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Sample records for agrochemical safety behaviors

  1. Multi-approach model for improving agrochemical safety among rice farmers in Pathumthani, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Raksanam, Buppha; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The large-scale use of agrochemicals has raised environmental and human health concerns. A comprehensive intervention strategy for improving agrochemical safety among rice farmers in Thailand is lacking. The objective of this study is to develop a model in order to improve farmers’ health and prevent them from being exposed to agrochemical hazards, in addition to evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention in terms of agrochemical safety. This study was conducted between October 2009 and January 2011. It measures changes in the mean scores of agrochemical knowledge, health beliefs, agrochemical use behaviors, and in-home pesticide safety. Knowledge of agrochemical use constitutes a basic knowledge of agrochemicals and agrochemical safety behaviors. Health beliefs constitute perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to using agrochemicals. Agrochemical use behaviors include self-care practices in terms of personal health at specific times including before spraying, while spraying, during storage, transportation, waste management, and health risk management. Fifty rice farmers from Khlong Seven Community (study group) and 51 rice farmers from Bueng Ka Sam community (control group) were randomly recruited with support from community leaders. The participants were involved in a combination of home visits (ie, pesticide safety assessments at home) and community participatory activities regarding agrochemical safety. This study reveals that health risk behaviors regarding agrochemical exposure in the study area are mainly caused by lack of attention to safety precautions and the use of faulty protective gear. After 6 months, the intervention program showed significant improvements in the overall scores on knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and home pesticide safety in the study group (P < 0.05). Therefore, this intervention model is effective in improving agrochemical safety behaviors among Khlong Seven Community rice farmers. These findings

  2. Multi-approach model for improving agrochemical safety among rice farmers in Pathumthani, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Raksanam, Buppha; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The large-scale use of agrochemicals has raised environmental and human health concerns. A comprehensive intervention strategy for improving agrochemical safety among rice farmers in Thailand is lacking. The objective of this study is to develop a model in order to improve farmers' health and prevent them from being exposed to agrochemical hazards, in addition to evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention in terms of agrochemical safety. This study was conducted between October 2009 and January 2011. It measures changes in the mean scores of agrochemical knowledge, health beliefs, agrochemical use behaviors, and in-home pesticide safety. Knowledge of agrochemical use constitutes a basic knowledge of agrochemicals and agrochemical safety behaviors. Health beliefs constitute perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to using agrochemicals. Agrochemical use behaviors include self-care practices in terms of personal health at specific times including before spraying, while spraying, during storage, transportation, waste management, and health risk management. Fifty rice farmers from Khlong Seven Community (study group) and 51 rice farmers from Bueng Ka Sam community (control group) were randomly recruited with support from community leaders. The participants were involved in a combination of home visits (ie, pesticide safety assessments at home) and community participatory activities regarding agrochemical safety. This study reveals that health risk behaviors regarding agrochemical exposure in the study area are mainly caused by lack of attention to safety precautions and the use of faulty protective gear. After 6 months, the intervention program showed significant improvements in the overall scores on knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and home pesticide safety in the study group (P < 0.05). Therefore, this intervention model is effective in improving agrochemical safety behaviors among Khlong Seven Community rice farmers. These findings demonstrate

  3. Health risk behaviors associated with agrochemical exposure among rice farmers in a rural community, Thailand: a community-based ethnography.

    PubMed

    Raksanam, Buppha; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Robson, Mark G; Siriwong, Wattasit

    2014-11-01

    The study objective was to evaluate health beliefs and behaviors associated with agrochemical exposure among rice farmers. We applied the Health Belief Model, community-based ethnography, and public health risk assessment for this study. Data were collected from 101 rice farmers in Khlong Seven community between January and June 2010. Data comprised observations, unstructured and semistructured interviews, and focus group discussions. We showed that farmers had moderate levels of perceived susceptibility to, severity of, benefits of, and barriers to using agrochemicals safely. The major risk factors related to agrochemical exposure resulted from the misuse of pesticides, including erroneous beliefs of farmers regarding pesticide toxicity, the use of faulty spraying equipment, the lack of proper maintenance of spraying equipment, or the lack of protective gear and appropriate clothing. An intervention program is necessary to improve safety with regard to agrochemicals in the rice Khlong Seven community.

  4. The Effect of Olfactory Exposure to Non-Insecticidal Agrochemicals on Bumblebee Foraging Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sprayberry, Jordanna D. H.; Ritter, Kaitlin A.; Riffell, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Declines in bumblebee populations have led to investigations into potential causes – including agrochemical effects on bumblebee physiology. The indirect effects of agrochemicals (i.e. behavior modulation) have been postulated, but rarely directly tested. Olfactory information is critical in mediating bumblebee-floral interactions. As agrochemicals emit volatiles, they may indirectly modify foraging behavior. We tested the effects of olfactory contamination of floral odor by agrochemical scent on foraging activity of Bombus impatiens using two behavioral paradigms: localization of food within a maze and forced-choice preference. The presence of a fungicide decreased bumblebees’ ability to locate food within a maze. Additionally, bumblebees preferred to forage in non-contaminated feeding chambers when offered a choice between control and either fertilizer- or fungicide-scented chambers. PMID:24204608

  5. Toxicity of agrochemical formulations.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Neil G

    2005-01-01

    Most agrochemicals have physicochemical properties that make it impractical to apply them directly to crops and other targets. It is necessary to provide a concentrate of the active ingredient, to which formulation agents have been added to allow dilution with water for spraying. These ingredients perform several functions, including emulsifying, solubilizing, antifoaming, and the like. The properties of these materials are not intended to include pesticidal activity. However, some of these materials may have intrinsic toxicologic properties that should be taken into account in an overall evaluation of the safety of the product. In agriculture, exposure to these materials is sporadic and seasonal. The testing of the complete formulation is based on the evaluation of this risk, and it is concentrated on the evaluation of the short-term exposure to the concentrated product. Many of these substances are rather banal and are generally regarded as safe. Exceptions to this rule do exist, particularly concerning solvents; in such cases a fuller data package is necessary to perform risk assessment.

