormality of a cervical cell that occurs before the morphological change could be observed under the light microscope as employed in conventional techniques. This paper presents developed features extraction for an automated screening system for cervical precancerous cell based on the FTIR spectroscopy as a second opinion to pathologists. The automated system generally consists of the developed features extraction and classification stages. Signal processing techniques are used in the features extraction stage. Then, discriminant analysis and principal component analysis are employed to select dominant features for the classification process. The datasets of the cervical precancerous cells obtained from the feature selection process are classified using a hybrid multilayered perceptron network. The proposed system achieved 92% accuracy.

  14. Evaluation of a FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer) mobile source measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigsby, John E., Jr.; McArver, Alex; Snow, Richard

    1989-04-01

    An initial evaluation was made of a prototype Fourier transform infrared spectrometer on its ability to measure mobile source emissions. This prototype represents the commercialization of research technology developed by the Ford Motor Co. The system utilizes a Mattson Instruments Co. interferometer coupled to a Masscomp computer. The required software is still incomplete. This has resulted in the inability to correct errors or optimize results. Unreliability of both hardware and software is a major shortcoming of the system. When operating properly, the system measures carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, and formaldehyde accurately, both when compared to bag analysis and on direct point-by-point comparisons with real-time data. Completion of the evaluation awaits the final software translations and improvements in reliability.

  15. Transformation from proper time on earth to coordinate time in solar system barycentric space-time frame of reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, T. D.

    1976-01-01

    An expression was derived for the time transformation t - tau, where t is coordinate time in the solar system barycentric space-time frame of reference and tau is proper time obtained from a fixed atomic clock on earth. This transformation is suitable for use in the computation of high-precision earth-based range and Doppler observables of a spacecraft or celestial body located anywhere in the solar system; it can also be used in obtaining computed values of very long baseline interferometry data types. The formulation for computing range and Doppler observables, which is an explicit function of the transformation t - tau, is described briefly.

  16. Bäcklund transformations, Lax system, conservation laws and multisoliton solutions for Jimbo-Miwa equation with Bell-polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manjit; Gupta, R. K.

    2016-08-01

    Based on binary Bell polynomial approach, the bilinear equation and B a ¨cklund transformations for (3+1)-dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation are obtained. By virtue of Cole-Hopf transformation, Lax system is constructed by direct linearization of coupled system of binary Bell polynomials. Furthermore, infinite conservation laws are obtained from two field condition in quick and natural way. Finally, a test function of extended three wave method is used to construct multisoliton solutions via bilinear equation.

  17. Back-Transformation kinetics in the MgSiO3 system at upper mantle conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagno, V.; Shibazaki, Y.; Jing, Z.; Wang, Y.; Ohuchi, T.; Higo, Y.; Nestola, F.; Fei, Y.

    2013-12-01

    It is commonly assumed that enstatite and SiO2-rich glass inclusions in diamonds with low nickel contents are representative of former high-pressure MgSiO3 polymorphs, such as perovskite. In fact, natural MgSiO3 perovskite has been never found as inclusion in diamonds since the kinetic reactions would not allow perovskite to reach the Earth's surface. In order to understand the nature of MgSiO3 inclusions, we need to investigate possible amorphization of perovskite as function of pressure and temperature and obtain kinetics data of the perovskite-enstatite back transformation that can be used to estimate the average ascent rate of diamonds throughout the Earth's interior. Available data on the activation energy associated with the perovskite-enstatite back-transformation would suggest that perovskite could revert to enstatite in very short time (3 to 100 years) at upper mantle conditions. However, the thermodynamic data used in such estimates have been debated because amorphization of perovskite was observed by previous studies on phase equilibria in the MgSiO3 system at high pressure. We present preliminary time-resolved in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction data at high pressure and high temperature in multi-anvil experiments that are aimed to improve our current knowledge regarding the metastability and the rate of transformation of MgSiO3 perovskite at pressure and temperature of the Earth's upper mantle. Polycrystalline perovskite samples were employed as starting material, synthesized from MgSiO3 glass using multi-anvil at 26 GPa and 2000 Kelvin. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction data in energy dispersive mode were collected at the 13-ID-D beamline of GSECARS sector (Advanced Photon Source, Argonne) using a 1000 ton press and a T-25 multi-anvil module. The synthetic perovskite was loaded in a graphite capsule. A mixture of Au and MgO was placed at the top of the sample to serve as pressure markers. Each sample was first compressed to the target pressures (3 and

  18. Effectiveness of dereverberation, feature transformation, discriminative training methods, and system combination approach for various reverberant environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachioka, Yuuki; Narita, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Shinji

    2015-12-01

    The recently released REverberant Voice Enhancement and Recognition Benchmark (REVERB) challenge includes a reverberant automatic speech recognition (ASR) task. This paper describes our proposed system based on multi-channel speech enhancement preprocessing and state-of-the-art ASR techniques. For preprocessing, we propose a single-channel dereverberation method with reverberation time estimation, which is combined with multichannel beamforming that enhances direct sound compared with the reflected sound. In addition, this paper also focuses on state-of-the-art ASR techniques such as discriminative training of acoustic models including the Gaussian mixture model, subspace Gaussian mixture model, and deep neural networks, as well as various feature transformation techniques. Although, for the REVERB challenge, it is necessary to handle various acoustic environments, a single ASR system tends to be overly tuned for a specific environment, which degrades the performance in the mismatch environments. To overcome this mismatch problem with a single ASR system, we use a system combination approach using multiple ASR systems with different features and different model types because a combination of various systems that have different error patterns is beneficial. In particular, we use our discriminative training technique for system combination that achieves better generalization by making systems complementary with the modified discriminative criteria. Experiments show the effectiveness of these approaches, reaching 6.76 and 18.60 % word error rates on the REVERB simulated and real test sets. These are 68.8 and 61.5 % relative improvements over the baseline.

  19. Dynamic visuomotor transformation involved with remote flying of a plane utilizes the 'Mirror Neuron' system.

    PubMed

    Callan, Daniel E; Gamez, Mario; Cassel, Daniel B; Terzibas, Cengiz; Callan, Akiko; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sato, Masa-aki

    2012-01-01

    Brain regions involved with processing dynamic visuomotor representational transformation are investigated using fMRI. The perceptual-motor task involved flying (or observing) a plane through a simulated Red Bull Air Race course in first person and third person chase perspective. The third person perspective is akin to remote operation of a vehicle. The ability for humans to remotely operate vehicles likely has its roots in neural processes related to imitation in which visuomotor transformation is necessary to interpret the action goals in an egocentric manner suitable for execution. In this experiment for 3(rd) person perspective the visuomotor transformation is dynamically changing in accordance to the orientation of the plane. It was predicted that 3(rd) person remote flying, over 1(st), would utilize brain regions composing the 'Mirror Neuron' system that is thought to be intimately involved with imitation for both execution and observation tasks. Consistent with this prediction differential brain activity was present for 3(rd) person over 1(st) person perspectives for both execution and observation tasks in left ventral premotor cortex, right dorsal premotor cortex, and inferior parietal lobule bilaterally (Mirror Neuron System) (Behaviorally: 1(st)>3(rd)). These regions additionally showed greater activity for flying (execution) over watching (observation) conditions. Even though visual and motor aspects of the tasks were controlled for, differential activity was also found in brain regions involved with tool use, motion perception, and body perspective including left cerebellum, temporo-occipital regions, lateral occipital cortex, medial temporal region, and extrastriate body area. This experiment successfully demonstrates that a complex perceptual motor real-world task can be utilized to investigate visuomotor processing. This approach (Aviation Cerebral Experimental Sciences ACES) focusing on direct application to lab and field is in contrast to standard

  20. System efficiency of a tap transformer based grid connection topology applied on a direct driven generator for wind power.

    PubMed

    Apelfröjd, Senad; Eriksson, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Results from experiments on a tap transformer based grid connection system for a variable speed vertical axis wind turbine are presented. The tap transformer based system topology consists of a passive diode rectifier, DC-link, IGBT inverter, LCL-filter, and tap transformer. Full range variable speed operation is enabled by using the different step-up ratios of a tap transformer. Simulations using MATLAB/Simulink have been performed in order to study the behavior of the system. A full experimental set up of the system has been used in the laboratory study, where a clone of the on-site generator was driven by an induction motor and the system was connected to a resistive load to better evaluate the performance. Furthermore, the system is run and evaluated for realistic wind speeds and variable speed operation. For a more complete picture of the system performance, a case study using real site Weibull parameters is done, comparing different tap selection options. The results show high system efficiency at nominal power and an increase in overall power output for full tap operation in comparison with the base case, a standard transformer. In addition, the loss distribution at different wind speeds is shown, which highlights the dominant losses at low and high wind speeds. Finally, means for further increasing the overall system efficiency are proposed. PMID:25258733

  1. System Efficiency of a Tap Transformer Based Grid Connection Topology Applied on a Direct Driven Generator for Wind Power

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Results from experiments on a tap transformer based grid connection system for a variable speed vertical axis wind turbine are presented. The tap transformer based system topology consists of a passive diode rectifier, DC-link, IGBT inverter, LCL-filter, and tap transformer. Full range variable speed operation is enabled by using the different step-up ratios of a tap transformer. Simulations using MATLAB/Simulink have been performed in order to study the behavior of the system. A full experimental set up of the system has been used in the laboratory study, where a clone of the on-site generator was driven by an induction motor and the system was connected to a resistive load to better evaluate the performance. Furthermore, the system is run and evaluated for realistic wind speeds and variable speed operation. For a more complete picture of the system performance, a case study using real site Weibull parameters is done, comparing different tap selection options. The results show high system efficiency at nominal power and an increase in overall power output for full tap operation in comparison with the base case, a standard transformer. In addition, the loss distribution at different wind speeds is shown, which highlights the dominant losses at low and high wind speeds. Finally, means for further increasing the overall system efficiency are proposed. PMID:25258733

  2. Dispersion constraints and the Hilbert transform for electromagnetic system response validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macnae, James; Springall, Ryan

    2011-02-01

    As a check on calibration and drift in each discrete sub-system of a commercial frequency-domain airborne electromagnetic system, we aim to use causality constraints alone to predict in-phase from wide-band quadrature data. There are several possible applications of the prediction of in-phase response from quadrature data including: (1) quality control on base level drift, calibration and phase checks; (2) prediction and validation of noise levels in in-phase from quadrature measurements and vice versa and in future; and (3) interpolation and extrapolation of sparsely sampled data enforcing causality and better frequency-domain - time-domain transformations. In practice, using tests on both synthetic and measured Resolve helicopter-borne electromagnetic frequency domain data, in-phase data points could be predicted using a scaled Hilbert transform with a standard deviation between 40 and 80ppm. However, relative differences between base levels between flight could be resolved to better than 1ppm, which allows an independent quality control check on the accuracy of drift corrections.

  3. Transformation of Personal Computers and Mobile Phones into Genetic Diagnostic Systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offer rapid and sensitive means for detecting infectious disease, but prohibitive costs have impeded their use in resource-limited settings where such diseases are endemic. In this work, we report an innovative method for transforming a desktop computer and a mobile camera phone—devices that have become readily accessible in developing countries—into a highly sensitive DNA detection system. This transformation was achieved by converting a desktop computer into a de facto thermal cycler with software that controls the temperature of the central processing unit (CPU), allowing for highly efficient PCR. Next, we reconfigured the mobile phone into a fluorescence imager by adding a low-cost filter, which enabled us to quantitatively measure the resulting PCR amplicons. Our system is highly sensitive, achieving quantitative detection of as little as 9.6 attograms of target DNA, and we show that its performance is comparable to advanced laboratory instruments at approximately 1/500th of the cost. Finally, in order to demonstrate clinical utility, we have used our platform for the successful detection of genomic DNA from the parasite that causes Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, directly in whole, unprocessed human blood at concentrations 4-fold below the clinical titer of the parasite. PMID:25223929

  4. Transformation of personal computers and mobile phones into genetic diagnostic systems.

    PubMed

    Walker, Faye M; Ahmad, Kareem M; Eisenstein, Michael; Soh, H Tom

    2014-09-16

    Molecular diagnostics based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offer rapid and sensitive means for detecting infectious disease, but prohibitive costs have impeded their use in resource-limited settings where such diseases are endemic. In this work, we report an innovative method for transforming a desktop computer and a mobile camera phone--devices that have become readily accessible in developing countries--into a highly sensitive DNA detection system. This transformation was achieved by converting a desktop computer into a de facto thermal cycler with software that controls the temperature of the central processing unit (CPU), allowing for highly efficient PCR. Next, we reconfigured the mobile phone into a fluorescence imager by adding a low-cost filter, which enabled us to quantitatively measure the resulting PCR amplicons. Our system is highly sensitive, achieving quantitative detection of as little as 9.6 attograms of target DNA, and we show that its performance is comparable to advanced laboratory instruments at approximately 1/500th of the cost. Finally, in order to demonstrate clinical utility, we have used our platform for the successful detection of genomic DNA from the parasite that causes Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, directly in whole, unprocessed human blood at concentrations 4-fold below the clinical titer of the parasite. PMID:25223929

  5. A Novel Nonlinear Companding Transform for PAPR Reduction in Lattice-OFDM System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Siming; Shen, Yuehong; Yuan, Zhigang; Jian, Wei; Miao, Yuwei

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a novel companding scheme is proposed to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of lattice orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (LOFDM) system. By transforming the statistics of original signals into a specified distribution form, which is defined by a continuous sine function, this scheme can achieve a simple companding form as well as an improved PAPR and bit-error-rate (BER) performance. Moreover, by introducing the variable companding parameters in the desired probability density function (PDF), a great design flexibility in the companding form and an effective trade-off between the PAPR reduction and BER performance can be achieved to satisfy various system demands. The general formulas of the proposed scheme are derived and a theoretical analysis regarding the achievable transform gain and the selection criteria of companding parameters are also conducted. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can substantially outperform the conventional μ-law companding, exponential companding (EC), piecewise companding (PC) in terms of PAPR reduction, BER performance and bandwidth efficiency.

  6. Evaluating transformational solvent systems for post-combustion CO2 separations

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Koech, Phillip K.; Mathias, Paul M.; Cantu Cantu, David; Rousseau, Roger J.; Malhotra, Deepika; Bhakta, Mukund; Bearden, Mark D.; Freeman, Charles J.; Zheng, Feng

    2014-01-06

    Broad research is underway on developing transformational solvents that can capture of CO2 from flue gas with lower energy compared to aqueous amines. Water-lean, or non-aqueous, solvents are being considered as a class of transformational solvents due to the prospect of lower energy duties by not having to heat and condense water. To date, little is known about the real world performance of water-lean solvent systems compared to commercial aqueous amine technologies, and whether or not they can utilize existing or at least similar processing infrastructure. This paper provides the key results from a comprehensive three-year study of the water-lean CO2-Binding Organic Liquids (CO2BOL) solvent platform coupled with Polarity-Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). We present here thermodynamic, kinetic, and bench-scale data, followed by Aspen Plus projections of full-scale process performance for three CO2BOL/PSAR cases. This paper also provides discussions on materials performance and identifies viscosity as a critical property that most greatly limits the viability of water-lean solvent platforms. We provide results from a new effort spanning molecular modeling and synthesis and experimental testing to decipher the critical material properties needed to address this challenge. We conclude with implications for development of other water-lean solvent systems

  7. Field evaluation of Fourier transform infrared continuous emissions monitoring (FTIR CEM) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunder, Thomas A.; Geyer, Thomas J.; Kinner, Laura L.; Plummer, Grant M.

    1995-02-01

    Recent environmental regulations, including the Clean Air Act and the Enhanced Monitoring Regulations, may require continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). A promising technique for this application is Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). FTIR spectroscopy can, in principle, be used to monitor virtually any gas phase species. Two evaluations of FTIR CEM systems are discussed. The first study, performed in 1993 - 94, compared two FTIR CEM systems on a side-by-side basis in an extended field test at two coal-fired electric power plants. The FTIR CEM systems monitored the legally mandated criteria pollutants and diluents (CO, CO2, NO, NO2, and SO2) as well as H2O. In addition, one system monitored two HAPs (HCl and HF) and NH3. The FTIR CEM measurements were compared with those from the compliance CEM systems at the facilities. Several relative accuracy test audits were also performed to verify the FTIR CEM accuracy. The second evaluation was recently commenced on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency. In this study, FTIR CEM systems are evaluated specifically for the monitoring of HAP species by conducting laboratory and field tests. The evaluation culminates in the development of proposed performance specifications and protocols for FTIR CEM systems.

