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Sample records for agrobacterium-mediated transient expression

  1. AGROBEST: an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression method for versatile gene function analyses in Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transient gene expression via Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer offers a simple and fast method to analyze transgene functions. Although Arabidopsis is the most-studied model plant with powerful genetic and genomic resources, achieving highly efficient and consistent transient expression for gene function analysis in Arabidopsis remains challenging. Results We developed a highly efficient and robust Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system, named AGROBEST (Agrobacterium-mediated enhanced seedling transformation), which achieves versatile analysis of diverse gene functions in intact Arabidopsis seedlings. Using β-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation assay, we show that the use of a specific disarmed Agrobacterium strain with vir gene pre-induction resulted in homogenous GUS staining in cotyledons of young Arabidopsis seedlings. Optimization with AB salts in plant culture medium buffered with acidic pH 5.5 during Agrobacterium infection greatly enhanced the transient expression levels, which were significantly higher than with two existing methods. Importantly, the optimized method conferred 100% infected seedlings with highly increased transient expression in shoots and also transformation events in roots of ~70% infected seedlings in both the immune receptor mutant efr-1 and wild-type Col-0 seedlings. Finally, we demonstrated the versatile applicability of the method for examining transcription factor action and circadian reporter-gene regulation as well as protein subcellular localization and protein–protein interactions in physiological contexts. Conclusions AGROBEST is a simple, fast, reliable, and robust transient expression system enabling high transient expression and transformation efficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings. Demonstration of the proof-of-concept experiments elevates the transient expression technology to the level of functional studies in Arabidopsis seedlings in addition to previous

  2. Environment Control to Improve Recombinant Protein Yields in Plants Based on Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Fujiuchi, Naomichi; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems enable plants to produce a wide range of recombinant proteins on a rapid timescale. To achieve economically feasible upstream production and downstream processing, two yield parameters should be considered: (1) recombinant protein content per unit biomass and (2) recombinant protein productivity per unit area-time at the end of the upstream production. Because environmental factors in the upstream production have impacts on these parameters, environment control is important to maximize the recombinant protein yield. In this review, we summarize the effects of pre- and postinoculation environmental factors in the upstream production on the yield parameters and discuss the basic concept of environment control for plant-based transient expression systems. Preinoculation environmental factors associated with planting density, light quality, and nutrient supply affect plant characteristics, such as biomass and morphology, which in turn affect recombinant protein content and productivity. Accordingly, environment control for such plant characteristics has significant implications to achieve a high yield. On the other hand, postinoculation environmental factors, such as temperature, light intensity, and humidity, have been shown to affect recombinant protein content. Considering that recombinant protein production in Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems is a result of a series of complex biological events starting from T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to protein biosynthesis and accumulation in leaf tissue, we propose that dynamic environment control during the postinoculation process, i.e., changing environmental conditions at an appropriate timing for each event, may be a promising approach to obtain a high yield. Detailed descriptions of plant growth conditions and careful examination of environmental effects will significantly contribute to our knowledge to stably obtain high recombinant

  3. Environment Control to Improve Recombinant Protein Yields in Plants Based on Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Fujiuchi, Naomichi; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems enable plants to produce a wide range of recombinant proteins on a rapid timescale. To achieve economically feasible upstream production and downstream processing, two yield parameters should be considered: (1) recombinant protein content per unit biomass and (2) recombinant protein productivity per unit area–time at the end of the upstream production. Because environmental factors in the upstream production have impacts on these parameters, environment control is important to maximize the recombinant protein yield. In this review, we summarize the effects of pre- and postinoculation environmental factors in the upstream production on the yield parameters and discuss the basic concept of environment control for plant-based transient expression systems. Preinoculation environmental factors associated with planting density, light quality, and nutrient supply affect plant characteristics, such as biomass and morphology, which in turn affect recombinant protein content and productivity. Accordingly, environment control for such plant characteristics has significant implications to achieve a high yield. On the other hand, postinoculation environmental factors, such as temperature, light intensity, and humidity, have been shown to affect recombinant protein content. Considering that recombinant protein production in Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems is a result of a series of complex biological events starting from T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to protein biosynthesis and accumulation in leaf tissue, we propose that dynamic environment control during the postinoculation process, i.e., changing environmental conditions at an appropriate timing for each event, may be a promising approach to obtain a high yield. Detailed descriptions of plant growth conditions and careful examination of environmental effects will significantly contribute to our knowledge to stably obtain high recombinant

  4. Design, Construction, and Validation of Artificial MicroRNA Vectors Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Expression System.

    PubMed

    Bhagwat, Basdeo; Chi, Ming; Han, Dianwei; Tang, Haifeng; Tang, Guiliang; Xiang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology utilizes microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis pathway to produce artificially selected small RNAs using miRNA gene backbone. It provides a feasible strategy for inducing loss of gene function, and has been applied in functional genomics study, improvement of crop quality and plant virus disease resistance. A big challenge in amiRNA applications is the unpredictability of silencing efficacy of the designed amiRNAs and not all constructed amiRNA candidates would be expressed effectively in plant cells. We and others found that high efficiency and specificity in RNA silencing can be achieved by designing amiRNAs with perfect or almost perfect sequence complementarity to their targets. In addition, we recently demonstrated that Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system can be used to validate amiRNA constructs, which provides a simple, rapid and effective method to select highly expressible amiRNA candidates for stable genetic transformation. Here, we describe the methods for design of amiRNA candidates with perfect or almost perfect base-pairing to the target gene or gene groups, incorporation of amiRNA candidates in miR168a gene backbone by one step inverse PCR amplification, construction of plant amiRNA expression vectors, and assay of transient expression of amiRNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana through agro-infiltration, small RNA extraction, and amiRNA Northern blot.

  5. RNA viral vectors for improved Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of heterologous proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana cell suspensions and hairy roots

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant cell suspensions and hairy root cultures represent scalable protein expression platforms. Low protein product titers have thus far limited the application of transient protein expression in these hosts. The objective of this work was to overcome this limitation by harnessing A. tumefaciens to deliver replicating and non-replicating RNA viral vectors in plant tissue co-cultures. Results Replicating vectors derived from Potato virus X (PVX) and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) were modified to contain the reporter gene β-glucuronidase (GUS) with a plant intron to prevent bacterial expression. In cell suspensions, a minimal PVX vector retaining only the viral RNA polymerase gene yielded 6.6-fold more GUS than an analogous full-length PVX vector. Transient co-expression of the minimal PVX vector with P19 of Tomato bushy stunt virus or HC-Pro of Tobacco etch virus to suppress post-transcriptional gene silencing increased GUS expression by 44 and 83%, respectively. A non-replicating vector containing a leader sequence from Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV-HT) modified for enhanced translation led to 70% higher transient GUS expression than a control treatment. In hairy roots, a TRV vector capable of systemic movement increased GUS accumulation by 150-fold relative to the analogous PVX vector. Histochemical staining for GUS in TRV-infected hairy roots revealed the capacity for achieving even higher productivity per unit biomass. Conclusions For the first time, replicating PVX vectors and a non-replicating CPMV-HT vector were successfully applied toward transient heterologous protein expression in cell suspensions. A replicating TRV vector achieved transient GUS expression levels in hairy roots more than an order of magnitude higher than the highest level previously reported with a viral vector delivered by A. tumefaciens. PMID:22559055

  6. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale.

  7. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  8. Sequential monitoring of transgene expression following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rice.

    PubMed

    Saika, Hiroaki; Nonaka, Satoko; Osakabe, Keishi; Toki, Seiichi

    2012-11-01

    Although Agrobacterium-mediated transformation technology is now used widely in rice, many varieties of indica-type rice are still recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. It was reported recently that T-DNA integration into the rice genome could be the limiting step in this method. Here, we attempted to establish an efficient sequential monitoring system for stable transformation events by visualizing stable transgene expression using a non-destructive and highly sensitive visible marker. Our results demonstrate that click beetle luciferase (ELuc) is an excellent marker allowing the observation of transformed cells in rice callus, exhibiting a sensitivity >30-fold higher than that of firefly luciferase. Since we have previously shown that green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a useful visual marker with which to follow transient and/or stable expression of transgenes in rice, we constructed an enhancer trap vector using both the gfbsd2 (GFP fused to the N-terminus of blasticidin S deaminase) and eluc genes. In this vector, the eluc gene is under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S minimal promoter, while the gfbsd2 gene is under the control of the full-length rice elongation factor gene promoter. Observation of transformed callus under a dissecting microscope demonstrated that the level of ELuc luminescence reflected exclusively stable transgene expression, and that both transient and stable expression could be monitored by the level of GFP fluorescence. Moreover, we show that our system enables sequential quantification of transgene expression via differential measurement of ELuc luminescence and GFP fluorescence.

  9. Plant Cell Division Analyzed by Transient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The continuing analysis of plant cell division will require additional protein localization studies. This is greatly aided by GFP-technology, but plant transformation and the maintenance of transgenic lines can present a significant technical bottleneck. In this chapter I describe a method for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tobacco BY-2 cells. The method allows for the microscopic analysis of fluorescence-tagged proteins in dividing cells in within 2 days after starting a coculture. This transient transformation procedure requires only standard laboratory equipment. It is hoped that this rapid method would aid researchers conducting live-cell localization studies in plant mitosis and cytokinesis.

  10. Agrobacterium Mediated Transient Gene Silencing (AMTS) in Stevia rebaudiana: Insights into Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi) based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1) genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins. Methodology/Principal Findings RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3) content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes. Conclusions SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route. PMID:24023961

  11. Overexpression of several Arabidopsis histone genes increases agrobacterium-mediated transformation and transgene expression in plants.

    PubMed

    Tenea, Gabriela N; Spantzel, Joerg; Lee, Lan-Ying; Zhu, Yanmin; Lin, Kui; Johnson, Susan J; Gelvin, Stanton B

    2009-10-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana histone H2A-1 is important for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. Mutation of HTA1, the gene encoding histone H2A-1, results in decreased T-DNA integration into the genome of Arabidopsis roots, whereas overexpression of HTA1 increases transformation frequency. To understand the mechanism by which HTA1 enhances transformation, we investigated the effects of overexpression of numerous Arabidopsis histones on transformation and transgene expression. Transgenic Arabidopsis containing cDNAs encoding histone H2A (HTA), histone H4 (HFO), and histone H3-11 (HTR11) displayed increased transformation susceptibility, whereas histone H2B (HTB) and most histone H3 (HTR) cDNAs did not increase transformation. A parallel increase in transient gene expression was observed when histone HTA, HFO, or HTR11 overexpression constructs were cotransfected with double- or single-stranded forms of a gusA gene into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts. However, these cDNAs did not increase expression of a previously integrated transgene. We identified the N-terminal 39 amino acids of H2A-1 as sufficient to increase transient transgene expression in plants. After transfection, transgene DNA accumulates more rapidly in the presence of HTA1 than with a control construction. Our results suggest that certain histones enhance transgene expression, protect incoming transgene DNA during the initial stages of transformation, and subsequently increase the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  12. Lox-dependent gene expression in transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Shcherbak, N; Kishchenko, O; Sakhno, L; Komarnytsky, I; Kuchuk, M

    2013-01-01

    Lox sites of the Cre/lox recombination system from bacteriophage P1 were analyzed for their ability to affect on transgene expression when inserted upstream from a gene coding sequence adjacent to the right border (RB) of T-DNA. Wild and mutated types of lox sites were tested for their effect upon bar gene expression in plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated and biolistic transformation methods. Lox-mediated expression of bar gene, recognized by resistance of transgenic plants to PPT, occurred only in plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. RT-PCR analysis confirms that PPT-resistant phenotype of transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was caused by activation of bar gene. The plasmid with promoterless gus gene together with the lox site adjacent to the RB was constructed and transferred to Nicotiana tabacum as well. Transgenic plants exhibited GUS activity and expression of gus gene was detected in plant leaves. Expression of bar gene from the vectors containing lox site near RB allowed recovery of numerous PPT-resistant transformants of such important crops as Beta vulgaris, Brassica napus, Lactuca sativa and Solanum tuberosum. Our results demonstrate that the lox site sequence adjacent to the RB can be used to control bar gene expression in transgenic plants. PMID:23821951

  13. Lox-dependent gene expression in transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Shcherbak, N; Kishchenko, O; Sakhno, L; Komarnytsky, I; Kuchuk, M

    2013-01-01

    Lox sites of the Cre/lox recombination system from bacteriophage P1 were analyzed for their ability to affect on transgene expression when inserted upstream from a gene coding sequence adjacent to the right border (RB) of T-DNA. Wild and mutated types of lox sites were tested for their effect upon bar gene expression in plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated and biolistic transformation methods. Lox-mediated expression of bar gene, recognized by resistance of transgenic plants to PPT, occurred only in plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. RT-PCR analysis confirms that PPT-resistant phenotype of transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was caused by activation of bar gene. The plasmid with promoterless gus gene together with the lox site adjacent to the RB was constructed and transferred to Nicotiana tabacum as well. Transgenic plants exhibited GUS activity and expression of gus gene was detected in plant leaves. Expression of bar gene from the vectors containing lox site near RB allowed recovery of numerous PPT-resistant transformants of such important crops as Beta vulgaris, Brassica napus, Lactuca sativa and Solanum tuberosum. Our results demonstrate that the lox site sequence adjacent to the RB can be used to control bar gene expression in transgenic plants.

  14. Expression and genomic integration of transgenes after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature barley embryos.

    PubMed

    Uçarlı, C; Tufan, F; Gürel, F

    2015-01-01

    Mature embryos in tissue cultures are advantageous because of their abundance and rapid germination, which reduces genomic instability problems. In this study, 2-day-old isolated mature barley embryos were infected with 2 Agrobacterium hypervirulent strains (AGL1 and EHA105), followed by a 3-day period of co-cultivation in the presence of L-cystein amino acid. Chimeric expression of the b-glucuronidase gene (gusA) directed by a viral promoter of strawberry vein banding virus was observed in coleoptile epidermal cells and seminal roots in 5-day-old germinated seedlings. In addition to varying infectivity patterns in different strains, there was a higher ratio of transient b-glucuronidase expression in developing coleoptiles than in embryonic roots, indicating the high competency of shoot apical meristem cells in the mature embryo. A total of 548 explants were transformed and 156 plants developed to maturity on G418 media after 18-25 days. We detected transgenes in 74% of the screened plant leaves by polymerase chain reaction, and 49% of these expressed neomycin phosphotransferase II gene following AGL1 transformation. Ten randomly selected T0 transformants were analyzed using thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction and 24 fragments ranged between 200-600 base pairs were sequenced. Three of the sequences flanked with transferred-DNA showed high similarity to coding regions of the barley genome, including alpha tubulin5, homeobox 1, and mitochondrial 16S genes. We observed 70-200-base pair filler sequences only in the coding regions of barley in this study. PMID:25730049

  15. Expression and genomic integration of transgenes after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature barley embryos.

    PubMed

    Uçarlı, C; Tufan, F; Gürel, F

    2015-02-06

    Mature embryos in tissue cultures are advantageous because of their abundance and rapid germination, which reduces genomic instability problems. In this study, 2-day-old isolated mature barley embryos were infected with 2 Agrobacterium hypervirulent strains (AGL1 and EHA105), followed by a 3-day period of co-cultivation in the presence of L-cystein amino acid. Chimeric expression of the b-glucuronidase gene (gusA) directed by a viral promoter of strawberry vein banding virus was observed in coleoptile epidermal cells and seminal roots in 5-day-old germinated seedlings. In addition to varying infectivity patterns in different strains, there was a higher ratio of transient b-glucuronidase expression in developing coleoptiles than in embryonic roots, indicating the high competency of shoot apical meristem cells in the mature embryo. A total of 548 explants were transformed and 156 plants developed to maturity on G418 media after 18-25 days. We detected transgenes in 74% of the screened plant leaves by polymerase chain reaction, and 49% of these expressed neomycin phosphotransferase II gene following AGL1 transformation. Ten randomly selected T0 transformants were analyzed using thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction and 24 fragments ranged between 200-600 base pairs were sequenced. Three of the sequences flanked with transferred-DNA showed high similarity to coding regions of the barley genome, including alpha tubulin5, homeobox 1, and mitochondrial 16S genes. We observed 70-200-base pair filler sequences only in the coding regions of barley in this study.

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    There are many methods and techniques that can be used to transfer foreign genes into cells. In plant biotechnology, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a widely used traditional method for inserting foreign genes into plant genome and obtaining transgenic plants, particularly for dicot plant species. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton involves several important and also critical steps, which includes coculture of cotton explants with Agrobacterium, induction and selection of stable transgenic cell lines, recovery of plants from transgenic cells majorly through somatic embryogenesis, and detection and expression analysis of transgenic plants. In this chapter, we describe a detailed step-by-step protocol for obtaining transgenic cotton plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  17. Transient down-regulation of the RNA silencing machinery increases efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bilichak, Andriy; Yao, Youli; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2014-06-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen that is widely used in plant transformation. As the process of transgenesis includes the delivery of single-stranded T-DNA molecule, we hypothesized that transformation rate may negatively correlate with the efficiency of the RNA-silencing machinery. Using mutants compromised in either the transcriptional or post-transcriptional gene-silencing pathways, two inhibitors of stable transformation were revealed-AGO2 and NRPD1a. Furthermore, an immunoprecipitation experiment has shown that NRPD1, a subunit of Pol IV, directly interacts with Agrobacterium T-DNA in planta. Using the Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)--based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique, we demonstrated that the transient down-regulation of the expression of either AGO2 or NRPD1a genes in reproductive organs of Arabidopsis, leads to an increase in transformation rate. We observed a 6.0- and 3.5-fold increase in transformation rate upon transient downregulation of either AGO2 or NRPD1a genes, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the increase in the plant transformation rate via VIGS-mediated transient down-regulation of the components of epigenetic machinery in reproductive tissue.

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa) and tissue specific and developmental expression of the CaMV 35S promoter in transgenic tomatillo plants.

    PubMed

    Assad-García, N; Ochoa-Alejo, N; García-Hernández, E; Herrera-Estrella, L; Simpson, J

    1992-10-01

    A protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomatillo was developed. Up to 40 transgenic plants could be obtained in experiments using 60 cotyledon expiants. The transformed nature of the regenerated plants was confirmed by NPT II and Southern blot hybridization analysis. Using the b-glucuronidase system the tissue specific and developmental patterns of expression of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter were determined in transgenic tomatillo plants. It was found that this promoter is developmentally regulated during fruit and seed formation. PMID:24213286

  19. [Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Cymbidium sinensis].

    PubMed

    Xie, Li; Wang, Fen; Zeng, Ruizhen; Guo, Herong; Zhou, Yuliang; Zhang, Zhisheng

    2015-04-01

    Genetic transformation is an effective method to improve breeding objective traits of orchids. However, there is little information about genetic transformation of Cymbidium sinensis. Rhizomes from shoot-tip culture of C. sinensis cv. 'Qijianbaimo' were used to establish a practical transformation protocol of C. sinensis. Pre-culture time, concentration and treating methods of acetosyringone, concentration of infection bacteria fluid (OD600), infection time, and co-culture time had significant effects on β-glucuronidase (GUS) transient expression rate of C. sinensis cv. 'Qijianbaimo' rhizome. The GUS transient expression rate of rhizome was the highest (11.67%) when rhizomes pre-cultured for 39 d were soaked in bacterium suspension (OD600 = 0.9) supplemented with 200 μmol/L acetosyringone for 35 min, followed by culturing on co-culture medium supplemented with 200 μmol/L acetosyringone for 7 d. Under this transformation conditions, 3 transgenic plantlets, confirmed by GUS histochemical assay and PCR, were obtained from 400 regenerated plantlets, and the genetic transformation rate was 0.75%. This proved that it was feasible to create new cultivars by the use of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation in C. sinense.

  20. Improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cowpea via sonication and vacuum infiltration.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Souvika; Sadhukhan, Ayan; Mishra, Sagarika; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2011-12-01

    An improved method of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cowpea was developed employing both sonication and vacuum infiltration treatments. 4 day-old cotyledonary nodes were used as explants for co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harbouring the binary vector pSouv-cry1Ac. Among the different injury treatments, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, sonication for 20 s followed by vacuum infiltration for 5 min with A. tumefaciens resulted in highest transient GUS expression efficiency (93% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites). After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were cultured in 150 mg/l kanamycin-containing selection medium and putative transformed plants were recovered. The presence, integration and expression of nptII and cry1Ac genes in T0 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), genomic Southern and qualitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis. Western blot hybridization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detected and demonstrated the accumulation of Cry1Ac protein in transgenic plants. The cry1Ac gene transmitted in a Mendelian fashion. The stable transformation efficiency increased by 88.4% using both sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT) and vacuum infiltration than simple Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in cowpea.

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) using shoot apex explants.

    PubMed

    Ceasar, S Antony; Ignacimuthu, S

    2011-09-01

    A new Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for finger millet using shoot apex explants. The Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring binary vector pCAMBIA1301, which contained hygromycin phosphotransferase (hptII) as selectable marker gene and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as reporter gene, was used for optimization of transformation conditions. Two finger millet genotypes, GPU 45 and CO 14, were used in this study. The optimal conditions for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of finger millet were found to be the co-cultivation of explants obtained on the 16th day after callus induction (DACI), exposure of explants for 30 min to agrobacterial inoculum and 3 days of co-cultivation on filter paper placed on medium supplemented with 100 μM acetosyringone (AS). Addition of 100 μM L: -cysteine in the selection medium enhanced the frequency of transformation and transgenic plant recovery. Both finger millet genotypes were transformed by Agrobacterium. A frequency of 19% transient expression with 3.8% stable transformation was achieved in genotype GPU 45 using optimal conditions. Five stably transformed plants were fully characterized by Southern blot analysis. A segregation analysis was also performed in four R(1) progenies, which showed normal Mendelian pattern of transgene segregation. The inheritance of transgenes in R(1) progenies was also confirmed by Southern blot analysis. This is the first report on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of finger millet. This study underpins the introduction of numerous agronomically important genes into the genome of finger millet in the future.

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of three freshwater microalgal strains.

    PubMed

    Sanitha, Mary; Radha, Sudhakar; Fatima, Anwar Aliya; Devi, Selvaraju Gayathri; Ramya, Mohandass

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal transformation has gained interest in recent years. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation remains as the most efficient method for the development of transgenic plants and microalgae due to its wide host range, inexpensive procedure and transfer of large segments of DNA. In the present study, three different microalgal species were isolated from freshwater environment and identified based on the morphological characteristics and ITS-2 region amplification. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was successful for the isolates Chlorella sp., Ankistrodesmus sp and Scenedesmus bajacalifornicus. Gene integration and expression was confirmed by PCR amplification of hptII and GUS histochemical assay. A. tumifaciens contamination was checked by amplification of npt II gene (kanamycin resistant) which lies outside the T-border. Based on GUS assay, transformation efficiencies were found to be 12.25% for Chlorella sp. 2.96% for Scenedesmus bajacalifornicus and 3.5% for Ankistrodesmus sp.

  3. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.

  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Bernardi-Wenzel, J; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is an important pathogen that is associated with plant diseases and primarily affects aerial plant parts by producing different mycotoxins, which are toxic to humans and animals. Within the last decade, this fungus has also been described as one of the causes of red root rot or sudden death syndrome in soybean, which causes extensive damage to this crop. This study describes the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum as a tool for the disruption of pathogenicity genes. The genetic transformation was performed using two binary vectors (pCAMDsRed and pFAT-GFP) containing the hph (hygromycin B resistance) gene as a selection marker and red and green fluorescence, respectively. The presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane were evaluated for their effect on the transformation efficiency. A mean processing rate of 94% was obtained with 96 h of co-cultivation only in the presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane did not affect the transformation process. Hygromycin B resistance and the presence of the hph gene were confirmed by PCR, and fluorescence due to the expression of GFP and DsRed protein was monitored in the transformants. A high rate of mitotic stability (95%) was observed. The efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum allows the technique to be used for random insertional mutagenesis studies and to analyze fungal genes involved in the infection process. PMID:27323127

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Bernardi-Wenzel, J; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2016-06-03

    Fusarium proliferatum is an important pathogen that is associated with plant diseases and primarily affects aerial plant parts by producing different mycotoxins, which are toxic to humans and animals. Within the last decade, this fungus has also been described as one of the causes of red root rot or sudden death syndrome in soybean, which causes extensive damage to this crop. This study describes the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum as a tool for the disruption of pathogenicity genes. The genetic transformation was performed using two binary vectors (pCAMDsRed and pFAT-GFP) containing the hph (hygromycin B resistance) gene as a selection marker and red and green fluorescence, respectively. The presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane were evaluated for their effect on the transformation efficiency. A mean processing rate of 94% was obtained with 96 h of co-cultivation only in the presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane did not affect the transformation process. Hygromycin B resistance and the presence of the hph gene were confirmed by PCR, and fluorescence due to the expression of GFP and DsRed protein was monitored in the transformants. A high rate of mitotic stability (95%) was observed. The efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum allows the technique to be used for random insertional mutagenesis studies and to analyze fungal genes involved in the infection process.

  6. Mitochondrial Porin Isoform AtVDAC1 Regulates the Competence of Arabidopsis thaliana to Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tackmin

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in plants depends on the virulence of Agrobacterium strains, the plant tissue culture conditions, and the susceptibility of host plants. Understanding the molecular interactions between Agrobacterium and host plant cells is crucial when manipulating the susceptibility of recalcitrant crop plants and protecting orchard trees from crown gall disease. It was discovered that Arabidopsis voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (atvdac1) mutant has drastic effects on Agrobacterium-mediated tumorigenesis and growth developmental phenotypes, and that these effects are dependent on a Ws-0 genetic background. Genetic complementation of Arabidopsis vdac1 mutants and yeast porin1-deficient strain with members of the AtVDAC gene family revealed that AtVDAC1 is required for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and there is weak functional redundancy between AtVDAC1 and AtVDAC3, which is independent of porin activity. Furthermore, atvdac1 mutants were deficient in transient and stable transformation by Agrobacterium, suggesting that AtVDAC1 is involved in the early stages of Agrobacterium infection prior to transferred-DNA (T-DNA) integration. Transgenic plants overexpressing AtVDAC1 not only complemented the phenotypes of the atvdac1 mutant, but also showed high efficiency of transient T-DNA gene expression; however, the efficiency of stable transformation was not affected. Moreover, the effect of phytohormone treatment on competence to Agrobacterium was compromised in atvdac1 mutants. These data indicate that AtVDAC1 regulates the competence of Arabidopsis to Agrobacterium infection. PMID:27643450

  7. Mitochondrial Porin Isoform AtVDAC1 Regulates the Competence of Arabidopsis thaliana to Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Tackmin

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in plants depends on the virulence of Agrobacterium strains, the plant tissue culture conditions, and the susceptibility of host plants. Understanding the molecular interactions between Agrobacterium and host plant cells is crucial when manipulating the susceptibility of recalcitrant crop plants and protecting orchard trees from crown gall disease. It was discovered that Arabidopsis voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (atvdac1) mutant has drastic effects on Agrobacterium-mediated tumorigenesis and growth developmental phenotypes, and that these effects are dependent on a Ws-0 genetic background. Genetic complementation of Arabidopsis vdac1 mutants and yeast porin1-deficient strain with members of the AtVDAC gene family revealed that AtVDAC1 is required for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and there is weak functional redundancy between AtVDAC1 and AtVDAC3, which is independent of porin activity. Furthermore, atvdac1 mutants were deficient in transient and stable transformation by Agrobacterium, suggesting that AtVDAC1 is involved in the early stages of Agrobacterium infection prior to transferred-DNA (T-DNA) integration. Transgenic plants overexpressing AtVDAC1 not only complemented the phenotypes of the atvdac1 mutant, but also showed high efficiency of transient T-DNA gene expression; however, the efficiency of stable transformation was not affected. Moreover, the effect of phytohormone treatment on competence to Agrobacterium was compromised in atvdac1 mutants. These data indicate that AtVDAC1 regulates the competence of Arabidopsis to Agrobacterium infection. PMID:27643450

  8. Transient expression systems for plant-derived biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Komarova, Tatiana V; Baschieri, Selene; Donini, Marcello; Marusic, Carla; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Dorokhov, Yuri L

    2010-08-01

    In the molecular farming area, transient expression approaches for pharmaceutical proteins production, mainly recombinant monoclonal antibodies and vaccines, were developed almost two decades ago and, to date, these systems basically depend on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery and virus expression machinery. We survey here the current state-of-the-art of this research field. Several vectors have been designed on the basis of DNA- and RNA-based plant virus genomes and viral vectors are used both as single- and multicomponent expression systems in different combinations depending on the protein of interest. The obvious advantages of these systems are ease of manipulation, speed, low cost and high yield of proteins. In addition, Agrobacterium-mediated expression also allows the production in plants of complex proteins assembled from subunits. Currently, the transient expression methods are preferential over any other transgenic system for the exploitation of large and unrestricted numbers of plants in a contained environment. By designing optimal constructs and related means of delivery into plant cells, the overall technology plan considers scenarios that envisage high yield of bioproducts and ease in monitoring the whole spectrum of upstream production, before entering good manufacturing practice facilities. In this way, plant-derived bioproducts show promise of high competitiveness towards classical eukaryotic cell factory systems. PMID:20673010

  9. Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

    Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Thole, Vera; Vain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon is an attractive genomics and biological model system for grass research. Recently, the complete annotated genome sequence of the diploid line Bd21 has been released. Genetic transformation technologies are critical for the discovery and validation of gene function in Brachypodium. Here, we describe an efficient procedure enabling the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a range of diploid and polyploid genotypes of Brachypodium. The procedure relies on the transformation of compact embryogenic calli derived from immature embryos using either chemical selection alone or a combination of chemical and visual screening of transformed tissues and plants. Transformation efficiencies of around 20% can routinely be achieved using this protocol. In the context of the BrachyTAG programme (BrachyTAG.org), this procedure made possible the mass production of Bd21T-DNA mutant plant lines.

  11. Comparative analysis of transgenic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) plants obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and particle bombardment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Caixia; Long, Danfeng; Lenk, Ingo; Nielsen, Klaus Kristian

    2008-10-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and particle bombardment are the two most widely used methods for genetically modifying grasses. Here, these two systems are compared for transformation efficiency, transgene integration and transgene expression when used to transform tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). The bar gene was used as a selectable marker and selection during tissue culture was performed using 2 mg/l bialaphos in both callus induction and regeneration media. Average transformation efficiency across the four callus lines used in the experiments was 10.5% for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and 11.5% for particle bombardment. Similar transgene integration patterns and co-integration frequencies of bar and uidA were observed in both gene transfer systems. However, while GUS activity was detected in leaves of 53% of the Agrobacterium transformed lines, only 20% of the bombarded lines showed GUS activity. Thus, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation appears to be the preferred method for producing transgenic tall fescue plants.

  12. An efficient method for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and plant regeneration in cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sonika; Mishra, Avinash; Patel, Manish Kumar; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-09-01

    Cumin is an annual herbaceous medicinally important plant having diverse applications. An efficient and reproducible method of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was herein established for the first time. A direct regeneration method without callus induction was optimised using embryos as explant material in Gamborg's B5 medium supplemented with 0.5-μM 6-benzyladenine and 2.0-μM α-naphthalene acetic acid. About 1,020 embryos (a mean of 255 embryos per batch) were used for the optimisation of transformation conditions. These conditions were an Agrobacterium cell suspension of 0.6 OD600, a co-cultivation time of 72 h, 300-μM acetosyringone and wounding of explants using a razor blade. Pre-cultured elongated embryos were treated using optimised conditions. About 720 embryos (a mean of 180 embryos per batch) were used for transformation and 95 % embryos showed transient β-glucuronidase expression after co-cultivation. Putative transformed embryos were cultured on B5 medium for shoot proliferation and 21 regenerated plants were obtained after selection and allowed to root. T0 plantlets showed β-glucuronidase expression and gene integration was confirmed via PCR amplification of 0.96 and 1.28 kb fragments of the hygromycin-phosphotransferase II and β-glucuronidase genes, respectively. In this study, a transformation efficiency of 1.5 % was demonstrated and a total of 11 transgenic plants were obtained at the hardening stage, however, only four plants acclimatised during hardening. Gene copy number was analysed by Southern blot analysis of hardened plants and single-copy gene integration was observed. This is the first successful attempt of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of cumin.

  13. An efficient method for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and plant regeneration in cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sonika; Mishra, Avinash; Patel, Manish Kumar; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-09-01

    Cumin is an annual herbaceous medicinally important plant having diverse applications. An efficient and reproducible method of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was herein established for the first time. A direct regeneration method without callus induction was optimised using embryos as explant material in Gamborg's B5 medium supplemented with 0.5-μM 6-benzyladenine and 2.0-μM α-naphthalene acetic acid. About 1,020 embryos (a mean of 255 embryos per batch) were used for the optimisation of transformation conditions. These conditions were an Agrobacterium cell suspension of 0.6 OD600, a co-cultivation time of 72 h, 300-μM acetosyringone and wounding of explants using a razor blade. Pre-cultured elongated embryos were treated using optimised conditions. About 720 embryos (a mean of 180 embryos per batch) were used for transformation and 95 % embryos showed transient β-glucuronidase expression after co-cultivation. Putative transformed embryos were cultured on B5 medium for shoot proliferation and 21 regenerated plants were obtained after selection and allowed to root. T0 plantlets showed β-glucuronidase expression and gene integration was confirmed via PCR amplification of 0.96 and 1.28 kb fragments of the hygromycin-phosphotransferase II and β-glucuronidase genes, respectively. In this study, a transformation efficiency of 1.5 % was demonstrated and a total of 11 transgenic plants were obtained at the hardening stage, however, only four plants acclimatised during hardening. Gene copy number was analysed by Southern blot analysis of hardened plants and single-copy gene integration was observed. This is the first successful attempt of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of cumin. PMID:23813408

  14. Screening Chinese soybean genotypes for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation suitability*

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhang-yue; Tian, Jing-luan; Fu, Wei-zhe; Li, Lin; Lu, Ling-hong; Zhou, Lian; Shan, Zhi-hui; Tang, Gui-xiang; Shou, Hui-xia

    2013-01-01

    The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system is the most commonly used method in soybean transformation. Screening of soybean genotypes favorable for Agrobacterium-infection and tissue regeneration is the most important step to establish an efficient genetic transformation system. In this study, twenty soybean genotypes that originated from different soybean production regions in China were screened for transient infection, regeneration capacity, and stable transgenic efficiency. Three genotypes, Yuechun 04-5, Yuechun 03-3, and Tianlong 1, showed comparable stable transgenic efficiencies with that of the previously reported American genotypes Williams 82 and Jack in our experimental system. For the Tianlong 1, the average stable transformation efficiency is 4.59%, higher than that of control genotypes (Jack and Williams 82), which is enough for further genomic research and genetic engineering. While polymerase chain reaction (PCR), LibertyLink strips, and β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining assays were used to detect the insertion and expression of the transgene, leaves painted with 135 mg/L Basta could efficiently identify the transformants. PMID:23549846

  15. Is VIP1 important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation?

    PubMed

    Shi, Yong; Lee, Lan-Ying; Gelvin, Stanton B

    2014-09-01

    Agrobacterium genetically transforms plants by transferring and integrating T-(transferred) DNA into the host genome. This process requires both Agrobacterium and host proteins. VirE2 interacting protein 1 (VIP1), an Arabidopsis bZIP protein, has been suggested to mediate transformation through interaction with and targeting of VirE2 to nuclei. We examined the susceptibility of Arabidopsis vip1 mutant and VIP1 overexpressing plants to transformation by numerous Agrobacterium strains. In no instance could we detect altered transformation susceptibility. We also used confocal microscopy to examine the subcellular localization of Venus-tagged VirE2 or Venus-tagged VIP1, in the presence or absence of the other untagged protein, in different plant cell systems. We found that VIP1-Venus localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of Arabidopsis roots, agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts and tobacco BY-2 protoplasts, regardless of whether VirE2 was co-expressed. VirE2 localized exclusively to the cytoplasm of tobacco and Arabidopsis protoplasts, whether in the absence or presence of VIP1 overexpression. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants and agroinfiltrated N. benthamina leaves we could occasionally detect small aggregates of the Venus signal in nuclei, but these were likely to be imagining artifacts. The vast majority of VirE2 remained in the cytoplasm. We conclude that VIP1 is not important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation or VirE2 subcellular localization.

  16. In planta transient expression analysis of monoterpene synthases.

    PubMed

    Green, Sol A; Chen, Xiuyin; Matich, Adam J

    2012-01-01

    In vitro-based analyses of monoterpene synthase (mono-TPS) enzymes have led to a wealth of knowledge regarding their catalytic behavior, the mechanistic principles governing their product specificity, and the molecular basis for their evolution. However, the efficient production of active enzymes in Escherichia coli or yeast can be challenging. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in tobacco leaves is increasingly being used as a viable alternative to in vitro-based approaches for the production and functional analysis of a wide range of plant proteins. Transient expression is well suited for qualitative and semiquantitative analyses of mono-TPS enzyme product specificity and, in conjunction with standard volatile analysis techniques, provides an efficient tool for screening mono-TPS function in planta. The primary advantages of this system for mono-TPS analysis are that both mono-TPS genomic clones and cDNAs can be cloned directly into plant expression vectors without modification and expressed enzymes can be analyzed without the need for purification or endogenous precursor addition. Here, we describe a simple and cost-effective method for the in planta functional analysis of plant mono-TPS enzymes. This method can accommodate both the analysis of single genes and the scaling for more high-throughput functional screening of mono-TPS gene families or mutant libraries.

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato with the ICE1 transcription factor gene.

    PubMed

    Juan, J X; Yu, X H; Jiang, X M; Gao, Z; Zhang, Y; Li, W; Duan, Y D; Yang, G

    2015-01-30

    ICE1 genes play a very important role in plants in cold conditions. To improve the cold resistance of tomato, the ICE1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana was used to construct the plant expression vector p3301-ICE1, and was overexpressed in tomato through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Five strains of resistant plants were obtained. PCR and half-quantitative results showed that the ICE1 gene was transferred to tomato; three strains tested positive. After low-temperature stress treatment, praline content and peroxide and catalase activities in the transgenic tomato plants were higher compared with non-transgenic controls, while malondialdehyde content was clearly lower.

  18. High-level diterpene production by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Characterization of plant terpene synthases is typically done by production of recombinant enzymes in Escherichia coli. This is often difficult due to solubility and codon usage issues. Furthermore, plant terpene synthases which are targeted to the plastids, such as diterpene synthases, have to be shortened in a more or less empirical approach to improve expression. We report here an optimized Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assay in Nicotiana benthamiana for plant diterpene synthase expression and product analysis. Results Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of plant diterpene synthases in N. benthamiana led to the accumulation of diterpenes within 3 days of infiltration and with a maximum at 5 days. Over 50% of the products were exported onto the leaf surface, thus considerably facilitating the analysis by reducing the complexity of the extracts. The robustness of the method was tested by expressing three different plant enzymes, cembratrien-ol synthase from Nicotiana sylvestris, casbene synthase from Ricinus communis and levopimaradiene synthase from Gingko biloba. Furthermore, co-expression of a 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase from tomato and a geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase from tobacco led to a 3.5-fold increase in the amount of cembratrien-ol produced, with maximum yields reaching 2500 ng/cm2. Conclusion With this optimized method for diterpene synthase expression and product analysis, a single infiltrated leaf of N. benthamiana would be sufficient to produce quantities required for the structure elucidation of unknown diterpenes. The method will also be of general use for gene function discovery, pathway reconstitution and metabolic engineering of diterpenoid biosynthesis in plants. PMID:24330621

  19. VIP1: linking Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to plant immunity?

    PubMed

    Liu, Yukun; Kong, Xiangpei; Pan, Jiaowen; Li, Dequan

    2010-08-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the most efficient vehicle used today for the production of transgenic plants and plays an essential role in basic scientific research and in agricultural biotechnology. Previously, plant VirE2-interacting protein 1 (VIP1) was shown to play a role in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Recent reports demonstrate that VIP1, as one of the bZIP transcription factors, is also involved in plant immunity responses. Agrobacterium is able to activate and abuse VIP1 for transformation. These findings highlight Agrobacterium-host interaction and unveil how Agrobacterium hijacks host cellular mechanism for its own benefit. This review focuses on the roles played by VIP1 in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and plant immunity. PMID:20473505

  20. VIP1: linking Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to plant immunity?

    PubMed

    Liu, Yukun; Kong, Xiangpei; Pan, Jiaowen; Li, Dequan

    2010-08-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the most efficient vehicle used today for the production of transgenic plants and plays an essential role in basic scientific research and in agricultural biotechnology. Previously, plant VirE2-interacting protein 1 (VIP1) was shown to play a role in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Recent reports demonstrate that VIP1, as one of the bZIP transcription factors, is also involved in plant immunity responses. Agrobacterium is able to activate and abuse VIP1 for transformation. These findings highlight Agrobacterium-host interaction and unveil how Agrobacterium hijacks host cellular mechanism for its own benefit. This review focuses on the roles played by VIP1 in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and plant immunity.

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Ismagul, Ainur; Mazonka, Iryna; Callegari, Corinne; Eliby, Serik

    2014-01-01

    Barley biotechnology requires efficient genetic engineering tools for producing transgenic plants necessary for conducting reverse genetics analyses in breeding and functional genomics research. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is an important technique for producing barley transgenics with simple low-copy number transgenes. This chapter reports a refined protocol for the systematic high-throughput transformation of the advanced Australian spring barley breeding line WI4330.

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the recalcitrant Vanda Kasem's Delight orchid with higher efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gnasekaran, Pavallekoodi; Antony, Jessica Jeyanthi James; Uddain, Jasim; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2014-01-01

    The presented study established Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation using protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) for the production of transgenic Vanda Kasem's Delight Tom Boykin (VKD) orchid. Several parameters such as PLB size, immersion period, level of wounding, Agrobacterium density, cocultivation period, and concentration of acetosyringone were tested and quantified using gusA gene expression to optimize the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of VKD's PLBs. Based on the results, 3-4 mm PLBs wounded by scalpel and immersed for 30 minutes in Agrobacterium suspension of 0.8 unit at A 600 nm produced the highest GUS expression. Furthermore, cocultivating infected PLBs for 4 days in the dark on Vacin and Went cocultivation medium containing 200 μM acetosyringone enhanced the GUS expression. PCR analysis of the putative transformants selected in the presence of 250 mg/L cefotaxime and 30 mg/L geneticin proved the presence of wheatwin1, wheatwin2, and nptII genes.

  3. A simple agroinfiltration method for transient gene expression in plant leaf discs.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kouki; Fukuzawa, Noriho; Matsumura, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we developed a simple transient gene expression system based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Vacuum infiltration was applied to leaf discs from Nicotiana benthamiana plants with Agrobacterium suspension solution under conventional vacuum conditions in a needleless plastic syringe. Model proteins, green fluorescent protein, β-glucuronidase, mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and human fibroblast growth factor 1 were successfully expressed in leaf discs within 4 days after infiltration. In addition, the functional evaluation of viral RNA silencing suppressors, Artichoke mottled crinkle virus p19 protein, was also performed. Using this method, the contamination and diffusion of genetically modified bacterium to the environment and important transgenic plants were prevented. This method can be conducted without specialized apparatuses or large amounts of Agrobacterium suspension solutions; thus, the simultaneous evaluation of multiple vectors will be easily possible. PMID:26995064

  4. Exploration of new perspectives and limitations in Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer technology. Final report, June 1, 1992--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Marton, L.

    1996-02-01

    Genetic manipulation of plants often involves the introduction of homologous or partly homologous genes. Ectropic introduction of homologous sequences into plant genomes may trigger epigenetic changes, making expression of the genes unpredictable. The main project objective was to examine the feasibility of using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer for homologous gene targeting in plants.

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the haploid liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L., an emerging model for plant biology.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Chiyoda, Shota; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2008-07-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has not been practical in pteridophytes, bryophytes and algae to date, although it is commonly used in model plants including Arabidopsis and rice. Here we present a rapid Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for the haploid liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. using immature thalli developed from spores. Hundreds of hygromycin-resistant plants per sporangium were obtained by co-cultivation of immature thalli with Agrobacterium carrying the binary vector that contains a reporter, the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene with an intron, and a selection marker, the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene. In this system, individual gemmae, which arise asexually from single initial cells, were analyzed as isogenic transformants. GUS activity staining showed that all hygromycin-resistant plants examined expressed the GUS transgene in planta. DNA analyses verified random integration of 1-5 copies of the intact T-DNA between the right and the left borders into the M. polymorpha genome. The efficient and rapid Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of M. polymorpha should provide molecular techniques to facilitate comparative genomics, taking advantage of this unique model plant that retains many features of the common ancestor of land plants.

  6. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2008-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used for gene delivery in plants. However, commercial cultivars of crop plants are often recalcitrant to transformation because the protocols established for model varieties are not directly applicable to them. The genus Brassica includes the oil seed crop, canola (B. napus), and vegetable crop varieties of Brassica oleracea, including cauliflower, broccoli and cabbage. Here, we describe an efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using seedling explants that is applicable to various Brassica varieties; this protocol has been used to genetically engineer commercial cultivars of canola and cauliflower in our laboratory. Young seedling explants are inoculated with Agrobacterium on the day of explant preparation. Explants are grown for 1 week in the absence of a selective agent before being transferred to a selective medium to recover transgenic shoots. Transgenic shoots are subjected to an additional round of selection on medium containing higher levels of the selective agent and a low-carbohydrate source; this helps to eliminate false-positive plants. Use of seedling explants offers flexible experiment planning and a convenient explant source. Using this protocol, transgenic plants can be obtained in 2.5 to 3.5 months.

  7. Biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols for wheat.

    PubMed

    Tamás-Nyitrai, Cecília; Jones, Huw D; Tamás, László

    2012-01-01

    After rice, wheat is considered to be the most important world food crop, and the demand for high-quality wheat flour is increasing. Although there are no GM varieties currently grown, wheat is an important target for biotechnology, and we anticipate that GM wheat will be commercially available in 10-15 years. In this chapter, we summarize the main features and challenges of wheat transformation and then describe detailed protocols for the production of transgenic wheat plants both by biolistic and Agrobacterium-mediated DNA-delivery. Although these methods are used mainly for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), they can also be successfully applied, with slight modifications, to tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). The appropriate size and developmental stage of explants (immature embryo-derived scutella), the conditions to produce embryogenic callus tissues, and the methods to regenerate transgenic plants under increasing selection pressure are provided in the protocol. To illustrate the application of herbicide selection system, we have chosen to describe the use of the plasmid pAHC25 for biolistic transformation, while for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation the binary vector pAL156 (incorporating both the bar gene and the uidA gene) has been chosen. Beside the step-by-step methodology for obtaining stably transformed and normal fertile plants, procedures for screening and testing transgenic wheat plants are also discussed.

  8. In planta Agrobacterium-mediated transformation by vacuum infiltration.

    PubMed

    Tague, Brian W; Mantis, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    In planta Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using vacuum infiltration results in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana without the use of sterile conditions or plant regeneration. Plants are grown in pots, in standard potting mix. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, carrying an appropriate plant transformation vector, is suspended in an infiltration medium that contains, at a minimum, sucrose and the surfactant Silwet L-77. Flower buds are immersed in the suspension of A. tumefaciens. The application of a vacuum drives the bacteria into the intercellular air spaces. A portion of the Agrobacterium Ti plasmid known as the T-DNA region, which has been engineered to carry a selectable marker, becomes integrated into the plant genomic DNA. Plants are allowed to set seed. Seeds are germinated in selective conditions to recover transformants. PMID:16739579

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize (Zea mays) immature embryos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is one of the most efficient and simple gene delivery systems for genetic improvement and biology studies in maize. This system has become more widely used by both public and private laboratories. However, transformation efficiencies vary greatly from laboratory to laboratory for the same genotype. Here, we illustrate our advanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method in Hi-II maize using simple binary vectors. The protocol utilizes immature embryos as starting explants and the bar gene as a selectable marker coupled with bialaphos as a selective agent. The protocol offers efficient transformation results with high reproducibility, provided that some experimental conditions are well controlled. This transformation method, with minor modifications, can be also employed to transform certain maize inbreds.

  10. Efficient production of transgenic melon via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Bezirganoglu, I; Hwang, S Y; Shaw, J F; Fang, T J

    2014-04-25

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is an important fruit for human consumption. However, this plant species is one of the most recalcitrant to genetic transformation. The lack of an efficient in vitro system limits the development of a reproducible genetic transformation protocol for Oriental melon. In this study, an efficient transgenic production method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using cotyledon explants of Oriental melon was developed. Cotyledon explants were pre-cultivated for two days in the dark, and the optimal conditions for transformation of melon were determined to be a bacteria concentration of OD600 0.6, inoculation for 30 min, and two days of co-cultivation. Transgenic melon plants were produced from kanamycin-resistant shoots. A total of 11 independent transgenic plants were regenerated with a transformation efficiency of 0.8% of the inoculated explants. The transgenic plants were phenotypically normal and fully fertile, which might be a consequence of the co-cultivation time.

  11. Development of an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system and production of herbicide-resistant transgenic plants in garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2013-08-01

    The genetic improvement of garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) with agronomical beneficial traits is rarely achieved due to the lack of an applicable transformation system. Here, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure with Danyang, an elite Korean garlic cultivar. Examination of sGFP (synthetic green fluorescence protein) expression revealed that treatment with 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), L-cysteine and/or dithiothreitol (DTT) gives the highest efficiency in transient gene transfer during Agrobacterium co-cultivation with calli derived from the roots of in vitro plantlets. To increase stable transformation efficiency, a two-step selection was employed on the basis of hygromycin resistance and sGFP expression. Of the hygromycin-resistant calli initially produced, only sGFP-expressing calli were subcultured for selection of transgenic calli. Transgenic plantlets produced from these calli were grown to maturity. The transformation efficiency increased up to 10.6% via our optimized procedure. DNA and RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that transgenic garlic plants stably integrated and expressed the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene. A herbicide spraying assay demonstrated that transgenic plants of garlic conferred herbicide resistance, whilst nontransgenic plants and weeds died. These results indicate that our transformation system can be efficiently utilized to produce transgenic garlic plants with agronomic benefits.

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of yam (Dioscorea rotundata): an important tool for functional study of genes and crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Nyaboga, Evans; Tripathi, Jaindra N; Manoharan, Rajesh; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Although genetic transformation of clonally propagated crops has been widely studied as a tool for crop improvement and as a vital part of the development of functional genomics resources, there has been no report of any existing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of yam (Dioscorea spp.) with evidence of stable integration of T-DNA. Yam is an important crop in the tropics and subtropics providing food security and income to over 300 million people. However, yam production remains constrained by increasing levels of field and storage pests and diseases. A major constraint to the development of biotechnological approaches for yam improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. In this study, we developed an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Dioscorea rotundata using axillary buds as explants. Two cultivars of D. rotundata were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the binary vectors containing selectable marker and reporter genes. After selection with appropriate concentrations of antibiotic, shoots were developed on shoot induction and elongation medium. The elongated antibiotic-resistant shoots were subsequently rooted on medium supplemented with selection agent. Successful transformation was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analysis, and reporter genes assay. Expression of gusA gene in transgenic plants was also verified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Transformation efficiency varied from 9.4 to 18.2% depending on the cultivars, selectable marker genes, and the Agrobacterium strain used for transformation. It took 3-4 months from Agro-infection to regeneration of complete transgenic plant. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of D. rotundata using axillary buds as explants, which provides a useful platform for future genetic engineering studies in this economically important

  13. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of yam (Dioscorea rotundata): an important tool for functional study of genes and crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    Nyaboga, Evans; Tripathi, Jaindra N.; Manoharan, Rajesh; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Although genetic transformation of clonally propagated crops has been widely studied as a tool for crop improvement and as a vital part of the development of functional genomics resources, there has been no report of any existing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of yam (Dioscorea spp.) with evidence of stable integration of T-DNA. Yam is an important crop in the tropics and subtropics providing food security and income to over 300 million people. However, yam production remains constrained by increasing levels of field and storage pests and diseases. A major constraint to the development of biotechnological approaches for yam improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. In this study, we developed an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Dioscorea rotundata using axillary buds as explants. Two cultivars of D. rotundata were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the binary vectors containing selectable marker and reporter genes. After selection with appropriate concentrations of antibiotic, shoots were developed on shoot induction and elongation medium. The elongated antibiotic-resistant shoots were subsequently rooted on medium supplemented with selection agent. Successful transformation was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analysis, and reporter genes assay. Expression of gusA gene in transgenic plants was also verified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Transformation efficiency varied from 9.4 to 18.2% depending on the cultivars, selectable marker genes, and the Agrobacterium strain used for transformation. It took 3–4 months from Agro-infection to regeneration of complete transgenic plant. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of D. rotundata using axillary buds as explants, which provides a useful platform for future genetic engineering studies in this economically important

  14. Aboveground insect infestation attenuates belowground Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Lee, Soohyun; Hong, Jaehwa; Choi, Hye Kyung; Hong, Gun Hyong; Bae, Dong-Won; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease. Although Agrobacterium can be popularly used for genetic engineering, the influence of aboveground insect infestation on Agrobacterium induced gall formation has not been investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves were exposed to a sucking insect (whitefly) infestation and benzothiadiazole (BTH) for 7 d, and these exposed plants were inoculated with a tumorigenic Agrobacterium strain. We evaluated, both in planta and in vitro, how whitefly infestation affects crown gall disease. Whitefly-infested plants exhibited at least a two-fold reduction in gall formation on both stem and crown root. Silencing of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, compromised gall formation indicating an involvement of SA in whitefly-derived plant defence against Agrobacterium. Endogenous SA content was augmented in whitefly-infested plants upon Agrobacterium inoculation. In addition, SA concentration was three times higher in root exudates from whitefly-infested plants. As a consequence, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of roots of whitefly-infested plants was clearly inhibited when compared to control plants. These results suggest that aboveground whitefly infestation elicits systemic defence responses throughout the plant. Our findings provide new insights into insect-mediated leaf-root intra-communication and a framework to understand interactions between three organisms: whitefly, N. benthamiana and Agrobacterium. PMID:25676198

  15. Efficient method for Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Alam, Pravej; Mohammad, Anis; Ahmad, M M; Khan, Mather Ali; Nadeem, Mohd; Khan, Riyazuddeen; Akmal, Mohd; Ahlawat, Seema; Abdin, M Z

    2014-01-01

    Artemisinin, a potent antimalarial natural products isolated from aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. Many patents have been reported that the demand for artemisinin is exponentially increasing year after year due to increased incidences of drug resistant malaria throughout the world. Leaf explants were used frequently as target tissue to generate transgenic of Artemisia. annua L. However, obtaining a large number of transgenic lines through out the year is a laborious and delicate process. To circumvent this, we have developed a highly efficient leaf explant based Agrobacterium mediated transformation of A. annua L. plant. The gus gene was used as screenable marker to assess and optimize the performance of T-DNA delivery. The age of explant, kind of bacterial inoculation, suspension duration, infection times and co-culture conditions were optimized. The co-culture was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 under desiccation condition in the dark at 25-28 0C for 2-4 days. Complete analysis of transgene insertion demonstrated that the optimized method of transformation from leaf explants of A. annua L. was efficient and highly reproducible.

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize (Zea mays) with Cre-lox site specific recombination cassettes in BIBAC vectors.

    PubMed

    Vega, Juan M; Yu, Weichang; Han, Fangpu; Kato, Akio; Peters, Eric M; Zhang, Zhanyuan J; Birchler, James A

    2008-04-01

    The Cre/loxP site-specific recombination system has been applied in various plant species including maize (Zea mays) for marker gene removal, gene targeting, and functional genomics. A BIBAC vector system was adapted for maize transformation with a large fragment of genetic material including a herbicide resistance marker gene, a 30 kb yeast genomic fragment as a marker for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and a 35S-lox-cre recombination cassette. Seventy-five transgenic lines were generated from Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a maize Hi II line with multiple B chromosomes. Eighty-four inserts have been localized among all 10 A chromosome pairs by FISH using the yeast DNA probe together with a karyotyping cocktail. No inserts were found on the B chromosomes; thus a bias against the B chromosomes by the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was revealed. The expression of a cre gene was confirmed in 68 of the 75 transgenic lines by a reporter construct for cre/lox mediated recombination. The placement of the cre/lox site-specific recombination system in many locations in the maize genome will be valuable materials for gene targeting and chromosome engineering.

  17. Stable Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Maritime Pine Based on Kanamycin Selection

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, José M.; Ordás, Ricardo J.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient transformation protocol based on kanamycin selection was developed for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maritime pine embryonal masses. The binary vector pBINUbiGUSint, which contained neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) as a selectable marker gene and β-glucuronidase (uidA) as a reporter gene, was used for transformation studies. Different factors, such as embryogenic line, bacterial strain, bacterial concentration, and coculture duration, were examined and optimized. For selection of transformants, 15 mgL−1 kanamycin was used. The highest transformation efficiency (11.4 events per gram of fresh mass) was achieved when a vigorously growing embryonal mass (embryogenic line L01) was cocultivated with Agrobacterium strain AGL1 at the optical density (OD600 nm) of 0.3 for 72 h. Evidence of the stable transgene integration was obtained by polymerase chain reaction for the nptII and uidA genes and expression of the uidA gene. Maturation capacity of the transgenic lines was negatively affected by the transformation process. Induction of axillary shoots by preculturing the embryos with benzyladenine allowed overcoming the low maturation rates of some transformed lines. The transgenic embryos were germinated and the axillar shoots were rooted. Transgenic plants were transferred to potting substrate showing normal growth. PMID:24376383

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of pineapple (Ananas comosus L., Merr.).

    PubMed

    Mhatre, Minal

    2013-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus L., Merr.) is a commercially important crop, grown in the tropical and subtropical regions. However, the crop is faced with postharvest damage and poor varietal and nutritional improvement. Being a vegetatively propagated crop, conventional breeding programs take longer time for genetic improvement, which may not necessarily successfully develop an improved cultivar. Hence, the genetic modification of pineapple is an alternative handy approach to improve pineapple. We have established an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system using leaf bases from in vitro-grown pineapple plants. Being a monocot, acetosyringone is added to the culture medium for overnight growth of Agrobacterium and transformation to transfer a gene of interest MSI99 soybean ferritin. Leaf bases isolated from in vitro shoot cultures are treated with Agrobacterium suspension at two dilutions, 10× and 20×, for 30 min. Explants are subsequently blot dried and cultured on gelrite solidified hormone-free Pin1 medium for 2 days (cocultivation). Periodic transfer is first done to the regeneration medium (Pin1) containing cefotaxime for the suppression of Agrobacterium growth. The transformants are selected by culturing on Pin1 medium containing cefotaxime and kanamycin. Multiple shoots, regenerated in leaf bases, are further multiplied and individually rooted in the liquid RM medium amended with antibiotics to recover plants. Putative transformants are analyzed for transgene integration and expression using standard molecular biological methods of PCR, RT-PCR, and genomic Southern.

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of pineapple (Ananas comosus L., Merr.).

    PubMed

    Mhatre, Minal

    2013-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus L., Merr.) is a commercially important crop, grown in the tropical and subtropical regions. However, the crop is faced with postharvest damage and poor varietal and nutritional improvement. Being a vegetatively propagated crop, conventional breeding programs take longer time for genetic improvement, which may not necessarily successfully develop an improved cultivar. Hence, the genetic modification of pineapple is an alternative handy approach to improve pineapple. We have established an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system using leaf bases from in vitro-grown pineapple plants. Being a monocot, acetosyringone is added to the culture medium for overnight growth of Agrobacterium and transformation to transfer a gene of interest MSI99 soybean ferritin. Leaf bases isolated from in vitro shoot cultures are treated with Agrobacterium suspension at two dilutions, 10× and 20×, for 30 min. Explants are subsequently blot dried and cultured on gelrite solidified hormone-free Pin1 medium for 2 days (cocultivation). Periodic transfer is first done to the regeneration medium (Pin1) containing cefotaxime for the suppression of Agrobacterium growth. The transformants are selected by culturing on Pin1 medium containing cefotaxime and kanamycin. Multiple shoots, regenerated in leaf bases, are further multiplied and individually rooted in the liquid RM medium amended with antibiotics to recover plants. Putative transformants are analyzed for transgene integration and expression using standard molecular biological methods of PCR, RT-PCR, and genomic Southern. PMID:23179718

  20. Stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maritime pine based on kanamycin selection.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, José M; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2013-01-01

    An efficient transformation protocol based on kanamycin selection was developed for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maritime pine embryonal masses. The binary vector pBINUbiGUSint, which contained neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) as a selectable marker gene and β -glucuronidase (uidA) as a reporter gene, was used for transformation studies. Different factors, such as embryogenic line, bacterial strain, bacterial concentration, and coculture duration, were examined and optimized. For selection of transformants, 15 mgL(-1) kanamycin was used. The highest transformation efficiency (11.4 events per gram of fresh mass) was achieved when a vigorously growing embryonal mass (embryogenic line L01) was cocultivated with Agrobacterium strain AGL1 at the optical density (OD(600 nm)) of 0.3 for 72 h. Evidence of the stable transgene integration was obtained by polymerase chain reaction for the nptII and uidA genes and expression of the uidA gene. Maturation capacity of the transgenic lines was negatively affected by the transformation process. Induction of axillary shoots by preculturing the embryos with benzyladenine allowed overcoming the low maturation rates of some transformed lines. The transgenic embryos were germinated and the axillar shoots were rooted. Transgenic plants were transferred to potting substrate showing normal growth.

  1. Regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the apomictic species Eulaliopsis binata.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Chun Gen; Xu, Bing; Yao, Jia Ling

    2013-09-01

    Protocols for regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the apomictic species Eulaliopsis binata were developed. Initially, seeds of four genotypes of E. binata were incubated on a callus induction Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with three concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). It was found that 36.2 % of explants developed highly friable callus on medium containing 3.0 mg l(-1) 2,4-D. Based on frequency of callus induction, the genotype Neixiang was selected for regeneration and transformation. Callus incubated on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.2 mg l(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid and 6.0 mg l(-1) 6-furfuryl-aminopurine developed shoots. Subsequently, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105-harboring a plasmid pCAMBIA1381 carrying a hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) resistance gene and a synthetic green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, both driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter-was used for transformation system. Putative transgenic callus was obtained following two cycles of hygromycin selection. Expression of the transgene(s) in putative transgenic callus was analyzed using the GFP detection. Molecular identification of putative transformed shoots was performed by polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis to confirm presence and integration of the hpt gene.

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Vitis Cv. Monastrell suspension-cultured cells: Determination of critical parameters.

    PubMed

    Chu, Mingyu; Quiñonero, Carmen; Akdemir, Hülya; Alburquerque, Nuria; Pedreño, María Ángeles; Burgos, Lorenzo

    2016-05-01

    Although some works have explored the transformation of differentiated, embryogenic suspension-cultured cells (SCC) to produce transgenic grapevine plants, to our knowledge this is one of the first reports on the efficient transformation of dedifferentiated Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell SCC. This protocol has been developed using the sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT) method. A construct harboring the selectable nptII and the eyfp/IV2 marker genes was used in the study and transformation efficiencies reached over 50 independent transformed SCC per gram of infected cells. Best results were obtained when cells were infected at the exponential phase. A high density plating (500 mg/dish) gave significantly better results. As selective agent, kanamycin was inefficient for the selection of Monastrell transformed SCC since wild type cells were almost insensitive to this antibiotic whereas application of paromomycin resulted in very effective selection. Selected eyfp-expressing microcalli were grown until enough tissue was available to scale up a new transgenic SCC. These transgenic SCC lines were evaluated molecularly and phenotypically demonstrating the presence and integration of both transgenes, the absence of Agrobacterium contamination and the ability of the transformed SCC to grow in highly selective liquid medium. The methodology described here opens the possibility of improving the production of valuable metabolites. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:725-734, 2016.

  3. A rapid and stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method of a medicinal plant Chelone glabra L.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenrui; Li, Ying; Chen, Jinhua; Chen, Zhixing; Cui, Min-Long

    2015-03-01

    Transformation approach is a useful tool for the study of gene function, the mechanism of molecular regulation, and increase usefulness of components by reverse genetic approach in plants. In this study, we developed a stable and rapid method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a medicinal plant Chelone glabra L. using leaf explants. Stable transformants were obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains GV2260 and GV3101 that harbored the binary vector pBI121 and contained the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (NPT II) as a selectable marker and a reporter gene β-glucuronidase (GUS). Putative transformants were identified by kanamycin selection and a histochemical assay. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of the GUS gene into transformed genomes as well as detected stable expression of the β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) by RT-PCR. Resulting transformed plants had morphologically normal phenotypes. This method requires two changes of medium and few leaf explants as well as the transformation efficiency of 2-8 % after 2-3 months of inoculation. This method can provide a quick and economical transformation method for reverse genetic approach to change the secondary metabolic pathway to increase useful components in C. glabra.

  4. The role of RAR1 in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Ajith; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2013-01-01

    RAR1 is identified as a critical protein involved in plant innate immunity. We investigated the role of RAR1 in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation based on the previous findings that accessory proteins associated with the E3 ligase complex such as SGT1, which tightly interacts with RAR1, play a role in the transformation process. RAR1 gene silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis rar1 mutant analysis suggested that RAR1 is required for early stages of Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. This finding further illustrates that RAR1, along with SGT1, that serve as a HSP90 co-chaperone is important for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation.

  5. A Fruiting Body Tissue Method for Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Stone, Michelle; Schlagnhaufer, Carl; Romaine, C. Peter

    2000-01-01

    We describe a modified Agrobacterium-mediated method for the efficient transformation of Agaricus bisporus. Salient features of this procedure include cocultivation of Agrobacterium and fruiting body gill tissue and use of a vector with a homologous promoter. This method offers new prospects for the genetic manipulation of this commercially important mushroom species. PMID:11010906

  6. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Bread and Durum Wheat Using Freshly Isolated Immature Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huixia, Wu; Angela, Doherty; Jones, Huw D.

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat is becoming a viable alternative to the more established biolistic protocols. It offers advantages in terms of simple, low-copy-number integrations and can be applied with similar efficiencies to specific durum wheat and spring and winter bread wheat types varieties.

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation leads to improved gene replacement efficiency in Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Michielse, C B; Arentshorst, M; Ram, A F J; van den Hondel, C A M J J

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the efficiency of gene replacement in Aspergillus awamori between Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and CaCl(2)/PEG-mediated transformation was compared. For the genes, pyrG and gfaA, it was found that the homologous recombination frequencies obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were 3- to 6-fold higher than the frequencies obtained with CaCl(2)/PEG protoplast transformation. For the pyrG gene, it was found that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation allowed an efficient homologous recombination with shorter DNA flanks than CaCl(2)/PEG protoplast transformation. Finally, the addition of the dominant amdS marker as a second selection marker to the gene replacement cassette led to a further 2-fold enrichment in transformants with gene replacement events, resulting in a gene replacement frequency of 55%. Based on the data it can be concluded that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is an efficient tool for gene replacement and that the amdS gene can be successfully used as a second selection marker to select transformants with putative gene replacement.

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars via immature embryo and leaf explants.

    PubMed

    Gasparis, Sebastian; Bregier, Cezary; Orczyk, Waclaw; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports on the successful Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of oat, and on some factors influencing this process. In the first step of the experiments, three cultivars, two types of explant, and three combinations of strain/vectors, which were successfully used for transformation of other cereals were tested. Transgenic plants were obtained from the immature embryos of cvs. Bajka, Slawko and Akt and from leaf base explants of cv. Bajka after transformation with A. thumefaciens strain LBA4404(pTOK233). The highest transformation rate (12.3%) was obtained for immature embryos of cv. Bajka. About 79% of the selected plants proved to be transgenic; however, only 14.3% of the T(0) plants and 27.5% of the T(1) showed GUS expression. Cell competence of both types of explant differed in terms of their transformation ability and transgene expression. The next step of the study was to test the suitability for oat transformation of the pGreen binary vector combined with different selection cassettes: nptII or bar under the nos or 35S promoter. Transgenic plants were selected in combinations transformed with nos::nptII, 35S::nptII and nos::bar. The highest transformation efficiency (5.3%) was obtained for cv. Akt transformed with nos::nptII. A detailed analysis of the T(0) plants selected from a given callus line and their progeny revealed that they were the mixture of transgenic, chimeric-transgenic and non-transgenic individuals. Southern blot analysis of T(0) and T(1) showed simple integration pattern with the low copy number of the introduced transgenes.

  9. Role of bacterial virulence proteins in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Michielse, C B; Ram, A F J; Hooykaas, P J J; Hondel, C A M J J van den

    2004-05-01

    The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori was optimized using defined co-cultivation conditions, which resulted in a reproducible and efficient transformation system. Optimal co-cultivation conditions were used to study the role of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence proteins in T-DNA transfer. This study revealed that inactivation of either of the regulatory proteins (VirA, VirG), any of the transport pore proteins (VirB), proteins involved in generation of the T-strand (VirD, VirC) or T-strand protection and targeting (VirE2) abolishes or severely reduces the formation of transformants. The results indicate that the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of A. awamori requires an intact T-DNA machinery for efficient transformation; however, the plant host range factors, like VirE3, VirH, and VirF, are not important. PMID:15050546

  10. Regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hop (Humulus lupulus L.).

    PubMed

    Horlemann, C; Schwekendiek, A; Höhnle, M; Weber, G

    2003-10-01

    An efficient procedure for direct organogenesis and regeneration of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) was established. For the first time Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of hop (cv. "Tettnanger") was achieved. Shoot internodes from in vitro cultures were identified as the most suitable type of explant for regeneration. Using this type of explant, a shoot-inducing medium was developed that supported direct organogenesis of approximately 50% of the explants. Plantlets were successfully rooted and transferred to the greenhouse. Overall, in less than 6 months hop cultures propagated in vitro were regenerated to plants in the greenhouse. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was performed with the reporter gene GUS (beta-glucuronidase). The presence and function of transgenes in plants growing in the greenhouse was verified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and enzyme assay for GUS activity, respectively. We have obtained 21 transgenic plants from 1,440 explants initially transformed, yielding an overall transformation efficiency of 1.5%. PMID:12898178

  11. Multiple host-cell recombination pathways act in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of plant cells.

    PubMed

    Mestiri, Imen; Norre, Frédéric; Gallego, Maria E; White, Charles I

    2014-02-01

    Using floral-dip, tumorigenesis and root callus transformation assays of both germline and somatic cells, we present here results implicating the four major non-homologous and homologous recombination pathways in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. All four single mutant lines showed similar mild reductions in transformability, but knocking out three of four pathways severely compromised Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Although integration of T-DNA into the plant genome is severely compromised in the absence of known DNA double-strand break repair pathways, it does still occur, suggesting the existence of other pathways involved in T-DNA integration. Our results highlight the functional redundancy of the four major plant recombination pathways in transformation, and provide an explanation for the lack of strong effects observed in previous studies on the roles of plant recombination functions in transformation.