  6. The Agrochemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malte, A. M.; Lilani, A. T.

    This chapter deals with the chemicals used in agriculture mainly to protect, preserve, and improve crop yields. The term "agrochemical" is used broadly. Much agrochemical research and some advanced development is directed toward the introduction of genes that may provide disease, insect, or viral resistance into plants or other organisms. Further progress is being made in improving the protein, fat, or carbohydrate composition of the plant itself. Microorganisms are being propagated and currently marketed that are insecticidal (e.g., Bacillus thuringiensis) fungi that are herbicidal, bacteria that are fungicidal, nematodes that are widely biocidal, and so on, are all products or candidate products for use in agriculture.

  7. The Effects of Safety Discrimination Training and Frequent Safety Observations on Safety-Related Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    The intent of the present study was to assess the effects of discrimination training only and in combination with frequent safety observations on five participants' safety-related behavior in a simulated office setting. The study used a multiple-baseline design across safety-related behaviors. Across all participants and behavior, safety improved…

  8. Mining Behavior Based Safety Data to Predict Safety Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe

    2010-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) operates a behavior based safety program called Safety Observations Achieve Results (SOAR). This peer-to-peer observation program encourages employees to perform in-field observations of each other's work practices and habits (i.e., behaviors). The underlying premise of conducting these observations is that more serious accidents are prevented from occurring because lower level “at risk” behaviors are identified and corrected before they can propagate into culturally accepted “unsafe” behaviors that result in injuries or fatalities. Although the approach increases employee involvement in safety, the premise of the program has not been subject to sufficient empirical evaluation. The INL now has a significant amount of SOAR data on these lower level “at risk” behaviors. This paper describes the use of data mining techniques to analyze these data to determine whether they can predict if and when a more serious accident will occur.

  9. Safety climate and prediction of ergonomic behavior.

    PubMed

    Khandan, Mohammad; Maghsoudipour, Maryam; Vosoughi, Shahram; Kavousi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important ways to prevent accidents is to consider safety climate or culture. Moreover, some studies suggest that behavior contributes to 86%-96% of all injuries. This cross-sectional study took place in an Iranian petrochemical company in 2010. Vinodkumar and Bhasi's safety climate questionnaire and an ergonomic behavior sampling checklist were the data collection tools. Cronbach's α for questionnaire reliability was .928. With reference to the results of a pilot study, a sample of 1755 was determined for behavior sampling. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to derive the coefficient of paths in the path model and the Anderson-Rabin method to calculate factor scores. The results showed that safety climate was an effective predictor of ergonomic behavior (p < .01). They also showed the importance of decreasing the number of workers with negative safety climate. Moreover, it is necessary to promote workers' ergonomic behaviors in the workplace.

  10. Application of a novel integrated toxicity testing strategy incorporating "3R" principles of animal research to evaluate the safety of a new agrochemical sulfoxaflor.

    PubMed

    Terry, Claire; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Saghir, Shakil; Marty, Sue; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Billington, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Plant protection products (PPPs) and the active substance(s) contained within them are rigorously and comprehensively tested prior to registration to ensure that human health is not impacted by their use. In recent years, there has been a widespread drive to have more relevant testing strategies (e.g., ILSI/HESI-ACSA and new EU Directives), which also take account of animal welfare, including the 3R (replacement, refinement, and reduction) principles. The toxicity potential of one such new active substance, sulfoxaflor, a sulfoximine insecticide (CAS #946578-00-3), was evaluated utilizing innovative testing strategies comprising: (1) an integrated testing scheme to optimize information obtained from as few animals as possible (i.e., 3R principles) through modifications of standard protocols, such as enhanced palatability study design, to include molecular endpoints, additional neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity parameters in a subchronic toxicity study, and combining multiple test guidelines into one study protocol; (2) generation of toxicokinetic data across dose levels, sexes, study durations, species, strains and life stages, without using satellite animals, which was a first for PPP development, and (3) addition of prospective mode of action (MoA) endpoints within repeat dose toxicity studies as well as proactive inclusion of specific MoA studies as an integral part of the development program. These novel approaches to generate key data early in the safety evaluation program facilitated informed decision-making on the need for additional studies and contributed to a more relevant human health risk assessment. This supplement also contains papers which describe in more detail the approach taken to establish the MoA and human relevance framework related to toxicities elicited by sulfoxaflor in the mammalian toxicology studies: developmental toxicity in rats mediated via the fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ( Ellis-Hutchings et al. 2014 ); liver

  11. The effect of safety climate on seafarers' safety behaviors in container shipping.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chin-Shan; Tsai, Chaur-Luh

    2010-11-01

    This study empirically examined safety climate and its effects on safety behaviors from seafarers' perceptions in the container shipping context. Research hypotheses were formulated and tested using survey data collected from 608 seafarers working on 124 vessels belonging to 13 of the top 20 global container carriers. A structural equation model was used to examine the effect of safety climate dimensions, namely, safety policy, perceived supervisor safety behavior, and safety management, on safety behavior. The results revealed a positive association between safety climate and seafarers' safety behavior. The contribution of the study findings to the development of safety climate theory and their managerial implications for vessel safety in shipping operations are discussed.