  8. On the application of Karhunen-Loève transform to transient dynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glüsmann, Philipp; Kreuzer, Edwin

    2009-12-01

    The Karhunen-Loève transform (KLT) has become a popular method in various fields of engineering science. Due to its ability to identify the most prominent features in the underlying system dynamics the KLT is a favorable method for such tasks as process monitoring, model order reduction or optimum control. However, it is a well-known fact that the KLT is 'case sensitive'. That is that changes in the dynamic system behavior can decisively affect the KLT results. As much as this property is desired for monitoring problems, it limits the performance of KLT in model order reduction or optimum control problems, if systems are subject to structural changes. Recent research interest focuses on extending applications of KLT to systems with transient dynamic behavior or changing boundary conditions. Approaches have been published that circumvent the limitations of KLT by either assuming reasonable comparability of system dynamics or by measuring the representative performance of KLT-bases a posteriori. However, such methods require additional simulations of the full size system and thus jeopardize the idea of model order reduction. In this paper, we introduce a novel a priori measure to evaluate the performance of the current KLT-basis. This procedure can be of great help in either monitoring or adaptive control of systems that show intermittent transient and (quasi-)stationary dynamic behavior. This a priori measure prepares the path for adaptive model order reduction schemes. Moreover, it can be used to measure the stationarity of multidimensional dynamic processes.

  9. Deformation and Transformation Textures in the NaMgF3 Perovskite→Post-Perovskite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, L. M.; Jugle, M.

    2014-12-01

    MgSiO3 post-perovskite (pPv) is believed to be a major mineral component in the lowermost mantle. However MgSiO3 pPv is only stable above 125 GPa making deformation experiments on this phase particularly challenging. Thus it is of interest to determine suitable analogs for MgSiO3 pPv. NaMgF3 is isostructural with MgSiO3 perovskite (Pv) at ambient conditions and transforms to the pPv structure at 30 GPa, making this system a potentially useful analog. Here we report on deformation and texture development in the NaMgF3Pv-pPv system. During room temperature compression in the diamond anvil cell, NaMgF3 Pv rapidly develops a 100 texture. Simulations using the visco plastic self-consistent code (VPSC) indicate that a 100 texture in Pv is due to (100) slip or twinning on {110}<1-10>. After inducing the transformation to pPv by laser heating at 30 GPa, NaMgF3 pPv exhibits a texture maximum near {110} indicating that {100}Pv → {110}pPv. This is consistent with transformation mechanisms proposed by theoretical work (Tsuchiya et al 2004; Oganov et al 2005) and with experimental work on MgGeO3 (Miyagi et al 2011) and NaNiF3(Dobson et al 2013). Upon further compression to 66 GPa the 110 textures disperses and develops a maximum toward 001 with a minimum near 100. VPSC modeling was performed using the 110 transformation texture as a starting texture for the simulations. (010)<101> slip generates a strong maximum at 010 and a minimum at 001. Slip on (001)<100> results in a maxima near 110 with a shoulder close to 001, similar to the experimental deformation texture. Thus it is most likely that at room temperature, NaMgF3 pPv slips predominantly on the (001) plane, consistent with MgSiO3 pPv (Miyagi et al 2010) and MgGeO3 (Miyagi et al 2011).Dobson, D. P., et al., Nature Geoscience, 6(7), 575-578 (2013) Miyagi, L., et al., Science, 329(5999), 1639 -1641 (2010). Miyagi, L., et al., Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 38(9), 665-678 (2011) Oganov, A. R., et al., Nature, 438

  10. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria. PMID:26357873

  11. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria. PMID:26357873

  12. Transforming Education to Strengthen Health Systems in the Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    White, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Conspicuous gaps demonstrate a collective global failure in the world’s health systems as they struggle to manage complex and expensive demands. The Lancet Commission recently took a global interdisciplinary perspective and systematic approach to consider alliances between education for health professionals and health systems in order to address these problems. They concluded that positive outcomes require new instructional and institutional designs. Findings from the Lancet Commission have implications for the development of health professional education in Oman, particularly with regard to the call for integrative and transformative education for the next generation of health professionals. Education in the Omani health sector must keep up with increasing challenges in both the health and education sectors. PMID:23275838

  13. Modeling and detecting localized nonlinearity in continuum systems with a multistage transform.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Paul H; Nichols, J M

    2010-02-01

    A general method is presented for modeling spatially extended systems that may contain a localized source of nonlinearity. It has direct applications to structural health monitoring (SHM) where physical damage may cause such nonlinearity and also communications channels which may exhibit localized nonlinearity due to bad electrical contacts or component nonlinearity. The method uses a multistage nonlinear transform in order to model the system dynamics. We discuss the application to SHM and provide a preliminary test of the method with experimental data from a randomly shaken beam with loose bolts. We discuss the application to telecommunications, provide an experimental observation of symmetric nonlinearity in a "bad" electrical contact, and provide a preliminary test of using this method to remove nonlinear echo (and thereby improve data rate) on a telephone line used for data transmission. PMID:20365640

  14. Psychometric properties of the Spanish Human System Audit Short-Scale of transformational leadership.

    PubMed

    Berger, Rita; Romeo, Marina; Guardia, Joan; Yepes, Montserrat; Soria, Miguel Angel

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Human System Audit transformational leadership short-scale (HSA-TFL-ES). It is based on the concept of Bass developed in 1985. The HSA-TFL is a part of the wider Human System Audit frame. We analyzed the HSA-TFL-ES in five different samples with a total number of 1,718 workers at five sectors. Exploratory Factor Analysis corroborated a single factor in all samples that accounted for 66% to 73% of variance. The internal consistency in all samples was good (alpha = .92 - .95). Evidence was found for the convergent validity of the HSA-TFL-ES and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. These results suggested that the HSA-TFL short-scale is a psychometrically sound measure of this construct and can be used for a combined and first overall measurement. PMID:22379726

  15. A novel transform domain processing based channel estimation method for OFDM radio-over-fiber systems.

    PubMed

    Tao, Li; Yu, Jianjun; Yang, Qi; Shao, Yufeng; Zhang, Junwen; Chi, Nan

    2013-03-25

    In this paper, a transform domain processing (TDP) based channel estimation method for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) systems is proposed. Theoretically investigation shows that TDP can greatly reduce the number of required training symbols. An 8 x 4.65 Gb/s multi-user OFDM RoF system over 40 km fiber link and 60 GHz wireless link is experimentally demonstrated utilizing TDP scheme. Compared with conventional time domain averaging (TDA) scheme, the overhead can be reduced from several tens of training symbols to merely one symbol and the receiver sensitivity has been improved by 1.8 dB at BER of 3.8 x 10(-3). The calculated BER performance for 8 wireless users clearly validates the feasibility of this TDP-based channel estimation method. PMID:23546130

  16. Characterization of microflora and transformation of organic matters in urban sewer system.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengkang; Wang, Bin; Jiao, Ding; Sun, Guangxi; Wang, Baobao; Wang, Xiaochang C

    2015-11-01

    A study was conducted using a pilot sewer system consisting of 35 sequential sections, totalling 1200 m of gravity pipe. Urban sewage flowed into the sewer system at a constant flow rate until it reached physical and microbiological steady states. Microflora in the biofilm that attached to the inner surface along the pipe length were analysed. The organic compositions in both the liquid and gaseous phases of the sewer system were monitored. The results showed that typical fermentation bacteria, such as bacteroidetes and bacillus, were abundant in the system, indicating that the anoxic environment (DO = 0.3 mg/L) was suitable for fermentative bacterial growth. This resulted in a substantial reduction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) along the pipe length and an increase of the biodegradable oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (BOD/COD) ratio from 0.68 at the beginning of the sewer system to 0.84 at the end of the sewer system; this was an indication of a transformation of organic matters from less-biodegradable to more-biodegradable products. Via molecular weight (MW) analysis, it was further identified that the larger organic molecules (MW > 10,000 Da) were transformed into products with smaller molecular weights. Regarding the fermentation products, the concentrations of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) increased dramatically in the initial 600-m sections and then remained constant for the later sections except for the end section of the sewer; acetic acid was found to be the primary product of the VFAs. Gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) were found to increase along the length of the sewer system, whereas the concentrations of ethanol, lactic acid, and hydrogen (H2) were high at the beginning of the sewer and then decreased in the rear sections of the sewer system. It could thus be concluded that in an urban wastewater sewer system, fermentative microflora could perform important roles in contributing to organic matter removal and

  17. Image and video compression/decompression based on human visual perception system and transform coding

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Chi Yung., Petrich, L.I., Lee, M.

    1997-02-01

    The quantity of information has been growing exponentially, and the form and mix of information have been shifting into the image and video areas. However, neither the storage media nor the available bandwidth can accommodated the vastly expanding requirements for image information. A vital, enabling technology here is compression/decompression. Our compression work is based on a combination of feature-based algorithms inspired by the human visual- perception system (HVS), and some transform-based algorithms (such as our enhanced discrete cosine transform, wavelet transforms), vector quantization and neural networks. All our work was done on desktop workstations using the C++ programming language and commercially available software. During FY 1996, we explored and implemented an enhanced feature-based algorithms, vector quantization, and neural- network-based compression technologies. For example, we improved the feature compression for our feature-based algorithms by a factor of two to ten, a substantial improvement. We also found some promising results when using neural networks and applying them to some video sequences. In addition, we also investigated objective measures to characterize compression results, because traditional means such as the peak signal- to-noise ratio (PSNR) are not adequate to fully characterize the results, since such measures do not take into account the details of human visual perception. We have successfully used our one- year LDRD funding as seed money to explore new research ideas and concepts, the results of this work have led us to obtain external funding from the dud. At this point, we are seeking matching funds from DOE to match the dud funding so that we can bring such technologies into fruition. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of haptophytes (Isochrysis species).

    PubMed

    Prasad, Binod; Vadakedath, Nithya; Jeong, Hyun-Jeong; General, Thiyam; Cho, Man-Gi; Lein, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Isochrysis galbana and Isochrysis sp. are economically important microalgae from the division of haptophytes. Here, we report Agrobacterium-mediated stable DNA transfer into their nuclear genomes. Initial studies were performed to standardize co-cultivation media and determine the sensitivity of the microalgae to selective agents. Up to 1 mg/ml of the antibiotic hygromycin did not inhibit growth, whereas both the haptophytes bleached in artificial seawater (ASW) medium containing micromolar concentrations of the herbicide norflurazon. Co-cultivation of Isochrysis sp. and I. galbana with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA 1380-pds-L504R yielded norflurazon-resistant (NR) colonies visible on selective plates after 20-30 days. pCAMBIA 1380-pds-L540R was constructed by cloning a mutated genomic phytoene desaturase (pds) gene from Haematococcus pluvialis as a selectable marker gene into the binary vector system pCAMBIA 1380. Co-cultivation of Isochrysis sp. with A. tumefaciens in ASW medium containing 200 μM of acetosyringone for 72 h produced the highest number of NR cells. For I. galbana, 100 μM of acetosyringone, ASW medium, and 48 h co-cultivation period appeared to be optimum co-cultivation parameters. The NR colonies kept their resistance phenotype for at least 24 months, even in the absence of selective pressure. The transfer of the pds gene in NR cells was shown by PCR amplification of the T-DNA sequences from the genomic DNA of NR cells and Southern blot analysis using T-DNA sequences as probes. The genetic manipulation described here will allow metabolic engineering and a better understanding of several biochemical pathways in the future. PMID:24993358

  19. SHARP transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Stephan

    2004-08-01

    The U.S. Navy"s SHAred Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) employs the Recon/Optical, Inc. (ROI) CA-279 dual spectral band (visible/IR) digital cameras operating from an F-18E/F aircraft to perform low-to-high altitude reconnaissance missions. SHARP has proven itself combat worthy, with a rapid transition from development to operational deployment culminating in a highly reliable and effective reconnaissance capability for joint forces operating in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). The U.S. Navy"s intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) roadmap transforms the SHARP system from being solely an independent reconnaissance sensor to a node in the growing Joint ISR network. ROI and the U.S. Navy have combined their resources to ensure the system"s transformation continues to follow the ISR road map. Pre-planned product improvements (P3I) for the CA-270 camera systems will lead the way in that transformation.

  20. An accurate online calibration system based on combined clamp-shape coil for high voltage electronic current transformers.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-hua; Li, Hong-bin; Zhang, Zhi

    2013-07-01

    Electronic transformers are widely used in power systems because of their wide bandwidth and good transient performance. However, as an emerging technology, the failure rate of electronic transformers is higher than that of traditional transformers. As a result, the calibration period needs to be shortened. Traditional calibration methods require the power of transmission line be cut off, which results in complicated operation and power off loss. This paper proposes an online calibration system which can calibrate electronic current transformers without power off. In this work, the high accuracy standard current transformer and online operation method are the key techniques. Based on the clamp-shape iron-core coil and clamp-shape air-core coil, a combined clamp-shape coil is designed as the standard current transformer. By analyzing the output characteristics of the two coils, the combined clamp-shape coil can achieve verification of the accuracy. So the accuracy of the online calibration system can be guaranteed. Moreover, by employing the earth potential working method and using two insulating rods to connect the combined clamp-shape coil to the high voltage bus, the operation becomes simple and safe. Tests in China National Center for High Voltage Measurement and field experiments show that the proposed system has a high accuracy of up to 0.05 class. PMID:23902112

  1. An accurate online calibration system based on combined clamp-shape coil for high voltage electronic current transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhen-hua; Li, Hong-bin; Zhang, Zhi

    2013-07-15

    Electronic transformers are widely used in power systems because of their wide bandwidth and good transient performance. However, as an emerging technology, the failure rate of electronic transformers is higher than that of traditional transformers. As a result, the calibration period needs to be shortened. Traditional calibration methods require the power of transmission line be cut off, which results in complicated operation and power off loss. This paper proposes an online calibration system which can calibrate electronic current transformers without power off. In this work, the high accuracy standard current transformer and online operation method are the key techniques. Based on the clamp-shape iron-core coil and clamp-shape air-core coil, a combined clamp-shape coil is designed as the standard current transformer. By analyzing the output characteristics of the two coils, the combined clamp-shape coil can achieve verification of the accuracy. So the accuracy of the online calibration system can be guaranteed. Moreover, by employing the earth potential working method and using two insulating rods to connect the combined clamp-shape coil to the high voltage bus, the operation becomes simple and safe. Tests in China National Center for High Voltage Measurement and field experiments show that the proposed system has a high accuracy of up to 0.05 class.

  2. Pepper, chili (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Min, Jung; Shin, Sun Hee; Jeon, En Mi; Park, Jung Mi; Hyun, Ji Young; Harn, Chee Hark

    2015-01-01

    Pepper is a recalcitrant plant for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Several obstacles to genetic transformation remain such as extremely low transformation rates; the choice of correct genotype is critical; and there is a high frequency of false positives due to direct shoot formation. Here, we report a useful protocol with a suitable selection method. The most important aspect of the pepper transformation protocol is selecting shoots growing from the callus, which is referred to as callus-mediated shoot formation. This protocol is a reproducible and reliable system for pepper transformation. PMID:25300851

  3. Transformations in shallow fault zones; evidence from fault rocks in young strike-slip systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pluijm, B. A.; Schleicher, A. M.; Warr, L. N.

    2008-12-01

    cataclasis creates nucleation sites for neomineralization or produces localized melting in upper-crustal strike-slip fault systems (< 5 km depth), which is coupled to slip rate. Transformations in shallow fault rock involve the localization of clay neomineralization along slip surfaces in creeping segments, controlling strength in the shallowest segment of fault zones. During sudden, large displacements, the energy can be sufficient to produce friction melts that are similarly generated at small slip surfaces. Thus, shallow faults rocks preserve mineral and state transformations during faulting, and provide information on the history of fluid activity, mass transport and mechanical behavior. Additionally, dating of neocrystallized mineral phases by radiogenic techniques provides the age of faulting and can constrain rates of crustal deformation.

  4. Systems design of transformation toughened blast-resistant naval hull steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Arup

    A systems approach to computational materials design has demonstrated a new class of ultratough, weldable secondary hardened plate steels combining new levels of strength and toughness while meeting processability requirements. A first prototype alloy has achieved property goals motivated by projected naval hull applications requiring extreme fracture toughness (Cv > 85 ft-lbs (115 J) corresponding to KId > 200 ksi.in1/2 (220 MPa.m1/2)) at strength levels of 150--180 ksi (1034--1241 MPa) yield strength in weldable, formable plate steels. A theoretical design concept was explored integrating the mechanism of precipitated nickel-stabilized dispersed austenite for transformation toughening in an alloy strengthened by combined precipitation of M2C carbides and BCC copper both at an optimal ˜3nm particle size for efficient strengthening. This concept was adapted to plate steel design by employing a mixed bainitic/martensitic matrix microstructure produced by air-cooling after solution-treatment and constraining the composition to low carbon content for weldability. With optimized levels of copper and M2C carbide formers based on a quantitative strength model, a required alloy nickel content of 6.5 wt% was predicted for optimal austenite stability for transformation toughening at the desired strength level of 160 ksi (1100 MPa) yield strength. A relatively high Cu level of 3.65 wt% was employed to allow a carbon limit of 0.05 wt% for good weldability. Hardness and tensile tests conducted on the designed prototype confirmed predicted precipitation strengthening behavior in quench and tempered material. Multi-step tempering conditions were employed to achieve the optimal austenite stability resulting in significant increase of impact toughness to 130 ft-lb (176 J) at a strength level of 160 ksi (1100 MPa). Comparison with the baseline toughness-strength combination determined by isochronal tempering studies indicates a transformation toughening increment of 60% in Charpy

  5. Assessing the performance of a motion tracking system based on optical joint transform correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbouz, M.; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.; Ben Haj Yahia, N.; Alam, M. S.