  12. Efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha using regenerating thalli.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Akane; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Hosaka, Masashi; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    The thallus, the gametophyte body of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, develops clonal progenies called gemmae that are useful in the isolation and propagation of isogenic plants. Developmental timing is critical to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and high transformation efficiency has been achieved only with sporelings. Here we report an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for M. polymorpha using regenerating thalli. Thallus regeneration was induced by cutting the mature thallus across the apical-basal axis and incubating the basal portion of the thallus for 3 d. Regenerating thalli were infected with Agrobacterium carrying binary vector that contained a selection marker, the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene, and hygromycin-resistant transformants were obtained with an efficiency of over 60%. Southern blot analysis verified random integration of 1 to 4 copies of the T-DNA into the M. polymorpha genome. This Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for M. polymorpha should provide opportunities to perform genetic transformation without preparing spores and to generate a sufficient number of transformants with isogenic background. PMID:23291762

  13. Efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha using regenerating thalli.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Akane; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Hosaka, Masashi; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    The thallus, the gametophyte body of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, develops clonal progenies called gemmae that are useful in the isolation and propagation of isogenic plants. Developmental timing is critical to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and high transformation efficiency has been achieved only with sporelings. Here we report an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for M. polymorpha using regenerating thalli. Thallus regeneration was induced by cutting the mature thallus across the apical-basal axis and incubating the basal portion of the thallus for 3 d. Regenerating thalli were infected with Agrobacterium carrying binary vector that contained a selection marker, the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene, and hygromycin-resistant transformants were obtained with an efficiency of over 60%. Southern blot analysis verified random integration of 1 to 4 copies of the T-DNA into the M. polymorpha genome. This Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for M. polymorpha should provide opportunities to perform genetic transformation without preparing spores and to generate a sufficient number of transformants with isogenic background.

  14. Strategies to improve low copy transgenic events in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize.

    PubMed

    Sivamani, Elumalai; Li, Xianggan; Nalapalli, Samson; Barron, Yoshimi; Prairie, Anna; Bradley, David; Doyle, Michele; Que, Qiudeng

    2015-12-01

    Transgenic plants containing low copy transgene insertion free of vector backbone are highly desired for many biotechnological applications. We have investigated two different strategies for increasing the percentage of low copy events in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation experiments in maize. One of the strategies is to use a binary vector with two separate T-DNAs, one T-DNA containing an intact E.coli manA gene encoding phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) as selectable marker gene cassette and another T-DNA containing an RNAi cassette of PMI sequences. By using this strategy, low copy transgenic events containing the transgenes were increased from 43 to 60 % in maize. An alternate strategy is using selectable marker gene cassettes containing regulatory or coding sequences derived from essential plant genes such as 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) or MADS box transcription factor. In this paper we demonstrate that higher percentage of low copy transgenic events can be obtained in Agrobacterium-mediated maize transformation experiments using both strategies. We propose that the above two strategies can be used independently or in combination to increase transgenic events that contain low copy transgene insertion in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation experiments.

  15. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Australian rice varieties and promoter analysis of major pollen allergen gene, Ory s 1.

    PubMed

    Azria, Diah; Bhalla, Prem L

    2011-09-01

    A simple protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Australian rice using mature embryos is described. Transgenic plants of two commercial genotypes of Australian rice, Amaroo and Millin, were produced. Transgenic plants were obtained by applying selection pressure to callus and to the regenerated shoots. Exclusion of the selective agent (hygromycin) during plant regeneration was found to be critical for recovery of transgenic plants from these commercial varieties. Transgenic plants were produced after 3 months. The developed system was also used to study spatial and temporal expression of a rice pollen-specific gene, Ory s 1. Expression of pOry s 1::uidA in transgenic rice demonstrated GUS expression in mature pollen, hence indicating potential use of this promoter to direct pollen-specific gene expression. Further Ory s 1 5' deletion study indicated that the pollen-specificity element may reside within -405 bp to the start of the transcription, while the region upstream of -405 contained a cis-acting regulatory element(s) responsible for quantitative expression of this gene.

  16. Mapping the subgenomic RNA promoter of the Citrus leaf blotch virus coat protein gene by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation.

    PubMed

    Renovell, Agueda; Gago, Selma; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Velázquez, Karelia; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Vives, Mari Carmen; Guerri, José

    2010-10-25

    Citrus leaf blotch virus has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) of 8747 nt organized in three open reading frames (ORFs). The ORF1, encoding a polyprotein involved in replication, is translated directly from the gRNA, whereas ORFs encoding the movement (MP) and coat (CP) proteins are expressed via 3' coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs). We characterized the minimal promoter region critical for the CP-sgRNA expression in infected cells by deletion analyses using Agrobacterium-mediated infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The minimal CP-sgRNA promoter was mapped between nucleotides -67 and +50 nt around the transcription start site. Surprisingly, larger deletions in the region between the CP-sgRNA transcription start site and the CP translation initiation codon resulted in increased CP-sgRNA accumulation, suggesting that this sequence could modulate the CP-sgRNA transcription. Site-specific mutational analysis of the transcription start site revealed that the +1 guanylate and the +2 adenylate are important for CP-sgRNA synthesis.

  17. Transgenic sugar beet tolerant to imidazolinone obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Kishchenko, E M; Komarnitskii, I K; Kuchuk, N V

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet is highly sensitive to imidazolinone herbicides thus rotational restrictions exist. In order to develop imidazolinone tolerant sugar beets als gene from Arabidopsis thaliana encoding acetolactate synthase with S653N mutation was used for genetic transformation. Transgenic sugar beet plants were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of aseptic seedlings using vacuum-infiltration. The efficiency of genetic transformation was 5.8%. RT-PCR analysis of obtained plants revealed accumulation of specific als transcript. The resistance to imidazolinone was proved for developed transgenic sugar beet plants in vitro and in greenhouse conditions after spraying with imazethapyr (Pursuit, BASF).

  18. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Subterranean Clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.).

    PubMed Central

    Khan, MRI.; Tabe, L. M.; Heath, L. C.; Spencer, D.; Higgins, TJV.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a rapid and reproducible transformation system for subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene delivery. Hypocotyl segments from seeds that had been allowed to imbibe were used as explants, and regeneration was achieved via organogenesis. Glucose and acetosyringone were required in the co-cultivation medium for efficient gene transfer. DNA constructs containing four genes encoding the enzymes phosphinothricin acetyl transferase, [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS), neomycin phosphotransferase, and an [alpha]-amylase inhibitor were used to transform subterranean clover. Transgenic shoots were selected on a medium containing 50 mg/L of phosphinothricin. Four commercial cultivars of subterranean clover (representing all three subspecies) have been successfully transformed. Southern analysis revealed the integration of T-DNA into the subterranean clover genome. The expression of the introduced genes has been confirmed by enzyme assays and northern blot analyses. Transformed plants grown in the glasshouse showed resistance to the herbicide Basta at applications equal to or higher than rates recommended for killing subterranean clover in field conditions. In plants grown from the selfed seeds of the primary transformants, the newly acquired gene encoding GUS segregated as a dominant Mendelian trait. PMID:12232188

  19. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for poplar.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Ali; Zhang, Jiaxin; Amirian, Rasoul; Zhuge, Qiang

    2014-06-13

    Poplar is a model system for the regeneration and genetic transformation of woody plants. To shorten the time required for studies of transgenic poplar, efforts have been made to optimize transformation methods that use Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In this study, an Agrobacterium infective suspension was treated at 4 °C for at least 10 h before infecting explants. By transforming the Populus hybrid clone "Nanlin895" (Populus deltoides×P. euramericana) with Agrobacterium harboring the PBI121:CarNAC6 binary vector, we showed that the transformation efficiency was improved significantly by multiple independent factors, including an Agrobacterium infective suspension with an OD600 of 0.7, an Agrobacterium infection for 120 min, an Agrobacterium infective suspension at a pH of 5.0, an acetosyringone concentration of 200 µM, a cocultivation at 28 °C, a cocultivation for 72 h and a sucrose concentration of 30 g/L in the cocultivation medium. We also showed that preculture of wounded leaf explants for two days increased the regeneration rate. The integration of the desired gene into transgenic poplars was detected using selective medium containing kanamycin, followed by southern blot analysis. The expression of the transgene in the transgenic lines was confirmed by northern blot analysis.

  20. Rapid High-Level Production of Functional HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies in Transient Plant Expression Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Yvonne; Sack, Markus; Montefiori, David; Forthal, Donald; Mao, Lingjun; -Abanto, Segundo Hernandez; Urban, Lori; Landucci, Gary; Fischer, Rainer; Jiang, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01) or a single chain antibody construct (m9), for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production. PMID:23533588

  1. Improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and high efficiency of root formation from hypocotyl meristem of spring Brassica napus 'Precocity' cultivar.

    PubMed

    Liu, X X; Lang, S R; Su, L Q; Liu, X; Wang, X F

    2015-01-01

    Rape seed (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil seed crops in the world. Genetic manipulation of rapeseed requires a suitable tissue culture system and an efficient method for plant regeneration, as well as an efficient transformation procedure. However, development of transgenic B. napus has been problematic, and current studies are limited to cultivated varieties. In this study, we report a protocol for regeneration of transgenic rape after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hypocotyls from the spring B. napus 'Precocity' cultivar. We analyzed the effects of plant growth regulators in the medium on regeneration. Additionally, factors affecting the transformation efficiency, including seedling age, Agrobacterium concentration, infection time, and co-cultivation time, were assessed by monitoring GUS expression. Results from these experiments revealed that transformation was optimized when the meristematic parts of the hypocotyls were taken from 8 day-old seedlings, cultured on Murashinge and Skoog basal media containing 0.1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine, and incubated in Agrobacterium suspension (OD600 = 0.5) for 3 to 5 min, followed by 2 days of co-cultivation. Integration of T-DNA into the plant genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), b-glucuronidase histochemical staining, and quantitative real-time PCR. The protocols developed for regeneration, transformation, and rooting described in this study could help to accelerate the development of transgenic spring rape varieties with novel features. PMID:26681030

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) with an insecticidal protein gene: optimisation of different factors.

    PubMed

    Indurker, Shivani; Misra, Hari S; Eapen, Susan

    2010-07-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in chickpea was developed using strain LBA4404 carrying nptII, uidA and cryIAc genes and transformants selected on Murashige and Skoog's basal medium supplemented with benzyladenine, kinetin and kanamycin. Integration of transgenes was demonstrated using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot hybridization of T0 plants. The expression of CryIAc delta endotoxin and GUS enzyme was shown by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and histochemical assay respectively. The transgenic plants (T0) showed more tolerance to infection by Helicoverpa armigera compared to control plants. Various factors such as explant source, cultivar type, different preculture treatment period of explants, co-cultivation period, acetosyringone supplementation, Agrobacterium harboring different plasmids, vacuum infiltration and sonication treatment were tested to study the influence on transformation frequency. The results indicated that use of epicotyl as explant, cultivar ICCC37, Agrobacterium harboring plasmid pHS102 as vector, preculture of explant for 48 h, co-cultivation period of 2 days at 25°C and vacuum infiltration for 15 min produced the best transformation results. Sonication treatment of explants with Agrobacteria for 80 s was found to increase the frequency of transformation.

  3. Improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and high efficiency of root formation from hypocotyl meristem of spring Brassica napus 'Precocity' cultivar.

    PubMed

    Liu, X X; Lang, S R; Su, L Q; Liu, X; Wang, X F

    2015-12-14

    Rape seed (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil seed crops in the world. Genetic manipulation of rapeseed requires a suitable tissue culture system and an efficient method for plant regeneration, as well as an efficient transformation procedure. However, development of transgenic B. napus has been problematic, and current studies are limited to cultivated varieties. In this study, we report a protocol for regeneration of transgenic rape after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hypocotyls from the spring B. napus 'Precocity' cultivar. We analyzed the effects of plant growth regulators in the medium on regeneration. Additionally, factors affecting the transformation efficiency, including seedling age, Agrobacterium concentration, infection time, and co-cultivation time, were assessed by monitoring GUS expression. Results from these experiments revealed that transformation was optimized when the meristematic parts of the hypocotyls were taken from 8 day-old seedlings, cultured on Murashinge and Skoog basal media containing 0.1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine, and incubated in Agrobacterium suspension (OD600 = 0.5) for 3 to 5 min, followed by 2 days of co-cultivation. Integration of T-DNA into the plant genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), b-glucuronidase histochemical staining, and quantitative real-time PCR. The protocols developed for regeneration, transformation, and rooting described in this study could help to accelerate the development of transgenic spring rape varieties with novel features.

  4. Efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of commercial hybrid poplar Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry.

    PubMed

    Yevtushenko, Dmytro P; Misra, Santosh

    2010-03-01

    Many economically important species of Populus, especially those in sections Aigeiros and Tacamahaca, remain recalcitrant to genetic transformation. In this study, a simple and reliable protocol was developed for the efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a difficult-to-transform, but commercially viable, hybrid poplar Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry (NM6). A plant transformation vector designed to express the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene was used to detect transformation events at early stages of plant regeneration and to optimize parameters affecting poplar transformation. The use of zeatin riboside in shoot-induction medium, regeneration of shoots via indirect organogenesis, and early selection pressure were the major modifications that drastically improved the efficiency of poplar transformation and minimized the number of untransformed regenerants. Transgenic shoots were routinely obtained 4-10 weeks after co-culture with A. tumefaciens, with a greater than 90% rate of plant recovery. Stable transgene integration, ranging from a single insertion to ten copies per genome, was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The mean transformation frequency was 36.3% and about two-thirds of the lines had 1-2 transgene copies. Among the explants, petioles and leaves had a higher transformation frequency than did stem segments. Growth characteristics and the morphology of transgenic poplar plants were identical to untransformed controls. These findings will accelerate the development of P. nigra x P. maximowiczii plants with novel traits, and may also be useful to improve transformation procedures for other Populus species.

  5. Transient plant transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Principles, methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Krenek, Pavel; Samajova, Olga; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Komis, George; Samaj, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely used as a versatile tool for development of stably transformed model plants and crops. However, the development of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation methods attracted substantial attention in recent years. Transient transformation methods offer several applications advancing stable transformations such as rapid and scalable recombinant protein production and in planta functional genomics studies. Herein, we highlight Agrobacterium and plant genetics factors affecting transfer of T-DNA from Agrobacterium into the plant cell nucleus and subsequent transient transgene expression. We also review recent methods concerning Agrobacterium mediated transient transformation of model plants and crops and outline key physical, physiological and genetic factors leading to their successful establishment. Of interest are especially Agrobacterium based reverse genetics studies in economically important crops relying on use of RNA interference (RNAi) or virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology. The applications of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation technology in biotech industry are presented in thorough detail. These involve production of recombinant proteins (plantibodies, vaccines and therapeutics) and effectoromics-assisted breeding of late blight resistance in potato. In addition, we also discuss biotechnological potential of recombinant GFP technology and present own examples of successful Agrobacterium mediated transient plant transformations.

  6. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of strawberry cv. Camarosa by a dual plasmid system.

    PubMed

    Haddadi, Fatemeh; Aziz, Maheran Abd; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Tan, Soon Guan; Kamaladini, Hossein

    2015-02-23

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method was applied to introduce the luciferase reporter gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in the pGreen0049 binary vector into strawberry cv. Camarosa. The in vitro regeneration system of strawberry leaves to be used in the transformation was optimized using different TDZ concentrations in MS medium. TDZ at 16 µM showed the highest percentage (100%) of shoot formation and the highest mean number of shoots (24) produced per explant. Studies on the effects of different antibiotics, namely timentin, cefotaxime, carbenicillin and ampicillin, on shoot regeneration of strawberry leaf explants showed the best shoot regeneration in the presence of 300 mg/L timentin and 150 mg/L cefotaxime. Assessment of the different factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated-transformation of strawberry with the luciferase gene showed the highest efficiency of putative transformant production (86%) in the treatment with no preculture, bacterial OD600 of 0.6 and the addition of 150 mg/L cefotaxime in the pre-selection and selection media. The presence of the luciferase gene in the plant genome was verified by the luciferase reporter gene assay, nested PCR amplification and dot blot of genomic DNA isolated from the young leaves of each putatively transformed plantlet.

  7. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via sonication and vacuum infiltration.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Subramanyam, Koona; Sailaja, K V; Srinivasulu, M; Lakshmidevi, K

    2011-03-01

    A reproducible and efficient transformation method was developed for the banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of suckers. Three-month-old banana suckers were used as explant and three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (EHA105, EHA101, and LBA4404) harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301 were used in the co-cultivation. The banana suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered with each of the three A. tumefaciens strains and co-cultivated in the medium containing different concentrations of acetosyringone for 3 days. The transformed shoots were selected in 30 mg/l hygromycin-containing selection medium and rooted in rooting medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 30 mg/l hygromycin. The presence and integration of the hpt II and gus genes into the banana genome were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction, and southern hybridization. Among the different combinations tested, high transformation efficiency (39.4 ± 0.5% GUS positive shoots) was obtained when suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered for 6 min with A. tumefaciens EHA105 in presence of 50 μM acetosyringone followed by co-cultivation in 50 μM acetosyringone-containing medium for 3 days. These results suggest that an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into banana has been developed and that this transformation system could be useful for future studies on transferring economically important genes into banana.

  8. An improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of recalcitrant indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Shri, Manju; Rai, Arti; Verma, Pankaj Kumar; Misra, Prashant; Dubey, Sonali; Kumar, Smita; Verma, Sikha; Gautam, Neelam; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2013-04-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of indica rice varieties has been quite difficult as these are recalcitrant to in vitro responses. In the present study, we established a high-efficiency Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system of rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) cv. IR-64, Lalat, and IET-4786. Agrobacterium strain EHA-101 harboring binary vector pIG121-Hm, containing a gene encoding for β-glucuronidase (GUS) and hygromycin resistance, was used in the transformation experiments. Manipulation of different concentrations of acetosyringone, days of co-culture period, bacterial suspension of different optical densities (ODs), and the concentrations of L-cysteine in liquid followed by solid co-culture medium was done for establishing the protocol. Among the different co-culture periods, 5 days of co-culture with bacterial cells (OD600 nm = 0.5-0.8) promoted the highest frequency of transformation (83.04 %) in medium containing L-cysteine (400 mg l(-1)). Putative transformed plants were analyzed for the presence of a transgene through genomic PCR and GUS histochemical analyses. Our results also suggest that different cultural conditions and the addition of L-cysteine in the co-culture medium improve the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation frequencies from an average of 12.82 % to 33.33 % in different indica rice cultivars.

  9. Optimization of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation conditions in mature embryos of elite wheat.

    PubMed

    Ding, Liping; Li, Shengchun; Gao, Jianming; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2009-01-01

    Immature embryos have been used frequently as target tissues in the genetical transformation of wheat. However, obtaining a large number of high quality immature embryos throughout the year is a laborious and delicate process, because of the need to cultivate the plants under controlled conditions. To circumvent this, we have employed mature embryos rather than immature ones as starter explants for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of an elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar EM12. The neomycin phosphotransferase II, (npt II) and beta-glucuronidase (gus) genes were used as selectable and screenable marker genes, respectively, to assess and optimize the performance of T-DNA delivery. With the aid of an orthogonal design, the effect of four factors in combination on transfer DNA (T-DNA) delivery was studied. These factors were preculture duration, different kinds of inoculation, length of inoculation and co-culture condition. Optimal conditions for T-DNA delivery were obtained for mature embryos precultured for 14 days, followed by immersing in inoculation suspension with full strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts in darkness at 23-25 degrees C for 3 h, and then co-culturing with Agrobacterium under desiccating condition in the dark at 23-24 degrees C for 2-3 days. Complete analysis of transgene insertion demonstrated that the optimized method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature embryos of wheat was efficient and practicable.

  10. Okadaic acid and trifluoperazine enhance Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in eastern white pine.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Lin, Jinxing; Newton, Ronald J

    2007-05-01

    Mature zygotic embryos of recalcitrant Christmas tree species eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) were used as explants for Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101-mediated transformation using the uidA (beta-Glucuronidase) gene as a reporter. Influence of the time of sonication and the concentrations of protein phosphatase inhibitor (okadaic acid) and kinase inhibitor (trifluoperazine) on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation have been evaluated. A high transformation frequency was obtained after embryos were sonicated for 45-50 s, or treated with 1.5-2.0 microM okadaic acid or treated with 100-200 microM trifluoperazine, respectively. Protein phosphatase and kinase inhibitors enhance Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in eastern white pine. A 2-3.5-fold higher rate of hygromycin-resistant callus was obtained with an addition of 2 microM okadaic acid or 150 microM trifluoperazine or sonicated embryos for 45 s. Stable integration of the uidA gene in the plant genome of eastern white pine was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern and northern blot analyses. These results demonstrated that a stable and enhanced transformation system has been established in eastern white pine and this system would provide an opportunity to transfer economically important genes into this Christmas tree species.

  11. An efficient regeneration protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H J; Gao, P; Wang, X Z; Luan, F S

    2014-01-08

    An efficient selection and plant regeneration protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, using cotyledon node zone-stem connection region of melon, has been developed. The new Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methodology, independent of organ culture, used the entire germinated seed as explants. The transformation system was maximized to maintain the integrity of melon itself, thus avoiding the limitations of traditional tissue culture methods. The transformation was carried out under a non-sterile environment. The incorporation of a selectable marker (neomycin phosphotransferase II) into the genome of transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. The transformation frequency based on the PCR was 13%. Transgenic melon plants were usually detected by PCR in less than 1 month after Agrobacterium inoculation, and seeds could be harvested in 3 months. The growth characteristics and morphology of the transgenic plants were identical to the untransformed wild-type plants. This method would be beneficial for facilitating the characteristics of gene functions and for boosting the manipulation of melon transformation for commercial purposes.

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable embryogenic calli and regeneration of transgenic cassava.

    PubMed

    Bull, S E; Owiti, J A; Niklaus, M; Beeching, J R; Gruissem, W; Vanderschuren, H

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) is the most widely used method to generate transgenic cassava plants. However, this approach has proven to be time-consuming and can lead to changes in the morphology and quality of FEC, influencing regeneration capacity and plant health. Here we present a comprehensive, reliable and improved protocol, taking approximately 6 months, that optimizes Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of FEC from cassava model cultivar TMS60444. We cocultivate the FEC with Agrobacterium directly on the propagation medium and adopt the extensive use of plastic mesh for easy and frequent transfer of material to new media. This minimizes stress to the FEC cultures and permits a finely balanced control of nutrients, hormones and antibiotics. A stepwise increase in antibiotic concentration for selection is also used after cocultivation with Agrobacterium to mature the transformed FEC before regeneration. The detailed information given here for each step should enable successful implementation of this technology in other laboratories, including those being established in developing countries where cassava is a staple crop.

  13. A mutation in negative regulator of basal resistance WRKY17 of Arabidopsis increases susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Benoît; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Agrobacterium is a phytopathogenic bacterium that induces crown gall disease in many plant species by transferring and integrating a segment of its own DNA (T-DNA) into its host genome. Whereas Agrobacterium usually does not trigger an extensive defense response in its host plants, it induces the expression of several defense-related genes and activates plant stress reactions. In the complex interplay between Agrobacterium and its host plant, Agrobacterium has evolved to take advantage of these plant defense pathways for its own purpose of advancement of the infection process. For example, Agrobacterium utilizes the host stress response transcriptional regulator VIP1 to facilitate nuclear import and proteasomal uncoating of its T-DNA during genetic transformation of the host cell. In Arabidopsis, the VIP1 gene expression is repressed by WRKY17, a negative regulator of basal resistance to Pseudomonas. Thus, we examined whether WRKY17 is also involved in plant susceptibility to genetic transformation by Agrobacterium. Using reverse genetics, we showed that a wrky17 mutant displays higher expression of the VIP1 gene in roots, but not in shoots. In a root infection assay, the wrky17 mutant plants were hyper-susceptible to Agrobacterium compared to wild type plants. WRKY17, therefore, may act as a positive regulator of Arabidopsis resistance to Agrobacterium. This notion is important for understanding the complex regulation of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation; thus, although this paper reports a relatively small set of data that we do not plan to pursue further in our lab, we believe it might be useful for the broad community of plant pathologists and plant biotechnologists. PMID:24358874

  14. A mutation in negative regulator of basal resistance WRKY17 of Arabidopsis increases susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Benoît; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Agrobacterium is a phytopathogenic bacterium that induces crown gall disease in many plant species by transferring and integrating a segment of its own DNA (T-DNA) into its host genome. Whereas Agrobacterium usually does not trigger an extensive defense response in its host plants, it induces the expression of several defense-related genes and activates plant stress reactions. In the complex interplay between Agrobacterium and its host plant, Agrobacterium has evolved to take advantage of these plant defense pathways for its own purpose of advancement of the infection process. For example, Agrobacterium utilizes the host stress response transcriptional regulator VIP1 to facilitate nuclear import and proteasomal uncoating of its T-DNA during genetic transformation of the host cell. In Arabidopsis, the VIP1 gene expression is repressed by WRKY17, a negative regulator of basal resistance to Pseudomonas. Thus, we examined whether WRKY17 is also involved in plant susceptibility to genetic transformation by Agrobacterium. Using reverse genetics, we showed that a wrky17 mutant displays higher expression of the VIP1 gene in roots, but not in shoots. In a root infection assay, the wrky17 mutant plants were hyper-susceptible to Agrobacterium compared to wild type plants. WRKY17, therefore, may act as a positive regulator of Arabidopsis resistance to Agrobacterium. This notion is important for understanding the complex regulation of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation; thus, although this paper reports a relatively small set of data that we do not plan to pursue further in our lab, we believe it might be useful for the broad community of plant pathologists and plant biotechnologists. PMID:24358874

  15. Exploration of new perspectives and limitations in Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer technology. Progress report, [June 1, 1992-- May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Marton, L.

    1994-12-31

    This report describes progress aimed at constructing gene-transfer technology for Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Most actual effort as described herein has so far been directed at exploring new perspectives and limitations in Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. Accomplishments are described using a core homologous gene targeting vector.

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of two Serbian potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Dragacevka and cv. Jelica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Serbian potato cultivars Dragacevka and Jelica, enabling the introduction of oryzacystatin genes OCI and OCII, was established. Starting with leaf explants a two-stage transformation protocol combining procedures of Webb and Wenzler...

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) leaf explants.

    PubMed

    Petri, César; Wang, Hong; Alburquerque, Nuria; Faize, Mohamed; Burgos, Lorenzo

    2008-08-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation for scored, whole leaf explants of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) cultivar Helena was developed. Regenerated shoots were selected using a two-step increased concentrations of paromomycin sulphate. Different factors affecting survival of transformed buds, including possible toxicity of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and time of exposure to high cytokine concentration in the regeneration medium, were examined. Transformation efficiency, based on PCR analysis of individual putative transformed shoots from independent lines was 5.6%, when optimal conditions for bud survival were provided. Southern blot analysis on four randomly chosen PCR-positive shoots confirmed the presence of the nptII transgene. This is the first time that stable transformation of an apricot cultivar is reported and constitutes also one of the few reports on the transformation of Prunus cultivars.

  18. A high-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Kenjirou

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rice has been routinely performed according to the protocol reported by Hiei et al. (Plant J. 6:271-282, 1994). However, several elite japonica and many indica varieties cannot be efficiently transformed by Agrobacterium system. Also a large number of transformants are required to generate T-DNA insertion and FOX libraries as well as gene-targeting studies. To overcome these challenges, we established a high-efficiency transformation system in rice by cocultivating rice calli with Agrobacterium on filter papers moistened with enriched liquid media instead of using solid media (Ozawa, Plant Sci. 176:522-527, 2009; Ozawa and Takaiwa, Plant Sci. 179:333-337, 2010). In this system, the transformation efficiency of the calli is almost 100% in many varieties.

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd. for enhanced acetoxychavicol acetate production.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kiranmayee; Chodisetti, Bhuvaneswari; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Giri, Archana

    2012-09-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformations ensure elevated amounts of secondary metabolite accumulation with genetic and biosynthetic stability. In the present study, Alpinia galanga rich in bioactive compounds was genetically transformed using different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes viz. LBA 9402, A(4), 532, 2364 and PRTGus. Even though a higher growth rate was obtained with the LBA 9402 strain, maximum acetoxychavicol acetate accumulation (ACA) was seen in the PRTGus transformant. PRTGus root line has shown 10.1 fold higher ACA content in comparison to the control roots. The lowest ACA production was shown by the A(4) transformant (4.9 fold). The quantification of ACA in the transformed roots was carried out by using HPLC, which was found to be in the order of PRTGus > LBA 9402 > 2364 > 532 > A(4). The fast growth rate of hairy roots, genetic stability and their ability to synthesize more than one metabolite offer a promising system for the production of valuable secondary metabolites.

  20. Transient expression technologies: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Geisse, Sabine; Voedisch, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The first protocols describing transient gene expression in mammalian cells for the rapid generation of recombinant proteins emerged more than 10 years ago as an alternative to the establishment of stable, often amplified clonal cell lines, and relieved somewhat the bias against mammalian cell systems as being too complicated, labor intensive, and tedious to serve as a source for tool proteins in industrial research and academia. Over the past decade, these attempts have been refined and optimized, giving rise to expression protocols applicable in every lab in dependence on available tools, equipment, and envisaged outcome. This chapter summarizes the development of transient expression technologies over the past decade up to its current status and provides an outlook into what may be the future of transient technology development.

  1. Development of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of highly valued hill banana cultivar Virupakshi (AAB) for resistance to BBTV disease.

    PubMed

    Elayabalan, Sivalingam; Kalaiponmani, Kalaimughilan; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Panchanathan, Radha; Muthuvelayoutham, Ramlatha; Kumar, Krish K; Balasubramanian, Ponnuswami

    2013-04-01

    One of the most severe viral diseases of hill banana is caused by banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a nanovirus transmitted by the aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa. In this study, we reported the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation on a highly valued hill banana cultivar Virupakshi (AAB) for resistance to BBTV disease. The target of the RNA interference (RNAi) is the rep gene, encoded by the BBTV-DNA1. In order to develop RNAi construct targeting the BBTV rep gene, the full-length rep gene of 870 bp was polymerase chain reaction amplified from BBTV infected hill banana sample DNA, cloned and confirmed by DNA sequencing. The partial rep gene fragment was cloned in sense and anti sense orientation in the RNAi intermediate vector, pSTARLING-A. After cloning in pSTARLING-A, the cloned RNAi gene cassette was released by NotI enzyme digestion and cloned into the NotI site of binary vector, pART27. Two different explants, embryogenic cells and embryogenic cell suspension derived microcalli were used for co-cultivation. Selection was done in presence of 100 mg/L kanamycin. In total, 143 putative transgenic hill banana lines were generated and established in green house condition. The presence of the transgenes was confirmed in the selected putative transgenic hill banana lines by PCR and reverse transcription PCR analyses. Transgenic hill banana plants expressing RNAi-BBTV rep were obtained and shown to resist infection by BBTV. The transformed plants are symptomless, and the replication of challenge BBTV almost completely suppressed. Hence, the RNAi mediating resistances were shown to be effective management of BBTV in hill banana.

  2. pSiM24 Is a Novel Versatile Gene Expression Vector for Transient Assays As Well As Stable Expression of Foreign Genes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Dey, Nrisingha; Maiti, Indu Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed a small and highly efficient binary Ti vector pSiM24 for plant transformation with maximum efficacy. In the pSiM24 vector, the size of the backbone of the early binary vector pKYLXM24 (GenBank Accession No. HM036220; a derivative of pKYLX71) was reduced from 12.8 kb to 7.1 kb. The binary vector pSiM24 is composed of the following genetic elements: left and right T-DNA borders, a modified full-length transcript promoter (M24) of Mirabilis mosaic virus with duplicated enhancer domains, three multiple cloning sites, a 3′rbcsE9 terminator, replication functions for Escherichia coli (ColE1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (pRK2-OriV) and the replicase trfA gene, selectable marker genes for kanamycin resistance (nptII) and ampicillin resistance (bla). The pSiM24 plasmid offers a wide selection of cloning sites, high copy numbers in E. coli and a high cloning capacity for easily manipulating different genetic elements. It has been fully tested in transferring transgenes such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) both transiently (agro-infiltration, protoplast electroporation and biolistic) and stably in plant systems (Arabidopsis and tobacco) using both agrobacterium-mediated transformation and biolistic procedures. Not only reporter genes, several other introduced genes were also effectively expressed using pSiM24 expression vector. Hence, the pSiM24 vector would be useful for various plant biotechnological applications. In addition, the pSiM24 plasmid can act as a platform for other applications, such as gene expression studies and different promoter expressional analyses. PMID:24897541

  3. Cinnamic acid, coumarin and vanillin: Alternative phenolic compounds for efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the unicellular green alga, Nannochloropsis sp.

    PubMed

    Cha, Thye-San; Chen, Chin-Fong; Yee, Willy; Aziz, Ahmad; Loh, Saw-Hong

    2011-03-01

    The use of acetosyringone in Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer into plant hosts has been favored for the past few decades. The influence of other phenolic compounds and their effectiveness in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation systems has been neglected. In this study, the efficacy of four phenolic compounds on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the unicellular green alga Nannochloropsis sp. (Strain UMT-M3) was assessed by using β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay. We found that cinnamic acid, vanillin and coumarin produced higher percentages of GUS positive cells as compared to acetosyringone. These results also show that the presence of methoxy group in the phenolic compounds may not be necessary for Agrobacterium vir gene induction and receptor binding as suggested by previous studies. These findings provide possible alternative Agrobacterium vir gene inducers that are more potent as compared to the commonly used acetosyringone in achieving high efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in microalgae and possibly for other plants.

  4. AgarTrap: a simplified Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for sporelings of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama, Shoko; Kodama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. is being developed as an emerging model plant, and several transformation techniques were recently reported. Examples are biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods. Here, we report a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sporelings, and it is termed Agar-utilized Transformation with Pouring Solutions (AgarTrap). The procedure of the AgarTrap was carried out by simply exchanging appropriate solutions in a Petri dish, and completed within a week, successfully yielding sufficient numbers of independent transformants for molecular analysis (e.g. characterization of gene/protein function) in a single experiment. The AgarTrap method will promote future molecular biological study in M. polymorpha.

  5. Enhanced targeted integration mediated by translocated I-SceI during the Agrobacterium mediated transformation of yeast.

    PubMed

    Rolloos, Martijn; Hooykaas, Paul J J; van der Zaal, Bert J

    2015-02-09

    Agrobacterium mediated transformation (AMT) has been embraced by biotechnologists as the technology of choice to introduce or alter genetic traits of plants. However, in plants it is virtually impossible to predetermine the integration site of the transferred T-strand unless one is able to generate a double stranded break (DSB) in the DNA at the site of interest. In this study, we used the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate whether the Agrobacterium mediated translocation of site-specific endonucleases via the type IV secretion system (T4SS), concomitantly with T-DNA transfer is possible and whether this can improve the gene targeting efficiency. In addition to that, the effect of different chromatin states on targeted integration, was investigated. It was found that Agrobacterium mediated translocation of the homing endonuclease I-SceI has a positive effect on the integration of T-DNA via the homologous repair (HR) pathway. Furthermore, we obtained evidence that nucleosome removal has a positive effect on I-SceI facilitated T-DNA integration by HR. Reversely; inducing nucleosome formation at the site of integration removes the positive effect of translocated I-SceI on T-DNA integration.

  6. Mature seed-derived callus of the model indica rice variety Kasalath is highly competent in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2010-12-01

    We previously established an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system using primary calli derived from mature seeds of the model japonica rice variety Nipponbare. We expected that the shortened tissue culture period would reduce callus browning--a common problem with the indica transformation system during prolonged tissue culture in the undifferentiated state. In this study, we successfully applied our efficient transformation system to Kasalath--a model variety of indica rice. The Luc reporter system is sensitive enough to allow quantitative analysis of the competency of rice callus for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We unexpectedly discovered that primary callus of Kasalath exhibits a remarkably high competency for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation compared to Nipponbare. Southern blot analysis and Luc luminescence showed that independent transformation events in primary callus of Kasalath occurred successfully at ca. tenfold higher frequency than in Nipponbare, and single copy T-DNA integration was observed in ~40% of these events. We also compared the competency of secondary callus of Nipponbare and Kasalath and again found superior competency in Kasalath, although the identification and subsequent observation of independent transformation events in secondary callus is difficult due to the vigorous growth of both transformed and non-transformed cells. An efficient transformation system in Kasalath could facilitate the identification of QTL genes, since many QTL genes are analyzed in a Nipponbare × Kasalath genetic background. The higher transformation competency of Kasalath could be a useful trait in the establishment of highly efficient systems involving new transformation technologies such as gene targeting.

  7. Transient expression assays in tobacco protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Vanden Bossche, Robin; Demedts, Brecht; Vanderhaeghen, Rudy; Goossens, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The sequence information generated through genome and transcriptome analysis from plant tissues has reached unprecedented sizes. Sequence homology-based annotations may provide hints for the possible function and roles of particular plant genes, but the functional annotation remains nonexistent or incomplete for many of them. To discover gene functions, transient expression assays are a valuable tool because they can be done more rapidly and at a higher scale than generating stably transformed tissues. Here, we describe a transient expression assay in protoplasts derived from suspension cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) for the study of the transactivation capacities of transcription factors. To enhance throughput and reproducibility, this method can be automated, allowing medium-throughput screening of interactions between large compendia of potential transcription factors and gene promoters.

  8. An improved plant regeneration and Agrobacterium - mediated transformation of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Vinoth; Sharma, V K; Chattopadhyay, B; Chakraborty, S

    2012-10-01

    Capsicum annuum (red pepper) is an important spice cum vegetable crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Here, we report an effective and reproducible auxin free regeneration method for six different red pepper cultivars (ACA-10, Kashi Anmol, LCA-235, PBC-535, Pusa Jwala and Supper) using hypocotyl explants and an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol. The explants (hypocotyls, cotyledonary leaves and leaf discs) collected from axenic seedlings of six red pepper cultivars were cultured on either hormone free MS medium or MS medium supplemented with BAP alone or in combination with IAA. Inclusion of IAA in the regeneration medium resulted in callus formation at the cut ends of explants, formation of rosette leaves and ill defined shoot buds. Regeneration of shoot buds could be achieved from hypocotyls grown in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BAP unlike other explants which failed to respond. Incorporation of GA3 in shoot elongation medium at 0.5 mg/l concentration enhanced the elongation in two cultivars, LCA-235 and Supper, while other cultivars showed no significant response. Chilli cultivar, Pusa Jwala was transformed with βC1 ORF of satellite DNA β molecule associated with Chilli leaf curl Joydebpur virus through Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transgene integration in putative transformants was confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization analysis.

  9. Establishment of an Agrobacterium-mediated Inoculation System for Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Song, Dami; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2015-12-01

    The infectious full-length cDNA clones of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolates KW and KOM, which were isolated from watermelon and oriental melon, respectively, were constructed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. We successfully inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana with the cloned CGMMV isolates KW and KOM by Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration. Virulence and symptomatic characteristics of the cloned CGMMV isolates KW and KOM were tested on several indicator plants. No obvious differences between two cloned isolates in disease development were observed on the tested indicator plants. We also determined full genome sequences of the cloned CGMMV isolates KW and KOM. Sequence comparison revealed that only four amino acids (at positions 228, 699, 1212, and 1238 of the replicase protein region) differ between the cloned isolates KW and KOM. A previous study reported that the isolate KOM could not infect Chenopodium amaranticolor, but the cloned KOM induced chlorotic spots on the inoculated leaves. When compared with the previously reported sequence of the original KOM isolate, the cloned KOM contained one amino acid mutation (Ala to Thr) at position 228 of the replicase protein, suggesting that this mutation might be responsible for induction of chlorotic spots on the inoculated leaves of C. amaranticolor. PMID:26674677

  10. Optimization of factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Micro-Tom tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Guo, M; Zhang, Y L; Meng, Z J; Jiang, J

    2012-03-16

    Micro-Tom is the smallest known variety of tomatoes. An orthogonal experimental design L(16) (4(5)) was used to optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotyledon explants of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Micro-Tom. Four parameters were investigated to determine their effect on transformation frequency: the concentration of bacterial suspension, time of dip in bacterial suspension, co-cultivation time, and concentration of carbenicillin. We also examined the effect of these parameters on contamination rate, necrosis rate, mortality, cut-surface browning rate, and undamaged explant rate. Both the bacterial and carbenicillin concentrations had a significant influence on the rate of infected explants. The time of co-cultivation also had a significant influence on the transformation parameters. The optimal transformation protocol consisted of an Agrobacterium suspension of 0.5 × 10(8) cells/mL (OD(600) = 0.5) and an infection time of 5 min, one day of co-cultivation and 500 mg/L carbenicillin. Under these conditions, the transformation efficiency of the shoots reached 5.1%; the mean transformation frequency was 3.9% (N = 838).

  11. Enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiencies in monocot cells is associated with attenuated defense responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wan-Jun; Dewey, Ralph E; Boss, Wendy; Phillippy, Brian Q; Qu, Rongda

    2013-02-01

    Plant defense responses can lead to altered metabolism and even cell death at the sites of Agrobacterium infection, and thus lower transformation frequencies. In this report, we demonstrate that the utilization of culture conditions associated with an attenuation of defense responses in monocot plant cells led to highly improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiencies in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The removal of myo-inositol from the callus culture media in combination with a cold shock pretreatment and the addition of L-Gln prior to and during Agrobacterium-infection resulted in about 84 % of the treated calluses being stably transformed. The omission of myo-inositol from the callus culture media was associated with the failure of certain pathogenesis related genes to be induced after Agrobacterium infection. The addition of a cold shock and supplemental Gln appeared to have synergistic effects on infection and transformation efficiencies. Nearly 60 % of the stably transformed calluses regenerated into green plantlets. Calluses cultured on media lacking myo-inositol also displayed profound physiological and biochemical changes compared to ones cultured on standard growth media, such as reduced lignin within the cell walls, increased starch and inositol hexaphosphate accumulation, enhanced Agrobacterium binding to the cell surface, and less H(2)O(2) production after Agrobacterium infection. Furthermore, the cold treatment greatly reduced callus browning after infection. The simple modifications described in this report may have broad application for improving genetic transformation of recalcitrant monocot species.

  12. Efficient soybean regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using a whole cotyledonary node as an explant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Chen, Can; Ge, Honglian; Liu, Jinmei; Luo, Yunling; Liu, Kun; Chen, Long; Xu, Kedong; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    An optimized regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol based on whole cotyledonary node explants was developed in soybean (Glycine max) cultivar Zhong Huang 13. Adding 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in a germinating medium could significantly increase regeneration efficiency; the optimal BAP concentration for shoot formation was 0.5 mg/L. The concentrations of plant growth regulators in a shoot induction medium were optimized by the orthogonal test [L9 (3(3))]. The best combination for shoot regeneration was a medium of Murashige & Skoog salts with B5 vitamins (MSB) supplemented with 3.5 mg/L BAP, 0.2 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 0.2 mg/L kinetin (KT). Under this favorable condition, one node could regenerate 28-30 shoots. Soybean whole cotyledonary nodes were transformed by inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring a vector pBI121 containing a β-glucuronidase gene (gus). GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern blot analysis indicated that the gus gene was transformed into soybean plants with 23.1% transformation efficiency. Transgenic plants could be obtained within 5-6 weeks, which was about 4 weeks less than that of a traditional single cotyledonary node method.

  13. Deletion of host histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases strongly affects Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Jalal; van Heusden, Gerard Paul H; Hooykaas, Paul J J

    2009-09-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen that genetically transforms plant cells by transferring a part of its Ti-plasmid, the T-strand, to the host cell. Under laboratory conditions, it can also transform cells from many different nonplant organisms, including the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Collections of S. cerevisiae strains have been developed with systematic deletion of all coding sequences. Here, we used these collections to identify genes involved in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) of S. cerevisiae. We found that deletion of genes (GCN5, NGG1, YAF9 and EAF7) encoding subunits of the SAGA, SLIK, ADA and NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complexes highly increased the efficiency of AMT, while deletion of genes (HDA2, HDA3 and HST4) encoding subunits of histone deacetylase complexes decreased AMT. These effects are specific for AMT as the efficiency of chemical (lithium acetate) transformation was not or only slightly affected by these deletions. Our data are consistent with a positive role of host histone deacetylation in AMT.

  14. [Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of LJAMP2 gene into 'Red Sun' kiwifruit and its molecular identification].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Xupeng; Wu, Xiuhua; Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Lin; Luo, Keming; Tang, Shaohu

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial canker caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. Actinidiae is one of the most important diseases of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) and leads to considerable yield losses. In order to obtain transgenic plants with resistance for 'Red Sun' kiwifruit to canker disease, a non-specific lipid transfer protein-like antimicrobial protein gene (LJAMP2) from motherwort (Leonurus japonicus) was introduced into 'Red Sun' kiwifruit through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. After two days of co-cultivation with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring 35S:LJAMP2, the transformed explants were transferred to the selection medium containing 25 mg/L kanamycin+3.0 mg/L BA+1.0 mg/L NAA. The regeneration efficiency of kanamycin-resistant shoots reached to 85%. All (100%) of kanamycin-resistant shoots rooted on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.8 mg/L IBA and a total of 40 regenerated plantlets were obtained. PCR and histochemical GUS activity analysis show that 23 of 40 lines (57.50%) were positive, suggesting that the LJAMP2 gene was integrated into the genome of 'Red Sun' kiwifruit. Taken together, we established an efficient genetic transformation method for 'Red Sun' kiwifruit using A. tumefaciens and the transformation frequency reached 5.11%. This protocol will be useful for the genetic breeding of 'Red Sun' kiwifruit for improvement of disease resistance.

  15. High frequency regeneration via direct somatic embryogenesis and efficient Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tobacco.

    PubMed

    Pathi, Krishna Mohan; Tula, Suresh; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    A direct somatic embryogenesis protocol was developed for four cultivars of Nicotiana species, by using leaf disc as an explant. Direct somatic embryogenesis of Nicotiana by using BAP and IAA has not been investigated so far. This method does not require formation of callus tissues which leads to somaclonal variations. The frequency of somatic embryogenesis was strongly influenced by the plant growth hormones. The somatic embryos developing directly from explant tissue were noticed after 6 d of culture. Somatic embryogenesis of a high frequency (87-96%) was observed in cultures of the all four genotypes (Nicotiana tabacum, N. benthamiyana, N. xanthi, N. t cv petihavana). The results showed that the best medium for direct somatic embryogenesis was MS supplemented with 2.5 mg/l, 0.2 mg/l IAA and 2% sucrose. Subculture of somatic embryos onto hormone free MS medium resulted in their conversion into plants for all genotypes. About 95% of the regenerated somatic embryos germinated into complete plantlets. The plants showed morphological and growth characteristics similar to those of seed-derived plants. Explants were transformed using Agrobacterium tumifacious LBA4404 plasmid pCAMBIA1301 harboring the GUS gene. The regenerated transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR analysis and histochemical GUS assay. The transformation efficiency obtained by using the Agrobacterium- mediated transformation was more than 95%. This method takes 6 wk to accomplish complete transgenic plants through direct somatic embryogenesis. The transgenic plantlets were acclimatized successfully with 98% survival in greenhouse and they showed normal morphological characteristics and were fertile. The regeneration and transformation method described herein is very simple, highly efficient and fast for the introduction of any foreign gene directly in tobacco through direct somatic embryogenesis. PMID:23518589

  16. Development of an Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Transformation Method for the Sensitive Plant Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements. PMID:24533121

  17. An embryogenic suspension cell culture system for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of citrus.

    PubMed

    Dutt, M; Grosser, J W

    2010-11-01

    A method for the genetic transformation of several citrus cultivars is described, including cultivars observed to be recalcitrant to conventional epicotyl-mediated transformation. Embryogenic cell suspension cultures, established from unfertilized ovules were used as target tissues for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Several modifications were made to the culture environment to investigate factors required for efficient transfer of the T-DNA and the subsequent regeneration of transgenic citrus plants. It was determined that co-cultivation of citrus cells and Agrobacterium in EME medium supplemented with maltose (EME-M) and 100 μM acetosyringone for 5 days at 25°C was optimum for transformation of each of the citrus cultivars. Efficient selection was obtained and escapes were prevented when the antibiotic hygromycin B was used as a selection antibiotic following transformation with an Agrobacterium strain containing hptII in the T-DNA region. Transgenic embryo regeneration and development was enhanced in medium that contained a liquid overlay consisting of a 1:2 mixture of 0.6 M BH3 and 0.15 M EME-M media. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed the presence of the T-DNA and the stable integration into the genome of regenerated plants, while RT-PCR demonstrated variable amounts of RNA being transcribed in different transgenic lines. This protocol can create an avenue for insertion of useful traits into any polyembryonic citrus cultivar that can be established as embryogenic cell suspension cultures, including popular specialty mandarins and seedless cultivars.

  18. Efficient gene targeting in Penicillium chrysogenum using novel Agrobacterium-mediated transformation approaches.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Paulo; Bronkhof, Jurian; Dukiќ, Karolina; Kerkman, Richard; Touw, Hesselien; van den Berg, Marco; Offringa, Remko

    2013-12-01

    The industrial production of β-lactam antibiotics by Penicillium chrysogenum has increased tremendously over the last decades, however, further optimization via classical strain and process improvement has reached its limits. The availability of the genome sequence provides new opportunities for directed strain improvement, but this requires the establishment of an efficient gene targeting (GT) system. Recently, mutations affecting the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway were shown to increase GT efficiencies following PEG-mediated DNA transfer in P. chrysogenum from 1% to 50%. Apart from direct DNA transfer many fungi can efficiently be transformed using the T-DNA transfer system of the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, however, for P. chrysogenum no robust system for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was available. We obtained efficient AMT of P. chrysogenum spores with the nourseothricin acetyltransferase gene as selection marker, and using this system we investigated if AMT in a NHEJ mutant background could further enhance GT efficiencies. In general, AMT resulted in higher GT efficiencies than direct DNA transfer, although the final frequencies depended on the Agrobacterium strain and plasmid backbone used. Providing overlapping and complementing fragments on two different plasmid backbones via the same Agrobacterium host was shown to be most effective. This so-called split-marker or bi-partite method resulted in highly efficient GT (>97%) almost exclusively without additional ectopic T-DNA insertions. As this method provides for an efficient GT method independent of protoplasts, it can be applied to other fungi for which no protoplasts can be generated or for which protoplast transformation leads to varying results.

  19. An improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for the functional genetic analysis of Penicillium marneffei.

    PubMed

    Kummasook, Aksarakorn; Cooper, Chester R; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2010-12-01

    We have developed an improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) system for the functional genetic analysis of Penicillium marneffei, a thermally dimorphic, human pathogenic fungus. Our AMT protocol included the use of conidia or pre-germinated conidia of P. marneffei as the host recipient for T-DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and co-cultivation at 28°C for 36 hours. Bleomycin-resistant transformants were selected as yeast-like colonies following incubation at 37°C. The efficiency of transformation was approximately 123 ± 3.27 and 239 ± 13.12 transformants per plate when using 5 × 10(4) conidia and pre-germinated conidia as starting materials, respectively. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that 95% of transformants contained single copies of T-DNA. Inverse PCR was employed for identifying flanking sequences at the T-DNA insertion sites. Analysis of these sequences indicated that integration occurred as random recombination events. Among the mutants isolated were previously described stuA and gasC defective strains. These AMT-derived mutants possessed single T-DNA integrations within their particular coding sequences. In addition, other morphological and pigmentation mutants possessing a variety of gene-specific defects were isolated, including two mutants having T-DNA integrations within putative promoter regions. One of the latter integration events was accompanied by the deletion of the entire corresponding gene. Collectively, these results indicated that AMT could be used for large-scale, functional genetic analyses in P. marneffei. Such analyses can potentially facilitate the identification of those genetic elements related to morphogenesis, as well as pathogenesis in this medically important fungus.

  20. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of commercially elite rice restorer line using nptII gene as a plant selection marker.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, M; Sairam Reddy, P; Laxmi Narasu, M; Krishna, Gaurav; Rana, Debashis

    2016-01-01

    Transformation of commercially important indica cultivars remains challenging for the scientific community even though Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols for a few indica rice lines have been well established. We report successful transformation of a commercially important restorer line JK1044R of indica rice hybrid JKRH 401. While following existing protocol, we optimized several parameters for callusing, regeneration and genetic transformation of JK1044R. Calli generated from the rice scutellum tissue were used for transformation by Agrobacterium harboring pCAMBIA2201. A novel two tire selection scheme comprising of Geneticin (G418) and Paramomycin were deployed for selection of transgenic calli as well as regenerated plantlets that expressed neomycin phosphotransferase-II gene encoded by the vector. One specific combination of G418 (30 mg l(-1)) and Paramomycin (70 mg l(-1)) was very effective for calli selection. Transformed and selected calli were detected by monitoring the expression of the reporter gene uidA (GUS). Regenerated plantlets were confirmed through PCR analysis of nptII and gus genes specific primers as well as dot blot using gus gene specific as probe. PMID:27186018

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of leaf base derived callus tissues of popular indica rice (Oryza sativa L. sub sp. indica cv. ADT 43).

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ramesh, Manikandan

    2011-09-01

    A simple and efficient protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of an agronomically useful abiotic sensitive popular indica rice cv. ADT 43 has been developed. Initiation of calli were best achieved from the leaf bases of 4 days old rice seedlings on LS medium supplemented with 2.5mg/L 2,4-D and 1.0mg/L thiamine-HCl. Rice calli immersed in Agrobacterium suspension (strain EHA 105, OD(600)=0.8) were co-cultured on LS30-AsPC medium for 2 days at 25±2°C in the dark. Based on GUS expression analysis, 10min co-cultivation time with 100μM acetosyringone was found optimum for the delivery of gus gene. Calli were proved to be very sensitive to Agrobacterium infection and we found that the level of necrotic response can be minimized after co-cultivation with 30% LS, 10g/L PVP, 10% coconut water and 250mg/L timentin which improved the final transformation efficiency to 9.33%. Molecular and genetic analysis of transgenic plants reveals the integration, expression and inheritance of transgene in the progeny (T(1)) of these plants. The copy number of transgenes has been found to vary from 1 to 2 in transgenic plants (T(0) and T(1)).

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) embryo axes and the development of transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    McKently, A H; Moore, G A; Doostdar, H; Niedz, R P

    1995-08-01

    Transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants have been produced using an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. Zygotic embryo axes from mature seed were cocultured with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harboring a binary vector that contained the genes for the scorable marker B-glucuronidase (GUS) and the selectable marker neomycin phosphotransferase II. Nine percent of the germinated seedlings were GUS+. Polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that GUS+ shoots and T1 progeny contained T-DNA. Molecular characterization of one primary transformant and its T1 and T2 progeny plants established that T-DNA was integrated into the host genome. PMID:24186625

  3. A simple shoot multiplication procedure using internode explants, and its application for particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in watercress.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Shinjiro; Usui, Miki; Shibutani, Nanae; Kato, Yasuo

    2009-07-01

    A shoot multiplication system derived from internode explants was investigated with the aim of improving genetic characteristics of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.). Internodes of ca. 1 cm excised from in vitro stock shoot culture were placed on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3 muM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as a pre-treatment. Laser scanning microscopy indicated clearly that the first sign of meristematic cell division could be seen after 1-2 days of pre-culture, and meristematic tissues multiplied along the vascular cambium of the internode segment during 7 days of culture. Multiple shoots could be obtained from more than 90% of the pre-treated explants when they were subsequently transferred to MS medium supplemented with 1 muM thidiazuron for 3 weeks. These findings indicate that pre-treatment of the internodes for 7 days promoted their capacity for organogenesis. Using this pre-treatment, frequent generation of transgenic watercress plants was achieved by adapting particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation techniques with a construct expressing a synthetic green florescent protein gene. PMID:19308313

  4. A simple shoot multiplication procedure using internode explants, and its application for particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in watercress.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Shinjiro; Usui, Miki; Shibutani, Nanae; Kato, Yasuo

    2009-07-01

    A shoot multiplication system derived from internode explants was investigated with the aim of improving genetic characteristics of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.). Internodes of ca. 1 cm excised from in vitro stock shoot culture were placed on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3 muM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as a pre-treatment. Laser scanning microscopy indicated clearly that the first sign of meristematic cell division could be seen after 1-2 days of pre-culture, and meristematic tissues multiplied along the vascular cambium of the internode segment during 7 days of culture. Multiple shoots could be obtained from more than 90% of the pre-treated explants when they were subsequently transferred to MS medium supplemented with 1 muM thidiazuron for 3 weeks. These findings indicate that pre-treatment of the internodes for 7 days promoted their capacity for organogenesis. Using this pre-treatment, frequent generation of transgenic watercress plants was achieved by adapting particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation techniques with a construct expressing a synthetic green florescent protein gene.

  5. A new high-frequency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation technique for Sesamum indicum L. using de-embryonated cotyledon as explant.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Supriyo; Basu, Arpita; Kundu, Surekha

    2014-09-01

    In spite of the economic importance of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and the recent availability of its genome sequence, a high-frequency transformation protocol is still not available. The only two existing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols that are available have poor transformation efficiencies of less than 2%. In the present study, we report a high-frequency, simple, and reproducible transformation protocol for sesame. Transformation was done using de-embryonated cotyledons via somatic embryogenic stages. All the critical parameters of transformation, like incubation period of explants in pre-regeneration medium prior to infection by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, cocultivation period, concentrations of acetosyringone in cocultivation medium, kanamycin concentration, and concentration of plant hormones, including 6-benzylaminopurine, have been optimized. This protocol is superior to the two existing protocols in its high regeneration and transformation efficiencies. The transformed sesame lines have been tested by PCR, RT-PCR for neomycin phosphotransferase II gene expression, and β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay. The regeneration frequency and transformation efficiency are 57.33 and 42.66%, respectively. T0 and T1 generation transgenic plants were analyzed, and several T1 plants homozygous for the transgenes were obtained.

  6. A comparison of the phenotypic and genetic stability of recombinant Trichoderma spp. generated by protoplast- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Rosa Elena; Vizcaino, Juan Antonio; Hermosa, Maria Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Santiago

    2006-08-01

    Four different Trichoderma strains, T. harzianum CECT 2413, T. asperellum T53, T. atroviride T11 and T. longibrachiatum T52, which represent three of the four sections contained in this genus, were transformed by two different techniques: a protocol based on the isolation of protoplasts and a protocol based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Both methods were set up using hygromycin B or phleomycin resistance as the selection markers. Using these techniques, we obtained phenotypically stable transformants of these four different strains. The highest transformation efficiencies were obtained with the T. longibrachiatum T52 strain: 65-70 transformants/microg DNA when transformed with the plasmid pAN7-1 (hygromycin B resistance) and 280 transformants/107 spores when the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was performed with the plasmid pUR5750 (hygromycin B resistance). Overall, the genetic analysis of the transformants showed that some of the strains integrated and maintained the transforming DNA in their genome throughout the entire transformation and selection process. In other cases, the integrated DNA was lost.

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation using cotyledons in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia)

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ikuko; Sato, Yoshihiko; Saito, Toshihiro; Moriguchi, Takaya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2013-01-01

    Genetic transformation was successfully established producing both transformed adventitious shoots and calli in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) by using cotyledons as explants. Cotyledons of five cultivars were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying the pBIN19-sgfp, which contained a green fluorescent protein gene and the neomycin phosphotransferase gene. In order to increase transformation efficiency, sonication and ethylenedioxybis (ethylamine)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) treatments were applied, which could produce physical wounds across the tissue and prevent plant defense reaction, respectively. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence was evaluated two weeks and five months after Agrobacterium inoculation as measures of transient and stable transformations, respectively. As a result, sonication significantly increased both transient and stable expression of GFP fluorescence, whereas EGTA treatment did not show a positive effect on either. Out of 18 regenerated plantlets obtained, one plant regenerated from ‘Agenosho Shinanashi’ showed stable GFP fluorescence. This plant was confirmed as a transformant by PCR and genomic Southern blotting. Three other transformed regenerated shoots by myb gene showed red color, which were derived from ‘Imamuraaki’ by the same transformation method. Transformation system in this study was shown to be reproducible since plural transformants were obtained. PMID:24273422

  8. Several components of SKP1/Cullin/F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and associated factors play a role in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Ajith; Rojas, Clemencia M; Tang, Yuhong; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2012-07-01

    • Successful genetic transformation of plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires the import of bacterial T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell that eventually form a complex (T-complex). The essential components of the T-complex include the single stranded T-DNA, bacterial virulence proteins (VirD2, VirE2, VirE3 and VirF) and associated host proteins that facilitate the transfer and integration of T-DNA. The removal of the proteins from the T-complex is likely achieved by targeted proteolysis mediated by VirF and the plant ubiquitin proteasome complex. • We evaluated the involvement of the host SKP1/culin/F-box (SCF)-E3 ligase complex and its role in plant transformation. Gene silencing, mutant screening and gene expression studies suggested that the Arabidopsis homologs of yeast SKP1 (suppressor of kinetochore protein 1) protein, ASK1 and ASK2, are required for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. • We identified the role for SGT1b (suppressor of the G2 allele of SKP1), an accessory protein that associates with SCF-complex, in plant transformation. We also report the differential expression of many genes that encode F-box motif containing SKP1-interacting proteins (SKIP) upon Agrobacterium infection. • We speculate that these SKIP genes could encode the plant specific F-box proteins that target the T-complex associated proteins for polyubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. PMID:22486382

  9. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack): role of the binary vector system and selection cassettes.

    PubMed

    Bińka, Agnieszka; Orczyk, Wacław; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2012-02-01

    The influence of two binary vector systems, pGreen and pCAMBIA, on the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation ability of wheat and triticale was studied. Both vectors carried selection cassettes with bar or nptII driven by different promoters. Two cultivars of wheat, Kontesa and Torka, and one cultivar of triticale, Wanad, were tested. The transformation rates for the wheat cultivars ranged from 0.00 to 3.58% and from 0.00 to 6.79% for triticale. The best values for wheat were 3.58% for Kontesa and 3.14% for Torka, and these were obtained after transformation with the pGreen vector carrying the nptII selection gene under the control of 35S promoter. In the case of the bar selection system, the best transformation rates were, respectively, 1.46 and 1.79%. Such rates were obtained when the 35S::bar cassette was carried by the pCAMBIA vector; they were significantly lower with the pGreen vector. The triticale cultivar Wanad had its highest transformation rate after transformation with nptII driven by 35S in pCAMBIA. The bar selection system for the same triticale cultivar was better when the gene was driven by nos and the selection cassette was carried by pGreen. The integration of the transgenes was confirmed with at least three pairs of specific starters amplifying the fragments of nptII, bar, or gus. The expression of selection genes, measured by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in relation to the actin gene, was low, ranging from 0.00 to 0.63 for nptII and from 0.00 to 0.33 for bar. The highest relative transcript accumulation was observed for nptII driven by 35S and expressed in Kontesa that had been transformed with pGreen.

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) using the expansin 10 (CsEXP10) gene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y D; Luo, W R; Sun, S Y; Ni, L

    2015-12-08

    The cucumber expansin 10 (CsEXP10) gene was previously cloned from young cucumber fruits but its role has not been defined. To determine the role of this gene in plant growth and development, a CsEXP10 gene transformation system was established. The open reading frame of the gene was inserted behind the CaMV35S promoter of vector pCAMBIA1301, and the construct was introduced into tomato plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In total, 19 kanamycin-positive lines were produced and nine independent transgenic lines were identified by β-glucuronidase and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that levels of the CsEXP10 transcript were higher in transgenic lines than in a non-transgenic line.

  11. Agrobacterium-produced and exogenous cytokinin-modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hau-Hsuan; Wang, Ming-Hsuan; Lee, Ying-Ling; Tsai, Yun-Long; Li, Yi-Ho; Yang, Fong-Jhih; Liao, Yu-Chen; Lin, Shao-Kai; Lai, Erh-Min

    2010-09-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes neoplastic growths, called 'crown gall', via the transfer and integration of transferred DNA (T-DNA) from the bacterium into the plant genome. We characterized an acetosyringone (AS)-induced tumour-inducing (Ti) plasmid gene, tzs (trans-zeatin synthesizing), that is responsible for the synthesis of the plant hormone cytokinin in nopaline-type A. tumefaciens strains. The loss of Tzs protein expression and trans-zeatin secretions by the tzs frameshift (tzs-fs) mutant is associated with reduced tumorigenesis efficiency on white radish stems and reduced transformation efficiencies on Arabidopsis roots. Complementation of the tzs-fs mutant with a wild-type tzs gene restored wild-type levels of trans-zeatin secretions and transformation efficiencies. Exogenous application of cytokinin during infection increased the transient transformation efficiency of Arabidopsis roots infected by strains lacking Tzs, which suggests that the lower transformation efficiency resulted from the lack of Agrobacterium-produced cytokinin. Interestingly, although the tzs-fs mutant displayed reduced tumorigenesis efficiency on several tested plants, the loss of Tzs enhanced tumorigenesis efficiencies on green pepper and cowpea. These data strongly suggest that Tzs, by synthesizing trans-zeatin at early stage(s) of the infection process, modulates plant transformation efficiency by A. tumefaciens. PMID:20696005

  12. A highly efficient in vitro plant regeneration system and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Plumbago zeylanica.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoping; Gou, Xiaoping; Yuan, Tong; Russell, Scott D

    2006-06-01

    Plumbago zeylanica is a unique model for studying flowering plant gametogenesis, heterospermy, and preferential fertilization, yet understanding the control of related molecular mechanisms is impossible without efficient and reproducible regeneration and stable genetic transformation. We found three key factors for enhancing successful regeneration: (1) tissue source of explants, (2) combination and concentration of growth regulators, and (3) culture conditions. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration was achieved using hypocotyl segments cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with BA 2.0 mg/l, NAA 0.75 mg/l, adenine 50 mg/l and 10% (v/v) coconut milk under subdued light at 25+/-2 degrees C; under these conditions, each hypocotyl segment produced over 30 shoots, arising primarily through direct organogenesis after 3 weeks of culture. Regenerated shoots rooted easily on half-strength basal MS medium and were successfully established in the greenhouse. Using this tissue culture protocol, reporter gene GUS under the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter was introduced into P. zeylanica cells of petiole, cotyledon and hypocotyl with A. tumefaciens strains AGL1 and LBA4404. Transient expression was observed in all recipient tissues. Stable transgenic calli originating from petiole were obtained. PMID:16470412

  13. Transient protein expression in three Pisum sativum (green pea) varieties.

    PubMed

    Green, Brian J; Fujiki, Masaaki; Mett, Valentina; Kaczmarczyk, Jon; Shamloul, Moneim; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Underkoffler, Susan; Yusibov, Vidadi; Mett, Vadim

    2009-02-01

    The expression of proteins in plants both transiently and via permanently transformed lines has been demonstrated by a number of groups. Transient plant expression systems, due to high expression levels and speed of production, show greater promise for the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals when compared to permanent transformants. Expression vectors based on a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are the most commonly utilized and the primary plant used, Nicotiana benthamiana, has demonstrated the ability to express a wide range of proteins at levels amenable to purification. N. benthamiana has two limitations for its use; one is its relatively slow growth, and the other is its low biomass. To address these limitations we screened a number of legumes for transient protein expression. Using the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) vectors, delivered via Agrobacterium, we were able to identify three Pisum sativum varieties that demonstrated protein expression transiently. Expression levels of 420 +/- 26.24 mg GFP/kgFW in the green pea variety speckled pea were achieved. We were also able to express three therapeutic proteins indicating promise for this system in the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  14. Efficient and high-throughput vector construction and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana suspension-cultured cells for functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yoichi; Dansako, Tomoko; Yano, Kentaro; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aoki, Koh; Noji, Masaaki; Saito, Kazuki; Shibata, Daisuke

    2008-02-01

    We established a large-scale, high-throughput protocol to construct Arabidopsis thaliana suspension-cultured cell lines, each of which carries a single transgene, using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We took advantage of RIKEN Arabidopsis full-length (RAFL) cDNA clones and the Gateway cloning system for high-throughput preparation of binary vectors carrying individual full-length cDNA sequences. Throughout all cloning steps, multiple-well plates were used to treat 96 samples simultaneously in a high-throughput manner. The optimal conditions for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of 96 independent binary vector constructs were established to obtain transgenic cell lines efficiently. We evaluated the protocol by generating transgenic Arabidopsis T87 cell lines carrying individual 96 metabolism-related RAFL cDNA fragments, and showed that the protocol was useful for high-throughput and large-scale production of gain-of-function lines for functional genomics.

  15. Development of a phosphomannose isomerase-based Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Patil, Gunvant; Deokar, Amit; Jain, P K; Thengane, R J; Srinivasan, R

    2009-11-01

    To develop an alternative genetic transformation system that is not dependent on an antibiotic selection strategy, the phosphomannose isomerase gene (pmi) system was evaluated for producing transgenic plants of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). A shoot morphogenesis protocol based on the thidiazuron (TDZ)-induced shoot morphogenesis system was combined with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the pmi gene and selection of transgenic plants on mannose. Embryo axis explants of chickpea cv. C-235 were grown on a TDZ-supplemented medium for shoot proliferation. Embryo axis explants from which the first and second flush of shoots were removed were transformed using Agrobacterium carrying the pmi gene, and emerging shoots were allowed to regenerate on a zeatin-supplemented medium with an initial selection pressure of 20 g l(-1) mannose. Rooting was induced in the selected shoots on an indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-supplemented medium with a selection pressure of 15 g l(-1) mannose. PCR with marker gene-specific primers and chlorophenol red (CPR) assay of the shoots indicated that shoots had been transformed. RT-PCR and Southern analysis of selected regenerated plants further confirmed integration of the transgene into the chickpea genome. These positive results suggest that the pmi/mannose selection system can be used to produce transgenic plants of chickpea that are free from antibiotic resistance marker genes.