  12. Marine Natural Products as Prototype Agrochemical Agents

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Xiaoyu; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Dunbar, D. C Harles; Perry, Tony L.; Wilkins, Scott P.; Hamann, Mark T.; Bobzin, Steve; Huesing, Joseph; Camp, Robin; Prinsen, Mike; Krupa, Dan; Wideman, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    In the interest of identifying new leads that could serve as prototype agrochemical agents, 18 structurally diverse marine-derived compounds were examined for insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activities. Several new classes of compounds have been shown to be insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal, which suggests that marine natural products represent an intriguing source for the discovery of new agrochemical agents. PMID:12670165

  13. Physicochemical Profiles of the Marketed Agrochemicals and Clues for Agrochemical Lead Discovery and Screening Library Development.

    PubMed

    Rao, Hanbing; Huangfu, Changxin; Wang, Yanying; Wang, Xianxiang; Tang, Tiansheng; Zeng, Xianyin; Li, Zerong; Chen, Yuzong

    2015-05-01

    Combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput and virtual screening technologies have been extensively used for discovering agrochemical leads from chemical libraries. The knowledge of the physicochemical properties of the marketed agrochemicals is useful for guiding the design and selection of such libraries. Since the earlier profiling of marketed agrochemicals, the number and types of marketed agrochemicals have significantly increased. Recent studies have shown the change of some physicochemical properties of oral drugs with time. There is a need to also profile the physicochemical properties of the marketed agrochemicals. In this work, we analyzed the key physicochemical properties of 1751 marketed agrochemicals in comparison with the previously-analyzed herbicides and insecticides, 106 391 natural products and 57 548 diverse synthetic libraries compounds. Our study revealed the distribution profiles and evolution trend of different types of agrochemicals that in many respects are broadly similar to the reported profiles for oral drugs, with the most marked difference being that agrochemicals have a lower number of hydrogen bond donors. The derived distribution patterns provided the rule of thumb guidelines for selecting potential agrochemical leads and also provided clues for further improving the libraries for agrochemical lead discovery.

  14. Safety Behaviors and Speech Treatment for Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgadottir, Fjola Dogg; Menzies, Ross G.; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Those with anxiety use safety behaviors when attempting to prevent negative outcomes. There is evidence that these behaviors contribute to the persistence of anxiety disorders. Safety behaviors have been prominent in the cognitive behavior therapy literature during the last decade, particularly with social phobia management. However,…

  15. Behavioral Safety in the Food Services Industry: Challenges and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebbon, Angela; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; Austin, John

    2012-01-01

    During the course of a 6-year behavioral safety consult at a food and drink industry site, data were collected on the number of Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordable incidents, number of lost and restricted days, and number of peer safety observations. Employees were trained to identify safe and unsafe behavior, conduct peer…

  16. The Effects of Safety Behavior Directed Towards a Safety Cue on Perceptions of Threat.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Iris M; van Uijen, Sophie L; van Seters, Niels; Velu, Nicolette

    2015-09-01

    Safety behavior involves precautions to prevent or minimize a feared outcome, and is involved in the maintenance of anxiety disorders. Earlier research has shown that safety behavior prevents the extinction of conditioned fear and maintains threat expectations. This study tested whether safety behavior directed towards an objectively safe stimulus increases the perceived threat of that stimulus when it is subsequently experienced in the absence of the safety measure. In a conditioning task, participants first learned that one "danger" cue (A) was followed by shock and two "safety" cues (B, C) were not. Then they learned to apply safety behavior during A trials, which prevented the shock. Next, the experimental group, and not the control group, was given the opportunity to display safety behavior to C trials, which had never been coupled with the shock. In a subsequent test phase, A, B, and C were presented without the opportunity for participants to engage in safety behavior. Results showed that safety behavior increased shock expectancy to C in the test phase and maintained a preexisting shock expectancy in the experimental group, but not in the control group. This is the first study to show that safety behavior can maintain threat appraisal to stimuli that only ever acquired threat indirectly. This may be a possible mechanism for the origin of biased threat beliefs, superstitious behaviors, and irrational fears. It is also practically relevant: safety behavior reduces actual danger, but in relatively safe situations, its potential costs may outweigh the benefits.

  17. Reducing the Use of Agrochemicals: A Simple Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, M. M.; Filipe, Olga M. S.; Costa, M. C. Cruz

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was performed on polymeric-based controlled-release agrochemicals that minimize leaching into groundwater while maintaining an adequate quantity for the desired agrochemical benefits. Gelatin gel containing inorganic Phosphorous provides controlled-release of an agrochemical where release curves show a linear relationship between…

  18. The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Safety Climate and Individual Safety Behavior on Construction Sites.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuzhong; Ju, Chuanjing; Koh, Tas Yong; Rowlinson, Steve; Bridge, Adrian J

    2017-01-05

    Unsafe acts contribute dominantly to construction accidents, and increasing safety behavior is essential to reduce accidents. Previous research conceptualized safety behavior as an interaction between proximal individual differences (safety knowledge and safety motivation) and distal contextual factors (leadership and safety climate). However, relatively little empirical research has examined this conceptualization in the construction sector. Given the cultural background of the sample, this study makes a slight modification to the conceptualization and views transformational leadership as an antecedent of safety climate. Accordingly, this study establishes a multiple mediator model showing the mechanisms through which transformational leadership translates into safety behavior. The multiple mediator model is estimated by the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique, using individual questionnaire responses from a random sample of construction personnel based in Hong Kong. As hypothesized, transformational leadership has a significant impact on safety climate which is mediated by safety-specific leader-member exchange (LMX), and safety climate in turn impacts safety behavior through safety knowledge. The results suggest that future safety climate interventions should be more effective if supervisors exhibit transformational leadership, encourage construction personnel to voice safety concerns without fear of retaliation, and repeatedly remind them about safety on the job.