    2015-08-01

    We present an optimized system specially designed for the tracking and recognition of moving subjects in a confined environment (such as an elderly remaining at home). In the first step of our study, we use a VanderLugt correlator (VLC) with an adapted pre-processing treatment of the input plane and a postprocessing of the correlation plane via a nonlinear function allowing us to make a robust decision. The second step is based on an optical joint transform correlation (JTC)-based system (NZ-NL-correlation JTC) for achieving improved detection and tracking of moving persons in a confined space. The proposed system has been found to have significantly superior discrimination and robustness capabilities allowing to detect an unknown target in an input scene and to determine the target's trajectory when this target is in motion. This system offers robust tracking performance of a moving target in several scenarios, such as rotational variation of input faces. Test results obtained using various real life video sequences show that the proposed system is particularly suitable for real-time detection and tracking of moving objects.

  6. Three New (2+1)-dimensional Integrable Systems and Some Related Darboux Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-06-01

    We introduce two operator commutators by using different-degree loop algebras of the Lie algebra A1, then under the framework of zero curvature equations we generate two (2+1)-dimensional integrable hierarchies, including the (2+1)-dimensional shallow water wave (SWW) hierarchy and the (2+1)-dimensional Kaup-Newell (KN) hierarchy. Through reduction of the (2+1)-dimensional hierarchies, we get a (2+1)-dimensional SWW equation and a (2+1)-dimensional KN equation. Furthermore, we obtain two Darboux transformations of the (2+1)-dimensional SWW equation. Similarly, the Darboux transformations of the (2+1)-dimensional KN equation could be deduced. Finally, with the help of the spatial spectral matrix of SWW hierarchy, we generate a (2+1) heat equation and a (2+1) nonlinear generalized SWW system containing inverse operators with respect to the variables x and y by using a reduction spectral problem from the self-dual Yang-Mills equations. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11371361, the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. ZR2012AQ011, ZR2013AL016, ZR2015EM042, National Social Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 13BJY026, the Development of Science and Technology Project under Grant No. 2015NS1048 and A Project of Shandong Province Higher Educational Science and Technology Program under Grant No. J14LI58

  7. Procedures for dealing with certain types of noise and systematic errors common to many Hadamard transform optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, M.

    1977-01-01

    Sources of noise and error correcting procedures characteristic of Hadamard transform optical systems were investigated. Reduction of spectral noise due to noise spikes in the data, the effect of random errors, the relative performance of Fourier and Hadamard transform spectrometers operated under identical detector-noise-limited conditions, and systematic means for dealing with mask defects are among the topics discussed. The distortion in Hadamard transform optical instruments caused by moving Masks, incorrect mask alignment, missing measurements, and diffraction is analyzed and techniques for reducing or eliminating this distortion are described.

  8. Transformation of AgCl nanoparticles in a sewer system--A field study.

    PubMed

    Kaegi, Ralf; Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Siegrist, Hansruedi; Burkhardt, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in consumer products and their release during the use phase may negatively affect aquatic ecosystems. Research efforts, so far, have mainly addressed the application and use of metallic Ag(0)-NP. However, as shown by recent studies on the release of Ag from textiles, other forms of Ag, especially silver chloride (AgCl), are released in much larger quantities than metallic Ag(0). In this field study, we report the release of AgCl-NP from a point source (industrial laundry that applied AgCl-NP during a piloting phase over a period of several months to protect textiles from bacterial regrowth) to the public sewer system and investigate the transformation of Ag during its transport in the sewer system and in the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). During the study period, the laundry discharged ~85 g of Ag per day, which dominated the Ag loads in the sewer system from the respective catchment (72-95%) and the Ag in the digested WWTP sludge (67%). Combined results from electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the Ag discharged from the laundry to the sewer consisted of about one third AgCl and two thirds Ag2S, both forms primarily occurring as nanoparticles with diameters<100 nm. During the 800 m transport in the sewer channel to the nearby WWTP, corresponding to a travel time of ~30 min, the remaining AgCl was transformed into nanoparticulate Ag2S. Ag2S-NP also dominated the Ag speciation in the digested sludge. In line with results from earlier studies, the very low Ag concentrations measured in the effluent of the WWTP (<0.5 μg L(-1)) confirmed the very high removal efficiency of Ag from the wastewater stream (>95%). PMID:25582606

  9. A high-current calibration system based on indirect comparison of current transformer and Rogowski coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Pandian; Li, Zhenhua; Li, Hongbin; Li, Hongfeng

    2013-12-01

    The calibration of the protective current transformer (CT) is of particular importance, since its accuracy at high currents is crucial to the correct operation of the subsequent relay protection devices. Conventional calibration methods have been using an electromagnetic CT which contains an iron core as the standard CT. The iron core is big and difficult to manufacture for high-current measurement, and the serious residual magnetism of the iron core at high currents can lead to excessive measurement errors. This paper proposes a calibration system based on indirect comparison of CT and Rogowski coil, i.e. using an iron-core CT to correct the error of the Rogowski coil at low currents, which may be caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor and so on, and then using the calibrated Rogowski coil as the standard transformer at high currents for its good linearity and wide dynamic range, and there is no magnetic saturation. Since the output of the Rogowski coil needs to be integrated, an improved digital integrator based on direct current (dc) negative feedback is adopted, which can effectively eliminate the influences of temperature drift, time drift and dc offset caused by the analogue circuit. The measurement errors of each part of the calibration system have also been discussed, and the test results show that the accuracy of the system can reach up to the 0.05S Class and the uncertainties are 0.038% for ratio and 0.68‧ for phase in the range 500 A to 50 kA.

  10. Complementing ODE-Based System Analysis Using Boolean Networks Derived from an Euler-Like Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Stötzel, Claudia; Röblitz, Susanna; Siebert, Heike

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic transition scheme for a large class of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) into Boolean networks. Our transition scheme can be applied to any system of ODEs whose right hand sides can be written as sums and products of monotone functions. It performs an Euler-like step which uses the signs of the right hand sides to obtain the Boolean update functions for every variable of the corresponding discrete model. The discrete model can, on one hand, be considered as another representation of the biological system or, alternatively, it can be used to further the analysis of the original ODE model. Since the generic transformation method does not guarantee any property conservation, a subsequent validation step is required. Depending on the purpose of the model this step can be based on experimental data or ODE simulations and characteristics. Analysis of the resulting Boolean model, both on its own and in comparison with the ODE model, then allows to investigate system properties not accessible in a purely continuous setting. The method is exemplarily applied to a previously published model of the bovine estrous cycle, which leads to new insights regarding the regulation among the components, and also indicates strongly that the system is tailored to generate stable oscillations. PMID:26496494

  11. Electromagnetic effects on the biological tissue surrounding a transcutaneous transformer for an artificial anal sphincter system.

    PubMed

    Zan, Peng; Yang, Bang-hua; Shao, Yong; Yan, Guo-zheng; Liu, Hua

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports on the electromagnetic effects on the biological tissue surrounding a transcutaneous transformer for an artificial anal sphincter. The coupling coils and human tissues, including the skin, fat, muscle, liver, and blood, were considered. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by a finite-length solenoid model. First, SAR and current density as a function of frequency (10-10(7) Hz) for an emission current of 1.5 A were calculated under different tissue thickness. Then relations between SAR, current density, and five types of tissues under each frequency were deduced. As a result, both the SAR and current density were below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The results show that the analysis of these data is very important for developing the artificial anal sphincter system. PMID:21121071

  12. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    DOEpatents

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Asif, Syed Amanula Syed

    2013-05-07

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  13. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    DOEpatents

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Syed Asif, Syed Amanula

    2014-07-29

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  14. Extended explanation of transformation optics for metamaterial-modified wireless power transfer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Luo, Xudong; Ma, Hongru

    2016-03-01

    We analytically extend the scope of transformation optics (TO) to metamaterial-modified wireless power transfer (WPT) systems and demonstrate that the extended TO can help design the highly efficient WPT. The methodology is based on rigorous scattering theory, enabling an equivalent model under certain circumstances to be established, that can significantly simplify investigating metamaterial-enhanced WPT. More important, from the analytical study on the equivalent model, we prove that TO is still applicable, even when the conditions of complementary media are not satisfied. Our findings are verified numerically using our methodology as well as COMSOL simulations. Moreover, a further study also indicates the extended TO explanation as well as the analysis of the equivalent model could help improve the transfer efficiency of WPT significantly. The demonstrations are not restricted to any specific frequency, and the conclusions could be extended to a broad range of wavelengths, including applications to active cloaks and other related devices.

  15. A new algorithm for integrated image quality measurement based on wavelet transform and human visual system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haihui

    2006-01-01

    An essential determinant of the value of digital images is their quality. Over the past years, there have been many attempts to develop models or metrics for image quality that incorporate elements of human visual sensitivity. However, there is no current standard and objective definition of spectral image quality. This paper proposes a reliable automatic method for objective image quality measurement by wavelet transform and Human visual system. This way the proposed measure differentiates between the random and signal-dependant distortion, which have different effects on human observer. Performance of the proposed quality measure is illustrated by examples involving images with different types of degradation. The technique provides a means to relate the quality of an image to the interpretation and quantification throughout the frequency range, in which the noise level is estimated for quality evaluation. The experimental results of using this method for image quality measurement exhibit good correlation to subjective visual quality assessments.

  16. Stable transformation and expression of GhEXPA8 fiber expansin gene to improve fiber length and micronaire value in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Kamran S.; Shahid, Ahmad A.; Rao, Abdul Q.; Bashir, Aftab; Aftab, Asia; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    Cotton fiber is multigenic trait controlled by number of genes. Previous studies suggest that one of these genes may be responsible for switching cotton fiber growth on and off to influence the fiber quality produced from a cotton seed. In the present study, the Gossypium hirsutum GhEXPA8 fiber expansin gene was introduced into local cotton variety NIAB 846 by using an Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation. The neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) gene was used as a selection marker for screening of putative transgenic cotton plants. Integration and expression of the fiber expansin gene in cotton plants was confirmed with molecular techniques including Southern blot analyses, real-time PCR. Cellulose assay was used for measurement of cellulose contents of transgenic cotton fiber. The data collected from 3 years of field performance of the transgenic cotton plants expressing GhEXPA8 showed that significant improvement has been made in fiber lengths and micronaire values as compared to control G. hirsutum variety NIAB 846 cotton plants. Statistical techniques were also used for analysis of fiber and agronomic characteristics. The results of this study support improvement of cotton fiber through genetic modification. PMID:26583018

  17. Transformation reborn: A new generation expert system for planning HST operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerb, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    The Transformation expert system (TRANS) converts proposals for astronomical observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) into detailed observing plans. It encodes expert knowledge to solve problems faced in planning and commanding HST observations to enable their processing by the Science Operations Ground System (SOGS). Among these problems are determining an acceptable order of executing observations, grouping of observations to enhance efficiency and schedulability, inserting extra observations when necessary, and providing parameters for commanding HST instruments. TRANS is currently an operational system and plays a critical role in the HST ground system. It was originally designed using forward-chaining provided by the OPS5 expert system language, but has been reimplemented using a procedural knowledge base. This reimplementation was forced by the explosion in the amount of OPS5 code required to specify the increasingly complicated situations requiring expert-level intervention by the TRANS knowledge base. This problem was compounded by the difficulty of avoiding unintended interaction between rules. To support the TRANS knowledge base, XCL, a small but powerful extension to Commom Lisp was implemented. XCL allows a compact syntax for specifying assignments and references to object attributes. XCL also allows the capability to iterate over objects and perform keyed lookup. The reimplementation of TRANS has greatly diminished the effort needed to maintain and enhance it. As a result of this, its functions have been expanded to include warnings about observations that are difficult or impossible to schedule or command, providing data to aid SPIKE, an intelligent planning system used for HST long-term scheduling, and providing information to the Guide Star Selection System (GSSS) to aid in determination of the long range availability of guide stars.

  18. Fieldable Fourier Transform Spectrometer: System Construction, Background Variability Measurements, and Chemical Attack Warning Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Harper, Warren W.; Batishko, Charles R.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sheen, David M.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Schultz, John F.

    2002-10-01

    The infrared sensors task at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and countering terrorism. Missions to be addressed by remote chemical sensor development will include detecting proliferation of nuclear or chemical weapons, and providing warning of terrorist use of chemical weapons. Missions to be addressed by in-situ chemical sensor development include countering terrorism by screening luggage, personnel, and shipping containers for explosives, firearms, narcotics, chemical weapons, or chemical weapons residues, and mapping contaminated areas. The science and technology relevant to these primary missions is also likely to be useful for battlefield chemical weapons defense, air operations support, monitoring emissions from chemical weapons destruction facilities or industrial chemical plants, and law enforcement applications. PNNL will seek to serve organizations with direct interest in these missions through collaborative research and development efforts approved by NA-22. During FY02, PNNL began assembling a remote IR detection capability that would allow field experiments to be conducted. The capability consists of a commercially available FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) emission spectrometer and a frequency-modulation differential-absorption LIDAR (FM-DIAL) system being developed at PNNL. To provide environmental protection for these systems, a large, well insulated, temperature controlled trailer was specified and procured. While the FTIR system was field-ready, the FM-DIAL system required many modifications to prepare for field deployment. This document provides an overview of the FTIR system, summarizes the modifications made to the FM-DIAL system, and describes the salient features of the remote systems trailer.

  19. High efficiency plum (Prunus domestica L.) transformation: a functional genomics tool for Rosaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed an improved Agrobacterium-mediated protocol in plum (Prunus domestica L.) through the addition of 2,4-D to the regeneration media. This method has increased the regeneration efficiency of independent transgenic plants up to 10-fold over previous reports. DNA blot analysis of puta...

  20. The use of information systems to transform utilities and regulatory commissions: The application of geographic information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wirick, D.W.; Montgomery, G.E.; Wagman, D.C.; Spiers, J.

    1995-09-01

    One technology that can assist utilities remain financially viable in competitive markets and help utilities and regulators to better serve the public is information technology. Because geography is an important part of an electric, natural gas, telecommunications, or water utility, computer-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and related Automated Mapping/Facilities Management systems are emerging as core technologies for managing an ever-expanding variety of formerly manual or paper-based tasks. This report focuses on GIS as an example of the types of information systems that can be used by utilities and regulatory commissions. Chapter 2 provides general information about information systems and effects of information on organizations; Chapter 3 explores the conversion of an organization to an information-based one; Chapters 4 and 5 set out GIS as an example of the use of information technologies to transform the operations of utilities and commissions; Chapter 6 describes the use of GIS and other information systems for organizational reengineering efforts; and Chapter 7 examines the regulatory treatment of information systems.

  1. Assessment of the service performance of drainage system and transformation of pipeline network based on urban combined sewer system model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hai-Qin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Hong-Wu; Ma, Lu-Ming

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, due to global climate change and rapid urbanization, extreme weather events occur to the city at an increasing frequency. Waterlogging is common because of heavy rains. In this case, the urban drainage system can no longer meet the original design requirements, resulting in traffic jams and even paralysis and post a threat to urban safety. Therefore, it provides a necessary foundation for urban drainage planning and design to accurately assess the capacity of the drainage system and correctly simulate the transport effect of drainage network and the carrying capacity of drainage facilities. This study adopts InfoWorks Integrated Catchment Management (ICM) to present the two combined sewer drainage systems in Yangpu District, Shanghai (China). The model can assist the design of the drainage system. Model calibration is performed based on the historical rainfall events. The calibrated model is used for the assessment of the outlet drainage and pipe loads for the storm scenario currently existing or possibly occurring in the future. The study found that the simulation and analysis results of the drainage system model were reliable. They could fully reflect the service performance of the drainage system in the study area and provide decision-making support for regional flood control and transformation of pipeline network. PMID:26022395

  2. A high throughput transformation system allows the regeneration of marker-free plum plants (Prunus domestica L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high-throughput transformation system previously developed in our laboratory was used for the regeneration of transgenic plum plants without the use of antibiotic selection. The system was first tested with two experimental constructs, pGA482GGi and pCAMBIAgfp94(35S), that contain selective marke...