  16. Transgene stacking and marker elimination in transgenic rice by sequential Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation with the same selectable marker gene.

    PubMed

    Ramana Rao, Mangu Venkata; Parameswari, Chidambaram; Sripriya, Rajasekaran; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2011-07-01

    Rice chitinase (chi11) and tobacco osmotin (ap24) genes, which cause disruption of fungal cell wall and cell membrane, respectively, were stacked in transgenic rice to develop resistance against the sheath blight disease. The homozygous marker-free transgenic rice line CoT23 which harboured the rice chi11 transgene was sequentially re-transformed with a second transgene ap24 by co-transformation using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harbouring a single-copy cointegrate vector pGV2260::pSSJ1 and a multi-copy binary vector pBin19∆nptII-ap24 in the same cell. pGV2260::pSSJ1 T-DNA carried the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) and β-glucuronidase (gus) genes. pBin19∆nptII-ap24 T-DNA harboured the tobacco osmotin (ap24) gene. Co-transformation of the gene of interest (ap24) with the selectable marker gene (SMG, hph) occurred in 12 out of 18 T(0) plants (67%). Segregation of hph from ap24 was accomplished in the T(1) generation in one (line 11) of the four analysed co-transformed plants. The presence of ap24 and chi11 transgenes and the absence of the hph gene in the SMG-eliminated T(1) plants of the line 11 were confirmed by DNA blot analyses. The SMG-free transgenic plants of the line 11 harboured a single copy of the ap24 gene. Homozygous, SMG-free T(2) plants of the transgenic line 11 harboured stacked transgenes, chi11 and ap24. Northern blot analysis of the SMG-free plants revealed constitutive expression of chi11 and ap24. The transgenic plants with stacked transgenes displayed high levels of resistance against Rhizoctonia solani. Thus, we demonstrate the development of transgene-stacked and marker-free transgenic rice by sequential Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation with the same SMG.

  17. Enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic calli of upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianzhen; Wu, Shen-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of cotton embryogenic calli (EC) was enhanced by choosing appropriate EC and improving efficiency of coculture, selection cultivation, and plant regeneration. The binary vector pBI121 (containing a neomycin phosphotransferase II gene npt-II as a selection marker and a uidA gene as a reporter gene) was used to research transformation efficiency. After 48 h cocultivation, the number of β-glucuronidase (GUS)-positive calli characterized by yellow, loose, and fine-grained EC was twofold greater than that of gray, brown, and coarse granule EC. It indicated that the efficiency of transient transformation was affected by EC morphology. Transient transformation efficiency also was improved by cocultivation on the medium by adding 50 mg/L acetosyringone at 19°C for 48 h. Subculturing EC on the selection medium with low cell density increased the production of kanamycin-resistant (Km-R) calli lines. From an original 0.3 g EC, an average of 20 Km-R calli lines were obtained from a selection dish, and the GUS-positive rate of Km-R clones was 81.97%. A large number of normal plants were rapidly regenerated on the differentiation medium with dehydration treatments, and the GUS-positive rate of regeneration plants was about 72.6%. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of GUS-positive plantlets revealed a 100% positive detection rate for neomycin phosphotransferase II gene and gus gene. Southern blot of transgenic plants regenerated from different Km-R calli lines demonstrated that the target gene, mostly with the low copy number, was integrated into the cotton genome. PMID:22351014

  18. Transient Protein Expression by Agroinfiltration in Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Dent, Matthew; Hurtado, Jonathan; Stahnke, Jake; McNulty, Alyssa; Leuzinger, Kahlin; Lai, Huafang

    2016-01-01

    Current systems of recombinant protein production include bacterial, insect, and mammalian cell culture. However, these platforms are expensive to build and operate at commercial scales and/or have limited abilities to produce complex proteins. In recent years, plant-based expression systems have become top candidates for the production of recombinant proteins as they are highly scalable, robust, safe, and can produce complex proteins due to having a eukaryotic endomembrane system. Newly developed "deconstructed" viral vectors delivered via Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agroinfiltration) have enabled robust plant-based production of proteins with a wide range of applications. The leafy Lactuca sativa (lettuce) plant with its strong foundation in agriculture is an excellent host for pharmaceutical protein production. Here, we describe a method for agroinfiltration of lettuce that can rapidly produce high levels of recombinant proteins in a matter of days and has the potential to be scaled up to an agricultural level. PMID:26614281

  19. Screening promoters for Anthurium transformation using transient expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different promoters and tissue types were evaluated for transient '-glucoronidase (GUS) expression in Anthurium andreanum Hort. ‘Marian Seefurth’ following microprojectile bombardment. Plasmids containing the Ubiquitin 2, Actin 1, Cytochrome C1 from rice, Ubiquitin 1 from maize and 35 S promoter fr...

  20. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Coffea arabica (L.) is greatly enhanced by using established embryogenic callus cultures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Following genome sequencing of crop plants, one of the main challenges today is determining the function of all the predicted genes. When gene validation approaches are used for woody species, the main obstacle is the low recovery rate of transgenic plants from elite or commercial cultivars. Embryogenic calli have frequently been the target tissue for transformation, but the difficulty in producing or maintaining embryogenic tissues is one of the main problems encountered in genetic transformation of many woody plants, including Coffea arabica. Results We identified the conditions required for successful long-term proliferation of embryogenic cultures in C. arabica and designed a highly efficient and reliable Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method based on these conditions. The transformation protocol with LBA1119 harboring pBin 35S GFP was established by evaluating the effect of different parameters on transformation efficiency by GFP detection. Using embryogenic callus cultures, co-cultivation with LBA1119 OD600 = 0.6 for five days at 20 °C enabled reproducible transformation. The maintenance conditions for the embryogenic callus cultures, particularly a high auxin to cytokinin ratio, the age of the culture (optimum for 7-10 months of proliferation) and the use of a yellow callus phenotype, were the most important factors for achieving highly efficient transformation (> 90%). At the histological level, successful transformation was related to the number of proembryogenic masses present. All the selected plants were proved to be transformed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Conclusion Most progress in increasing transformation efficiency in coffee has been achieved by optimizing the production conditions of embryogenic cultures used as target tissues for transformation. This is the first time that a strong positive effect of the age of the culture on transformation efficiency was demonstrated. Our results make Agrobacterium-mediated

  1. Female Reproductive Tissues Are the Primary Target of Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation by the Arabidopsis Floral-Dip Method1

    PubMed Central

    Desfeux, Christine; Clough, Steven J.; Bent, Andrew F.

    2000-01-01

    The floral-dip method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis allows efficient plant transformation without need for tissue culture. To facilitate use with other plant species, we investigated the mechanisms that underlie this method. In manual outcrossing experiments, application of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to pollen donor plants did not produce any transformed progeny, whereas application of Agrobacterium to pollen recipient plants yielded transformants at a rate of 0.48%. Agrobacterium strains with T-DNA carrying gusA (encoding β-glucuronidase [GUS]) under the control of 35S, LAT52, or ACT11 promoters revealed delivery of GUS activity to developing ovules, whereas no GUS staining of pollen or pollen tubes was observed. Transformants derived from the same seed pod contained independent T-DNA integration events. In Arabidopsis flowers, the gynoecium develops as an open, vase-like structure that fuses to form closed locules roughly 3 d prior to anthesis. In correlation with this fact, we found that the timing of Agrobacterium infection was critical. Transformants were obtained and GUS staining of ovules and embryo sacs was observed only if the Agrobacterium were applied 5 d or more prior to anthesis. A 6-fold higher rate of transformation was obtained with a CRABS-CLAW mutant that maintains an open gynoecium. Our results suggest that ovules are the site of productive transformation in the floral-dip method, and further suggest that Agrobacterium must be delivered to the interior of the developing gynoecium prior to locule closure if efficient transformation is to be achieved. PMID:10889238

  2. Generation of Marker- and/or Backbone-Free Transgenic Wheat Plants via Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gen-Ping; Yu, Xiu-Dao; Sun, Yong-Wei; Jones, Huw D.; Xia, Lan-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to animals and vertical transfer of herbicide resistance genes to the weedy relatives are perceived as major biosafety concerns in genetically modified (GM) crops. In this study, five novel vectors which used gusA and bar as a reporter gene and a selection marker gene, respectively, were constructed based on the pCLEAN dual binary vector system. Among these vectors, 1G7B and 5G7B carried two T-DNAs located on two respective plasmids with 5G7B possessing an additional virGwt gene. 5LBTG154 and 5TGTB154 carried two T-DNAs in the target plasmid with either one or double right borders, and 5BTG154 carried the selectable marker gene on the backbone outside of the T-DNA left border in the target plasmid. In addition, 5BTG154, 5LBTG154, and 5TGTB154 used pAL154 as a helper plasmid which contains Komari fragment to facilitate transformation. These five dual binary vector combinations were transformed into Agrobacterium strain AGL1 and used to transform durum wheat cv Stewart 63. Evaluation of the co-transformation efficiencies, the frequencies of marker-free transgenic plants, and integration of backbone sequences in the obtained transgenic lines indicated that two vectors (5G7B and 5TGTB154) were more efficient in generating marker-free transgenic wheat plants with no or minimal integration of backbone sequences in the wheat genome. The vector series developed in this study for generation of marker- and/or backbone-free transgenic wheat plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation will be useful to facilitate the creation of “clean” GM wheat containing only the foreign genes of agronomic importance. PMID:27708648

  3. Transient Expression of Viral Proteins in Plants Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Hitzeroth, Inga I; van Zyl, Albertha R

    2016-01-01

    Transient expression of viral proteins in plants is a novel alternative to other expression platforms. The viral proteins can be used as potential vaccines or in diagnostics. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or whole plants are infiltrated with recombinant Agrobacterium that harbor the gene of interest. Protein expression in the plants is rapid and results are obtained within 2-7 days. Here we describe how to make electrocompetent Agrobacterium, how to transform Agrobacterium, how to infiltrate leaves or plants with the recombinant Agrobacterium, and lastly how to extract the protein for analysis by gel electrophoresis. PMID:27076324

  4. The Physcomitrella patens System for Transient Gene Expression Assays.

    PubMed

    Thévenin, Johanne; Xu, Wenjia; Vaisman, Louise; Lepiniec, Loïc; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Dubos, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Transient expression assays are valuable techniques to study in vivo the transcriptional regulation of gene expression. These methods allow to assess the transcriptional properties of a given transcription factor (TF) or a complex of regulatory proteins against specific DNA motifs, called cis-regulatory elements. Here, we describe a fast, efficient, and reliable method based on the use of Physcomitrella patens protoplasts that allows the study of gene expression in a qualitative and quantitative manner by combining the advantage of GFP (green fluorescent protein) as a marker of promoter activity with flow cytometry for accurate measurement of fluorescence in individual cells. PMID:27557766

  5. DNA METHYLATION ANALYSIS DURING THE OPTIMIZATION OF Agrobacterium-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF SOYBEAN.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Wing, V; Xiet, T; Shi, X; Wang, Y P; Sokolov, V

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is recognized as one of the plants which are very difficult to be transformed. Considering the low transformation efficiency of soybean, we aimed to determine the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), shoot induction time, and infection time of Agrobacterium on the clonal propagation of Glycine max. Results showed that 1.6 mg/L 6-BA could be optimal to promote the induction of adventitious shoots. An induction time of 15 d was considered optimal for the actual experiment involving soybean shoot induction. Agrobacterium was cultured until an OD600 = 0.8 was reached for an infection time of 30 min; this infection time may be optimal to promote soybean transformation. Whole genome DNA methylation was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assisted quantification, and DNA methylation result is consistent with the phenotypic data of shoot development. In addition, two methylation-related genes (Decrease in DNA methylation 1 and DNA methyltransferases chromomethylase 2) were analyzed to determine expression differences by qRT-PCR in the shoots that were developed under different experimental conditions. In general, the expression values of these genes were normally downregulated under the recommended experimental conditions of soybean regeneration. This study showed the overall methylation changes in the in vitro culture of soybean, as affected by several variable parameters, which is useful to promote the transformation efficiency of soybean. PMID:27183794

  6. DNA METHYLATION ANALYSIS DURING THE OPTIMIZATION OF Agrobacterium-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF SOYBEAN.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Wing, V; Xiet, T; Shi, X; Wang, Y P; Sokolov, V

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is recognized as one of the plants which are very difficult to be transformed. Considering the low transformation efficiency of soybean, we aimed to determine the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), shoot induction time, and infection time of Agrobacterium on the clonal propagation of Glycine max. Results showed that 1.6 mg/L 6-BA could be optimal to promote the induction of adventitious shoots. An induction time of 15 d was considered optimal for the actual experiment involving soybean shoot induction. Agrobacterium was cultured until an OD600 = 0.8 was reached for an infection time of 30 min; this infection time may be optimal to promote soybean transformation. Whole genome DNA methylation was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assisted quantification, and DNA methylation result is consistent with the phenotypic data of shoot development. In addition, two methylation-related genes (Decrease in DNA methylation 1 and DNA methyltransferases chromomethylase 2) were analyzed to determine expression differences by qRT-PCR in the shoots that were developed under different experimental conditions. In general, the expression values of these genes were normally downregulated under the recommended experimental conditions of soybean regeneration. This study showed the overall methylation changes in the in vitro culture of soybean, as affected by several variable parameters, which is useful to promote the transformation efficiency of soybean.

  7. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for the edible mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin jing; Shi, Liang; Chen, Hui; Sun, Yun qi; Zhao, Ming wen; Ren, Ang; Chen, Ming jie; Wang, Hong; Feng, Zhi yong

    2014-01-01

    Hypsizygus marmoreus is one of the major edible mushrooms in East Asia. As no efficient transformation method, the molecular and genetics studies were hindered. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) gene of H. marmoreus was isolated and its promoter was used to drive the hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPH) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in H. marmoreus. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was successfully applied in H. marmoreus. The transformation parameters were optimized, and it was found that co-cultivation of bacteria with protoplast at a ratio of 1000:1 at a temperature of 26 °C in medium containing 0.3 mM acetosyringone resulted in the highest transformation efficiency for Agrobacterium strain. Besides, three plasmids, each carrying a different promoter (from H. marmoreus, Ganoderma lucidum and Lentinula edodes) driving the expression of an antibiotic resistance marker, were also tested. The construct carrying the H. marmoreus gpd promoter produced more transformants than other constructs. Our analysis showed that over 85% of the transformants tested remained mitotically stable even after five successive rounds of subculturing. Putative transformants were analyzed for the presence of hph gene by PCR and Southern blot. Meanwhile, the expression of EGFP in H. marmoreus transformants was detected by fluorescence imaging. This ATMT system increases the transformation efficiency of H. marmoreus and may represent a useful tool for molecular genetic studies in this mushroom species.

  8. Transient gene expression mediated by integrase-defective retroviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seung Shin; Dan, Kazuyuki; Chono, Hideto; Chatani, Emi; Mineno, Junichi; Kato, Ikunoshin

    2008-04-18

    Nonintegrating retroviral vectors were produced from a Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retroviral vector system by introducing a point mutation into the integrase (IN) gene of the packaging plasmid. The efficacy of IN-defective retroviral vectors was measured through the transient expression of ZsGreen or luciferase in human cell lines. The IN-defective retroviral vectors could transduce target cells efficiently, but their gene expression was transient and lower than that seen with the integrating vectors. IN-defective retroviral vector gene expression decreased to background levels in fewer than 10 days. Southern blot analysis of transduced K562 cells confirmed the loss of a detectable vector sequence by 15 days. The residual integration activity of the IN-defective vector was 1000- to 10,000-fold lower than that of the integrating vector. These results demonstrate that the IN-defective retroviral vectors can provide a useful tool for efficient transient gene expression targeting of primary hematopoietic stem cells and lymphoid cells.

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of promising oil-bearing marine algae Parachlorella kessleri.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Jayant Pralhad; Prakash, Gunjan; Pandit, Reena; Lali, Arvind M

    2013-11-01

    Parachlorella kessleri is a unicellular alga which grows in fresh as well as marine water and is commercially important as biomass/lipid feedstock and in bioremediation. The present study describes the successful transformation of marine P. kessleri with the help of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transformed marine P. kessleri was able to tolerate more than 10 mg l(-1) hygromycin concentration. Co-cultivation conditions were modulated to allow the simultaneous growth of both marine P. kessleri and A. tumefaciens. For co-cultivation, P. kessleri was shifted from Walne's to tris acetate phosphate medium to reduce the antibiotic requirement during selection. In the present study, the transfer of T-DNA was successful without using acetosyringone. Biochemical and genetic analyses were performed for expression of transgenes by GUS assay and PCR in transformants. Establishment of this protocol would be useful in further genetic modification of oil-bearing Parachlorella species.

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Guignardia citricarpa: an efficient tool to gene transfer and random mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Maria Beatriz Calderan; Fávaro, Léia Cecília de Lima; Pallu, Ana Paula de Souza; Ferreira, Anderson; Sebastianes, Fernanda de Souza; Rodrigues, Maria Juliana Calderan; Spósito, Marcel Bellato; de Araújo, Welington Luiz; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa is the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot (CBS), an important disease in Citriculture. Due to the expressive value of this activity worldwide, especially in Brazil, understanding more about the functioning of this fungus is of utmost relevance, making possible the elucidation of its infection mechanisms, and providing tools to control CBS. This work describes for the first time an efficient and successful methodology for genetic transformation of G. citricarpa mycelia, which generated transformants expressing the gene encoding for the gfp (green fluorescent protein) and also their interaction with citrus plant. Mycelia of G. citricarpa were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which carried the plasmid pFAT-gfp, contains the genes for hygromycin resistance (hph) as well as gfp. The optimization of the agrotransformation protocol was performed testing different conditions (type of membrane; inductor agent concentration [acetosyringone - AS] and cocultivation time). Results demonstrated that the best condition occurred with the utilization of cellulose's ester membrane; 200 μM of AS and 96 h as cocultivation time. High mitotic stability (82 %) was displayed by transformants using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique to confirm the hph gene insertion. In addition, the presence of gfp was observed inside mycelia by epifluorescence optical microscopy. This technique easy visualization of the behaviour of the pathogen interacting with the plant for the first time, allowing future studies on the pathogenesis of this fungus. The establishment of a transformation method for G. citricarpa opens a range of possibilities and facilitates the study of insertional mutagenesis and genetic knockouts, in order to identify the most important genes involved in the pathogenesis mechanisms and plant-pathogen interaction.

  11. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Phalaenopsis by targeting protocorms at an early stage after germination.

    PubMed

    Mishiba, Kei-ichiro; Chin, Dong Poh; Mii, Masahiro

    2005-07-01

    A transformation procedure for phalaenopsis orchid established by using immature protocorms for Agrobacterium infection was aimed at the introduction of target genes into individuals with divergent genetic backgrounds. Protocorms obtained after 21 days of culture on liquid New Dogashima medium were inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA101(pIG121Hm) harboring both beta-glucuronidase (GUS) and hygromycin resistance genes. Subculture of the protocorms on acetosyringone-containing medium 2 days before Agrobacterium inoculation gave the highest transformation efficiencies (1.3-1.9%) based on the frequency of hygromycin-resistant plants produced. Surviving protocorms obtained 2 months after Agrobacterium infection on selection medium containing 20 mg l(-1) hygromycin were cut transversely into two pieces before transferring to recovery medium without hygromycin. Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) proliferated from pieces of protocorms during a 1-month culture on recovery medium followed by transfer to selection medium. Hygromycin-resistant phalaenopsis plants that regenerated after the re-selection culture of PLBs showed histochemical blue staining due to GUS. Transgene integration of the hygromycin-resistant plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. A total of 88 transgenic plants, each derived from an independent protocorm, was obtained from ca. 12,500 mature seeds 6 months after infection with Agrobacterium. Due to the convenient protocol for Agrobacterium infection and rapid production of transgenic plants, the present procedure could be utilized to assess expression of transgenes under different genetic backgrounds, and for the molecular breeding of phalaenopsis.

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and plant regeneration of the hardwood tree species Fraxinus profunda.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Micah E; Pijut, Paula M

    2014-06-01

    This transformation and regeneration protocol provides an integral framework for the genetic improvement of Fraxinus profunda (pumpkin ash) for future development of plants resistant to the emerald ash borer. Using mature hypocotyls as the initial explants, an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation system was successfully developed for pumpkin ash (Fraxinus profunda). This transformation protocol is an invaluable tool to combat the highly aggressive, non-native emerald ash borer (EAB), which has the potential to eliminate native Fraxinus spp. from the natural landscape. Hypocotyls were successfully transformed with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring the pq35GR vector, containing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as well as a fusion gene between neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and gusA. Hypocotyls were cultured for 7 days on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 22.2 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA), 4.5 μM thidiazuron (TDZ), 50 mg L(-1) adenine hemisulfate (AS), and 10 % coconut water (CW) prior to transformation. Hypocotyls were transformed using 90 s sonication plus 10 min vacuum infiltration after Agrobacterium was exposed to 100 μM acetosyringone for 1 h. Adventitious shoots were regenerated on MS medium with 22.2 μM BA, 4.5 μM TDZ, 50 mg L(-1) AS, 10 % CW, 400 mg L(-1) timentin, and 20 mg L(-1) kanamycin. Timentin at 400 and 20 mg L(-1) kanamycin were most effective at controlling Agrobacterium growth and selecting for transformed cells, respectively. The presence of nptII, GUS (β-glucuronidase), and EGFP in transformed plants was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while the expression of EGFP was also confirmed through fluorescent microscopy and reverse transcription-PCR. This transformation protocol provides an integral foundation for future genetic modifications of F. profunda to provide resistance to EAB. PMID:24493252

  13. IMPa-4, an Arabidopsis importin alpha isoform, is preferentially involved in agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Saikat; Lee, Lan-Ying; Oltmanns, Heiko; Cao, Hongbin; Veena; Cuperus, Joshua; Gelvin, Stanton B

    2008-10-01

    Successful transformation of plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires that the bacterial T-complex actively escorts T-DNA into the host's nucleus. VirD2 and VirE2 are virulence proteins on the T-complex that have plant-functional nuclear localization signal sequences that may recruit importin alpha proteins of the plant for nuclear import. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of seven of the nine members of the Arabidopsis thaliana importin alpha family in Agrobacterium transformation. Yeast two-hybrid, plant bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and in vitro protein-protein interaction assays demonstrated that all tested Arabidopsis importin alpha members can interact with VirD2 and VirE2. However, only disruption of the importin IMPa-4 inhibited transformation and produced the rat (resistant to Agrobacterium transformation) phenotype. Overexpression of six importin alpha members, including IMPa-4, rescued the rat phenotype in the impa-4 mutant background. Roots of wild-type and impa-4 Arabidopsis plants expressing yellow fluorescent protein-VirD2 displayed nuclear localization of the fusion protein, indicating that nuclear import of VirD2 is not affected in the impa-4 mutant. Somewhat surprisingly, VirE2-yellow fluorescent protein mainly localized to the cytoplasm of both wild-type and impa-4 Arabidopsis cells and to the cytoplasm of wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells. However, bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays indicated that VirE2 could localize to the nucleus when IMPa-4, but not when IMPa-1, was overexpressed. PMID:18836040

  14. Transient Expression Systems in Plants: Potentialities and Constraints.

    PubMed

    Canto, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been used from old to extract and isolate by different means the products of interest that they store. In recent years new techniques have emerged that allow the use of plants as factories to overexpress transiently and often efficiently, specific genes of interest, either endogenous or foreign, in their native form or modified. These techniques allow and facilitate the targeted purification of gene products for research and commercial purposes without resorting to lengthy, time-consuming and sometimes challenging plant stable transformations, while avoiding some of their associated regulatory constraints. In this chapter we describe the main strategies available for the transient expression of gene sequences and their encoded products in plants. We discuss biological issues affecting transient expression, including resistance responses elicited by the plant against sequences that it recognizes naturally as foreign, and ways to neutralize them. We also discuss the relative advantages of each expression strategy as well as their inherent drawbacks and technical limitations, and how to partially prevent or overcome them, whenever possible.

  15. Sonication, Vacuum Infiltration and Thiol Compounds Enhance the Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Frequency of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Kapil Dev, Gnajothi; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have established a stable transformation protocol via Agrobacterium tumafacines for the pharmaceutically important Withania somnifera. Six day-old nodal explants were used for 3 day co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the vector pCAMIBA2301. Among the different injury treatments, sonication, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, a vacuum infiltration for 10 min followed by sonication for 10 sec with A. tumefaciens led to a higher transient GUS expression (84% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites). In order to improve gene integration, thiol compounds were added to co-cultivation medium. A combined treatment of L-Cys at 100 mg/l, STS at 125 mg/l, DTT at 75 mg/l resulted in a higher GUS expression (90%) in the nodal explants. After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were subjected to three selection cycles with increasing concentrations of kanamycin [100 to 115 mg/l]. The integration and expression of gusA gene in T0 and T1 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blott analysis. These transformed plants (T0 and T1) were fertile and morphologically normal. From the present investigation, we have achieved a higher transformation efficiency of (10%). Withanolides (withanolide A, withanolide B, withanone and withaferin A) contents of transformed plants (T0 and T1) were marginally higher than control plants. PMID:25927703

  16. Sonication, Vacuum Infiltration and Thiol Compounds Enhance the Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Frequency of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Kapil Dev, Gnajothi; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have established a stable transformation protocol via Agrobacterium tumafacines for the pharmaceutically important Withania somnifera. Six day-old nodal explants were used for 3 day co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the vector pCAMIBA2301. Among the different injury treatments, sonication, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, a vacuum infiltration for 10 min followed by sonication for 10 sec with A. tumefaciens led to a higher transient GUS expression (84% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites). In order to improve gene integration, thiol compounds were added to co-cultivation medium. A combined treatment of L-Cys at 100 mg/l, STS at 125 mg/l, DTT at 75 mg/l resulted in a higher GUS expression (90%) in the nodal explants. After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were subjected to three selection cycles with increasing concentrations of kanamycin [100 to 115 mg/l]. The integration and expression of gusA gene in T0 and T1 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blott analysis. These transformed plants (T0 and T1) were fertile and morphologically normal. From the present investigation, we have achieved a higher transformation efficiency of (10%). Withanolides (withanolide A, withanolide B, withanone and withaferin A) contents of transformed plants (T0 and T1) were marginally higher than control plants.

  17. Optimizing transient recombinant protein expression in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Ralph F; Wall, Vanessa E; Esposito, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Transient gene expression (TGE) in mammalian cells has become a routine process for expressing recombinant proteins in cell lines such as human embryonic kidney 293 and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The rapidly increasing need for recombinant proteins requires further improvements in TGE technology. While a great deal of focus has been directed toward optimizing the secretion of antibodies and other naturally secreted targets, much less work has been done on ways to improve cytoplasmic expression in mammalian cells. The benefits to protein production in mammalian cells, particularly for eukaryotic proteins, should be very significant - glycosylation and other posttranslational modifications will likely be native or near-native, solubility and protein folding would likely improve overexpression in heterologous hosts, and expression of proteins in their proper intracellular compartments is much more likely to occur. Improvements in this area have been slow, however, due to limited development of the cell culture processes needed for low-cost, higher-throughput expression in mammalian cells, and the relatively low diversity of DNA vectors for protein production in these systems. Here, we describe how the use of recombinational cloning, coupled with improvements in transfection protocols which increase speed and lower cost, can be combined to make mammalian cells much more amenable for routine recombinant protein expression. PMID:21987258

  18. In vitro regeneration and optimization of factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated transformation in Artemisia Pallens, an important medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Alok, Anshu; Shukla, Vishnu; Pala, Zarna; Kumar, Jitesh; Kudale, Subhash; Desai, Neetin

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia pallens is an important medicinal plant. In-vitro regeneration and multiplication of A. pallens have been established using attached cotyledons. Different growth regulators were considered for regeneration of multiple shoots. An average of 36 shoots per explants were obtained by culturing attached cotyledons on Murashige and Skoog's medium containing 2 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L NAA, after 45 days. The shoots were rooted best on half Murashige and Skoog's medium with respect to media containing 1 mg/L IBA or 1 mg/L NAA. Different parameters such as type of bacterial strains, OD600 of bacterial culture, co-cultivation duration, concentration of acetosyringone and explants type were optimized for transient expression of the reporter gene. Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring pCambia1301 plasmid carrying β-glucuronidase as a reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase as plant selectable marker genes were used for genetic transformation of A. pallens. Hygromycin lethality test showed concentration of 15 mg/L were sufficient to inhibit the growth of attached cotyledons and multiple shoot buds of nontransgenics in selection media. Up to 83 % transient transformation was found when attached cotyledons were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strain AGL1 for 2 days at 22 °C on shoot induction medium. The bacterial growth was eliminated by addition of cefotaxime (200 mg/L) in selection media. T0 transgenic plants were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay and further by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using uidA and hpt gene specific primers. The study is useful in establishing technological improvement in A. pallens by genetic engineering. PMID:27436917

  19. In vitro regeneration and optimization of factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated transformation in Artemisia Pallens, an important medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Alok, Anshu; Shukla, Vishnu; Pala, Zarna; Kumar, Jitesh; Kudale, Subhash; Desai, Neetin

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia pallens is an important medicinal plant. In-vitro regeneration and multiplication of A. pallens have been established using attached cotyledons. Different growth regulators were considered for regeneration of multiple shoots. An average of 36 shoots per explants were obtained by culturing attached cotyledons on Murashige and Skoog's medium containing 2 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L NAA, after 45 days. The shoots were rooted best on half Murashige and Skoog's medium with respect to media containing 1 mg/L IBA or 1 mg/L NAA. Different parameters such as type of bacterial strains, OD600 of bacterial culture, co-cultivation duration, concentration of acetosyringone and explants type were optimized for transient expression of the reporter gene. Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring pCambia1301 plasmid carrying β-glucuronidase as a reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase as plant selectable marker genes were used for genetic transformation of A. pallens. Hygromycin lethality test showed concentration of 15 mg/L were sufficient to inhibit the growth of attached cotyledons and multiple shoot buds of nontransgenics in selection media. Up to 83 % transient transformation was found when attached cotyledons were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strain AGL1 for 2 days at 22 °C on shoot induction medium. The bacterial growth was eliminated by addition of cefotaxime (200 mg/L) in selection media. T0 transgenic plants were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay and further by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using uidA and hpt gene specific primers. The study is useful in establishing technological improvement in A. pallens by genetic engineering.

  20. Transient Gene Expression in Intact and Organized Rice Tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Dekeyser, RA; Claes, B; De Rycke, R; Habets, ME; Van Montagu, MC; Caplan, AB

    1990-01-01

    Regulated gene expression of chimeric genes has been studied extensively in electroporated protoplasts. The applicability of these assays is limited, however, because protoplasts are not always physiologically identical to the cells from which they are derived. We have developed a procedure to electroporate DNA into intact and organized leaf structures of rice. Optimization of the new gene delivery system mainly involved eliminating explant-released nucleases, prolonging the DNA/explant incubation time, and expanding the pulse time. Using a [beta]-glucuronidase gene under the control of constitutive promoters, we demonstrated that all cell types within a leaf base were susceptible to electroporation-mediated DNA uptake. Although the technique was initially developed for leaf bases of young etiolated rice seedlings, we proved that it was equally applicable both to other monocotyledons, including wheat, maize, and barley, and to other explants, such as etiolated and green sheath and lamina tissues from rice. Transient gene expression assays with electroporated leaf bases showed that the promoter from a pea light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene displayed both light- and chloroplast-dependent expression in rice, and that the promoter from the Arabidopsis S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene was, as in transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco, preferentially expressed in cells surrounding the vascular bundles. PMID:12354966

  1. Molecular Cloning of HbPR-1 Gene from Rubber Tree, Expression of HbPR-1 Gene in Nicotiana benthamiana and Its Inhibition of Phytophthora palmivora.

    PubMed

    Khunjan, Uraiwan; Ekchaweng, Kitiya; Panrat, Tanate; Tian, Miaoying; Churngchow, Nunta

    2016-01-01

    This is the first report to present a full-length cDNA (designated HbPR-1) encoding a putative basic HbPR-1 protein from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) treated with salicylic acid. It was characterized and also expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression system in order to investigate the role of HbPR-1 gene in rubber tree against its oomycete pathogen Phytopthora palmivora and to produce recombinant HbPR-1 protein for microbial inhibition test. The HbPR-1 cDNA was 647 bp long and contained an open reading frame of 492 nucleotides encoding 163 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 17,681 Da and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.56, demonstrating that HbPR-1 protein belongs to the basic PR-1 type. The predicted 3D structure of HbPR-1 was composed of four α-helices, three β-sheets, seven strands, and one junction loop. Expression and purification of recombinant HbPR-1 protein were successful using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression and one-step of affinity chromatography. Heterologous expression of HbPR-1 in N. benthamiana reduced necrosis areas which were inoculated with P. palmivora zoospores, indicating that the expressed HbPR-1 protein played an important role in plant resistance to pathogens. The purified recombinant HbPR-1 protein was found to inhibit 64% of P. palmivora zoospore germination on a water agar plate compared with control, suggesting that it was an antimicrobial protein against P. palmivora. PMID:27337148

  2. Molecular Cloning of HbPR-1 Gene from Rubber Tree, Expression of HbPR-1 Gene in Nicotiana benthamiana and Its Inhibition of Phytophthora palmivora

    PubMed Central

    Khunjan, Uraiwan; Ekchaweng, Kitiya; Panrat, Tanate; Tian, Miaoying; Churngchow, Nunta

    2016-01-01

    This is the first report to present a full-length cDNA (designated HbPR-1) encoding a putative basic HbPR-1 protein from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) treated with salicylic acid. It was characterized and also expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression system in order to investigate the role of HbPR-1 gene in rubber tree against its oomycete pathogen Phytopthora palmivora and to produce recombinant HbPR-1 protein for microbial inhibition test. The HbPR-1 cDNA was 647 bp long and contained an open reading frame of 492 nucleotides encoding 163 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 17,681 Da and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.56, demonstrating that HbPR-1 protein belongs to the basic PR-1 type. The predicted 3D structure of HbPR-1 was composed of four α-helices, three β-sheets, seven strands, and one junction loop. Expression and purification of recombinant HbPR-1 protein were successful using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression and one-step of affinity chromatography. Heterologous expression of HbPR-1 in N. benthamiana reduced necrosis areas which were inoculated with P. palmivora zoospores, indicating that the expressed HbPR-1 protein played an important role in plant resistance to pathogens. The purified recombinant HbPR-1 protein was found to inhibit 64% of P. palmivora zoospore germination on a water agar plate compared with control, suggesting that it was an antimicrobial protein against P. palmivora. PMID:27337148

  3. Identifying a Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase 4a Gene and Its Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation in Bixa orellana L.

    PubMed

    Sankari, Mohan; Hemachandran, Hridya; Anantharaman, Amirtha; Babu, Subramanian; Madrid, Renata Rivera; C, George Priya Doss; Fulzele, Devanand P; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-07-01

    Carotenoids are metabolized to apocarotenoids through the pathway catalysed by carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs). The apocarotenoids are economically important as it is known to have therapeutic as well as industrial applications. For instance, bixin from Bixa orellana and crocin from Crocus sativus are commercially used as a food colourant and cosmetics since prehistoric time. In our present study, CCD4a gene has been identified and isolated from leaves of B. orellana for the first time and named as BoCCD4a; phylogenetic analysis was carried out using CLUSTAL W. From sequence analysis, BoCCD4a contains two exons and one intron, which was compared with the selected AtCCD4, RdCCD4, GmCCD4 and CmCCD4a gene. Further, the BoCCD4a gene was cloned into pCAMBIA 1301, transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain and subsequently transferred into hypocotyledons and callus of B. orellana by agro-infection. Selection of stable transformation was screened on the basis of PCR detection by using GUS and hptII specific primer, which was followed by histochemical characterization. The percent transient GUS expression in hypocotyledons and callus was 84.4 and 80 %, respectively. The expression of BoCCD4a gene in B. orellana was confirmed through RT-PCR analysis. From our results, the sequence analysis of BoCCD4a gene of B. orellana was closely related to the CsCCD4 gene of C. sativus, which suggests this gene may have a role in various processes such as fragrance, insect attractant and pollination. PMID:26922728

  4. Transient Expression of Tetrameric Recombinant Human Butyrylcholinesterase in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Alkanaimsh, Salem; Karuppanan, Kalimuthu; Guerrero, Andrés; Tu, Aye M; Hashimoto, Bryce; Hwang, Min Sook; Phu, My L; Arzola, Lucas; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Falk, Bryce W; Nandi, Somen; Rodriguez, Raymond L; McDonald, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    To optimize the expression, extraction and purification of plant-derived tetrameric recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase (prBChE), we describe the development and use of plant viral amplicon-based gene expression system; Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) RNA-based overexpression vector (TRBO) to express enzymatically active FLAG-tagged plant made recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (rBChE) in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves using transient agroinfiltration. Two gene expression cassettes were designed to express the recombinant protein in either the ER or to the apoplastic compartment. Leaf homogenization was used to isolate ER-retained recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (prBChE-ER) while apoplast-targeted rBChE was isolated by either leaf homogenization (prBChE) or vacuum-extraction of apoplastic wash fluid (prBChE-AWF). rBChE from apoplast wash fluid had a higher specific activity but lower enzyme yield than leaf homogenate. To optimize the isolation and purification of total recombinant protein from leaf homogenates, an acidic extraction buffer was used. The acidic extraction buffer yielded >95% enzymatically active tetrameric rBChE as verified by Coomassie stained and native gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, when compared to human butyrylcholinesterase, the prBChE was found to be similar in terms of tetramerization and enzyme kinetics. The N-linked glycan profile of purified prBChE-ER was found to be mostly high mannose structures while the N-linked glycans on prBChE-AWF were primarily complex. The glycan profile of the prBChE leaf homogenates showed a mixture of high mannose, complex and paucimannose type N-glycans. These findings demonstrate the ability of plants to produce rBChE that is enzymatically active and whose oligomeric state is comparable to mammalian butyrylcholinesterase. The process of plant made rBChE tetramerization and strategies for improving its pharmacokinetics properties are also discussed. PMID:27379103

  5. Transient Expression of Tetrameric Recombinant Human Butyrylcholinesterase in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Alkanaimsh, Salem; Karuppanan, Kalimuthu; Guerrero, Andrés; Tu, Aye M.; Hashimoto, Bryce; Hwang, Min Sook; Phu, My L.; Arzola, Lucas; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Falk, Bryce W.; Nandi, Somen; Rodriguez, Raymond L.; McDonald, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    To optimize the expression, extraction and purification of plant-derived tetrameric recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase (prBChE), we describe the development and use of plant viral amplicon-based gene expression system; Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) RNA-based overexpression vector (TRBO) to express enzymatically active FLAG-tagged plant made recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (rBChE) in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves using transient agroinfiltration. Two gene expression cassettes were designed to express the recombinant protein in either the ER or to the apoplastic compartment. Leaf homogenization was used to isolate ER-retained recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (prBChE-ER) while apoplast-targeted rBChE was isolated by either leaf homogenization (prBChE) or vacuum-extraction of apoplastic wash fluid (prBChE-AWF). rBChE from apoplast wash fluid had a higher specific activity but lower enzyme yield than leaf homogenate. To optimize the isolation and purification of total recombinant protein from leaf homogenates, an acidic extraction buffer was used. The acidic extraction buffer yielded >95% enzymatically active tetrameric rBChE as verified by Coomassie stained and native gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, when compared to human butyrylcholinesterase, the prBChE was found to be similar in terms of tetramerization and enzyme kinetics. The N-linked glycan profile of purified prBChE-ER was found to be mostly high mannose structures while the N-linked glycans on prBChE-AWF were primarily complex. The glycan profile of the prBChE leaf homogenates showed a mixture of high mannose, complex and paucimannose type N-glycans. These findings demonstrate the ability of plants to produce rBChE that is enzymatically active and whose oligomeric state is comparable to mammalian butyrylcholinesterase. The process of plant made rBChE tetramerization and strategies for improving its pharmacokinetics properties are also discussed. PMID:27379103

  6. Subcellular localization of transiently expressed fluorescent fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Collings, David A

    2013-01-01

    The recent and massive expansion in plant genomics data has generated a large number of gene sequences for which two seemingly simple questions need to be answered: where do the proteins encoded by these genes localize in cells, and what do they do? One widespread approach to answering the localization question has been to use particle bombardment to transiently express unknown proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) or its numerous derivatives. Confocal fluorescence microscopy is then used to monitor the localization of the fluorescent protein as it hitches a ride through the cell. The subcellular localization of the fusion protein, if not immediately apparent, can then be determined by comparison to localizations generated by fluorescent protein fusions to known signalling sequences and proteins, or by direct comparison with fluorescent dyes. This review aims to be a tour guide for researchers wanting to travel this hitch-hiker's path, and for reviewers and readers who wish to understand their travel reports. It will describe some of the technology available for visualizing protein localizations, and some of the experimental approaches for optimizing and confirming localizations generated by particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, the most commonly used experimental system. As the non-conservation of signal sequences in heterologous expression systems such as onion, and consequent mis-targeting of fusion proteins, is always a potential problem, the epidermal cells of the Argenteum mutant of pea are proposed as a model system.

  7. Subcellular localization of transiently expressed fluorescent fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Collings, David A

    2013-01-01

    The recent and massive expansion in plant genomics data has generated a large number of gene sequences for which two seemingly simple questions need to be answered: where do the proteins encoded by these genes localize in cells, and what do they do? One widespread approach to answering the localization question has been to use particle bombardment to transiently express unknown proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) or its numerous derivatives. Confocal fluorescence microscopy is then used to monitor the localization of the fluorescent protein as it hitches a ride through the cell. The subcellular localization of the fusion protein, if not immediately apparent, can then be determined by comparison to localizations generated by fluorescent protein fusions to known signalling sequences and proteins, or by direct comparison with fluorescent dyes. This review aims to be a tour guide for researchers wanting to travel this hitch-hiker's path, and for reviewers and readers who wish to understand their travel reports. It will describe some of the technology available for visualizing protein localizations, and some of the experimental approaches for optimizing and confirming localizations generated by particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, the most commonly used experimental system. As the non-conservation of signal sequences in heterologous expression systems such as onion, and consequent mis-targeting of fusion proteins, is always a potential problem, the epidermal cells of the Argenteum mutant of pea are proposed as a model system. PMID:23996319

  8. Introduction of a citrus blight-associated gene into Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbc. x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Kayim, M; Ceccardi, T L; Berretta, M J G; Barthe, G A; Derrick, K S

    2004-11-01

    The protein p12 accumulates in leaves of trees with citrus blight (CB), a serious decline of unknown cause. The function of p12 is not known, but sequence analysis indicates it may be related to expansins. In studies to determine the function of p12, sense and antisense constructs were used to make transgenic Carrizo citrange using an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. Homogeneous beta-glucuronidase+ (GUS+) sense and antisense transgenic shoots were regenerated using kanamycin as a selective agent. Twenty-five sense and 45 antisense transgenic shoots were in vivo grafted onto Carrizo citrange for further analyses. In addition, 20 sense and 18 antisense shoots were rooted. The homogeneous GUS+ plants contained either the p12 sense or antisense gene (without the intron associated with the gene in untransformed citrus) as shown by PCR and Southern blotting. Northern blots showed the expected RNA in the sense and antisense plants. A protein of identical size and immunoreactivity was observed in seven of nine sense plants but not in nine antisense or non-transgenic plants. At the current stage of growth, there are no visual phenotypic differences between the transgenic and non-transgenic plants. Selected plants will be budded with sweet orange for field evaluation for resistance or susceptibility to CB and general rootstock performance.

  9. Functional validation of Capsicum frutescens aminotransferase gene involved in vanillylamine biosynthesis using Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation studies in Nicotiana tabacum and Capsicum frutescens calli cultures.

    PubMed

    Gururaj, Harishchandra B; Padma, Mallaya N; Giridhar, Parvatam; Ravishankar, Gokare A

    2012-10-01

    Capsaicinoid biosynthesis involves the participation of two substrates viz. vanillylamine and C(9)-C(11) fatty acid moieties. Vanillylamine which is a derivative of vanillin is synthesized through a transaminase reaction in the phenylpropanoid pathway of capsaicinoid synthesis. Here we report the functional validation of earlier reported putative aminotransferase gene for vanillylamine biosynthesis in heterologous system using Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation studies in Nicotiana tabacum and Capsicum frutescens calli cultures. Molecular analysis tools comprising PCR and Southern blot analysis have shown the integration of the foreign gene in N. tabacum and C. frutescens calli cultures. The study shows the production of vanillylamine in transformed N. tabacum callus cultures and also the reduction of vanillylamine production when whole gene based antisense binary vector construct was used in transformation of C. frutescens callus cultures. Vanillylamine production, aminotransferase assay with Western blot analysis for crude proteins of transformants established the production of putative aminotransferase (pAMT) protein in alternate plant. The result is a clear evidence of involvement of the reported putative aminotransferase responsible for vanillylamine biosynthesis in capsaicinoid biosynthesis pathway, confirming the gene function through functional validation.

  10. Uncoupling of the functions of the Arabidopsis VIP1 protein in transient and stable plant genetic transformation by Agrobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianxiong; Krichevsky, Alexander; Vaidya, Manjusha; Tzfira, Tzvi; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2005-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of plants, a unique example of transkingdom DNA transfer, requires the presence of several proteins encoded by the host cell. One such cellular factor is VIP1, an Arabidopsis protein proposed to interact with and facilitate import of the bacterial DNA–protein transport (T) complexes into the plant cell nucleus. Thus, VIP1 is required for transient expression of the bacterial DNA, an early step in the transformation process. However, the role of VIP1 in subsequent transformation events leading to the stable expression of bacterial DNA was unexplored. Here, we used reverse genetics to dissect VIP1 functionally and demonstrate its involvement in the stable genetic transformation of Arabidopsis plants by Agrobacterium. Our data indicate that the ability of VIP1 to interact with the VirE2 protein component of the T-complex and localize to the cell nucleus is sufficient for transient genetic transformation, whereas its ability to form homomultimers and interact with the host cell H2A histone in planta is required for tumorigenesis and, by implication, stable genetic transformation. PMID:15824315

  11. Localization and spatiotemporal expression of IDO following transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Ayako; Hara, Akira; Saito, Kuniaki; Hoshi, Masato; Niwa, Masayuki; Seishima, Mitsuru; Mori, Hideki

    2008-06-27

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway that converts L-tryptophan to L-kynurenine. Transient forebrain ischemia initiates a series of cellular events that lead to the delayed neuronal degeneration of several brain regions. The goal of this study was to determine the localization of IDO in gerbil brain, and analyze the spatiotemporal expression of IDO in a transient forebrain ischemic model. Expression of IDO in the normal gerbil brain was observed by using immunohistochemistry. Time-course of the expression of IDO following transient forebrain ischemic gerbils was examined by immunohistochemistry, combined with hematoxylin and eosin staining for morphological analysis, and in situ terminal dUTP-biotin nick end labeling of DNA fragments (TUNEL) method. In normal gerbils, IDO immunostaining was observed in thalamus, hypothalamus and amygdaloid nucleus. IDO expression was negative in the cingulate cortex, hippocampal CA1 region and parietal cortex. Following transient ischemia, we observed a time-dependent increase of IDO expression in CA1, cingulate cortex and hypothalamus. The peak of IDO expression in CA1 and cingulate cortex occurred at 48 h after ischemic insult and diminished by 2 weeks. TUNEL staining was observed only in the CA1 region at 72 and 96 h after transient ischemia. Thus, IDO protein is present in specific regions in gerbil brain, and dynamic changes of IDO expression was observed in some neurons following transient ischemia. PMID:18501338

  12. Im"plant"ing of Mammalian Glycosyltransferase Gene into Plant Suspension-Cultured Cells Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation.

    PubMed

    Kajiura, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic activity assay of exogenous glycosyltransferase (GT) and glycosylhydrolase (GH) expressed in plants is an important analysis for determination of the expression of the gene of interest. However, generations and establishment of in planta transgenic lines are time-consuming. Furthermore, the expression levels and the activities of the exogenous GTs and GHs are quite low and weak, the radiolabeled donor substrate had to be used to analyze the enzymatic activity. Here, we describe a protocol for the generation of transgenic plants using suspension-cultured cells and a high sensitive assay for GT, especially β1,4-galactosyltransferase, using microsomal fraction from plant cells and fluorescent-labeled sugar chains as an acceptor substrate. This method enables less-time-consuming preparation of stable transgenic plants, non-radiolabeled, high-throughput detail analysis which includes mass spectrometric analysis and exo-glycosidase digestions.

  13. An efficient method of agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and regeneration in local Indian cultivar of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) using grafting.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an industrial crop used as a source of edible oil and nutrients. In this study, an efficient method of regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is reported for a local cultivar GG-20 using de-embryonated cotyledon explant. A high regeneration 52.69 ± 2.32 % was achieved by this method with 66.6 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), while the highest number of shoot buds per explant, 17.67 ± 3.51, was found with 20 μM BAP and 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The bacterial culture OD, acetosyringone and L-cysteine concentration were optimized as 1.8, 200 μM and 50 mg L(-1), respectively, in co-cultivation media. It was observed that the addition of 2,4-D in co-cultivation media induced accumulation of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The optimized protocol exhibited 85 % transformation efficiency followed by 14.65 ± 1.06 % regeneration, of which 3.82 ± 0.6 % explants were survived on hygromycin after selection. Finally, 14.58 ± 2.95 % shoots (regenerated on survived explants) were rooted on rooting media (RM3). In grafting method, regenerated shoots (after hygromycin selection) were grafted on the non-transformed stocks with 100 % survival and new leaves emerged in 3 weeks. The putative transgenic plants were then confirmed by PCR, Southern hybridization, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical assay. The reported method is efficient and rapid and can also be applied to other crops which are recalcitrant and difficult in rooting.

  14. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Eucalyptus globulus using explants with shoot apex with introduction of bacterial choline oxidase gene to enhance salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Etsuko; Nanto, Kazuya; Oishi, Masatoshi; Ebinuma, Hiroyasu; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Shimada, Teruhisa

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most economically important plantation hardwoods for paper making. However, its low transformation frequency has prevented genetic engineering of this species with useful genes. We found the hypocotyl section with a shoot apex has the highest regeneration ability among another hypocotyl sections, and have developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method using these materials. We then introduced a salt tolerance gene, namely a bacterial choline oxidase gene (codA) with a GUS reporter gene, into E. globulus. The highest frequency of transgenic shoot regeneration from hypocotyls with shoot apex was 7.4% and the average frequency in four experiments was 4.0%, 12-fold higher than that from hypocotyls without shoot apex. Using about 10,000 explants, over 250 regenerated buds were confirmed as transformants by GUS analysis. Southern blot analysis of 100 elongated shoots confirmed successful generation of stable transformants. Accumulation of glycinebetaine was investigated in 44 selected transgenic lines, which showed 1- to 12-fold higher glycinebetaine levels than non-transgenic controls. Rooting of 16 transgenic lines was successful using a photoautotrophic method under enrichment with 1,000 ppm CO(2). The transgenic whole plantlets were transplanted into potting soil and grown normally in a growth room. They showed salt tolerance to 300 mM NaCl. The points of our system are using explants with shoot apex as materials, inhibiting the elongation of the apex on the selection medium, and regenerating transgenic buds from the side opposite to the apex. This approach may also solve transformation problems in other important plants.

  15. Development of three full-length infectious cDNA clones of distinct brassica yellows virus genotypes for agrobacterium-mediated inoculation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Shu-Wei; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Chen, Xiang-Ru; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2015-02-01

    Brassica yellows virus is a newly identified species in the genus of Polerovirus within the family Luteoviridae. Brassica yellows virus (BrYV) is prevalently distributed throughout Mainland China and South Korea, is an important virus infecting cruciferous crops. Based on six BrYV genomic sequences of isolates from oilseed rape, rutabaga, radish, and cabbage, three genotypes, BrYV-A, BrYV-B, and BrYV-C, exist, which mainly differ in the 5' terminal half of the genome. BrYV is an aphid-transmitted and phloem-limited virus. The use of infectious cDNA clones is an alternative means of infecting plants that allows reverse genetic studies to be performed. In this study, full-length cDNA clones of BrYV-A, recombinant BrYV5B3A, and BrYV-C were constructed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. An agrobacterium-mediated inoculation system of Nicotiana benthamiana was developed using these cDNA clones. Three days after infiltration with full-length BrYV cDNA clones, necrotic symptoms were observed in the inoculated leaves of N. benthamiana; however, no obvious symptoms appeared in the upper leaves. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot detection of samples from the upper leaves showed that the maximum infection efficiency of BrYVs could reach 100%. The infectivity of the BrYV-A, BrYV-5B3A, and BrYV-C cDNA clones was further confirmed by northern hybridization. The system developed here will be useful for further studies of BrYV, such as host range, pathogenicity, viral gene functions, and plant-virus-vector interactions, and especially for discerning the differences among the three genotypes. PMID:25499296

  16. Reverse genetics and transient gene expression in fleshy fruits

    PubMed Central

    Orzaez, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Fast methods to validate relevant candidate genes associated to fruit ripening are needed specially to associate gene function to the overwhelming amount of leads provided by genomic projects. In tomato, the use of Fruit VIGS in a Del/Ros1 background as described in the Plant Physiology by Orzaez et al. 2009, overcomes the difficulties associated to low efficiency VIGS in tomato and increases the reliability and throughput of this fast reverse genetic assay. The advantages of this transient assay system are discussed here for the case of gene functions associated to fruit ripening and quality traits. The possibility of using other reporters or even the development of transient overexpression assays in the fruit is also discussed. PMID:19847114

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the β-subunit gene in 7S globulin protein in soybean using RNAi technology.

    PubMed

    Qu, J; Liu, S Y; Wang, P W; Guan, S Y; Fan, Y G; Yao, D; Zhang, L; Dai, J L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use RNA interference (RNAi) to improve protein quality and decrease anti-nutritional effects in soybean. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was conducted using RNAi and an expression vector containing the 7S globulin β-subunit gene. The BAR gene was used as the selective marker and cotyledonary nodes of soybean genotype Jinong 27 were chosen as explant material. Regenerated plants were detected by molecular biology techniques. Transformation of the β-subunit gene in the 7S protein was detected by PCR, Southern blot, and q-PCR. Positive plants (10 T0, and 6 T1, and 13 T2) were tested by PCR. Hybridization bands were detected by Southern blot analysis in two of the T1 transgenic plants. RNAi expression vectors containing the soybean 7S protein β-subunit gene were successfully integrated into the genome of transgenic plants. qRT-PCR analysis in soybean seeds showed a clear decrease in expression of the soybean β-subunit gene. The level of 7S protein β-subunit expression in transgenic plants decreased by 77.5% as compared to that of the wild-type plants. This study has established a basis for the application of RNAi to improve the anti-nutritional effects of soybean. PMID:27173254

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the β-subunit gene in 7S globulin protein in soybean using RNAi technology.

    PubMed

    Qu, J; Liu, S Y; Wang, P W; Guan, S Y; Fan, Y G; Yao, D; Zhang, L; Dai, J L

    2016-04-26

    The objective of this study was to use RNA interference (RNAi) to improve protein quality and decrease anti-nutritional effects in soybean. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was conducted using RNAi and an expression vector containing the 7S globulin β-subunit gene. The BAR gene was used as the selective marker and cotyledonary nodes of soybean genotype Jinong 27 were chosen as explant material. Regenerated plants were detected by molecular biology techniques. Transformation of the β-subunit gene in the 7S protein was detected by PCR, Southern blot, and q-PCR. Positive plants (10 T0, and 6 T1, and 13 T2) were tested by PCR. Hybridization bands were detected by Southern blot analysis in two of the T1 transgenic plants. RNAi expression vectors containing the soybean 7S protein β-subunit gene were successfully integrated into the genome of transgenic plants. qRT-PCR analysis in soybean seeds showed a clear decrease in expression of the soybean β-subunit gene. The level of 7S protein β-subunit expression in transgenic plants decreased by 77.5% as compared to that of the wild-type plants. This study has established a basis for the application of RNAi to improve the anti-nutritional effects of soybean.

  19. Transgene expression in pear (Pyrus communis L.) driven by a phloem-specific promoter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A gene expression cassette carrying ß-glucuronidase (uidA) reporter gene under the control of the promoter of the Arabidopsis sucrose-H+ symporter gene (AtSUC2) was introduced to pear plants via an Agrobacterium-mediated leaf-explant transformation procedure. Transgenic shoots were regenerated from...

  20. Effect of leaf incubation temperature profiles on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; McDonald, Karen A; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression is known to be highly dependent on incubation temperature. Compared with early studies that were conducted at constant temperature, we examined the effect of variable leaf incubation temperature on transient expression. As a model system, synthetic endoglucanase (E1) and endoxylanase (Xyn10A) genes were transiently expressed in detached whole sunflower leaves via vacuum infiltration for biofuel applications. We found that the kinetics of transient expression strongly depended on timing of the temperature change as well as leaf incubation temperature. Surprisingly, we found that high incubation temperature (27-30 °C) which is suboptimal for T-DNA transfer, significantly enhanced transient expression if the high temperature was applied during the late phase (Day 3-6) of leaf incubation whereas incubation temperature in a range of 20-25 °C for an early phase (Day 0-2) resulted in higher production. On the basis of these results, we propose that transient expression is governed by both T-DNA transfer and protein synthesis in plant cells that have different temperature dependent kinetics. Because the phases were separated in time and had different optimal temperatures, we were then able to develop a novel two phase optimization strategy for leaf incubation temperature. Applying the time-varying temperature profile, we were able to increase the protein accumulation by fivefold compared with the control at a constant temperature of 20 °C. From our knowledge, this is the first report illustrating the effect of variable temperature profiling for improved transient expression.

  1. Investigating plasmodesmata genetics with virus-induced gene silencing and an agrobacterium-mediated GFP movement assay.

    PubMed

    Brunkard, Jacob O; Burch-Smith, Tessa M; Runkel, Anne M; Zambryski, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are channels that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells, permitting intercellular transport and communication. PD function and formation are essential to plant growth and development, but we still know very little about the genetic pathways regulating PD transport. Here, we present a method for assaying changes in the rate of PD transport following genetic manipulation. Gene expression in leaves is modified by virus-induced gene silencing. Seven to ten days after infection with Tobacco rattle virus carrying a silencing trigger, the gene(s) of interest is silenced in newly arising leaves. In these new leaves, individual cells are then transformed with Agrobacterium to express GFP, and the rate of GFP diffusion via PD is measured. By measuring GFP diffusion both within the epidermis and between the epidermis and mesophyll, the assay can be used to study the effects of silencing a gene(s) on PD transport in general, or transport through secondary PD specifically. Plant biologists working in several fields will find this assay useful, since PD transport impacts plant physiology, development, and defense.

  2. Factors influencing somatic embryogenesis, regeneration, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar TME14

    PubMed Central

    Nyaboga, Evans N.; Njiru, Joshua M.; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Routine production of large numbers of transgenic plants is required to fully exploit advances in cassava biotechnology and support development of improved germplasm for deployment to farmers. This article describes an improved, high-efficiency transformation protocol for recalcitrant cassava cultivar TME14 preferred in Africa. Factors that favor production of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) were found to be use of DKW medium, crushing of organized embryogenic structures (OES) through 1–2 mm sized metal wire mesh, washing of crushed OES tissues and short exposure of tyrosine to somatic embryos; and transformation efficiency was enhanced by use of low Agrobacterium density during co-cultivation, co-centrifugation of FEC with Agrobacterium, germination of paramomycin resistant somatic embryos on medium containing BAP with gradual increase in concentration and variations of the frequency of subculture of cotyledonary-stage embryos on shoot elongation medium. By applying the optimized parameters, FEC were produced for cassava cultivar TME14 and transformed using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA2301. About 70–80 independent transgenic lines per ml settled cell volume (SCV) of FEC were regenerated on selective medium. Histochemical GUS assays confirmed the expression of gusA gene in transformed calli, somatic embryos and transgenic plants. The presence and integration of the gusA gene were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, respectively. RT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants confirmed the expression of gusA gene. This protocol demonstrates significantly enhanced transformation efficiency over existing cassava transformation protocols and could become a powerful tool for functional genomics and transferring new traits into cassava. PMID:26113851

  3. Factors influencing somatic embryogenesis, regeneration, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar TME14.

    PubMed

    Nyaboga, Evans N; Njiru, Joshua M; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Routine production of large numbers of transgenic plants is required to fully exploit advances in cassava biotechnology and support development of improved germplasm for deployment to farmers. This article describes an improved, high-efficiency transformation protocol for recalcitrant cassava cultivar TME14 preferred in Africa. Factors that favor production of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) were found to be use of DKW medium, crushing of organized embryogenic structures (OES) through 1-2 mm sized metal wire mesh, washing of crushed OES tissues and short exposure of tyrosine to somatic embryos; and transformation efficiency was enhanced by use of low Agrobacterium density during co-cultivation, co-centrifugation of FEC with Agrobacterium, germination of paramomycin resistant somatic embryos on medium containing BAP with gradual increase in concentration and variations of the frequency of subculture of cotyledonary-stage embryos on shoot elongation medium. By applying the optimized parameters, FEC were produced for cassava cultivar TME14 and transformed using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA2301. About 70-80 independent transgenic lines per ml settled cell volume (SCV) of FEC were regenerated on selective medium. Histochemical GUS assays confirmed the expression of gusA gene in transformed calli, somatic embryos and transgenic plants. The presence and integration of the gusA gene were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, respectively. RT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants confirmed the expression of gusA gene. This protocol demonstrates significantly enhanced transformation efficiency over existing cassava transformation protocols and could become a powerful tool for functional genomics and transferring new traits into cassava.

  4. Evaluation of agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Agaricus bisporus using a range of promoters linked to hygromycin resistance.

    PubMed

    Burns, C; Leach, K M; Elliott, T J; Challen, M P; Foster, G D; Bailey, A

    2006-02-01

    There is interest in establishing genetic modification technologies for the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus, both for improved crop characteristics and for molecular pharming. For these methods to be successful, it is necessary to establish a set of transformation systems that include robust and reliable vectors for gene manipulation. In this article, we report the evaluation of a series of promoters for driving expression of the Escherichia coli hph gene encoding hygromycin phosphotransferase. This was achieved using the Aspergillus nidulans gpdA and the A. bisporus gpdII and trp2 promoters. The Coprinus cinereus beta-tubulin promoter gave contrasting results depending on the size of promoter used, with a 393-bp region being effective, whereas the longer 453-bp fragment failed to yield any hygromycin-resistant transformants. The C. cinereus trp1 and the A. bisporus lcc1 promoters both failed to yield transformants. We also show that transformation efficiency may be improved by careful selection of both appropriate Agrobacterium strains, with AGL-1 yielding more than LBA1126 and by the choice of the binary vectors used to mobilize the DNA, with pCAMBIA vectors appearing to be more efficient than either pBIN19- or pGREEN-based systems.

  5. (Analysis of proteins essential for Agrobacterium mediated DNA transfer to plant cells). [Single-stranded DNA binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-14

    The tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid of Agrobacterium contains two regions important for infection and transformation of plant cells. One region, the T-DNA, is transferred as a single strand into the plant cell, while the virulence (vir) region is responsible for recognition of susceptible cells, synthesis of the T-DNA single strand (T-strand), formation of a T-strand protein complex and transfer of this complex into susceptible cells. A DNA binding protein, VirE2, was identified as a product of the vir region. Sequencing of the 9000 kilobase pair virB region has been completed. Expression of 10 of the predicted 11 open reading frames (ORFs) was demonstrated in Escherichia coli. Translational coupling was demonstrated for 5 ORFs. Hydropathy analysis indicates that 9 of 11 ORFs have hydrophobic regions that could permit membrane channel formation. In related work, analysis of protons that potentiate movement of plant viruses was discussed, with indications that the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) protein P30 may mediate transfer of TMV RNA through plasmadesmata. Also, using the T-DNA element as a marker, genes responsible for abnormal flower development are being cloned and isolated. 3 refs. (MHB)

  6. Increased Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and rooting efficiencies in canola (Brassica napus L.) from hypocotyl segment explants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardoza, V.; Stewart, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient protocol for the production of transgenic Brassica napus cv. Westar plants was developed by optimizing two important parameters: preconditioning time and co-cultivation time. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was performed using hypocotyls as explant tissue. Two variants of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding gene--mGFP5-ER and eGFP--both under the constitutive expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, were used for the experiments. Optimizing the preconditioning time to 72 h and co-cultivation time with Agrobacterium to 48 h provided the increase in the transformation efficiency from a baseline of 4% to 25%. With mGFP5-ER, the transformation rate was 17% and with eGFP it was 25%. Transgenic shoots were selected on 200 mg/l kanamycin. Rooting efficiency was 100% on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 10 g/l sucrose and 0.5 mg/l indole butyric acid in the presence of kanamycin.

  7. Evaluation of agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Agaricus bisporus using a range of promoters linked to hygromycin resistance.

    PubMed

    Burns, C; Leach, K M; Elliott, T J; Challen, M P; Foster, G D; Bailey, A

    2006-02-01

    There is interest in establishing genetic modification technologies for the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus, both for improved crop characteristics and for molecular pharming. For these methods to be successful, it is necessary to establish a set of transformation systems that include robust and reliable vectors for gene manipulation. In this article, we report the evaluation of a series of promoters for driving expression of the Escherichia coli hph gene encoding hygromycin phosphotransferase. This was achieved using the Aspergillus nidulans gpdA and the A. bisporus gpdII and trp2 promoters. The Coprinus cinereus beta-tubulin promoter gave contrasting results depending on the size of promoter used, with a 393-bp region being effective, whereas the longer 453-bp fragment failed to yield any hygromycin-resistant transformants. The C. cinereus trp1 and the A. bisporus lcc1 promoters both failed to yield transformants. We also show that transformation efficiency may be improved by careful selection of both appropriate Agrobacterium strains, with AGL-1 yielding more than LBA1126 and by the choice of the binary vectors used to mobilize the DNA, with pCAMBIA vectors appearing to be more efficient than either pBIN19- or pGREEN-based systems. PMID:16444014

  8. [Regulatory potential of S/MAR elements in transient expression].

    PubMed

    Sass, A V; Ruda, V M; Akopov, S B; Snezhkov, E V; Nikolaev, L G; Sverdlov, E D

    2005-01-01

    S/MARs (scaffold/matrix attachment regions) are the DNA regions that are involved in the interaction with the nuclear matrix and are identified by in vitro methods. According to the available information, S/MARs possess an insulating activity, i.e., the ability to block the interaction between the enhancer and promoter in vivo, and are, probably, intact insulators or their fragments. Nevertheless, there is still no direct proof for this correspondence. To obtain additional information on the insulator activity of S/MARs, we selected five DNA fragments of different lengths and affinities for the nuclear matrix from the previously constructed library of S/MARs and tested their ability to serve as insulators. Two of five elements exhibited an insulator (enhancer-blocking) activity upon the transient transfection of CHO cells. None of the S/MARs displayed either promoter or enhancer/silencer activities in these cells. PMID:15787217

  9. IMPa-4, an Arabidopsis Importin α Isoform, Is Preferentially Involved in Agrobacterium-Mediated Plant Transformation[W

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Saikat; Lee, Lan-Ying; Oltmanns, Heiko; Cao, Hongbin; Veena; Cuperus, Joshua; Gelvin, Stanton B.

    2008-01-01

    Successful transformation of plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires that the bacterial T-complex actively escorts T-DNA into the host's nucleus. VirD2 and VirE2 are virulence proteins on the T-complex that have plant-functional nuclear localization signal sequences that may recruit importin α proteins of the plant for nuclear import. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of seven of the nine members of the Arabidopsis thaliana importin α family in Agrobacterium transformation. Yeast two-hybrid, plant bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and in vitro protein–protein interaction assays demonstrated that all tested Arabidopsis importin α members can interact with VirD2 and VirE2. However, only disruption of the importin IMPa-4 inhibited transformation and produced the rat (resistant to Agrobacterium transformation) phenotype. Overexpression of six importin α members, including IMPa-4, rescued the rat phenotype in the impa-4 mutant background. Roots of wild-type and impa-4 Arabidopsis plants expressing yellow fluorescent protein–VirD2 displayed nuclear localization of the fusion protein, indicating that nuclear import of VirD2 is not affected in the impa-4 mutant. Somewhat surprisingly, VirE2–yellow fluorescent protein mainly localized to the cytoplasm of both wild-type and impa-4 Arabidopsis cells and to the cytoplasm of wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells. However, bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays indicated that VirE2 could localize to the nucleus when IMPa-4, but not when IMPa-1, was overexpressed. PMID:18836040

  10. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and regeneration of insect-resistant transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Sanyal, Indraneel; Amla, D V

    2011-09-01

    To develop an efficient genetic transformation system of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), callus derived from mature embryonic axes of variety P-362 was transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring p35SGUS-INT plasmid containing the uidA gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) and the nptII gene for kanamycin selection. Various factors affecting transformation efficiency were optimized; as Agrobacterium suspension at OD(600) 0.3 with 48 h of co-cultivation period at 20°C was found optimal for transforming 10-day-old MEA-derived callus. Inclusion of 200 μM acetosyringone, sonication for 4 s with vacuum infiltration for 6 min improved the number of GUS foci per responding explant from 1.0 to 38.6, as determined by histochemical GUS assay. For introducing the insect-resistant trait into chickpea, binary vector pRD400-cry1Ac was also transformed under optimized conditions and 18 T(0) transgenic plants were generated, representing 3.6% transformation frequency. T(0) transgenic plants reflected Mendelian inheritance pattern of transgene segregation in T(1) progeny. PCR, RT-PCR, and Southern hybridization analysis of T(0) and T(1) transgenic plants confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the chickpea genome. The expression level of Bt-Cry protein in T(0) and T(1) transgenic chickpea plants was achieved maximum up to 116 ng mg(-1) of soluble protein, which efficiently causes 100% mortality to second instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera as analyzed by an insect mortality bioassay. Our results demonstrate an efficient and rapid transformation system of chickpea for producing non-chimeric transgenic plants with high frequency. These findings will certainly accelerate the development of chickpea plants with novel traits.