  19. The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Safety Climate and Individual Safety Behavior on Construction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yuzhong; Ju, Chuanjing; Koh, Tas Yong; Rowlinson, Steve; Bridge, Adrian J.

    2017-01-01

    Unsafe acts contribute dominantly to construction accidents, and increasing safety behavior is essential to reduce accidents. Previous research conceptualized safety behavior as an interaction between proximal individual differences (safety knowledge and safety motivation) and distal contextual factors (leadership and safety climate). However, relatively little empirical research has examined this conceptualization in the construction sector. Given the cultural background of the sample, this study makes a slight modification to the conceptualization and views transformational leadership as an antecedent of safety climate. Accordingly, this study establishes a multiple mediator model showing the mechanisms through which transformational leadership translates into safety behavior. The multiple mediator model is estimated by the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique, using individual questionnaire responses from a random sample of construction personnel based in Hong Kong. As hypothesized, transformational leadership has a significant impact on safety climate which is mediated by safety-specific leader–member exchange (LMX), and safety climate in turn impacts safety behavior through safety knowledge. The results suggest that future safety climate interventions should be more effective if supervisors exhibit transformational leadership, encourage construction personnel to voice safety concerns without fear of retaliation, and repeatedly remind them about safety on the job. PMID:28067775

  20. The unique role of halogen substituents in the design of modern agrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The past 30 years have witnessed a period of significant expansion in the use of halogenated compounds in the field of agrochemical research and development. The introduction of halogens into active ingredients has become an important concept in the quest for a modern agrochemical with optimal efficacy, environmental safety, user friendliness and economic viability. Outstanding progress has been made, especially in synthetic methods for particular halogen-substituted key intermediates that were previously prohibitively expensive. Interestingly, there has been a rise in the number of commercial products containing 'mixed' halogens, e.g. one or more fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine atoms in addition to one or more further halogen atoms. Extrapolation of the current trend indicates that a definite growth is to be expected in fluorine-substituted agrochemicals throughout the twenty-first century. A number of these recently developed agrochemical candidates containing halogen substituents represent novel classes of chemical compounds with new modes of action. However, the complex structure-activity relationships associated with biologically active molecules mean that the introduction of halogens can lead to either an increase or a decrease in the efficacy of a compound, depending on its changed mode of action, physicochemical properties, target interaction or metabolic susceptibility and transformation. In spite of modern design concepts, it is still difficult to predict the sites in a molecule at which halogen substitution will result in optimal desired effects. This review describes comprehensively the successful utilisation of halogens and their unique role in the design of modern agrochemicals, exemplified by various commercial products from Bayer CropScience coming from different agrochemical areas.

  1. Application of the KeratinoSens™ assay for assessing the skin sensitization potential of agrochemical active ingredients and formulations.

    PubMed

    Settivari, Raja S; Gehen, Sean C; Amado, Ricardo Acosta; Visconti, Nicolo R; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of skin sensitization potential is an important component of the safety evaluation process for agrochemical products. Recently, non-animal approaches including the KeratinoSens™ assay have been developed for predicting skin sensitization potential. Assessing the utility of the KeratinoSens™ assay for use with multi-component mixtures such as agrochemical formulations has not been previously evaluated and is a significant need. This study was undertaken to evaluate the KeratinoSens™ assay prediction potential for agrochemical formulations. The assay was conducted for 8 agrochemical active ingredients (AIs) including 3 sensitizers (acetochlor, meptyldinocap, triclopyr), 5 non-sensitizers (aminopyralid, clopyralid, florasulam, methoxyfenozide, oxyfluorfen) and 10 formulations for which in vivo sensitization data were available. The KeratinoSens™ correctly predicted the sensitization potential of all the AIs. For agrochemical formulations it was necessary to modify the standard assay procedure whereby the formulation was assumed to have a common molecular weight. The resultant approach correctly predicted the sensitization potential for 3 of 4 sensitizing formulations and all 6 non-sensitizing formulations when compared to in vivo data. Only the meptyldinocap-containing formulation was misclassified, as a result of high cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate the promising utility of the KeratinoSens™ assay for evaluating the skin sensitization potential of agrochemical AIs and formulations.

  2. Accelerated degradation of methyl iodide by agrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Papiernik, Sharon K; Guo, Mingxin; Yates, Scott R

    2003-01-29

    The fumigant methyl iodide (MeI, iodomethane) is considered a promising alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) for soil-borne pest control in high-cash-value crops. However, the high vapor pressure of MeI results in emissions of a significant proportion of the applied mass into the ambient air, and this may lead to pollution of the environment. Integrating the application of certain agrochemicals with soil fumigation provides a novel approach to reduce excessive fumigant emissions. This study investigated the potential for several agrochemicals that are commonly used in farming operations, including fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors, to transform MeI in aqueous solution. The pseudo-first-order hydrolysis half-life (t(1/2)) of MeI was approximately 108 d, while the transformation of MeI in aqueous solutions containing selected agrochemicals was more rapid, with t(1/2) < 100 d (t(1/2) < 0.5 d in some solutions containing nitrification inhibitors). The influence of these agrochemicals on the rate of MeI degradation in soil was also determined. Adsorption to soil apparently reduced the availability of some nitrification inhibitors in the soil aqueous phase and lowered the degradation rate in soil. In contrast, addition of the nitrification inhibitors thiourea and allylthiourea to soil significantly accelerated the degradation of MeI, possibly due to soil surface catalysis. The t(1/2) of MeI was <20 h in thiourea- and allylthiourea-amended soil, considerably less than that in unamended soil (t(1/2) > 300 h).