  3. Transforming User Needs into Functional Requirements for an Antibiotic Clinical Decision Support System

    PubMed Central

    Bright, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Many informatics studies use content analysis to generate functional requirements for system development. Explication of this translational process from qualitative data to functional requirements can strengthen the understanding and scientific rigor when applying content analysis in informatics studies. Objective To describe a user-centered approach transforming emergent themes derived from focus group data into functional requirements for informatics solutions and to illustrate these methods to the development of an antibiotic clinical decision support system (CDS). Methods The approach consisted of five steps: 1) identify unmet therapeutic planning information needs via Focus Group Study-I, 2) develop a coding framework of therapeutic planning themes to refine the domain scope to antibiotic therapeutic planning, 3) identify functional requirements of an antibiotic CDS system via Focus Group Study-II, 4) discover informatics solutions and functional requirements from coded data, and 5) determine the types of information needed to support the antibiotic CDS system and link with the identified informatics solutions and functional requirements. Results The coding framework for Focus Group Study-I revealed unmet therapeutic planning needs. Twelve subthemes emerged and were clustered into four themes; analysis indicated a need for an antibiotic CDS intervention. Focus Group Study-II included five types of information needs. Comments from the Barrier/Challenge to information access and Function/Feature themes produced three informatics solutions and 13 functional requirements of an antibiotic CDS system. Comments from the Patient, Institution, and Domain themes generated required data elements for each informatics solution. Conclusion This study presents one example explicating content analysis of focus group data and the analysis process to functional requirements from narrative data. Illustration of this 5-step method was used to develop an

  4. In planta Transformed Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Plants, Overexpressing the SbNHX1 Gene Showed Enhanced Salt Endurance.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sonika; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Cumin is an annual, herbaceous, medicinal, aromatic, spice glycophyte that contains diverse applications as a food and flavoring additive, and therapeutic agents. An efficient, less time consuming, Agrobacterium-mediated, a tissue culture-independent in planta genetic transformation method was established for the first time using cumin seeds. The SbNHX1 gene, cloned from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata was transformed in cumin using optimized in planta transformation method. The SbNHX1 gene encodes a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter and is involved in the compartmentalization of excess Na+ ions into the vacuole and maintenance of ion homeostasis Transgenic cumin plants were confirmed by PCR using gene (SbNHX1, uidA and hptII) specific primers. The single gene integration event and overexpression of the gene were confirmed by Southern hybridization and competitive RT-PCR, respectively. Transgenic lines L3 and L13 showed high expression of the SbNHX1 gene compared to L6 whereas moderate expression was detected in L5 and L10 transgenic lines. Transgenic lines (L3, L5, L10 and L13), overexpressing the SbNHX1 gene, showed higher photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid), and lower electrolytic leakage, lipid peroxidation (MDA content) and proline content as compared to wild type plants under salinity stress. Though transgenic lines were also affected by salinity stress but performed better compared to WT plants. The ectopic expression of the SbNHX1 gene confirmed enhanced salinity stress tolerance in cumin as compared to wild type plants under stress condition. The present study is the first report of engineering salt tolerance in cumin, so far and the plant may be utilized for the cultivation in saline areas. PMID:27411057

  5. In planta Transformed Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Plants, Overexpressing the SbNHX1 Gene Showed Enhanced Salt Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sonika; Patel, Manish Kumar; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Cumin is an annual, herbaceous, medicinal, aromatic, spice glycophyte that contains diverse applications as a food and flavoring additive, and therapeutic agents. An efficient, less time consuming, Agrobacterium-mediated, a tissue culture-independent in planta genetic transformation method was established for the first time using cumin seeds. The SbNHX1 gene, cloned from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata was transformed in cumin using optimized in planta transformation method. The SbNHX1 gene encodes a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter and is involved in the compartmentalization of excess Na+ ions into the vacuole and maintenance of ion homeostasis Transgenic cumin plants were confirmed by PCR using gene (SbNHX1, uidA and hptII) specific primers. The single gene integration event and overexpression of the gene were confirmed by Southern hybridization and competitive RT-PCR, respectively. Transgenic lines L3 and L13 showed high expression of the SbNHX1 gene compared to L6 whereas moderate expression was detected in L5 and L10 transgenic lines. Transgenic lines (L3, L5, L10 and L13), overexpressing the SbNHX1 gene, showed higher photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid), and lower electrolytic leakage, lipid peroxidation (MDA content) and proline content as compared to wild type plants under salinity stress. Though transgenic lines were also affected by salinity stress but performed better compared to WT plants. The ectopic expression of the SbNHX1 gene confirmed enhanced salinity stress tolerance in cumin as compared to wild type plants under stress condition. The present study is the first report of engineering salt tolerance in cumin, so far and the plant may be utilized for the cultivation in saline areas. PMID:27411057

  6. Transformation of dissolved organic matter in a novel groundwater recharge system with reclaimed water.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linlin; Zhao, Xuan; Zhang, Meng

    2011-12-01

    A novel process, enhanced direct injection-well recharge system (EnDir), can overcome the technical difficulties during the application of conventional surface spreading and has been developed to recharge groundwater with reclaimed water. In this study, removal and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the system were investigated in laboratory-scale experiments. Results demonstrated that dissolved organic carbon and trihalomethane formation potential values could be reduced from 6.54 +/- 1.30 mg/L and 267.9 +/- 24.3 microg/L to 1.59 +/- 0.64 mg/L and 104.5 +/- 10.2 microg/L, respectively, as a result of DOM biodegradation in the aerobic short-term vadose soil treatment. Fluorescence spectra showed that aromatic protein-like substances and soluble microbial byproducts could be removed, to a great extent, in the soil system. Despite different removal efficiencies of DOM in different molecular weight fractions, the residual DOM was composed mainly of fulvic acid-like and humic acid-like substances, with molecular weights of 500 Da to 1 kDa. PMID:22368955

  7. Advances in passive-remote and extractive Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.; Hwang, E.; Mao, Zhuoxiong

    1993-10-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires the monitoring of air toxics including those from incinerator emissions. Continuous emission monitors (CEM) would demonstrate the safety of incinerators and address public concern about emissions of hazardous organic compounds. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can provide the technology for continuous emission monitoring of stacks. Stack effluent can be extracted and analyzed in less than one minute with conventional FTIR spectrometers. Passive-remote FTIR spectrometers can detect certain emission gases over 1 km away from a stack. The authors discuss advances in both extractive and passive-remote FTIR technology. Extractive systems are being tested with EPA protocols, which will soon replace periodic testing methods. Standard operating procedures for extractive systems are being developed and tested. Passive-remote FTIR spectrometers have the advantage of not requiring an extracted sample; however, they have less sensitivity. We have evaluated the ability of commercially available systems to detect fugitive plumes and to monitor carbon monoxide at a coal-fired power plant.

  8. Advances in passive-remote and extractive Fourier transform infrared systems

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.; Hwang, E.; Zhuoxiong Mao

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires the monitoring of air toxics including those from incinerator emissions. Continuous emission monitors (CEM) would demonstrate the safety of incinerators and address public concern about emissions of hazardous organic compounds. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can provide the technology for continuous emission monitoring of stacks. Stack effluent can be extracted and analyzed in under one minute with conventional FTIR spectrometers. Passive-remote FTIR spectrometers can detect certain emission gases over 1 km away from a stack. The authors will discuss advances in both extractive and passive-remote FTIR technology. Extractive systems are being tested with EPA protocols, which will soon replace periodic testing methods. Standard operating procedures for extractive systems are being developed and tested. Passive-remote FTIR spectrometers have the advantage of not requiring an extracted sample; however, they have less sensitivity. The authors have evaluated the ability of commercially available systems to detect fugitive plumes and to monitor carbon monoxide at a coal-fired power plant.

  9. [Stability analysis of on-board calibration system of spatially modulated imaging Fourier transform spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingz; Ji, Zhong-Ying; Wang, Zhong-Hou; Cui, Yan

    2010-04-01

    Spatially modulated imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (SMIFTS) was an instrument that depended on interference, and after calibration, the reconstruction spectrum can quantificationally reflect the diffuse reflection of target under sunshine. On-board calibration of SMIFTS confirmed the change of SMIFTS according to relative spectrum calibration, inspected long-time attenuation of SMIFTS optical system, and corrected export data of SMIFTS. According to the requirement of remote sensor application, it must stay in vacuum environment for a long time. As a radiant standard, the stability of lamp-house in long time is the most important characteristic of on-board calibration system. By calculation and experimentation, analyses of on-board calibration of SMIFTS, and testing spaceflight environment characteristic of on-board calibration, the difficulty in the key parts of on-board calibration of SMIFTS such as lamp-house, spectrum filter and integrating sphere was solved. According to the radiation-time stability testing for lamp-house and optics, particle-radiation testing, environmental-mechanics testing and hot vacuum examination, good result was obtained. By whole-aperture and part-field comparative wavelength calibration, the spectrum curve and before-launch interferogram were obtained. After comparison with reconstruction spectrum under different condition, the stability and credibility of SMIFTS on-board calibration system was proved. PMID:20545151

  10. Influence of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas emissions of intensive aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Sharma, Keshab; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing segments of the food economy in modern times. It is also being considered as an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, limited studies have been conducted on GHG emissions from aquaculture system. In this study, daily addition of fish feed and soluble starch at a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 16:1 (w/w) was used to examine the effects of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and GHG emissions in a zero-water exchange intensive aquaculture system. The addition of soluble starch stimulated heterotrophic bacterial growth and denitrification, which led to lower total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate concentrations in aqueous phase. About 76.2% of the nitrogen output was emitted in the form of gaseous nitrogen (i.e., N2 and N2O) in the treatment tank (i.e., aquaculture tank with soluble starch addition), while gaseous nitrogen accounted for 33.3% of the nitrogen output in the control tank (i.e., aquaculture tank without soluble starch addition). Although soluble starch addition reduced daily N2O emissions by 83.4%, it resulted in an increase of daily carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 91.1%. Overall, starch addition did not contribute to controlling the GHG emissions from the aquaculture system. PMID:24140689

  11. Evaluation of Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter System for the Global FSU Atmospheric Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintra, R. S.; Cocke, S.

    2014-12-01

    This paper shows the results of a implementation of the data assimilation system to obtain the initial condition to the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) for the Florida State University/USA. The better quality of forecasts is given the more accurate the estimate of the initial conditions. The process of combining observations and short-range forecast to obtain an analysis is called data assimilation. The data assimilation system called "Local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) is implemented. A prediction estimates ensemble in state space represents the model errors in that scheme. The LETKF is tested with the AGCM Florida State University Global Spectral Model (FSUGSM). The model is a multilevel (27 vertical levels) spectral primitive equation model with a vertical σ-coordinate. All variables are expanded horizontally in a truncated series of spherical harmonic functions (at resolution T63) and a transform technique is applied to calculate the physical processes in real space. The LETKF data assimilation experiments are based in two types of the synthetic observations data (surface pressure, absolute temperature, zonal component wind, meridional component wind and humidity) to evaluate the LETKF system for FSUGSM. The data assimilation experiments are based on observational systems simulation experiments where the "nature" is assumed to be known, and adding random noise to the nature run. The first experiment, the "nature" fields are the FSUGSM forecasts without data assimilation, afterwards, we use the "National Centers for Environment Prediction" reanalysis to obtain the "nature" fields. The observations are localized at every other grid point of the model. The forecast ensemble size is 20 members. The numerical experiments have a one-month assimilation cycle, for the period 01/01/2001 to 31/01/2001 at (00, 06, 12 and 18 GMT) for each day. We compare the behavior of the model by comparing with its forecast, observations and nature fields. A

  12. Digital simulation of electromagnetic wave propagation in a multiconductor transmission system using the superposition principle and Hartley transform

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmutcehajic, R. . Faculty of Electrical Engineering); Babic, S. . Faculty of Electrical Engineering); Gacanovic, R.; Carsimamovic, S. )

    1993-07-01

    A method of calculation of electromagnetic transients in a multiconductor transmission systems using the superposition principle and Hartley transform is developed in the paper. The method takes into account all frequency dependent parameters of the transmission system. In the method, the impulse response of a transmission system are first obtained in the actual phase domain using a Hartley transform method. Then, the impulse responses are included in a transient calculation using the superposition principle. Up to now, Hartley transform has not been used in this field. Therefore, the properties and advantages of the transform are considered in comparison with more usual approaches using the other transform methods. The new method is applied on different transmission systems (underground cables and overhead lines). The obtained results are compared with those calculated by using conventional methods and field tests. The accuracy of the method is found to be good. The method, therefore, can be used as a very efficient alternative to the existing approximate models implemented in the programs of the time domain when all frequency dependent parameters have to be taken into account.

  13. Geodetic investigation of crustal deformation along the Dead Sea Transform and the Carmel Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeh, Maytal; Hamiel, Yariv; Ziv, Alon; Bock, Yehuda; Fang, Peng; Wdowinski, Shimon

    2013-04-01

    We use GPS measurements and elastic modeling to study the crustal deformation in the Levant. In this region, large-scale crustal deformation is mainly related to the Dead Sea Transform (DST) and the Carmel Fault System (CFS). The former is an active left lateral transform, bounding the Arabian plate and the Sinai sub-plate, and the latter branches out of the former and separates the Sinai sub-plate into two tectonic domains. In this study we obtain the velocities of 33 permanent GPS stations and 145 survey stations that were surveyed in three campaigns between 1996 and 2008. We use a simple elastic dislocation model to infer the slip rate and locking depth along various segments of the DST. We infer a 3.1-4.5 mm/yr slip rate and a 7.8-16.4 km locking depth along the DST north of the CFS, and a slip rate of 4.6-5.9 mm/yr and locking depth of 11.8-24 km along the Jericho Valley, south of the CFS. Further south, along the Arava Valley we obtain a slip rate of 4.6-5.4 mm/yr and a locking depth of 12.1-22.5 km. We identify an oblique motion along the Carmel fault with about 0.7 mm/yr left-lateral and about 0.6 mm/yr extension rates, resulting in N-S extension across the Carmel fault. This result, together with the decrease in DST slip velocity from the Jericho fault to the Jordan fault confirms previous suggestions, according to which part of the slip between Arabia and Sinai is being transferred from the DST to the CFS.

  14. Collaborative Proposal: Transforming How Climate System Models are Used: A Global, Multi-Resolution Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Estep, Donald

    2013-04-15

    Despite the great interest in regional modeling for both weather and climate applications, regional modeling is not yet at the stage that it can be used routinely and effectively for climate modeling of the ocean. The overarching goal of this project is to transform how climate models are used by developing and implementing a robust, efficient, and accurate global approach to regional ocean modeling. To achieve this goal, we will use theoretical and computational means to resolve several basic modeling and algorithmic issues. The first task is to develop techniques for transitioning between parameterized and high-fidelity regional ocean models as the discretization grid transitions from coarse to fine regions. The second task is to develop estimates for the error in scientifically relevant quantities of interest that provide a systematic way to automatically determine where refinement is needed in order to obtain accurate simulations of dynamic and tracer transport in regional ocean models. The third task is to develop efficient, accurate, and robust time-stepping schemes for variable spatial resolution discretizations used in regional ocean models of dynamics and tracer transport. The fourth task is to develop frequency-dependent eddy viscosity finite element and discontinuous Galerkin methods and study their performance and effectiveness for simulation of dynamics and tracer transport in regional ocean models. These four projects share common difficulties and will be approach using a common computational and mathematical toolbox. This is a multidisciplinary project involving faculty and postdocs from Colorado State University, Florida State University, and Penn State University along with scientists from Los Alamos National Laboratory. The completion of the tasks listed within the discussion of the four sub-projects will go a long way towards meeting our goal of developing superior regional ocean models that will transform how climate system models are used.

  15. The conceptual basis of mathematics in cardiology III: linear systems theory and integral transforms.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jason H T; Sobel, Burton E

    2003-05-01

    This is the third in a series of four articles developed for the readers of Coronary Artery Disease. Without language ideas cannot be articulated. What may not be so immediately obvious is that they cannot be formulated either. One of the essential languages of cardiology is mathematics. Unfortunately, medical education does not emphasize, and in fact, often neglects empowering physicians to think mathematically. Reference to statistics, conditional probability, multicompartmental modeling, algebra, calculus and transforms is common but often without provision of genuine conceptual understanding. At the University of Vermont College of Medicine, Professor Bates developed a course designed to address these deficiencies. The course covered mathematical principles pertinent to clinical cardiovascular and pulmonary medicine and research. It focused on fundamental concepts to facilitate formulation and grasp of ideas.This series of four articles was developed to make the material available for a wider audience. The articles will be published sequentially in Coronary Artery Disease. Beginning with fundamental axioms and basic algebraic manipulations they address algebra, function and graph theory, real and complex numbers, calculus and differential equations, mathematical modeling, linear system theory and integral transforms and statistical theory. The principles and concepts they address provide the foundation needed for in-depth study of any of these topics. Perhaps of even more importance, they should empower cardiologists and cardiovascular researchers to utilize the language of mathematics in assessing the phenomena of immediate pertinence to diagnosis, pathophysiology and therapeutics. The presentations are interposed with queries (by Coronary Artery Disease abbreviated as CAD) simulating the nature of interactions that occurred during the course itself. Each article concludes with one or more examples illustrating application of the concepts covered to

  16. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, Laura; Brown, Austin; Newes, Emily; Markel, Tony; Schroeder, Alex; Zhang, Yimin; Chipman, Peter; Johnson, Shawn

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  17. Transformation of the Strongly Hydrogen Bonded System into van der Waals one Reflected in Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, K.; Kamińska, E.; Grzybowska, K.; Włodarczyk, P.; Pawlus, S.; Paluch, M.; Zioło, J.; Rzoska, S. J.; Pilch, J.; Kasprzycka, A.; Szeja, W.