  11. Development of an efficient in vitro plant regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of a recalcitrant grain legume blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper).

    PubMed

    Sainger, Manish; Chaudhary, Darshna; Dahiya, Savita; Jaiwal, Ranjana; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2015-10-01

    An efficient, rapid and direct multiple shoot regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation from primary leaf with intact petiole of blackgram (Vigna mungo) is established for the first time. The effect of the explant type and its age, type and concentration of cytokinin and auxin either alone or in combination and genotype on multiple shoot regeneration efficiency and frequency was optimized. The primary leaf explants with petiole excised from 4-day-old seedlings directly developed multiple shoots (an average of 10 shoots/ explant) from the cut ends of the petiole in 95 % of the cultures on MSB (MS salts and B5 vitamins) medium containing 1.0 μM 6-benzylaminopurine. Elongated (2-3 cm) shoots were rooted on MSB medium with 2.5 μM indole-butyric acid and resulted plantlets were hardened and established in soil, where they resumed growth and reached maturity with normal seed set. The regenerated plants were morphologically similar to seed-raised plants and required 8 weeks time from initiation of culture to establish them in soil. The regeneration competent cells present at the cut ends of petiole are fully exposed and are, thus, easily accessible to Agrobacterium, making this plant regeneration protocol amenable for the production of transgenic plants. The protocol was further successfully used to develop fertile transgenic plants of blackgram using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 that contains a neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and a β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA) interrupted with an intron. The presence and integration of transgenes in putative T0 plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization, respectively. The transgenes were inherited in Mendelian fashion in T1 progeny and a transformation frequency of 1.3 % was obtained. This protocol can be effectively used for transferring new traits in blackgram and other legumes for their

  12. Development of an efficient in vitro plant regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of a recalcitrant grain legume blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper).

    PubMed

    Sainger, Manish; Chaudhary, Darshna; Dahiya, Savita; Jaiwal, Ranjana; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2015-10-01

    An efficient, rapid and direct multiple shoot regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation from primary leaf with intact petiole of blackgram (Vigna mungo) is established for the first time. The effect of the explant type and its age, type and concentration of cytokinin and auxin either alone or in combination and genotype on multiple shoot regeneration efficiency and frequency was optimized. The primary leaf explants with petiole excised from 4-day-old seedlings directly developed multiple shoots (an average of 10 shoots/ explant) from the cut ends of the petiole in 95 % of the cultures on MSB (MS salts and B5 vitamins) medium containing 1.0 μM 6-benzylaminopurine. Elongated (2-3 cm) shoots were rooted on MSB medium with 2.5 μM indole-butyric acid and resulted plantlets were hardened and established in soil, where they resumed growth and reached maturity with normal seed set. The regenerated plants were morphologically similar to seed-raised plants and required 8 weeks time from initiation of culture to establish them in soil. The regeneration competent cells present at the cut ends of petiole are fully exposed and are, thus, easily accessible to Agrobacterium, making this plant regeneration protocol amenable for the production of transgenic plants. The protocol was further successfully used to develop fertile transgenic plants of blackgram using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 that contains a neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and a β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA) interrupted with an intron. The presence and integration of transgenes in putative T0 plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization, respectively. The transgenes were inherited in Mendelian fashion in T1 progeny and a transformation frequency of 1.3 % was obtained. This protocol can be effectively used for transferring new traits in blackgram and other legumes for their

  13. Highly Efficient Isolation of Populus Mesophyll Protoplasts and Its Application in Transient Expression Assays

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jianjun; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Labbe, Jessy L; Muchero, Wellington; Kalluri, Udaya C; Tuskan, Gerald A; Chen, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Background: Populus is a model woody plant and a promising feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. However, its lengthy life cycle impedes rapid characterization of gene function. Methodology/Principal Findings: We optimized a Populus leaf mesophyll protoplast isolation protocol and established a Populus protoplast transient expression system. We demonstrated that Populus protoplasts are able to respond to hormonal stimuli and that a series of organelle markers are correctly localized in the Populus protoplasts. Furthermore, we showed that the Populus protoplast transient expression system is suitable for studying protein-protein interaction, gene activation, and cellular signaling events. Conclusions/Significance: This study established a method for efficient isolation of protoplasts from Populus leaf and demonstrated the efficacy of using Populus protoplast transient expression assays as an in vivo system to characterize genes and pathways.

  14. Study on transient expression of gus gene in Chlorelia ellipsoidea (Chlorophyta) by using biolistic particle delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Li, Wen-Bin; Bai, Qin-Hua; Sun, Yong-Ru

    1998-03-01

    Study on the transient expression of GUS gene at different growing stage of Chlorella ellipsoidea using high velocity microprojectiles, the effects of osmosis, the distance between microprojectile and target cell, bombardment times, are reported in this paper. The results showed that C. ellipsoidea in exponential phase has higer level of transient expression and that treatment with osmosis can improve the GUS transient expression notably. The effect of distance or bombardment times was not observed.

  15. Gene transfer and expression in plants.

    PubMed

    Lorence, Argelia; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, agriculture and plant breeding relied solely on the accumulated experience of generations of farmers and breeders that is, on sexual transfer of genes between plant species. However, recent developments in plant molecular biology and genomics now give us access to knowledge and understanding of plant genomes and the possibility of modifying them. This chapter presents an updated overview of the two most powerful technologies for transferring genetic material (DNA) into plants: Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and microparticle bombardment (biolistics). Some of the topics that are discussed in detail are the main variables controlling the transformation efficiency that can be achieved using each one of these approaches; the advantages and limitations of each methodology; transient versus stable transformation approaches; the potential of some in planta transformation systems; alternatives to developing transgenic plants without selection markers; the availability of diverse genetic tools generated as part of the genome sequencing of different plant species; transgene expression, gene silencing, and their association with regulatory elements; and prospects and ways to possibly overcome some transgene expression difficulties, in particular the use of matrix-attachment regions (MARs).

  16. Transient expression of neuropeptide W in postnatal mouse hypothalamus--a putative regulator of energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Motoike, T; Skach, A G; Godwin, J K; Sinton, C M; Yamazaki, M; Abe, M; Natsume, R; Sakimura, K; Yanagisawa, M

    2015-08-20

    Neuropeptide B and W (NPB and NPW) are cognate peptide ligands for NPBWR1 (GPR7), a G protein-coupled receptor. In rodents, they have been implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine/autonomic responses, and social interactions. Although localization of these peptides and their receptors in adult rodent brain has been well documented, their expression in mouse brain during development is unknown. Here we demonstrate the transient expression of NPW mRNA in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of postnatal mouse brain and its co-localization with neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA. Neurons expressing both NPW and NPY mRNAs begin to emerge in the DMH at about postnatal day 0 (P-0) through P-3. Their expression is highest around P-14, declines after P-21, and by P-28 only a faint expression of NPW and NPY mRNA remains. In P-18 brains, we detected NPW neurons in the region spanning the subincertal nucleus (SubI), the lateral hypothalamic (LH) perifornical (PF) areas, and the DMH, where the highest expression of NPW mRNA was observed. The majority of these postnatal hypothalamic NPW neurons co-express NPY mRNA. A cross of NPW-iCre knock-in mice with a Cre-dependent tdTomato reporter line revealed that more than half of the reporter-positive neurons in the adult DMH, which mature from the transiently NPW-expressing neurons, are sensitive to peripherally administrated leptin. These data suggest that the DMH neurons that transiently co-express NPW and NPY in the peri-weaning period might play a role in regulating energy homeostasis during postnatal development.

  17. Functional analysis of Cobra Venom Factor/human C3 chimeras transiently expressed in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kölln, Johanna; Matzas, Mark; Jänner, Nathalie; Mix, Thorsten; Klensang, Katrin; Bredehorst, Reinhard; Spillner, Edzard

    2004-05-01

    The complement activating venom component Cobra Venom Factor (CVF), a functional and structural homologue of the human complement component C3, forms a stable CVF-dependent C3 convertase complex, which, in contrast to C3-dependent convertase effects continuous activation of the complement and, thereby, decomplementation. In order to elucidate the mechanism underlying the enhanced activity of CVF compared to human C3, we generated two CVF/C3 chimeras and established different affinity-based assay systems for functional analysis of these constructs. To allow for convenient expression and subsequent functional characterisation, the CVF/C3 chimeras as well as CVF and C3 were transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Problems due to the low concentration of the recombinant proteins in the supernatants of transient expressions were circumvented by fusion to peptide tags enabling their efficient immobilisation onto suitable surfaces and subsequent characterisation. In an alternative approach monoclonal antibody fragments generated from a semisynthetic phage display scFv library were employed for concentrating the recombinant proteins by immunoprecipitation. Utilising both approaches all transiently expressed proteins could be characterised for their complement consumption activity. The data obtained with the CVF/C3 chimeras demonstrate that the increased stability of the CVFBb complex is independent of the domains in CVF corresponding to binding sites of factor B and H and the cleavage sites of factor I in the human C3 molecule. PMID:15140572

  18. Interaction between Brome mosaic virus proteins and RNAs: effects on RNA replication, protein expression, and RNA stability.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, K; Dragnea, B; Kao, C

    2005-11-01

    Brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA replication has been examined in a number of systems, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We developed an efficient T-DNA-based gene delivery system using Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transiently express BMV RNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana. The expressed RNAs can systemically infect plants and provide material to extract BMV replicase that can perform template-dependent RNA-dependent RNA synthesis in vitro. We also expressed the four BMV-encoded proteins from nonreplicating RNAs and analyzed their effects on BMV RNA accumulation. The capsid protein that coinfiltrated with constructs expressing RNA1 and RNA2 suppressed minus-strand levels but increased plus-strand RNA accumulation. The replication proteins 1a and 2a could function in trans to replicate and transcribe the BMV RNAs. None of the BMV proteins or RNA could efficiently suppress posttranscriptional silencing. However, 1a expressed in trans will suppress the production of a recombinant green fluorescent protein expressed from the nontranslated portions of BMV RNA1 and RNA2, suggesting that 1a may regulate translation from BMV RNAs. BMV replicase proteins 1a did not affect the accumulation of the BMV RNAs in the absence of RNA replication, unlike the situation reported for S. cerevisiae. This work demonstrates that the Agrobacterium-mediated gene delivery system can be used to study the cis- and trans-acting requirements for BMV RNA replication in plants and that significant differences can exist for BMV RNA replication in different hosts.

  19. Plant pharming of a full-sized, tumour-targeting antibody using different expression strategies.

    PubMed

    Villani, Maria Elena; Morgun, Bogdan; Brunetti, Patrizia; Marusic, Carla; Lombardi, Raffaele; Pisoni, Ivan; Bacci, Camilla; Desiderio, Angiola; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Donini, Marcello

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this work were to obtain a human antibody against the tumour-associated antigen tenascin-C (TNC) and to compare the yield and quality of plant-produced antibody in either stable transgenics or using a transient expression system. To this end, the characterization of a full-sized human immunoglobulin G (IgG) [monoclonal antibody H10 (mAb H10)], derived from a selected single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and produced in plants, is presented. The human mAb gene was engineered for plant expression, and Nicotiana tabacum transgenic lines expressing both heavy (HC) and light (LC) chain were obtained and evaluated for antibody expression levels, in vivo assembly and functionality. Affinity-purified H10 from transgenics (yield, 0.6-1.1 mg/kg fresh weight) revealed that more than 90% of HC was specifically degraded, leading to the formation of functional antigen-binding fragments (Fab). Consequently, H10 was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants through an Agrobacterium-mediated gene-transfer system. Moreover, the use of the p19 silencing suppressor gene from artichoke mottled crinkle virus raised antibody expression levels by an order of magnitude (yields of purified H10, 50-100 mg/kg fresh weight). Approximately 75% of purified protein consisted of full-sized antibody functionally binding to TNC (K(D) = 14 nm), and immunohistochemical analysis on tumour tissues revealed specific accumulation around tumour blood vessels. The data indicate that the purification yields of mAb H10, using a transient expression system boosted by the p19 silencing suppressor, are exceptionally high when compared with the results reported previously, providing a technique for the over-expression of anticancer mAbs by a rapid, cost-effective, molecular farming approach.

  20. Plant pharming of a full-sized, tumour-targeting antibody using different expression strategies.

    PubMed

    Villani, Maria Elena; Morgun, Bogdan; Brunetti, Patrizia; Marusic, Carla; Lombardi, Raffaele; Pisoni, Ivan; Bacci, Camilla; Desiderio, Angiola; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Donini, Marcello

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this work were to obtain a human antibody against the tumour-associated antigen tenascin-C (TNC) and to compare the yield and quality of plant-produced antibody in either stable transgenics or using a transient expression system. To this end, the characterization of a full-sized human immunoglobulin G (IgG) [monoclonal antibody H10 (mAb H10)], derived from a selected single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and produced in plants, is presented. The human mAb gene was engineered for plant expression, and Nicotiana tabacum transgenic lines expressing both heavy (HC) and light (LC) chain were obtained and evaluated for antibody expression levels, in vivo assembly and functionality. Affinity-purified H10 from transgenics (yield, 0.6-1.1 mg/kg fresh weight) revealed that more than 90% of HC was specifically degraded, leading to the formation of functional antigen-binding fragments (Fab). Consequently, H10 was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants through an Agrobacterium-mediated gene-transfer system. Moreover, the use of the p19 silencing suppressor gene from artichoke mottled crinkle virus raised antibody expression levels by an order of magnitude (yields of purified H10, 50-100 mg/kg fresh weight). Approximately 75% of purified protein consisted of full-sized antibody functionally binding to TNC (K(D) = 14 nm), and immunohistochemical analysis on tumour tissues revealed specific accumulation around tumour blood vessels. The data indicate that the purification yields of mAb H10, using a transient expression system boosted by the p19 silencing suppressor, are exceptionally high when compared with the results reported previously, providing a technique for the over-expression of anticancer mAbs by a rapid, cost-effective, molecular farming approach. PMID:18793269

  1. Development of a transient expression assay for detecting environmental oestrogens in zebrafish and medaka embryos

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oestrogenic contaminants are widespread in the aquatic environment and have been shown to induce adverse effects in both wildlife (most notably in fish) and humans, raising international concern. Available detecting and testing systems are limited in their capacity to elucidate oestrogen signalling pathways and physiological impacts. Here we developed a transient expression assay to investigate the effects of oestrogenic chemicals in fish early life stages and to identify target organs for oestrogenic effects. To enhance the response sensitivity to oestrogen, we adopted the use of multiple tandem oestrogen responsive elements (EREc38) in a Tol2 transposon mediated Gal4ff-UAS system. The plasmid constructed (pTol2_ERE-TATA-Gal4ff), contains three copies of oestrogen response elements (3ERE) that on exposure to oestrogen induces expression of Gal4ff which this in turn binds Gal4-responsive Upstream Activated Sequence (UAS) elements, driving the expression of a second reporter gene, EGFP (Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein). Results The response of our construct to oestrogen exposure in zebrafish embryos was examined using a transient expression assay. The two plasmids were injected into 1–2 cell staged zebrafish embryos, and the embryos were exposed to various oestrogens including the natural steroid oestrogen 17ß-oestradiol (E2), the synthetic oestrogen 17α- ethinyloestradiol (EE2), and the relatively weak environmental oestrogen nonylphenol (NP), and GFP expression was examined in the subsequent embryos using fluorescent microscopy. There was no GFP expression detected in unexposed embryos, but specific and mosaic expression of GFP was detected in the liver, heart, somite muscle and some other tissue cells for exposures to steroid oestrogen treatments (EE2; 10 ng/L, E2; 100 ng/L, after 72 h exposures). For the NP exposures, GFP expression was observed at 10 μg NP/L after 72 h (100 μg NP/L was toxic to the fish). We also demonstrate that

  2. Transient Gene Expression in Epidermal Cells of Plant Leaves by Biolistic DNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ueki, Shoko; Magori, Shimpei; Lacroix, Benoît; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Transient gene expression is a useful approach for studying the functions of gene products. In the case of plants, Agrobacterium infiltration is a method of choice for transient introduction of genes for many species. However, this technique does not work efficiently in some species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, the infection of Agrobacterium is known to induce dynamic changes in gene expression patterns in the host plants, possibly affecting the function and localization of the proteins to be tested. These problems can be circumvented by biolistic delivery of the genes of interest. Here, we present an optimized protocol for biolistic delivery of plasmid DNA into epidermal cells of plant leaves, which can be easily performed using the Bio-Rad Helios gene gun system. This protocol allows efficient and reproducible transient expression of diverse genes in Arabidopsis, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum, and is suitable for studies of the biological function and subcellular localization of the gene products directly in planta. The protocol also can be easily adapted to other species by optimizing the delivery gas pressure. PMID:23104330

  3. Transient HEXA expression in a transformed human fetal Tay-Sachs disease neuroglial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, M.J.; Hechtman, P.; Kaplan, F.

    1994-09-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of GM{sub 2} ganglioside in the neurons of the central cortex. The recessively inherited disorder results from deficiency of hexosaminidase A (Hex A), a heterodimer of an {alpha} and {beta} subunit encoded by the HEXA and HEXB genes. Expression of HEXA mutations in COS cells has several disadvantages including high endogenous hexosaminidase activity. We report a new transient expression system with very low endogenous Hex A activity. An SV40-transformed fetal TSD neuroglial cell line was assessed for transient expression of the HEXA gene. pCMV{alpha}, a vector incorporating the cytomegalovirus promoter with the human {alpha}-subunit cDNA insert, proved to be the most efficient expression vector. Transfection of 4x10{sup 6} cells with 5-20 {mu}g of plasmid resulted in 100 to 500-fold Hex A activity (4MUGS hydrolysis) relative to mock-transfected cells. Use of pCMV{beta}-Gal as a control for transfection efficiency indicated that 10-20% of cells were transfected. Hex A specific activity increased for at least 72 h post-transfection. This new transient expression system should greatly improve the characterization of mutations in which low levels of HEXA expression result in milder clinical phenotypes and permit studies on enzymatic properties of mutant forms of Hex A. Since the cells used are of CNS origin and synthesize gangliosides, it should also be possible to study, in culture, the metabolic phenotype associated with TSD.

  4. Transient Transfection and Expression in the Obligate Intracellular Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, Dominique; Boothroyd, John C.

    1993-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan pathogen that produces severe disease in humans and animals. This obligate intracellular parasite provides an excellent model for the study of how such pathogens are able to invade, survive, and replicate intracellularly. DNA encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was introduced into T. gondii and transiently expressed with the use of three vectors based on different Toxoplasma genes. The ability to introduce genes and have them efficiently and faithfully expressed is an essential tool for understanding the structure-function relation of genes and their products.

  5. Transient expression of choline acetyltransferase-like immunoreactivity in Purkinje cells of the developing rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Gould, E; Butcher, L L

    1987-08-01

    The expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-like immunoreactivity was studied immunohistochemically in the cerebelli of developing rats. Brains were examined from the day of birth (postnatal day 1: P1) until adulthood. From P4 through P21, several Purkinje cells in the uvula, nodule, and flocculus of the cerebellum demonstrated ChAT-like immunoreactivity. After P23, no ChAT-positive neurons were observed in any region of the cerebellum. This finding paralleled the transient expression of acetylcholinesterase in Purkinje cells of these same cerebellar areas during development.

  6. Behavioural impacts of torpor expression: a transient effect in captive eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Amy B; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Humphries, Murray M

    2013-02-17

    Species use torpor, an extreme form of heterothermy, to survive periods of limited resource supply. Studies of hibernating animals have shown that torpor causes major structural and physiological changes in the brain, many of which are reversed during periodic arousals. This suggests that behaviour may change during and following the hibernation period. Here we investigate individual performance in behavioural tests prior to and during hibernation by captive eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus). Results indicate an association between deep torpor expression and atypical habituation patterns tested directly following torpor arousals. However, no association was found between torpor expression and spatial maze performance tested more than 24h post-arousal. Therefore, any behavioural impairment induced by torpor appears to be highly transient. The detected association between torpor and behaviour may be driven by previously confirmed effects of torpor on brain structure and function, though other potential covariates, such as the activation and deactivation of the stress axis, warrant consideration. Thus, our results are consistent with transient behavioural impairments following torpor arousals, but the causes and longer-term consequences of these transient impairments remain unclear. PMID:23313403

  7. Characterization of FeDREB1 promoter involved in cold- and drought-inducible expression from common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Fang, Z W; Xu, X Y; Gao, J F; Wang, P K; Liu, Z X; Feng, B L

    2015-01-01

    C-repeat-binding factor (CBF)/dehydration-responsive element (DREB) transcription factors play key roles in plant stress responses. However, little information is available on the regulation of CBF/DREB expression. In this study, we isolated and characterized the FeDREB1 promoter sequence from the common buckwheat accession Xinong 9976. To identify the upstream region of the FeDREB1 gene required for promoter activity, we constructed a series of FeDREB1 promoter deletion derivatives. Each deletion construct was analyzed through Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in tobacco leaves treated with 4°C cold or drought stress. Promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusion assays revealed that the pCD1 (-270 bp) deletion in the upstream region of FeDREB1 could activate expression of the GUS gene at 4°C. The pCD1 (-270 bp), pCD2 (-530 bp), and pCD3 (-904 bp) deletion induced low-level GUS expression under drought stress. However, the pCD4 (-1278 bp) deletion clearly activated GUS gene expression. Our results suggest that sections pCD1 (-270 bp) and pCD4 (-1278 bp) in the FeDREB1 gene promoter are new sources of induced promoters for adversity-resistance breeding in plant genetic engineering. PMID:26214481

  8. Characterization of FeDREB1 promoter involved in cold- and drought-inducible expression from common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Fang, Z W; Xu, X Y; Gao, J F; Wang, P K; Liu, Z X; Feng, B L

    2015-07-17

    C-repeat-binding factor (CBF)/dehydration-responsive element (DREB) transcription factors play key roles in plant stress responses. However, little information is available on the regulation of CBF/DREB expression. In this study, we isolated and characterized the FeDREB1 promoter sequence from the common buckwheat accession Xinong 9976. To identify the upstream region of the FeDREB1 gene required for promoter activity, we constructed a series of FeDREB1 promoter deletion derivatives. Each deletion construct was analyzed through Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in tobacco leaves treated with 4°C cold or drought stress. Promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusion assays revealed that the pCD1 (-270 bp) deletion in the upstream region of FeDREB1 could activate expression of the GUS gene at 4°C. The pCD1 (-270 bp), pCD2 (-530 bp), and pCD3 (-904 bp) deletion induced low-level GUS expression under drought stress. However, the pCD4 (-1278 bp) deletion clearly activated GUS gene expression. Our results suggest that sections pCD1 (-270 bp) and pCD4 (-1278 bp) in the FeDREB1 gene promoter are new sources of induced promoters for adversity-resistance breeding in plant genetic engineering.

  9. Functional expression of purinergic P2 receptors and transient receptor potential channels by the human urothelium

    PubMed Central

    Shabir, Saqib; Cross, William; Kirkwood, Lisa A.; Pearson, Joanna F.; Appleby, Peter A.; Walker, Dawn; Eardley, Ian

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its role as a physical barrier, the urothelium is considered to play an active role in mechanosensation. A key mechanism is the release of transient mediators that activate purinergic P2 receptors and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to effect changes in intracellular Ca2+. Despite the implied importance of these receptors and channels in urothelial tissue homeostasis and dysfunctional bladder disease, little is known about their functional expression by the human urothelium. To evaluate the expression and function of P2X and P2Y receptors and TRP channels, the human ureter and bladder were used to separate urothelial and stromal tissues for RNA isolation and cell culture. RT-PCR using stringently designed primer sets was used to establish which P2 and TRP species were expressed at the transcript level, and selective agonists/antagonists were used to confirm functional expression by monitoring changes in intracellular Ca2+ and in a scratch repair assay. The results confirmed the functional expression of P2Y4 receptors and excluded nonexpressed receptors/channels (P2X1, P2X3, P2X6, P2Y6, P2Y11, TRPV5, and TRPM8), while a dearth of specific agonists confounded the functional validation of expressed P2X2, P2X4, P2Y1, P2Y2, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV6 and TRPM7 receptors/channels. Although a conventional response was elicited in control stromal-derived cells, the urothelial cell response to well-characterized TRPV1 and TRPV4 agonists/antagonists revealed unexpected anomalies. In addition, agonists that invoked an increase in intracellular Ca2+ promoted urothelial scratch repair, presumably through the release of ATP. The study raises important questions about the ligand selectivity of receptor/channel targets expressed by the urothelium. These pathways are important in urothelial tissue homeostasis, and this opens the possibility of selective drug targeting. PMID:23720349

  10. Transient expression of somatostatin messenger RNA and peptide in the hypoglossal nucleus of the neonatal rat.

    PubMed

    Seroogy, K B; Bayliss, D A; Szymeczek, C L; Hökfelt, T; Millhorn, D E

    1991-06-21

    The postnatal developmental expression of somatostatin mRNA and peptide in the rat hypoglossal nucleus was analyzed using immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. Both the neuropeptide and its cognate mRNA were found to be transiently present within a subpopulation of hypoglossal motoneurons during the neonatal period. At the day of birth, a large population of perikarya situated in caudal, ventral regions of the hypoglossal nucleus expressed somatostatin. By postnatal day 7, the number of hypoglossal somata which expressed somatostatin had diminished considerably, and by 2 weeks postnatal, only few such cell bodies were found. By 3-4 weeks postnatal, somatostatin peptide- and mRNA-containing hypoglossal motoneurons were rarely observed, and in the adult, they were never detected, despite the use of colchicine. A double-labeling co-localization technique was used to demonstrate that somatostatin, when present perinatally, always coexisted with calcitonin gene-related peptide in hypoglossal motoneurons. The latter peptide, in contrast to somatostatin, was expressed in large numbers of somata throughout the entire hypoglossal nucleus and persisted within the motoneurons throughout development into adulthood. These results demonstrate that somatostatin is transiently expressed in motoneurons of the caudal, ventral tier of the hypoglossal nucleus in the neonatal rat. The developmental disappearance of somatostatin is most likely not due to cell death; hypoglossal somata continue to express calcitonin gene-related peptide, with which somatostatin coexisted perinatally, a high levels throughout development. Thus, it appears that the regulation of somatostatin expression in hypoglossal neurons occurs at the level of gene transcription or mRNA stability/degradation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1680035

  11. A Guide to Transient Expression of Membrane Proteins in HEK-293 Cells for Functional Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Amanda; Wong, Aloysius; Esau, Luke; Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad; Gehring, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells are commonly used as host for the heterologous expression of membrane proteins not least because they have a high transfection efficiency and faithfully translate and process proteins. In addition, their cell size, morphology and division rate, and low expression of native channels are traits that are particularly attractive for current-voltage measurements. Nevertheless, the heterologous expression of complex membrane proteins such as receptors and ion channels for biological characterization and in particular for single-cell applications such as electrophysiology remains a challenge. Expression of functional proteins depends largely on careful step-by-step optimization that includes the design of expression vectors with suitable identification tags, as well as the selection of transfection methods and detection parameters appropriate for the application. Here, we use the heterologous expression of a plant potassium channel, the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell outward-rectifying K+ channel, AtGORK (At5G37500) in HEK-293 cells as an example, to evaluate commonly used transfection reagents and fluorescent detection methods, and provide a detailed methodology for optimized transient transfection and expression of membrane proteins for in vivo studies in general and for single-cell applications in particular. This optimized protocol will facilitate the physiological and cellular characterization of complex membrane proteins. PMID:27486406

  12. A Guide to Transient Expression of Membrane Proteins in HEK-293 Cells for Functional Characterization.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Amanda; Wong, Aloysius; Esau, Luke; Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad; Gehring, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells are commonly used as host for the heterologous expression of membrane proteins not least because they have a high transfection efficiency and faithfully translate and process proteins. In addition, their cell size, morphology and division rate, and low expression of native channels are traits that are particularly attractive for current-voltage measurements. Nevertheless, the heterologous expression of complex membrane proteins such as receptors and ion channels for biological characterization and in particular for single-cell applications such as electrophysiology remains a challenge. Expression of functional proteins depends largely on careful step-by-step optimization that includes the design of expression vectors with suitable identification tags, as well as the selection of transfection methods and detection parameters appropriate for the application. Here, we use the heterologous expression of a plant potassium channel, the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell outward-rectifying K(+) channel, AtGORK (At5G37500) in HEK-293 cells as an example, to evaluate commonly used transfection reagents and fluorescent detection methods, and provide a detailed methodology for optimized transient transfection and expression of membrane proteins for in vivo studies in general and for single-cell applications in particular. This optimized protocol will facilitate the physiological and cellular characterization of complex membrane proteins. PMID:27486406

  13. The impact of Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors on transient protein expression in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Buyel, J F; Buyel, J J; Haase, C; Fischer, R

    2015-03-01

    The production of recombinant proteins in plants is often achieved by transient expression, e.g. following the injection or vacuum infiltration of Agrobacterium tumefaciens into tobacco leaves. We investigated the associated plant defence responses, revealing that callose deposition is triggered by T-DNA transfer and that subsets of secondary metabolites accumulate in response to mechanical wounding or the presence of bacteria. We also tested the ability of five co-expressed type III effector proteins from Pseudomonas syringae to modulate these defence responses and increase the yield of two model proteins, the fluorescent marker DsRed and monoclonal antibody 2G12. HopF2 and AvrRpt2 induced necrotic lesions 5 days post-injection (dpi) even at low doses (OD600 nm  = 0.0078), and increased the concentration of certain secondary metabolites. HopAO1 significantly reduced the number of callose deposits at 2 dpi compared to cells expressing DsRed and 2G12 alone, whereas HopI1 reduced the concentration of several secondary metabolites at 5 dpi compared to cells expressing DsRed and 2G12 alone. Co-expression with HopAO1, AvrPtoB or HopI1 increased the concentrations of DsRed and 2G12 increased by ~6% but this was not a significant change. In contrast, HopF2 and AvrRpt2 significantly reduced the concentrations of DsRed and 2G12 by 34% and 22%, respectively. Our results show that type III effector proteins can modulate plant defence responses and secondary metabolite profiles but that transient co-expression is not sufficient to increase the yields of target recombinant proteins in tobacco.

  14. Poinsettia protoplasts - a simple, robust and efficient system for transient gene expression studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transient gene expression systems are indispensable tools in molecular biology. Yet, their routine application is limited to few plant species often requiring substantial equipment and facilities. High chloroplast and chlorophyll content may further impede downstream applications of transformed cells from green plant tissue. Results Here, we describe a fast and simple technique for the high-yield isolation and efficient transformation (>70%) of mesophyll-derived protoplasts from red leaves of the perennial plant Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulccherrima). In this method no particular growth facilities or expensive equipments are needed. Poinsettia protoplasts display an astonishing robustness and can be employed in a variety of commonly-used downstream applications, such as subcellular localisation (multi-colour fluorescence) or promoter activity studies. Due to low abundance of chloroplasts or chromoplasts, problems encountered in other mesophyll-derived protoplast systems (particularly autofluorescence) are alleviated. Furthermore, the transgene expression is detectable within 90 minutes of transformation and lasts for several days. Conclusions The simplicity of the isolation and transformation procedure renders Poinsettia protoplasts an attractive system for transient gene expression experiments, including multi-colour fluorescence, subcellular localisation and promoter activity studies. In addition, they offer hitherto unknown possibilities for anthocyan research and industrial applications. PMID:22559320

  15. RNA-based, transient modulation of gene expression in human haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Diener, Yvonne; Jurk, Marion; Kandil, Britta; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Wild, Stefan; Bissels, Ute; Bosio, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of gene expression is a useful tool to study the biology of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and might also be instrumental to expand these cells for therapeutic approaches. Most of the studies so far have employed stable gene modification by viral vectors that are burdensome when translating protocols into clinical settings. Our study aimed at exploring new ways to transiently modify HSPC gene expression using non-integrating, RNA-based molecules. First, we tested different methods to deliver these molecules into HSPCs. The delivery of siRNAs with chemical transfection methods such as lipofection or cationic polymers did not lead to target knockdown, although we observed more than 90% fluorescent cells using a fluorochrome-coupled siRNA. Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that despite extensive washing, siRNA stuck to or in the cell surface, thereby mimicking a transfection event. In contrast, electroporation resulted in efficient, siRNA-mediated protein knockdown. For transient overexpression of proteins, we used optimised mRNA molecules with modified 5′- and 3′-UTRs. Electroporation of mRNA encoding GFP resulted in fast, efficient and persistent protein expression for at least seven days. Our data provide a broad-ranging comparison of transfection methods for hard-to-transfect cells and offer new opportunities for DNA-free, non-integrating gene modulation in HSPCs. PMID:26599627

  16. Electroporation transiently decreases GJB2 (connexin 26) expression in B16/BL6 melanoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Marcelo Monte Mór; Chaible, Lucas Martins; Nagamine, Marcia Kazumi; Mennecier, Gregory; Cogliati, Bruno; de Oliveira, Krishna Duro; Fukumasu, Heidge; Sinhorini, Idércio Luiz; Mir, Lluis Maria; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan

    2015-02-01

    Connexins are proteins that form gap junctions. Perturbations in the cell membrane reportedly promote changes in the expression profile of connexins. Electroporation promotes destabilization by applying electrical pulses, and this procedure is used in electrochemotherapy and gene therapy, among others. This in vitro work aimed to study the interference of electroporation on the expression profile of GJB2 (Cx26 gene) and Connexin 26 in melanoma cell line B16/BL6. The techniques of immunocytochemistry, Western blot, and real-time PCR were used. After electroporation, cells showed a transient decrease in GJB2 mRNA. The immunostaining of Cx26 showed no noticeable change after electroporation at different time points. However, Western blot showed a significant reduction in Cx26 30 min after electroporation. Our results showed that electroporation interferes transiently in the expression of Connexin 26 in melanoma and are consistent with the idea that electroporation is a process of intense stress that promotes cell homeostatic imbalance and results in disruption of cell physiological processes such as transcription and translation.

  17. Emergence Delirium with Transient Associative Agnosia and Expressive Aphasia Reversed by Flumazenil in a Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Drobish, Julie K.; Kelz, Max B.; DiPuppo, Patricia M.; Cook-Sather, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple factors may contribute to the development of emergence delirium in a child. We present the case of a healthy 12-year-old girl who received preoperative midazolam with the desired anxiolytic effect, underwent a brief general anesthetic, and then exhibited postoperative delirium, consisting of a transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia. Administration of flumazenil led to immediate and lasting resolution of her symptoms. We hypothesize that γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated effects, most likely related to an atypical offset of midazolam, are an important subset of emergence delirium that is amenable to pharmacologic therapy with flumazenil. PMID:26035220

  18. Identifying subcellular protein localization with fluorescent protein fusions after transient expression in onion epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Nebenführ, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Most biochemical functions of plant cells are carried out by proteins which act at very specific places within these cells, for example, within different organelles. Identifying the subcellular localization of proteins is therefore a useful tool to narrow down the possible functions that a novel or unknown protein may carry out. The discovery of genetically encoded fluorescent markers has made it possible to tag specific proteins and visualize them in vivo under a variety of conditions. This chapter describes a simple method to use transient expression of such fluorescently tagged proteins in onion epidermal cells to determine their subcellular localization relative to known markers.

  19. Emergence delirium with transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia reversed by flumazenil in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Drobish, Julie K; Kelz, Max B; DiPuppo, Patricia M; Cook-Sather, Scott D

    2015-06-01

    Multiple factors may contribute to the development of emergence delirium in a child. We present the case of a healthy 12-year-old girl who received preoperative midazolam with the desired anxiolytic effect, underwent a brief general anesthetic, and then exhibited postoperative delirium, consisting of a transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia. Administration of flumazenil led to immediate and lasting resolution of her symptoms. We hypothesize that γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated effects, most likely related to an atypical offset of midazolam, are an important subset of emergence delirium that is amenable to pharmacologic therapy with flumazenil. PMID:26035220

  20. Emergence delirium with transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia reversed by flumazenil in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Drobish, Julie K; Kelz, Max B; DiPuppo, Patricia M; Cook-Sather, Scott D

    2015-06-01

    Multiple factors may contribute to the development of emergence delirium in a child. We present the case of a healthy 12-year-old girl who received preoperative midazolam with the desired anxiolytic effect, underwent a brief general anesthetic, and then exhibited postoperative delirium, consisting of a transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia. Administration of flumazenil led to immediate and lasting resolution of her symptoms. We hypothesize that γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated effects, most likely related to an atypical offset of midazolam, are an important subset of emergence delirium that is amenable to pharmacologic therapy with flumazenil.

  1. Increases of Catalase and Glutathione Peroxidase Expressions by Lacosamide Pretreatment Contributes to Neuroprotection Against Experimentally Induced Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Young; Park, Joon Ha; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich Na; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Lee, Jae-Chul; Won, Moo-Ho; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Yan, Bing Chun; Hwang, In Koo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kim, Sung Koo

    2016-09-01

    Lacosamide is a new antiepileptic drug which is widely used to treat partial-onset seizures. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of lacosamide against transient ischemic damage and expressions of antioxidant enzymes such as Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region following 5 min of transient global cerebral ischemia in gerbils. We found that pre-treatment with 25 mg/kg lacosamide protected CA1 pyramidal neurons from transient global cerebral ischemic insult using hematoxylin-eosin staining and neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. Transient ischemia dramatically changed expressions of SOD1, SOD2 and GPX, not CAT, in the CA1 pyramidal neurons. Lacosamide pre-treatment increased expressions of CAT and GPX, not SOD1 and 2, in the CA1 pyramidal neurons compared with controls, and their expressions induced by lacosamide pre-treatment were maintained after transient cerebral ischemia. In brief, pre-treatment with lacosamide protected hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic damage induced by transient global cerebral ischemia, and the lacosamide-mediated neuroprotection may be closely related to increases of CAT and GPX expressions by lacosamide pre-treatment. PMID:27209305

  2. Production of the Main Celiac Disease Autoantigen by Transient Expression in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Marín Viegas, Vanesa S.; Acevedo, Gonzalo R.; Bayardo, Mariela P.; Chirdo, Fernando G.; Petruccelli, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Celiac Disease (CD) is a gluten sensitive enteropathy that remains widely undiagnosed and implementation of massive screening tests is needed to reduce the long term complications associated to untreated CD. The main CD autoantigen, human tissue transglutaminase (TG2), is a challenge for the different expression systems available since its cross-linking activity affects cellular processes. Plant-based transient expression systems can be an alternative for the production of this protein. In this work, a transient expression system for the production of human TG2 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves was optimized and reactivity of plant-produced TG2 in CD screening test was evaluated. First, a subcellular targeting strategy was tested. Cytosolic, secretory, endoplasmic reticulum (C-terminal SEKDEL fusion) and vacuolar (C-terminal KISIA fusion) TG2 versions were transiently expressed in leaves and recombinant protein yields were measured. ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 levels were 9- to 16-fold higher than their cytosolic and secretory counterparts. As second strategy, TG2 variants were co-expressed with a hydrophobic elastin-like polymer (ELP) construct encoding for 36 repeats of the pentapeptide VPGXG in which the guest residue X were V and F in ratio 8:1. Protein bodies (PB) were induced by the ELP, with a consequent two-fold-increase in accumulation of both ER-TG2 and vac-TG2. Subsequently, ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 were produced and purified using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Plant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 were recognized by three anti-TG2 monoclonal antibodies that bind different epitopes proving that plant-produced antigen has immunochemical characteristics similar to those of human TG2. Lastly, an ELISA was performed with sera of CD patients and healthy controls. Both vac-TG2 and ER-TG2 were positively recognized by IgA of CD patients while they were not recognized by serum from non-celiac controls. These results confirmed the usefulness of plant-produced TG2 to

  3. Production of the Main Celiac Disease Autoantigen by Transient Expression in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Marín Viegas, Vanesa S; Acevedo, Gonzalo R; Bayardo, Mariela P; Chirdo, Fernando G; Petruccelli, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Celiac Disease (CD) is a gluten sensitive enteropathy that remains widely undiagnosed and implementation of massive screening tests is needed to reduce the long term complications associated to untreated CD. The main CD autoantigen, human tissue transglutaminase (TG2), is a challenge for the different expression systems available since its cross-linking activity affects cellular processes. Plant-based transient expression systems can be an alternative for the production of this protein. In this work, a transient expression system for the production of human TG2 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves was optimized and reactivity of plant-produced TG2 in CD screening test was evaluated. First, a subcellular targeting strategy was tested. Cytosolic, secretory, endoplasmic reticulum (C-terminal SEKDEL fusion) and vacuolar (C-terminal KISIA fusion) TG2 versions were transiently expressed in leaves and recombinant protein yields were measured. ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 levels were 9- to 16-fold higher than their cytosolic and secretory counterparts. As second strategy, TG2 variants were co-expressed with a hydrophobic elastin-like polymer (ELP) construct encoding for 36 repeats of the pentapeptide VPGXG in which the guest residue X were V and F in ratio 8:1. Protein bodies (PB) were induced by the ELP, with a consequent two-fold-increase in accumulation of both ER-TG2 and vac-TG2. Subsequently, ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 were produced and purified using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Plant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 were recognized by three anti-TG2 monoclonal antibodies that bind different epitopes proving that plant-produced antigen has immunochemical characteristics similar to those of human TG2. Lastly, an ELISA was performed with sera of CD patients and healthy controls. Both vac-TG2 and ER-TG2 were positively recognized by IgA of CD patients while they were not recognized by serum from non-celiac controls. These results confirmed the usefulness of plant-produced TG2 to

  4. Application of a Scalable Plant Transient Gene Expression Platform for Malaria Vaccine Development.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Holger; Boes, Alexander; Voepel, Nadja; Beiss, Veronique; Edgue, Gueven; Rademacher, Thomas; Sack, Markus; Schillberg, Stefan; Reimann, Andreas; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of intensive research efforts there is currently no vaccine that provides sustained sterile immunity against malaria. In this context, a large number of targets from the different stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle have been evaluated as vaccine candidates. None of these candidates has fulfilled expectations, and as long as we lack a single target that induces strain-transcending protective immune responses, combining key antigens from different life cycle stages seems to be the most promising route toward the development of efficacious malaria vaccines. After the identification of potential targets using approaches such as omics-based technology and reverse immunology, the rapid expression, purification, and characterization of these proteins, as well as the generation and analysis of fusion constructs combining different promising antigens or antigen domains before committing to expensive and time consuming clinical development, represents one of the bottlenecks in the vaccine development pipeline. The production of recombinant proteins by transient gene expression in plants is a robust and versatile alternative to cell-based microbial and eukaryotic production platforms. The transfection of plant tissues and/or whole plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens offers a low technical entry barrier, low costs, and a high degree of flexibility embedded within a rapid and scalable workflow. Recombinant proteins can easily be targeted to different subcellular compartments according to their physicochemical requirements, including post-translational modifications, to ensure optimal yields of high quality product, and to support simple and economical downstream processing. Here, we demonstrate the use of a plant transient expression platform based on transfection with A. tumefaciens as essential component of a malaria vaccine development workflow involving screens for expression, solubility, and stability using fluorescent fusion proteins. Our

  5. Application of a Scalable Plant Transient Gene Expression Platform for Malaria Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, Holger; Boes, Alexander; Voepel, Nadja; Beiss, Veronique; Edgue, Gueven; Rademacher, Thomas; Sack, Markus; Schillberg, Stefan; Reimann, Andreas; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of intensive research efforts there is currently no vaccine that provides sustained sterile immunity against malaria. In this context, a large number of targets from the different stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle have been evaluated as vaccine candidates. None of these candidates has fulfilled expectations, and as long as we lack a single target that induces strain-transcending protective immune responses, combining key antigens from different life cycle stages seems to be the most promising route toward the development of efficacious malaria vaccines. After the identification of potential targets using approaches such as omics-based technology and reverse immunology, the rapid expression, purification, and characterization of these proteins, as well as the generation and analysis of fusion constructs combining different promising antigens or antigen domains before committing to expensive and time consuming clinical development, represents one of the bottlenecks in the vaccine development pipeline. The production of recombinant proteins by transient gene expression in plants is a robust and versatile alternative to cell-based microbial and eukaryotic production platforms. The transfection of plant tissues and/or whole plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens offers a low technical entry barrier, low costs, and a high degree of flexibility embedded within a rapid and scalable workflow. Recombinant proteins can easily be targeted to different subcellular compartments according to their physicochemical requirements, including post-translational modifications, to ensure optimal yields of high quality product, and to support simple and economical downstream processing. Here, we demonstrate the use of a plant transient expression platform based on transfection with A. tumefaciens as essential component of a malaria vaccine development workflow involving screens for expression, solubility, and stability using fluorescent fusion proteins. Our

  6. A Plant-Based Transient Expression System for the Rapid Production of Malaria Vaccine Candidates.

    PubMed

    Boes, Alexander; Reimann, Andreas; Twyman, Richard M; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan; Spiegel, Holger

    2016-01-01

    There are currently no vaccines that provide sterile immunity against malaria. Various proteins from different stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle have been evaluated as vaccine candidates, but none of them have fulfilled expectations. Therefore, combinations of key antigens from different stages of the parasites life cycle may be essential for the development of efficacious malaria vaccines. Following the identification of promising antigens using bioinformatics, proteomics, and/or immunological approaches, it is necessary to express, purify, and characterize these proteins and explore the potential of fusion constructs combining different antigens or antigen domains before committing to expensive and time-consuming clinical development. Here, using malaria vaccine candidates as an example, we describe how Agrobacterium tumefaciens-based transient expression in plants can be combined with a modular and flexible cloning strategy as a robust and versatile tool for the rapid production of candidate antigens during research and development. PMID:27076325

  7. [Efficient transient expression to analyze miRNA targets in rice protoplasts].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ping; Wu, Yao; Li, Jia; Fang, Rongxiang; Jia, Yantao

    2014-11-01

    Compared with the transgenic approach, transient assays provide a convenient alternative to analyze gene expression. To analyze the relationship between miRNAs and their target genes, a rice protoplast system to detect target gene activity was established. The MIRNA and GFP-fused target sequence (or GFP-fused mutated sequence as a non-target control) were constructed into the same plasmid, and then delivered into rice protoplasts. The GFP expression level decreased significantly when the protoplasts were transfected with the plasmid containing GFP-fused target compared to that of the plasmid with non-target sequence either by fluorescence microscopy or qRT-PCR method. Two microRNA genes, osaMIR156 and osaMIR397, and their target sequences were used to prove the feasibility of the rice protoplast transient assay system. This method will facilitate large-scale screening of rice miRNA target in vivo, and may be suitable for functional analysis of miRNAs of other monocot plants that might share the evolutionarily conserved small RNA processing system with rice. PMID:25985526

  8. [Efficient transient expression to analyze miRNA targets in rice protoplasts].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ping; Wu, Yao; Li, Jia; Fang, Rongxiang; Jia, Yantao

    2014-11-01

    Compared with the transgenic approach, transient assays provide a convenient alternative to analyze gene expression. To analyze the relationship between miRNAs and their target genes, a rice protoplast system to detect target gene activity was established. The MIRNA and GFP-fused target sequence (or GFP-fused mutated sequence as a non-target control) were constructed into the same plasmid, and then delivered into rice protoplasts. The GFP expression level decreased significantly when the protoplasts were transfected with the plasmid containing GFP-fused target compared to that of the plasmid with non-target sequence either by fluorescence microscopy or qRT-PCR method. Two microRNA genes, osaMIR156 and osaMIR397, and their target sequences were used to prove the feasibility of the rice protoplast transient assay system. This method will facilitate large-scale screening of rice miRNA target in vivo, and may be suitable for functional analysis of miRNAs of other monocot plants that might share the evolutionarily conserved small RNA processing system with rice.

  9. Transient Expression of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus Effector Induces Cell Death in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Pitino, Marco; Armstrong, Cheryl M.; Cano, Liliana M.; Duan, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus “Las” is a phloem-limited bacterial plant pathogen, and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Although, the complete sequence of the Las genome provides the basis for studying functional genomics of Las and molecular mechanisms of Las-plant interactions, the functional characterization of Las effectors remains a slow process since remains to be cultured. Like other plant pathogens, Las may deliver effector proteins into host cells and modulate a variety of host cellular functions for their infection progression. In this study, we identified 16 putative Las effectors via bioinformatics, and transiently expressed them in Nicotiana benthamiana. Diverse subcellular localization with different shapes and aggregation patterns of the effector candidates were revealed by UV- microscopy after transient expression in leaf tissue. Intriguingly, one of the 16 candidates, Las5315mp (mature protein), was localized in the chloroplast and induced cell death at 3 days post inoculation (dpi) in N. benthamiana. Moreover, Las5315mp induced strong callose deposition in plant cells. This study provides new insights into the localizations and potential roles of these Las effectors in planta. PMID:27458468

  10. Transient Expression of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus Effector Induces Cell Death in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Pitino, Marco; Armstrong, Cheryl M; Cano, Liliana M; Duan, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus "Las" is a phloem-limited bacterial plant pathogen, and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Although, the complete sequence of the Las genome provides the basis for studying functional genomics of Las and molecular mechanisms of Las-plant interactions, the functional characterization of Las effectors remains a slow process since remains to be cultured. Like other plant pathogens, Las may deliver effector proteins into host cells and modulate a variety of host cellular functions for their infection progression. In this study, we identified 16 putative Las effectors via bioinformatics, and transiently expressed them in Nicotiana benthamiana. Diverse subcellular localization with different shapes and aggregation patterns of the effector candidates were revealed by UV- microscopy after transient expression in leaf tissue. Intriguingly, one of the 16 candidates, Las5315mp (mature protein), was localized in the chloroplast and induced cell death at 3 days post inoculation (dpi) in N. benthamiana. Moreover, Las5315mp induced strong callose deposition in plant cells. This study provides new insights into the localizations and potential roles of these Las effectors in planta. PMID:27458468

  11. Analysis of promoters in Borrelia burgdorferi by use of a transiently expressed reporter gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sohaskey, C D; Arnold, C; Barbour, A G

    1997-01-01

    A transient chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression system was developed for Borrelia burgdorferi. An Escherichia coli vector containing a promoterless Streptococcus agalactiae cat gene was constructed. Promoters for ospA, ospC, and flaB were placed upstream of this cat gene, and CAT assays were performed in E. coli from these stably maintained plasmids. The plasmids with putative promoters ospA and flaB were found to be approximately 20-fold more active than were the plasmids with ospC or no promoter. The level of activity correlated well with the resistance to chloramphenicol that each plasmid provided. Next, the nonreplicative plasmid constructs were transformed by electroporation into B. burgdorferi. CAT assays were performed by both thin-layer chromatography and the fluor diffusion method. Measurement of CAT activity demonstrated that the ospA promoter was again about 20-fold more active than the promoterless cat gene. The flaB and ospC promoters increased the activity seven- and threefold, respectively, over that with the promoterless construct. This simple transient-expression assay was shown to be an effective method to study promoter function in B. burgdorferi in the absence of a well-developed genetic system. PMID:9352937

  12. Transient expression directed by homologous and heterologous promoter and enhancer sequences in fish cells.

    PubMed Central

    Friedenreich, H; Schartl, M

    1990-01-01

    In order to construct fish specific expression vectors for studies on gene regulation in vitro and in vivo a variety of heterologous enhancers and promoters from mammals and from viruses of higher vertebrate cells were tested for expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene in three teleost fish cell lines. Several viral enhancers were found to be constitutively active at high levels. The human metallothionein promoter showed inducible expression in the presence of heavy metal ions. A fish sequence was isolated that can be used as a homologous constitutively active promoter for expression of foreign genes. Using the human growth hormone gene with an active promoter in fish cells for transient expression insufficient splicing and lack of translation were observed, pointing to limitations in the use of heterologous genes in gene transfer experiments. On the contrary, some heterologous promoters and enhancers functioned in fish cells as well as in their cell type of origin, indicating that corresponding transcription factors are sufficiently conserved between fish and human over a period of 900 million years of independent evolution. Images PMID:2356120

  13. Methylation of the Gpat2 promoter regulates transient expression during mouse spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Fabiani, Maria B.; Montanaro, Mauro A.; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Cattaneo, Elizabeth R.; Coleman, Rosalind A.; Pellon-Maison, Magali; Gonzalez-Baro, Maria R.

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly regulated process that involves both mitotic and meiotic divisions, as well as cellular differentiation to yield mature spermatozoa from undifferentiated germinal stem cells. Although Gpat2 was originally annotated as encoding a glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase by sequence homology to Gpat1, GPAT2 is highly expressed in testis but not in lipogenic tissues and is not up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation. New data show that GPAT2 is required for the synthesis of piRNAs (piwi-interacting RNAs), a group of small RNAs that protect the germ cell genome from retrotransposable elements. In order to understand the relationship between GPAT2 and its role in the testis, we focused on Gpat2 expression during the first wave of mouse spermatogenesis. Gpat2 expression was analysed by qPCR (quantitative real-time PCR), in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Gpat2 mRNA content and protein expression were maximal at 15 dpp (days post-partum) and were restricted to pachytene spermatocytes. To achieve this transient expression, both epigenetic mechanisms and trans-acting factors are involved. In vitro assays showed that Gpat2 expression correlates with DNA demethylation and histone acetylation and that it is up-regulated by retinoic acid. Epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation was confirmed in vivo in germ cells by bisulfite sequencing of the Gpat2 promoter. Consistent with the initiation of meiosis at 11 dpp, methylation decreased dramatically. Thus, Gpat2 is expressed at a specific stage of spermatogenesis, consistent with piRNA synthesis and meiosis I prophase, and its on–off expression pattern responds predominantly to epigenetic modifications. PMID:26268560

  14. Methylation of the Gpat2 promoter regulates transient expression during mouse spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Fabiani, Maria B; Montanaro, Mauro A; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Cattaneo, Elizabeth R; Coleman, Rosalind A; Pellon-Maison, Magali; Gonzalez-Baro, Maria R

    2015-10-15

    Spermatogenesis is a highly regulated process that involves both mitotic and meiotic divisions, as well as cellular differentiation to yield mature spermatozoa from undifferentiated germinal stem cells. Although Gpat2 was originally annotated as encoding a glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase by sequence homology to Gpat1, GPAT2 is highly expressed in testis but not in lipogenic tissues and is not up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation. New data show that GPAT2 is required for the synthesis of piRNAs (piwi-interacting RNAs), a group of small RNAs that protect the germ cell genome from retrotransposable elements. In order to understand the relationship between GPAT2 and its role in the testis, we focused on Gpat2 expression during the first wave of mouse spermatogenesis. Gpat2 expression was analysed by qPCR (quantitative real-time PCR), in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Gpat2 mRNA content and protein expression were maximal at 15 dpp (days post-partum) and were restricted to pachytene spermatocytes. To achieve this transient expression, both epigenetic mechanisms and trans-acting factors are involved. In vitro assays showed that Gpat2 expression correlates with DNA demethylation and histone acetylation and that it is up-regulated by retinoic acid. Epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation was confirmed in vivo in germ cells by bisulfite sequencing of the Gpat2 promoter. Consistent with the initiation of meiosis at 11 dpp, methylation decreased dramatically. Thus, Gpat2 is expressed at a specific stage of spermatogenesis, consistent with piRNA synthesis and meiosis I prophase, and its on-off expression pattern responds predominantly to epigenetic modifications. PMID:26268560

  15. [Agrobacterium-mediated sunflower transformation (Helianthus annuus L.) in vitro and in Planta using strain of LBA4404 harboring binary vector pBi2E with dsRNA-suppressor proline dehydrogenase gene].

    PubMed

    Tishchenko, E N; Komisarenko, A G; Mikhal'skaia, S I; Sergeeva, L E; Adamenko, N I; Morgun, B V; Kochetov, A V

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the efficiency of proline dehydrogenase gene suppression towards increasing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tolerance level to water deficit and salinity, we employed strain LBA4404 harboring pBi2E with double-stranded RNA-suppressor, which were prepared on basis arabidopsis ProDH1 gene. The techniques of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in vitro and in planta during fertilization sunflower have been proposed. There was shown the genotype-depended integration of T-DNA in sunflower genome. PCR-analysis showed that ProDH1 presents in genome of inbred lines transformed in planta, as well as in T1- and T2-generations. In trans-genic regenerants the essential accumulation of free L-proline during early stages of in vitro cultivation under normal conditions was shown. There was established the essential accumulation of free proline in transgenic regenerants during cultivation under lethal stress pressure (0.4 M mannitol and 2.0% sea water salts) and its decline upon the recovery period. These data are declared about effectiveness of suppression of sunflower ProDH and gene participation in processes connected with osmotolerance.

  16. Bcmimp1, a Botrytis cinerea Gene Transiently Expressed in planta, Encodes a Mitochondrial Protein

    PubMed Central

    Benito-Pescador, David; Santander, Daniela; Arranz, M.; Díaz-Mínguez, José M.; Eslava, Arturo P.; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Benito, Ernesto P.

    2016-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a widespread necrotrophic fungus which infects more than 200 plant species. In an attempt to characterize the physiological status of the fungus in planta and to identify genetic factors contributing to its ability to infect the host cells, a differential gene expression analysis during the interaction B. cinerea-tomato was carried out. Gene Bcmimp1 codes for a mRNA detected by differential display in the course of this analysis. During the interaction with the host, it shows a transient expression pattern with maximal expression levels during the colonization and maceration of the infected tissues. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that BCMIMP1 is an integral membrane protein located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Co-localization experiments with a BCMIMP1-GFP fusion protein confirmed that the protein is targeted to the mitochondria. ΔBcmimp1 mutants do not show obvious phenotypic differences during saprophytic growth and their infection ability was unaltered as compared to the wild-type. Interestingly, the mutants produced increased levels of reactive oxygen species, likely as a consequence of disturbed mitochondrial function. Although Bcmimp1 expression is enhanced in planta it cannot be considered a pathogenicity factor. PMID:26952144

  17. Global Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes and Proteins in the Wheat Callus Infected by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaohong; Wang, Ke; Lv, Dongwen; Wu, Chengjun; Li, Jiarui; Zhao, Pei; Lin, Zhishan; Du, Lipu; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2013-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation is an extremely complex and evolved process involving genetic determinants of both the bacteria and the host plant cells. However, the mechanism of the determinants remains obscure, especially in some cereal crops such as wheat, which is recalcitrant for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In this study, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were analyzed in wheat callus cells co-cultured with Agrobacterium by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS). A set of 4,889 DEGs and 90 DEPs were identified, respectively. Most of them are related to metabolism, chromatin assembly or disassembly and immune defense. After comparative analysis, 24 of the 90 DEPs were detected in RNA-seq and proteomics datasets simultaneously. In addition, real-time RT-PCR experiments were performed to check the differential expression of the 24 genes, and the results were consistent with the RNA-seq data. According to gene ontology (GO) analysis, we found that a big part of these differentially expressed genes were related to the process of stress or immunity response. Several putative determinants and candidate effectors responsive to Agrobacterium mediated transformation of wheat cells were discussed. We speculate that some of these genes are possibly related to Agrobacterium infection. Our results will help to understand the interaction between Agrobacterium and host cells, and may facilitate developing efficient transformation strategies in cereal crops. PMID:24278131

  18. Protocols for Studying Protein Stability in an Arabidopsis Protoplast Transient Expression System.

    PubMed

    Planchais, Séverine; Camborde, Laurent; Jupin, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Protein stability influences many aspects of biology, and measuring their stability in vivo can provide important insights into biological systems.This chapter describes in details two methods to assess the stability of a specific protein based on its transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts. First, a pulse-chase assay based on radioactive metabolic labeling of cellular proteins, followed by immunoprecipitation of the protein of interest. The decrease in radioactive signal is monitored over time and can be used to determine the protein's half-life.Alternatively, we also present a nonradioactive assay based on the use of reporter proteins, whose ratio can be quantified. This assay can be used to determine the relative stability of a protein of interest under specific conditions. PMID:27424754

  19. Protocols for Studying Protein Stability in an Arabidopsis Protoplast Transient Expression System.

    PubMed

    Planchais, Séverine; Camborde, Laurent; Jupin, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Protein stability influences many aspects of biology, and measuring their stability in vivo can provide important insights into biological systems.This chapter describes in details two methods to assess the stability of a specific protein based on its transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts. First, a pulse-chase assay based on radioactive metabolic labeling of cellular proteins, followed by immunoprecipitation of the protein of interest. The decrease in radioactive signal is monitored over time and can be used to determine the protein's half-life.Alternatively, we also present a nonradioactive assay based on the use of reporter proteins, whose ratio can be quantified. This assay can be used to determine the relative stability of a protein of interest under specific conditions.

  20. ATP Released by Electrical Stimuli Elicits Calcium Transients and Gene Expression in Skeletal Muscle*

    PubMed Central

    Buvinic, Sonja; Almarza, Gonzalo; Bustamante, Mario; Casas, Mariana; López, Javiera; Riquelme, Manuel; Sáez, Juan Carlos; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    ATP released from cells is known to activate plasma membrane P2X (ionotropic) or P2Y (metabotropic) receptors. In skeletal muscle cells, depolarizing stimuli induce both a fast calcium signal associated with contraction and a slow signal that regulates gene expression. Here we show that nucleotides released to the extracellular medium by electrical stimulation are partly involved in the fast component and are largely responsible for the slow signals. In rat skeletal myotubes, a tetanic stimulus (45 Hz, 400 1-ms pulses) rapidly increased extracellular levels of ATP, ADP, and AMP after 15 s to 3 min. Exogenous ATP induced an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration, with an EC50 value of 7.8 ± 3.1 μm. Exogenous ADP, UTP, and UDP also promoted calcium transients. Both fast and slow calcium signals evoked by tetanic stimulation were inhibited by either 100 μm suramin or 2 units/ml apyrase. Apyrase also reduced fast and slow calcium signals evoked by tetanus (45 Hz, 400 0.3-ms pulses) in isolated mouse adult skeletal fibers. A likely candidate for the ATP release pathway is the pannexin-1 hemichannel; its blockers inhibited both calcium transients and ATP release. The dihydropyridine receptor co-precipitated with both the P2Y2 receptor and pannexin-1. As reported previously for electrical stimulation, 500 μm ATP significantly increased mRNA expression for both c-fos and interleukin 6. Our results suggest that nucleotides released during skeletal muscle activity through pannexin-1 hemichannels act through P2X and P2Y receptors to modulate both Ca2+ homeostasis and muscle physiology. PMID:19822518

  1. ATP released by electrical stimuli elicits calcium transients and gene expression in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Buvinic, Sonja; Almarza, Gonzalo; Bustamante, Mario; Casas, Mariana; López, Javiera; Riquelme, Manuel; Sáez, Juan Carlos; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2009-12-11

    ATP released from cells is known to activate plasma membrane P2X (ionotropic) or P2Y (metabotropic) receptors. In skeletal muscle cells, depolarizing stimuli induce both a fast calcium signal associated with contraction and a slow signal that regulates gene expression. Here we show that nucleotides released to the extracellular medium by electrical stimulation are partly involved in the fast component and are largely responsible for the slow signals. In rat skeletal myotubes, a tetanic stimulus (45 Hz, 400 1-ms pulses) rapidly increased extracellular levels of ATP, ADP, and AMP after 15 s to 3 min. Exogenous ATP induced an increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration, with an EC(50) value of 7.8 +/- 3.1 microm. Exogenous ADP, UTP, and UDP also promoted calcium transients. Both fast and slow calcium signals evoked by tetanic stimulation were inhibited by either 100 mum suramin or 2 units/ml apyrase. Apyrase also reduced fast and slow calcium signals evoked by tetanus (45 Hz, 400 0.3-ms pulses) in isolated mouse adult skeletal fibers. A likely candidate for the ATP release pathway is the pannexin-1 hemichannel; its blockers inhibited both calcium transients and ATP release. The dihydropyridine receptor co-precipitated with both the P2Y(2) receptor and pannexin-1. As reported previously for electrical stimulation, 500 mum ATP significantly increased mRNA expression for both c-fos and interleukin 6. Our results suggest that nucleotides released during skeletal muscle activity through pannexin-1 hemichannels act through P2X and P2Y receptors to modulate both Ca(2+) homeostasis and muscle physiology. PMID:19822518

  2. GFP as a marker for transient gene transfer and expression in Mycoplasma hyorhinis.

    PubMed

    Ishag, Hassan Z A; Liu, Maojun; Yang, Ruosong; Xiong, Qiyan; Feng, Zhixin; Shao, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) is an opportunistic pathogen of pigs and has been shown to transform cell cultures, which has increased the interest of researchers. The green florescence proteins (GFP) gene of Aquorea victoria, proved to be a vital marker to identify transformed cells in mixed populations. Use of GFP to observe gene transfer and expression in M. hyorhinis (strain HUB-1) has not been described. We have constructed a pMD18-O/MHRgfp plasmid containing the p97 gene promoter, origin of replication, tetracycline resistance marker and GFP gene controlled by the p97 gene promoter. The plasmid transformed into M. hyorhinis with a frequency of ~4 × 10(-3) cfu/µg plasmid DNA and could be detected by PCR amplification of the GFP gene from the total DNA of the transformant mycoplasmas. Analysis of a single clone grown on KM2-Agar containing tetracycline, showed a green fluorescence color. Conclusively, this report suggests the usefulness of GFP to monitor transient gene transfer and expression in M. hyorhinis, eventually minimizing screening procedures for gene transfer and expression. PMID:27386255

  3. Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer (EASE) analysis reveals differential gene expression in permanent and transient focal stroke rat models.

    PubMed

    Ford, Gregory; Xu, Zhenfeng; Gates, Alicia; Jiang, Ju; Ford, Byron D

    2006-02-01

    To gain greater insight on the molecular mechanisms that underlie ischemic stroke, we compared gene expression profiles in transient (tMCAO) and permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) stroke models using Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer (EASE) pathway analysis software. Many transcripts were induced in both stroke models, including genes associated with transcriptional pathways, cell death, stress responses and metabolism. However, EASE analysis of the regulated genes indicated molecular functions and biological processes unique to each model. Pathways associated with tMCAO included inflammation, apoptosis and cell cycle, while pMCAO was associated with the induction of genes encoding neurotransmitter receptors, ion channels, growth factors and signaling molecules. An intriguing finding was the involvement of tyrosine kinases and phosphatases following pMCAO. These results provide evidence that neuronal death following tMCAO and pMCAO involves distinct mechanisms. These findings may give new insight to the molecular mechanisms involved in stroke and may lead to novel neuroprotective strategies.

  4. Transient gene and microRNA expression profile changes of confluent human fibroblast cells in spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Wang, Xiaoyu; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Story, Michael; Wu, Honglu

    2016-06-01

    Microgravity, or an altered gravity environment different from the 1 g of the Earth, has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies that have been conducted in space or by using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of these cells. It has not been specifically addressed whether nonproliferating cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space. In an experiment conducted onboard the International Space Station, confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 d, respectively, to investigate changes in gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in these cells. Results of the experiment showed that on d 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly, as measured by the percentage of Ki-67(+) cells. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NF-κB and other growth-related pathways that involve hepatocyte growth factor and VEGF as well as the down-regulation of the Let-7 miRNA family. On d 14, when the cells were mostly nonproliferating, the gene and miRNA expression profile of the flight sample was indistinguishable from that of the ground sample. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the d 3 samples, with respect to d 14, revealed that most of the changes observed on d 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeletal changes via immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for α-tubulin and fibronectin showed no difference between the flown and ground samples. Taken together, our study suggests that in true nondividing human fibroblast cells in culture, microgravity experienced in space has little effect on gene and miRNA expression profiles.-Zhang, Y., Lu, T., Wong, M., Wang, X., Stodieck, L., Karouia, F., Story, M., Wu, H. Transient gene and microRNA expression profile changes of

  5. Transient gene and microRNA expression profile changes of confluent human fibroblast cells in spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Wang, Xiaoyu; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Story, Michael; Wu, Honglu

    2016-06-01

    Microgravity, or an altered gravity environment different from the 1 g of the Earth, has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies that have been conducted in space or by using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of these cells. It has not been specifically addressed whether nonproliferating cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space. In an experiment conducted onboard the International Space Station, confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 d, respectively, to investigate changes in gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in these cells. Results of the experiment showed that on d 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly, as measured by the percentage of Ki-67(+) cells. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NF-κB and other growth-related pathways that involve hepatocyte growth factor and VEGF as well as the down-regulation of the Let-7 miRNA family. On d 14, when the cells were mostly nonproliferating, the gene and miRNA expression profile of the flight sample was indistinguishable from that of the ground sample. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the d 3 samples, with respect to d 14, revealed that most of the changes observed on d 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeletal changes via immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for α-tubulin and fibronectin showed no difference between the flown and ground samples. Taken together, our study suggests that in true nondividing human fibroblast cells in culture, microgravity experienced in space has little effect on gene and miRNA expression profiles.-Zhang, Y., Lu, T., Wong, M., Wang, X., Stodieck, L., Karouia, F., Story, M., Wu, H. Transient gene and microRNA expression profile changes of

  6. Transient expression of minimum linear gene cassettes in onion epidermal cells via direct transformation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yun-Qing; Yang, Jun; Xu, Feng-Ping; An, Li-Jia; Liu, Jian-Feng; Chen, Zhi-Wen

    2009-12-01

    A new method without any special devices for direct transformation of linear gene cassettes was developed. Its feasibility was verified through 5'-fluorescent dye (fluorescein isothiocyanate, FITC)-labeled fluorescent tracing and transient expression of a gus reporter gene. Minimal linear gene cassettes, containing necessary regulation elements and a gus reporter gene, was prepared by polymerase chain reaction and dissolved in transformation buffer solution to 100 ng/mL. The basic transformation solution used was Murashige and Skoog basal salt mixture (MS) liquid medium. Hypertonic pretreatment of explants and transformation cofactors, including Ca(2+), surfactant assistants, Agrobacterium LBA4404 cell culture on transformation efficiency were evaluated. Prior to the incubation of the explants and target linear cassette in each designed transformation solution for 3 h, the onion low epidermal explants were pre-cultured in darkness at 27 degrees C for 48 h and then transferred to MS solid media for 72 h. FITC-labeled linear DNA was used to trace the delivery of DNA entry into the cell and the nuclei. By GUS staining and flow-cytometry-mediated fluorescent detection, a significant increase of the ratios of fluorescent nuclei as well as expression of the gus reporter gene was observed by each designed transformation solution. This potent and feasible method showed prospective applications in plant transgenic research. PMID:19255730

  7. Impaired glucose homeostasis in transgenic mice expressing the human transient neonatal diabetes mellitus locus, TNDM

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dan; Shield, Julian P.H.; Dean, Wendy; Leclerc, Isabelle; Knauf, Claude; Burcelin, Rémy; Rutter, Guy A.; Kelsey, Gavin

    2004-01-01

    Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM) is a rare inherited diabetic syndrome apparent in the first weeks of life and again during early adulthood. The relative contributions of reduced islet β cell number and impaired β cell function to the observed hypoinsulinemia are unclear. The inheritance pattern of this imprinted disorder implicates overexpression of one or both genes within the TNDM locus: ZAC, which encodes a proapoptotic zinc finger protein, and HYMAI, which encodes an untranslated mRNA. To investigate the consequences for pancreatic function, we have developed a high-copy transgenic mouse line, TNDM29, carrying the human TNDM locus. TNDM29 neonates display hyperglycemia, and older adults, impaired glucose tolerance. Neonatal hyperglycemia occurs only on paternal transmission, analogous to paternal dependence of TNDM in humans. Embryonic pancreata of TNDM29 mice showed reductions in expression of endocrine differentiation factors and numbers of insulin-staining structures. By contrast, β cell mass was normal or elevated at all postnatal stages, whereas pancreatic insulin content in neonates and peak serum insulin levels after glucose infusion in adults were reduced. Expression of human ZAC and HYMAI in these transgenic mice thus recapitulates key features of TNDM and implicates impaired development of the endocrine pancreas and β cell function in disease pathogenesis. PMID:15286800

  8. Transient expression of minimum linear gene cassettes in onion epidermal cells via direct transformation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yun-Qing; Yang, Jun; Xu, Feng-Ping; An, Li-Jia; Liu, Jian-Feng; Chen, Zhi-Wen

    2009-12-01

    A new method without any special devices for direct transformation of linear gene cassettes was developed. Its feasibility was verified through 5'-fluorescent dye (fluorescein isothiocyanate, FITC)-labeled fluorescent tracing and transient expression of a gus reporter gene. Minimal linear gene cassettes, containing necessary regulation elements and a gus reporter gene, was prepared by polymerase chain reaction and dissolved in transformation buffer solution to 100 ng/mL. The basic transformation solution used was Murashige and Skoog basal salt mixture (MS) liquid medium. Hypertonic pretreatment of explants and transformation cofactors, including Ca(2+), surfactant assistants, Agrobacterium LBA4404 cell culture on transformation efficiency were evaluated. Prior to the incubation of the explants and target linear cassette in each designed transformation solution for 3 h, the onion low epidermal explants were pre-cultured in darkness at 27 degrees C for 48 h and then transferred to MS solid media for 72 h. FITC-labeled linear DNA was used to trace the delivery of DNA entry into the cell and the nuclei. By GUS staining and flow-cytometry-mediated fluorescent detection, a significant increase of the ratios of fluorescent nuclei as well as expression of the gus reporter gene was observed by each designed transformation solution. This potent and feasible method showed prospective applications in plant transgenic research.