  3. Nurse burnout and patient safety outcomes: nurse safety perception versus reporting behavior.

    PubMed

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Wakefield, Douglas S; Cooper, Lynn B

    2008-08-01

    This article examines the relationship between nurse burnout and patient safety indicators, including both safety perceptions and reporting behavior. Based on the Conservation of Resources model of stress and burnout, it is predicted that burnout will negatively affect both patient safety perceptions and perceived likelihood of reporting events. Nurses from a Veteran's Administration hospital completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and safety outcomes subset of measures from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Culture measure. After controlling for work-related demographics, multiple regression analysis supported the prediction that burnout was associated with the perception of lower patient safety. Burnout was not associated with event-reporting behavior but was negatively associated with reporting of mistakes that did not lead to adverse events. The findings extend previous research on the relationship between burnout and patient outcomes and offer avenues for future research on how nurse motivation resources are invested in light of their stressful work environment.

  4. Unnatural agrochemical ligands for engineered abscisic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro L; Lozano-Juste, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Existing agrochemicals can be endowed with new applications through protein engineering of plant receptors. A recent study shows an engineered PYR1 ABA receptor can be activated by mandipropamid. Plants engineered with such PYR1 variant are responsive to this agrochemical, which confers protection against drought through activation of ABA signaling.

  5. Living up to safety values in health care: the effect of leader behavioral integrity on occupational safety.

    PubMed

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Leroy, Hannes; Dierynck, Bart; Simons, Tony; Savage, Grant T; McCaughey, Deirdre; Leon, Matthew R

    2013-10-01

    While previous research has identified that leaders' safety expectations and safety actions are important in fostering occupational safety, research has yet to demonstrate the importance of leader alignment between safety expectations and actions for improving occupational safety. We build on safety climate literature and theory on behavioral integrity to better understand the relationship between the leader's behavioral integrity regarding safety and work-related injuries. In a time-lagged study of 658 nurses, we find that behavioral integrity for high safety values is positively associated with greater reporting of fewer and less severe occupational injuries. The effects of behavioral integrity regarding safety can be better understood through the mediating mechanisms of safety compliance and psychological safety toward one's supervisor. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research on safety climate.

  6. Maintenance of safety behaviors via response-produced stimuli.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, Ioannis; Austin, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    Animal studies suggest that safety behaviors may be maintained by internally or externally produced safety signals, which function as positive reinforcers. We designed two experiments to test this phenomenon with humans. Participants played a computerized game in which they could earn or lose treasures by clicking on a map. In baseline, losses could be postponed by pressing a pedal that also produced a blue bar at the bottom of the screen. During test conditions, no losses were programmed, and pedal presses turned the bar from yellow to blue (Test 1) or blue to yellow (Test 2). In Experiment 2, new participants were exposed to the same conditions but were given information about the safety of the test environment. In both experiments, participants engaged in high rates of pedal pressing when presses were followed by blue bars, suggesting the bar functioned as a safety signal. We discuss how these findings may relate to safety behaviors commonly observed in certain mental health disorders.

  7. Enhancing safety in behavioral emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Pestka, Elizabeth L; Hatteberg, Denise A; Larson, Lori A; Zwygart, Amy M; Cox, Debra L; Borgen, Erwin E

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of a behavioral emergency response team (BERT) at a large midwestern health care organization is described. The BERT is a resource supporting nurses and other health care staff in managing behavioral emergencies. The Joint Commission (2010) reported an increasing rate of violence by patients toward health care staff, reinforcing a need for the BERT. No published reports were found in the literature of a BERT utilizing multidisciplinary mental health experts and security officers as responders. Development strategies, response data, and outcomes of this successful initiative are highlighted.

  8. Factors Influencing the Safety Behavior of German Equestrians: Attitudes towards Protective Equipment and Peer Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ikinger, Christina-Maria; Baldamus, Jana; Spiller, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The handling and riding of horses can be quite dangerous. Although the use of protective gear among equestrians is increasing, a high number of incidents occur and the voluntary use of safety equipment is described as inconsistent to low. Therefore, this study looks at the safety behavior of German equestrians and at factors influencing this behavior to decrease the high number of horse-related injuries. The results reveal that attitudes towards safety products as well as the protective behavior of other horse owners and riding pupils from the stable are key factors that might alter the safety behavior of equestrians. Abstract Human interactions with horses entail certain risks. Although the acceptance and use of protective gear is increasing, a high number of incidents and very low or inconsistent voluntary use of safety equipment are reported. While past studies have examined factors influencing the use of safety gear, they have explored neither their influence on the overall safety behavior, nor their relative influence in relation to each other. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap. We conducted an online survey with 2572 participants. By means of a subsequent multiple regression analysis, we explored 23 different variables in view of their influence on the protective behavior of equestrians. In total, we found 17 variables that exerted a significant influence. The results show that both having positive or negative attitudes towards safety products as well as the protective behavior of other horse owners or riding pupils from the stable have the strongest influence on the safety behavior of German equestrians. We consider such knowledge to be important for both scientists and practitioners, such as producers of protective gear or horse sport associations who might alter safety behavior in such a way that the number of horse-related injuries decreases in the long term. PMID:26901229