    Dielectric relaxation studies on disaccharides lactose and octa-O-acetyl-lactose are reported. The latter is a hydrogen bonded system while the former is a van der Waals glass former. The transformation between them was arranged by substituting hydrogen atoms in lactose by acetyl groups. Hereby the influence of differences in bounding on dynamics of both systems is discussed. We showed that the faster secondary relaxation (labeled γ) in octa-O-acetyl-lactose has much lower amplitude than that of lactose. The relaxation time and activation energy remain unchanged in comparison to the γ- relaxation of lactose. We did not observe the slow secondary relaxation (labeled β), clearly visible in lactose, in its acethyl derivative. Detailed analysis of the dielectric spectra measured for octa-O-acetyl-lactose in its glassy state (not standard change in the shape of the γ- peak with lowering temperature) enabled us to provide probable explanation of our finding. No credible comparative analysis of the α- relaxation process of the lactose and octa-O-acetyl-lactose are presented, because loss spectra of the former carbohydrate were affected by the huge contribution of the dc conductivity. Notwithstanding, one can expect that octa-O-acetyl-lactose has lower glass transition temperature and steepness index than lactose.

  18. Transforming Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.

    The authors in this book address the issues that relate to the crisis in American education and review some of the proposed solutions. To transform education, schools must be examined as social systems that are interrelated with families, communities, and the world of work. Following the introduction, section 1, "Conditions for Educational…

  19. Impact of quasi-dc currents on three-phase distribution transformer installations. Power Systems Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R.; Tesche, F.M.; Schafer, D.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes a series of tests designed to determine the response of quasi-dc currents on three-phase power distribution transformers for electric power systems. In general, if the dc injection is limited to the primary side of a step-down transformer, significant harmonic distortion is noted and an increase in the reactive power demand results. For dc injection on the secondary (load) side of the step-down transformer the harmonic content at the secondary side is quite high and saturation occurs with a relatively low level of dc injection; however, the reactive power demand is significantly lower. These tests produced no apparent damage to the transformers. Transformer damage is dependent on the duration of the dc excitation, the level of the excitation, and on thermal characteristics of the transfer. The transformer response time is found to be much shorter than seen in power transformer tests at lower dc injection levels. This shorter response time suggests that the response time is strongly dependent on the injected current levels, and that higher levels of dc injection for shorter durations could produce very high reactive power demands and harmonic distortion within a few tenths of a second. The added reactive power load could result in the blowing of fuses on the primary side of the transformer for even moderate dc injection levels, and neutral currents are quite large under even low-level dc injection. This ``smoking neutral`` results in high-level harmonic injection into equipment via the neutral and in possible equipment failure.

  20. Teachers Exploring Partnership Education and Ways to Transform the K-12 Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerda, Marisela Galvan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to engage middle school science teachers in collaborative dialogue to understand the implications of partnership values and principles in the classroom to transform their educational practice. Participants investigated issues which prevent partnership relationships in schools and ways to help transform education and…

  1. Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Transformations in One Dimensional Ag-Eu Helical System

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yue-Peng; Zhout, Xiu-Xia; Zhout, Zheng-Yuan; Zhu, Shi-Zheng; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Liu, Jun

    2009-07-06

    Single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation of 1-D 4d-4f coordination polymers have been investigated for the first time. It displays high selectivity for Mg2+ and can be used as magnesium ion-selective luminescent probe. More importantly, we observed the transformation of meso-helical chain to rac-helical chain as a function of temperature.

  2. Transformation of the Turkish Vocational Training System: Capitalization, Modularization and Learning unto Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Ergin

    2010-01-01

    This article scrutinizes the transformation of vocational training in Turkey. Entertaining the question, "Why did the vocational high schools become an issue in the country all of a sudden?", it aims to cover the social and economic dynamics behind this transformation. Establishing the link between Turkey's integration with the global economy and…

  3. Market transformation opportunities for emerging dynamic facade and dimmable lighting control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Hughes, Glenn D.; Thurm, David A.

    2004-06-04

    Automated shading and daylighting control systems have been commercially available for decades. The new challenge is to provide a fully functional and integrated fagade and lighting system that operates appropriately for all environmental conditions and meets a range of occupant subjective desires and objective performance requirements. These rigorous performance goals must be achieved with solutions that are cost effective and can operate over long periods with minimal maintenance. It will take time and effort to change the marketplace for these technologies and practices, particularly in building a series of documented success stories, and driving costs and risks to much lower levels at which their use becomes the norm. In recent years, the architectural trend toward highly-transparent all-glass buildings presents a unique challenge and opportunity to advance the market for emerging, smart, dynamic window and dimmable daylighting control technologies. We believe it is possible to accelerate product market transformation by developing projects where technical advances and the interests of motivated manufacturers and innovative owners converge. In this paper we present a case study example that explains a building owner's decision-making process to use dynamic window and dimmable daylighting controls. The case study project undertaken by a major building owner in partnership with a buildings R&D group was designed explicitly to use field test data in conjunction with the market influence of a major landmark building project in New York City to stimulate change in manufacturers' product offerings. Preliminary observations on the performance of these systems are made. A cost model that was developed with the building owner is explained.

  4. Establishing Molecular Tools for Genetic Manipulation of the Pleuromutilin-Producing Fungus Clitopilus passeckerianus▿

    PubMed Central

    Kilaru, Sreedhar; Collins, Catherine M.; Hartley, Amanda J.; Bailey, Andy M.; Foster, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    We describe efficient polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation systems for a pharmaceutically important basidiomycete fungus, Clitopilus passeckerianus, which produces pleuromutilin, a diterpene antibiotic. Three dominant selectable marker systems based on hygromycin, phleomycin, and carboxin selection were used to study the feasibility of PEG-mediated transformation of C. passeckerianus. The PEG-mediated transformation of C. passeckerianus protoplasts was successful and generated hygromycin-resistant transformants more efficiently than either phleomycin or carboxin resistance. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with plasmid pBGgHg containing hph gene under the control of the Agaricus bisporus gpdII promoter led to hygromycin-resistant colonies and was successful when homogenized mycelium and fruiting body gill tissue were used as starting material. Southern blot analysis of transformants revealed the apparently random integration of the transforming DNA to be predominantly multiple copies for the PEG-mediated system and a single copy for the Agrobacterium-mediated system within the genome. C. passeckerianus actin and tubulin promoters were amplified from genomic DNA and proved successful in driving green fluorescent protein and DsRed expression in C. passeckerianus, but only when constructs contained a 5′ intron, demonstrating that the presence of an intron is prerequisite for efficient transgene expression. The feasibility of RNA interference-mediated gene silencing was investigated using gfp as a target gene easily scored in C. passeckerianus. Upon transformation of gfp antisense constructs into a highly fluorescent strain, transformants were recovered that exhibited either reduced or undetectable fluorescence. This was confirmed by Northern blotting showing depletion of the target mRNA levels. This demonstrated that gene silencing is a suitable tool for modulating gene expression in C. passeckerianus. The molecular tools

  5. Potassium chloride and rare earth elements improve plant growth and increase the frequency of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Alex; Matsuoka, Aki; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2011-04-01

    Plant transformation efficiency depends on the ability of the transgene to successfully interact with plant host factors. Our previous work and the work of others showed that manipulation of the activity of host factors allows for increased frequency of transformation. Recently we reported that exposure of tobacco plants to increased concentrations of ammonium nitrate increases the frequency of both homologous recombination and plant transgenesis. Here we tested the influence of KCl and salts of rare earth elements, Ce and La on the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. We found that exposure to KCl, CeCl(3) and LaCl(3) leads to an increase in recombination frequency in Arabidopsis and tobacco. Plants grown in the presence of CeCl(3) and LaCl(3) had higher biomass, longer roots and greater root number. Analysis of transformation efficiency showed that exposure of tobacco plants to 50 mM KCl resulted in ~6.0-fold increase in the number of regenerated calli and transgenic plants as compared to control plants. Exposure to various concentrations of CeCl(3) showed a maximum increase of ~3.0-fold in both the number of calli and transgenic plants. Segregation analysis showed that exposure to KCl and cerium (III) chloride leads to more frequent integrations of the transgene at a single locus. Analysis of transgene intactness showed better preservation of right T-DNA border during transgene integration. Our data suggest that KCl and CeCl(3) can be effectively used to improve quantity and quality of transgene integrations. PMID:21132499

  6. In Brief: Report calls for transforming the U.S. energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Tretkoff, Ernie

    2010-12-01

    The United States should develop a coordinated, government-wide, federal energy policy to transform the nation's energy system within 1-2 decades, according to a 29 November report by the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). A key recommendation is for the president to establish a quadrennial energy review process to provide a road map for short- and long-term energy objectives, to outline legislative proposals, to put forward anticipated executive branch actions, and to identify resource requirements for research and development programs. Entitled “Report to the president on accelerating the pace of change in energy technologies through an integrated federal energy policy,” the report also calls for the government to invest $16 billion per year for clean energy innovation. The report indicates that this would be an approximate tripling of current Department of Energy investments in energy science and technology. Stating that “the discretionary budget is under severe pressure,” the report recommends that the president engage the private sector and Congress to generate about $10billion per year of funding through new revenue streams. A small charge on electricity and transportation fuel could be “well within the normal fluctuations in price seen by consumers” and generate billions of dollars for research.

  7. Efficient genetic transformation and regeneration system from hairy root of Origanum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Peyman; de Sa, Maria Fatima Grossi; da Silva, André Luís Lopes; Makhzoum, Abdullah; da Luz Costa, Jefferson; Borghetti, Ivo Albertto; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Origanum vulgare L is commonly known as a wild marjoram and winter sweet which has been used in the traditional medicine due to its therapeutic effects as stimulant, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and many other diseases. A reliable gene transfer system via Agrobacterium rhizogenes and plant regeneration via hairy roots was established in O. vulgare for the first time. The frequency of induced hairy roots was different by modification of the co-cultivation medium elements after infection by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains K599 and ATCC15834. High transformation frequency (91.3 %) was achieved by co-cultivation of explants with A. rhizogenes on modified (MS) medium. The frequency of calli induction with an 81.5 % was achieved from hairy roots on MS medium with 0.25 mg/L(-1) 2,4-D. For shoot induction, initiated calli was transferred into a medium containing various concentrations of BA (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg/L(-1)). The frequency of shoot generation (85.18 %) was achieved in medium fortified with 0.25 mg/L(-1) of BA. Shoots were placed on MS medium with 0.25 mg/l IBA for root induction. Roots appeared and induction rate was achieved after 15 days. PMID:27436918

  8. The top ten concerns about recovery encountered in mental health system transformation.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Larry; O'Connell, Maria; Tondora, Janis; Styron, Thomas; Kangas, Karen

    2006-05-01

    The notion of "recovery" has recently taken center stage in guiding mental health policy and practice. However, it is not yet clear what the term means and what is to be entailed in transforming the nation's mental health system to promote it. The authors discuss the various meanings of recovery as applied to mental illness and list the top ten concerns encountered in efforts to articulate and implement recovery-oriented care. These concerns include the following: recovery is old news, recovery-oriented care adds to the burden of already stretched providers, recovery involves cure, recovery happens to very few people, recovery represents an irresponsible fad, recovery happens only after and as a result of active treatment, recovery-oriented care is implemented only through the addition of new resources, recovery-oriented care is neither reimbursable nor evidence based, recovery-oriented care devalues the role of professional intervention, and recovery-oriented care increases providers' exposure to risk and liability. These concerns are addressed through discussion of the two over-arching challenges that they pose, namely the issues of resources and risk. PMID:16675756

  9. A health care system in transformation: making the case for chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There are a number of factors that have conspired to create a crisis in healthcare. In part, the successes of medical science and technologies have been to blame, for they have led to survival where lives would previously have been cut short. An informed public, aware of these technological advances, is demanding access to the best that healthcare has to offer. At the same time the burden of chronic disease in an increasing elderly population has created a marked growth in the need for long term care. Current estimates for expenditure predict a rapid escalation of healthcare costs as a proportion of the GDP of developed nations, yet at the same time a global economic crisis has necessitated dramatic cuts in health budgets. This unsustainable position has led to calls for an urgent transformation in healthcare systems. This commentary explores the present day healthcare crisis and looks at the opportunities for chiropractors as pressure intensifies on politicians and leaders in healthcare to seek innovative solutions to a failing model. Amidst these opportunities, it questions whether the chiropractic profession is ready to accept the challenges that integration into mainstream healthcare will bring and identifies both pathways and potential obstacles to acceptance. PMID:23216921

  10. Construction and Validation of a Dual-Transgene Vector System for Stable Transformation in Plants.

    PubMed

    He, Zhimin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Xu; Bian, Mingdi; He, Reqing; Yan, Jindong; Zhong, Ming; Zhao, Xiaoying; Liu, Xuanming

    2016-04-20

    In this study, we constructed dual-transgene vectors (pDT1, pDT7, and pDT7G) that simultaneously co-expressed two genes in plants. ACTIN2 and UBQ10 promoters were used to control the expression of these two genes. The 4×Myc, 3×HA, and 3×Flag reporter genes allowed for the convenient identification of a tunable co-expression system in plants, whereas the dexamethasone (Dex) inducible reporter gene C-terminus of the glucocorticoid receptor (cGR) provided Dex-dependent translocation of the fusion gene between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The function of pDT vectors was validated using four pairwise genes in Nicotiana benthamiana or Arabidopsis thaliana. The co-expression efficiency of two genes from the pDT1 and pDT7G vectors was 35% and 42%, respectively, which ensured the generation of sufficient transgenic materials. These pDT vectors are simple, reliable, efficient, and time-saving tools for the co-expression of two genes through a single transformation event and can be used in the study of protein-protein interactions or multi-component complexes. PMID:27157807

  11. The Vestibular System Implements a Linear–Nonlinear Transformation In Order to Encode Self-Motion

    PubMed Central

    Massot, Corentin; Schneider, Adam D.; Chacron, Maurice J.; Cullen, Kathleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well established that the neural code representing the world changes at each stage of a sensory pathway, the transformations that mediate these changes are not well understood. Here we show that self-motion (i.e. vestibular) sensory information encoded by VIIIth nerve afferents is integrated nonlinearly by post-synaptic central vestibular neurons. This response nonlinearity was characterized by a strong (∼50%) attenuation in neuronal sensitivity to low frequency stimuli when presented concurrently with high frequency stimuli. Using computational methods, we further demonstrate that a static boosting nonlinearity in the input-output relationship of central vestibular neurons accounts for this unexpected result. Specifically, when low and high frequency stimuli are presented concurrently, this boosting nonlinearity causes an intensity-dependent bias in the output firing rate, thereby attenuating neuronal sensitivities. We suggest that nonlinear integration of afferent input extends the coding range of central vestibular neurons and enables them to better extract the high frequency features of self-motion when embedded with low frequency motion during natural movements. These findings challenge the traditional notion that the vestibular system uses a linear rate code to transmit information and have important consequences for understanding how the representation of sensory information changes across sensory pathways. PMID:22911113

  12. A KILOMETER PATHLENGTH FOURIER-TRANSFORM INFRARED SYSTEM FOR THE STUDY OF TRACE POLLUTANTS IN AMBIENT AND SYNTHETIC ATMOSPHERES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Fourier-transform infrared system, operable at pathlengths up to 2 km, has been constructed for the detection and measurement of trace contaminants in the ambient atmosphere and in controlled smog formation studies. The long optical path is achieved by the use of an eight-mirro...

  13. [Urbanization mechanisms in bird species: population systems transformations or adaptations at the individual level?].

    PubMed

    Fridman, V S; Eremkin, G S; Zakharova-Kubareva, N Iu

    2008-01-01

    The present research deals with urbanization of wild bird and mammal species. Forms and mechanisms of population steadiness in the urban landscape have been examined. The urbanization process turned out to be a directed change of the population system forming de novo in the urbolandscape leading to a sustainable organization peculiar for the particular environment. The population organization of different types in urbolandscape is found to provide its stability under conditions of directed and fast changes accompanied with instability and heterogenous structure of habitats. It is shown that the same type of population organization meets the corresponding demands among different species settling in the urban environment. Its features are "openness" and "flowage" of the groups, far order of settlement levels and other units of population system, constant movements of the individuals between the groups as a respond to the signals of urboenvironment significant changes. The "urban" variant of the population system organization turns out to be opposite to that of the same species in the non-urban habitats. After formation of the urban types by the species and successful developing of the town, the urban population becomes separated from the maternal local population and begins to exist independently in the urban landscape. The variety of adaptation aberrations in ecology, behavior, and mode of life of urban birds is the population system stability function in the urban landscape and is not a results of individual selection. It is shown that the urbanization process of the species goes firstly on the population level being the system structure transformation developed by the species towards the most stable state in the town (city) territory. Only after the appearance of stable urban population, the urban individuals show the rapid growth of different changes in ecology, behavior, mode of life that was traditionally described by naturalists as species adaptation to the

  14. Transformation and Evaluation of Cry1Ac+Cry2A and GTGene in Gossypium hirsutum L.

    PubMed Central

    Puspito, Agung N.; Rao, Abdul Q.; Hafeez, Muhammad N.; Iqbal, Muhammad S.; Bajwa, Kamran S.; Ali, Qurban; Rashid, Bushra; Abbas, Muhammad A.; Latif, Ayesha; Shahid, Ahmad A.; Nasir, Idrees A.; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    More than 50 countries around the globe cultivate cotton on a large scale. It is a major cash crop of Pakistan and is considered “white gold” because it is highly important to the economy of Pakistan. In addition to its importance, cotton cultivation faces several problems, such as insect pests, weeds, and viruses. In the past, insects have been controlled by insecticides, but this method caused a severe loss to the economy. However, conventional breeding methods have provided considerable breakthroughs in the improvement of cotton, but it also has several limitations. In comparison with conventional methods, biotechnology has the potential to create genetically modified plants that are environmentally safe and economically viable. In this study, a local cotton variety VH 289 was transformed with two Bt genes (Cry1Ac and Cry2A) and a herbicide resistant gene (cp4 EPSPS) using the Agrobacterium mediated transformation method. The constitutive CaMV 35S promoter was attached to the genes taken from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and to an herbicide resistant gene during cloning, and this promoter was used for the expression of the genes in cotton plants. This construct was used to develop the Glyphosate Tolerance Gene (GTGene) for herbicide tolerance and insecticidal gene (Cry1Ac and Cry2A) for insect tolerance in the cotton variety VH 289. The transgenic cotton variety performed 85% better compared with the non-transgenic variety. The study results suggest that farmers should use the transgenic cotton variety for general cultivation to improve the production of cotton. PMID:26617613

  15. Aging of safety class 1E transformers in safety systems of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, E.W.; Edson, J.L.; Udy, A.C.