  9. Biochemical and functional characterization of transiently expressed in neural precursor (TENP) protein in emu egg white.

    PubMed

    Maehashi, Kenji; Ueda, Megumi; Matano, Mami; Takeuchi, Junko; Uchino, Masataka; Kashiwagi, Yutaka; Watanabe, Toshihiro

    2014-06-01

    A protein transiently expressed in the neural precursors of developing tissues (TENP) was found to be present in emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) egg white as one of the major proteins. Nucleotide analysis of its encoding cDNA revealed a sequence of 452 amino acids including a 19 amino acid peptide signal. Phylogenetic analysis determined that emu TENP was clustered within the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) superfamily together with other avian TENPs. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the emu TENP gene was highly expressed in the magnum of the oviduct, indicating that TENP is a major egg white component. Emu TENP was purified by anion exchange chromatography and ammonium sulfate fractionation. Unlike BPI, emu TENP exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, but not against Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium. The results suggest that emu TENP is a potent novel antibacterial protein with a spectrum distinct from that of BPI. PMID:24820544

  10. Transient expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus inhibits insect cellular immune responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. A.; Kim, Yonggyun

    2008-01-01

    Several immunosuppressive factors are associated with parasitism of an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) encodes a large number of putative protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which may play a role in inhibiting host cellular immunity. To address this inhibitory hypothesis of CpBV-PTPs, we performed transient expression of individual CpBV-PTPs in hemocytes of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and analyzed their cellular immune responses. Two different forms of CpBV-PTPs were chosen and cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector under the control of the p10 promoter of baculovirus: one with the normal cysteine active site (CpBV-PTP1) and the other with a mutated active site (CpBV-PTP5). The hemocytes transfected with CpBV-PTP1 significantly increased in PTP activity compared to control hemocytes, but those with CpBV-PTP5 exhibited a significant decrease in the PTP activity. All transfected hemocytes exhibited a significant reduction in both cell spreading and encapsulation activities compared to control hemocytes. Co-transfection of CpBV-PTP1 together with its double-stranded RNA reduced the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of CpBV-PTP1 and resulted in recovery of both hemocyte behaviors. This is the first report demonstrating that the polydnaviral PTPs can manipulate PTP activity of the hemocytes to interrupt cellular immune responses.

  11. High-throughput mAb expression and purification platform based on transient CHO.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Gavin C; Hougland, Maria D; Rajendra, Yashas

    2015-01-01

    A high-cell-density transient transfection system was recently developed in our laboratory based on a CHO-GS-KO cell line. This method yields monoclonal antibody titers up to 350 mg/L from a simple 7-day process, in volumes ranging from 2 mL to 2 L. By performing transfections in 24-deep-well plates, a large number of mAbs can be expressed simultaneously. We coupled this new high-throughput transfection process to a semiautomated protein A purification process. Using a Biomek FX(p) liquid handling robot, up to 72 unique mAbs can be simultaneously purified. Our primary goal was to obtain >0.25 mg of purified mAb at a concentration of >0.5 mg/mL, without any concentration or buffer-exchange steps. We optimized both the batch-binding and the batch elution steps. The length of the batch-binding step was important to minimize mAb losses in the flowthrough fraction. The elution step proved to be challenging to simultaneously maximize protein recovery and protein concentration. We designed a variable volume elution strategy based on the average supernatant titer. Finally, we present two case studies. In the first study, we produced 56 affinity maturation mAb variants at an average yield of 0.33 ± 0.05 mg (average concentration of 0.65 ± 0.10 mg/mL). In a second study, we produced 42 unique mAbs, from an early-stage discovery effort, at an average yield of 0.79 ± 0.31 mg (average concentration of 1.59 ± 0.63 mg/mL). The combination of parallel high-yielding transient transfection and semiautomated high-throughput protein A purification represents a valuable mAb drug discovery tool. PMID:25403790

  12. Transient Expression of Transgenic IL-12 in Mouse Liver Triggers Unremitting Inflammation Mimicking Human Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Gil-Farina, Irene; Di Scala, Marianna; Salido, Eduardo; López-Franco, Esperanza; Rodríguez-García, Estefania; Blasi, Mercedes; Merino, Juana; Aldabe, Rafael; Prieto, Jesús; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2016-09-15

    The etiopathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) remains poorly understood. In this study, we sought to develop an animal model of human AIH to gain insight into the immunological mechanisms driving this condition. C57BL/6 mice were i.v. injected with adeno-associated viral vectors encoding murine IL-12 or luciferase under the control of a liver-specific promoter. Organ histology, response to immunosuppressive therapy, and biochemical and immunological parameters, including Ag-specific humoral and cellular response, were analyzed. Mechanistic studies were carried out using genetically modified mice and depletion of lymphocyte subpopulations. Adeno-associated virus IL-12-treated mice developed histological, biochemical, and immunological changes resembling type 1 AIH, including marked and persistent liver mononuclear cell infiltration, hepatic fibrosis, hypergammaglobulinemia, anti-nuclear and anti-smooth muscle actin Abs, and disease remission with immunosuppressive drugs. Interestingly, transgenic IL-12 was short-lived, but endogenous IL-12 expression was induced, and both IL-12 and IFN-γ remained elevated during the entire study period. IFN-γ was identified as an essential mediator of liver damage, and CD4 and CD8 T cells but not NK, NKT, or B cells were essential executors of hepatic injury. Furthermore, both MHC class I and MHC class II expression was upregulated at the hepatocellular membrane, and induction of autoreactive liver-specific T cells was detected. Remarkably, although immunoregulatory mechanisms were activated, they only partially mitigated liver damage. Thus, low and transient expression of transgenic IL-12 in hepatocytes causes loss of tolerance to hepatocellular Ags, leading to chronic hepatitis resembling human AIH type 1. This model provides a practical tool to explore AIH pathogenesis and novel therapies. PMID:27511737

  13. Development of molecular resistance in potato against potato leaf roll virus and potato virus Y through Agrobacterium-mediated double transgenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY) are the two major viral problems for the potato production all over the world. Transgenic approaches involving the expression of viral genes are being developed to provide protection for plants against viral diseases. The purpose of this study w...

  14. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Expression and Functionality in MCF-7 Cells: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Barbero, Raffaella; Cuniberti, Barbara; Racca, Silvia; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Piccione, Francesca; Re, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel belonging to the transient receptor potential family, and it is expressed in different neoplastic tissues. Its activation is associated with regulation of cancer growth and progression. The aim of this research was to study the expression and pharmacological characteristics of TRPV1 in cells derived from human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Methods TRPV1 presence was assessed by binding studies and Western blotting. Receptor binding characteristics were evaluated through competition assays, while 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5,-dipheyltetrazolium bromide reduction assays were performed to confirm an early hypothesis regarding the modulation of cancer cell proliferation. The functionality of TRPV1 was evaluated by measuring Ca2+ uptake in the presence of increasing concentrations of TRPV1 agonists and antagonists. Results Binding studies identified a single class of TRPV1 (Bmax 1,492±192 fmol/mg protein), and Western blot showed a signal at 100 kDa corresponding to the molecular weight of human TRPV1. Among the different tested agonists and antagonists, anandamide (Ki: 2.8×10-11 M) and 5-iodoresiniferatoxin (5-I-RTX) (Ki: 5.6×10-11 M) showed the highest degrees of affinity for TRPV1, respectively. All tested TRPV1 agonists and antagonists caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in cell growth rate in MCF-7 cells. For agonists and antagonists, the efficacy of tested compounds displayed the following rank order: resiniferatoxin>anandamide>capsaicin and 5-I-RTX=capsazepine, respectively. Conclusion These data indicate that both TRPV1 agonists and antagonists induce significant inhibition of MCF-7 cell growth. Even though the mechanisms involved in the antiproliferative effects of TRPV1 agonists and antagonists should be further investigated, it has been suggested that agonists cause desensitization of the receptor, leading to alteration in Ca2+-influx regulation. By contrast

  15. Uncovering methods for the prevention of protein aggregation and improvement of product quality in a transient expression system.

    PubMed

    Estes, Bram; Hsu, Yueh-Rong; Tam, Lei-Ting; Sheng, Jackie; Stevens, Jennitte; Haldankar, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian expression systems are used routinely for the production of recombinant proteins as therapeutic molecules as well as research tools. Transient expression has become increasingly popular in recent years due to its rapid timeline and improvements in expression level. While improvements to transient expression systems have focused mainly on the level of protein expression, the aspect of protein quality has received little attention. The removal of undesirable products, such as aggregation, depends primarily on purification, requiring additional cumbersome steps, which can lead to a lower product yield and longer timelines. In this study, we show that reducing the level of transcription by transfecting at a lower gene dose improves the quality of secreted molecules prone to aggregation. For gene dosing to have this effect, it is critical for the carrier DNA to be an empty vector containing the same elements as the gene containing plasmid. This approach can be used in combination with a temperature shift to hypothermic conditions during production to enhance the effect. The observed improvements not only minimized aggregation levels, but also generated products with overall superior quality, including more homogeneous signal peptide cleavage and N-linked glycosylation profiles. These techniques have produced a similar improvement in product quality with a variety of other molecules, suggesting that this may be a general approach to enhance product quality from transient expression systems. PMID:25395220

  16. Complementary DNA cloning of the pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene and agrobacterium-mediated anti-sense genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jing; Dong, Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to genetically modify plantlets of the Chinese yali pear to reduce their expression of ripening-associated 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) and therefore increase the shelf-life of the fruit. Primers were designed with selectivity for the conserved regions of published ACO gene sequences, and yali complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning was performed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The obtained cDNA fragment contained 831 base pairs, encoding 276 amino acid residues, and shared no less than 94% nucleotide sequence identity with other published ACO genes. The cDNA fragment was inversely inserted into a pBI121 expression vector, between the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase terminator, in order to construct the anti‑sense expression vector of the ACO gene; it was transfected into cultured yali plants using Agrobacterium LBA4404. Four independent transgenic lines of pear plantlets were obtained and validated by PCR analysis. A Southern blot assay revealed that there were three transgenic lines containing a single copy of exogenous gene and one line with double copies. The present study provided germplasm resources for the cultivation of novel storage varieties of pears, therefore providing a reference for further applications of anti‑sense RNA technology in the genetic improvement of pears and other fruit.

  17. Transient changes of enzyme activities and expression of stress proteins in the small intestine of piglets after weaning.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xin; Xu, Ziwei; Men, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    To determine the transient effects of weaning on the small intestine, 16 piglets were slaughtered at days 0, 1, 4 and 7 after weaning. Jejunal samples were collected to examine different enzyme activities and mRNA expressions of two stress protein families, namely, heat-shock proteins (HSP) and trefoil factors (TFF). Results showed that the activities of ceruloplasmin, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, were significantly changed at Day 1 and/or Day 4. The mRNA expressions of HSP10, HSP60 and HSP90 showed a pattern of increased expression with time after weaning. Expression significantly differed between Day 0 and Day 7 after weaning. The mRNA expression of HSP70 was significantly increased on Day 1 only. Similarly, the mRNA expressions of TFF1 and TFF2 were significantly increased on Day 7 compared with those on Day 0. Expression of TFF3 was not affected by time after weaning. In conclusion, the present study indicated that weaning induced transient injury to small intestinal morphology and function. Particularly it changed enzyme activities and gene expression of stress proteins in the small intestine of piglets. At first time, a change in the gene expression of HSP10 and a gene overexpression of TFF1 in the small intestine of piglets after weaning was found. PMID:25908169

  18. Transient changes of enzyme activities and expression of stress proteins in the small intestine of piglets after weaning.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xin; Xu, Ziwei; Men, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    To determine the transient effects of weaning on the small intestine, 16 piglets were slaughtered at days 0, 1, 4 and 7 after weaning. Jejunal samples were collected to examine different enzyme activities and mRNA expressions of two stress protein families, namely, heat-shock proteins (HSP) and trefoil factors (TFF). Results showed that the activities of ceruloplasmin, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, were significantly changed at Day 1 and/or Day 4. The mRNA expressions of HSP10, HSP60 and HSP90 showed a pattern of increased expression with time after weaning. Expression significantly differed between Day 0 and Day 7 after weaning. The mRNA expression of HSP70 was significantly increased on Day 1 only. Similarly, the mRNA expressions of TFF1 and TFF2 were significantly increased on Day 7 compared with those on Day 0. Expression of TFF3 was not affected by time after weaning. In conclusion, the present study indicated that weaning induced transient injury to small intestinal morphology and function. Particularly it changed enzyme activities and gene expression of stress proteins in the small intestine of piglets. At first time, a change in the gene expression of HSP10 and a gene overexpression of TFF1 in the small intestine of piglets after weaning was found.

  19. Large-scale production of endotoxin-free plasmids for transient expression in mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Rozkov, Aleksei; Larsson, Bert; Gillström, Stefan; Björnestedt, Robert; Schmidt, Stefan R

    2008-02-15

    Transient expression of recombinant proteins in mammalian cell culture in a 100-L scale requires a large quantity of plasmid that is very labour intensive to achieve with shake flask cultures and commercially available plasmid purification kits. In this paper we describe a process for plasmid production in 100-mg scale. The fermentation is carried out in a 4-L fed-batch culture with a minimal medium. The detection of the end of batch and triggering the exponential (0.1 h(-1)) feed profile was unattended and controlled by Multi-fermenter Control System. A restricted specific growth rate in fed-batch culture increased the specific plasmid yield compared to batch cultures with minimal and rich media. This together with high biomass concentration (68-107 g L(-1) wet weight) achieves high volumetric yields of plasmid (95-277 mg L(-1) depending on the construct). The purification process consisted of alkaline lysis, lysate clarification and ultrafiltration, two-phase extraction with Triton X-114 for endotoxin removal, anion-exchange chromatography as a polishing step, ultrafiltration and sterile filtration. Both fermentation and purification processes were used without optimisation for production of four plasmids yielding from 39 to 163 mg of plasmids with endotoxin content of 2.5 EU mg(-1) or less. PMID:17680665

  20. In vitro germination and transient GFP expression of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) pollen.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Danilo D; Richards, Javonna L; Kikkert, Julie R

    2006-05-01

    The development of the male reproductive structures of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is described to advance our understanding of its reproductive behavior. This information has been vital in the development of a strategy to collect pollen grains from male catkins suitable for in vitro germination and transformation experiments. Cutting male catkins into small segments and rolling them over a culture plate resulted in evenly dispersed and large amounts of pollen with minimal unwanted accessory floral parts. To optimize pollen viability, the effect of various storage conditions on in vitro germination was examined. Our results showed that initial storage at 4 degrees C for 2 weeks significantly increased percent germination as compared to freshly collected pollen and those stored directly at -20 degrees C or -80 degrees C. This also means that for long-term storage of American chestnut pollen, the catkins should first be kept at 4 degrees C for a couple of weeks and then at -80 degrees C. The use of pollen grains with high viability is necessary for the transformation of American chestnut pollen. To optimize pollen transformation via particle bombardment, the effects of target distance, target pressure, and pollen developmental stage were examined. Statistical analysis showed that bombardment of ungerminated pollen at 1,100 psi resulted in the highest percent transient GFP expression (4.1%).

  1. Targeted gene mutation in tetraploid potato through transient TALEN expression in protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Nicolia, Alessandro; Proux-Wéra, Estelle; Åhman, Inger; Onkokesung, Nawaporn; Andersson, Mariette; Andreasson, Erik; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2015-06-20

    Potato is the third largest food crop in the world, however, the high degree of heterozygosity, the tetrasomic inheritance and severe inbreeding depression are major difficulties for conventional potato breeding. The rapid development of modern breeding methods offers new possibilities to enhance breeding efficiency and precise improvement of desirable traits. New site-directed mutagenesis techniques that can directly edit the target genes without any integration of recombinant DNA are especially favorable. Here we present a successful pipeline for site-directed mutagenesis in tetraploid potato through transient TALEN expression in protoplasts. The transfection efficiency of protoplasts was 38-39% and the site-directed mutation frequency was 7-8% with a few base deletions as the predominant type of mutation. Among the protoplast-derived calli, 11-13% showed mutations and a similar frequency (10%) was observed in the regenerated shoots. Our results indicate that the site-directed mutagenesis technology could be used as a new breeding method in potato as well as for functional analysis of important genes to promote sustainable potato production.

  2. Targeted gene mutation in tetraploid potato through transient TALEN expression in protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Nicolia, Alessandro; Proux-Wéra, Estelle; Åhman, Inger; Onkokesung, Nawaporn; Andersson, Mariette; Andreasson, Erik; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2015-06-20

    Potato is the third largest food crop in the world, however, the high degree of heterozygosity, the tetrasomic inheritance and severe inbreeding depression are major difficulties for conventional potato breeding. The rapid development of modern breeding methods offers new possibilities to enhance breeding efficiency and precise improvement of desirable traits. New site-directed mutagenesis techniques that can directly edit the target genes without any integration of recombinant DNA are especially favorable. Here we present a successful pipeline for site-directed mutagenesis in tetraploid potato through transient TALEN expression in protoplasts. The transfection efficiency of protoplasts was 38-39% and the site-directed mutation frequency was 7-8% with a few base deletions as the predominant type of mutation. Among the protoplast-derived calli, 11-13% showed mutations and a similar frequency (10%) was observed in the regenerated shoots. Our results indicate that the site-directed mutagenesis technology could be used as a new breeding method in potato as well as for functional analysis of important genes to promote sustainable potato production. PMID:25848989

  3. Transient subsurface features in Mars Express radar data: An explanation based on ionospheric holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Mark Vinton

    2012-01-01

    This study was motivated by the discovery of semi-circular subsurface craters, or basins, at multiple locations on Mars by the MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding) radar sounder on board the Mars Express spacecraft. The nature of these subsurface structures was called into question when it was realized that some of the radar observations were not repeatable on subsequent passes over the same region. If they were true geological structures, such as ancient craters buried by dust, one would expect to always see them when the spacecraft passes over these regions. The transient nature of the observations led to the suggestion that these structures were actually of ionospheric origin. In this paper we will provide evidence, including a proof-of-concept result, that these features are produced by holes in the ionosphere, and not by subsurface structures. We discuss the possibility that the ionospheric holes are caused by an interaction of the ionosphere with local crustal magnetic fields. We introduce the ionospheric model which we used to simulate the MARSIS sounder moving and pulsing radio waves through the Martian ionosphere, and show that the results of ray tracing through this density profile are consistent with data seen in the MARSIS radargrams.

  4. Successful transient expression of Cas9 and single guide RNA genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenzhi; Brueggeman, Andrew J; Horken, Kempton M; Plucinak, Thomas M; Weeks, Donald P

    2014-11-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has become a powerful and precise tool for targeted gene modification (e.g., gene knockout and gene replacement) in numerous eukaryotic organisms. Initial attempts to apply this technology to a model, the single-cell alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, failed to yield cells containing edited genes. To determine if the Cas9 and single guide RNA (sgRNA) genes were functional in C. reinhardtii, we tested the ability of a codon-optimized Cas9 gene along with one of four different sgRNAs to cause targeted gene disruption during a 24-h period immediately following transformation. All three exogenously supplied gene targets as well as the endogenous FKB12 (rapamycin sensitivity) gene of C. reinhardtii displayed distinct Cas9/sgRNA-mediated target site modifications as determined by DNA sequencing of cloned PCR amplicons of the target site region. Success in transient expression of Cas9 and sgRNA genes contrasted with the recovery of only a single rapamycin-resistant colony bearing an appropriately modified FKB12 target site in 16 independent transformation experiments involving >10(9) cells. Failure to recover transformants with intact or expressed Cas9 genes following transformation with the Cas9 gene alone (or even with a gene encoding a Cas9 lacking nuclease activity) provided strong suggestive evidence for Cas9 toxicity when Cas9 is produced constitutively in C. reinhardtii. The present results provide compelling evidence that Cas9 and sgRNA genes function properly in C. reinhardtii to cause targeted gene modifications and point to the need for a focus on development of methods to properly stem Cas9 production and/or activity following gene editing.

  5. Galectin-3 expression in hippocampal CA2 following transient forebrain ischemia and its inhibition by hypothermia or antiapoptotic agents

    PubMed Central

    Hisamatsu, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Hirata, Akihiro; Hatano, Yuichiro; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that the hippocampal CA2 region plays an important role in the recognition process. We have reported that ischemic damage in the hippocampal CA2 region following transient ischemia is caused by apoptosis, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Galectin-3 is a β-galactosidase-binding lectin that is important in cell proliferation and apoptotic regulation. We have also reported that galectin-3 was expressed in activated microglia in the CA1 region 96 h after transient ischemia. The aim of this study is to determine the localization and time course of galectin-3 expression in the CA2 region following transient forebrain ischemia. Galectin-3 immunostaining was observed in both interior side of CA1 region and CA2 region in hippocampus 60 h after ischemic insult. At 66 h, galectin-3 was observed in the whole CA1 region adjacent to the CA2 region in the hippocampus. Both galectin-3 expression and neuronal cell death in the CA2 region were significantly inhibited by hypothermia and by apoptosis-inhibiting reagents. These results suggest that galectin-3 in the CA2 region is expressed independent of that in the CA1 region. Protection of the expression of galectin-3 in the CA2 region might contribute toward the survival of CA2 pyramidal neurons. PMID:26848998

  6. Ectopic expression of Capsicum-specific cell wall protein Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1) delays senescence and induces trichome formation in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eunyoung; Yeom, Seon-In; Jo, Sunghwan; Jeong, Heejin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Choi, Doil

    2012-04-01

    Secreted proteins are known to have multiple roles in plant development, metabolism, and stress response. In a previous study to understand the roles of secreted proteins, Capsicum annuum secreted proteins (CaS) were isolated by yeast secretion trap. Among the secreted proteins, we further characterized Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1), a gene encoding a novel secreted protein that is present only in the genus Capsicum. The deduced CaSD1 contains multiple repeats of the amino acid sequence KPPIHNHKPTDYDRS. Interestingly, the number of repeats varied among cultivars and species in the Capsicum genus. CaSD1 is constitutively expressed in roots, and Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaSD1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in delayed senescence with a dramatically increased number of trichomes and enlarged epidermal cells. Furthermore, senescence- and cell division-related genes were differentially regulated by CaSD1-overexpressing plants. These observations imply that the pepper-specific cell wall protein CaSD1 plays roles in plant growth and development by regulating cell division and differentiation.

  7. Transient expression of a foreign gene by direct incorporation of DNA into intact plant tissue through vacuum infiltration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Zhao, Xia; Kawabata, Saneyuki; Li, Yuhua

    2009-11-01

    We previously established a method to induce transient expression of foreign genes in intact plant tissue to detect the subcellular localization of proteins. Here, we have inserted a putative bZIP protein HY5 gene (SeqID: EU386772), isolated from the seedlings of turnips Brassica rapa L. subsp. rapa 'Tsuda,' and a receptor-like kinase gene AtRLK (SeqID: AY531551.1), isolated from Arabidopsis, into the plasmid pA7-GFP. We accomplished the direct incorporation of DNA into onion epidermal tissue by vacuum infiltration. By detecting GFP, which was fused with AtRLK or putative BrHY5, we determined that BrHY5 is located in the nucleus and AtRLK is located in the plasma membrane. This approach can be thus used to study the transient expression of foreign genes in intact tissue.

  8. Transient activation of human cytomegalovirus lytic gene expression during latency allows cytotoxic T cell killing of latently infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, B. A.; Lau, B.; Jackson, S. E.; Wills, M. R.; Sinclair, J. H.; Poole, E.

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency in the myeloid lineage is maintained by repressive histone modifications around the major immediate early promoter (MIEP), which results in inhibition of the lytic viral life cycle. We now show that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) relieves this repression of the MIEP and induces transient expression of the viral lytic immediate early (IE) antigens but, importantly, not full virus reactivation. In turn, these latently infected cells now become targets for IE-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) which are present at high frequency in all normal healthy HCMV positive carriers but would normally be unable to target latent (lytic antigen-negative) cells. This approach of transiently inducing viral lytic gene expression by HDAC inhibition, in otherwise latently infected cells, offers a window of opportunity to target and purge the latent myeloid cell reservoir by making these normally immunologically undetectable cells visible to pre-existing host immune responses to viral lytic antigens. PMID:27091512

  9. Transient activation of human cytomegalovirus lytic gene expression during latency allows cytotoxic T cell killing of latently infected cells.

    PubMed

    Krishna, B A; Lau, B; Jackson, S E; Wills, M R; Sinclair, J H; Poole, E

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency in the myeloid lineage is maintained by repressive histone modifications around the major immediate early promoter (MIEP), which results in inhibition of the lytic viral life cycle. We now show that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) relieves this repression of the MIEP and induces transient expression of the viral lytic immediate early (IE) antigens but, importantly, not full virus reactivation. In turn, these latently infected cells now become targets for IE-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) which are present at high frequency in all normal healthy HCMV positive carriers but would normally be unable to target latent (lytic antigen-negative) cells. This approach of transiently inducing viral lytic gene expression by HDAC inhibition, in otherwise latently infected cells, offers a window of opportunity to target and purge the latent myeloid cell reservoir by making these normally immunologically undetectable cells visible to pre-existing host immune responses to viral lytic antigens. PMID:27091512

  10. Efficient and transgene-free genome editing in wheat through transient expression of CRISPR/Cas9 DNA or RNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Zong, Yuan; Wang, Yanpeng; Liu, Jinxing; Chen, Kunling; Qiu, Jin-Long; Gao, Caixia

    2016-01-01

    Editing plant genomes is technically challenging in hard-to-transform plants and usually involves transgenic intermediates, which causes regulatory concerns. Here we report two simple and efficient genome-editing methods in which plants are regenerated from callus cells transiently expressing CRISPR/Cas9 introduced as DNA or RNA. This transient expression-based genome-editing system is highly efficient and specific for producing transgene-free and homozygous wheat mutants in the T0 generation. We demonstrate our protocol to edit genes in hexaploid bread wheat and tetraploid durum wheat, and show that we are able to generate mutants with no detectable transgenes. Our methods may be applicable to other plant species, thus offering the potential to accelerate basic and applied plant genome-engineering research. PMID:27558837

  11. Transient activation of human cytomegalovirus lytic gene expression during latency allows cytotoxic T cell killing of latently infected cells.

    PubMed

    Krishna, B A; Lau, B; Jackson, S E; Wills, M R; Sinclair, J H; Poole, E

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency in the myeloid lineage is maintained by repressive histone modifications around the major immediate early promoter (MIEP), which results in inhibition of the lytic viral life cycle. We now show that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) relieves this repression of the MIEP and induces transient expression of the viral lytic immediate early (IE) antigens but, importantly, not full virus reactivation. In turn, these latently infected cells now become targets for IE-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) which are present at high frequency in all normal healthy HCMV positive carriers but would normally be unable to target latent (lytic antigen-negative) cells. This approach of transiently inducing viral lytic gene expression by HDAC inhibition, in otherwise latently infected cells, offers a window of opportunity to target and purge the latent myeloid cell reservoir by making these normally immunologically undetectable cells visible to pre-existing host immune responses to viral lytic antigens.

  12. Production of pharmaceutical-grade recombinant aprotinin and a monoclonal antibody product using plant-based transient expression systems.

    PubMed

    Pogue, Gregory P; Vojdani, Fakhrieh; Palmer, Kenneth E; Hiatt, Ernie; Hume, Steve; Phelps, Jim; Long, Lori; Bohorova, Natasha; Kim, Do; Pauly, Michael; Velasco, Jesus; Whaley, Kevin; Zeitlin, Larry; Garger, Stephen J; White, Earl; Bai, Yun; Haydon, Hugh; Bratcher, Barry

    2010-06-01

    Plants have been proposed as an attractive alternative for pharmaceutical protein production to current mammalian or microbial cell-based systems. Eukaryotic protein processing coupled with reduced production costs and low risk for mammalian pathogen contamination and other impurities have led many to predict that agricultural systems may offer the next wave for pharmaceutical product production. However, for this to become a reality, the quality of products produced at a relevant scale must equal or exceed the predetermined release criteria of identity, purity, potency and safety as required by pharmaceutical regulatory agencies. In this article, the ability of transient plant virus expression systems to produce a wide range of products at high purity and activity is reviewed. The production of different recombinant proteins is described along with comparisons with established standards, including high purity, specific activity and promising preclinical outcomes. Adaptation of transient plant virus systems to large-scale manufacturing formats required development of virus particle and Agrobacterium inoculation methods. One transient plant system case study illustrates the properties of greenhouse and field-produced recombinant aprotinin compared with an US Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmaceutical product and found them to be highly comparable in all properties evaluated. A second transient plant system case study demonstrates a fully functional monoclonal antibody conforming to release specifications. In conclusion, the production capacity of large quantities of recombinant protein offered by transient plant expression systems, coupled with robust downstream purification approaches, offers a promising solution to recombinant protein production that compares favourably to cell-based systems in scale, cost and quality.

  13. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation: rice transformation.

    PubMed

    Slamet-Loedin, Inez H; Chadha-Mohanty, Prabhjit; Torrizo, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium is a common soil bacterium with natural capacity for trans-kingdom transfer of genetic information by transferring its T-DNA into the eukaryotic genome. In agricultural plant biotechnology, combination of non-phytopathogenic strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with modified T-DNA and vir-genes in a binary vector system is the most widely utilized system for genetic improvement in diverse plant species and for gene function validation. Here we have described a highly efficient A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation system for indica and japonica rice cultivars based on an immature embryo system.

  14. A Novel Subtype of Astrocytes Expressing TRPV4 (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4) Regulates Neuronal Excitability via Release of Gliotransmitters*

    PubMed Central

    Shibasaki, Koji; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Tamalu, Fuminobu; Tominaga, Makoto; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes play active roles in the regulation of synaptic transmission. Neuronal excitation can evoke Ca2+ transients in astrocytes, and these Ca2+ transients can modulate neuronal excitability. Although only a subset of astrocytes appears to communicate with neurons, the types of astrocytes that can regulate neuronal excitability are poorly characterized. We found that ∼30% of astrocytes in the brain express transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), indicating that astrocytic subtypes can be classified on the basis of their expression patterns. When TRPV4+ astrocytes are activated by ligands such as arachidonic acid, the activation propagates to neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions and by ATP release from the TRPV4+ astrocytes. After activation, both TRPV4+ and TRPV4− astrocytes release glutamate, which acts as an excitatory gliotransmitter to increase synaptic transmission through type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). Our results indicate that TRPV4+ astrocytes constitute a novel subtype of the population and are solely responsible for initiating excitatory gliotransmitter release to enhance synaptic transmission. We propose that TRPV4+ astrocytes form a core of excitatory glial assembly in the brain and function to efficiently increase neuronal excitation in response to endogenous TRPV4 ligands. PMID:24737318

  15. Integrated cell and process engineering for improved transient production of a "difficult-to-express" fusion protein by CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Johari, Yusuf B; Estes, Scott D; Alves, Christina S; Sinacore, Marty S; James, David C

    2015-12-01

    Based on an optimized electroporation protocol, we designed a rapid, milliliter-scale diagnostic transient production assay to identify limitations in the ability of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to produce a model "difficult-to-express" homodimeric Fc-fusion protein, Sp35Fc, that exhibited very low volumetric titer and intracellular formation of disulfide-bonded oligomeric aggregates post-transfection. As expression of Sp35Fc induced an unfolded protein response in transfected host cells, we utilized the transient assay to compare, in parallel, multiple functionally diverse strategies to engineer intracellular processing of Sp35Fc in order to increase production and reduce aggregation as two discrete design objectives. Specifically, we compared the effect of (i) co-expression of ER-resident molecular chaperones (BiP, PDI, CypB) or active forms of UPR transactivators (ATF6c, XBP1s) at varying recombinant gene load, (ii) addition of small molecules known to act as chemical chaperones (PBA, DMSO, glycerol, betaine, TMAO) or modulate UPR signaling (PERK inhibitor GSK2606414) at varying concentration, (iii) a reduction in culture temperature to 32°C. Using this information, we designed a biphasic, Sp35Fc-specific transient manufacturing process mediated by lipofection that utilized CypB co-expression at an optimal Sp35Fc:CypB gene ratio of 5:1 to initially maximize transfected cell proliferation, followed by addition of a combination of PBA (0.5 mM) and glycerol (1% v/v) at the onset of stationary phase to maximize cell specific production and eliminate Sp35Fc aggregation. Using this optimal, engineered process transient Sp35Fc production was significantly increased sixfold over a 12 day production process with no evidence of disulfide-bonded aggregates. Finally, transient production in clonally derived sub-populations (derived from parental CHO host) screened for a heritably improved capability to produce Sp35Fc was also significantly improved by the optimized

  16. Inducible Expression of Agrobacterium Virulence Gene VirE2 for Stringent Regulation of T-DNA Transfer in Plant Transient Expression Systems.

    PubMed

    Denkovskienė, Erna; Paškevičius, Šarūnas; Werner, Stefan; Gleba, Yuri; Ražanskienė, Aušra

    2015-11-01

    Agrotransfection with viral vectors is an effective solution for the transient production of valuable proteins in plants grown in contained facilities. Transfection methods suitable for field applications are desirable for the production of high-volume products and for the transient molecular reprogramming of plants. The use of genetically modified (GM) Agrobacterium strains for plant transfections faces substantial biosafety issues. The environmental biosafety of GM Agrobacterium strains could be improved by regulating their T-DNA transfer via chemically inducible expression of virE2, one of the essential Agrobacterium virulence genes. In order to identify strong and stringently regulated promoters in Agrobacterium strains, we evaluated isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside-inducible promoters Plac, Ptac, PT7/lacO, and PT5/lacOlacO and cumic acid-inducible promoters PlacUV5/CuO, Ptac/CuO, PT5/CuO, and PvirE/CuO. Nicotiana benthamiana plants were transfected with a virE2-deficient A. tumefaciens strain containing transient expression vectors harboring inducible virE2 expression cassettes and containing a marker green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene in their T-DNA region. Evaluation of T-DNA transfer was achieved by counting GFP expression foci on plant leaves. The virE2 expression from cumic acid-induced promoters resulted in 47 to 72% of wild-type T-DNA transfer. Here, we present efficient and tightly regulated promoters for gene expression in A. tumefaciens and a novel approach to address environmental biosafety concerns in agrobiotechnology. PMID:26292850

  17. Calcium-dependent expression of transient receptor potential canonical type 3 channels in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Krueger, Katharina; Hovsepian, Anahit; Tepel, Martin; Thilo, Florian

    2011-10-01

    It is unknown whether extracellular calcium may regulate the expression of transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels in patients with chronic kidney disease. Using quantitative in-cell Western assay we compared the expression of TRPC3 channel protein in monocytes from 20 patients with chronic kidney disease and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. TRPC3 channels were identified by immunoblotting using specific antibodies and TRPC3 protein was further confirmed by mass spectrometry. We observed a significant increase of TRPC3 channel protein expression in patients with chronic kidney disease compared to healthy control subjects (normalized expression, 0.42±0.06 vs. 0.19±0.03; p<0.01). Expression of TRPC3 was significantly inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rates (Spearman r=-0.41) or serum calcium concentration (Spearman r=-0.34). During a hemodialysis session serum calcium concentrations significantly increased, whereas the expression of TRPC3 channels and calcium influx significantly decreased. In vitro studies confirmed that higher calcium concentrations but not magnesium, barium nor sodium concentrations significantly decreased TRPC3 expression in human monocytes. This study indicates that reduced extracellular calcium concentrations up-regulate TRPC3 channel protein expression in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  18. Proteomic analysis reveals protein expression differences in Escherichia coli strains associated with persistent versus transient mastitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli is a leading cause of bacterial mastitis in dairy cattle. Typically this infection is transient in nature, causing an infection that lasts 2-3 days. However, in a minority of cases, E. coli has been shown to cause a persistent intramammary infection. The mechanisms that allow for...

  19. Cellular retinol-binding protein-1 is transiently expressed in granulation tissue fibroblasts and differentially expressed in fibroblasts cultured from different organs.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, G.; Redard, M.; Gabbiani, G.; Neuville, P.

    1997-01-01

    We have reported that cellular retinol-binding protein-1 (CRBP-1) is transiently expressed by arterial smooth muscle cells during experimental intimal repair (P. Neuville, A. Geinoz, G. Benzonana, M. Redard, F. Gabbiani, P. Ropraz, G. Gabbiani: Am J Pathol 1997, 150:509-521). We have examined here the expression of CRBP-1 during wound healing after a full-thickness rat skin wound. CRBP-1 was transiently expressed by a significant proportion of fibroblastic cells including myofibroblasts. Expression started 4 days after wounding, reached a maximum at 12 days, and persisted up to 30 days when a scar was formed. After wound closure, most CRBP-1-containing fibroblastic cells underwent apoptosis. We have further investigated CRBP-1 expression in rat fibroblasts cultured from different organs. CRBP-1 was abundant in lung and heart fibroblasts and was detected in decreasing amounts in muscle, tendon, subcutaneous tissue, and granulation tissue fibroblasts. Dermis fibroblasts contained no detectable levels of CRBP-1. All-trans retinoic acid and transforming growth factor-beta1 inhibited cell proliferation and increased CRBP-1 expression in fibroblastic populations except dermis fibroblasts. We demonstrate that during granulation tissue formation a subpopulation of fibroblastic cells express CRBP-1 de novo. We also demonstrate that CRBP-1 expression by fibroblasts is regulated in vitro by retinoic acid and transforming growth factor-beta1. Our results suggest that CRBP-1 and possibly retinoic acid play a role in the evolution of granulation tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:9403724

  20. Characterization of complex systems using the design of experiments approach: transient protein expression in tobacco as a case study.

    PubMed

    Buyel, Johannes Felix; Fischer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Plants provide multiple benefits for the production of biopharmaceuticals including low costs, scalability, and safety. Transient expression offers the additional advantage of short development and production times, but expression levels can vary significantly between batches thus giving rise to regulatory concerns in the context of good manufacturing practice. We used a design of experiments (DoE) approach to determine the impact of major factors such as regulatory elements in the expression construct, plant growth and development parameters, and the incubation conditions during expression, on the variability of expression between batches. We tested plants expressing a model anti-HIV monoclonal antibody (2G12) and a fluorescent marker protein (DsRed). We discuss the rationale for selecting certain properties of the model and identify its potential limitations. The general approach can easily be transferred to other problems because the principles of the model are broadly applicable: knowledge-based parameter selection, complexity reduction by splitting the initial problem into smaller modules, software-guided setup of optimal experiment combinations and step-wise design augmentation. Therefore, the methodology is not only useful for characterizing protein expression in plants but also for the investigation of other complex systems lacking a mechanistic description. The predictive equations describing the interconnectivity between parameters can be used to establish mechanistic models for other complex systems. PMID:24514765

  1. Delay-Induced Transient Increase and Heterogeneity in Gene Expression in Negatively Auto-Regulated Gene Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Maithreye, R.; Sarkar, Ram Rup; Parnaik, Veena K.; Sinha, Somdatta

    2008-01-01

    A generic feature in all intracellular biochemical processes is the time required to complete the whole sequence of reactions to yield any observable quantity-from gene expression to circadian rhythms. This widespread phenomenon points towards the importance of time delay in biological functions. Theoretically time delay is known to be the source of instability, and has been attributed to lead to oscillations or transient dynamics in several biological functions. Negative feedback loops, common in biochemical pathways, have been shown to provide stability and withstand considerable variations and random perturbations of biochemical parameters. The interaction of these two opposing factors-of instability and homeostasis-are features that are widespread in intracellular processes. To test the effect of these divergent forces in the dynamics of gene expression, we have designed and constructed simple negatively auto-regulated gene circuits consisting of a basic regulator and transcriptional repressor module, and compared it with one, which has delayed repression. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that delayed repression induces transient increase and heterogeneity in gene expression before the gain of stability effected by the negative feedback. This design, therefore, seems to be suitable for conferring both stability and variability in cells required for adaptive response to a noisy environment. PMID:18698420

  2. Transient expression of Ngn3 in Xenopus endoderm promotes early and ectopic development of pancreatic beta and delta cells

    PubMed Central

    Oropeza, Daniel; Horb, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Promoting ectopic development of pancreatic beta cells from other cell types is one of the strategies being pursued for the treatment of diabetes. To achieve this, a detailed outline of the molecular lineage that operates in pancreatic progenitor cells to generate beta cells over other endocrine cell types is necessary. Here, we demonstrate that early transient expression of the endocrine progenitor bHLH protein Neurogenin 3 (Ngn3) favors the promotion of pancreatic beta and delta cell fates over an alpha cell fate, while later transient expression promotes ectopic development of all three endocrine cell fates. We found that short-term activation of Ngn3 in Xenopus laevis endoderm just after gastrulation was sufficient to promote both early and ectopic development of beta and delta cells. By examining gene expression changes four hours after Ngn3 activation we identified several new downstream targets of Ngn3. We show that several of these are required for the promotion of ectopic beta cells by Ngn3 as well as for normal beta cell development. These results provide new detail regarding the Ngn3 transcriptional network operating in endocrine progenitor cells to specify a beta cell phenotype and should help define new approaches to promote ectopic development of beta cells for diabetes therapy. PMID:22121111

  3. Expression of a wheat MYB gene in transgenic tobacco enhances resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum, and to drought and salt stresses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxia; Zhou, Xianyao; Dong, Na; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Zengyan

    2011-09-01

    MYB transcription factors play diverse roles in plant growth, developmental processes and stress responses. A full-length cDNA sequence of a MYB gene, namely TaPIMP1, was isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The TaPIMP1 transcript level was significantly up-regulated by inoculation with a fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana and by drought treatment. TaPIMP1 encodes the MYB protein TaPIMP1 consisting of 323 amino acids. TaPIMP1 contains two MYB DNA binding domains (R2, R3), two putative nuclear localization sites and two putative transcription activation domains. TaPIMP1 is a new member of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor subfamily. Transient expression in onion epidermal cells of GFP fused with TaPIMP1 proved that subcellular localization of TaPIMP1 occurred in the nucleus. The TaPIMP1 gene was transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cultivar W38 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. After screening through PCR and RT-PCR analyses, transgenic tobacco lines expressing TaPIMP1 were identified and evaluated for pathogen resistance, and drought and salt tolerance. Compared to untransformed tobacco host plants, TaPIMP1 expressing plants displayed significantly enhanced resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum and exhibited improved tolerances to drought and salt stresses. In these transgenic lines, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased relative to wild-type tobacco plants. The results suggested that the wheat R2R3-MYB transcription factor plays an important role in modulating responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  4. Expression of a wheat MYB gene in transgenic tobacco enhances resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum, and to drought and salt stresses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxia; Zhou, Xianyao; Dong, Na; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Zengyan

    2011-09-01

    MYB transcription factors play diverse roles in plant growth, developmental processes and stress responses. A full-length cDNA sequence of a MYB gene, namely TaPIMP1, was isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The TaPIMP1 transcript level was significantly up-regulated by inoculation with a fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana and by drought treatment. TaPIMP1 encodes the MYB protein TaPIMP1 consisting of 323 amino acids. TaPIMP1 contains two MYB DNA binding domains (R2, R3), two putative nuclear localization sites and two putative transcription activation domains. TaPIMP1 is a new member of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor subfamily. Transient expression in onion epidermal cells of GFP fused with TaPIMP1 proved that subcellular localization of TaPIMP1 occurred in the nucleus. The TaPIMP1 gene was transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cultivar W38 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. After screening through PCR and RT-PCR analyses, transgenic tobacco lines expressing TaPIMP1 were identified and evaluated for pathogen resistance, and drought and salt tolerance. Compared to untransformed tobacco host plants, TaPIMP1 expressing plants displayed significantly enhanced resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum and exhibited improved tolerances to drought and salt stresses. In these transgenic lines, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased relative to wild-type tobacco plants. The results suggested that the wheat R2R3-MYB transcription factor plays an important role in modulating responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:21597961

  5. Optimatization of transient transformation methods to study gene expression in Musa acuminata (AAA group) cultivar Ambon Lumut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prayuni, Kinasih; Dwivany, Fenny M.

    2015-09-01

    Banana is classified as a climateric fruit, whose ripening is regulated by ethylene. Ethylene is synthesized from ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) by ACC oxidase enzyme which is encoded by ACO gene. Controling an important gene expression in ethylene biosynthesis pathway has became a target to delay the ripening process. Therefore in the previous study we have designed a MaACO-RNAi construct to control MaACO gene expression. In this research, we study the effectiveness of different transient transformation methods to deliver the construct. Direct injection, with or no vaccum infiltration methods were used to deliver MaACO-RNAi construct. All of the methods succesfully deliver the construct into banana fruits based on RT-PCR result.

  6. Drosophila insulin-like peptide 1 (DILP1) is transiently expressed during non-feeding stages and reproductive dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiting; Liao, Sifang; Veenstra, Jan A.; Nässel, Dick R.

    2016-01-01

    The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved in animals, and is part of nutrient-sensing mechanisms that control growth, metabolism, reproduction, stress responses, and lifespan. In Drosophila, eight insulin-like peptides (DILP1-8) are known, six of which have been investigated in some detail, whereas expression and functions of DILP1 and DILP4 remain enigmatic. Here we demonstrate that dilp1/DILP1 is transiently expressed in brain insulin producing cells (IPCs) from early pupa until a few days of adult life. However, in adult female flies where diapause is triggered by low temperature and short days, within a time window 0–10h post-eclosion, the dilp1/DILP1 expression remains high for at least 9 weeks. The dilp1 mRNA level is increased in dilp2, 3, 5 and dilp6 mutant flies, indicating feedback regulation. Furthermore, the DILP1 expression in IPCs is regulated by short neuropeptide F, juvenile hormone and presence of larval adipocytes. Male dilp1 mutant flies display increased lifespan and reduced starvation resistance, whereas in female dilp1 mutants oviposition is reduced. Thus, DILP1 is expressed in non-feeding stages and in diapausing flies, is under feedback regulation and appears to play sex-specific functional roles. PMID:27197757

  7. Construction of rice site-specific chloroplast transformation vector and transient expression of EGFP gene in Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Li, Ding; Han, Xiaoxia; Zuo, Jia; Xie, Lingling; He, Ronghua; Gao, Jing; Chang, Lan; Yuan, Longping; Cao, Mengliang

    2011-12-01

    Chloroplast is a new hotspot in the field of plant transformation system of plant genetic engineering. Plastid transformation has several advantages: high expression, multiple expressed genes in a single transformation event, absence of gene silencing, et al. A series of elements for construction of dicistronic site-specific integration expression vector of rice chloroplast have been cloned, including trnl-trnA (rice chloroplast homologous recombination fragments), Prrn (16S rRNA operon promotor), PpsbA (the 3' untranslated region of the chloroplastpsbA gene), hptll gene (encoding hygromycin phosphotransferase) and EGFP (encoding enhanced green fluorescence protein). All the elements were constructed into a rice chloroplast dicistronic expression vector pCTE04 (-trnl-Prrn-RBS-hptlI-RBS-EGFP-PpsbA- trnA-). Then pCTE04 was introduced into chloroplasts of Dunaliella salina through particle bombardment. Strong green fluorescence was observed in chloroplasts of some bombarded Dunaliella salina cells under a stereo fluorescence microscope, indicating that pCTE04 could be expressed in Dunaliella salina chloroplasts transiently. It provides a solid foundation for further genetic engineering in rice chloroplast transformation.

  8. Drosophila insulin-like peptide 1 (DILP1) is transiently expressed during non-feeding stages and reproductive dormancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiting; Liao, Sifang; Veenstra, Jan A; Nässel, Dick R

    2016-01-01

    The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved in animals, and is part of nutrient-sensing mechanisms that control growth, metabolism, reproduction, stress responses, and lifespan. In Drosophila, eight insulin-like peptides (DILP1-8) are known, six of which have been investigated in some detail, whereas expression and functions of DILP1 and DILP4 remain enigmatic. Here we demonstrate that dilp1/DILP1 is transiently expressed in brain insulin producing cells (IPCs) from early pupa until a few days of adult life. However, in adult female flies where diapause is triggered by low temperature and short days, within a time window 0-10h post-eclosion, the dilp1/DILP1 expression remains high for at least 9 weeks. The dilp1 mRNA level is increased in dilp2, 3, 5 and dilp6 mutant flies, indicating feedback regulation. Furthermore, the DILP1 expression in IPCs is regulated by short neuropeptide F, juvenile hormone and presence of larval adipocytes. Male dilp1 mutant flies display increased lifespan and reduced starvation resistance, whereas in female dilp1 mutants oviposition is reduced. Thus, DILP1 is expressed in non-feeding stages and in diapausing flies, is under feedback regulation and appears to play sex-specific functional roles. PMID:27197757

  9. Expression of synthetic human tropoelastin (hTE) protein in Nicotiana tabacum

    PubMed Central

    Abdelghani, Mona; El-Heba, Ghada A Abu; Abdelhadi, Abdelhadi A; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plant molecular farming (PMF) is an important growing prospective approach in plant biotechnology; it includes production of recombinant pharmaceutical and industrial proteins in large quantities from engineered plants. Elastin is a major protein component of tissues that require elasticity, it helps keep skin smooth as it stretches to allow normal.  Elastin is used as a raw material for the cosmetic industry. In this work, we aimed to use plant as a bioreactor for the expression and production of the full human tropoelastin protein. Agrobacterium- mediated transient expression system into Nicotiana tabacum using syringe agroinfiltration was used to provide fast and convenient way to produce recombinant proteins with greater expression overall the plant leaf. This study aimed to establish an efficient and rapid system for transiently expression and production of human recombinant tropoelastin protein in transgenic N. tabacum plants. Modified elastin (ELN) gene was biosynthesized and cloned into pCambia1390 vector to be used into N. tabacum agroinfilteration. Optimization of codon usage for the human tropoelastin gene, without changing the primary structure of the protein was carried out to ensure high expression in tobacco plants. The obtained data proved that the 5th day post-infiltration is the optimum interval to obtain the maximum production of our recombinant protein. Southern blot analysis was able to detect 2175 bp fragment length representing the ELN orf (open reding frame). On the other hand, ELN -expression within plant's tissue was visualized by RT-PCR during the period 3–10 days post agroinfiltration. At the protein level, western and ELISA confirmed the expression of recombinant tropoelastin protein. Western blot analysis detected the tropoelastin protein as parent band at ∼70 kDa from freshly extracted protein, while two degraded bands of ∼55 and ∼45 kDa, representing a pattern of tropoelastin were appeared with frozen samples

  10. Purification of effector-target protein complexes via transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Win, Joe; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Alexandra M E

    2011-01-01

    Effectors of plant pathogens play important roles in not only pathogenesis but also plant immunity. Plant pathogens use these effectors to manipulate host cells for colonization, and their activities likely influence the evolution of plant immune responses. Analyses of genome sequences revealed that oomycete pathogens, such as Phytophthora spp., possess hundreds of RXLR effectors that are thought to be delivered into the host cells and hence function inside the cells by interacting with the host protein complexes. This article describes a co-immunoprecipitation protocol aimed at identifying putative target complexes of the effectors by transiently overexpressing the tagged effectors in planta. The identification of the eluted protein complexes was achieved by LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry and peptide spectrum matching. PMID:21359809

  11. p63 Expression in the Gerbil Hippocampus Following Transient Ischemia and Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on p63 Expression in the Ischemic Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Cho, Geum-Sil; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Bae, Eun Joo; Ahn, Ji Yun; Park, Chan Woo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Hui Young

    2015-05-01

    p63 is a transcription factor of p53 gene family, which are involved in development, differentiation and cell response to stress; however, its roles in ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in the brain are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IPC on p63 immunoreactivity caused by 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. IPC was induced by subjecting the gerbils to 2 min of transie ischemia 1 day prior to 5 min of transient ischemia. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operated-group, ischemia-operated-group, IPC plus (+)-sham-operated-group and IPC + ischemia-operated-group). The number of viable neurons in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) was significantly increased by IPC + ischemia-operated-group compared with that in the ischemia-operated-group 5 days after ischemic insult. We found that strong p63 immunoreactivity was detected in the CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated-group, and the immunoreactivity was decreased with time after ischemia-reperfusion. In addition, strong p63 immunoreactivity was newly expressed in microglial cells of the CA1 region from 2 days after ischemia-reperfusion. In all the IPC + sham-operated-groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the CA1 pyramidal neurons was similar to that in the sham-operated-group, and the immunoreactivity was well maintained in the IPC + ischemia-operated-groups after cerebral ischemia. In brief, our present findings show that IPC dramatically protected the reduction of p63 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region after ischemia-reperfusion, and this result suggests that the expression of p63 may be necessary for neurons to survive after transient cerebral ischemia.

  12. p63 Expression in the Gerbil Hippocampus Following Transient Ischemia and Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on p63 Expression in the Ischemic Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Cho, Geum-Sil; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Bae, Eun Joo; Ahn, Ji Yun; Park, Chan Woo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Hui Young

    2015-05-01

    p63 is a transcription factor of p53 gene family, which are involved in development, differentiation and cell response to stress; however, its roles in ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in the brain are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IPC on p63 immunoreactivity caused by 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. IPC was induced by subjecting the gerbils to 2 min of transie ischemia 1 day prior to 5 min of transient ischemia. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operated-group, ischemia-operated-group, IPC plus (+)-sham-operated-group and IPC + ischemia-operated-group). The number of viable neurons in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) was significantly increased by IPC + ischemia-operated-group compared with that in the ischemia-operated-group 5 days after ischemic insult. We found that strong p63 immunoreactivity was detected in the CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated-group, and the immunoreactivity was decreased with time after ischemia-reperfusion. In addition, strong p63 immunoreactivity was newly expressed in microglial cells of the CA1 region from 2 days after ischemia-reperfusion. In all the IPC + sham-operated-groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the CA1 pyramidal neurons was similar to that in the sham-operated-group, and the immunoreactivity was well maintained in the IPC + ischemia-operated-groups after cerebral ischemia. In brief, our present findings show that IPC dramatically protected the reduction of p63 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region after ischemia-reperfusion, and this result suggests that the expression of p63 may be necessary for neurons to survive after transient cerebral ischemia. PMID:25777256

  13. Efficient gusA transient expression in Porphyra yezoensis protoplasts mediated by endogenous beta-tubulin flanking sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Qianhong; Yu, Wengong; Dai, Jixun; Liu, Hongquan; Xu, Rifu; Guan, Huashi; Pan, Kehou

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous tubulin promoter has been widely used for expressing foreign genes in green algae, but the efficiency and feasibility of endogenous tubulin promoter in the economically important Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta) are unknown. In this study, the flanking sequences of beta-tubulin gene from P. yezoensis were amplified and two transient expression vectors were constructed to determine their transcription promoting feasibility for foreign gene gusA. The testing vector pATubGUS was constructed by inserting 5'-and 3'-flanking regions ( Tub5' and Tub3') up-and down-stream of β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene ( gusA), respectively, into pA, a derivative of pCAT®3-enhancer vector. The control construct, pAGUSTub3, contains only gusA and Tub3'. These constructs were electroporated into P. yezoensis protoplasts and the GUS activities were quantitatively analyzed by spectrometry. The results demonstrated that gusA gene was efficiently expressed in P. yezoensis protoplasts under the regulation of 5'-flanking sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. More interestingly, the pATubGUS produced stronger GUS activity in P. yezoensis protoplasts when compared to the result from pBI221, in which the gusA gene was directed by a constitutive CaMV 35S promoter. The data suggest that the integration of P. yezoensis protoplast and its endogenous beta-tubulin flanking sequences is a potential novel system for foreign gene expression.

  14. Establishment of a transient transfection system and expression of firefly luciferase in Entamoeba invadens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nishant; Ojha, Sandeep; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2012-05-01

    Entamoeba invadens is used as a model system to study trophozoite to cyst differentiation since Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebiasis cannot encyst in culture. However, a system for introduction of cloned genes in E. invadens is not available. Here we report an electroporation-based method for transfection of E. invadens tophozoites and demonstrate the expression of firefly luciferase reporter gene driven from the E. invadens ribosomal protein L3 promoter. The efficiency of luciferase expression driven from the promoters of three different E. invadens genes (rpl3, rps10 and h2b) was tested and found to correlate with the in vivo expression levels of the respective gene. This system will permit the analysis of regulatory elements required for gene expression in E. invadens.

  15. The transient expression of miR-203 and its inhibiting effects on skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Luo, W; Wu, H; Ye, Y; Li, Z; Hao, S; Kong, L; Zheng, X; Lin, S; Nie, Q; Zhang, X

    2014-07-17

    Previous studies have shown that miR-203 is a skin-specific microRNA (miRNA) with a profound role in skin cell differentiation. However, emerging microarray and deep sequencing data revealed that miR-203 is also expressed in embryonic skeletal muscle and myoblasts. In this study, we found that miR-203 was transiently upregulated in chicken embryos on days 10 to 16 (E10-E16) and was sharply downregulated and even not expressed after E16 in chicken embryonic skeletal muscle. Histological profiles and weight variations of embryo skeletal muscle revealed that miR-203 expression is correlated with muscle development. In vitro experiments showed that miR-203 exhibited downregulated expression during myoblast differentiation into myotubes. miR-203 overexpression inhibited myoblast proliferation and differentiation, whereas its loss-of-function increased myoblast proliferation and differentiation. During myogenesis, miR-203 can target and inhibit the expression of c-JUN and MEF2C, which were important for cell proliferation and muscle development, respectively. The overexpression of c-JUN significantly promoted myoblast proliferation. Conversely, knockdown of c-JUN by siRNA suppressed myoblast proliferation. In addition, the knockdown of MEF2C by siRNA significantly inhibited myoblast differentiation. Altogether, these data not only suggested that the expression of miR-203 is transitory during chicken skeletal muscle development but also showed a novel role of miR-203 in inhibiting skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation by repressing c-JUN and MEF2C, respectively.

  16. Transient and Transgenic Analysis of the Zebrafish Ventricular Myosin Heavy Chain (vmhc) Promoter: An Inhibitory Mechanism of Ventricle-Specific Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruilin; Xu, Xiaolei

    2009-01-01

    The zebrafish ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) gene exhibits restricted expression in the ventricle. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this chamber-specific expression is unclear. Here, we exploited both transient and transgenic technologies to dissect the zebrafish vmhc promoter. We demonstrated that a combination of two transient assays in this animal model quickly identified chamber-specific cis-elements, isolating a 2.2 kb fragment upstream from the vmhc gene that can drive ventricle-specific expression. Furthermore, deletion analysis identified multiple cis-elements that exhibited cardiac-specific expression. To achieve chamber specificity, a distal element was required to coordinate with and suppress a proximal enhancer element. Finally, we discovered that Nkx2.5-binding sites (NKE) were essential for this repressive function. In summary, our study of the zebrafish vmhc promoter suggests that ventricle-specific expression is achieved through an inhibitory mechanism that suppresses expression in the atrium. PMID:19322764

  17. Transient Gene and miRNA Expression Profile Changes of Confluent Human Fibroblast Cells in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity or an altered gravity environment from the static 1 gravitational constant has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies conducted in space or using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of the cells. Whether non-dividing cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space has not been specifically addressed. In an experiment conducted on the International Space Station, confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 days for investigations of gene and miRNA (microRNA) expression profile changes in these cells. A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework for tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing and other functions. Results of the experiment showed that on Day 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly even though they were confluent, as measured by the expression of the protein Ki-67 positive cells, and the cells in space grew slightly faster. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NF(sub kappa)B (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) and other growth related pathways involving HGF and VEGF in the flown cells. On Day 14 when the cells were mostly non-dividing, the gene and miRNA expression profiles between the flight and ground samples were indistinguishable. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the Day 3 samples in respect to Day 14 revealed that most of the changes observed on Day 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeleton changes by immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for alpha-tubulin showed no difference between the flight and ground samples. Results of our study suggest that in true non-dividing human fibroblast cells, microgravity in

  18. Transient gene and microRNA expression profile changes of confluent human fibroblast cells in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Honglu; Story, Michael; Karouia, Fathi; Stodieck, Louis; Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Microgravity, or an altered gravity environment from the Earth1g, has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies conducted in space or using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of these cells. Whether non-proliferating cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space has not been specifically addressed. In an experiment conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS), confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 days, respectively, for investigations of gene and miRNA expression profile changes in these cells. Results of the experiment showed that on Day 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly, as measured by the percentage of Ki-67 positive cells. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NFkB and other growth related pathways involving HGF and Vegf along with down regulation of the Let-7 miRNA family. On Day 14 when the cells were mostly non-proliferating, the gene and miRNA expression profiles between the flight and ground samples were indistinguishable. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the Day 3 samples with respect to Day 14 revealed that most of the changes observed on Day 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeletal changes via immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for αa-tubulin and fibronectin showed no difference between flown and ground samples. Taken together, our study suggests that in true non-dividing human fibroblast cells in culture, microgravity experienced in space has little effect on the gene and miRNA expression profiles.

  19. Transient Gene and MicroRNA Expression Profile Changes of Confluent Human Fibroblast Cells in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Wang, Xiaoyu; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Story, Michael; Wu, Honglu

    2016-01-01

    Microgravity, or an altered gravity environment from the Earth1g, has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies conducted in space or using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of these cells. Whether non-proliferating cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space has not been specifically addressed. In an experiment conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS), confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 days, respectively, for investigations of gene and miRNA expression profile changes in these cells. Results of the experiment showed that on Day 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly, as measured by the percentage of Ki-67 positive cells. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NF(kappa)B and other growth related pathways involving HGF and Vegf along with down regulation of the Let-7 miRNA family. On Day 14 when the cells were mostly non-proliferating, the gene and miRNA expression profiles between the flight and ground samples were indistinguishable. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the Day 3 samples with respect to Day 14 revealed that most of the changes observed on Day 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeletal changes via immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for alpha-tubulin and fibronectin showed no difference between flown and ground samples. Taken together, our study suggests that in true non-dividing human fibroblast cells in culture, microgravity experienced in space has little effect on the gene and miRNA expression profiles.

  20. Transient expression of Bcl6 is sufficient for oncogenic function and induction of mature B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael R; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Liu, Chih Long; Dai, Bo; González-Herrero, Inés; García-Ramírez, Idoia; Alonso-Escudero, Esther; Iqbal, Javeed; Chan, Wing C; Campos-Sanchez, Elena; Orfao, Alberto; Pintado, Belén; Flores, Teresa; Blanco, Oscar; Jiménez, Rafael; Martínez-Climent, Jose Angel; Criado, Francisco Javier García; Cenador, María Begoña García; Zhao, Shuchun; Natkunam, Yasodha; Lossos, Izidore S; Majeti, Ravindra; Melnick, Ari; Cobaleda, César; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma and can be separated into two subtypes based upon molecular features with similarities to germinal center B-cells (GCB-like) or activated B-cells (ABC-like). Here we identify gain of 3q27.2 as being significantly associated with adverse outcome in DLBCL and linked with the ABC-like subtype. This lesion includes the BCL6 oncogene, but does not alter BCL6 transcript levels or target-gene repression. Separately, we identify expression of BCL6 in a subset of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). We therefore hypothesize that BCL6 may act by hit-and-run oncogenesis. We model this by transiently expressing Bcl6 within murine HSPCs, and find it causes mature B-cell lymphomas that lack Bcl6 expression and target-gene repression, are transcriptionally similar to post-GCB cells, and show epigenetic changes that are conserved from HSPCs to mature B-cells. Together these results suggest that Bcl6 may function in a hit-and-run role in lymphomagenesis. PMID:24887457

  1. Transient expression of Bcl6 is sufficient for oncogenic function and induction of mature B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael R; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Long Liu, Chih; Dai, Bo; González-Herrero, Inés; García-Ramírez, Idoia; Alonso-Escudero, Esther; Iqbal, Javeed; Chan, Wing C; Campos-Sanchez, Elena; Orfao, Alberto; Pintado, Belén; Flores, Teresa; Blanco, Oscar; Jiménez, Rafael; Martínez-Climent, Jose Angel; Criado, Francisco Javier García; Cenador, María Begoña García; Zhao, Shuchun; Natkunam, Yasodha; Lossos, Izidore S; Majeti, Ravindra; Melnick, Ari; Cobaleda, César; Alizadeh, Ash A; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2014-06-02

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma and can be separated into two subtypes based upon molecular features with similarities to germinal centre B-cells (GCB-like) or activated B-cells (ABC-like). Here we identify gain of 3q27.2 as being significantly associated with adverse outcome in DLBCL and linked with the ABC-like subtype. This lesion includes the BCL6 oncogene, but does not alter BCL6 transcript levels or target-gene repression. Separately, we identify expression of BCL6 in a subset of human haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). We therefore hypothesize that BCL6 may act by 'hit-and-run' oncogenesis. We model this hit-and-run mechanism by transiently expressing Bcl6 within murine HSPCs, and find that it causes mature B-cell lymphomas that lack Bcl6 expression and target-gene repression, are transcriptionally similar to post-GCB cells, and show epigenetic changes that are conserved from HSPCs to mature B-cells. Together, these results suggest that BCL6 may function in a 'hit-and-run' role in lymphomagenesis.

  2. Expression and functionality of transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4)-like channels during development of the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Henrique; Ellis, Jayne; Kleinow, Kevin M

    2015-12-01

    Calcium signaling, from localized spikes to coordinated waves, are linked to cleavage, patterning, differentiation, and growth during embryonic development. The basis for control of these Ca(2+) signals is poorly defined. In this study, the expression and functionality of the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 protein (TRPM4), an ion channel that controls Ca(2+) entry into cells, was examined in the zebrafish embryo and adult. Originating with the human TRPM4 gene, Ensembl ortholog, NCBI BLAST, and Homologene searches identified a zebrafish TRPM4 "like" gene encoding a predicted protein of 1199 amino acids and sharing a 42-43% sequence identity with the mouse, rat, and human. Custom-designed zebrafish primers identified TRPM4 transcripts throughout the 0-123h period of embryonic development with greatest and lowest relative expression at 12 and 123h post-fertilization, respectively. Perforated patch clamp recordings in 27h embryonic cells revealed Ca(2+)-activated currents with the characteristics of those described for mammalian TRPM4. Similarly, TRPM4-like expression and functionality was observed in brain and liver cells from adult fish. These findings suggest that a TRPM4-like channel is available for Ca(2+) regulation during early development of the zebrafish. PMID:26432160

  3. Morphine administration during low ovarian hormone stage results in transient over expression of fear memories in females.