  9. A Safety Program that Integrated Behavior-Based Safety and Traditional Safety Methods and Its Effects on Injury Rates of Manufacturing Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Jaime A.; Ibarra, Guillermo V.; Hopkins, B. L.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of a complex safety program that combined Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) and traditional safety methods. The study was conducted in an automobile parts plant in Mexico. Two sister plants served as comparison. Some of the components of the safety programs addressed behaviors of managers and included methods…

  10. Organizational Behavior: A Brief Overview and Safety Orientation.

    PubMed

    Waller, Mary J

    2015-12-01

    Organizational Behavior (OB) is a discipline of social science that seeks explanations for human behavior in organizations. OB draws on core disciplines such as psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, communication, and law to create and investigate multilevel explanations of why people engage in particular behaviors, and which behaviors under which circumstances lead to better outcomes in organizations. Created using an applied or pragmatic lens and tested with a wide range of both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, most OB theories and research have direct implications for managers and for other organizational participants. Not surprisingly, one focal area of OB research concerns safety in organizations, and a growing body of safety-oriented literature in OB is based on data collected during simulation training across a variety of organizations such as hospitals, airlines, nuclear power plants, and other high reliability organizations.

  11. MODELING THE INTERACTION OF AGROCHEMICALS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions between agrochemicals and organo-mineral surfaces were studied using molecular mechanical conformational calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), 2,4-D (1, 2-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and DD...

  12. Social Capital, Safety Concerns, Parenting, and Early Adolescents' Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Perkins, Douglas D.; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relations between neighborhood social capital (neighbor support and social climate), safety concerns (fear of crime and concern for one's child), parenting (solicitation and support), and adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 952 parents (742 mothers) and 588 boys and 559 girls from five middle schools (sixth…

  13. Linking manager values and behavior with employee values and behavior: a study of values and safety in the hairdressing industry.

    PubMed

    Maierhofer, N I; Griffin, M A; Sheehan, M

    2000-10-01

    Five theoretical processes that link values and behavior were identified: value congruence, value-behavior consistency, behavioral modeling, value internalization, and descriptive norms. A values questionnaire was administered to 219 employees and their managers. Values for preventive safety procedures and time urgency were linked to safety behavior of employees in the hairdressing industry. Hairdressers are frequently exposed to hazardous chemicals, and the safety behavior measured was wearing protective gloves. Results support value internalization (linking manager's and employee's values) and behavioral modeling (linking manager's and employee's behavior). Employee time urgency values were also negatively related to safety behavior (value-behavior consistency). Descriptive norms and value congruence were not supported. Strategies to align values within organizations and the management of safety at work are considered.

  14. [Agrochemicals and human health: contributions of healthcare professionals].

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Soraia Lemos; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2008-09-01

    This paper focuses on the scientific production of health professionals, especially nurses, about agrochemicals and human health. The essay combines and presents information by means of literature review, with a view to acknowledge the contribution of each author and their use for the human health field. Thirty-two research articles, published in Brazilian journals, were located. The analysis of these articles highlights that healthcare professionals' contributions focus on human health, especially, workers' health and food quality. With a view to minimize the effects from agrochemicals on human and environmental health, the authors exposes action suggestions both for health professionals and for the institutions associated.

  15. Sorption of organophosphate and triazine agrochemicals on biochars and soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochars are known to strongly sorb polar and nonpolar organic compounds, and biochar soil amendment can have counteracting impacts on the efficacy of, and runoff contamination by agrochemicals. This study investigated the sorption-desorption isotherms and kinetics of triazine (deisopropylatrazine)...

  16. Exposure to Agrochemicals and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sekhotha, Matome M.; Monyeki, Kotsedi D.; Sibuyi, Masezi E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In the agricultural world there is a continuous loss of food, fiber and other commodities due to pests, disease and weeds before harvesting time. These losses had create lots of financial burden to the farm owners that might lead to shutting down of their daily business. Worldwide, there is an overall very high loss of agricultural products due to weeds growth alone. To counteract this problem most farmers resort to the use of agrochemicals to increase their production but compromising the health of their farmworkers. The purpose of the study will be to assess the relationship between the agrochemical particles and cardiovascular diseases among farmworkers. Method: Non-systematic review was used to collect data. The following database were use: Medline, EBSCO, and Science Direct to search for the existing journal articles. Results: This study addresses the relationship between agrochemicals particles and cardiovascular diseases in the farming industries using literature review. Discussion: Other researchers had already done an extensive research on the pathway of potential mechanisms linking the ultrafine particulate matter to cardiovascular diseases. The outcomes of those investigations were the clinical results of events that might lead to the development of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke, arrhythmia and sudden death. Xenobiotic compounds that maybe implicated in the pathophysiology of human cardiovascular diseases, will be examined and included in this study. There is compelling evidence suggesting that toxic free radicals of pesticides play an important role in human health. Conclusion: There is a close relationship between agrochemicals particle and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26901215

  17. Synthetic approaches to the 2010-2014 new agrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Jeanmart, Stephane; Edmunds, Andrew J F; Lamberth, Clemens; Pouliot, Martin

    2016-02-01

    In this review, the synthesis of 30 agrochemicals that received an international standardization organization (ISO) name during the last five years (January 2010 to December 2014) is described. The aim is to showcase the range and scope of chemistries used to discover or produce the latest active ingredients addressing the crop protection industry's needs.

  18. Fate of heavy metals and agrochemicals in biochar amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavy metals and agrochemicals are the key targets for biochar-induced mitigation of runoff/groundwater contamination. Inorganic and organic contaminants interact differently with biochars as well as soil components. Mechanistic understandings are needed on sorption, desorption, and competitive sor...