    1996-02-01

    This report discusses aging effects on safety-related power transformers in nuclear power plants. It also evaluates maintenance, testing, and monitoring practices with respect to their effectiveness in detecting and mitigating the effects of aging. The study follows the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Nuclear Plant-Aging Research approach. It investigates the materials used in transformer construction, identifies stressors and aging mechanisms, presents operating and testing experience with aging effects, analyzes transformer failure events reported in various databases, and evaluates maintenance practices. Databases maintained by the nuclear industry were analyzed to evaluate the effects of aging on the operation of nuclear power plants.

  16. Mellin transform approach for the solution of coupled systems of fractional differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butera, Salvatore; Di Paola, Mario

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the solution of a multi-order, multi-degree-of-freedom fractional differential equation is addressed by using the Mellin integral transform. By taking advantage of a technique that relates the transformed function, in points of the complex plane differing in the value of their real part, the solution is found in the Mellin domain by solving a linear set of algebraic equations. The approximate solution of the differential (or integral) equation is restored, in the time domain, by using the inverse Mellin transform in its discretized form.

  17. Decision support system for age-related macular degeneration using discrete wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Acharya, U Rajendra; Koh, Joel E W; Chua, Chua Kuang; Tan, Jen Hong; Chandran, Vinod; Lim, Choo Min; Noronha, Kevin; Laude, Augustinus; Tong, Louis

    2014-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects the central vision and subsequently may lead to visual loss in people over 60 years of age. There is no permanent cure for AMD, but early detection and successive treatment may improve the visual acuity. AMD is mainly classified into dry and wet type; however, dry AMD is more common in aging population. AMD is characterized by drusen, yellow pigmentation, and neovascularization. These lesions are examined through visual inspection of retinal fundus images by ophthalmologists. It is laborious, time-consuming, and resource-intensive. Hence, in this study, we have proposed an automated AMD detection system using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and feature ranking strategies. The first four-order statistical moments (mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis), energy, entropy, and Gini index-based features are extracted from DWT coefficients. We have used five (t test, Kullback-Lieber Divergence (KLD), Chernoff Bound and Bhattacharyya Distance, receiver operating characteristics curve-based, and Wilcoxon) feature ranking strategies to identify optimal feature set. A set of supervised classifiers namely support vector machine (SVM), decision tree, [Formula: see text]-nearest neighbor ([Formula: see text]-NN), Naive Bayes, and probabilistic neural network were used to evaluate the highest performance measure using minimum number of features in classifying normal and dry AMD classes. The proposed framework obtained an average accuracy of 93.70%, sensitivity of 91.11%, and specificity of 96.30% using KLD ranking and SVM classifier. We have also formulated an AMD Risk Index using selected features to classify the normal and dry AMD classes using one number. The proposed system can be used to assist the clinicians and also for mass AMD screening programs. PMID:25112273

  18. Iron oxides stimulate microbial monochlorobenzene in situ transformation in constructed wetlands and laboratory systems.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marie; Wolfram, Diana; Birkigt, Jan; Ahlheim, Jörg; Paschke, Heidrun; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nijenhuis, Ivonne

    2014-02-15

    Natural wetlands are transition zones between anoxic ground and oxic surface water which may enhance the (bio)transformation potential for recalcitrant chloro-organic contaminants due to the unique geochemical conditions and gradients. Monochlorobenzene (MCB) is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant which is toxic and was thought to be persistent under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, to date, no degradation pathways for anoxic MCB removal have been proven in the field. Hence, it is important to investigate MCB biodegradation in the environment, as groundwater is an important drinking water source in many European countries. Therefore, two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands, planted and unplanted, were used to investigate the processes in situ contributing to the biotransformation of MCB in these gradient systems. The wetlands were fed with anoxic MCB-contaminated groundwater from a nearby aquifer in Bitterfeld, Germany. An overall MCB removal was observed in both wetlands, whereas just 10% of the original MCB inflow concentration was detected in the ponds. In particular in the gravel bed of the planted wetland, MCB removal was highest in summer season with 73 ± 9% compared to the unplanted one with 40 ± 5%. Whereas the MCB concentrations rapidly decreased in the transition zone of unplanted gravel to the pond, a significant MCB removal was already determined in the anoxic gravel bed of the planted system. The investigation of hydro-geochemical parameters revealed that iron and sulphate reduction were relevant redox processes in both wetlands. In parallel, the addition of ferric iron or nitrate stimulated the mineralisation of MCB in laboratory microcosms with anoxic groundwater from the same source, indicating that the potential for anaerobic microbial degradation of MCB is present at the field site. PMID:24291561

  19. Identification of an ARS element and development of a high efficiency transformation system for Pichia guilliermondii.

    PubMed

    Boretsky, Y; Voronovsky, A; Liuta-Tehlivets, O; Hasslacher, M; Kohlwein, S D; Shavlovsky, G M

    1999-10-01

    An Autonomously Replicating Sequence element adjacent to the RIB1 gene encoding GTP cyclohydrolase II of the yeast Pichia guilliermondii was identified by transformation experiments. Detailed sequence analysis unveiled two potential ARS elements located 5' and 3' of the RIB1 open reading frame. The chromosomal fragment containing the ARS-like sequence 3' to the RIB1 structural gene, called PgARS, conferred high transformation frequencies of 10(4)-10(5) transformants/microg of DNA to a pUC19-derived plasmid in P. guilliermondii. The PgARS element also conferred autonomous replication to hybrid plasmids in this host. Based on this element a series of Escherichia coli shuttle vectors for efficient transformation of the flavinogenic yeast P. guilliermondii was developed. PMID:10541859

  20. Applying Observations from Technological Transformations in Complex Adaptive Systems to Inform Health Policy on Technology Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Andrew B.; Merrill, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Many complex markets such as banking and manufacturing have benefited significantly from technology adoption. Each of these complex markets experienced increased efficiency, quality, security, and customer involvement as a result of technology transformation in their industry. Healthcare has not benefited to the same extent. We provide initial findings from a policy analysis of complex markets and the features of these transformations that can influence health technology adoption and acceptance. PMID:24199112

  1. Applying observations from technological transformations in complex adaptive systems to inform health policy on technology adoption.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Andrew B; Merrill, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Many complex markets such as banking and manufacturing have benefited significantly from technology adoption. Each of these complex markets experienced increased efficiency, quality, security, and customer involvement as a result of technology transformation in their industry. Healthcare has not benefited to the same extent. We provide initial findings from a policy analysis of complex markets and the features of these transformations that can influence health technology adoption and acceptance. PMID:24199112

  2. Just Learning: The Imperative to Transform Juvenile Justice Systems into Effective Educational Systems. A Study of Juvenile Justice Schools in the South and the Nation. Special Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Education Foundation, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This brief summarizes the findings of the larger study, "Just Learning: The Imperative to Transform Juvenile Justice Systems into Effective Educational Systems. A Study of Juvenile Justice Schools in the South and the Nation." With awareness growing that schools are disciplining and suspending minority students at alarming rates, the…

  3. A direct application of the non-linear inverse transformation flight control system design on a STOVL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W. W.; Mcneill, W. E.; Stortz, M. W.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear inverse transformation flight control system design method is applied to the Lockheed Ft. Worth Company's E-7D short takeoff and vertical land (STOVL) supersonic fighter/attack aircraft design with a modified General Electric F110 engine which has augmented propulsive lift capability. The system is fully augmented to provide flight path control and velocity control, and rate command attitude hold for angular axes during the transition and hover operations. In cruise mode, the flight control system is configured to provide direct thrust command, rate command attitude hold for pitch and roll axes, and sideslip command with turn coordination. A control selector based on the nonlinear inverse transformation method is designed specifically to be compatible with the propulsion system's physical configuration which has a two dimensional convergent-divergent aft nozzle, a vectorable ventral nozzle, and a thrust augmented ejector. The nonlinear inverse transformation is used to determine the propulsive forces and nozzle deflections, which in combination with the aerodynamic forces and moments (including propulsive induced contributions), and gravitational force, are required to achieve the longitudinal and vertical acceleration commands. The longitudinal control axes are fully decoupled within the propulsion system's performance envelope. A piloted motion-base flight simulation was conducted on the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at NASA Ames Research Center to examine the handling qualities of this design. Based on results of the simulation, refinements to the control system have been made and will also be covered in the report.

  4. Transformation of bisphenol A in water distribution systems: a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Wang, Zilong; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Liu, Jingqing; Mao, Xinwei; Zhang, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Halogenations of bisphenol A (BPA) in a pilot-scale water distribution system (WDS) of a cement-lined ductile cast iron pipe were investigated. The water in the pilot-scale WDS was chlorinated with a free chlorine concentration of 0.7 mg L(-1) using sodium hypochlorite, and with an initial BPA concentration of 100 μg L(-1) was spiked in the WDS. Halogenated compounds in the BPA experiments were identified using EI/GC/MS and GC. Several BPA congeners, including 2-chlorobisphenol A (MCBPA), dichlorobisphenol A (D2-CBPA), 2,2',6-trichlorobisphenol A (T3CBPA), 2,2',6,6'-tetrachlorobisphenol A (T4CBPA), 2-bromobisphenol A (MBBPA), and bromochlorobisphenol A (MBMCBPA) were found. Moreover, further halogenation yielded other reaction intermediates, including 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (T3CP), dichlorobisphenol A, bromodichlorophenol, and dibromochlorophenol. After halogenation for 120min, most of the abovementioned reaction intermediates disappeared and were replaced by trihalomethanes (THMs). Based on these experimental findings, the halogenation process of BPA oxidation in a WDS includes three stages: (1) halogenation on the aromatic ring; (2) chlorine or bromine substitution followed by cleavage of the α-C bond on the isopropyl moiety with a positive partial charge and a β'-C bond on the benzene moiety with a negative partial charge; and (3) THMs and a minor HAA formation from phenolic intermediates through the benzene ring opening with a chlorine and bromine substitution of the hydrogen on the carbon atoms. The oxidation mechanisms of the entire transformation from BPA to THM/HAA in the WDS were proposed. PMID:25550112

  5. Enabling health systems transformation: what progress has been made in re-orienting health services?

    PubMed

    Wise, Marilyn; Nutbeam, Don

    2007-01-01

    transform health care systems to make a major contribution to the improvement of public health. PMID:17685076

  6. Phase diagram of the Y-Y2Se3 system, enthalpies of phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, O. V.; Kharitontsev, V. B.; Polkovnikov, A. A.; Elyshev, A. V.; Andreev, P. O.

    2015-10-01

    A phase diagram for the Y-Y2Se3 system has been constructed in which the YSe and Y2Se3 phases melt congruently. The daltonide type YSe phase (ST Y0,75Se, a=1.1393 nm, melting point=2380 K, H=2200 MPa) forms a double-sided solid solution from 49-50-53 at% Se. In the 50-53 at% Se range, the unit cell parameter increases to 1.1500 nm, the microhardness increases to 4100 MPa and electrical resistivity increases from 0.018 to 0.114 Ω m. These changes are caused by the dominating influx of newly formed structural cationic vacancies arising from the selenium anions that are surplus for the 1:1 Y:Se stoichiometry. The full-valence Y2Se3 composition exists as a low-temperature modification of ε-Y2Se3 (ST Sc2S3, a=1.145 nm, b=0.818 nm, c=2.438 nm, melting point=1780 K, ∆fusion enthalpy=4±0.4 J/g) and transforms into a modification of ξ-Y2Se3 that does not undergo fixing by thermo-hardening. The eutectic melting point between the YSe and Y2Se3 phases is 1625±5 K, with a eutectic composition that is assumed to be 57.5 at% Se and have an enthalpy of fusion of 43±4.3 J/g. The eutectic for the Y and YSe phases appears at a temperature of 1600 K and 5 at% Se.

  7. Colloidal Nanocrystals: A Model System for the Study of Phase Transformations Since 1950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenberg, Joshua

    2011-06-01

    Shock waves provide a means of rapidly compressing a condensed phase sample and studying the resulting structural changes. However, shock studies to date have focused on bulk materials, in which multiple uncorrelated nucleation events lead to complex transformation kinetics. An individual nanocrystal, by comparison, can transform completely with ~10ps following nucleation of the daughter phase, reducing the likelihood that a second nucleation event will occur during the transformation time. In a diamond anvil cell, the wurtzite to rocksalt phase transformation in CdSe nanocrystals, for example, has been shown to follow simple first-order kinetics. The slow, ensemble kinetics observed in those experiments, however, obscured the dynamics within each nanocrystal. Rapidly compressing a nanocrystalline sample using a laser-driven shock wave, the pressure around each nanocrystal can rise on a timescale comparable to that for a sound wave to traverse the crystal. Shock experiments on nanoscale materials therefore have the potential to elucidate aspects of the transformation mechanism inaccessible to further quasi-static diamond anvil cell measurements behavior of CdSe nanocrystals under shock stresses of 2--3.75 GPa has been studied. Above 3 GPa a near-complete disappearance of the first excitonic feature and broadening of the low-energy absorption edge were observed, consistent with a wurtzite to rocksalt structural transformation. The transformation pressure was reduced relative to hydrostatic compression in a diamond anvil cell, and the rate increased, attributed to shock induced shear stress along the reaction coordinate. The especially rapid rate observed for a 3.75 GPa shock suggests multiple nucleation events occurring in each particle.

  8. A Chronic Disease Prevention and Management Corridor© to Supporting System-Level Transformations for Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sampalli, Tara; Christian, Erin; Edwards, Lynn; Ryer, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Improving care for chronic conditions requires system-level transformations to ensure multiple levels of adoption and sustainability of the implemented improvements. These comprehensive solutions require transformations and supports at various levels, leadership and process changes at service/program level. Recognizing the importance of an organization-wide strategy to mitigate the growing issue of chronic disease prevention and management, a novel system-level approach has been developed in a district health authority in Nova Scotia, Canada. In this paper, the contextual factors and efforts that led to the conceptual framework of the Chronic Disease Prevention and Management (CDPM) "Corridor©" to management of chronic conditions are discussed. The CDPM Corridor© essentially constitutes a system-level redesign process; common elements, tools and resources; and a hub of supports for chronic disease prevention and management. The CDPM Corridor PMID:26718253

  9. Co-transforming bar and CsALDH Genes Enhanced Resistance to Herbicide and Drought and Salt Stress in Transgenic Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Zhen; Zhang, Daiyu; Zhang, Jianquan; Di, Hongyan; Wu, Fan; Hu, Xiaowen; Meng, Xuanchen; Luo, Kai; Zhang, Jiyu; Wang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict the productivity of alfalfa. By application of the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, an oxidative responsive gene, CsALDH12A1, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica together with the bar gene associated with herbicide resistance, were co-transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). From the all 90 transformants, 16 were positive as screened by spraying 1 mL L-1 10% Basta solution and molecularly diagnosis using PCR. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that drought and salt stress induced high CsALDH expression in the leaves of the transgenic plants. The CsALDH expression levels under drought (15 d) and salt stress (200 mM NaCl) were 6.11 and 6.87 times higher than in the control plants, respectively. In comparison to the WT plants, no abnormal phenotypes were observed among the transgenic plants, which showed significant enhancement of tolerance to 15 d of drought and 10 d of salinity treatment. Evaluation of the physiological and biochemical indices during drought and salt stress of the transgenic plants revealed relatively lower Na+ content and higher K+ content in the leaves relative to the WT plants, a reduction of toxic on effects and maintenance of osmotic adjustment. In addition, the transgenic plants could maintain a higher relative water content level, higher shoot biomass, fewer changes in the photosystem, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress. These results indicate that the co-expression of the introduced bar and CsALDH genes enhanced the herbicide, drought and salt tolerance of alfalfa and therefore can potentially be used as a novel genetic resource for the future breeding programs to develop new cultivars. PMID:26734025

  10. Coordinate system generation for internal flow problems via Schwarz-Christoffel transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, K. P.