    PubMed

    Perez-Torres, Emily M; Ramos-Ortolaza, Dinah L; Morales, Roberto; Santini, Edwin; Rios-Ruiz, Efrain J; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn

    2015-01-01

    Acute exposure to morphine after a traumatic event reduces trauma related symptoms in humans and conditioned fear expression in male rats. We aimed to determine whether acute administration of morphine alters consolidation of fear learning and extinction. Male and female rats in proestrus and metaestrus (high and low ovarian hormones respectively) underwent fear conditioning and received saline or morphine (2.5 mg/kg s.c.). The next day they underwent extinction. Results showed increased freezing during extinction only in the morphine metaestrus group while morphine did not affect males or proestrus females. Recall of extinction was similar on all groups. On a second experiment, a subset of rats conditioned during metaestrus was administered morphine prior to extinction producing no effects. We then measured mu opioid receptor (MOR) expression in the amygdala and periaqueductal gray (PAG) at the end of extinction (day 2). In males and proestrus females, morphine caused an increase in MOR in the amygdala but no in the PAG. In metaestrus females, morphine did not change MOR expression in either structure. These data suggests that ovarian hormones may interact with MORs in the amygdala to transiently alter memory consolidation. Morphine given after trauma to females with low ovarian hormones might increase the recall of fear responses, making recovery harder. PMID:26052274

  4. Expression of vesicular glutamate transporters in transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8)-positive dental afferents in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y S; Kim, T H; McKemy, D D; Bae, Y C

    2015-09-10

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is activated by innocuous cool and noxious cold and plays a crucial role in cold-induced acute pain and pain hypersensitivity. To help understand the mechanism of TRPM8-mediated cold perception under normal and pathologic conditions, we used light microscopic immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis in mice expressing a genetically encoded axonal tracer in TRPM8-positive (+) neurons. We investigated the coexpression of TRPM8 and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and VGLUT2 in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and the dental pulp before and after inducing pulpal inflammation. Many TRPM8+ neurons in the TG and axons in the dental pulp expressed VGLUT2, while none expressed VGLUT1. TRPM8+ axons were dense in the pulp horn and peripheral pulp and also frequently observed in the dentinal tubules. Following pulpal inflammation, the proportion of VGLUT2+ and of VGLUT2+/TRPM8+ neurons increased significantly, whereas that of TRPM8+ neurons remained unchanged. Our findings suggest the existence of VGLUT2 (but not VGLUT1)-mediated glutamate signaling in TRPM8+ neurons possibly underlying the cold-induced acute pain and hypersensitivity to cold following pulpal inflammation. PMID:26166724

  5. Transient increase in obese gene expression after food intake or insulin administration.

    PubMed

    Saladin, R; De Vos, P; Guerre-Millo, M; Leturque, A; Girard, J; Staels, B; Auwerx, J

    1995-10-12

    Obesity is a disorder of energy balance, indicating a chronic disequilibrium between energy intake and expenditure. Recently, the mouse ob gene, and subsequently its human and rat homologues, have been cloned. The ob gene product, leptin, is expressed exclusively in adipose tissue, and appears to be a signalling factor regulating body-weight homeostasis and energy balance. Because the level of ob gene expression might indicate the size of the adipose depot, we suggest that it is regulated by factors modulating adipose tissue size. Here we show that ob gene exhibits diurnal variation, increasing during the night, after rats start eating. This variation was linked to changes in food intake, as fasting prevented the cyclic variation and decreased ob messenger RNA. Furthermore, refeeding fasted rats restored ob mRNA within 4 hours to levels of fed animals. A single insulin injection in fasted animals increased ob mRNA to levels of fed controls. Experiments to control glucose and insulin independently in animals, and studies in primary adipocytes, showed that insulin regulates ob gene expression directly in rats, regardless of its glucose-lowering effects. Whereas the ob gene product, leptin, has been shown to reduce food intake and increase energy expenditure, our data demonstrate that ob gene expression is increased after food ingestion in rats, perhaps through a direct action of insulin on the adipocyte.

  6. Acupuncture improves locomotor function by enhancing GABA receptor expression in transient focal cerebral ischemia rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Yang, Jing-Wen; Cao, Yan; Zhang, Li-Wen; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Li, Fang; Du, Si-Qi; Wang, Lin-Peng; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-02-19

    Stroke is the major cause of long-term disability among adults. Recent studies have found that GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission plays a vital role in ameliorate locomotor damage after ischemic injury. Acupuncture has been widely used to improve locomotor function. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study is designed to investigate whether GABA and GABA receptors are involved in the mechanism underlying acupuncture treatment in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). One week after acupuncture at JiaJi acupoint, the locomotor function and infarct volumes were tested. Then level of GABA and the expressions of GABAAγ2 and GABABR2 were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Compared with normal group, GABAAγ2 and GABABR2 expressions were decreased in striatum and spinal cord of the MCAO group. After acupuncture, the expressions of the two receptors were increased, but levels of GABA and trafficking protein, kinesin binding 1 (TRAK1), which plays a role in the intracellular transport of GABA receptors, were unchanged. The present study suggests that acupuncture could reverse locomotor function by modulating the expressions of GABA receptors in MCAO rats. PMID:25556683

  7. Transient changes in intercellular protein variability identify sources of noise in gene expression.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhyudai

    2014-11-01

    Protein levels differ considerably between otherwise identical cells, and these differences significantly affect biological function and phenotype. Previous work implicated various noise mechanisms that drive variability in protein copy numbers across an isogenic cell population. For example, transcriptional bursting of mRNAs has been shown to be a major source of noise in the expression of many genes. Additional expression variability, referred to as extrinsic noise, arises from intercellular variations in mRNA transcription and protein translation rates attributed to cell-to-cell differences in cell size, abundance of ribosomes, etc. We propose a method to determine the magnitude of different noise sources in a given gene of interest. The method relies on blocking transcription and measuring changes in protein copy number variability over time. Our results show that this signal has sufficient information to quantify both the extent of extrinsic noise and transcription bursting in gene expression. Moreover, if the mean mRNA count is known, then the relative contributions of transcription versus translation rate fluctuations to extrinsic noise can also be determined. In summary, our study provides an easy-to-implement method for characterizing noisy protein expression that complements existing techniques for studying stochastic dynamics of genetic circuits.

  8. Site-specific recombination-based genetic system for reporting transient or low-level gene expression.

    PubMed

    Casavant, N Carol; Beattie, Gwyn A; Phillips, Gregory J; Halverson, Larry J

    2002-07-01

    We report here the construction, characterization, and application of a plasmid-based genetic system that reports the expression of a target promoter by effecting an irreversible, heritable change in a bacterial cell. This system confers strong repression of the reporter gene gfp in the absence of target promoter expression and utilizes the site-specific recombination machinery of bacteriophage P22 to trigger high-level reporter gene expression in the original cell and its progeny after target gene induction. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this genetic system by tailoring it to indicate the availability of arabinose to the biological control agent Enterobacter cloacae JL1157 in culture and in the barley rhizosphere. The presence of bioavailable arabinose triggered the production of P22 excisionase and integrase from the reporter plasmid pAraLHB in JL1157, and this led to excision of the cI repressor gene, which is flanked by att sites, and the subsequent irreversible expression of gfp in the original cell and in its progeny. In culture, nearly 100% of an E. cloacae JL1157(pAraLHB) population expressed gfp after exposure to 6.5 to 65 microM arabinose for 3 h. We used this biosensor to demonstrate that arabinose was released from the seeds of several legumes and grass species during germination and from roots of barley seedlings grown hydroponically or in soil. When introduced into microcosms containing barley, the biosensor permitted the localization of arabinose along the roots. Arabinose was present near the root-seed junction and on the seminal roots but was not detected at the root tips. This recombination-based reporter system should be useful for monitoring bacterial exposure to transient or low levels of specific molecules directly in the environment.

  9. Suppression of aberrant transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6 expression in hyperproliferative colonic crypts by dietary calcium.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Sara; Sellin, Joseph H; Wang, Yu; Freeman, Michael R; Umar, Shahid

    2010-09-01

    Dietary calcium is believed to reduce colon cancer risk, but the mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. Employing the Citrobacter rodentium-induced transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) model, we previously showed that a high-calcium diet (hCa) significantly abrogated hyperplasia in the distal colons of NIH-Swiss mice. Here, we explored the mechanism of dietary protection by hCa by analyzing the expression of genes involved in the regulation of Ca uptake/flux in the intestinal epithelium, including the Ca-sensing receptor, vitamin D receptor, Ca binding protein, and transient receptor potential cation channels, subfamily V, members 5 and 6 (TRPV5/6). Interestingly, while TRPV6 expression increased significantly during TMCH, the expression of the other gene products was unchanged. This elevated TRPV6 expression was significantly abrogated by a hCa diet. Immunofluorescence revealed apical membrane localization of TRPV6 in the normal colon, whereas during TMCH we observed intense apical pole and cytoplasmic staining along the entire longitudinal crypt axis, including the expanded proliferating zone. The hCa diet reversed this effect. In humans, overexpression of TRPV6 was associated with early-stage colon cancer, and in colon carcinoma cells, inhibition of TRPV6 expression by small interfering RNA inhibited their proliferation and induced apoptosis. TRPV6 small interfering RNA also diminished the transcriptional activity of the calcium-dependent nuclear factors in activated T cells. Thus the aberrant overexpression of TRPV6 contributes to colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice and to colon cancer cell proliferation in humans. Therefore, it is likely that suppression of TRPV6 by a hCa diet is required for its protective effects in the colon.

  10. Angiotensin II induces membrane trafficking of natively expressed transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 channels in hypothalamic 4B cells.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ashwini; Bachelor, Martha; Park, Yong H; Carreno, Flavia R; Nedungadi, T Prashant; Cunningham, J Thomas

    2014-10-15

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid family type 4 (TRPV4) channels are expressed in central neuroendocrine neurons and have been shown to be polymodal in other systems. We previously reported that in the rodent, a model of dilutional hyponatremia associated with hepatic cirrhosis, TRPV4 expression is increased in lipid rafts from the hypothalamus and that this effect may be angiotensin dependent. In this study, we utilized the immortalized neuroendocrine rat hypothalamic 4B cell line to more directly test the effects of angiotensin II (ANG II) on TRPV4 expression and function. Our results demonstrate the expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) transcripts, for sex-determining region Y (SRY) (male genotype), arginine vasopressin (AVP), TRPV4, and ANG II type 1a and 1b receptor in 4B cells. After a 1-h incubation in ANG II (100 nM), 4B cells showed increased TRPV4 abundance in the plasma membrane fraction, and this effect was prevented by the ANG II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan (1 μM) and by a Src kinase inhibitor PP2 (10 μM). Ratiometric calcium imaging experiments demonstrated that ANG II incubation potentiated TRPV4 agonist (GSK 1016790A, 20 nM)-induced calcium influx (control 18.4 ± 2.8% n = 5 and ANG II 80.5 ± 2.4% n = 5). This ANG II-induced increase in calcium influx was also blocked by 1 μM losartan and 10 μM PP2 (losartan 26.4 ± 3.8% n = 5 and PP2 19.7 ± 3.9% n = 5). Our data suggests that ANG II can increase TRPV4 channel membrane expression in 4B cells through its action on AT1R involving a Src kinase pathway. PMID:25080500

  11. Transient gene expression in tobacco using Gibson assembly and the Gene Gun.

    PubMed

    Mattozzi, Matthew D; Voges, Mathias J; Silver, Pamela A; Way, Jeffrey C

    2014-04-18

    In order to target a single protein to multiple subcellular organelles, plants typically duplicate the relevant genes, and express each gene separately using complex regulatory strategies including differential promoters and/or signal sequences. Metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists interested in targeting enzymes to a particular organelle are faced with a challenge: For a protein that is to be localized to more than one organelle, the engineer must clone the same gene multiple times. This work presents a solution to this strategy: harnessing alternative splicing of mRNA. This technology takes advantage of established chloroplast and peroxisome targeting sequences and combines them into a single mRNA that is alternatively spliced. Some splice variants are sent to the chloroplast, some to the peroxisome, and some to the cytosol. Here the system is designed for multiple-organelle targeting with alternative splicing. In this work, GFP was expected to be expressed in the chloroplast, cytosol, and peroxisome by a series of rationally designed 5' mRNA tags. These tags have the potential to reduce the amount of cloning required when heterologous genes need to be expressed in multiple subcellular organelles. The constructs were designed in previous work(11), and were cloned using Gibson assembly, a ligation independent cloning method that does not require restriction enzymes. The resultant plasmids were introduced into Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal leaf cells with a modified Gene Gun protocol. Finally, transformed leaves were observed with confocal microscopy.

  12. Transient gene expression in tobacco using Gibson assembly and the Gene Gun.

    PubMed

    Mattozzi, Matthew D; Voges, Mathias J; Silver, Pamela A; Way, Jeffrey C

    2014-01-01

    In order to target a single protein to multiple subcellular organelles, plants typically duplicate the relevant genes, and express each gene separately using complex regulatory strategies including differential promoters and/or signal sequences. Metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists interested in targeting enzymes to a particular organelle are faced with a challenge: For a protein that is to be localized to more than one organelle, the engineer must clone the same gene multiple times. This work presents a solution to this strategy: harnessing alternative splicing of mRNA. This technology takes advantage of established chloroplast and peroxisome targeting sequences and combines them into a single mRNA that is alternatively spliced. Some splice variants are sent to the chloroplast, some to the peroxisome, and some to the cytosol. Here the system is designed for multiple-organelle targeting with alternative splicing. In this work, GFP was expected to be expressed in the chloroplast, cytosol, and peroxisome by a series of rationally designed 5' mRNA tags. These tags have the potential to reduce the amount of cloning required when heterologous genes need to be expressed in multiple subcellular organelles. The constructs were designed in previous work(11), and were cloned using Gibson assembly, a ligation independent cloning method that does not require restriction enzymes. The resultant plasmids were introduced into Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal leaf cells with a modified Gene Gun protocol. Finally, transformed leaves were observed with confocal microscopy. PMID:24796418

  13. Transient expression of laminin {alpha}1 chain in regenerating murine liver: Restricted localization of laminin chains and nidogen-1

    SciTech Connect

    Kikkawa, Yamato . E-mail: yamato@sapmed.ac.jp; Mochizuki, Yoichi; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2005-04-15

    Most interstitia between epithelial and endothelial cells contain basal laminae (BLs), as defined by electron microscopy. However, in liver, the sinusoidal interstitium (called space of Disse) between hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) lacks BLs. Because laminins are major components of BLs throughout the body, whether laminins exist in sinusoids has been a controversial issue. Despite recent advances, the distribution and expression of laminin chains have not been well defined in mammalian liver. Here, using a panel of antibodies, we examined laminins in normal and regenerating mouse livers. Of {alpha} chains, {alpha}5 was widely observed in all BLs except for sinusoids, while the other {alpha} chains were variously expressed in Glisson's sheath and central veins. Laminin {gamma}1 was also distributed to all BLs except for sinusoids. Although the {beta}2 chain was observed in all BLs and sinusoids, the expression of {beta}1 chain was restricted to Glisson's sheath. Detailed analysis of regenerating liver revealed that {alpha}1 and {gamma}1 chains appeared in sinusoids and were produced by stellate cells. The staining of {alpha}1 and {gamma}1 chains reached its maximum intensity at 6 days after two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PHx). Moreover, in vitro studies showed that {alpha}1-containing laminin promoted spreading of sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) isolated from normal liver, but not other hepatic cells. In addition, SECs isolated from regenerating liver elongated pseudopodia on {alpha}1-containing laminin more so than did cells from normal liver. The transient expression of laminin {alpha}1 may promote formation of sinusoids after PHx.

  14. Stress-induced switch in Numb isoforms enhances Notch-dependent expression of subtype-specific transient receptor potential channel.

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, George A; Belal, Cherine; Madan, Meenu; Taylor, David G; Wang, Jang; Wei, Zelan; Pattisapu, Jogi V; Chan, Sic L

    2010-02-26

    The Notch signaling pathway plays an essential role in the regulation of cell specification by controlling differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Numb is an intrinsic regulator of the Notch pathway and exists in four alternative splice variants that differ in the length of their phosphotyrosine-binding domain (PTB) and proline-rich region domains. The physiological relevance of the existence of the Numb splice variants and their exact regulation are still poorly understood. We previously reported that Numb switches from isoforms containing the insertion in PTB to isoforms lacking this insertion in neuronal cells subjected to trophic factor withdrawal (TFW). The functional relevance of the TFW-induced switch in Numb isoforms is not known. Here we provide evidence that the TFW-induced switch in Numb isoforms regulates Notch signaling strength and Notch target gene expression. PC12 cells stably overexpressing Numb isoforms lacking the PTB insertion exhibited higher basal Notch activity and Notch-dependent transcription of the transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) when compared with those overexpressing Numb isoforms with the PTB insertion. The differential regulation of TRPC6 expression is correlated with perturbed calcium signaling and increased neuronal vulnerability to TFW-induced death. Pharmacological inhibition of the Notch pathway or knockdown of TRPC6 function ameliorates the adverse effects caused by the TFW-induced switch in Numb isoforms. Taken together, our results indicate that Notch and Numb interaction may influence the sensitivity of neuronal cells to injurious stimuli by modulating calcium-dependent apoptotic signaling cascades.

  15. Heterologously-expressed and Liposome-reconstituted Human Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 4 Channel (TRPM4) is a Functional Tetramer

    PubMed Central

    Constantine, Maryrose; Liew, Chu Kong; Lo, Victor; Macmillan, Alex; Cranfield, Charles G.; Sunde, Margaret; Whan, Renee; Graham, Robert M.; Martinac, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Mutation, irregular expression and sustained activation of the Transient Receptor Potential Channel, type Melastatin 4 (TRPM4), have been linked to various cardiovascular diseases. However, much remains unknown about the structure of this important ion channel. Here, we have purified a heterologously expressed TRPM4-eGFP fusion protein and investigated the oligomeric state of TRPM4-eGFP in detergent micelles using crosslinking, native gel electrophoresis, multi-angle laser light scattering and electron microscopy. Our data indicate that TRPM4 is tetrameric, like other TRP channels studied to date. Furthermore, the functionality of liposome reconstituted TRPM4-eGFP was examined using electrophysiology. Single-channel recordings from TRPM4-eGFP proteoliposomes showed inhibition of the channel using Flufenamic acid, a well-established inhibitor of TRPM4, suggesting that the channels are functional upon reconstitution. Our characterisation of the oligomeric structure of TRPM4 and the ability to reconstitute functional channels in liposomes should facilitate future studies into the structure, function and pharmacology of this therapeutically relevant channel. PMID:26785754

  16. Characterization of IRE1 ribonuclease-mediated mRNA decay in plants using transient expression analyses in rice protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shimpei; Wakasa, Yuhya; Ozawa, Kenjirou; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-06-01

    In some eukaryotes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces regulated inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)-dependent decay (RIDD) of mRNAs. Recently, the expression levels of the mRNAs encoding some secretory proteins were reported to be downregulated by RIDD in the vegetative tissues of plants. However, the characteristics of plant RIDD have been insufficiently investigated due to difficulty of in planta analyses. Here, the RIDD susceptibilities of various mRNAs that are difficult to analyze in planta were examined using transient expression analyses of rice protoplasts. In this system, the mRNAs encoding three rice seed storage proteins (SSPs) - namely α-globulin, 16-kDa prolamin and 10-kDa prolamin - were downregulated in response to ER stress. The rapid ER stress-induced degradation of these mRNAs was repressed in cells in which the ribonuclease activity of IRE1 was specifically abolished by genome editing, suggesting that the mRNAs encoding certain SSPs are strong targets of RIDD. Furthermore, we investigated whether these RIDD targets are substrates of the IRE1 ribonuclease using a recombinant IRE1 protein, and identified candidate IRE1-mediated cleavage sites. Overall, the results demonstrate the existence of a post-transcriptional mechanism of regulation of SSPs, and illustrate the basic and multifaceted characteristics of RIDD in higher plants. PMID:26831622

  17. Heterologously-expressed and Liposome-reconstituted Human Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 4 Channel (TRPM4) is a Functional Tetramer.

    PubMed

    Constantine, Maryrose; Liew, Chu Kong; Lo, Victor; Macmillan, Alex; Cranfield, Charles G; Sunde, Margaret; Whan, Renee; Graham, Robert M; Martinac, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Mutation, irregular expression and sustained activation of the Transient Receptor Potential Channel, type Melastatin 4 (TRPM4), have been linked to various cardiovascular diseases. However, much remains unknown about the structure of this important ion channel. Here, we have purified a heterologously expressed TRPM4-eGFP fusion protein and investigated the oligomeric state of TRPM4-eGFP in detergent micelles using crosslinking, native gel electrophoresis, multi-angle laser light scattering and electron microscopy. Our data indicate that TRPM4 is tetrameric, like other TRP channels studied to date. Furthermore, the functionality of liposome reconstituted TRPM4-eGFP was examined using electrophysiology. Single-channel recordings from TRPM4-eGFP proteoliposomes showed inhibition of the channel using Flufenamic acid, a well-established inhibitor of TRPM4, suggesting that the channels are functional upon reconstitution. Our characterisation of the oligomeric structure of TRPM4 and the ability to reconstitute functional channels in liposomes should facilitate future studies into the structure, function and pharmacology of this therapeutically relevant channel. PMID:26785754

  18. Solulin reduces infarct volume and regulates gene-expression in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Thrombolysis after acute ischemic stroke has only proven to be beneficial in a subset of patients. The soluble recombinant analogue of human thrombomodulin, Solulin, was studied in an in vivo rat model of acute ischemic stroke. Methods Male SD rats were subjected to 2 hrs of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Rats treated with Solulin intravenously shortly before reperfusion were compared to rats receiving normal saline i.v. with respect to infarct volumes, neurological deficits and mortality. Gene expression of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-9, CD11B and GFAP were semiquantitatively analyzed by rtPCR of the penumbra. Results 24 hrs after reperfusion, rats were neurologically tested, euthanized and infarct volumes determined. Solulin significantly reduced mean total (p = 0.001), cortical (p = 0.002), and basal ganglia (p = 0.036) infarct volumes. Hippocampal infarct volumes (p = 0.191) were not significantly affected. Solulin significantly downregulated the expression of IL-1β (79%; p < 0.001), TNF-α (59%; p = 0.001), IL-6 (47%; p = 0.04), and CD11B (49%; p = 0.001) in the infarcted cortex compared to controls. Conclusions Solulin reduced mean total, cortical and basal ganglia infarct volumes and regulated a subset of cytokines and proteases after tMCAO suggesting the potency of this compound for therapeutic interventions. PMID:22082476

  19. Characterization of IRE1 ribonuclease-mediated mRNA decay in plants using transient expression analyses in rice protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shimpei; Wakasa, Yuhya; Ozawa, Kenjirou; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-06-01

    In some eukaryotes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces regulated inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)-dependent decay (RIDD) of mRNAs. Recently, the expression levels of the mRNAs encoding some secretory proteins were reported to be downregulated by RIDD in the vegetative tissues of plants. However, the characteristics of plant RIDD have been insufficiently investigated due to difficulty of in planta analyses. Here, the RIDD susceptibilities of various mRNAs that are difficult to analyze in planta were examined using transient expression analyses of rice protoplasts. In this system, the mRNAs encoding three rice seed storage proteins (SSPs) - namely α-globulin, 16-kDa prolamin and 10-kDa prolamin - were downregulated in response to ER stress. The rapid ER stress-induced degradation of these mRNAs was repressed in cells in which the ribonuclease activity of IRE1 was specifically abolished by genome editing, suggesting that the mRNAs encoding certain SSPs are strong targets of RIDD. Furthermore, we investigated whether these RIDD targets are substrates of the IRE1 ribonuclease using a recombinant IRE1 protein, and identified candidate IRE1-mediated cleavage sites. Overall, the results demonstrate the existence of a post-transcriptional mechanism of regulation of SSPs, and illustrate the basic and multifaceted characteristics of RIDD in higher plants.

  20. Transient activation of specific neurons in mice by selective expression of the capsaicin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Güler, Ali D.; Rainwater, Aundrea; Parker, Jones G.; Jones, Graham L.; Argilli, Emanuela; Arenkiel, Benjamin R.; Ehlers, Michael D.; Bonci, Antonello; Zweifel, Larry s.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control the electrical activity of a neuronal subtype is a valuable tool in deciphering the role of discreet cell populations in complex neural circuits. Recent techniques that allow remote control of neurons are either labor intensive and invasive or indirectly coupled to neural electrical potential with low temporal resolution. Here we show the rapid, reversible and direct activation of genetically identified neuronal subpopulations by generating two inducible transgenic mouse models. Confined expression of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, allows cell-specific activation after peripheral or oral delivery of ligand in freely moving mice. Capsaicin-induced activation of dopaminergic or serotonergic neurons reversibly alters both physiological and behavioural responses within minutes, and lasts ~10 min. These models showcase a robust and remotely controllable genetic tool that modulates a distinct cell population without the need for invasive and labour-intensive approaches. PMID:22434189

  1. Transient Expression of Functional Glucocerebrosidase for Treatment of Gaucher's Disease in the Goat Mammary Gland.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Kaio Cesar Simiano; Dias, Ana Christina de Oliveira; Lazzarotto, Cícera Regina; Gaudencio Neto, Saul; de Sá Carneiro, Igor; Ongaratto, Felipe Ledur; Pinto, Antônio Frederico Michel; de Aguiar, Luís Henrique; Calderón, Carlos Enrique Mendez; Toledo, Jorge Roberto; Castro, Fidel Ovidio; Santos, Diogenes Santiago; Chies, Jocelei Maria; Bertolini, Marcelo; Bertolini, Luciana Relly

    2016-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an orphan disease characterized by the lack or incapacity of glucocerebrosidase (hGCase) to properly process glucosylceramide, resulting in its accumulation in vital structures of the human body. Enzyme replacement therapy supplies hGCase to GD patients with a high-cost recombinant enzyme produced in vitro in mammalian or plant cell culture. In this study, we produced hGCase through the direct injection of recombinant adenovirus in the mammary gland of a non-transgenic goat. The enzyme was secreted in the milk during six days at a level up to 111.1 ± 8.1 mg/L, as identified by mass spectrometry, showing high in vitro activity. The milk-produced hGCase presented a mass correspondent to the intermediary high-mannose glycosylated protein, which could facilitate its delivery to macrophages through the macrophage mannose receptor. Further studies are underway to determine the in vivo delivery capacity of milk-hGCase, but results from this study paves the way toward the generation of transgenic goats constitutively expressing hGCase in the milk. PMID:26589705

  2. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma arises in thymocytes and requires transient TCR expression for thymic egress.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Tim I M; Villarese, Patrick; Fairbairn, Camilla J; Lamant, Laurence; Trinquand, Amélie; Hook, C Elizabeth; Burke, G A Amos; Brugières, Laurence; Hughes, Katherine; Payet, Dominique; Merkel, Olaf; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Ashankyty, Ibraheem; Mian, Shahid; Wasik, Mariusz; Turner, Martin; Kenner, Lukas; Asnafi, Vahid; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Turner, Suzanne D

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a peripheral T-cell lymphoma presenting mostly in children and young adults. The natural progression of this disease is largely unknown as is the identity of its true cell of origin. Here we present a model of peripheral ALCL pathogenesis where the malignancy is initiated in early thymocytes, before T-cell receptor (TCR) β-rearrangement, which is bypassed in CD4/NPM-ALK transgenic mice following Notch1 expression. However, we find that a TCR is required for thymic egress and development of peripheral murine tumours, yet this TCR must be downregulated for T-cell lymphomagenesis. In keeping with this, clonal TCR rearrangements in human ALCL are predominantly in-frame, but often aberrant, with clonal TCRα but no comparable clonal TCRβ rearrangement, yielding events that would not normally be permissive for survival during thymic development. Children affected by ALCL may thus harbour thymic lymphoma-initiating cells capable of seeding relapse after chemotherapy. PMID:26753883

  3. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma arises in thymocytes and requires transient TCR expression for thymic egress

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Tim I. M.; Villarese, Patrick; Fairbairn, Camilla J.; Lamant, Laurence; Trinquand, Amélie; Hook, C. Elizabeth; Burke, G. A. Amos; Brugières, Laurence; Hughes, Katherine; Payet, Dominique; Merkel, Olaf; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Ashankyty, Ibraheem; Mian, Shahid; Wasik, Mariusz; Turner, Martin; Kenner, Lukas; Asnafi, Vahid; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Turner, Suzanne D.

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a peripheral T-cell lymphoma presenting mostly in children and young adults. The natural progression of this disease is largely unknown as is the identity of its true cell of origin. Here we present a model of peripheral ALCL pathogenesis where the malignancy is initiated in early thymocytes, before T-cell receptor (TCR) β-rearrangement, which is bypassed in CD4/NPM–ALK transgenic mice following Notch1 expression. However, we find that a TCR is required for thymic egress and development of peripheral murine tumours, yet this TCR must be downregulated for T-cell lymphomagenesis. In keeping with this, clonal TCR rearrangements in human ALCL are predominantly in-frame, but often aberrant, with clonal TCRα but no comparable clonal TCRβ rearrangement, yielding events that would not normally be permissive for survival during thymic development. Children affected by ALCL may thus harbour thymic lymphoma-initiating cells capable of seeding relapse after chemotherapy. PMID:26753883

  4. Enzymatic characterization of germination-specific cysteine protease-1 expressed transiently in cotyledons during the early phase of germination.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Tsukamoto, Kana; Iwamoto, Keiko; Ito, Yuka; Yuasa, Keizo

    2013-01-01

    Papain-like cysteine protease activity that shows a unique transient expression profile in cotyledons of daikon radish during germination was detected. The enzyme showed a distinct elution pattern on DEAE-cellulose compared with cathepsin B-like and Responsive to dessication-21 cysteine protease. Although this activity was not detected in seed prior to imbibition, the activity increased markedly and reached a maximum at 2 days after imbibition and then decreased rapidly and completely disappeared after 5 days. Using cystatin-Sepharose, the 26 kDa cysteine protease (DRCP26) was isolated from cotyledons at 2 days after imbibition. The deduced amino acid sequence from the cDNA nucleotide sequence indicated that DRCP26 is an orthologue of Arabidopsis unidentified protein, germination-specific cysteine protease-1, belonging to the C1 family of cysteine protease predicted from genetic information. In an effort to characterize the enzymatic properties of DRCP26, the enzyme was purified to homogeneity from cotyledons at 48 h after imbibition. The best synthetic substrate for the enzyme was carbobenzoxy-Phe-Arg-4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide. All model peptides were digested to small peptides by the enzyme, suggesting that DRCP26 possesses broad cleavage specificity. These results indicated that DRCP26 plays a role in the mobilization of storage proteins in the early phase of seed germination.

  5. Expression and cellular distribution of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 in cortical tubers of the tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Yang, Meihua; Sun, Feiji; Liang, Chao; Wei, Yujia; Wang, Lukang; Yue, Jiong; Chen, Bing; Li, Song; Liu, Shiyong; Yang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Cortical tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are highly associated with intractable epilepsy. Recent evidence has shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) has direct effects on both neurons and glial cells. To understand the role of TRPV4 in pathogenesis of cortical tubers, we investigated the expression patterns of TRPV4 in cortical tubers of TSC compared with normal control cortex (CTX). We found that TRPV4 was clearly up-regulated in cortical tubers at the protein levels. Immunostaining indicated that TRPV4 was specially distributed in abnormal cells, including dysplastic neurons (DNs) and giant cells (GCs). In addition, double immunofluorescent staining revealed that TRPV4 was localized on neurofilament proteins (NF200) positive neurons and glial fibrillary acidic portein (GFAP) positive reactive astrocytes. Moreover, TRPV4 co-localized with both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Furthermore, protein levels of protein kinase C (PKC), but not protein kinase A (PKA), the important upstream factors of the TRPV4, were significantly increased in cortical tubers. Taken together, the overexpression and distribution patterns of TRPV4 may be linked with the intractable epilepsy caused by TSC. PMID:26874068

  6. Spatio-Temporal Expression and Functional Involvement of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 in Diabetic Mechanical Allodynia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huang-Hui; Qi, Jian; Shi, Juan; Li, Yun-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is one of the most common clinical manifestations of diabetes mellitus (DM), which is characterized by prominent mechanical allodynia (DMA). However, the molecular mechanism underlying it has not fully been elucidated. In this study, we examined the spatio-temporal expression of a major nociceptive channel protein transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and analyzed its functional involvement by intrathecal (i.t.) application of TRPV1 antagonists in streptozocin (STZ)-induced DMA rat models. Western blot and immunofluorescent staining results showed that TRPV1 protein level was significantly increased in the soma of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on 14 days after STZ treatment (DMA 14 d), whereas those in spinal cord and skin (mainly from the central and peripheral processes of DRG neurons) had already been enhanced on DMA 7 d to peak on DMA 14 d. qRT-PCR experiments confirmed that TRPV1 mRNA level was significantly up-regulated in the DRG on DMA 7 d, indicating a preceding translation of TRPV1 protein in the soma but preferential distribution of this protein to the processes under the DMA conditions. Cell counting assay based on double immunostaining suggested that increased TRPV1-immunoreactive neurons were likely to be small-sized and CGRP-ergic. Finally, single or multiple intrathecal applications of non-specific or specific TRPV1 antagonists, ruthenium red and capsazepine, at varying doses, effectively alleviated DMA, although the effect of the former was more prominent and long-lasting. These results collectively indicate that TRPV1 expression dynamically changes during the development of DMA and this protein may play important roles in mechanical nociception in DRG neurons, presumably through facilitating the release of CGRP. PMID:25020137

  7. Direct conversion of mouse embryonic fibroblasts into functional keratinocytes through transient expression of pluripotency-related genes.

    PubMed

    Iacovides, Demetris; Rizki, Gizem; Lapathitis, Georgios; Strati, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    The insufficient ability of specialized cells such as neurons, cardiac myocytes, and epidermal cells to regenerate after tissue damage poses a great challenge to treat devastating injuries and ailments. Recent studies demonstrated that a diverse array of cell types can be directly derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), or somatic cells by combinations of specific factors. The use of iPSCs and direct somatic cell fate conversion, or transdifferentiation, holds great promise for regenerative medicine as these techniques may circumvent obstacles related to immunological rejection and ethical considerations. However, producing iPSC-derived keratinocytes requires a lengthy two-step process of initially generating iPSCs and subsequently differentiating into skin cells, thereby elevating the risk of cellular damage accumulation and tumor formation. In this study, we describe the reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts into functional keratinocytes via the transient expression of pluripotency factors coupled with directed differentiation. The isolation of an iPSC intermediate is dispensable when using this method. Cells derived with this approach, termed induced keratinocytes (iKCs), morphologically resemble primary keratinocytes. Furthermore they express keratinocyte-specific markers, downregulate mesenchymal markers as well as the pluripotency factors Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4, and they show important functional characteristics of primary keratinocytes. iKCs can be further differentiated by high calcium administration in vitro and are capable of regenerating a fully stratified epidermis in vivo. Efficient conversion of somatic cells into keratinocytes could have important implications for studying genetic skin diseases and designing regenerative therapies to ameliorate devastating skin conditions. PMID:27473056

  8. Transient receptor potential channel 1 maintains adherens junction plasticity by suppressing sphingosine kinase 1 expression to induce endothelial hyperpermeability.

    PubMed

    Tauseef, Mohammad; Farazuddin, Mohammad; Sukriti, Sukriti; Rajput, Charu; Meyer, James Otto; Ramasamy, Suresh Kumar; Mehta, Dolly

    2016-01-01

    Stability of endothelial cell (EC) adherens junctions (AJs) is central for prevention of tissue edema, the hallmark of chronic inflammatory diseases including acute respiratory distress syndrome. Here, we demonstrate a previously unsuspected role of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) in the mechanism by which transient receptor potential channel 1 (Trpc1)-mediated Ca(2+) entry destabilizes AJs. Trpc1(-/-) monolayers showed a 2.2-fold increase in vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin cell-surface expression above wild-type (WT) monolayers. Thrombin increased endothelial permeability (evident by a 5-fold increase in interendothelial gap area and 60% decrease in transendothelial electrical resistance) in WT but not Trpc1(-/-) ECs. Trpc1(-/-) mice resisted the hyperpermeability effects of the edemagenic agonists used and exhibited 60% less endotoxin-induced mortality. Because sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) strengthens AJs, we determined if TRPC1 functioned by inhibiting SPHK1 activity, which generates S1P. Intriguingly, Trpc1(-/-) ECs or ECs transducing a TRPC1-inactive mutant showed a 1.5-fold increase in basal SPHK1 expression compared with WT ECs, resulting in a 2-fold higher S1P level. SPHK1 inhibitor SK1-I decreased basal transendothelial electrical resistance more in WT ECs (48 and 72% reduction at 20 and 50 μM, respectively) than in Trpc1(-/-) ECs. However, SK1-I pretreatment rescued thrombin-induced EC permeability in Trpc1(-/-) ECs. Thus, TRPC1 suppression of basal SPHK1 activity enables EC-barrier destabilization by edemagenic agonists. PMID:26316271

  9. Acidic retinoids in small amounts promote retinyl ester formation in neonatal lung, with transient increases in retinoid homeostatic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mixing a small proportion, 10%, of retinoic acid (RA) into an oral dose of vitamin A (VA) has been shown to markedly increase retinol uptake and retinyl ester (RE) formation in the neonatal lung, as compared to VA given alone. Concomitantly, several retinoid homeostatic genes, lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), RA-4-hydroxylase (CYP26B1), and stimulated by retinoic acid gene-6 (STRA6) were upregulated. However, whether multiple doses may act accumulatively and whether less than 10% RA can be used has not been determined. Methods Neonatal rats were treated once on postnatal day (PD) 4 or PD14 with VA alone or VA combined with 10% RA (VARA10%) or a stable analog, Am580 (VAAm10%), or they were treated with multiple doses on PD4, 7, 11, and 14. Results RE increased cumulatively with multiple dosing. However, LRAT, CYP26B1 and STRA6 mRNA levels were similar for single and multiple treatments, indicating a transient noncumulative impact on gene expression. Lung RE was elevated with as little as 0.5% RA (P < 0.05) in a single dosing study. Whereas all concentrations of VARA elevated lung RE in single dosing studies, only 10% RA increased lung RE after multiple dosing, suggesting an attenuation of RA action with repeated dosing. In contrast, VAAm10%, 2%, and 1% all significantly increased lung RE after multiple doses (P < 0.05), while also increasing the expression of LRAT and CYP26B1. Conclusions These results indicate that the neonatal lung is very sensitive to acidic retinoid exposure and suggest that a VA combined with a very small fraction of acidic retinoid could be effective in increasing the lung’s storage pool of VA. PMID:24351038

  10. Expression analysis following argon treatment in an in vivo model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Argon treatment following experimental neurotrauma has been found neuroprotective in an array of in vivo and in vitro models. The inherent cellular and molecular mechanisms are still unknown. We seeked to shed light on these processes by examinig the cellular distribution and the expression of inflammatory markers and growth factors in argon treated brain tissue. Methods Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of the study groups: sham surgery + placebo, sham surgery + argon, tMCAO + placebo, and tMCAO + argon. Animals underwent 2 h-transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) using the endoluminal thread model or sham surgery without tMCAO. After the first hour of tMCAO or sham surgery a 1 h inhalative argon (50% argon/50% O2) or placebo (50% N2/50% O2) treatment was performed. Brains were removed and evaluated after 24 h. RealTime-PCR was performed from biopsies of the penumbra and contralateral corresponding regions. Paraffin sections were immunostained with antibodies against GFAP, NeuN, and Iba1. Cell counts of astrocytes, neurons and microglia in different cortical regions were performed in a double-blinded manner. Results Fifteen animals per tMCAO group and twelve sham + placebo respectively eleven sham + argon animals completed the interventional procedure. We identified several genes (IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, TGF-β, and NGF) whose transcription was elevated 24 h after the study intervention, and whose expression levels significantly differed between argon treatment and placebo following tMCAO. Except for the core region of ischemia, cell numbers were comparable between different treatment groups. Conclusion In our study, we found an elevated expression of several inflammatory markers and growth factors following tMCAO + argon compared to tMCAO + placebo. Although conflicting the previously described neuroprotective effects of argon following experimental ischemia, these findings might

  11. Transient Depletion of Kupffer Cells Leads to Enhanced Transgene Expression in Rat Liver Following Retrograde Intrabiliary Infusion of Plasmid DNA and DNA Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hui; Jiang, Xuan; Leong, Kam W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this report, we have demonstrated that by temporarily removing Kupffer cells (KCs), the transgene expression levels mediated by retrograde intrabiliary infusion (RII) of plasmid DNA, polyethylenimine-DNA, and chitosan nanoparticles were enhanced by 1,927-, 131-, and 23,450-fold, respectively, in comparison with the respective groups without KC removal. KC removal also led to significantly prolonged transgene expression in the liver that received all three carriers. This increased transgene expression was correlated with significantly reduced serum tumor necrosis factor-α level as an indicator for KC activation. These results suggest that KC activation is a significant contributing factor to the lowered transgene expression by polycation-DNA nanoparticles delivered by RII. More importantly, the combination of RII and transient removal of KCs may be adopted as an effective approach to achieving high and persistent transgene expression in the liver mediated by nonviral nanoparticles. PMID:21091274

  12. The Generation of Turnip Crinkle Virus-Like Particles in Plants by the Transient Expression of Wild-Type and Modified Forms of Its Coat Protein

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Keith; Lomonossoff, George P.

    2015-01-01

    Turnip crinkle virus (TCV), a member of the genus carmovirus of the Tombusviridae family, has a genome consisting of a single positive-sense RNA molecule that is encapsidated in an icosahedral particle composed of 180 copies of a single type of coat protein. We have employed the CPMV-HT transient expression system to investigate the formation of TCV-like particles following the expression of the wild-type coat protein or modified forms of it that contain either deletions and/or additions. Transient expression of the coat protein in plants results in the formation of capsid structures that morphologically resemble TCV virions (T = 3 structure) but encapsidate heterogeneous cellular RNAs, rather than the specific TCV coat protein messenger RNA. Expression of an amino-terminal deleted form of the coat protein resulted in the formation of smaller T = 1 structures that are free of RNA. The possibility of utilizing TCV as a carrier for the presentation of foreign proteins on the particle surface was also explored by fusing the sequence of GFP to the C-terminus of the coat protein. The expression of coat protein-GFP hybrids permitted the formation of VLPs but the yield of particles is diminished compared to the yield obtained with unmodified coat protein. Our results confirm the importance of the N-terminus of the coat protein for the encapsidation of RNA and show that the coat protein's exterior P domain plays a key role in particle formation. PMID:26734041

  13. Regulated expression of chimaeric genes containing the 5'-flanking regions of human growth hormone-related genes in transiently transfected rat anterior pituitary tumor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cattini, P A; Eberhardt, N L

    1987-01-01

    The expression and hormonal regulation of chimaeric genes containing the 5'-flanking regions of the normal human growth hormone (hGH-1), the variant hGH (hGH-2) and chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS-1) genes fused to the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene has been examined after transient transfection into cultured rat pituitary (GC), and non-pituitary (HeLa and Rat 2) tumor cells. As assessed by levels of CAT activity, the hGH-1 and hCS-1 gene hybrids were expressed at 5- to 25-fold higher levels in GC cells than in HeLa or Rat 2 cells. The hGH-2 gene hybrid was expressed at very low levels in all 3 cell types. Triiodothyronine treatment of transiently transfected GC cells had little effect on CAT activity from the hGH-1 gene hybrid but increased CAT activity from the hCS-1 gene hybrid. A slight but significant increase in CAT expression was detected with both genes after dexamethasone treatment. The data indicate that elements present on the hGH-1 and hCS-1 genes' 5'-flanking DNA are required for the efficient expression of these genes in GC cells. Images PMID:3644237

  14. A Cre-lox approach for transient transgene expression in neural precursor cells and long-term tracking of their progeny in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, Cédric G; Raineteau, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Background Neural precursor cells (NPCs) can be isolated from various regions of the postnatal central nervous system (CNS). Manipulation of gene expression in these cells offers a promising strategy to manipulate their fate both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we developed a technique that allows the transient manipulation of single/multiple gene expression in NPCs in vitro, and the long-term tracking of their progeny both in vitro and in vivo. Results In order to combine the advantages of transient transfection with the long-term tracking of the transfected cells progeny, we developed a new approach based on the cre-lox technology. We first established a fast and reliable protocol to isolate and culture NPCs as monolayer, from the spinal cord of neonatal transgenic Rosa26-YFP cre-reporter mice. These cells could be reliably transfected with single/multiple plasmids by nucleofection. Nucleofection with mono- or bicistronic plasmids containing the Cre recombinase gene resulted in efficient recombination and the long-term expression of the YFP-reporter gene. The transient cre-expression was non-toxic for the transfected cells and did not alter their intrinsic properties. Finally, we demonstrated that cre-transfected cells could be transplanted into the adult brain, where they maintained YFP expression permitting long-term tracking of their migration and differentiation. Conclusion This approach allows single/multiple genes to be manipulated in NPCs, while at the same time allowing long-term tracking of the transfected cells progeny to be analyzed both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:17504531

  15. Expression and assembly of functional bacterial luciferase in plants

    PubMed Central

    Koncz, Csaba; Olsson, Olof; Langridge, William H. R.; Schell, Jeff; Szalay, Aladar A.

    1987-01-01

    The luxA and luxB structural genes of Vibrio harveyi luciferase [alkanal,reduced FMN:oxygen oxidoreductase (1-hydroxylating, luminescing), EC 1.14.14.3] were introduced into a plant expression vector and transferred into tobacco and carrot cells by Agrobacterium-mediated or direct DNA transformation. Simultaneous expression of the luxA and luxB genes was monitored by protein immunoblot analysis. Luciferase-mediated light emission provided evidence for the assembly of the two protein subunits into a functional dimeric enzyme in plant protoplasts, in transformed calli, and in leaves of transformed plants. Bacterial luciferase may provide a useful marker-gene system for the quantitative assay of coordinate gene expression in transgenic plants. Images PMID:16593793

  16. Ontogeny of the serotonergic projection to rat neocortex: transient expression of a dense innervation to primary sensory areas

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amato, R.J.; Blue, M.E.; Largent, B.L.; Lynch, D.R.; Ledbetter, D.J.; Molliver, M.E.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-06-01

    The development of serotonergic innervation to rat cerebral cortex was characterized by immunohistochemical localization of serotonin combined with autoradiographic imaging of serotonin-uptake sites. In neonatal rat, a transient, dense, serotonergic innervation appears in all primary sensory areas of cortex. In somatosensory cortex, dense patches of serotonergic innervation are aligned with specialized cellular aggregates called barrels. The dense patches are not apparent after 3 weeks of age, and the serotonergic innervation becomes more uniform in adult neocortex. This precocious neonatal serotonergic innervation may play a transient physiologic role in sensory areas of cortex or may exert a trophic influence on the development of cortical circuitry and thalamocortical connections.

  17. Removal of selectable marker gene from fibroblast cells in transgenic cloned cattle by transient expression of Cre recombinase and subsequent effects on recloned embryo development.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Sun, X; Ding, F; Zhang, K; Zhao, R; Li, S; Li, R; Tang, B; Zhang, L; Liu, Y; Li, J; Gao, F; Wang, H; Wang, L; Dai, Y; Li, N

    2009-09-01

    Introduction of selectable marker genes to transgenic animals could create an inconvenience to further research and may exaggerate public concerns regarding biological safety. The objective of the current study was to excise loxP flanked neo(R) in transgenic cloned cattle by transient expression of Cre recombinase. Green fluorescent protein gene (GFP) was incorporated to monitor Cre expression; therefore, Cre-expressed cells could be selected indirectly by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The neo(R) was removed and Cre expressed transiently in GFP-positive colonies; excision of neo(R) was confirmed by single-blastocyst PCR in recloned blastocysts, with neo(R)-free fibroblast cells as donors. There was no difference (P>0.05) in rates of cleavage (76.0% vs. 68.8%) or blastocyst formation (56.6% vs. 52.9%) between recloned embryos with neo(R)-free or neo(R)-included donors. The differential staining of recloned blastocysts were similar (P >0.05) in terms of total cell number (124 vs. 122) and the ratio of ICM (Inner Cell Mass) to the total cell number (38.1% vs. 38.2%). Furthermore, pregnancy and calving rates were not different (P>0.05) from those of the control. In conclusion, we successfully excised neo(R) from transgenic cloned cattle; the manipulation did not affect the developmental competence of recloned preimplantation embryos. This approach should benefit bioreactor and transgenic research in livestock.

  18. Transient expression of an intermediate filament-associated protein (IFAPa-400) during in vivo and in vitro differentiation of chick embryonic cells derived from neuroectoderm.

    PubMed

    Chabot, P; Vincent, M

    1990-07-01

    The expression of an intermediate filament (IF) associated protein (IFAPa-400) and IF proteins was investigated during chick neurogenesis. Using immunoblots and indirect immunofluorescence we have found that IFAPa-400 was strongly expressed during the early events of nervous tissue ontogenesis and disappeared thereafter. IFAPa-400 was elevated in the brain and retina until ED 10 and until hatching in the cerebellum. This protein was shown to be transiently expressed in the Müller glia of the developing retina. In the brain, IFAPa-400 decreased as development proceeded in a way similar to vimentin but the latter remained elevated in the retina and the cerebellum radial glia (Müller and Bergmann cells). In all tissues examined, GFAP was detected long after the disappearance of IFAPa-400. In dorsal root ganglion cell cultures, IFAPa-400 and vimentin were absent from mature neurons but were coexpressed into supportive cells. In trunk neural crest cell cultures, IFAPa-400 and vimentin were present in all cells after one day but IFAPa-400 became undetectable after a few days of culture in differentiated melanocytes and catecholaminergic neurons. The transient expression of this giant cytoskeletal protein in non-differentiated cells deriving from the neuroectoderm could reflect a structural change which precedes overt cytodifferentiation.

  19. Cxcr4 is transiently expressed in both epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of nascent hair follicles but is not required for follicle formation.

    PubMed

    Sennett, Rachel; Rezza, Amélie; Dauber, Katherine L; Clavel, Carlos; Rendl, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Hair follicle (HF) morphogenesis relies on the coordinated exchange of signals between mesenchymal and epithelial compartments of embryonic skin. Chemokine receptor Cxcr4 expression was recently identified in dermal condensates (DCs) of nascent HFs, but its role in promoting HF morphogenesis remains unknown. Our analyses confirmed Cxcr4 expression in condensate cells, and additionally revealed transient Cxcr4 expression in incipient epithelial hair placodes. Placodal Cxcr4 appeared prior to detection in DCs, representing a switch of expression between epithelial and mesenchymal compartments. To explore the functional role of this receptor in both compartments for early HF formation, we conditionally ablated Cxcr4 with condensate-targeting Tbx18(cre) knock-in and epidermis-targeting Krt14-cre transgenic mice. Conditional knockouts for both crosses were viable throughout embryogenesis and into adulthood. Morphological and biochemical marker analyses revealed comparable numbers of HFs forming in knockout embryos compared to wild-type littermate controls in both cases, suggesting that neither dermal nor epithelial Cxcr4 expression is required for early HF morphogenesis. We conclude that Cxcr4 expression and chemokine signaling through this receptor in embryonic mouse skin is dispensable for HF formation. PMID:25066162

  20. Cxcr4 is transiently expressed in both epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of nascent hair follicles but is not required for follicle formation.

    PubMed

    Sennett, Rachel; Rezza, Amélie; Dauber, Katherine L; Clavel, Carlos; Rendl, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Hair follicle (HF) morphogenesis relies on the coordinated exchange of signals between mesenchymal and epithelial compartments of embryonic skin. Chemokine receptor Cxcr4 expression was recently identified in dermal condensates (DCs) of nascent HFs, but its role in promoting HF morphogenesis remains unknown. Our analyses confirmed Cxcr4 expression in condensate cells, and additionally revealed transient Cxcr4 expression in incipient epithelial hair placodes. Placodal Cxcr4 appeared prior to detection in DCs, representing a switch of expression between epithelial and mesenchymal compartments. To explore the functional role of this receptor in both compartments for early HF formation, we conditionally ablated Cxcr4 with condensate-targeting Tbx18(cre) knock-in and epidermis-targeting Krt14-cre transgenic mice. Conditional knockouts for both crosses were viable throughout embryogenesis and into adulthood. Morphological and biochemical marker analyses revealed comparable numbers of HFs forming in knockout embryos compared to wild-type littermate controls in both cases, suggesting that neither dermal nor epithelial Cxcr4 expression is required for early HF morphogenesis. We conclude that Cxcr4 expression and chemokine signaling through this receptor in embryonic mouse skin is dispensable for HF formation.

  1. Transient resistance to DNA damaging agents is associated with expression of microRNAs-135b and -196b in human leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tsui-Ting; He, Xiaolong; Mo, Yin-Yuan; Beck, William T

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of resistance to anticancer drugs is widely viewed as a key obstacle to successful cancer therapy. However, detailed knowledge of the initial molecular events in the response of cancer cells to these chemotherapeutic and stress responses, and how these lead to the development of chemoresistance, remains incompletely understood. Using microRNA array and washout and rechallenge experiments, we found that short term treatment of leukemia cells with etoposide led a few days later to transient resistance that was associated with a corresponding transient increase in expression of ABCB1 mRNA, as well as microRNA (miR)-135b and miR-196b. This phenomenon was associated with short-term exposure to genotoxic agents, such as etoposide, topotecan, doxorubicin and ionizing radiation, but not agents that do not directly damage DNA. Further, this appeared to be histiotype-specific, and was seen in leukemic cells, but not in cell lines derived from solid tumors. Treatment of leukemic cells with either 5-aza-deoxycytidine or tricostatin A produced similar increased expression of ABCB1, miR-135b, and miR-196b, suggesting a role for epigenetic regulation of this phenomenon. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that CACNA1E, ARHGEF2, PTK2, SIAH1, ARHGAP6, and NME4 may be involved in the initial events in the development of drug resistance following the upregulation of ABCB1, miR-135b and miR-196b. In summary, we report herein that short-term exposure of cells to DNA damaging agents leads to transient drug resistance, which is associated with elevations in ABCB1, miR-135b and miR-196b, and suggests novel components that may be involved in the development of anticancer drug resistance. PMID:27570640

  2. Transient resistance to DNA damaging agents is associated with expression of microRNAs-135b and -196b in human leukemia cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Tsui-Ting; He, Xiaolong; Mo, Yin-Yuan; Beck, William T

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of resistance to anticancer drugs is widely viewed as a key obstacle to successful cancer therapy. However, detailed knowledge of the initial molecular events in the response of cancer cells to these chemotherapeutic and stress responses, and how these lead to the development of chemoresistance, remains incompletely understood. Using microRNA array and washout and rechallenge experiments, we found that short term treatment of leukemia cells with etoposide led a few days later to transient resistance that was associated with a corresponding transient increase in expression of ABCB1 mRNA, as well as microRNA (miR)-135b and miR-196b. This phenomenon was associated with short-term exposure to genotoxic agents, such as etoposide, topotecan, doxorubicin and ionizing radiation, but not agents that do not directly damage DNA. Further, this appeared to be histiotype-specific, and was seen in leukemic cells, but not in cell lines derived from solid tumors. Treatment of leukemic cells with either 5-aza-deoxycytidine or tricostatin A produced similar increased expression of ABCB1, miR-135b, and miR-196b, suggesting a role for epigenetic regulation of this phenomenon. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that CACNA1E, ARHGEF2, PTK2, SIAH1, ARHGAP6, and NME4 may be involved in the initial events in the development of drug resistance following the upregulation of ABCB1, miR-135b and miR-196b. In summary, we report herein that short-term exposure of cells to DNA damaging agents leads to transient drug resistance, which is associated with elevations in ABCB1, miR-135b and miR-196b, and suggests novel components that may be involved in the development of anticancer drug resistance. PMID:27570640

  3. Ischemic preconditioning inhibits expression of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Cho, Geum-Sil; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich Na; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Seung Min; Ahn, Ji Yun; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Bae, Eun Joo; Yong, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Yun Lyul

    2015-04-15

    The participation of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) in neuronal damage/death in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) induced by transient forebrain ischemia has not been well established, although acidosis may be involved in neuronal damage/death. In the present study, we examined the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on NHE1 immunoreactivity following a 5min of transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. The animals used in the study were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operated-group, ischemia-operated-group, IPC plus (+) sham-operated-group and IPC+ischemia-operated-group). IPC was induced by subjecting animals to 2min of ischemia followed by 1day of recovery. A significant neuronal loss was found in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the CA1, not the CA2/3, of the ischemia-operated-group at 5days post-ischemia. However, in the IPC+ischemia-operated-group, neurons in the SP of the CA1 were well protected. NHE1 immunoreactivity was not detected in any regions of the CA1-3 of the sham- and IPC+sham-operated-groups. However, the immunoreactivity was apparently expressed in the SP of the CA1-3 after ischemia, and the NHE1immunoreactivity was very weak 5days after ischemia; however, at this point in time, strong NHE1immunoreactivity was found in astrocytes in the CA1. In the CA2/3, NHE1immunoreactivity was slightly changed, although NHE1immunoreactivity was expressed in the SP. In the IPC+ischemia-operated-groups, NHE1 immunoreactivity was also expressed in the SP of the CA1-3; however, the immunoreactivity was more slightly changed than that in the ischemia-operated-groups. In brief, our findings show that IPC dramatically protected CA1 pyramidal neurons and strongly inhibited NHE1 expression in the SP of the CA1 after ischemia-reperfusion. These findings suggest that the inhibition of NHE1 expression may be necessary for neuronal survival from transient ischemic damage.

  4. Leaf-disc assay based on transient over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana to allow functional screening of candidate effectors from aphids.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Patricia A; Hogenhout, Saskia A; Bos, Jorunn I B

    2014-01-01

    Aphids, like plant pathogens, are known to form close associations with their host. While probing and feeding, these insects deliver effectors inside the host, which are thought to be involved in suppression of host defenses and/or the release of nutrients. With increasing availability of aphid genome and transcriptome sequencing data, effectors can now be identified using bioinformatics- and proteomics-based approaches. The next step is then to apply functional assays relevant to plant-aphid interactions to identify effector activities. This chapter describes an effective and medium-throughput screen for the identification of effectors that affect aphid fecundity upon in planta over-expression. This assay will allow the identification of aphid effectors with a role in aphid virulence and can be adapted to other plant species amenable to agroinfiltration as well as to other assays based on transient expression, such as RNAi.

  5. A procedure for the transient expression of genes by agroinfiltration above the permissive threshold to study temperature-sensitive processes in plant-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Del Toro, Francisco; Tenllado, Francisco; Chung, Bong-Nam; Canto, Tomas

    2014-10-01

    Localized expression of genes in plants from T-DNAs delivered into plant cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is an important tool in plant research. The technique, known as agroinfiltration, provides fast, efficient ways to transiently express or silence a desired gene without resorting to the time-consuming, challenging stable transformation of the host, the use of less efficient means of delivery, such as bombardment, or the use of viral vectors, which multiply and spread within the host causing physiological alterations themselves. A drawback of the agroinfiltration technique is its temperature dependence: early studies have shown that temperatures above 29 °C are nonpermissive to tumour induction by the bacterium as a result of failure in pilus formation. However, research in plant sciences is interested in studying processes at these temperatures, above the 25 °C experimental standard, common to many host-environment and host-pathogen interactions in nature, and agroinfiltration is an excellent tool for this purpose. Here, we measured the efficiency of agroinfiltration for the expression of reporter genes in plants from T-DNAs at the nonpermissive temperature of 30 °C, either transiently or as part of viral amplicons, and envisaged procedures that allow and optimize its use for gene expression at this temperature. We applied this technical advance to assess the performance at 30 °C of two viral suppressors of silencing in agropatch assays [Potato virus Y helper component proteinase (HCPro) and Cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein] and, within the context of infection by a Potato virus X (PVX) vector, also assessed indirectly their effect on the overall response of the host Nicotiana benthamiana to the virus.

  6. Structure and hibernation-associated expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 channel (TRPV4) mRNA in the Japanese grass lizard (Takydromus tachydromoides).

    PubMed

    Nagai, Kazuya; Saitoh, Yasushi; Saito, Shigeru; Tsutsumi, Ken-ichi

    2012-03-01

    Animals possess systems for sensing environmental temperature using temperature-sensitive ion channels called transient receptor potential channels (TRPs). Various TRPs have been identified and characterized in mammals. However, those of ectotherms, such as reptiles, are less well studied. Here, we identify the V subfamily of TRP (TRPV) in two reptile species: Japanese grass lizard (Takydromus tachydromoides) and Japanese four-lined ratsnake (Elaphe quadrivirgata). Phylogenetic analysis of TRPVs indicated that ectothermic reptilian TRPVs are more similar to those of endothermic chicken and mammals, than to other ectotherms, such as frog and fish. Expression analysis of TRPV4 mRNA in the lizard showed that its expression in tissues and organs is specifically controlled in cold environments and hibernation. The mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in seven tissues/organs examined. Both cold-treatment and hibernation lowered TRPV4 expression, but in a tissue/organ-specific manner. Cold-treatment reduced TRPV4 expression in tongue and muscle, while in hibernation it was reduced more widely in brain, tongue, heart, lung, and muscle. Interestingly, however, levels of TRPV4 mRNA in the skin remained unaffected after entering hibernation and cold-treatment, implying that TRPV4 in the skin may act as an environmental temperature sensor throughout the reptilian life cycle, including hibernation. This is the first report, to our knowledge, to describe reptilian TRPV4 in relation to hibernation.

  7. A high cell density transient transfection system for therapeutic protein expression based on a CHO GS-knockout cell line: process development and product quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Rajendra, Yashas; Hougland, Maria D; Alam, Riazul; Morehead, Teresa A; Barnard, Gavin C

    2015-05-01

    Transient gene expression (TGE) is a rapid method for the production of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells. While the volumetric productivity of TGE has improved significantly over the past decade, most methods involve extensive cell line engineering and plasmid vector optimization in addition to long fed batch cultures lasting up to 21 days. Our colleagues have recently reported the development of a CHO K1SV GS-KO host cell line. By creating a bi-allelic glutamine synthetase knock out of the original CHOK1SV host cell line, they were able to improve the efficiency of generating high producing stable CHO lines for drug product manufacturing. We developed a TGE method using the same CHO K1SV GS-KO host cell line without any further cell line engineering. We also refrained from performing plasmid vector engineering. Our objective was to setup a TGE process to mimic protein quality attributes obtained from stable CHO cell line. Polyethyleneimine (PEI)-mediated transfections were performed at high cell density (4 × 10(6) cells/mL) followed by immediate growth arrest at 32 °C for 7 days. Optimizing DNA and PEI concentrations proved to be important. Interestingly, found the direct transfection method (where DNA and PEI were added sequentially) to be superior to the more common indirect method (where DNA and PEI are first pre-complexed). Moreover, the addition of a single feed solution and a polar solvent (N,N dimethylacetamide) significantly increased product titers. The scalability of process from 2 mL to 2 L was demonstrated using multiple proteins and multiple expression volumes. Using this simple, short, 7-day TGE process, we were able to successfully produce 54 unique proteins in a fraction of the time that would have been required to produce the respective stable CHO cell lines. The list of 54 unique proteins includes mAbs, bispecific antibodies, and Fc-fusion proteins. Antibody titers of up to 350 mg/L were achieved with the simple 7-day process. Titers

  8. Expression of genes involved in the salicylic acid pathway in type h1 thioredoxin transiently silenced pepper plants during a begomovirus compatible interaction.

    PubMed

    Luna-Rivero, Marianne S; Hernández-Zepeda, Cecilia; Villanueva-Alonzo, Hernán; Minero-García, Yereni; Castell-González, Salvador E; Moreno-Valenzuela, Oscar A

    2016-04-01

    The type-h thioredoxins (TRXs) play a fundamental role in oxidative stress tolerance and defense responses against pathogens. In pepper plants, type-h TRXs participate in the defense mechanism against Cucumber mosaic virus. The goal of this study was to analyze the role of the CaTRXh1-cicy gene in pepper plants during compatible interaction with a DNA virus, the Euphorbia mosaic virus-Yucatan Peninsula (EuMV-YP). The effects of a transient silencing of the CaTRXh1-cicy gene in pepper plants wëre evaluated by observing the accumulation of viral DNA and the visible symptoms of pepper plants under different treatments. The accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and the relative expression of the defense genes NPR1 and PR10 were also evaluated. Results showed that viral DNA accumulation was higher in transiently CaTRXh1-cicy silenced plants that were also infected with EuMV-YP. Symptoms in these plants were more severe compared to the non-silenced plants infected with EuMV-YP. The SA levels in the EuMV-YP-infected plants were rapidly induced at 1 h post infection (hpi) in comparison to the non-silenced plants inoculated with EuMV-YP. Additionally, in pepper plants infected with EuMV-YP, the expression of NPR1 decreased by up to 41 and 58 % at 28 days post infection (dpi) compared to the non-silenced pepper plants infected with only EuMV-YP and healthy non-inoculated pepper plants, respectively. PR10 gene expression decreased by up to 70 % at 28 dpi. Overall, the results indicate that the CaTRXh1-cicy gene participates in defense mechanisms during the compatible interaction of pepper plants with the EuMV-YP DNA virus.

  9. Expression of genes involved in the salicylic acid pathway in type h1 thioredoxin transiently silenced pepper plants during a begomovirus compatible interaction.

    PubMed

    Luna-Rivero, Marianne S; Hernández-Zepeda, Cecilia; Villanueva-Alonzo, Hernán; Minero-García, Yereni; Castell-González, Salvador E; Moreno-Valenzuela, Oscar A

    2016-04-01

    The type-h thioredoxins (TRXs) play a fundamental role in oxidative stress tolerance and defense responses against pathogens. In pepper plants, type-h TRXs participate in the defense mechanism against Cucumber mosaic virus. The goal of this study was to analyze the role of the CaTRXh1-cicy gene in pepper plants during compatible interaction with a DNA virus, the Euphorbia mosaic virus-Yucatan Peninsula (EuMV-YP). The effects of a transient silencing of the CaTRXh1-cicy gene in pepper plants wëre evaluated by observing the accumulation of viral DNA and the visible symptoms of pepper plants under different treatments. The accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and the relative expression of the defense genes NPR1 and PR10 were also evaluated. Results showed that viral DNA accumulation was higher in transiently CaTRXh1-cicy silenced plants that were also infected with EuMV-YP. Symptoms in these plants were more severe compared to the non-silenced plants infected with EuMV-YP. The SA levels in the EuMV-YP-infected plants were rapidly induced at 1 h post infection (hpi) in comparison to the non-silenced plants inoculated with EuMV-YP. Additionally, in pepper plants infected with EuMV-YP, the expression of NPR1 decreased by up to 41 and 58 % at 28 days post infection (dpi) compared to the non-silenced pepper plants infected with only EuMV-YP and healthy non-inoculated pepper plants, respectively. PR10 gene expression decreased by up to 70 % at 28 dpi. Overall, the results indicate that the CaTRXh1-cicy gene participates in defense mechanisms during the compatible interaction of pepper plants with the EuMV-YP DNA virus. PMID:26606929

  10. Changes in the expression of DNA-binding/differentiation protein inhibitors in neurons and glial cells of the gerbil hippocampus following transient global cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JAE-CHUL; CHEN, BAI HUI; CHO, JEONG-HWI; KIM, IN HYE; AHN, JI HYEON; PARK, JOON HA; TAE, HYUN-JIN; CHO, GEUM-SIL; YAN, BING CHUN; KIM, DAE WON; HWANG, IN KOO; PARK, JINSEU; LEE, YUN LYUL; CHOI, SOO YOUNG; WON, MOO-HO

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of DNA-binding/differentiation (ID) proteins bind to basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, including those that regulate differentiation and cell-cycle progression during development, and regulate gene transcription. However, little is known about the role of ID proteins in the brain under transient cerebral ischemic conditions. In the present study, we examined the effects of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury on the immunoreactivity and protein levels of IDs 1–4 in the gerbil hippocampus proper Cornu Ammonis regions CA1–3 following 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Strong ID1 immunoreactivity was detected in the nuclei of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1–3 regions; immunoreactivity was significantly changed following I-R in the CA1 region, but not in the CA2/3 region. Five days following I-R, ID1 immunoreactivity was not detected in the CA1 pyramidal neurons. ID1 immunoreactivity was detected only in GABAergic interneurons in the ischemic CA1 region. Weak ID4 immunoreactivity was detected in non-pyramidal cells, and immunoreactivity was again only changed in the ischemic CA1 region. Five days following I-R, strong ID4 immunoreactivity was detected in non-pyramidal cells, which were identified as microglia, and not astrocytes, in the ischemic CA1 region. Furthermore, changes in the protein levels of ID1 and ID4 in the ischemic CA1 region studied by western blot were consistent with patterns of immunoreactivity. In summary, these results indicate that immunoreactivity and protein levels of ID1 and ID4 are distinctively altered following transient cerebral ischemia only in the CA1 region, and that the changes in ID1 and ID4 expression may relate to the ischemia-induced delayed neuronal death. PMID:25503067

  11. Functional expression of the transient receptor potential channel TRPA1, a sensor for toxic lung inhalants, in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Büch, Thomas Robert Heinrich; Schäfer, Eva Anna Maria; Demmel, Maria-Theresia; Boekhoff, Ingrid; Thiermann, Horst; Gudermann, Thomas; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette

    2013-12-01

    The cation channel TRPA1 functions as a chemosensory protein and is directly activated by a number of noxious inhalants. A pulmonary expression of TRPA1 has been described in sensory nerve endings and its stimulation leads to the acceleration of inflammatory responses in the lung. Whereas the function of TRPA1 in neuronal cells is well defined, only few reports exist suggesting a role in epithelial cells. The aim of the present study was therefore (1) to evaluate the expression of TRPA1 in pulmonary epithelial cell lines, (2) to characterize TRPA1-promoted signaling in these cells, and (3) to study the extra-neuronal expression of this channel in lung tissue sections. Our results revealed that the widely used alveolar type II cell line A549 expresses TRPA1 at the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, stimulating A549 cells with known TRPA1 activators (i.e., allyl isothiocyanate) led to an increase in intracellular calcium levels, which was sensitive to the TRPA1 blocker ruthenium red. Investigating TRPA1 coupled downstream signaling cascades it was found that TRPA1 activation elicited a stimulation of ERK1/2 whereas other MAP kinases were not affected. Finally, using epithelial as well as neuronal markers in immunohistochemical approaches, a non-neuronal TRPA1 protein expression was detected in distal parts of the porcine lung epithelium, which was also found examining human lung sections. TRPA1-positive staining co-localized with both epithelial and neuronal markers underlining the observed epithelial expression pattern. Our findings of a functional expression of TRPA1 in pulmonary epithelial cells provide causal evidence for a non-neuronal TRPA1-mediated control of inflammatory responses elicited upon TRPA1-mediated registration of toxic inhalants in vivo. PMID:23994502

  12. Expression and Activation of STAT3 in the Astrocytes of Optic Nerve in a Rat Model of Transient Intraocular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaodan; Li, Weiyi; Wang, Wenqian; Zhang, Samuel S.; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Lamina cribosa, an astrocyte-rich region, is the origin of axonal degeneration in glaucomatous neuropathy. Astrocytes are particularly activated during optic nerve (ON) degeneration and are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Signalling mechanisms that regulate different aspects of astrocyte reactiviation in response to intraocular hypertensive injury are not well defined. Signal transducer and activator of transcription protein-3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that participates in many biological processes and has been implicated as activator of reactive astrogliosis. In this study, we investigated the role of STAT3 in regulating the activation of astrocytes to transient intraocular hypertension in vivo by using a rat ocular hypertension model. ON astrocytes hypertrophy was observed early after intraocular hypertensive stress. Morphological changes in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive cells coupled with axon loss in the optic nerve was detected at day 7 after the injury. Nestin was significantly upregulated in ON astrocytes as early as day 2 post injury and kept elevated through post injury day 7. Phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) was markedly upregulated in ON astrocytes at post injury day 1, prior to the reactivation of ON astrocytes. These findings indicate that STAT3 signalling is involved in the initiation of astrocyte reactivation in optic nerve injury. PMID:23383263

  13. Removal of bacterial suspension water occupying the intercellular space of detached leaves after agroinfiltration improves the yield of recombinant hemagglutinin in a Nicotiana benthamiana transient gene expression system.