  19. The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related…

  20. Exploratory Analyses of the Effects of Managerial Support and Feedback Consequences on Behavioral Safety Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, M. Dominic

    2006-01-01

    Reviews indicate management commitment is vital to maintain behavioral safety processes. Similarly, the impact of observation frequency on safety behaviors is thought to be important. An employee-driven process which encompassed behavioral observations, goal-setting, and feedback was implemented in a paper mill with 55 workgroups using a…

  1. An Occupant Behavior Model for Building Energy Efficiency and Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, L. L.; Chen, T.; Jia, Q. S.; Yuan, R. X.; Wang, H. T.; Ding, R.

    2010-05-01

    An occupant behavior model is suggested to improve building energy efficiency and safety. This paper provides a generic outline of the model, which includes occupancy behavior abstraction, model framework and primary structure, input and output, computer simulation results as well as summary and outlook. Using information technology, now it's possible to collect large amount of information of occupancy. Yet this can only provide partial and historical information, so it's important to develop a model to have full view of the researched building as well as prediction. We used the infrared monitoring system which is set at the front door of the Low Energy Demo Building (LEDB) at Tsinghua University in China, to provide the time variation of the total number of occupants in the LEDB building. This information is used as input data for the model. While the RFID system is set on the 1st floor, which provides the time variation of the occupants' localization in each region. The collected data are used to validate the model. The simulation results show that this presented model provides a feasible framework to simulate occupants' behavior and predict the time variation of the number of occupants in the building. Further development and application of the model is also discussed.

  2. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate

    PubMed Central

    Hystad, Sigurd W.; Bartone, Paul T.; Eid, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents. PMID:24454524

  3. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Bartone, Paul T; Eid, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents.

  4. Controlled Release of Agrochemicals Intercalated into Montmorillonite Interlayer Space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Periodic application of agrochemicals has led to high cost of production and serious environmental pollution. In this study, the ability of montmorillonite (MMT) clay to act as a controlled release carrier for model agrochemical molecules has been investigated. Urea was loaded into MMT by a simple immersion technique while loading of metalaxyl was achieved by a rotary evaporation method. The successful incorporation of the agrochemicals into the interlayer space of MMT was confirmed by several techniques, such as, significant expansion of the interlayer space, reduction of Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volumes and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, and appearance of urea and metalaxyl characteristic bands on the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the urea loaded montmorillonite (UMMT) and metalaxyl loaded montmorillonite (RMMT) complexes. Controlled release of the trapped molecules from the matrix was done in water and in the soil. The results reveal slow and sustained release behaviour for UMMT for a period of 10 days in soil. For a period of 30 days, MMT delayed the release of metalaxyl in soil by more than 6 times. It is evident that MMT could be used to improve the efficiency of urea and metalaxyl delivery in the soil. PMID:24696655

  5. Controlled release of agrochemicals intercalated into montmorillonite interlayer space.

    PubMed

    Wanyika, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    Periodic application of agrochemicals has led to high cost of production and serious environmental pollution. In this study, the ability of montmorillonite (MMT) clay to act as a controlled release carrier for model agrochemical molecules has been investigated. Urea was loaded into MMT by a simple immersion technique while loading of metalaxyl was achieved by a rotary evaporation method. The successful incorporation of the agrochemicals into the interlayer space of MMT was confirmed by several techniques, such as, significant expansion of the interlayer space, reduction of Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volumes and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, and appearance of urea and metalaxyl characteristic bands on the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the urea loaded montmorillonite (UMMT) and metalaxyl loaded montmorillonite (RMMT) complexes. Controlled release of the trapped molecules from the matrix was done in water and in the soil. The results reveal slow and sustained release behaviour for UMMT for a period of 10 days in soil. For a period of 30 days, MMT delayed the release of metalaxyl in soil by more than 6 times. It is evident that MMT could be used to improve the efficiency of urea and metalaxyl delivery in the soil.

  6. Impact of a pilot Walking School Bus intervention on children's pedestrian safety behaviors [abstract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walking School Bus (WSB) programs have increased children's active commuting to school and physical activity; however, the impact on child pedestrian safety behaviors has not been studied. Our study objective was to evaluate the impact of a WSB program on children's pedestrian safety behaviors. We c...

  7. Discovery of pyridine-based agrochemicals by using Intermediate Derivatization Methods.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ai-Ying; Liu, Chang-Ling; Sun, Xu-Feng; Xie, Yong; Wang, Ming-An

    2016-02-01

    Pyridine-based compounds have been playing a crucial role as agrochemicals or pesticides including fungicides, insecticides/acaricides and herbicides, etc. Since most of the agrochemicals listed in the Pesticide Manual were discovered through screening programs that relied on trial-and-error testing and new agrochemical discovery is not benefiting as much from the in silico new chemical compound identification/discovery techniques used in pharmaceutical research, it has become more important to find new methods to enhance the efficiency of discovering novel lead compounds in the agrochemical field to shorten the time of research phases in order to meet changing market requirements. In this review, we selected 18 representative known agrochemicals containing a pyridine moiety and extrapolate their discovery from the perspective of Intermediate Derivatization Methods in the hope that this approach will have greater appeal to researchers engaged in the discovery of agrochemicals and/or pharmaceuticals.