    1981-06-01

    Accurate grid generation for complex internal flow geometries is explored. Numerical integration of Schwarz-Christoffel transformations for both polygonal and curved surfaces is used. Singularities which occur in the transformation at corners are analytically addressed, and the affects of this treatment on the mapping accuracy are presented. The transformation for curved elements is also described, and the consistency of the assumptions of the method with the accuracy of the integration scheme is discussed. The method shows second order accurately for surfaces described by polygonal elements and fourth order accurately for surfaces described by curved elements. Several calculations related to the mapping procedure are presented. The method directly provides the two dimensional incompressible potential flow solution as well as a simple relation for calculating the grid metric coefficients.

  11. Interaction between transform faults and rift systems: a combined field and experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibaldi, Alessandro; Bonali, Fabio; Pasquaré Mariotto, Federico

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed field structural survey of the area of interaction between the active NW-striking transform Husavik-Flatey Fault (HFF) and the N-S Theystareykir Fissure Swarm (TFS), in North Iceland, integrated by analogue scaled models. Field data contribute to a better understanding of how transform faults work, at a much higher detail than classical marine geophysical studies. Analogue experiments are conducted to analyse the fracture patterns resulting from different possible cases where transform faulting accompanies or postpones the rift motions; different tectonic block configurations are also considered. West of the intersection between the transform fault (HFF) and the rift zone (TFS), the former splays with a gradual bending giving rise to a leading extensional imbricate fan. The westernmost structure of the rift, the N-S Gudfinnugja Fault (GF), is divided into two segments: the southern segment makes a junction with the HFF and is part of the imbricate fan; north of the junction instead, the northern GF appears right-laterally offset by about 20 m. Southeast of the junction, along the possible prolongation of the HFF across the TFS, the strike of the rift faults rotates in an anticlockwise direction, attaining a NNW-SSE orientation. Moreover, the TFS faults north of the HFF prolongation are fewer and have smaller offsets than those located to the south. Through the comparison between the structural data collected in the field at the HFF-TFS connection zone and a set of scaled experiments, we confirm a prolongation of the HFF through the rift, although here the transform fault has a much lower slip-rate than west of the junction. Our data suggest that transform fault terminations may be more complex than previously known, and propagate across a rift through a modification of the rift pattern.

  12. Survival and growth of newly transformed Lampsilis cardium and Lampsilis siliquoidea in a flow-through, continuous feeding test system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Hess, Karina R.; Bartsch, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    A test system was evaluated for assessing chronic toxicity of waterborne chemicals with early life stage mussels. To determine if the test system could result in ≥80% survival in a control (unexposed) group, fat mucket mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea Barnes, 1823) and plain pocketbook mussels (L. cardium Rafinesque, 1820) 1 day post transformation were stocked into test chambers (250 mL beakers, water volume, 200 mL, 21 °C, 40 mussels of 1 species per chamber) within a test system constructed for conducting chronic, continuous exposure, flow-through toxicity tests. The test system contained 60 chambers containing silica sand, 30 chambers with L. siliquoidea, and 30 with L. cardium. Each chamber in the continuous feeding system received 1 of 6 food types prepared with concentrated algal products. After 28 days, mussels were harvested from chambers to assess survival and growth. For L. siliquoidea, mean survival ranged from 34 to 80% and mean shell length ranged from 464 to 643 μm. For L. cardium, mean survival ranged from 12 to 66% and mean shell length ranged from 437 to 612 μm. The maximum mean growth rate for L. siliquoidea was 12.7 μm/d and for L. cardium was 11.8 μm/d. When offered a continuous diet of Nannochloropsis, Tetraselmis, and Chlorella for 28 days in the test system, the survival of 1 day post transformation L. siliquoidea was 80%. The test system can be easily enhanced with a pumping system continuously delivering test chemical to the test system's flow stream allowing for chronic toxicity tests with 1 day post transformation mussels.

  13. Temporal-space transforming pulse-shaping system with knife edge apparatus in Shenguang II upgrade facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lei; Chen, Shaohe; Ge, Xiaping; Xu, Shizhong; Fan, Dianyuan

    2005-12-01

    The temporal pulse shaping was realized by using temporal-space transforming pulse-shaping system with the own-designed "Knife edge" apparatus, for the first time to our best knowledge, in a large energy laser facility with the output energy of 454.37J. A quasi-square laser pulse with the pulse width of 1.16ns, the rising time of 337ps, the falling time of 360ps, and the temporal filling factor of 81.2% was obtained. It is quite satisfied with the requirement of physical experiment. In addition, the further improvements of our system have been suggested in order to enhance the stability and the flexibility as well as the restoring ability of the temporal-space transforming process.

  14. The coordinate transformation method for design of polarizers on HL-2A electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, D. H.; Huang, M.; Zhou, J.; Rao, J.; Zhuang, G.

    2013-10-15

    Polarizers are widely used to change the polarization of millimeter waves on the electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive (ECRH and CD) systems. A new method based on the coordinate transformation and the Fourier expansion (the so-called C-method) has been developed for design of polarizers on the HL-2A ECRH and CD systems. This method transforms the grating problem to an eigenvalue problem, making it easy and clear to understand and solve. The comparison between the C-method, the integral method, and the low power test results is presented. It indicates that the C-method can be considered as a rigorous numerical method for the design of polarizers. Finally, two polarizers were designed based on the C-method which can be used together to achieve almost arbitrary polarization.

  15. Non-canonical distribution and non-equilibrium transport beyond weak system-bath coupling regime: A polaron transformation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dazhi; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-08-01

    The concept of polaron, emerged from condense matter physics, describes the dynamical interaction of moving particle with its surrounding bosonic modes. This concept has been developed into a useful method to treat open quantum systems with a complete range of system-bath coupling strength. Especially, the polaron transformation approach shows its validity in the intermediate coupling regime, in which the Redfield equation or Fermi's golden rule will fail. In the polaron frame, the equilibrium distribution carried out by perturbative expansion presents a deviation from the canonical distribution, which is beyond the usual weak coupling assumption in thermodynamics. A polaron transformed Redfield equation (PTRE) not only reproduces the dissipative quantum dynamics but also provides an accurate and efficient way to calculate the non-equilibrium steady states. Applications of the PTRE approach to problems such as exciton diffusion, heat transport and light-harvesting energy transfer are presented.

  16. Second order superintegrable systems in conformally flat spaces. IV. The classical 3D Staeckel transform and 3D classification theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, E.G.; Kress, J.M.; Miller, W. Jr.

    2006-04-15

    This article is one of a series that lays the groundwork for a structure and classification theory of second order superintegrable systems, both classical and quantum, in conformally flat spaces. In the first part of the article we study the Staeckel transform (or coupling constant metamorphosis) as an invertible mapping between classical superintegrable systems on different three-dimensional spaces. We show first that all superintegrable systems with nondegenerate potentials are multiseparable and then that each such system on any conformally flat space is Staeckel equivalent to a system on a constant curvature space. In the second part of the article we classify all the superintegrable systems that admit separation in generic coordinates. We find that there are eight families of these systems.

  17. Expression of transforming growth factor β receptor II in mesenchymal stem cells from systemic sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Vanneaux, Valérie; Farge-Bancel, Dominique; Lecourt, Séverine; Baraut, Julie; Cras, Audrey; Jean-Louis, Francette; Brun, Cécilia; Verrecchia, Franck; Larghero, Jérôme; Michel, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present work aimed to evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptors on bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and the consequences of TGF-β activation in these cells, since MSC have potential therapeutic interest for SSc patients and knowing that TGF-β plays a critical role during the development of fibrosis in SSc. Design This is a prospective research study using MSC samples obtained from SSc patients and compared with MSC from healthy donors. Setting One medical hospital involving collaboration between an internal medicine department for initial patient recruitment, a clinical biotherapeutic unit for MSC preparation and an academic laboratory for research. Participants 9 patients with diffuse SSc for which bone marrow (BM) aspiration was prescribed by sternum aspiration before haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, versus nine healthy donors for normal BM. Primary and secondary outcome measures TGF-β, TGF-β receptor types I (TBRI) and II (TBRII) mRNA and protein expression were assessed by quantitative PCR and flow cytometry, respectively, in MSC from both SSc patients and healthy donors. MSC were exposed to TGF-β and assessed for collagen 1α2 synthesis and Smad expression. As positive controls, primary cultures of dermal fibroblasts were also analysed. Results Compared with nine controls, MSC from nine SSc patients showed significant increase in mRNA levels (p<0.002) and in membrane expression (p<0.0001) of TBRII. In response to TGF-β activation, a significant increase in collagen 1α synthesis (p<0.05) and Smad-3 phosphorylation was upregulated in SSc MSC. Similar results were obtained on eight SSc-derived dermal fibroblasts compared to six healthy controls. Conclusions TBRII gene and protein expression defect in MSC derived from SSc patients may have pathological significance. These findings should be taken into account when considering

  18. Anatomy of landslides along the Dead Sea Transform Fault System in NW Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, H. G.; Hahne, K.; Shaqour, F.

    2012-03-01

    In the mountainous region north of Amman, Jordan, Cenomanian calcareous rocks are being monitored constantly for their mass wasting processes which occasionally cause severe damage to the Amman-Irbid Highway. Satellite remote sensing data (Landsat TM, ASTER, and SRTM) and ground measurements are applied to investigate the anatomy of landslides along the Dead Sea Transform Fault System (DSTFS), a prominent strike-slip fault. The joints and faults pertinent to the DSTFS match the architectural elements identified in landslides of different size. This similarity attests to a close genetic relation between the tectonic setting of one of the most prominent fault zones on the earth and modern geomorphologic processes. Six indicators stand out in particular: 1) The fractures developing in N-S and splay faults represent the N-S lateral movement of the DSTFS. They governed the position of the landslides. 2) Cracks and faults aligned in NE-SW to NNW-SSW were caused by compressional strength. They were subsequently reactivated during extensional processes and used in some cases as slip planes during mass wasting. 3) Minor landslides with NE-SW straight scarps were derived from compressional features which were turned into slip planes during the incipient stages of mass wasting. They occur mainly along the slopes in small wadis or where a wide wadi narrows upstream. 4) Major landslides with curved instead of straight scarps and rotational slides are representative of a more advanced level of mass wasting. These areas have to be marked in the maps and during land management projects as high-risk area mainly and may be encountered in large wadis with steep slopes or longitudinal slopes undercut by road construction works. 5) The spatial relation between minor faults and slope angle is crucial as to the vulnerability of the areas in terms of mass wasting. 6) Springs lined up along faults cause serious problems to engineering geology in that they step up the behavior of marly

  19. Chosen-plaintext attack on a joint transform correlator encrypting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, John Fredy; Vargas, Carlos; Tebaldi, Myrian; Torroba, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    We demonstrate that optical encryption methods based on the joint transform correlator architecture are vulnerable to chosen-plaintext attack. An unauthorized user, who introduces three chosen plaintexts in the accessible encryption machine, can obtain the security key code mask. In this contribution, we also propose an alternative method to eliminate ambiguities that allows obtaining the right decrypting key.

  20. Transformational Leadership and Organizational Commitment: A Study of UNC System Business School Department Chairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luton, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Ample evidence is available citing a positive relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment (Boerner et al., 2007; Bono & Judge, 2003; Bycio, Hackett, & Allen, 1995; Chen, 2004; Emery & Barker, 2007; Walumbwa, Orwa, Wang, & Lawler, 2005). The majority of research on leadership in higher education, however, is based…

  1. A Computer System for Writing and Testing Transformational Grammars. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Joyce

    For the two years prior to this report the Computational Linguistics Project in the Computer Science Department at Stanford University was engaged in research leading to computer programs for accepting and manipulating transformational grammars corresponding to a version of the theory based on Chomsky's "Aspects of the Theory of Syntax." These…

  2. Development of a genetic transformation system for benzene-tolerant Rhodococcus opacus strains.

    PubMed

    Na, Kyung-Su; Nagayasu, Kan; Kuroda, Akio; Takiguchi, Noboru; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Ohtake, Hisao; Kato, Junichi

    2005-04-01

    Rhodococcus opacus B-4 and B-9 are tolerant to various organic solvents including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene, and are suitable bacterial hosts for the production of chemical products from hydrophobic substrates. A 4.4-kb endogenous plasmid (pKNR 01) was isolated from R. opacus B-4 and sequenced completely. Plasmid pKNR 01 encodes proteins that share similarity to replication proteins from the enteric bacterial and actinomycete theta-replication plasmids. A 7.4-kb chimeric plasmid, designated pKNR 01.1, was constructed by fusing XhoI-digested pKNR 01 and Escherichia coli vector pSTV 28. Plasmid pKNR 01.1 had the ability to replicate in B-4 and B-9. A protocol for transformation of B-9 by electroporation was optimized employing pKNR 01.1. Frequencies of 4.1 x 10(5) transformants per mug of plasmid DNA were obtained for B-9 cells, whereas B-4 harboring naturally occurring pKNR 01 was transformed at lower frequencies (approximately 1 x 10(4) transformants per mug of plasmid DNA). Deletion analysis of pKNR 01.1 showed that the 1.9-kb SphI-XhoI region containing the repA and rep B genes and the 0.6-kb region upstream of repA was essential for plasmid maintenance in R. opacus strains. PMID:16233810

  3. Getting a Cohesive Answer from a Common Start: Scalable Multidisciplinary Analysis through Transformation of a System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Bjorn; Chung, Seung H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of systems engineering is in working multidisciplinary problems in a cohesive manner. When planning analysis of these problems, system engineers must tradeoff time and cost for analysis quality and quantity. The quality is associated with the fidelity of the multidisciplinary models and the quantity is associated with the design space that can be analyzed. The tradeoff is due to the resource intensive process of creating a cohesive multidisciplinary system model and analysis. Furthermore, reuse or extension of the models used in one stage of a product life cycle for another is a major challenge. Recent developments have enabled a much less resource-intensive and more rigorous approach than handwritten translation scripts or codes of multidisciplinary models and their analyses. The key is to work from a core system model defined in a MOF-based language such as SysML and in leveraging the emerging tool ecosystem, such as Query-View- Transform (QVT), from the OMG community. SysML was designed to model multidisciplinary systems and analyses. The QVT standard was designed to transform SysML models. The Europa Hability Mission (EHM) team has begun to exploit these capabilities. In one case, a Matlab/Simulink model is generated on the fly from a system description for power analysis written in SysML. In a more general case, a symbolic mathematical framework (supported by Wolfram Mathematica) is coordinated by data objects transformed from the system model, enabling extremely flexible and powerful tradespace exploration and analytical investigations of expected system performance.

  4. Getting a Cohesive Answer from a Common Start: Scalable Multidisciplinary Analysis through Transformation of a Systems Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Bjorn; Chung, Seung

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of systems engineering is in working multidisciplinary problems in a cohesive manner. When planning analysis of these problems, system engineers must trade between time and cost for analysis quality and quantity. The quality often correlates with greater run time in multidisciplinary models and the quantity is associated with the number of alternatives that can be analyzed. The trade-off is due to the resource intensive process of creating a cohesive multidisciplinary systems model and analysis. Furthermore, reuse or extension of the models used in one stage of a product life cycle for another is a major challenge. Recent developments have enabled a much less resource-intensive and more rigorous approach than hand-written translation scripts between multi-disciplinary models and their analyses. The key is to work from a core systems model defined in a MOF-based language such as SysML and in leveraging the emerging tool ecosystem, such as Query/View/Transformation (QVT), from the OMG community. SysML was designed to model multidisciplinary systems. The QVT standard was designed to transform SysML models into other models, including those leveraged by engineering analyses. The Europa Habitability Mission (EHM) team has begun to exploit these capabilities. In one case, a Matlab/Simulink model is generated on the fly from a system description for power analysis written in SysML. In a more general case, symbolic analysis (supported by Wolfram Mathematica) is coordinated by data objects transformed from the systems model, enabling extremely flexible and powerful design exploration and analytical investigations of expected system performance.