    PubMed

    Fujiuchi, Naomichi; Matsuda, Ryo; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro

    2016-04-01

    The use of detached leaves instead of whole plants provides an alternative means for recombinant protein production based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient gene overexpression. However, the process for high-level protein production in detached leaves has not yet been established. In this study, we focused on leaf handling and maintenance conditions immediately after infiltration with Agrobacterium suspension (agroinfiltration) to improve recombinant protein expression in detached Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. We demonstrated that the residual water of bacterial suspension in detached leaves had significant impact on the yield of recombinant influenza hemagglutinin (HA). Immediately after agroinfiltration, detached leaves were stored in a dehumidified chamber to allow bacterial suspension water occupying intercellular space to be removed by transpiration. We varied the duration of this water removal treatment from 0.7 to 4.4 h, which resulted in leaf fresh weights ranging from 0.94 to 1.28 g g(-1) relative to weights measured just before agroinfiltration. We used these relative fresh weights (RFWs) as an indicator of the amount of residual water. The detached leaves were then incubated in humidified chambers for 6 days. We found that the presence of residual water significantly decreased HA yield, with a clear inverse correlation observed between HA yield and RFW. We next compared HA yields in detached leaves with those obtained from intact leaves by whole-plant expression performed at the same time. The maximum HA yield obtained from a detached leaf with a RFW of approximately 1.0, namely, 800 μg gFW(-1), was comparable to the mean HA yield of 846 μg gFW(-1) generated in intact leaves. Our results indicate the necessity of removing bacterial suspension water from agroinfiltrated detached leaves in transient overexpression systems and point to a critical factor enabling the detached-leaf system as a viable recombinant protein factory. PMID

  14. Removal of bacterial suspension water occupying the intercellular space of detached leaves after agroinfiltration improves the yield of recombinant hemagglutinin in a Nicotiana benthamiana transient gene expression system.

    PubMed

    Fujiuchi, Naomichi; Matsuda, Ryo; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro

    2016-04-01

    The use of detached leaves instead of whole plants provides an alternative means for recombinant protein production based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient gene overexpression. However, the process for high-level protein production in detached leaves has not yet been established. In this study, we focused on leaf handling and maintenance conditions immediately after infiltration with Agrobacterium suspension (agroinfiltration) to improve recombinant protein expression in detached Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. We demonstrated that the residual water of bacterial suspension in detached leaves had significant impact on the yield of recombinant influenza hemagglutinin (HA). Immediately after agroinfiltration, detached leaves were stored in a dehumidified chamber to allow bacterial suspension water occupying intercellular space to be removed by transpiration. We varied the duration of this water removal treatment from 0.7 to 4.4 h, which resulted in leaf fresh weights ranging from 0.94 to 1.28 g g(-1) relative to weights measured just before agroinfiltration. We used these relative fresh weights (RFWs) as an indicator of the amount of residual water. The detached leaves were then incubated in humidified chambers for 6 days. We found that the presence of residual water significantly decreased HA yield, with a clear inverse correlation observed between HA yield and RFW. We next compared HA yields in detached leaves with those obtained from intact leaves by whole-plant expression performed at the same time. The maximum HA yield obtained from a detached leaf with a RFW of approximately 1.0, namely, 800 μg gFW(-1), was comparable to the mean HA yield of 846 μg gFW(-1) generated in intact leaves. Our results indicate the necessity of removing bacterial suspension water from agroinfiltrated detached leaves in transient overexpression systems and point to a critical factor enabling the detached-leaf system as a viable recombinant protein factory.

  15. Delayed hippocampal neuronal death in young gerbil following transient global cerebral ischemia is related to higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the ischemic hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eun Joo; Chen, Bai Hui; Yan, Bing Chun; Shin, Bich Na; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Hong, Seongkweon; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Lee, Yun Lyul; Won, Moo-Ho; Park, Joon Ha

    2015-06-01

    The tumor suppressor p63 is one of p53 family members and plays a vital role as a regulator of neuronal apoptosis in the development of the nervous system. However, the role of p63 in mature neuronal death has not been addressed yet. In this study, we first compared ischemia-induced effects on p63 expression in the hippocampal regions (CA1-3) between the young and adult gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia. Neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region of young gerbils was significantly slow compared with that in the adult gerbils after transient global cerebral ischemia. p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated young group was significantly low compared with that in the sham-operated adult group. p63 immunoreactivity was apparently changed in ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. In the ischemia-operated adult groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was significantly decreased at 4 days post-ischemia; however, p63 immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated young group was significantly higher than that in the ischemia-operated adult group. At 7 days post-ischemia, p63 immunoreactivity was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. Change patterns of p63 level in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult and young gerbils after ischemic damage were similar to those observed in the immunohistochemical results. These findings indicate that higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the hippocampal CA1 region of the young gerbils after ischemia/reperfusion may be related to more delayed neuronal death compared to that in the adults. PMID:26199612

  16. Delayed hippocampal neuronal death in young gerbil following transient global cerebral ischemia is related to higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the ischemic hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun Joo; Chen, Bai Hui; Yan, Bing Chun; Shin, Bich Na; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Hong, Seongkweon; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Lee, Yun Lyul; Won, Moo-Ho; Park, Joon Ha

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p63 is one of p53 family members and plays a vital role as a regulator of neuronal apoptosis in the development of the nervous system. However, the role of p63 in mature neuronal death has not been addressed yet. In this study, we first compared ischemia-induced effects on p63 expression in the hippocampal regions (CA1–3) between the young and adult gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia. Neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region of young gerbils was significantly slow compared with that in the adult gerbils after transient global cerebral ischemia. p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated young group was significantly low compared with that in the sham-operated adult group. p63 immunoreactivity was apparently changed in ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. In the ischemia-operated adult groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was significantly decreased at 4 days post-ischemia; however, p63 immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated young group was significantly higher than that in the ischemia-operated adult group. At 7 days post-ischemia, p63 immunoreactivity was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. Change patterns of p63 level in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult and young gerbils after ischemic damage were similar to those observed in the immunohistochemical results. These findings indicate that higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the hippocampal CA1 region of the young gerbils after ischemia/reperfusion may be related to more delayed neuronal death compared to that in the adults. PMID:26199612

  17. Enhanced GAD65 production in plants using the MagnICON transient expression system: Optimization of upstream production and downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Matilde; Gecchele, Elisa; Arcalis, Elsa; Remelli, Sabrina; Brozzetti, Annalisa; Pezzotti, Mario; Avesani, Linda

    2016-03-01

    Plants have emerged as competitive production platforms for pharmaceutical proteins that are required in large quantities. One example is the 65-kDa isoform of human glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), a major autoimmune diabetes autoantigen that has been developed as a vaccine candidate for the primary prevention of diabetes. The expression of GAD65 in plants has been optimized but large-scale purification is hampered by its tendency to associate with membranes. We investigated the potential for large-scale downstream processing by evaluating different combinations of plant-based expression systems and engineered forms of GAD65 in terms of yield, subcellular localization and solubility in detergent-free buffer. We found that a modified version of GAD65 lacking the first 87 amino acids accumulates to high levels in the cytosol and can be extracted in detergent-free buffer. The highest yields of this variant protein were achieved using the MagnICON transient expression system. This combination of truncated GAD65 and the MagnICON system dramatically boosts the production of the recombinant protein and helps to optimize downstream processing for the establishment of a sustainable plant-based production platform for an autoimmune diabetes vaccine candidate. PMID:26710327

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Prunus salicina.

    PubMed

    Urtubia, Carolina; Devia, Jessica; Castro, Alvaro; Zamora, Pablo; Aguirre, Carlos; Tapia, Eduardo; Barba, Paola; Dell Orto, Paola; Moynihan, Michael R; Petri, César; Scorza, Ralph; Prieto, Humberto

    2008-08-01

    We report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of two Prunus salicina varieties, 'Angeleno' and 'Larry Anne', using a modification of the hypocotyl slice technique previously described for P. domestica. Regeneration rates on thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supplemented Murashige and Skoog (MS) media reached 11% for 'Angeleno' and 19% for 'Larry Anne' hypocotyl slices. Transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring a plasmid with the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and the green fluorescent protein (gfp) genes produced ten independent lines, six from 'Angeleno' and four from 'Larry Anne', representing transformation efficiencies of 0.8 and 0.3%, respectively, relative to the initial number of hypocotyl slices. Plants of six lines were found to produce the transgene encoded mRNAs. DNA blotting demonstrated the presence of transgene sequences in trees from five lines after 18 months of growth in the greenhouse.

  19. Transformation of Vicia narbonensis via Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Pickardt, T; Meixner, M; Schade, V; Schieder, O

    1991-02-01

    Shoot tips and epicotyl-segments of Vicia narbonensis were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 pGV 3850 HPT, carrying a plasmid coding for hygromycin-phosphotransferase. On callus-induction medium containing 60 mg/l hygromycin for selection, approximately 18% of the explants produced hygromycin-resistant callus. After transfer to regeneration-medium these calluses produced hygromycin-resistant and nopaline-positive somatic embryos which could be regenerated to plantlets. The integration of the T-DNA into the plant genome was confirmed by Southern analysis.

  20. Genetic transformation of wheat via Agrobacterium-mediated DNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Caroline A; Doherty, Angela; Jones, Huw D

    2014-01-01

    The method described involves an initial incubation of wheat immature embryos in a liquid culture of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The Agrobacterium strain is engineered to contain a binary vector with a gene of interest and a selectable marker gene placed between the T-DNA borders; the T-DNA is the region transferred to the plant cells, thus harnessing the bacterium's natural ability to deliver specific DNA into host cells. Following the initial inoculation with the Agrobacterium, the embryos are co-cultivated for several days after which the Agrobacterium is selectively destroyed using an antibiotic. Tissue culture of the embryos on plant media with a correct balance of hormones allows embryogenic callus formation followed by regeneration of plantlets, and in the later stages of tissue culture a selectable marker (herbicide) is included to minimize the incidence of non-transformed plants. This protocol has been used successfully to generate transformed plants of a wide range of wheat varieties, both spring and winter bread wheats (T. aestivum L.) and durum wheats (T. turgidum L.). PMID:24243208

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Ruta graveolens L.

    PubMed

    Lièvre, Karine; Tran, Thi Lê Minh; Doerper, Sébastien; Hehn, Alain; Lacoste, Paul; Thomasset, Brigitte; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Gontier, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used to develop a genetic transformation method for a medicinal plant Ruta graveolens. The direct plant regeneration strategy is preferred to callus line establishment. In vitro seedlings, 2- -to 3-wk-old, are used to excise hypocotyls and co-cultivated for 3 d with A. tumefaciens strain C58C1Rif containing plasmid pTDE4 harbouring neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II, kanamycin resistance) and beta-glucuronidase encoding genes. The Southern blot analysis has shown that 78% kanamycin resistant plants contain gene encoding beta-glucuronidase. The GUS histochemical assay shows that 67% transgenic plants exhibit the corresponding enzymatic activity. Routine transformation efficiency of R. graveolens L. is 11% and could reach up to 22%. Transgenic plants are grown in the greenhouse within 4 months after the initial seedlings.

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Prunus salicina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation from hypocotyls slices of two Prunus salicina varieties, 'Angeleno' and 'Larry Anne', using a modification of the technique previously described for P. domestica. Regeneration rates on thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supp...

  3. Gastrokine-2 is transiently expressed in the endodermal and endothelial cells of the maturing mouse yolk sac.

    PubMed

    Antas, Veronica I; Brigden, Kurt W L; Prudence, Alexander J A; Fraser, Stuart T

    2014-11-01

    The yolk sac (YS) is a thin, bi-layered membrane encompassing the developing mammalian embryo in utero. The outer layer of the YS is composed of visceral endodermal cells derived from the primitive endoderm. The inner mesenchymal layer is highly vascularised and the first source of haematopoietic cells. YS haematopoiesis takes place from shortly after gastrulation (E7.5) until after midgestation (~E12.5) when the placenta and sites within the embryo proper predominate as sites of blood cell production. Here, we have assessed gene expression in the developing YS to determine what factors are associated with the end of haematopoietic cell production in this extra-embryonic tissue. We have observed that transcripts encoding gastrokine-2 (Gkn2) are up-regulated in the YS at E11.5, peak at E12.5 and are then reduced. Low levels of Gkn2 transcript were detected in purified YS endothelial cells. Gastrokine-2 protein was detected in the EpCAM-expressing visceral endodermal layer. Gastrokine-2 protein predominantly clustered at the basal side of the visceral endodermal cells facing the endothelial cell layer though did not appear to be strongly associated with secretory lysosomes. Gastrokine-1 protein binds F-actin. In contrast, gastrokine-2 in the YS is predominantly expressed at the basal side of the visceral endodermal cells, whereas F-actin in the YS is mostly found in the inner leaf of the luminal side of visceral endoderm. We have therefore identified expression of Gkn2 transcript and protein in the visceral endodermal layer and at lower levels in YS endothelial cells. This previously unreported expression of a "stomach-specific" secreted protein may be linked to the changes in the YS niche coinciding with the shift of haematopoiesis away from the YS into the embryo. PMID:25290738

  4. Systems Analysis of Early Host Gene Expression Provides Clues for Transient Mycobacterium avium ssp avium vs. Persistent Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis Intestinal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Sangeeta; Drake, Kenneth L.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Nunes, Jairo E. S.; Figueiredo, Josely F.; Rossetti, Carlos A.; Gull, Tamara; Everts, Robin E.; Lewin, Harris. A.; Adams, Leslie Garry

    2016-01-01

    It has long been a quest in ruminants to understand how two very similar mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium (MAA) lead to either a chronic persistent infection or a rapid-transient infection, respectively. Here, we hypothesized that when the host immune response is activated by MAP or MAA, the outcome of the infection depends on the early activation of signaling molecules and host temporal gene expression. To test our hypothesis, ligated jejuno-ileal loops including Peyer’s patches in neonatal calves were inoculated with PBS, MAP, or MAA. A temporal analysis of the host transcriptome profile was conducted at several times post-infection (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 hours). When comparing the transcriptional responses of calves infected with the MAA versus MAP, discordant patterns of mucosal expression were clearly evident, and the numbers of unique transcripts altered were moderately less for MAA-infected tissue than were mucosal tissues infected with the MAP. To interpret these complex data, changes in the gene expression were further analyzed by dynamic Bayesian analysis. Bayesian network modeling identified mechanistic genes, gene-to-gene relationships, pathways and Gene Ontologies (GO) biological processes that are involved in specific cell activation during infection. MAP and MAA had significant different pathway perturbation at 0.5 and 12 hours post inoculation. Inverse processes were observed between MAP and MAA response for epithelial cell proliferation, negative regulation of chemotaxis, cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin and regulation of cytokine-mediated signaling. MAP inoculated tissue had significantly lower expression of phagocytosis receptors such as mannose receptor and complement receptors. This study reveals that perturbation of genes and cellular pathways during MAP infection resulted in host evasion by mucosal membrane barrier weakening to access entry in the ileum

  5. Increased expression of Slit2 and its receptors Robo1 and Robo4 in reactive astrocytes of the rat hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Joo-Hee; Pak, Ha-Jin; Riew, Tae-Ryong; Shin, Yoo-Jin; Lee, Mun-Yong

    2016-03-01

    Slit2 is a secreted glycoprotein that was originally identified as a chemorepulsive factor in the developing brain; however, it was recently reported that Slit2 is associated with adult neuronal function including a variety of pathophysiological processes. To elucidate whether Slit2 is implicated in the pathophysiology of ischemic injury, we investigated the temporal changes and cellular localization of Slit2 and its predominant receptors, Robo1 and Robo4, for 28 days after transient forebrain ischemia. Slit2 and its receptors had similar overall expression patterns in the control and ischemic hippocampi. The ligand and receptors were constitutively expressed in hippocampal neurons in control animals; however, in animals with ischemic injury, their upregulation was detected in reactive astrocytes, but not in neurons or activated microglia, in the CA1 region. Astroglial induction of Slit2 and its receptors occurred by day 3 after reperfusion, and appeared to increase progressively until the final time point on day 28. Their temporal expression patterns overlapped with the time period in which reactive astrocytes undergo dynamic structural changes and appear hypertrophic in the ischemic hippocampus. The immunohistochemical data were consistent with the results of the immunoblot analyses, indicating that the expression of Slit2 and Robo increased progressively over the relatively long period of 28 days examined here. Collectively, these results suggest that Slit2/Robo signaling may be involved in regulating the astroglial reaction via autocrine or paracrine mechanisms in post-ischemic processes. Moreover, this may contribute to the dynamic morphological changes that occur in astrocytes in response to ischemic injury.

  6. Differential expression of the calcium-sensing receptor in the ischemic and border zones after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jeong Sook; Pak, Ha-Jin; Shin, Yoo-Jin; Riew, Tae-Ryong; Park, Joo-Hee; Moon, Young Wha; Lee, Mun-Yong

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has been recently recognized as an important modulator of diverse cellular functions, beyond the regulation of systemic calcium homeostasis. To identify whether CaSR is involved in the pathophysiology of stroke, we studied the spatiotemporal regulation of CaSR protein expression in rats undergoing transient focal cerebral ischemia, which was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. We observed very weak or negligible immunoreactivity for CaSR in the striatum of sham-operated rats, as well as in the contralateral striatum of ischemic rats after reperfusion. However, CaSR expression was induced in the ischemic and border zones of the lesion in ischemic rats. Six hours post-reperfusion there was an upregulation of CaSR in the ischemic zone, which seemed to decrease after seven days. This upregulation preferentially affected some neurons and cells associated with blood vessels, particularly endothelial cells and pericytes. In contrast, CaSR expression in the peri-infarct region was prominent three days after reperfusion, and with the exception of some neurons, it was mostly located in reactive astrocytes, up to day 14 after ischemia. On the other hand, activated microglia/macrophages in both the ischemic and border zones were devoid of specific labeling for CaSR at any time point after reperfusion, despite their massive infiltration in both regions. Our results show heterogeneity in CaSR-positive cells within the ischemic and border zones, suggesting that CaSR expression is regulated in response to the altered extracellular ionic environment caused by ischemic injury. Thus, CaSR may have a multifunctional role in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke, possibly in vascular remodeling and astrogliosis. PMID:26013410

  7. LncRNAs BCYRN1 promoted the proliferation and migration of rat airway smooth muscle cells in asthma via upregulating the expression of transient receptor potential 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Luo-Xian; Tian, Cui-Jie; Tang, Xue-Yi; Zhao, Li-Min; Guo, Ya-Li; Cheng, Dong-Jun; Chen, Xian-Liang; Ma, Li-Jun; Chen, Zhuo-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) played important roles in several biological processes through regulating the expression of protein. However, the function of lncRNA BCYRN1 in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) has not been reported. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into control and asthma groups and the ovalbumin (OVA) model was constructed. The expression of BCYRN1 and transient receptor potential 1 (TRPC1) were detected in the ASMCs separated from these rats. Then 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (WST-1) assay, Roche real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) DP assay and Transwell cell migration assay were performed to detect the effect of BCYRN1 on the viability/proliferation and migration of ASMCs. RNA pull-down assays and RNA immunoprecipitation assay were used to identify and verify the binding between BCYRN1 and TRPC1. Inspiratory resistance and expiratory resistance were measured in OVA challenged rats with BCYRN1 knockdown. Results: We foundthe high expression of BCYRN1 and TRPC1 in asthma groups and ASMCs treated with PDGF-BB. Overexpression of BCYRN1 greatly promoted the proliferation and migration of ASMCs. In addition,TRPC1 overexpression reversed the function of si-BCYRN1 indecreasing the viability/proliferation and migration of ASMCs treated with PDGF-BB. BCYRN1 could up-regulate the protein level of TRPC1 through increasing the stability of TRPC1. Finally, we found that BCYRN1 knockdown reduced the inspiratory resistance and expiratory resistance in OVA challenged rats. Conclusion: Our study indicated that BCYRN1 promotedthe proliferation and migration of rat ASMCs in asthma via upregulating the expression of TRPC1. PMID:27648131

  8. Differential expression of the calcium-sensing receptor in the ischemic and border zones after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jeong Sook; Pak, Ha-Jin; Shin, Yoo-Jin; Riew, Tae-Ryong; Park, Joo-Hee; Moon, Young Wha; Lee, Mun-Yong

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has been recently recognized as an important modulator of diverse cellular functions, beyond the regulation of systemic calcium homeostasis. To identify whether CaSR is involved in the pathophysiology of stroke, we studied the spatiotemporal regulation of CaSR protein expression in rats undergoing transient focal cerebral ischemia, which was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. We observed very weak or negligible immunoreactivity for CaSR in the striatum of sham-operated rats, as well as in the contralateral striatum of ischemic rats after reperfusion. However, CaSR expression was induced in the ischemic and border zones of the lesion in ischemic rats. Six hours post-reperfusion there was an upregulation of CaSR in the ischemic zone, which seemed to decrease after seven days. This upregulation preferentially affected some neurons and cells associated with blood vessels, particularly endothelial cells and pericytes. In contrast, CaSR expression in the peri-infarct region was prominent three days after reperfusion, and with the exception of some neurons, it was mostly located in reactive astrocytes, up to day 14 after ischemia. On the other hand, activated microglia/macrophages in both the ischemic and border zones were devoid of specific labeling for CaSR at any time point after reperfusion, despite their massive infiltration in both regions. Our results show heterogeneity in CaSR-positive cells within the ischemic and border zones, suggesting that CaSR expression is regulated in response to the altered extracellular ionic environment caused by ischemic injury. Thus, CaSR may have a multifunctional role in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke, possibly in vascular remodeling and astrogliosis.

  9. LncRNAs BCYRN1 promoted the proliferation and migration of rat airway smooth muscle cells in asthma via upregulating the expression of transient receptor potential 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Luo-Xian; Tian, Cui-Jie; Tang, Xue-Yi; Zhao, Li-Min; Guo, Ya-Li; Cheng, Dong-Jun; Chen, Xian-Liang; Ma, Li-Jun; Chen, Zhuo-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) played important roles in several biological processes through regulating the expression of protein. However, the function of lncRNA BCYRN1 in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) has not been reported. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into control and asthma groups and the ovalbumin (OVA) model was constructed. The expression of BCYRN1 and transient receptor potential 1 (TRPC1) were detected in the ASMCs separated from these rats. Then 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (WST-1) assay, Roche real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) DP assay and Transwell cell migration assay were performed to detect the effect of BCYRN1 on the viability/proliferation and migration of ASMCs. RNA pull-down assays and RNA immunoprecipitation assay were used to identify and verify the binding between BCYRN1 and TRPC1. Inspiratory resistance and expiratory resistance were measured in OVA challenged rats with BCYRN1 knockdown. Results: We foundthe high expression of BCYRN1 and TRPC1 in asthma groups and ASMCs treated with PDGF-BB. Overexpression of BCYRN1 greatly promoted the proliferation and migration of ASMCs. In addition,TRPC1 overexpression reversed the function of si-BCYRN1 indecreasing the viability/proliferation and migration of ASMCs treated with PDGF-BB. BCYRN1 could up-regulate the protein level of TRPC1 through increasing the stability of TRPC1. Finally, we found that BCYRN1 knockdown reduced the inspiratory resistance and expiratory resistance in OVA challenged rats. Conclusion: Our study indicated that BCYRN1 promotedthe proliferation and migration of rat ASMCs in asthma via upregulating the expression of TRPC1.

  10. Spaceflight induces both transient and heritable alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Ou, Xiufang; Long, Likun; Zhang, Yunhong; Xue, Yiqun; Liu, Jingchun; Lin, Xiuyun; Liu, Bao

    2009-03-01

    Spaceflight represents a complex environmental condition in which several interacting factors such as cosmic radiation, microgravity and space magnetic fields are involved, which may provoke stress responses and jeopardize genome integrity. Given the inherent property of epigenetic modifications to respond to intrinsic as well as external perturbations, it is conceivable that epigenetic markers like DNA methylation may undergo alterations in response to spaceflight. We report here that extensive alteration in both DNA methylation and gene expression occurred in rice plants subjected to a spaceflight, as revealed by a set of characterized sequences including 6 transposable elements (TEs) and 11 cellular genes. We found that several features characterize the alterations: (1) All detected alterations are hypermethylation events; (2) whereas alteration in both CG and CNG methylation occurred in the TEs, only alteration in CNG methylation occurred in the cellular genes; (3) alteration in expression includes both up- and down-regulations, which did not show a general correlation with alteration in methylation; (4) altered methylation patterns in both TEs and cellular genes are heritable to progenies at variable frequencies; however, stochastic reversion to wild-type patterns and further de novo changes in progenies are also apparent; and (5) the altered expression states in both TEs and cellular genes are also heritable to selfed progenies but with markedly lower transmission frequencies than altered DNA methylation states. Furthermore, we found that a set of genes encoding for the various putative DNA methyltransferases, 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases, the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeller (DDM1) and siRNA-related proteins are extremely sensitive to perturbation by spaceflight, which might be an underlying cause for the altered methylation patterns in the space-flown plants. We discuss implications of spaceflight-induced epigenetic variations with regard to health safety

  11. Transient Gene Expression in Serum-Free Suspension-Growing Mammalian Cells for the Production of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Empty Capsids

    PubMed Central

    Mignaqui, Ana Clara; Ruiz, Vanesa; Perret, Sylvie; St-Laurent, Gilles; Singh Chahal, Parminder; Transfiguracion, Julia; Sammarruco, Ayelén; Gnazzo, Victoria; Durocher, Yves; Wigdorovitz, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. It produces severe economic losses in the livestock industry. Currently available vaccines are based on inactivated FMD virus (FMDV). The use of empty capsids as a subunit vaccine has been reported to be a promising candidate because it avoids the use of virus in the vaccine production and conserves the conformational epitopes of the virus. In this report, we explored transient gene expression (TGE) in serum-free suspension-growing mammalian cells for the production of FMDV recombinant empty capsids as a subunit vaccine. The recombinant proteins produced, assembled into empty capsids and induced protective immune response against viral challenge in mice. Furthermore, they were recognized by anti-FMDV bovine sera. By using this technology, we were able to achieve expression levels that are compatible with the development of a vaccine. Thus, TGE of mammalian cells is an easy to perform, scalable and cost-effective technology for the production of a recombinant subunit vaccine against FMDV. PMID:23977353

  12. CHO-S antibody titers >1 gram/liter using flow electroporation-mediated transient gene expression followed by rapid migration to high-yield stable cell lines.

    PubMed

    Steger, Krista; Brady, James; Wang, Weili; Duskin, Meg; Donato, Karen; Peshwa, Madhusudan

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, researchers have turned to transient gene expression (TGE) as an alternative to CHO stable cell line generation for early-stage antibody development. Despite advances in transfection methods and culture optimization, the majority of CHO-based TGE systems produce insufficient antibody titers for extensive use within biotherapeutic development pipelines. Flow electroporation using the MaxCyte STX Scalable Transfection System is a highly efficient, scalable means of CHO-based TGE for gram-level production of antibodies without the need for specialized expression vectors or genetically engineered CHO cell lines. CHO cell flow electroporation is easily scaled from milligram to multigram quantities without protocol reoptimization while maintaining transfection performance and antibody productivity. In this article, data are presented that demonstrate the reproducibility, scalability, and antibody production capabilities of CHO-based TGE using the MaxCyte STX. Data show optimization of posttransfection parameters such as cell density, media composition, and feed strategy that result in secreted antibody titers >1 g/L and production of multiple grams of antibody within 2 weeks of a single CHO-S cell transfection. In addition, data are presented to demonstrate the application of scalable electroporation for the rapid generation of high-yield stable CHO cell lines to bridge the gap between early- and late-stage antibody development activities.

  13. A new analytic expression for fast calculation of the transient near and far field of a rectangular baffled piston.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Alejandra; Tong, Ling; D'hooge, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Essential to (cardiac) 3D ultrasound are 2D matrix array transducer technology and the associated (two-stage) beam forming. Given the large number of degrees of freedom and the complexity of this problem, simulation tools play an important role. Hereto, the impulse response (IR) method is commonly used. Unfortunately, given the large element count of 2D array transducers, simulation times become significant jeopardizing the efficacy of the design process. The aim of this study was therefore to derive a new analytical expression to more efficiently calculate the IR in order to speed up the calculation process. To compare accuracy and computation time, the reference and the proposed method were implemented in MATLAB and contrasted. For all points of observation tested, the IR with both methods was identical. The mean calculation time however reduced in average by a factor of 3.93±0.03 times. The proposed IR method therefore speeds up the calculation time of the IR of an individual transducer element while remaining perfectly accurate. This new expression will be particularly relevant for 2D matrix transducer design where computation times remain currently a bottle neck in the design process. PMID:24447860

  14. Transient developmental expression of IgY and secretory component like protein in the gut of the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Fellah, J S; Iscaki, S; Vaerman, J P; Charlemagne, J

    1992-01-01

    We previously reported that a primitive vertebrate, the Mexican axolotl (Amphibian, Urodela) synthesizes two classes of immunoglobulins. IgM are present in serum early in the development, and represent the bulk of specific antibody synthesis after an antigenic challenge. IgY occur in the serum later during the development, and are relatively insensitive to immunization. We demonstrate in the present work, using immunofluorescence with specific Mabs, that IgY are expressed in the gut epithelium, as secretory molecules. Secretory IgY are well expressed in the stomach and intestinal mucosae of young animals from 1 month after hatching to the seventh month. Thereafter, IgY progressively disappear from the gut and become readily detectable in the serum of 9-month-old preadult immunologically mature animals. Axolotl IgY are closely associated in the gut to secretory component-like (SC) molecules that are well-recognized by antisera to the SC of different mammalian species. This is the first description, in a primitive tetrapode, of an immunoglobulin class that could be the physiological counterpart of mammalian IgA. PMID:1627950

  15. Up-Scaled Synthesis and Characterization of Nonviral Gene Delivery Particles for Transient In Vitro and In Vivo Transgene Expression.

    PubMed

    Taschauer, Alexander; Geyer, Antonia; Gehrig, Sebastian; Maier, Julia; Sami, Haider; Ogris, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Polyethylenimine-based polyplexes are promising nonviral gene delivery systems for preclinical and clinical applications. Pipette-based polyplexing is associated with several disadvantages, such as batch-to-batch variability, restriction to smaller volumes, and variable gene delivery results. The present protocol describes syringe-pump-mediated upscaled synthesis of well-defined gene delivery nanoparticles capable of efficient in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. Syringe-pump-based synthesis ensures controlled mixing, upscaling, and reproducible gene delivery. Nanoparticle tracking analysis of the upscaled formulations involved single nanoparticle tracking, thereby generating highly resolved biophysical characterization. Gene delivery performance was investigated by luciferase gene expression in cells and three-dimensional bioluminescence imaging in mice. PMID:27169568

  16. Transient expression of a GUS reporter gene from cauliflower mosaic virus replacement vectors in the presence and absence of helper virus.

    PubMed

    Viaplana, R; Turner, D S; Covey, S N

    2001-01-01

    Vectors based upon the genome of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) have only a limited capacity for replicating foreign DNA in plants. A helper virus system has been developed to complement CaMV constructs capable of carrying a large foreign gene (glucuronidase; GUS). GUS replaced part or all of the non-essential CaMV gene II and the essential genes III, IV and V. This construct was co-inoculated mechanically with wild-type CaMV helper virus onto Brassica rapa leaves to promote GUS vector complementation. After 1 week, blue foci of GUS activity were observed in the centres of the local lesions. Leaves inoculated with the GUS construct in the absence of helper virus showed randomly distributed foci of GUS activity that were generally smaller than the lesion-associated GUS foci. Inoculation with a simple non-replicating CaMV 35S promoter-GUS construct also produced small GUS foci. Co-inoculation of helper virus with CaMV gene replacement vectors in which replication was prevented by moving the primer-binding site or by deletion of an essential splice acceptor produced only small, randomly distributed GUS activity foci, demonstrating that the lesion-associated foci were produced by gene expression from replicating constructs. These experiments show that CaMV genes III-V can be complemented by wild-type virus and replacement gene vectors can be used for transient gene expression studies with CaMV constructs that distinguish gene expression associated with a replicating vector from that associated with a non-replicating vector.

  17. NR2B Expression in Rat DRG Is Differentially Regulated Following Peripheral Nerve Injuries That Lead to Transient or Sustained Stimuli-Evoked Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Norcini, Monica; Sideris, Alexandra; Adler, Samantha M.; Hernandez, Lourdes A. M.; Zhang, Jin; Blanck, Thomas J. J.; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Following injury, primary sensory neurons undergo changes that drive central sensitization and contribute to the maintenance of persistent hypersensitivity. NR2B expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) has not been previously examined in neuropathic pain models. Here, we investigated if changes in NR2B expression within the DRG are associated with hypersensitivities that result from peripheral nerve injuries. This was done by comparing the NR2B expression in the DRG derived from two modalities of the spared nerve injury (SNI) model, since each variant produces different neuropathic pain phenotypes. Using the electronic von Frey to stimulate the spared and non-spared regions of the hindpaws, we demonstrated that sural-SNI animals develop sustained neuropathic pain in both regions while the tibial-SNI animals recover. NR2B expression was measured at Day 23 and Day 86 post-injury. At Day 23 and 86 post-injury, sural-SNI animals display strong hypersensitivity, whereas tibial-SNI animals display 50 and 100% recovery from post-injury-induced hypersensitivity, respectively. In tibial-SNI at Day 86, but not at Day 23 the perinuclear region of the neuronal somata displayed an increase in NR2B protein. This retention of NR2B protein within the perinuclear region, which will render them non-functional, correlates with the recovery observed in tibial-SNI. In sural-SNI at Day 86, DRG displayed an increase in NR2B mRNA which correlates with the development of sustained hypersensitivity in this model. The increase in NR2B mRNA was not associated with an increase in NR2B protein within the neuronal somata. The latter may result from a decrease in kinesin Kif17, since Kif17 mediates NR2B transport to the soma’s plasma membrane. In both SNIs, microglia/macrophages showed a transient increase in NR2B protein detected at Day 23 but not at Day 86, which correlates with the initial post-injury induced hypersensitivity in both SNIs. In tibial-SNI at Day 86, but not at Day 23

  18. Infantile 4-tert-octylphenol exposure transiently inhibits rat ovarian steroidogenesis and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression

    SciTech Connect

    Myllymaeki, S.A. . E-mail: saanmy@utu.fi; Karjalainen, M.; Haavisto, T.E.; Toppari, J.; Paranko, J.

    2005-08-22

    Phenolic compounds, such as 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), have been shown to interfere with rat ovarian steroidogenesis. However, little is known about steroidogenic effects of infantile OP exposure on immature ovary. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of infantile OP exposure on plasma FSH, LH, estradiol, and progesterone levels in 14-day-old female rats. The effect on ovarian steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and FSH receptor (FSHr) expression was analyzed by Western blotting. Ex vivo analysis was carried out for follicular estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and cAMP production. Sprague-Dawley rats were given OP (0, 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg) subcutaneously on postnatal days 6, 8, 10, and 12. On postnatal day 14, plasma FSH was decreased and progesterone increased significantly at a dose of 100 mg OP/kg. In addition, the highest OP dose advanced the time of vaginal opening in puberty. OP had no effect on infantile LH and estradiol levels or ovarian FSHr content. Ovarian StAR protein content and ex vivo hormone and cAMP production were decreased at all OP doses compared to controls. However, hormone levels recovered independent on FSH and even increased above the control level during a prolonged culture. On postnatal day 35, no statistically significant differences were seen between control and OP-exposed animals in plasma FSH, LH, estradiol, and progesterone levels, or in ovarian StAR protein content. The results indicate that the effect of OP on the infantile ovary is reversible, while more permanent effects in the hypothalamus and pituitary, as described earlier, are involved in the reduction of circulating FSH levels and premature vaginal opening.

  19. Transgenic Carrot Expressing Fusion Protein Comprising M. tuberculosis Antigens Induces Immune Response in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Permyakova, Natalia V.; Zagorskaya, Alla A.; Belavin, Pavel A.; Uvarova, Elena A.; Nosareva, Olesya V.; Nesterov, Andrey E.; Novikovskaya, Anna A.; Zav'yalov, Evgeniy L.; Moshkin, Mikhail P.; Deineko, Elena V.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice) when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:25949997

  20. Caspase-resistant VirD2 protein provides enhanced gene delivery and expression in plants.

    PubMed

    Reavy, Brian; Bagirova, Svetlana; Chichkova, Nina V; Fedoseeva, Svetlana V; Kim, Sang Hyon; Vartapetian, Andrey B; Taliansky, Michael E

    2007-08-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirD2 protein is one of the key elements of Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation, a process of transfer of T-DNA sequence from the Agrobacterium tumour inducing plasmid into the nucleus of infected plant cells and its integration into the host genome. The VirD2 protein has been shown to be a substrate for a plant caspase-like protease activity (PCLP) in tobacco. We demonstrate here that mutagenesis of the VirD2 protein to prevent cleavage by PCLP increases the efficiency of reporter gene transfer and expression. These results indicate that PCLP cleavage of the Agrobacterium VirD2 protein acts to limit the effectiveness of T-DNA transfer and is a novel resistance mechanism that plants utilise to combat Agrobacterium infection. PMID:17370074

  1. rbcS SRS4 promoter from Glycine max and its expression activity in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Cui, X Y; Chen, Z Y; Wu, L; Liu, X Q; Dong, Y Y; Wang, F W; Li, H Y

    2015-07-03

    The regulatory region of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene SRS4 from soybean (Glycine max) was cloned using TAIL-PCR and general PCR, and named the rbcS promoter. The promoter was fused with the GUS gene and introduced into Nicotiana tabacum via Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disk transformation. In 4-week-old transgenic tobacco plants, the highest GUS expression levels were observed in the leaves, GUS activity was 7.13- and 7.40-fold higher in leaves than in stems and roots, respectively. Moreover, GUS activity was stimulated by light. In conclusion, spatial and light regulation of the soybean rbcS promoter was observed in N. tabacum, thus illustrating a leaf-specific and light-induced promoter.

  2. Quinic acids from Aster caucasicus and from transgenic callus expressing a beta-amyrin synthase.

    PubMed

    Pecchia, Paola; Cammareri, Maria; Malafronte, Nicola; Consiglio, M Federica; Gualtieri, Maria Josefina; Conicella, Clara

    2011-11-01

    Several different classes of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, triterpenoid saponins and quinic acid derivatives, are found in Aster spp. (Fam. Asteraceae). Several Aster compounds revealed biological as well as pharmacological activities. In this work, a phytochemical investigation of A. caucasicus evidenced the presence of quinic acid derivatives, as well as the absence of triterpene saponins. To combine in one species the production of different phytochemicals, including triterpenes, an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of A. caucasicus was set up to introduce A. sedifolius beta-amyrin synthase (AsOXA1)-encoding gene under the control of the constitutive promoter CaMV35S. The quali-quantitative analysis of transgenic calli with ectopic expression of AsOXA1 showed, in one sample, a negligible amount of triterpene saponins combined with higher amount of quinic acid derivatives as compared with the wild type callus.

  3. Creation of transgenic Brassica napus L. plants expressing human alpha 2b interferon gene.

    PubMed

    Sakhno, L O; Kvasko, O Y; Olevinska, Z M; Spivak, M Y; Kuchuk, M V

    2012-01-01

    Spring rapeseed transgenic lines expressing human interferon alpha 2b were created by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of aseptic plant leaf explants. The maximum antiviral activity of the leaf extracts reached 4500 IU/g fresh weight. It was determined that the antioxidant activity and the activity of an enzyme of plant antioxidant system--superoxide dismutase (SOD)--in the leaf tissues of transgenic plants increased compared to controls. There were no correlations between the interferon and antioxidant activities, as well as between SOD and interferon activities. Using the obtained transgenic rapeseed plants with high interferon and antioxidant activities as a feed additive for animals might have preventive effect on their body, increasing resistance to infections of various origins. PMID:23285745

  4. rbcS SRS4 promoter from Glycine max and its expression activity in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Cui, X Y; Chen, Z Y; Wu, L; Liu, X Q; Dong, Y Y; Wang, F W; Li, H Y

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory region of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene SRS4 from soybean (Glycine max) was cloned using TAIL-PCR and general PCR, and named the rbcS promoter. The promoter was fused with the GUS gene and introduced into Nicotiana tabacum via Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disk transformation. In 4-week-old transgenic tobacco plants, the highest GUS expression levels were observed in the leaves, GUS activity was 7.13- and 7.40-fold higher in leaves than in stems and roots, respectively. Moreover, GUS activity was stimulated by light. In conclusion, spatial and light regulation of the soybean rbcS promoter was observed in N. tabacum, thus illustrating a leaf-specific and light-induced promoter. PMID:26214418

  5. Over-Expression of a Tobacco Nitrate Reductase Gene in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Increases Seed Protein Content and Weight without Augmenting Nitrogen Supplying

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-Qiang; Nie, Xuan-Li; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Heavy nitrogen (N) application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR) in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, “Nongda146” and “Jimai6358”, by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed), respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s) in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying. PMID:24040315

  6. Identification of a set of miRNAs differentially expressed in transiently TIA-depleted HeLa cells by genome-wide profiling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background T-cell intracellular antigen (TIA) proteins function as regulators of cell homeostasis. These proteins control gene expression globally at multiple levels in response to dynamic regulatory changes and environmental stresses. Herein we identified a micro(mi)RNA signature associated to transiently TIA-depleted HeLa cells and analyzed the potential role of miRNAs combining genome-wide analysis data on mRNA and miRNA profiles. Results Using high-throughput miRNA expression profiling, transient depletion of TIA-proteins in HeLa cells was observed to promote significant and reproducible changes affecting to a pool of up-regulated miRNAs involving miR-30b-3p, miR125a-3p, miR-193a-5p, miR-197-3p, miR-203a, miR-210, miR-371-5p, miR-373-5p, miR-483-5p, miR-492, miR-498, miR-503-5p, miR-572, miR-586, miR-612, miR-615-3p, miR-623, miR-625-5p, miR-629-5p, miR-638, miR-658, miR-663a, miR-671-5p, miR-769-3p and miR-744-5p. Some up-regulated and unchanged miRNAs were validated and previous results confirmed by reverse transcription and real time PCR. By target prediction of the miRNAs and combined analysis of the genome-wide expression profiles identified in TIA-depleted HeLa cells, we detected connections between up-regulated miRNAs and potential target genes. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database analysis suggest that target genes are related with biological processes associated to the regulation of DNA-dependent transcription, signal transduction and multicellular organismal development as well as with the enrichment of pathways involved in cancer, focal adhesion, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, endocytosis and MAPK and Wnt signaling pathways, respectively. When the collection of experimentally defined differentially expressed genes in TIA-depleted HeLa cells was intersected with potential target genes only 7 out of 68 (10%) up- and 71 out of 328 (22%) down-regulated genes were shared. GO and KEGG database analyses showed

  7. Inhibition of conditioned stimulus pathway phosphoprotein 24 expression blocks the reduction in A-type transient K+ current produced by one-trial in vitro conditioning of Hermissenda.

    PubMed

    Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Levic, Snezana; Redell, John B; Crow, Terry

    2005-05-11

    Long-term intrinsic enhanced excitability is a characteristic of cellular plasticity and learning-dependent modifications in the activity of neural networks. The regulation of voltage-dependent K+ channels by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and their localization is proposed to be important in the control of cellular plasticity. One-trial conditioning in Hermissenda results in enhanced excitability in sensory neurons, type B photoreceptors, of the conditioned stimulus pathway. Conditioning also regulates the phosphorylation of conditioned stimulus pathway phosphoprotein 24 (Csp24), a cytoskeletal-related protein containing multiple beta-thymosin-like domains. Recently, it was shown that the downregulation of Csp24 expression mediated by an antisense oligonucleotide blocked the development of enhanced excitability in identified type B photoreceptors after one-trial conditioning without affecting short-term excitability. Here, we show using whole-cell patch recordings that one-trial in vitro conditioning applied to isolated photoreceptors produces a significant reduction in the amplitude of the A-type transient K+ current (I(A)) detected 1.5-16 h after conditioning. One-trial conditioning produced a depolarized shift in the steady-state activation curve of I(A) without altering the inactivation curve. The conditioning-dependent reduction in I(A) was blocked by preincubation of the photoreceptors with Csp antisense oligonucleotide. These results provide an important link between Csp24, a cytoskeletal protein, and regulation of voltage-gated ion channels associated with intrinsic enhanced excitability underlying pavlovian conditioning.

  8. CCR5 Gene Editing of Resting CD4+ T Cells by Transient ZFN Expression From HIV Envelope Pseudotyped Nonintegrating Lentivirus Confers HIV-1 Resistance in Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guohua; Choi, Jang Gi; Bharaj, Preeti; Abraham, Sojan; Dang, Ying; Kafri, Tal; Alozie, Ogechika; Manjunath, Manjunath N; Shankar, Premlata

    2014-01-01

    CCR5 disruption by zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) is a promising method for HIV-1 gene therapy. However, successful clinical translation of this strategy necessitates the development of a safe and effective method for delivery into relevant cells. We used non-integrating lentivirus (NILV) for transient expression of ZFNs and pseudotyped the virus with HIV-envelope for targeted delivery to CD4+ T cells. Both activated and resting primary CD4+ T cells transduced with CCR5-ZFNs NILV showed resistance to HIV-1 infection in vitro. Furthermore, NILV transduced resting CD4+ T cells from HIV-1 seronegative individuals were resistant to HIV-1 challenge when reconstituted into NOD-scid IL2rγc null (NSG) mice. Likewise, endogenous virus replication was suppressed in NSG mice reconstituted with CCR5-ZFN–transduced resting CD4+ T cells from treatment naïve as well as ART-treated HIV-1 seropositive patients. Taken together, NILV pseudotyped with HIV envelope provides a simple and clinically viable strategy for HIV-1 gene therapy. PMID:25268698

  9. Co-expression of Foxa.a, Foxd and Fgf9/16/20 defines a transient mesendoderm regulatory state in ascidian embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Clare; Sirour, Cathy; Yasuo, Hitoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In many bilaterian embryos, nuclear β-catenin (nβ-catenin) promotes mesendoderm over ectoderm lineages. Although this is likely to represent an evolutionary ancient developmental process, the regulatory architecture of nβ-catenin-induced mesendoderm remains elusive in the majority of animals. Here, we show that, in ascidian embryos, three nβ-catenin transcriptional targets, Foxa.a, Foxd and Fgf9/16/20, are each required for the correct initiation of both the mesoderm and endoderm gene regulatory networks. Conversely, these three factors are sufficient, in combination, to produce a mesendoderm ground state that can be further programmed into mesoderm or endoderm lineages. Importantly, we show that the combinatorial activity of these three factors is sufficient to reprogramme developing ectoderm cells to mesendoderm. We conclude that in ascidian embryos, the transient mesendoderm regulatory state is defined by co-expression of Foxa.a, Foxd and Fgf9/16/20. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14692.001 PMID:27351101

  10. Proliferative events experimentally induced by transient cold shock in the brain of adult terrestrial heterothermic vertebrates: preliminary analysis of PCNA expression in Triturus carnifex.

    PubMed

    Chimenti, Claudio; Margotta, Vito

    2013-01-01

    Experimental procedures used to investigate the persistence, location and abundance of scattered ("matrix cells") and/or clustered ("matrix areas") stem cells in the brain, responsible for proliferation in adult terrestrial heterothermic vertebrates have included an induced transient drop in body temperature in specimens subsequently deprived of encephalic areas. In a set of coordinated investigations focused on the influence of an exposure to a drastic thermally environment on these activities, we gave priority to Triturus carnifex, since there is a much larger amount of detailed, unequivocal experimental evidence available for this species than for other vertebrates of the same evolutionary level. In the present study, cold-shocked newts were examined after a stay at external temperature (the most suitable one based on previous experience) to allow the maximal expression of cerebral proliferation. In a qualitative evaluation, the brain of experimental specimens compared with that of normal individuals seemed not to show, contrary to expectations, more pronounced cell proliferation as assessed by Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen immunolabelling of neural-like cells in the S phase of cell cycle. This discrepancy with previous reports from other authors may depend on having used cold stress alone, while other traumatic stimuli (operatory shock, encephalic injury) administered by the previous authors might have induced a greater number of cells to move from a stand-by condition to proliferation, allowing for reparative and/or regenerative phenomena.

  11. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is expressed in astrocytes and melatonin treatment maintains AANAT in the gerbil hippocampus induced by transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Ok Kyu; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Choong Hyun; Choi, Jung Hoon; Hwang, In Koo; Park, Jun Hong; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho

    2010-07-15

    Melatonin is synthesized from serotonin by the action of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. In this study, we observed cellular changes of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.87; AANAT) in the hippocampal CA1 region at various time points after ischemia/reperfusion. In vehicle-treated sham group, AANAT immunoreaction was detected in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region. AANAT immunoreactivity in the neurons was highest 2 days and disappeared from 4 days after ischemia/reperfusion. From 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion, AANAT immunoreaction was expressed in astrocytes in the strata oriens and radiatum of the CA1 region. AANAT protein and mRNA levels were significantly increased 2 days after ischemia/reperfusion, and markedly decreased from 5 days after ischemia/reperfusion. The repeated administration of melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) 3 times (once a day) to gerbils before ischemia/reperfusion significantly reduced ischemia-induced hyperactivity as well as neuronal death compared to those in the vehicle-treated ischemia group. Melatonin treatment also maintained AANAT immunoreactivity and its protein levels in the CA1 region after ischemia/reperfusion. These results suggest that the reduction of AANAT in ischemic CA1 region is associated with delayed neuronal death following transient ischemia, and melatonin treatment shows neuroprotection with maintenance of AANAT levels in the ischemic CA1 region.

  12. Periadolescent amphetamine treatment causes transient cognitive disruptions and long-term changes in hippocampal LTP depending on the endogenous expression of pleiotrophin.

    PubMed

    Gramage, Esther; Del Olmo, Nuria; Fole, Alberto; Martín, Yasmina B; Herradón, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Amphetamine treatment during adolescence causes long-term cognitive deficits in rats. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a cytokine with important roles in the modulation of synaptic plasticity, whose levels of expression are significantly regulated by amphetamine administration. To test the possibility that the long-term consequences of periadolescent amphetamine treatment cross species and, furthermore, to test the hypothesis that PTN could be one of the factors involved in the adult cognitive deficits observed after periadolescent amphetamine administrations, we comparatively studied the long-term consequences of periadolescent amphetamine treatment (3 mg/kg intraperitoneal, daily during 10 days) in normal wild-type (PTN+/+) and in PTN genetically deficient (PTN-/-) mice. Within the first week after cessation of treatment, significant deficits in the passive avoidance and Y-maze tests were only observed in amphetamine-pretreated PTN-/- mice. However, 13 and 26 days after the last administration, we did not find significant differences in Y-maze between amphetamine- and saline-pretreated PTN-/- mice. In addition, we did not find any genotype- or treatment-related anxiogenic- or depressive-like behaviour in adult mice. Furthermore, we observed a significantly enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 hippocampal slices from saline-pretreated PTN-/- mice compared with saline-pretreated PTN+/+ mice. Interestingly, amphetamine pre-treatment during adolescence significantly enhanced LTP in adult PTN+/+ mice but did not cause any effect in PTN-/- mice, suggesting LTP mechanisms saturation in naïve PTN-/- mice. The data demonstrate that periadolescent amphetamine treatment causes transient cognitive deficits and long-term alterations of hippocampal LTP depending on the endogenous expression of PTN.

  13. Cell layer-specific distribution of transiently expressed barley ESCRT-III component HvVPS60 in developing barley endosperm.

    PubMed

    Hilscher, Julia; Kapusi, Eszter; Stoger, Eva; Ibl, Verena

    2016-01-01

    The significance of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-III in cereal endosperm has been shown by the identification of the recessive mutant supernumerary aleurone layer1 (SAL1) in maize. ESCRT-III is indispensable in the final membrane fission step during biogenesis of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), responsible for protein sorting to vacuoles and to the cell surface. Here, we annotated barley ESCRT-III members in the (model) crop Hordeum vulgare and show that all identified members are expressed in developing barley endosperm. We used fluorescently tagged core ESCRT-III members HvSNF7a/CHMP4 and HvVPS24/CHMP3 and the associated ESCRT-III component HvVPS60a/CHMP5 for transient localization studies in barley endosperm. In vivo confocal microscopic analyses show that the localization of recombinantly expressed HvSNF7a, HvVPS24 and HvVPS60a differs within barley endosperm. Whereas HvSNF7a induces large agglomerations, HvVPS24 shows mainly cytosolic localization in aleurone and subaleurone. In contrast, HvVPS60a localizes strongly at the plasma membrane in aleurone. In subaleurone, HvVPS60a was found to a lesser extent at the plasma membrane and at vacuolar membranes. These results indicate that the steady-state association of ESCRT-III may be influenced by cell layer-specific protein deposition or trafficking and remodelling of the endomembrane system in endosperm. We show that sorting of an artificially mono-ubiquitinated Arabidopsis plasma membrane protein is inhibited by HvVPS60a in aleurone. The involvement of HvVPS60a in different cell layer-specific trafficking pathways, reflected by localization of HvVPS60a at the plasma membrane in aleurone and at the PSV membrane in subaleurone, is discussed.

  14. Antisense RNA suppression of peroxidase gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrimini, L.M.; Bradford, S.; De Leon, F.D. )

    1989-04-01

    The 5{prime} half the anionic peroxidase cDNA of tobacco was inserted into a CaMV 35S promoter/terminator expression cassette in the antisense configuration. This was inserted into the Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation vector pCIBIO which includes kanamycin selection, transformed into two species of tobacco (N. tabacum and M. sylvestris), and plants were subsequently regenerated on kanamycin. Transgenic plants were analyzed for peroxidase expression and found to have 3-5 fold lower levels of peroxidase than wild-type plants. Isoelectric focusing demonstrated that the antisense RNA only suppressed the anionic peroxidase. Wound-induced peroxidase expression was found not to be affected by the antisense RNA. Northern blots show a greater than 5 fold suppression of anionic peroxidase mRNA in leaf tissue, and the antisense RNA was expressed at a level 2 fold over the endogenous mRNA. Plants were self-pollinated and F1 plants showed normal segregation. N. sylvestris transgenic plants with the lowest level of peroxidase are epinastic, and preliminary results indicate elevated auxin levels. Excised pith tissue from both species of transgenic plants rapidly collapse when exposed to air, while pith tissue from wild-type plants showed little change when exposed to air. Further characterization of these phenotypes is currently being made.

  15. Transient nucleation in condensed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.; Greer, A. L.; Thompson, C. V.

    1983-01-01

    Using classical nucleation theory we consider transient nucleation occurring in a one-component, condensed system under isothermal conditions. We obtain an exact closed-form expression for the time dependent cluster populations. In addition, a more versatile approach is developed: a numerical simulation technique which models directly the reactions by which clusters are produced. This simulation demonstrates the evolution of cluster populations and nucleation rate in the transient regime. Results from the simulation are verified by comparison with exact analytical solutions for the steady state. Experimental methods for measuring transient nucleation are assessed, and it is demonstrated that the observed behavior depends on the method used. The effect of preexisting cluster distributions is studied. Previous analytical and numerical treatments of transient nucleation are compared to the solutions obtained from the simulation. The simple expressions of Kashchiev are shown to give good descriptions of the nucleation behavior.

  16. Proliferative events experimentally induced by a transient cold shock in the brain of adult terrestrial heterothermic vertebrates: preliminary analysis of PCNA expression in Podarcis sicula.

    PubMed

    Margotta, Vito

    2014-01-01

    In past studies on the encephalic regenerative phenomena some authors adopted a pre-surgi- cal stratagem (drastic, sudden, transient thermal stimulus) to adult brain-injured newts to limit death rate upon surgery and with this method, unexpected tissue reparation was obtained. This procedure became a routine technicality also in frog and lizard to stimulate an increase in the neurogenesis, attributable to putative stem cells which appear either in clusters ("matrix areas" or "matrix zones"), mostly at or near the telencephalic ventricular surfaces, or scattered ("matrix cells") within other cerebral districts. On the basis of this literature background, planning an immunocytochemical re-evaluation of the survival of latent proliferative properties in these adult cold shocked organisms, as already studied in Triturus carnifex, the actual investigation was carried out on the brain of Podarcis sicula not subjected to cerebral injury. The immunohistochem- ical expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) seemed moderate only in those encephalic portions better provided with cells in stand-by: the olfactory peduncles and the telen- cephalic zonae germinativae ventrales. This scenario appeared rather disappointed and inadequate with respect to the unexpected, widespread restoration of the removed portions observed by previous authors. These findings could be due both to a small effectiveness of a relatively mild thermal stress, depending on the difference between the applied temperature and seasonal one, to the lack of other experimental conditions (surgical trauma, encephalic injury) adopted in the past, and to the interspecific differences in sensitivity, since lacertilian Reptiles are less endowed with proliferative/regenerative power than Amphibians, mainly Urodela, and Teleosts. PMID:25665278

  17. Repression of global protein synthesis by Eif1a-like genes that are expressed specifically in the two-cell embryos and the transient Zscan4-positive state of embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Sandy S C; Wong, Raymond C B; Sharov, Alexei A; Nakatake, Yuhki; Yu, Hong; Ko, Minoru S H

    2013-08-01

    Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are prototypical stem cells that remain undifferentiated in culture for long periods, yet maintain the ability to differentiate into essentially all cell types. Previously, we have reported that ES cells oscillate between two distinct states, which can be distinguished by the transient expression of Zscan4 genes originally identified for its specific expression in mouse two-cell stage embryos. Here, we report that the nascent protein synthesis is globally repressed in the Zscan4-positive state of ES cells, which is mediated by the transient expression of newly identified eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1A (Eif1a)-like genes. Eif1a-like genes, clustered on Chromosome 12, show the high sequence similarity to the Eifa1 and consist of 10 genes (Eif1al1-Eif1al10) and 9 pseudogenes (Eif1al-ps1-Eif1al-ps9). The analysis of the expressed sequence tag database showed that Eif1a-like genes are expressed mostly in the two-cell stage mouse embryos. Microarray analyses and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses show that Eif1a-like genes are expressed specifically in the Zscan4-positive state of ES cells. These results indicate a novel mechanism to repress protein synthesis by Eif1a-like genes and a unique mode of protein synthesis regulation in ES cells, which undergo a transient and reversible repression of global protein synthesis in the Zscan4-positive state.

  18. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated high-efficiency, transient expression of the murine cationic amino acid transporter (ecotropic retroviral receptor) permits stable transduction of human HeLa cells by ecotropic retroviral vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Bertran, J; Miller, J L; Yang, Y; Fenimore-Justman, A; Rueda, F; Vanin, E F; Nienhuis, A W

    1996-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus has a broad host range, is nonpathogenic, and integrates into a preferred location on chromosome 19, features that have fostered development of recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV) as gene transfer vectors for therapeutic applications. We have used an rAAV to transfer and express the murine cationic amino acid transporter which functions as the ecotropic retroviral receptor, thereby rendering human cells conditionally susceptible to infection by an ecotropic retroviral vector. The proportion of human HeLa cells expressing the receptor at 60 h varied as a function of the multiplicity of infection (MOI) with the rAAV. Cells expressing the ecotropic receptor were efficiently transduced with an ecotropic retroviral vector encoding a nucleus-localized form of beta-galactosidase. Cells coexpressing the ecotropic receptor and nucleus-localized beta-galactosidase were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and cell lines were recovered by cloning at limiting dilution. After growth in culture, all clones contained the retroviral vector genome, but fewer than 10% (3 of 47) contained the rAAV genome and continued to express the ecotropic receptor. The ecotropic receptor coding sequences in the rAAV genome were under the control of a tetracycline-modulated promoter. In the presence of tetracycline, receptor expression was low and the proportion of cells transduced by the ecotropic retroviral vector was decreased. Modulation of receptor expression was achieved with both an episomal and an integrated form of the rAAV genome. These data establish that functional gene expression from an rAAV genome can occur transiently without genome integration. PMID:8794313

  19. Transient tachypnea - newborn

    MedlinePlus

    TTN; Wet lungs - newborns; Retained fetal lung fluid; Transient RDS; Prolonged transition; Neonatal - transient tachypnea ... As the baby grows in the womb, the lungs make a special fluid. This fluid fills the ...

  20. A human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus, as a eucaryotic vector: Transient expression and encapsidation of the procaryotic gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Tratschin, J.D.; West, M.H.P.; Sandbank, T.; Carter, B.J.

    1984-10-01

    The authors have used the defective human parvovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a novel eurocaryotic vector (parvector) for the expression of a foreign gene in human cells. The recombinant, pAV2, contains the AAV genome in a pBR322-derived bacterial plasmid. When pAV2 is transfected into human cells together with helper adenovirus particles, the AAV genome is rescued from the recombinant plasmid and replicated to produce infectious AAV particles at high efficiency. To create a vector, we inserted a procaryotic sequence coding for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) into derivatives of pAV2 following either of the AAV promoters p/sub 40/ (pAVHiCAT) and p/sub 19/ (pAVBcCAT). When transfected into human 293 cells or HeLa cells, pAVHiCAT expressed CAT activity in the absence of adenovirus. In the presence of adenovirus, this vector produced increased amounts of CAT activity and the recombinant AAV-CAT genome was replicated. In 293 cells, pAVBcCAT expressed a similar amount of CAT activity in the absence or presence of adenovirus and the recombinant AAV-CAT genome was not replicated. In HeLa cells, pAVBcCAT expressed low levels of CAT activity, but this level was elevated by coinfection with adenovirus particles or by cotransfection with a plasmid which expressed the adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) product. The E1A product is a transcriptional activator and is expressed in 293 cells. Thus, expression from two AAV promoters is differentially regulated: expression from p/sub 19/ is increased by E1A, whereas p/sub 40/ yields high levels of constitutive expression in the absence of E1A. Both AAV vectors were packaged into AAV particles by complementation with wild-type AAV and yielded CAT activity when subsequently infected into cells in the presence of adenovirus.

  1. Transient drainage summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage.

  2. Transient Ischemic Attack

    MedlinePlus

    Transient Ischemic Attack TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery for a short time. The only ... TIA is that with TIA the blockage is transient (temporary). TIA symptoms occur rapidly and last a ...

  3. Stimulatory and inhibitory mechanisms of slow muscle-specific myosin heavy chain gene expression in fish: Transient and transgenic analysis of torafugu MYH{sub M86-2} promoter in zebrafish embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Asaduzzaman, Md.; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Bhuiyan, Sharmin Siddique; Asakawa, Shuichi; Watabe, Shugo

    2013-04-01

    The myosin heavy chain gene, MYH{sub M86-2}, exhibited restricted expression in slow muscle fibers of torafugu embryos and larvae, suggesting its functional roles for embryonic and larval muscle development. However, the transcriptional mechanisms involved in its expression are still ambiguous. The present study is the first extensive analysis of slow muscle-specific MYH{sub M86-2} promoter in fish for identifying the cis-elements that are crucial for its expression. Combining both transient transfection and transgenic approaches, we demonstrated that the 2614 bp 5′-flanking sequences of MYH{sub M86-2} contain a sufficient promoter activity to drive gene expression specific to superficial slow muscle fibers. By cyclopamine treatment, we also demonstrated that the differentiation of such superficial slow muscle fibers depends on hedgehog signaling activity. The deletion analyses defined an upstream fragment necessary for repressing ectopic MYH{sub M86-2} expression in the fast muscle fibers. The transcriptional mechanism that prevents MYH{sub M86-2} expression in the fast muscle fibers is mediated through Sox6 binding elements. We also demonstrated that Sox6 may function as a transcriptional repressor of MYH{sub M86-2} expression. We further discovered that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) binding elements plays a key role and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) binding elements participate in the transcriptional regulation of MYH{sub M86-2} expression. - Highlights: ► MYH{sub M86-2} is highly expressed in slow muscle fibers of torafugu embryos and larvae. ► MYH{sub M86-2} promoter activity depends on the hedgehog signaling. ► Sox6 binding elements inhibits MYH{sub M86-2} expression in fast muscle fibers. ► Sox6 elements function as transcriptional repressor of MYH{sub M86-2} promoter activity. ► NFAT and MEF2 binding elements play a key role for directing MYH{sub M86-2} expression.

  4. Changes in Gene Expression Patterns of Circadian-Clock, Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 and Nerve Growth Factor in Inflamed Human Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Chien-Lin; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Tso-Tsai; Shieh, Kun-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythm is driven by the molecular circadian-clock system and regulates many physiological functions. Diurnal rhythms in the gastrointestinal tract are known to be related to feeding pattern, but whether these rhythms are also related to the gastrointestinal damage or injuries; for example, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is unclear. This study was conducted to determine whether expression of circadian-clock genes or factors involved in vagal stimulation or sensitization were altered in the esophagus of GERD patients. Diurnal patterns of PER1, PER2, BMAL1, CRY2, TRPV1, and NGF mRNA expression were found in patient controls, and these patterns were altered and significantly correlated to the GERD severity in GERD patients. Although levels of CRY1, TIM, CB1, NHE3, GDNF, and TAC1 mRNA expression did not show diurnal patterns, they were elevated and also correlated with GERD severity in GERD patients. Finally, strong correlations among PER1, TRPV1, NGF and CRY2 mRNA expression, and among PER2, TRPV1 and CRY2 expression were found. Expression levels of CRY1 mRNA highly correlated with levels of TIM, CB1, NHE3, GDNF and TAC1. This study suggests that the circadian rhythm in the esophagus may be important for the mediation of and/or the response to erosive damage in GERD patients. PMID:26337663

  5. Expression and functional characterization of the Agrobacterium VirB2 amino acid substitution variants in T-pilus biogenesis, virulence, and transient transformation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chao-Ying; Lai, Erh-Min

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes crown gall disease by transferring transferred DNA (T-DNA) into the plant genome. The translocation process is mediated by the type IV secretion system (T4SS) consisting of the VirD4 coupling protein and 11 VirB proteins (VirB1 to VirB11). All VirB proteins are required for the production of T-pilus, which consists of processed VirB2 (T-pilin) and VirB5 as major and minor subunits, respectively. VirB2 is an essential component of T4SS, but the roles of VirB2 and the assembled T-pilus in Agrobacterium virulence and the T-DNA transfer process remain unknown. Here, we generated 34 VirB2 amino acid substitution variants to study the functions of VirB2 involved in VirB2 stability, extracellular VirB2/T-pilus production and virulence of A. tumefaciens. From the capacity for extracellular VirB2 production (ExB2+ or ExB2-) and tumorigenesis on tomato stems (Vir+ or Vir-), the mutants could be classified into three groups: ExB2-/Vir-, ExB2-/Vir+, and ExB2+/Vir+. We also confirmed by electron microscopy that five ExB2-/Vir+ mutants exhibited a wild-type level of virulence with their deficiency in T-pilus formation. Interestingly, although the five T-pilus-/Vir+ uncoupling mutants retained a wild-type level of tumorigenesis efficiency on tomato stems and/or potato tuber discs, their transient transformation efficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings was highly attenuated. In conclusion, we have provided evidence for a role of T-pilus in Agrobacterium transformation process and have identified the domains and amino acid residues critical for VirB2 stability, T-pilus biogenesis, tumorigenesis, and transient transformation efficiency. PMID:24971727

  6. Isolation of cDNAs partially encoding four Xenopus Wnt-1/int-1-related proteins and characterization of their transient expression during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Christian, J L; Gavin, B J; McMahon, A P; Moon, R T

    1991-02-01

    To begin to study the functions of the Wnt-1/int-1 gene family during vertebrate development, we have isolated four Xenopus laevis cDNAs encoding the partial sequence of proteins homologous to Wnt-1/int-1. Xwnt-3, Xwnt-4, Xwnt-5A, and Xwnt-8 demonstrate between 35 and 50% amino acid identity with X. laevis Wnt-1/int-1 and most cysteine residues are conserved. Xwnt-4 and Xwnt-3 transcripts are detected only during the neurula through tadpole stages of development. Expression of Xwnt-8 is observable during gastrulation, declines during neurulation, and is undetectable by the tadpole stage of development. Xwnt-5A transcripts are most prevalent in RNA from oocytes and tadpoles, although low level expression is detected at all stages examined. The temporal changes in expression of these transcripts imply a unique role for each Xwnt during embryogenesis.

  7. GDF9 is transiently expressed in oocytes before follicle formation in the human fetal ovary and is regulated by a novel NOBOX transcript.