  5. The transformation of synaptic to system plasticity in motor output from the sacral cord of the adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mingchen C; Elbasiouny, Sherif M; Collins, William F; Heckman, C J

    2015-09-01

    Synaptic plasticity is fundamental in shaping the output of neural networks. The transformation of synaptic plasticity at the cellular level into plasticity at the system level involves multiple factors, including behavior of local networks of interneurons. Here we investigate the synaptic to system transformation for plasticity in motor output in an in vitro preparation of the adult mouse spinal cord. System plasticity was assessed from compound action potentials (APs) in spinal ventral roots, which were generated simultaneously by the axons of many motoneurons (MNs). Synaptic plasticity was assessed from intracellular recordings of MNs. A computer model of the MN pool was used to identify the middle steps in the transformation from synaptic to system behavior. Two input systems that converge on the same MN pool were studied: one sensory and one descending. The two synaptic input systems generated very different motor outputs, with sensory stimulation consistently evoking short-term depression (STD) whereas descending stimulation had bimodal plasticity: STD at low frequencies but short-term facilitation (STF) at high frequencies. Intracellular and pharmacological studies revealed contributions from monosynaptic excitation and stimulus time-locked inhibition but also considerable asynchronous excitation sustained from local network activity. The computer simulations showed that STD in the monosynaptic excitatory input was the primary driver of the system STD in the sensory input whereas network excitation underlies the bimodal plasticity in the descending system. These results provide insight on the roles of plasticity in the monosynaptic and polysynaptic inputs converging on the same MN pool to overall motor plasticity. PMID:26203107

  6. Approach to reduce the computational image processing requirements for a computer vision system using sensor preprocessing and the Hotelling transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schei, Thomas R.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Pack, Daniel J.

    2005-03-01

    We describe a new development approach to computer vision for a compact, low-power, real-time system such as mobile robots. We take advantage of preprocessing in a biomimetic vision sensor and employ a computational strategy using subspace methods and the Hotelling transform in an effort to reduce the computational imaging load. The combination, while providing an overall reduction in the computational imaging requirements, is not optimized to each other and requires additional investigation.

  7. Genetic transformation and expression of transgenic lines of Populus x euramericana with insect-resistance and salt-tolerance genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, R L; Wang, A X; Zhang, J; Dong, Y; Yang, M S; Wang, J M

    2016-01-01

    We characterized new transgenic varieties of poplar with multiple insect-resistant and salt stress tolerant genes. Two insect-resistant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes, Cry1Ac and Cry3A, and a salt-tolerant gene, Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) were inserted into a vector, p209-Cry1Ac-Cry3A-BADH. The clone of Populus x euramericana was transformed by the vector using the Agrobacterium-mediated method. Three transgenic lines were assessed using genetic detection and resistance expression analysis. PCR revealed that exogenous genes Cry1Ac, Cry3A, BADH and selective marker gene NPTII were present in three transgenic lines. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) showed significant differences in the transcriptional abundance of three exogenous genes in different lines. Results of assays for Bt toxic proteins showed that the Cry1Ac and Cry3A toxic protein content of each line was 12.83-26.32 and 2108.91-2724.79 ng/g, respectively. The Cry1Ac toxic protein content of different lines was significantly different; the Cry3A toxic protein content was about 100 times higher than that of the Cry1Ac toxic protein. The insect-resistance test revealed the mortality rate of transgenic lines to Hyphantria cunea L1 larvae varied by 42.2-66.7%, which was significantly higher than non-transgenic lines. The mortality rate of L1 and L2 Plagiodera versicolora larvae was 100%. The insecticidal effect of transgenic lines to P. versicolora larvae was higher than that to H. cunea larvae. NaCl stress tolerance of three transgenic lines under 3-6% NaCl concentration was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic lines. PMID:27173305

  8. Sizing community energy storage systems to reduce transformer overloading with emphasis on plug-in electric vehicle loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trowler, Derik Wesley

    The research objective of this study was to develop a sizing method for community energy storage systems with emphasis on preventing distribution transformer overloading due to plug-in electric vehicle charging. The method as developed showed the formulation of a diversified load profile based upon residential load data for several customers on the American Electric Power system. Once a load profile was obtained, plug-in electric vehicle charging scenarios which were based upon expected adoption and charging trends were superimposed on the load profile to show situations where transformers (in particular 25 kVA, 50 kVA, and 100 kVA) would be overloaded during peak hours. Once the total load profiles were derived, the energy and power requirements of community energy storage systems were calculated for a number of scenarios with different combinations of numbers of homes and plug-in electric vehicles. The results were recorded and illustrated into charts so that one could determine the minimum size per application. Other topics that were covered in this thesis were the state of the art and future trends in plug-in electric vehicle and battery chemistry adoption and development. The goal of the literature review was to confirm the already suspected notion that Li-ion batteries are best suited and soon to be most cost-effective solution for applications requiring small, efficient, reliable, and light-weight battery systems such as plug-in electric vehicles and community energy storage systems. This thesis also includes a chapter showing system modeling in MATLAB/SimulinkRTM. All in all, this thesis covers a wide variety of considerations involved in the designing and deploying of community energy storage systems intended to mitigate the effects of distribution transformer overloading.

  9. Construction of novel chloroplast expression vector and development of an efficient transformation system for the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei-Hong; Zhu, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Nai-Sheng; Li, Da-Wei; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-10-01

    Plastids are ideal subcellular hosts for the expression of transgenes and have been successfully used for the production of different biopolymers, therapeutic proteins and industrial enzymes. Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a widely used aquatic feed species. In this study, we focused on developing a high-efficiency plastid expression system for P. tricornutum. In the plastid transformation vector, the site selected for integration was the transcriptionally active intergenic region present between the trnI and trnA genes, located in the IR (inverted repeat) regions of the plastid genome. Initially, a CAT reporter gene (encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) was integrated at this site in the plastid genome. The expression of CAT in the transformed microalgae conferred resistance to the antibiotic chloramphenicol, which enabled growth in the selection media. Overall, the plastid transformation efficiency was found to be approximately one transplastomic colony per 1,000 microalgae cells. Subsequently, a heterologous gene expression cassette for high-level expression of the target gene was created and cloned between the homologous recombination elements. A TA cloning strategy based on the designed XcmI-XcmI sites could conveniently clone the heterologous gene. An eGFP (green fluorescent protein) reporter gene was used to test the expression level in the plastid system. The relatively high-level expression of eGFP without codon optimisation in stably transformed microalgae was determined to account for 0.12 % of the total soluble protein. Thus, this study presents the first and convenient plastid gene expression system for diatoms and represents an interesting tool to study diatom plastids. PMID:24763817

  10. The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation system: a biologically relevant in vitro model--with carcinogen predicting capabilities--of in vivo multistage neoplastic transformation.

    PubMed

    Isfort, R J; LeBoeuf, R A

    1995-01-01

    Neoplastic transformation is a multistep process that can be modeled in vitro using Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. SHE cells multistage transformation involves several intermediate stages, including morphological transformation, immortality, acquisition of tumorigenicity, and malignant progression. Analysis of the molecular alterations that occur at each stage indicated that morphological transformation results from both carcinogen-induced irreversible chromosomal/genetic mutations and reversible genetic events, including altered DNA methylation. Morphological transformation results from a block in the cellular differentiation of progenitor and determined stem-like cells in the SHE cell population via alternation in the expression of the H19 tumor suppressor gene and other genes. Immortality results from genetic mutations in growth factor responsiveness, including loss of growth suppression by TGF beta and autocrine growth factor production, and genomic stability, resulting in genomic instability and an increased mutation rate. Acquisition of tumorigenicity involves loss of tumor suppressor gene function, altered mitogenic signal transduction, mutation of oncogenes, acquisition of anchorage independent growth, and chromosomal aberrations. Malignant progression is associated with alterations in extracellular matrix growth characteristics, alterations in cytoskeleton structure, elevated fibrinolytic activity, secretion of proteases, and changes in extracellular matrix protein secretion. Together, these changes model the alterations observed during in vivo neoplastic transformation and possibly explain why the SHE assay, as a carcinogen screening tool, is able to identify carcinogens with a 80 to 85% accuracy. PMID:9012585

  11. Outflow boundary conditions for the Fourier transformed three-dimensional Vlasov Maxwell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasson, B.

    2007-08-01

    A problem with the solution of the Vlasov equation is its tendency to become filamented/oscillatory in velocity space, which in numerical simulations can give rise to unphysical oscillations and recurrence effects. We present a three-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell solver (three spatial and velocity dimensions, plus time), in which the Vlasov equation is Fourier transformed in velocity space and the resulting equations solved numerically. By designing absorbing outflow boundary conditions in the Fourier transformed velocity space, the highest Fourier modes in velocity space are removed from the numerical solution. This introduces a dissipative effect in velocity space and the numerical recurrence effect is strongly reduced. The well-posedness of the boundary conditions is proved analytically, while the stability of the numerical implementation is assessed by long-time numerical simulations. Well-known wave-modes in magnetized plasmas are shown to be reproduced by the numerical scheme.

  12. Development of a transformation system for gene knock-out in the flavinogenic yeast Pichia guilliermondii.

    PubMed

    Boretsky, Yuriy R; Pynyaha, Yuriy V; Boretsky, Volodymyr Y; Kutsyaba, Vasyl I; Protchenko, Olga V; Philpott, Caroline C; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2007-07-01

    Pichia guilliermondii is a representative of a yeast species, all of which over-synthesize riboflavin in response to iron deprivation. Molecular genetic studies in this yeast species have been hampered by a lack of strain-specific tools for gene manipulation. Stable P. guilliermondii ura3 mutants were selected on the basis of 5'-fluoroorotic acid resistance. Plasmid carrying Saccharomyces cerevisiae URA3 gene transformed the mutant strains to prototrophy with a low efficiency. Substitution of a single leucine codon CUG by another leucine codon CUC in the URA3 gene increased the efficiency of transformation 100 fold. Deletion cassettes for the RIB1 and RIB7 genes, coding for GTP cyclohydrolase and riboflavin synthase, respectively, were constructed using the modified URA3 gene and subsequently introduced into a P. guilliermondii ura3 strain. Site-specific integrants were identified by selection for the Rib(-) Ura(+) phenotype and confirmed by PCR analysis. Transformation of the P. guilliermondii ura3 strain was performed using electroporation, spheroplasting or lithium acetate treatment. Only the lithium acetate transformation procedure provided selection of uracil prototrophic, riboflavin deficient recombinant strains. Depending on the type of cassette, efficiency of site-specific integration was 0.1% and 3-12% in the case of the RIB1 and RIB7 genes, respectively. We suggest that the presence of the ARS element adjacent to the 3' end of the RIB1 gene significantly reduced the frequency of homologous recombination. Efficient gene deletion in P. guilliermondii can be achieved using the modified URA3 gene of S. cerevisiae flanked by 0.8-0.9 kb sequences homologous to the target gene. PMID:17467833

  13. Generalized Darboux transformation and rogue wave solution of the coherently-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Qiang; Yuan, Sha-Sha; Wang, Yue

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the generalized Darboux transformation for the coherently-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CCNLS) system is constructed in terms of determinant representations. Based on the Nth-iterated formula, the vector bright soliton solution and vector rogue wave solution are systematically derived under the nonvanishing background. The general first-order vector rogue wave solution can admit many different fundamental patterns including eye-shaped and four-petaled rogue waves. It is believed that there are many more abundant patterns for high order vector rogue waves in CCNLS system.

  14. Modeling coupled sorption and transformation of 17β-estradiol-17-sulfate in soil-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xuelian; Shrestha, Suman L.; Casey, Francis X. M.; Hakk, Heldur; Fan, Zhaosheng

    2014-11-01

    Animal manure is the primary source of exogenous free estrogens in the environment, which are known endocrine-disrupting chemicals to disorder the reproduction system of organisms. Conjugated estrogens can act as precursors to free estrogens, which may increase the total estrogenicity in the environment. In this study, a comprehensive model was used to simultaneously simulate the coupled sorption and transformation of a sulfate estrogen conjugate, 17β-estradiol-17-sulfate (E2-17S), in various soil-water systems (non-sterile/sterile; topsoil/subsoil). The simulated processes included multiple transformation pathways (i.e. hydroxylation, hydrolysis, and oxidation) and mass transfer between the aqueous, reversibly sorbed, and irreversibly sorbed phases of all soils for E2-17S and its metabolites. The conceptual model was conceived based on a series of linear sorption and first-order transformation expressions. The model was inversely solved using finite difference to estimate process parameters. A global optimization method was applied for the inverse analysis along with variable model restrictions to estimate 36 parameters. The model provided a satisfactory simultaneous fit (R2adj = 0.93 and d = 0.87) of all the experimental data and reliable parameter estimates. This modeling study improved the understanding on fate and transport of estrogen conjugates under various soil-water conditions.

  15. Known-plaintext attack on a joint transform correlator encrypting system.

    PubMed

    Barrera, John Fredy; Vargas, Carlos; Tebaldi, Myrian; Torroba, Roberto; Bolognini, Nestor

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate in this Letter that a joint transform correlator shows vulnerability to known-plaintext attacks. An unauthorized user, who intercepts both an object and its encrypted version, can obtain the security key code mask. In this contribution, we conduct a hybrid heuristic attack scheme merge to a Gerchberg-Saxton routine to estimate the encrypting key to decode different ciphertexts encrypted with that same key. We also analyze the success of this attack for different pairs of plaintext-ciphertext used to get the encrypting code. We present simulation results for the decrypting procedure to demonstrate the validity of our analysis. PMID:21042347

  16. Cross-system comparisons of soil nitrogen transformations and nitrous oxide flux in tropical forest ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Pamela A.; Vitousek, Peter M.

    1987-01-01

    Soil nitrogen transformations and nitrous oxide flux across the soil-air interface have been measured in a variety of tropical forest sites and correlated with patterns of nitrogen circulation. Nitrogen mineralizaton and nitrification potentials were found to be high in the relatively fertile Costa Rica sites and the Amazonian oxisol/ultisols, intermediate in Amazonian white sand soils, and low in the Hawaiian montane sites. Nitrous oxide fluxes ranged from 0 to 6.2 ng/sq cm per h, and the mean flux per site was shown to be highly correlated with mean nitrogen mineralization.

  17. Can big data transform electronic health records into learning health systems?

    PubMed

    Harper, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    In the United States and globally, healthcare delivery is in the midst of an acute transformation with the adoption and use of health information technology (health IT) thus generating increasing amounts of patient care data available in computable form. Secure and trusted use of these data, beyond their original purpose can change the way we think about business, health, education, and innovation in the years to come. "Big Data" is data whose scale, diversity, and complexity require new architecture, techniques, algorithms, and analytics to manage it and extract value and hidden knowledge from it. PMID:24943583

  18. a High Sensitivity Transformer Coupled System for the Detection and Imaging of Breaks in Prestressing Tendons in Concrete Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, B.; Miller, G.; Hussin, H.; El Madaani, F.; Zaid, M.; Gaydecki, P.; Quek, S.

    2008-02-01

    A system has been developed, described here, which can detect and image localised faults and breaks in the prestressing tendons of large bore concrete pipes, intended for the transport of water. The system exploits the principle of magnetic field transformer coupling, in which a low frequency time varying field is transmitted over the region being inspected. Perturbations in the amplitude and phase of the signal that arise from variations in the coupling conditions are detected by a receiving system and fed to instrumentation for processing, image reconstruction and interpretation. The system has been field trialled in 4 m diameter pipes in the Sahara desert. Results confirm that it is capable of detecting and imaging as few as two adjacent tendon breaks, in which the diameter of the tendon was 7 mm and the pitch was 20 mm.

  19. Contributions of biofilm and suspended sludge to nitrogen transformation and nitrous oxide emission in hybrid sequencing batch system.

    PubMed

    Lo, Ingwei Wayne; Lo, Kwang Victor; Mavinic, Don S; Shiskowski, Dean; Ramey, William

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid system combines the nature of suspended growth and attached growth has been widely applied to wastewater treatment. In this research, the contributions to N transformation and N2O emission by biofilm and suspended sludge in the hybrid sequencing-batch reactor for a simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal process were investigated. For the hybrid system, nitrification occurred mostly in the suspended sludge, while the biofilm played the major role in denitrification. The interaction of the biofilm and the suspended sludge in the same reactor resulted in a better overall nitrogen removal performance with simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. However, N2O emission was the main end product of nitrogen removal for the hybrid system; while it was N2 for the biofilm. The relative low N2O emissions from the pure biofilm and the pure suspended sludge corresponded to the relatively high nitrate at the end of the aeration period compared with the hybrid system. PMID:21174983

  20. Assessment of periodic sub-diurnal Earth rotation variations at tidal frequencies through transformation of VLBI normal equation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, Thomas; Tesmer Née Böckmann, Sarah; Nothnagel, Axel

    2011-09-01

    We present an empirical model for periodic variations of diurnal and sub-diurnal Earth rotation parameters (ERPs) that was derived based on the transformation of normal equation (NEQ) systems of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observing sessions. NEQ systems that contain highly resolved polar motion and UT1-TAI with a temporal resolution of 15 min were generated and then transformed to the coefficients of the tidal ERP model to be solved for. To investigate the quality of this model, comparisons with empirical models from the Global Positioning System (GPS), another VLBI model and the model adopted by the conventions of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) were performed. The absolute coefficients of these models agree almost completely within 7.5 μ as in polar motion and 0.5 μ s in UT1-TAI. Several bigger differences exist, which are discussed in this paper. To be able to compare the model estimates with results of the continuous VLBI campaigns, where signals with periods of 8 and 6 h were detected, terms in the ter- and quarter-diurnal band were included in the tidal ERP model. Unfortunately, almost no common features with the results of continuous VLBI campaigns or ERP predictions in these tidal bands can be seen.