    PubMed

    Bayne, Rosemary A L; Kinnell, Hazel L; Coutts, Shiona M; He, Jing; Childs, Andrew J; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    During human fetal ovary development, the process of primordial follicle formation is immediately preceded by a highly dynamic period of germ cell and somatic cell reorganisation. This is regulated by germ-cell specific transcription regulators, by the conserved RNA binding proteins DAZL and BOLL and by secreted growth factors of the TGFβ family, including activin βA: these all show changing patterns of expression preceding follicle formation. In mice, the transcription factor Nobox is essential for follicle formation and oocyte survival, and NOBOX regulates the expression of GDF9 in humans. We have therefore characterised the expression of GDF9 in relation to these known key factors during follicle formation in the human fetal ovary. mRNA levels of GDF9, BMP15 and NOBOX were quantified by qRT-PCR and showed dramatic increases across gestation. GDF9 protein expression was localised by immunohistochemistry to the same population of germ cells as those expressing activin βA prior to follicle formation but did not co-localise with either BOLL or DAZL. A novel NOBOX isoform was identified in fetal ovary that was shown to be capable of up-regulating the GDF9 promoter in reporter assays. Thus, during oogenesis in humans, oocytes go through a dynamic and very sharply demarcated sequence of changes in expression of these various proteins, even within individual germ cell nests, likely to be of major functional significance in determining selective germ cell survival at this key stage in ovarian development. Transcriptional variation may contribute to the range of age of onset of POI in women with NOBOX mutations.

  8. Discrepancy in Expression of β-Secretase and Amyloid-β Protein Precursor in Alzheimer-Related Genes in the Rat Medial Temporal Lobe Cortex Following Transient Global Brain Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Pluta, Ryszard; Kocki, Janusz; Ułamek-Kozioł, Marzena; Petniak, Alicja; Gil-Kulik, Paulina; Januszewski, Sławomir; Bogucki, Jacek; Jabłoński, Mirosław; Brzozowska, Judyta; Furmaga-Jabłońska, Wanda; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2016-01-01

    Brain ischemia may be causally related with Alzheimer's disease. Presumably, β-secretase and amyloid-β protein precursor gene expression changes may be associated with Alzheimer's disease neuropathology. Consequently, we have examined quantitative changes in both β-secretase and amyloid-β protein precursor genes in the medial temporal lobe cortex with the use of quantitative rtPCR analysis following 10-min global brain ischemia in rats with survival of 2, 7, and 30 days. The greatest significant overexpression of β-secretase gene was noted on the 2nd day, while on days 7-30 the expression of this gene was only modestly downregulated. Amyloid-β protein precursor gene was downregulated on the 2nd day, but on days 7-30 postischemia, there was a significant reverse tendency. Thus, the demonstrated alterations indicate that the considerable changes of expression of β-secretase and amyloid-β protein precursor genes may be connected with a response of neurons in medial temporal lobe cortex to transient global brain ischemia. Finally, the ischemia-induced gene changes may play a key role in a late and slow onset of Alzheimer-type pathology. PMID:26890784

  9. The expression of analgesic-antitumor peptide (AGAP) from Chinese Buthus martensii Karsch in transgenic tobacco and tomato.

    PubMed

    Lai, Linlin; Huang, Tingting; Wang, Yi; Liu, Yanfeng; Zhang, Jinghai; Song, Yongbo

    2009-05-01

    The present study aimed to obtain analgesic-antitumor peptide (AGAP) gene expression in plants. The analgesic-antitumor peptide (AGAP) gene was from the venom of Buthus martensii Karsch. Previous studies showed that AGAP has both analgesic and antitumor activities, suggesting that AGAP would be useful in clinical situations as an antitumor drug. Given that using a plant as an expression vector has more advantages than prokaryotic expression, we tried to obtain transgenic plants containing AGAP. In the present study, the AGAP gene was cloned into the plasmid pBI121 to obtain the plant expression vector pBI-AGAP. By tri-parental mating and freeze-thaw transformation, pBI-AGAP was transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and tomato (Lycopersicom esculentum) were transformed by the method of Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. The transformants were then screened to grow and root on media containing kanamycin. Finally, transformations were confirmed by analysis of PCR, RT-PCR and western blotting. The results showed that the AGAP gene was integrated into the genomic DNA of tobacco and tomato and was successfully expressed. Therefore, the present study suggests a potential industrial application of AGAP expressed in plants.

  10. Cloning and expression analysis of a stress-induced GmIMT1 gene in soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Wang, H T; Guo, N; Zhao, J M; Karthikeyan, A; Xue, D; Xue, C C; Xu, J Y; Xu, Z H; Gai, J Y; Xing, H

    2014-01-01

    Here, we aimed to clone and identify the GmIMT1 gene related to the salt stress response in soybean. The full-length cDNA sequence of the GmIMT1 gene was amplified in soybean using degenerate primers of Mesembrythmum crystallium. To understand the stress response, the GmIMT1 gene was cloned and sequenced. Then, the expression vectors of the gene were constructed, and introduced into the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana through Agrobacterium mediated transformation, and the salt tolerance was analyzed in the transgenic plants. In addition, the expression patterns of GmIMT1 gene in soybean were analyzed. The expression was examined in different organs (roots, leaves, flower seeds, and stem) and under different stress conditions (drought, high salt, low temperature, salicylic acid, ethane, abscisic acid, and methyl jasmonate) by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed that the root, leaves, and stems exhibited high level of GmIMT1 gene expression, whereas there was no expression in the seeds. In addition, the GmIMT1 gene expression was upregulated under all stress conditions. Overall, the results clearly indicate that GmIMT1 might be involved in multiple plant response pathways to the different environmental conditions. Furthermore transgenic plants exhibited higher salt-tolerance compared to wild type plants. PMID:24615045

  11. Transient coupling of Ng-CAM expression to NgCAM-dependent calcium signaling during migration of new neurons in the adult songbird brain.

    PubMed

    Goldman, S A; Williams, S; Barami, K; Lemmon, V; Nedergaard, M

    1996-01-01

    The adult avian forebrain continues to generate neurons from subependymal zone (SZ) precursor cells, whose neuronal progeny migrate into the brain upon radial guide fibers. These neurons express the immunoglobulin-family adhesion molecule NgCAM, and their migration in culture is disrupted by anti-NgCAM Fab. Confocal imaging of adult zebra finch SZ loaded with the calcium indicator fluo-3, as well as ratio imaging with the indicator fura-2, revealed that migrating new neurons responded to microgram amounts of NgCAM with reversible increments in cytosolic calcium. The calcium response to NgCAM antigen was developmentally restricted, in that it was only manifested by neurons for roughly the 3- to 4-day period between 6 and 9 DIV, even though NgCAM expression persisted tonically thereafter. The period during which NgCAM elicited a calcium signal corresponded to the postmitotic age at which new, bipolar neurons leave the adult SZ to enter the brain parenchyma in vivo. Accordingly, the calcium response to NgCAM was largely limited to morphologically bipolar cells. Anti-NgCAM IgG also evoked a neuronal calcium signal over the same restricted period that NgCAM protein exerted its effect. These findings suggest a dynamic coupling and uncoupling of calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways to a stably expressed surface adhesion molecule, whose function in a given neuron may therefore evolve with cellular maturation.

  12. T helper cell-mediated interferon-gamma expression after human parvovirus B19 infection: persisting VP2-specific and transient VP1u-specific activity.

    PubMed

    Franssila, R; Auramo, J; Modrow, S; Möbs, M; Oker-Blom, C; Käpylä, P; Söderlund-Venermo, M; Hedman, K

    2005-10-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a small non-enveloped DNA virus with an icosahedral capsid consisting of proteins of only two species, the major protein VP2 and the minor protein VP1. VP2 is contained within VP1, which has an additional unique portion (VP1u) of 227 amino acids. We determined the ability of eukaryotically expressed parvovirus B19 virus-like particles consisting of VP1 and VP2 in the ratio recommended for vaccine use, or of VP2 alone, to stimulate, in an HLA class II restricted manner, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to proliferate and to secrete interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin (IL)-10 cytokines among recently and remotely B19 infected subjects. PBMC reactivity with VP1u was determined specifically with a prokaryotically expressed VP1u antigen. In general, B19-specific IFN-gamma responses were stronger than IL-10 responses in both recent and remote infection; however, IL-10 responses were readily detectable among both groups, with the exception of patients with relapsed or persisting symptoms who showed strikingly low IL-10 responses. Whereas VP1u-specific IFN-gamma responses were very strong among the recently infected subjects, the VP1u-specific IFN-gamma and IL-10 responses were virtually absent among the remotely infected subjects. The disappearance of VP1u-specific IFN-gamma expression is surprising, as B-cell immunity against VP1u is well maintained.

  13. T helper cell-mediated interferon-gamma expression after human parvovirus B19 infection: persisting VP2-specific and transient VP1u-specific activity

    PubMed Central

    Franssila, R; Auramo, J; Modrow, S; Möbs, M; Oker-Blom, C; Käpylä, P; Söderlund-Venermo, M; Hedman, K

    2005-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a small non-enveloped DNA virus with an icosahedral capsid consisting of proteins of only two species, the major protein VP2 and the minor protein VP1. VP2 is contained within VP1, which has an additional unique portion (VP1u) of 227 amino acids. We determined the ability of eukaryotically expressed parvovirus B19 virus-like particles consisting of VP1 and VP2 in the ratio recommended for vaccine use, or of VP2 alone, to stimulate, in an HLA class II restricted manner, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to proliferate and to secrete interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-10 cytokines among recently and remotely B19 infected subjects. PBMC reactivity with VP1u was determined specifically with a prokaryotically expressed VP1u antigen. In general, B19-specific IFN-γ responses were stronger than IL-10 responses in both recent and remote infection; however, IL-10 responses were readily detectable among both groups, with the exception of patients with relapsed or persisting symptoms who showed strikingly low IL-10 responses. Whereas VP1u-specific IFN-γ responses were very strong among the recently infected subjects, the VP1u-specific IFN-γ and IL-10 responses were virtually absent among the remotely infected subjects. The disappearance of VP1u-specific IFN-γ expression is surprising, as B-cell immunity against VP1u is well maintained. PMID:16178856

  14. VIP1 response elements mediate mitogen-activated protein kinase 3-induced stress gene expression.

    PubMed

    Pitzschke, Andrea; Djamei, Armin; Teige, Markus; Hirt, Heribert

    2009-10-27

    The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens transforms plant cells by delivering its T-DNA into the plant cell nucleus where it integrates into the plant genome and causes tumor formation. A key role of VirE2-interacting protein 1 (VIP1) in the nuclear import of T-DNA during Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation has been unravelled and VIP1 was shown to undergo nuclear localization upon phosphorylation by the mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3. Here, we provide evidence that VIP1 encodes a functional bZIP transcription factor that stimulates stress-dependent gene expression by binding to VIP1 response elements (VREs), a DNA hexamer motif. VREs are overrepresented in promoters responding to activation of the MPK3 pathway such as Trxh8 and MYB44. Accordingly, plants overexpressing VIP1 accumulate high levels of Trxh8 and MYB44 transcripts, whereas stress-induced expression of these genes is impaired in mpk3 mutants. Trxh8 and MYB44 promoters are activated by VIP1 in a VRE-dependent manner. VIP1 strongly enhances expression from a synthetic promoter harboring multiple VRE copies and directly interacts with VREs in vitro and in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of the MYB44 promoter confirm that VIP1 binding to VREs is enhanced under conditions of MPK3 pathway stimulation. These results provide molecular insight into the cellular mechanism of target gene regulation by the MPK3 pathway. PMID:19820165

  15. Stable transformation of Theobroma cacao L. and influence of matrix attachment regions on GFP expression.

    PubMed

    Maximova, S; Miller, C; Antúnez de Mayolo, G; Pishak, S; Young, A; Guiltinan, M J

    2003-06-01

    We describe a protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Theobroma cacao L. using cotyledonary explants from primary somatic embryos (SEs) and A. tumefaciens strain AGL1. Transgenic plants carrying the visible marker, gene green fluorescent protein ( EGFP), the selectable marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase II ( NPTII), the class I chitinase gene from cacao ( Chi), and tobacco nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs) in different combinations were successfully produced via regeneration of secondary SEs. The presence of the Chi gene or MARs did not influence the number of transgenic plants produced compared to the marker genes alone. However, the inclusion of MARs contributed to increased mean GFP expression in the population of transgenics. Additionally, the presence of MARs reduced the occurrence of gene silencing and stabilized high levels of GFP expression in lines of transgenic plants multiplied via reiterative somatic embryogenesis. Ninety-four transgenic plants were acclimated in a greenhouse and grown to maturity. Detailed growth analysis indicated that there were no differences in various growth parameters between transgenic and non-transgenic SE-derived plants. Seeds produced from two genetic crosses with one of the transgenic lines were analyzed for EGFP expression-a near-perfect 1:1 segregation was observed, indicating that this line resulted from the insertion of a single locus of T-DNA. PMID:12789505

  16. Ablation of Chop Transiently Enhances Photoreceptor Survival but Does Not Prevent Retinal Degeneration in Transgenic Mice Expressing Human P23H Rhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Wei-Chieh; Joseph, Victory; Matthes, Michael T.; Lewin, Alfred S.; Gorbatyuk, Marina S.; Ahern, Kelly; LaVail, Matthew M.

    2016-01-01

    RHO (Rod opsin) encodes a G-protein coupled receptor that is expressed exclusively by rod photoreceptors of the retina and forms the essential photopigment, rhodopsin, when coupled with 11-cis-retinal. Many rod opsin disease mutations cause rod opsin protein misfolding and trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to activation of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) signal transduction network. Chop is a transcriptional activator that is induced by ER stress and promotes cell death in response to chronic ER stress. Here, we examined the role of Chop in transgenic mice expressing human P23H rhodopsin (hP23H Rho Tg) that undergo retinal degeneration. With the exception of one time point, we found no significant induction of Chop in these animals and no significant change in retinal degeneration by histology and electrophysiology when hP23H Rho Tg animals were bred into a Chop−/− background. Our results indicate that Chop does not play a significant causal role during retinal degeneration in these animals. We suggest that other modules of the ER stress-induced UPR signaling network may be involved photoreceptor disease induced by P23H rhodopsin. PMID:26427410

  17. Effects of ethanol on gene expression in rat bone: transient dose-dependent changes in mRNA levels for matrix proteins, skeletal growth factors, and cytokines are followed by reductions in bone formation.

    PubMed

    Turner, R T; Wronski, T J; Zhang, M; Kidder, L S; Bloomfield, S A; Sibonga, J D

    1998-10-01

    Several studies were performed in female rats to determine dose and time course changes in mRNA levels for matrix proteins in bone after a single administration of ethanol. As expected, dose-dependent transient increases in blood ethanol were measured. Additionally, there was mild hypocalcemia with no change in immunoreactive parathyroid hormone. Coordinated dose-dependent increases in mRNA for type 1 collagen, osteonectin, and osteocalcin were noted in the proximal tibial metaphysis 6 hr after ethanol was given, with the peak values occurring at a dose of 1.2 g/kg (0.4 ml). Similar increases in mRNA levels for matrix proteins were noted in lumbar vertebrae after ethanol treatment. The changes were specific for bone; ethanol had no effect on mRNA levels for matrix proteins in the uterus or liver, although the mRNA concentrations tended to be reduced in uterus. Message levels for several cytokines implicated in the regulation of bone turnover were also assayed; mRNA levels for transforming growth factor-beta1, transforming growth factor-beta2, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-6 were unchanged at doses ranging from 0.14 to 1.7 g/kg. At the highest dose of ethanol, the mRNA level for tumor necrosis factor-alpha was elevated while the level for insulin-like growth factor-1 was reduced. The time course effects of ethanol (0.4 ml dose) were determined in a separate experiment. Ethanol resulted in a transient increase in mRNA levels for the three bone matrix proteins assayed. However, matrix protein synthesis, as determined by incorporation of 3H-proline into the proximal tibial metaphysis, was not changed after 6 hr. The changes in mRNA levels for the matrix proteins were preceded by brief, transient decreases in mRNA levels for interleukin-1beta, interferon-gamma, and migration inhibitory factor, and followed by a more prolonged decrease in the mRNA level for insulin-like growth factor-1. A subsequent study was performed to determine the effects of repetitive daily

  18. Transient expression of VP2 in Nicotiana benthamiana and its use as a plant-based vaccine against infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Evangelina; Lucero, María Soledad; Chimeno Zoth, Silvina; Carballeda, Juan Manuel; Gravisaco, María José; Berinstein, Analía

    2013-05-28

    Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) is the etiological agent of an immunosuppressive and highly contagious disease that affects young birds. This disease causes important economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The VP2 protein has been used for the development of subunit vaccines in a variety of heterologous platforms. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate VP2 expression and immunogenicity using an experimental plant-based vaccine against IBDV. We determined that the agroinfiltration of N. benthamiana leaves allowed the production of VP2 with no apparent change on its conformational epitopes. Chickens intramuscularly immunized in a dose/boost scheme with crude concentrated extracts developed a specific humoral response with viral neutralizing ability. Given these results, it seems plausible for a plant-based vaccine to have a niche in the veterinary field. Thus, plants can be an adequate system of choice to produce immunogens against IBDV. PMID:23583894

  19. Perception of acoustic transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, J. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The research investigates the role of knowledge based or top-down processing in the perception of nonlinguistic, transient signals. The experiments address issues in transient pattern classification, target observation, attentional focusing, auditory induction, and computer based performance aids. The theoretical significance and naval relevance of the research is considered.

  20. Transient expression of heat shock protein (Hsp)25 in the dental pulp and enamel organ during odontogenesis in the rat incisor.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, H; Ajima, H; Kawano, Y; Nozawa-Inoue, K; Wakisaka, S; Maeda, T

    2000-10-01

    The expression of heat shock protein (Hsp) 25 during odontogenesis in the dental pulp and enamel organ of rat incisors was investigated by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. In the process of dentin formation, immature odontoblasts first exhibited Hsp 25-immunoreactivity, and increased in immunointensity with the advance of their differentiation. In the dental pulp, in contrast, intense immunoreaction in the mesenchymal cells became weak or negative in parallel with the progress of cell differentiation. The immunoreaction for Hsp 25 in the enamel organ revealed a characteristic stage-related alteration during amelogenesis. In secretory ameloblasts, the immunoreaction for Hsp 25 was found throughout their cell bodies, intense reactivity being located near the proximal and distal terminal webs. At the maturation stage, ruffle-ended ameloblasts (RA) consistently showed Hsp 25-immunoreactivity throughout the cell bodies, whereas smooth-ended ameloblasts (SA) lacking a ruffled border were weak in immunoreaction at the distal cytoplasm. Other cellular elements of the enamel organ were negative. The subcellular localization of Hsp 25-immunoreactivity in this study appeared essentially identical to that of actin filaments as demonstrated by confocal microscopy using rhodamine-labeled phalloidin. These immunocytochemical data suggest that the Hsp 25 molecule is involved in reinforcement of the cell layer following cell movement during odontogenesis and in the formation and maintenance of the ruffled border of RA.

  1. Transient Early Embryonic Expression of Nkx2-5 Mutations Linked to Congenital Heart Defects in Human Causes Heart Defects in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Heather L.; Sutherland, Lillian; Kolker, Sandra J.; Welp, Chelsea; Tajchman, Urszula; Desmarais, Vera; Weeks, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    Nkx2-5 is a homeobox containing transcription factor that is conserved and expressed in organisms that form hearts. Fruit flies lacking the gene (tinman) fail to form a dorsal vessel, mice that are homozygous null for Nkx2-5 form small, deformed hearts, and several human cardiac defects have been linked to dominant mutations in the Nkx2-5 gene. The Xenopus homologs (XNkx2-5) of two truncated forms of Nkx2-5 that have been identified in humans with congenital heart defects were used in the studies reported here. mRNAs encoding these mutations were injected into single cell Xenopus embryos, and heart development was monitored. Our results indicate that the introduction of truncated XNkx2-5 variants leads to three principle developmental defects. The atrial septum and the valve of the atrioventricular canal were both abnormal. In addition, video microscopic timing of heart contraction indicated that embryos injected with either mutant form of XNkx2-5 have conduction defects. PMID:17685485

  2. Over-expression of rice leucine-rich repeat protein results in activation of defense response, thereby enhancing resistance to bacterial soft rot in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Ho; Choi, Changhyun; Park, Eun Mi; Kim, Hyo Sun; Park, Hong Jae; Bae, Shin Cheol; Ahn, Ilpyung; Kim, Min Gab; Park, Sang Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju

    2012-10-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum causes soft rot disease in various plants, including Chinese cabbage. The simple extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR) domain proteins have been implicated in disease resistance. Rice leucine-rich repeat protein (OsLRP), a rice simple eLRR domain protein, is induced by pathogens, phytohormones, and salt. To see whether OsLRP enhances disease resistance to bacterial soft rot, OsLRP was introduced into Chinese cabbage by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Two independent transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP were generated and further analyzed. Transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP showed enhanced disease resistance to bacterial soft rot compared to non-transgenic control. Bacterial growth was retarded in transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP compared to non-transgenic controls. We propose that OsLRP confers enhanced resistance to bacterial soft rot. Monitoring expression of defense-associated genes in transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP, two different glucanases and Brassica rapa polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 2, PDF1 were constitutively activated in transgenic lines compared to non-transgenic control. Taken together, heterologous expression of OsLRP results in the activation of defense response and enhanced resistance to bacterial soft rot.

  3. Cloning of galactinol synthase gene from Ammopiptanthus mongolicus and its expression in transgenic Photinia serrulata plants.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Liu, Jing; Weng, Manli; Huang, Yanyan; Luo, Lei; Cao, Pengxiu; Sun, Haiwei; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Jinhong; Feng, Dianqi; Wang, Bin

    2013-01-15

    A cold induced galactinol synthase gene (AmGS) and its promoter sequence were identified and cloned from the cold-tolerant tree Ammopiptanthus mongolicus by using cDNA-AFLP, RACE-PCR and TAIL-PCR strategies combined with its expression pattern analysis after cold inducing treatment. Accession number of the AmGS gene in GenBank is DQ519361. The open reading frame (ORF) region of the AmGS gene is 987 nucleotides encoding for 328 amino acid residues and a stop codon. The genomic DNA sequence of AmGS gene contains 3 exons and 2 introns. Moreover, a variety of temporal gene expression patterns of AmGS was detected, which revealed the up-regulation of AmGS gene in stresses of cold, ABA and others. Then the AmGS gene was transformed into Photinia serrulata tree by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and the transgenic plants exhibited higher cold-tolerance comparing with non-transformed plants.

  4. Over-expression of poplar transcription factor ERF76 gene confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wenjing; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Boru; Wang, Shengji; Li, Renhua; Jiang, Tingbo

    2016-07-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) belong to a large plant-specific transcription factor family, which play a significant role in plant development and stress responses. Poplar ERF76 gene, a member of ERF TF family, can be up-regulated in response to salt stress, osmotic stress, and ABA treatment. The ERF76 protein was confirmed to be targeted preferentially in the nucleus of onion cell by particle bombardment. In order to understand the functions of ERF76 gene in salt stress response, we conducted temporal and spatial expression analysis of ERF76 gene in poplar. Then the ERF76 cDNA fragment containing an ORF was cloned from di-haploid Populus simonii×P. nigra and transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc method. Under salt stress, transgenic tobacco over-expressing ERF76 gene showed a significant increase in seed germination rate, plant height, root length, and fresh weight, as well as in relative water content (RWC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, and proline content, compared to control tobacco lines. In contrast, transgenic tobacco lines displayed a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, relative electrical conductivity (REC) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in response to salt stress, compared to control tobacco lines. Over all, the results indicated that ERF76 gene plays a critical role in salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco. PMID:27123829

  5. High-energy transients.

    PubMed

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K

    2013-06-13

    We present an overview of high-energy transients in astrophysics, highlighting important advances over the past 50 years. We begin with early discoveries of γ-ray transients, and then delve into physical details associated with a variety of phenomena. We discuss some of the unexpected transients found by Fermi and Swift, many of which are not easily classifiable or in some way challenge conventional wisdom. These objects are important insofar as they underscore the necessity of future, more detailed studies. PMID:23630376

  6. Transient nucleation in glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.

    1991-01-01

    Nucleation rates in condensed systems are frequently not at their steady state values. Such time dependent (or transient) nucleation is most clearly observed in devitrification studies of metallic and silicate glasses. The origin of transient nucleation and its role in the formation and stability of desired phases and microstructures are discussed. Numerical models of nucleation in isothermal and nonisothermal situations, based on the coupled differential equations describing cluster evolution within the classical theory, are presented. The importance of transient nucleation in glass formation and crystallization is discussed.

  7. [Transient epileptic amnesia].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Kazuhiro; Yoshizaki, Takahito

    2016-03-01

    Transient amnesia is one of common clinical phenomenon of epilepsy that are encountered by physicians. The amnestic attacks are often associated with persistent memory disturbances. Epilepsy is common among the elderly, with amnesia as a common symptom and convulsions relatively uncommon. Therefore, amnesia due to epilepsy can easily be misdiagnosed as dementia. The term 'transient epileptic amnesia (TEA)' was introduced in the early 1990s by Kapur, who highlighted that amnestic attacks caused by epilepsy can be similar to those occurring in 'transient global amnesia', but are distinguished by features brevity and recurrence. In 1998, Zeman et al. proposed diagnostic criteria for TEA.

  8. Transient Surface CCR5 Expression by Naive CD8+ T Cells within Inflamed Lymph Nodes Is Dependent on High Endothelial Venule Interaction and Augments Th Cell-Dependent Memory Response.

    PubMed

    Askew, David; Su, Charles A; Barkauskas, Deborah S; Dorand, R Dixon; Myers, Jay; Liou, Rachel; Nthale, Joseph; Huang, Alex Y

    2016-05-01

    In inflamed lymph nodes, Ag-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells encounter Ag-bearing dendritic cells and, together, this complex enhances the release of CCL3 and CCL4, which facilitate additional interaction with naive CD8(+) T cells. Although blocking CCL3 and CCL4 has no effect on primary CD8(+) T cell responses, it dramatically impairs the development of memory CD8(+) T cells upon Ag rechallenge. Despite the absence of detectable surface CCR5 expression on circulating native CD8(+) T cells, these data imply that naive CD8(+) T cells are capable of expressing surface CCR5 prior to cognate Ag-induced TCR signaling in inflamed lymph nodes; however, the molecular mechanisms have not been characterized to date. In this study, we show that CCR5, the receptor for CCL3 and CCL4, can be transiently upregulated on a subset of naive CD8(+) T cells and that this upregulation is dependent on direct contact with the high endothelial venule in inflamed lymph node. Binding of CD62L and CD11a on T cells to their ligands CD34 and CD54 on the high endothelial venule can be enhanced during inflammation. This enhanced binding and subsequent signaling promote the translocation of CCR5 molecules from intracellular vesicles to the surface of the CD8(+) T cell. The upregulation of CCR5 on the surface of the CD8(+) T cells increases the number of contacts with Ag-bearing dendritic cells, which ultimately results in increased CD8(+) T cell response to Ag rechallenge.

  9. Isolation, culture, and transient transformation of plant protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jinbo; Fu, Jiaxin; Ma, Jin; Wang, Xiangfeng; Gao, Caiji; Zhuang, ChuXiong; Wan, Jianmin; Jiang, Liwen

    2014-06-03

    Transient gene expression in protoplasts, which has been used in several plant species, is an important and versatile tool for rapid functional gene analysis, protein subcellular localization, and biochemical manipulations. This unit describes transient gene expression by electroporation of DNA into protoplasts of Arabidopsis or tobacco suspension-cultured cells and by polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated DNA transformation into protoplasts derived from rice leaf sheaths. PEG-mediated DNA transformation for transient gene expression in rice protoplasts in suspension culture is also described as an alternative technique. Methods for collecting intracellular and secreted proteins are also provided.

  10. Over-expression of fHbp in Arabdopsis for development of meningococcal serogroup B subunit vaccine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nuo; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Jisheng; Jin, Libo; Xing, Shaochen; Jiang, Chao; Li, Xiaokun

    2016-07-01

    Due to lack of commercial vaccine against the serogroup B (MenB) of Neisseria meningitides, the incidence of meningococcal disease remains high. To solve the issue, transgenic plants are used as bioreactors to produce a plant-derived fHbp subunit vaccine. In this study, the fHbp gene was optimized according to the codon usage bias of Arabidopsis thaliana, synthesized artificially, cloned into an expression vector, driven by a seed-specific promoter, and introduced into A. thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated floral-dip transformation. Transgenic plants were identified by glufosinate selection, quickstix strips for PAT/bar tests and PCR analysis. The five plants showing higher expression of recombinant fHbp were screened through indirect ELISA. Southern blot analysis showed that the transgenic line rHF-22 had a single-copy integration and the highest expression of fHbp. Recombinant fHbp was purified from seeds of rHF-22 by nitrilotriacetic acid-mediated affinity chromatography, and the purity was 82.5%. BALB/c mice were tested for fHbp vaccine protection from lethal MenB infection, and the relative percent survival was found to be 80%. This study indicates that the recombinant fHbp produced from seeds of rHF-22 is a potential candidate for commercial MenB vaccine. It also provides a reference for safe, cheap and large-scale production of other plant-made vaccines. PMID:27119621

  11. Transgenic rice plants expressing the snowdrop lectin gene (gna) exhibit high-level resistance to the whitebacked planthopper (Sogatella furcifera).

    PubMed

    Nagadhara, D; Ramesh, S; Pasalu, I C; Rao, Y Kondala; Sarma, N P; Reddy, V D; Rao, K V

    2004-11-01

    Transgenic rice plants, expressing snowdrop lectin [Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)], obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, were evaluated for resistance against the insect, the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). The transgene gna was driven by the phloem-specific, rice-sucrose synthase promoter RSs1, and the bar was driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. In our previous study, the transgenic status of these lines was confirmed by Southern, Northern and Western blot analyses. Both the transgenes, gna and bar, were stably inherited and co-segregated into progenies in T1 to T5 generations. Insect bioassays on transgenic plants revealed the potent entomotoxic effects of GNA on the WBPH. Also, significant decreases were observed in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects fed on transgenic plants. Furthermore, intact GNA was detected in the total proteins of WBPHs fed on these plants. Western blot analysis revealed stable and consistent expression of GNA throughout the growth and development of transgenic plants. Transgenic lines expressing GNA exhibited high-level resistance against the WBPH. As reported earlier, these transgenics also showed substantial resistance against the brown planthopper and green leafhopper.

  12. Gamma ray transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Thomas L.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic gamma ray bursts was made with systems designed at Los Alamos Laboratory for the detection of nuclear explosions beyond the atmosphere. HELIOS-2 was the first gamma ray burst instrument launched; its initial results in 1976, seemed to deepen the mystery around gamma ray transients. Interplanetary spacecraft data were reviewed in terms of explaining the behavior and source of the transients.

  13. Express

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Express ; CASRN 101200 - 48 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  14. Four RNA families with functional transient structures

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5′ flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5′ UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM

  15. Four RNA families with functional transient structures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5' flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5' UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM. All

  16. Oral immunogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen expressed in transgenic banana.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Chia, Min-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a persistent threat of economically significant influence to the swine industry worldwide. Recombinant DNA technology coupled with tissue culture technology is a viable alternative for the inexpensive production of heterologous proteins in planta. Embryogenic cells of banana cv. 'Pei chiao' (AAA) have been transformed with the ORF5 gene of PRRSV envelope glycoprotein (GP5) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and have been confirmed. Recombinant GP5 protein levels in the transgenic banana leaves were detected and ranged from 0.021%-0.037% of total soluble protein. Pigs were immunized with recombinant GP5 protein by orally feeding transgenic banana leaves for three consecutive doses at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks postinitial immunization. A vaccination-dependent gradational increase in the elicitation of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV IgG and IgA was observed. Furthermore, significantly lower viraemia and tissue viral load were recorded when compared with the pigs fed with untransformed banana leaves. The results suggest that transgenic banana leaves expressing recombinant GP5 protein can be an effective strategy for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs and can open new avenues for the production of vaccines against PRRSV. PMID:23116484

  17. Oral immunogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen expressed in transgenic banana.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Chia, Min-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a persistent threat of economically significant influence to the swine industry worldwide. Recombinant DNA technology coupled with tissue culture technology is a viable alternative for the inexpensive production of heterologous proteins in planta. Embryogenic cells of banana cv. 'Pei chiao' (AAA) have been transformed with the ORF5 gene of PRRSV envelope glycoprotein (GP5) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and have been confirmed. Recombinant GP5 protein levels in the transgenic banana leaves were detected and ranged from 0.021%-0.037% of total soluble protein. Pigs were immunized with recombinant GP5 protein by orally feeding transgenic banana leaves for three consecutive doses at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks postinitial immunization. A vaccination-dependent gradational increase in the elicitation of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV IgG and IgA was observed. Furthermore, significantly lower viraemia and tissue viral load were recorded when compared with the pigs fed with untransformed banana leaves. The results suggest that transgenic banana leaves expressing recombinant GP5 protein can be an effective strategy for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs and can open new avenues for the production of vaccines against PRRSV.

  18. Expression of NAC1 up-stream regulatory region and its relationship to the lateral root initiation induced by gibberellins and auxins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youhua; Duan, Liusheng; Lu, Mengzhu; Li, Zhaohu; Wang, Minjie; Zhai, Zhixi

    2006-10-01

    A 1050 bp up-stream regulatory fragment of the transcription factor gene NAC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana was isolated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques. The fragment was used to substitute the 35S promoter of the pBI121 plasmid to construct a beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS) expression system. The construct was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum) plants by the Agrobacterium-mediated transferring method. GUS expression pattern was studied by using the transgenic lines. The results showed that the GUS driven by the NAC1 up-stream regulatory region was specifically expressed in the root meristem region, basal areas of the lateral root primordium and the lateral roots. The GUS expression was induced by 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA) and gibberellins (GA3 and GA4+7). The results indicated that the up-stream regulatory fragment of NAC1 responded to plant hormones. The fragment might be involved in both auxins and gibberellins signaling in promoting the development of lateral roots.

  19. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, John D.; Staley, Tim D.; Molenaar, Gijs J.; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E.; Broderick, Jess W.; Carbone, Dario; Garsden, Hugh; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Law, Casey J.; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P.; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stappers, Benjamin W.; Stewart, Adam J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.

  20. A toolset of aequorin expression vectors for in planta studies of subcellular calcium concentrations in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mehlmer, Norbert; Parvin, Nargis; Hurst, Charlotte H; Knight, Marc R; Teige, Markus; Vothknecht, Ute C

    2012-02-01

    Calcium has long been acknowledged as one of the most important signalling components in plants. Many abiotic and biotic stimuli are transduced into a cellular response by temporal and spatial changes in cellular calcium concentration and the calcium-sensitive protein aequorin has been exploited as a genetically encoded calcium indicator for the measurement of calcium in planta. The objective of this work was to generate a compatible set of aequorin expression plasmids for the generation of transgenic plant lines to measure changes in calcium levels in different cellular subcompartments. Aequorin was fused to different targeting peptides or organellar proteins as a means to localize it to the cytosol, the nucleus, the plasma membrane, and the mitochondria. Furthermore, constructs were designed to localize aequorin in the stroma as well as the inner and outer surface of the chloroplast envelope membranes. The modular set-up of the plasmids also allows the easy replacement of targeting sequences to include other compartments. An additional YFP-fusion was included to verify the correct subcellular localization of all constructs by laser scanning confocal microscopy. For each construct, pBin19-based binary expression vectors driven by the 35S or UBI10 promoter were made for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Stable Arabidopsis lines were generated and initial tests of several lines confirmed their feasibility to measure calcium signals in vivo.

  1. Calibration of acoustic transients.

    PubMed

    Burkard, Robert

    2006-05-26

    This article reviews the appropriate stimulus parameters (click duration, toneburst envelope) that should be used when eliciting auditory brainstem responses from mice. Equipment specifications required to calibrate these acoustic transients are discussed. Several methods of calibrating the level of acoustic transients are presented, including the measurement of peak equivalent sound pressure level (peSPL) and peak sound pressure level (pSPL). It is hoped that those who collect auditory brainstem response thresholds in mice will begin to use standardized methods of acoustic calibration, so that hearing thresholds across mouse strains obtained in different laboratories can more readily be compared.

  2. The Transient Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappee, Benjamin John

    When one looks at the night sky, one usually gets the impression of a static and constant universe. Quite apart from appearances, the sky is teeming with violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. These capricious objects are not only penetrating probes into physical conditions too extreme for earthbound laboratories, but they are also useful tools to measure the universe. In this dissertation, I investigate the observational and theoretical properties of three classes of transient/variable objects: thermonuclear supernovae, Cepheid variable stars, and active galactic nuclei.

  3. Analysis of tomato polygalacturonase expression in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Osteryoung, K W; Toenjes, K; Hall, B; Winkler, V; Bennett, A B

    1990-01-01

    Tomato polygalacturonase is a cell wall enzyme secreted in large amounts during tomato fruit ripening. Polygalacturonase is synthesized as a glycoprotein precursor that undergoes numerous cotranslational and post-translational processing steps during its maturation, yielding three isozymes in tomato fruit, PG1, PG2A, and PG2B. To investigate the physiological roles of the three isozymes and the functional significance of the polygalacturonase processing domains in its intracellular transport and activity, we have examined polygalacturonase expression in transgenic tobacco plants. A full-length polygalacturonase cDNA was placed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and introduced into tobacco by way of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Analysis of transgenic tobacco plants indicated that (1) immunologically detectable polygalacturonase can be extracted from leaves, roots, and stems of transgenic tobacco plants; (2) only PG2A and PG2B were detectable in transgenic tobacco; (3) the polygalacturonase isozymes present in transgenic tobacco were electrophoretically indistinguishable from the tomato isozymes; (4) the N-terminal sequence, degree of N-linked glycosylation, and extent of oligosaccharide processing were similar in polygalacturonase from transgenic tobacco and tomato; (5) polygalacturonase was properly localized in cell walls of transgenic tissue; (6) the protein was enzymatically active in vitro; however, (7) accumulation of PG2A and PG2B in cell walls of transgenic tobacco did not result in pectin degradation in vivo. These results indicated that tomato polygalacturonase was properly processed and transported to the cell wall of tobacco. However, accumulation of the two polygalacturonase isozymes expressed in this heterologous host was insufficient to promote polyuronide degradation in tobacco leaf tissue. PMID:2152163

  4. Ectopic expression of two MADS box genes from orchid (Oncidium Gower Ramsey) and lily (Lilium longiflorum) alters flower transition and formation in Eustoma grandiflorum.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Yang, Chang-Hsien

    2009-10-01

    Lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn] is a popular cut flower crop throughout the world, and the demand for this plant for cut flowers and potted plants has been increasing worldwide. Recent advances in genetic engineering have enabled the transformation and regeneration of plants to become a powerful tool for improvement of lisianthus. We have established a highly efficient plant regeneration system and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of E. grandiflorum. The greatest shoot regeneration frequency and number of shoot buds per explant are observed on media supplemented with 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and alpha-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). We report an efficient plant regeneration system using leaf explants via organogenesis with high efficiency of transgenic plants (15%) in culture of 11 weeks' duration. Further ectopic expression of two MADS box genes, LMADS1-M from lily (Lilium longiflorum) and OMADS1 from orchid (Oncidium Gower Ramsey), was performed in E. grandiflorum. Conversion of second whorl petals into sepal-like structures and alteration of third whorl stamen formation were observed in the transgenic E. grandiflorum plants ectopically expressing 35S::LMADS1-M. 35S::OMADS1 transgenic E. grandiflorum plants flowered significantly earlier than non-transgenic plants. This is the first report on the ectopic expression of two MADS box genes in E. grandiflorum using a simple and highly efficient gene transfer protocol. Our results reveal the potential for floral modification in E. grandiflorum through genetic transformation. PMID:19639326

  5. Ectopic expression of two MADS box genes from orchid (Oncidium Gower Ramsey) and lily (Lilium longiflorum) alters flower transition and formation in Eustoma grandiflorum.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Yang, Chang-Hsien

    2009-10-01

    Lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn] is a popular cut flower crop throughout the world, and the demand for this plant for cut flowers and potted plants has been increasing worldwide. Recent advances in genetic engineering have enabled the transformation and regeneration of plants to become a powerful tool for improvement of lisianthus. We have established a highly efficient plant regeneration system and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of E. grandiflorum. The greatest shoot regeneration frequency and number of shoot buds per explant are observed on media supplemented with 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and alpha-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). We report an efficient plant regeneration system using leaf explants via organogenesis with high efficiency of transgenic plants (15%) in culture of 11 weeks' duration. Further ectopic expression of two MADS box genes, LMADS1-M from lily (Lilium longiflorum) and OMADS1 from orchid (Oncidium Gower Ramsey), was performed in E. grandiflorum. Conversion of second whorl petals into sepal-like structures and alteration of third whorl stamen formation were observed in the transgenic E. grandiflorum plants ectopically expressing 35S::LMADS1-M. 35S::OMADS1 transgenic E. grandiflorum plants flowered significantly earlier than non-transgenic plants. This is the first report on the ectopic expression of two MADS box genes in E. grandiflorum using a simple and highly efficient gene transfer protocol. Our results reveal the potential for floral modification in E. grandiflorum through genetic transformation.

  6. Genetic Transformation of Metroxylon sagu (Rottb.) Cultures via Agrobacterium-Mediated and Particle Bombardment

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Evra Raunie

    2014-01-01

    Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu) is a perennial plant native to Southeast Asia and exploited mainly for the starch content in its trunk. Genetic improvement of sago palm is extremely slow when compared to other annual starch crops. Urgent attention is needed to improve the sago palm planting material and can be achieved through nonconventional methods. We have previously developed a tissue culture method for sago palm, which is used to provide the planting materials and to develop a genetic transformation procedure. Here, we report the genetic transformation of sago embryonic callus derived from suspension culture using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and gene gun systems. The transformed embryoids cells were selected against Basta (concentration 10 to 30 mg/L). Evidence of foreign genes integration and function of the bar and gus genes were verified via gene specific PCR amplification, gus staining, and dot blot analysis. This study showed that the embryogenic callus was the most suitable material for transformation as compared to the fine callus, embryoid stage, and initiated shoots. The gene gun transformation showed higher transformation efficiency than the ones transformed using Agrobacterium when targets were bombarded once or twice using 280 psi of helium pressure at 6 to 8 cm distance. PMID:25295258

  7. Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Genetic Transformation of Populus angustifolia and Populus balsamifera.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Priti; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated stable genetic transformation of two species of poplar - Populus angustifolia and Populus balsamifera. The binary vector pCAMBIA-Npro-long-Luc containing the luciferase reporter gene was used to transform stem internode and axillary bud explants. Putative transformants were regenerated on selection-free medium using our previously established in vitro regeneration method. Explant type, genotype, effect of pre-culture, Agrobacterium concentration, a time period of infection and varying periods of co-culture with bacteria were tested for the transformation frequency. The highest frequency of transformation was obtained with stem internode explants pre-cultured for 2 days, infected with Agrobacterium culture at the concentration of OD600 = 0.5 for 10 min and co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for 48 h. Out of the two genotypes tested, P. balsamifera exhibited a higher transformation rate in comparison to P. angustifolia. The primary transformants that exhibited luciferase activity in a bioluminescence assay under the CCD camera when subjected to polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis revealed a stable single-copy integration of luc in their genomes. The reported protocol is highly reproducible and can be applied to other species of poplar; it will also be useful for future genetic engineering of one of the most important families of woody plants for sustainable development. PMID:27014319

  8. Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Genetic Transformation of Populus angustifolia and Populus balsamifera

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Priti; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated stable genetic transformation of two species of poplar – Populus angustifolia and Populus balsamifera. The binary vector pCAMBIA-Npro-long-Luc containing the luciferase reporter gene was used to transform stem internode and axillary bud explants. Putative transformants were regenerated on selection-free medium using our previously established in vitro regeneration method. Explant type, genotype, effect of pre-culture, Agrobacterium concentration, a time period of infection and varying periods of co-culture with bacteria were tested for the transformation frequency. The highest frequency of transformation was obtained with stem internode explants pre-cultured for 2 days, infected with Agrobacterium culture at the concentration of OD600 = 0.5 for 10 min and co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for 48 h. Out of the two genotypes tested, P. balsamifera exhibited a higher transformation rate in comparison to P. angustifolia. The primary transformants that exhibited luciferase activity in a bioluminescence assay under the CCD camera when subjected to polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis revealed a stable single-copy integration of luc in their genomes. The reported protocol is highly reproducible and can be applied to other species of poplar; it will also be useful for future genetic engineering of one of the most important families of woody plants for sustainable development. PMID:27014319

  9. Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Genetic Transformation of Populus angustifolia and Populus balsamifera.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Priti; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated stable genetic transformation of two species of poplar - Populus angustifolia and Populus balsamifera. The binary vector pCAMBIA-Npro-long-Luc containing the luciferase reporter gene was used to transform stem internode and axillary bud explants. Putative transformants were regenerated on selection-free medium using our previously established in vitro regeneration method. Explant type, genotype, effect of pre-culture, Agrobacterium concentration, a time period of infection and varying periods of co-culture with bacteria were tested for the transformation frequency. The highest frequency of transformation was obtained with stem internode explants pre-cultured for 2 days, infected with Agrobacterium culture at the concentration of OD600 = 0.5 for 10 min and co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for 48 h. Out of the two genotypes tested, P. balsamifera exhibited a higher transformation rate in comparison to P. angustifolia. The primary transformants that exhibited luciferase activity in a bioluminescence assay under the CCD camera when subjected to polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis revealed a stable single-copy integration of luc in their genomes. The reported protocol is highly reproducible and can be applied to other species of poplar; it will also be useful for future genetic engineering of one of the most important families of woody plants for sustainable development.

  10. In vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation of Artemisia aucheri Boiss.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Ali; Sohi, Haleh Hashemi; Mirzaee, Hooman; Azadi, Pejman

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, we developed an efficient protocol for in vitro plant regeneration and genetically transformed root induction in medicinal plant Artemisia aucheri Boiss. Leaf explants were cultivated in MS medium supplemented by combination of plant growth regulators including α-naphthalene-acetic acid, 6-benzyl-aminopurine, indole-3-acetic acid and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyaceticacid. The highest frequency of shoot organogenesis occurred on MS medium supplemented with 0.05 mg/l NAA plus 2 mg/l BA (96.3 %) and MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IAA plus 2 mg/l BA (88.3 %). Root induction was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IBA. This is a simple, reliable, rapid and high efficient regeneration system for A. aucheri Boiss in short period via adventitious shoot induction approach. Also, an efficient genetically transformed root induction for A. aucheri was developed through Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation by four bacterial strains, A4, ATCC15834, MSU440, and A13 (MAFF-02-10266). The maximum frequency of hairy root induction was obtained using MSU440 (93 %) and ATCC15834 (89 %) bacterial strains. Hairy root lines were confirmed by PCR using the rolB gene specific primers and Southern blot analysis.

  11. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yumei; Chen, Zikai; Zhu, Detu; Tu, Haitao; Pan, Shen Quan

    2015-01-01

    The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C); knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells. PMID:26425545

  12. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yumei; Chen, Zikai; Zhu, Detu; Tu, Haitao; Pan, Shen Quan

    2015-01-01

    The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C); knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells. PMID:26425545

  13. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Doi, Motoaki; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    Agroinfiltration was tested as a method of inoculation of chrysanthemum plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd). Binary vectors harboring dimeric CSVd sequences in sense and antisense orientations were constructed, and Agrobacterium transfected with these binary vectors was infiltrated into chrysanthemum leaves. Northern blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that local infection was established within 7 days and systemic infection within 20 days. CSVd polarities showed no difference in infectivity. This study showed that agroinfiltration of chrysanthemum plants is an easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for CSVd inoculation. PMID:27155239

  14. Agrobacterium-mediated infection of whole plants by yellow dwarf viruses.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Palukaitis, Peter; Gray, Stewart M

    2011-09-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV) and cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV) are only transmitted between host plants by aphid vectors and not by mechanical transmission. This presents a severe limitation for the use of a reverse genetics approach to analyze the effects of mutations in these viruses on plant infection and aphid transmission. Here we describe the use of agroinfection to infect plants with BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPV. The cDNAs corresponding to the complete RNA genomes of BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPV were cloned into a binary vector under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase transcription termination signal. The self-cleaving ribozyme from hepatitis virus D was included to produce a transcript in planta with a 3' terminus identical to the natural viral RNA. ELISA and RT-PCR analysis showed that the replicons of BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPV introduced by Agrobacterium into Nicotiana benthamiana and N. clevelandii gave rise to a local infection in the infiltrated mesophyll cells. After several weeks systemic infection of phloem tissue was detected, although no systemic symptoms were observed. Three heterologous virus silencing suppressors increased the efficiency of agroinfection and accumulation of BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPV in the two Nicotiana species. The progeny viruses purified from infiltrated tissues were successfully transmitted to oat plants by aphids, and typical yellow dwarf symptoms were observed. This study reports the first agroinfection of eudicot plants using BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPV. PMID:21763366

  15. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the white-rot fungus Physisporinus vitreus.

    PubMed

    Schubert, M; Stührk, C; Fuhr, M J; Schwarze, F W M R

    2013-11-01

    The biotechnologically important white-rot fungus Physisporinus vitreus was co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens AGL-1 carrying plasmids with nourseothricin resistance as the selectable marker gene and red fluorescence protein as a visual marker. Mitotically stable transformed isolates were obtained showing red fluorescence protein activity.

  16. Highly Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Wheat Via In Planta Inoculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risacher, Thierry; Craze, Melanie; Bowden, Sarah; Paul, Wyatt; Barsby, Tina

    This chapter details a reproducible method for the transformation of spring wheat using Agrobacterium tumefaciens via the direct inoculation of bacteria into immature seeds in planta as described in patent WO 00/63398(1. Transformation efficiencies from 1 to 30% have been obtained and average efficiencies of at least 5% are routinely achieved. Regenerated plants are phenotypically normal with 30-50% of transformation events carrying introduced genes at single insertion sites, a higher rate than is typically reported for transgenic plants produced using biolistic transformation methods.

  17. Establishment of a high efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Kenjirou

    2009-04-01

    Technologies for transformation of rice have been developed to meet the requirements of functional genomics in order to enable the production of transgenic rice plants with useful agricultural characters. However, many rice varieties are not efficiently transformed by Agrobacterium. We have succeeded in establishing a highly efficient transformation system in rice by co-cultivating rice calli with Agrobacterium on three filter papers moistened with enriched N6 or DKN media instead of using solid media. Rice calli immersed in Agrobacterium suspension (EHA101, Agrobacterium concentration of OD600=0.04) were co-cultured on three pieces of filter paper (9cm in diameter) moistened with 5.5mL of N6 or DKN liquid co-cultivation medium supplemented with 2,4-d (2mg/L), proline (10mM), casein hydrolysate (300mg/L), sucrose (30g/L), glucose (5g/L), l-cysteine (100mg/L) and acetosyringone (15mg/L) at 25°C for 3 days in the dark. Compared with the transformation efficiency of calli co-cultivated on solid media, transformation efficiency was increased by about fivefold by using the filter paper method for many varieties of rice, including those that previously yielded much poor transformation rates.

  18. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yumei; Chen, Zikai; Zhu, Detu; Tu, Haitao; Pan, Shen Quan

    2015-01-01

    The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C); knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells.

  19. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis thaliana Na+(K+)/H+ antiporter gene, AtNHX5, enhances soybean salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wu, X X; Li, J; Wu, X D; Liu, Q; Wang, Z K; Liu, S S; Li, S N; Ma, Y L; Sun, J; Zhao, L; Li, H Y; Li, D M; Li, W B; Su, A Y

    2016-01-01

    Drought and salt stresses are the two major factors influencing the yield and quality of crops worldwide. Na(+)(K(+))/H(+) antiporters (NHXs) are ubiquitous membrane proteins that play important roles in maintaining the cellular pH and Na(+)(K(+)) homeostasis. The model plant Arabidopsis potentially encodes six NHX genes, namely AtNHX1 to 6. In the present study, AtNHX5, a comparatively less well-studied NHX, was cloned and transferred into a soybean variety, Dongnong-50, via Agrobacterium-mediated cotyledonary node transformation to assess its role in improving salt tolerance of the transgenic plants. The transgenic soybean plants were tolerant to the presence of 300 mM NaCl whereas the non-transgenic plants were not. Furthermore, after NaCl treatment, the transgenic plants had a higher content of free proline but lower content of malondialdehyde compared to the non-transgenic plants. Our results revealed that that AtNHX5 possibly functioned by efficiently transporting Na(+) and K(+) ions from the roots to the leaves. Overall, the results obtained in this study suggest that soybean salt tolerance could be improved through the over expression of Arabidopsis AtNHX5. PMID:27323012

  20. Combined expression of antimicrobial genes (Bbchit1 and LJAMP2) in transgenic poplar enhances resistance to fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Liu, Hong; Jia, Zhichun; Fang, Qing; Luo, Keming

    2012-10-01

    Populus species are susceptible to infection by microbial pathogens that severely affect their growth and substantially decrease their economic value. In this study, two pathogenesis-related protein genes consisting of Beauveria bassiana chitinase (Bbchit1) and motherwort lipid-transfer protein (LJAMP2) were introduced into Chinese white poplar (Populus tomentosa Carr.) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the hygromycin (hyg) and neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) genes as selectable markers, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the stable integration of transgenes in the genome of transgenic plants. In vitro assays showed that inhibitory activity against the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler was evident from the crude leaf extracts from transgenic plants. Importantly, the double-transgenic plants exhibited significantly higher resistance to the pathogen than either of the single-gene transformants and wild-type plants when inoculated with A. alternata. The level of disease reduction in double-transgenic lines was between 82 and 95%, whereas that of single-gene transformants carrying either LJAMP2 or Bbchit1 was between 65 and 89%. These results indicated that the combined expression of the LJAMP2 and Bbchit-1 genes could significantly enhance resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens in poplar.

  1. Transient neonatal zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Krieger, I; Alpern, B E; Cunnane, S C

    1986-06-01

    We report an infant who developed clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency during the first month of life although the diet was adequate for zinc and no other causes could be ascertained. The diagnosis was confirmed by low plasma-zinc concentrations and a positive response to zinc treatment. The fatty acid profile of plasma phospholipids was typical of zinc deficiency (ie, arachidonic acid was markedly decreased). The transient nature of this disorder was evident when no relapse occurred after cessation of zinc therapy and plasma-zinc and arachidonic acid concentrations remained normal. Several explanations for the development of transient neonatal zinc deficiency are offered. The observation demonstrates that occasional infants may have requirements for zinc that are beyond the intakes of the conventional RDA. PMID:3717070

  2. Reactor System Transient Code.

    1999-07-14

    RELAP3B describes the behavior of water-cooled nuclear reactors during postulated accidents or power transients, such as large reactivity excursions, coolant losses or pump failures. The program calculates flows, mass and energy inventories, pressures, temperatures, and steam qualities along with variables associated with reactor power, reactor heat transfer, or control systems. Its versatility allows one to describe simple hydraulic systems as well as complex reactor systems.

  3. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-04-01

    Seven bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  4. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-03-01

    Seven bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  5. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    Six bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  6. Two Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    Two transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  7. Advanced PFBC transient analysis

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.S.; Bonk, D.L.

    1997-05-01

    Transient modeling and analysis of advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems is a research area that is currently under investigation by the US Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The object of the effort is to identify key operating parameters that affect plant performance and then quantify the basic response of major sub-systems to changes in operating conditions. PC-TRAX{trademark}, a commercially available dynamic software program, was chosen and applied in this modeling and analysis effort. This paper describes the development of a series of TRAX-based transient models of advanced PFBC power plants. These power plants burn coal or other suitable fuel in a PFBC, and the high temperature flue gas supports low-Btu fuel gas or natural gas combustion in a gas turbine topping combustor. When it is utilized, the low-Btu fuel gas is produced in a bubbling bed carbonizer. High temperature, high pressure combustion products exiting the topping combustor are expanded in a modified gas turbine to generate electrical power. Waste heat from the system is used to raise and superheat steam for a reheat steam turbine bottoming cycle that generates additional electrical power. Basic control/instrumentation models were developed and modeled in PC-TRAX and used to investigate off-design plant performance. System performance for various transient conditions and control philosophies was studied.

  8. ON DETECTING TRANSIENT PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, G.

    2013-08-10

    Transient phenomena are interesting and potentially highly revealing of details about the processes under observation and study that could otherwise go unnoticed. It is therefore important to maximize the sensitivity of the method used to identify such events. In this article, we present a general procedure based on the use of the likelihood function for identifying transients which is particularly suited for real-time applications because it requires no grouping or pre-processing of the data. The method makes use of all the information that is available in the data throughout the statistical decision-making process, and is suitable for a wide range of applications. Here we consider those most common in astrophysics, which involve searching for transient sources, events or features in images, time series, energy spectra, and power spectra, and demonstrate the use of the method in the case of a weak X-ray flare in a time series and a short-lived quasi-periodic oscillation in a power spectrum. We derive a fit statistic that is ideal for fitting arbitrarily shaped models to a power density distribution, which is of general interest in all applications involving periodogram analysis.

  9. Stable transformation and expression of GhEXPA8 fiber expansin gene to improve fiber length and micronaire value in cotton.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Kamran S; Shahid, Ahmad A; Rao, Abdul Q; Bashir, Aftab; Aftab, Asia; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    Cotton fiber is multigenic trait controlled by number of genes. Previous studies suggest that one of these genes may be responsible for switching cotton fiber growth on and off to influence the fiber quality produced from a cotton seed. In the present study, the Gossypium hirsutum GhEXPA8 fiber expansin gene was introduced into local cotton variety NIAB 846 by using an Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation. The neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) gene was used as a selection marker for screening of putative transgenic cotton plants. Integration and expression of the fiber expansin gene in cotton plants was confirmed with molecular techniques including Southern blot analyses, real-time PCR. Cellulose assay was used for measurement of cellulose contents of transgenic cotton fiber. The data collected from 3 years of field performance of the transgenic cotton plants expressing GhEXPA8 showed that significant improvement has been made in fiber lengths and micronaire values as compared to control G. hirsutum variety NIAB 846 cotton plants. Statistical techniques were also used for analysis of fiber and agronomic characteristics. The results of this study support improvement of cotton fiber through genetic modification.

  10. Enhanced tolerance and remediation to mixed contaminates of PCBs and 2,4-DCP by transgenic alfalfa plants expressing the 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Ren, Hejun; Pan, Hongyu; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Lanying

    2015-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) generally led to mixed contamination of soils as a result of commercial and agricultural activities. Their accumulation in the environment poses great risks to human and animal health. Therefore, the effective strategies for disposal of these pollutants are urgently needed. In this study, genetic engineering to enhance PCBs/2,4-DCP phytoremediation is a focus. We cloned the 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenase (BphC.B) from a soil metagenomic library, which is the key enzyme of aerobic catabolism of a variety of aromatic compounds, and then it was expressed in alfalfa driven by CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic line BB11 was selected out through PCR, Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays. Its disposal and tolerance to both PCBs and 2,4-DCP were examined. The tolerance capability of transgenic line BB11 towards complex contaminants of PCBs/2,4-DCP significantly increased compared with non-transgenic plants. Strong dissipation of PCBs and high removal efficiency of 2,4-DCP were exhibited in a short time. It was confirmed expressing BphC.B would be a feasible strategy to help achieving phytoremediation in mixed contaminated soils with PCBs and 2,4-DCP.

  11. The elicitor-inducible alfalfa isoflavone reductase promoter confers different patterns of developmental expression in homologous and heterologous transgenic plants.

    PubMed Central

    Oommen, A; Dixon, R A; Paiva, N L

    1994-01-01

    In legumes, the synthesis of infection- and elicitor-inducible antimicrobial phytoalexins occurs via the isoflavonoid branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To study transcriptional regulation of isoflavonoid pathway-specific genes, we have isolated the gene encoding isoflavone reductase (IFR), which is the enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of the phytoalexin medicarpin in alfalfa. Chimeric gene fusions were constructed between 765- and 436-bp promoter fragments of the IFR gene and the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and transferred to alfalfa and tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Both promoter fragments conferred elicitor-mediated expression in cell suspension cultures derived from transgenic plants of both species and fungal infection-mediated expression in leaves of transgenic alfalfa. Developmental expression directed by both promoter fragments in transgenic alfalfa was observed only in the root meristem, cortex, and nodules, which is consistent with the accumulation of endogenous IFR transcripts. However, in transgenic tobacco, expression from the 765-bp promoter was observed in vegetative tissues (root meristem and cortex, inner vascular tissue of stems and petioles, leaf tips, and stem peripheries adjacent to petioles) and in reproductive tissues (stigma, placenta, base of the ovary, receptacle, seed, tapetal layer, and pollen grains), whereas the 436-bp promoter was expressed only in fruits, seed, and pollen. These data indicate that infection/elicitor inducibility of the IFR promoter in both species and developmental expression in alfalfa are determined by sequences downstream of position -436, whereas sequences between -436 and -765 confer a complex pattern of strong ectopic developmental expression in the heterologous species that lacks the isoflavonoid pathway. PMID:7866024

  12. BdCESA7, BdCESA8, and BdPMT Utility Promoter Constructs for Targeted Expression to Secondary Cell-Wall-Forming Cells of Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Deborah L.; Cass, Cynthia L.; Padmakshan, Dharshana; Foster, Cliff E.; Vogel, John P.; Karlen, Steven D.; Ralph, John; Sedbrook, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Utility vectors with promoters that confer desired spatial and temporal expression patterns are useful tools for studying gene and cellular function and for industrial applications. To target the expression of DNA sequences of interest to cells forming plant secondary cell walls, which generate most of the vegetative biomass, upstream regulatory sequences of the Brachypodium distachyon lignin biosynthetic gene BdPMT and the cellulose synthase genes BdCESA7 and BdCESA8 were isolated and cloned into binary vectors designed for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of monocots. Expression patterns were assessed using the β-glucuronidase gene GUSPlus and X-glucuronide staining. All three promoters showed strong expression levels in stem tissue at the base of internodes where cell wall deposition is most active, in both vascular bundle xylem vessels and tracheids, and in interfascicular tissues, with expression less pronounced in developmentally older tissues. In leaves, BdCESA7 and BdCESA8 promoter-driven expression was strongest in leaf veins, leaf margins, and trichomes; relatively weaker and patchy expression was observed in the epidermis. BdPMT promoter-driven expression was similar to the BdCESA promoters expression patterns, including strong expression in trichomes. The intensity and extent of GUS staining varied considerably between transgenic lines, suggesting that positional effects influenced promoter activity. Introducing the BdPMT and BdCESA8 Open Reading Frames into BdPMT and BdCESA8 utility promoter binary vectors, respectively, and transforming those constructs into Brachypodium pmt and cesa8 loss-of-function mutants resulted in rescue of the corresponding mutant phenotypes. This work therefore validates the functionality of these utility promoter binary vectors for use in Brachypodium and likely other grass species. The identification, in Bdcesa8-1 T-DNA mutant stems, of an 80% reduction in crystalline cellulose levels confirms that the BdCESA8 gene is

  13. Production of marker-free transgenic Jatropha curcas expressing hybrid Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin Cry1Ab/1Ac for resistance to larvae of tortrix moth (Archips micaceanus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential biofuel plant Jatropha curcas L. is affected by larvae of Archips micaceanus (Walker), a moth of the family Tortricidae. The hybrid Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) δ-endotoxin protein Cry1Ab/1Ac confers resistance to lepidopteran insects in transgenic rice. Results Here, we report the production of a marker-free transgenic line of J. curcas (L10) expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and a chemically regulated, Cre/loxP-mediated DNA recombination system. L10 carries a single copy of marker-free T-DNA that contains the Cry1Ab/1Ac gene under the control of a maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene promoter (P Pepc :Cry1Ab/1Ac:T Nos ). The P Pepc :Cry1Ab/1Ac:T Nos gene was highly expressed in leaves of L10 plants. Insecticidal bioassays using leaf explants of L10 resulted in 80-100% mortality of larvae of A. micaceanus at 4 days after infestation. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the hybrid Bt δ-endotoxin protein Cry1Ab/1Ac expressed in Jatropha curcas displays strong insecticidal activity to A. micaceanus. The marker-free transgenic J. curcas line L10 can be used for breeding of insect resistance to A. micaceanus. PMID:24808924

  14. Workshop on Radio Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Steve; Gaensler, Bryan

    2012-04-01

    abstract-type="normal">SummaryWe are entering a new era in the study of variable and transient radio sources. This workshop discussed the instruments and the strategies employed to study those sources, how they are identified and classified, how results from different surveys can be compared, and how radio observations tie in with those at other wavelengths. The emphasis was on learning what common ground there is between the plethora of on-going projects, how methods and code can be shared, and how best practices regarding survey strategy could be adopted. The workshop featured the four topics below. Each topic commenced with a fairly brief introductory talk, which then developed into discussion. By way of preparation, participants had been invited to upload and discuss one slide per topic to a wiki ahead of the workshop. 1. Telescopes, instrumentation and survey strategy. New radio facilities and on-going projects (including upgrades) are both studying the variability of the radio sky, and searching for transients. The discussion first centred on the status of those facilities, and on projects with a time-domain focus, both ongoing and planned, before turning to factors driving choices of instrumentation, such as phased array versus single pixel feeds, the field of view, spatial and time resolution, frequency and bandwidth, depth, area, and cadence of the surveys. 2. Detection, pipelines, and classification. The workshop debated (a) the factors that influence decisions to study variability in the (u,v) plane, in images, or in catalogues, (b) whether, and how much, pipeline code could potentially be shared between one project and another, and which software packages are best for different approaches, (c) how data are stored and later accessed, and (d) how transients and variables are defined and classified. 3. Statistics, interpretation, and synthesis. It then discussed how (i) the choice of facility and strategy and (ii) detection and classification schemes

  15. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, James L.; Vresk, Josip

    1989-01-01

    A thermal transient anemometer having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe.

  16. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, J.L.; Vresk, J.

    1989-07-18

    A thermal transient anemometer is disclosed having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe. 12 figs.

  17. Transient neonatal tyrosinaemia.

    PubMed

    Rice, D N; Houston, I B; Lyon, I C; Macarthur, B A; Mullins, P R; Veale, A M; Guthrie, R

    1989-01-01

    Children who had presented with transient neonatal tyrosinaemia (TNT) were compared with a group of unaffected controls at 7-9 years of age. A comprehensive psychometric assessment revealed significant differences between the groups in adaptive behaviour, psycholinguistic abilities, and speed of learning. In nearly all components of the tests used, higher levels of TNT were associated with lower levels of performance. This study demonstrates that TNT, a condition commonly regarded as benign in the short term, has long-term effects which may be detrimental to the child in school.

  18. Transient enthalpy probe development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Brian K.

    A reliable diagnostic probe has been developed to measure the local enthalpy in high-pressure, arc heated test streams that simulate atmospheric reentry conditions. The probe employs the double sonic-throat technique and is designed for the sweep (transient) mode to survive the severe heating environment. Tests in the high-pressure arc heater facilities show that, under certain conditions, the enthalpy probe measurements are in good agreement with enthalpy profiles inferred from heat flux measurements using the theory of Fay and Riddell (1958).

  19. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Tonry, John; Wright, Shelley; Tully, R. Brent; Lu, Jessica R.; Takamiya, Marianne Y.; Hunter, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The next decade of astronomy will be dominated by large area surveys (see the detailed discussion in the Astro-2010 Decadal survey and NRC's recent OIR System Report). Ground-based optical transient surveys, e.g., LSST, ZTF and ATLAS and space-based exoplanet, supernova, and lensing surveys such as TESS and WFIRST will join the Gaia all-sky astrometric survey in producing a flood of data that will enable leaps in our understanding of the universe. There is a critical need for further characterization of these discoveries through high angular resolution images, deeper images, spectra, or observations at different cadences or periods than the main surveys. Such follow-up characterization must be well matched to the particular surveys, and requires sufficient additional observing resources and time to cover the extensive number of targets.We describe plans for the Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS), a permanently mounted, rapid-response, high-cadence facility for follow-up characterization of transient objects on the U. of Hawai'i 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will comprise an improved robotic laser adaptive optics system, based on the prototype Robo-AO system (formerly at the Palomar 1.5-m and now at the Kitt Peak 2.2-m telescope), with simultaneous visible and near-infrared imagers as well as a near-infrared integral field spectrograph (R~100, λ = 850 - 1830 nm, 0.15″ spaxels, 8.7″×6.0″ FoV). RTS will achieve an acuity of ~0.07″ in visible wavelengths and < 0.16″ in the near infrared leading to an increase of the infrared point-source sensitivity against the sky background by a factor of ~9, crucial for efficient near-infrared spectroscopy.RTS will allow us to map the dark matter distribution in the z < 0.1 local universe with ten times better accuracy and precision than previous experiments. ATLAS will discover several thousand SNIae per year, measuring SNIa peak brightness, and decline rates, while RTS will measure reddening by dust, confirm SN type and

  20. Characterizing Nanoscale Transient Communication.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifan; Anwar, Putri Santi; Huang, Limin; Asvial, Muhamad

    2016-04-01

    We consider the novel paradigm of nanoscale transient communication (NTC), where certain components of the small-scale communication link are physically transient. As such, the transmitter and the receiver may change their properties over a prescribed lifespan due to their time-varying structures. The NTC systems may find important applications in the biomedical, environmental, and military fields, where system degradability allows for benign integration into life and environment. In this paper, we analyze the NTC systems from the channel-modeling and capacity-analysis perspectives and focus on the stochastically meaningful slow transience scenario, where the coherence time of degeneration Td is much longer than the coding delay Tc. We first develop novel and parsimonious models to characterize the NTC channels, where three types of physical layers are considered: electromagnetism-based terahertz (THz) communication, diffusion-based molecular communication (DMC), and nanobots-assisted touchable communication (TouchCom). We then revisit the classical performance measure of ϵ-outage channel capacity and take a fresh look at its formulations in the NTC context. Next, we present the notion of capacity degeneration profile (CDP), which describes the reduction of channel capacity with respect to the degeneration time. Finally, we provide numerical examples to demonstrate the features of CDP. To the best of our knowledge, the current work represents a first attempt to systematically evaluate the quality of nanoscale communication systems deteriorating with time.

  1. Transient congenital hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Bhavani, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Transient thyroid function abnormalities in the new born which revert back to normal after varying periods of time are mostly identified in the neonatal screening tests for thyroid and are becoming more