  8. Committee Opinion No. 683 Summary: Behavior That Undermines a Culture of Safety.

    PubMed

    2017-01-01

    A key element of an organizational safety culture is maintaining an environment of professionalism that encourages communication and promotes high-quality care. Behavior that undermines a culture of safety, including disruptive or intimidating behavior, has a negative effect on the quality and safety of patient care. Intimidating behavior and disruptive behavior are unprofessional and should not be tolerated. Confronting disruptive individuals is difficult. Co-workers often are reluctant to report disruptive behavior because of fear of retaliation and the stigma associated with "blowing the whistle" on a colleague. Additionally, negative behavior of revenue-generating physicians may be overlooked because of concern about the perceived consequences of confronting them. The Joint Commission requires that hospitals establish a code of conduct that "defines acceptable behavior and behavior that undermines a culture of safety." Clear standards of behavior that acknowledge the consequences of disruptive and intimidating behavior must be established and communicated. Institutions and practices should develop a multifaceted approach to address disruptive behavior. Confidential reporting systems and assistance programs for physicians who exhibit disruptive behavior should be established. A concerted effort should be made within each organization to educate staff (ie, medical, nursing, and ancillary staff) about the potential negative effects of disruptive and inappropriate behavior. A clearly delineated hospital-wide policy and procedure relating to disruptive behavior should be developed and enforced by hospital administration. To preserve professional standing, physicians should understand how to respond to and mitigate the effect of complaints or reports.

  9. Committee Opinion No. 683: Behavior That Undermines a Culture of Safety.

    PubMed

    2017-01-01

    A key element of an organizational safety culture is maintaining an environment of professionalism that encourages communication and promotes high-quality care. Behavior that undermines a culture of safety, including disruptive or intimidating behavior, has a negative effect on the quality and safety of patient care. Intimidating behavior and disruptive behavior are unprofessional and should not be tolerated. Confronting disruptive individuals is difficult. Co-workers often are reluctant to report disruptive behavior because of fear of retaliation and the stigma associated with "blowing the whistle" on a colleague. Additionally, negative behavior of revenue-generating physicians may be overlooked because of concern about the perceived consequences of confronting them. The Joint Commission requires that hospitals establish a code of conduct that "defines acceptable behavior and behavior that undermines a culture of safety." Clear standards of behavior that acknowledge the consequences of disruptive and intimidating behavior must be established and communicated. Institutions and practices should develop a multifaceted approach to address disruptive behavior. Confidential reporting systems and assistance programs for physicians who exhibit disruptive behavior should be established. A concerted effort should be made within each organization to educate staff (ie, medical, nursing, and ancillary staff) about the potential negative effects of disruptive and inappropriate behavior. A clearly delineated hospital-wide policy and procedure relating to disruptive behavior should be developed and enforced by hospital administration. To preserve professional standing, physicians should understand how to respond to and mitigate the effect of complaints or reports.

  10. Self-Reported Changes in Food Safety Behaviors among Foodservice Employees: Impact of a Retail Food Safety Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Boleman, Chris; Thompson, Britta

    2007-01-01

    A food safety education program developed for retail food establishments was evaluated to assess the extent to which participants were practicing selected behaviors linked to reducing the risk of foodborne disease both before and after the program. Scores from the state health department's Certified Food Manager (CFM) exam also were examined.…

  11. Cognitive-behavioral approaches to farm community safety education: a conceptual analysis.

    PubMed

    Cole, H P

    2002-05-01

    For many years, farm health and safety education efforts have focused on the presentation of safety rules and guidelines. This method of instruction tends to ignore the contingencies that influence the actual behavior of farmers. Consequently, while most farmers understand the safety instruction messages they receive, they frequently continue to engage in risky behaviors. They do so even when they are aware of the injury consequences that can result from engaging in risky behaviors during farm work. Consequently, educational programs for the delivery of farm health and safety knowledge have been judged to be of questionable effectiveness. Yet, current political, social, and economic realities suggest that safety and health education will remain a favored methodology for the foreseeable future. These observations suggest that farm safety education efforts may need to be reconceptualized. This article examines the learning of safe and unsafe work practices from three historical learning theory perspectives: behaviorism, constructivism, and socioculturalism. The conceptual analysis is illustrated through case study examples. The analysis may provide insights into why transmission of knowledge by itself is not effective for replacing risky behaviors with safe work practices. It may also assist the design of farm health and safety education programs that impart knowledge, as well as change attitudes and behavior that support safe work practices.

  12. Lack of Direct Effects of Agrochemicals on Zoonotic Pathogens and Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Staley, Zachery R.; Senkbeil, Jacob K.; Rohr, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    Agrochemicals, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and pathogens frequently contaminate water simultaneously. No significant direct effects of fertilizer, atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil on the survival of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica, human polyomaviruses, and adenovirus were detected, supporting the assertion that previously observed effects of agrochemicals on FIB were indirect. PMID:22961900

  13. Are agrochemicals present in high fructose corn syrup fed to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bee colonies are commonly fed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a nectar substitute. Many agrochemicals are applied to corn during cultivation including systemic neonicotinoids. Whether agrochemicals are present in HFCS fed to bees is unknown. Samples from the major manufacturers and distri...

  14. Thailand's Department of Agricultural Extension and Agrochemical Dependency: Perspectives on Contributing Factors and Mitigation Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelles, Wayne; Visetnoi, Supawan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses theoretical, policy and practical issues concerning the problem of "agrochemical dependency" in Thailand, including roles that public extension services play in advocacy or mitigation of agrochemical use. Methodology/Approach: Our research aimed to better understand department of agricultural extension…

  15. The Effect of Elementary Traffic Safety Programs on Out-of-School Safety Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Deborah A.

    The Beltman multi-media traffic safety program was evaluated as an instructional tool in grades K-3. The foremost objective of the Beltman program is to develop the habit of wearing seat belts and to develop positive safety attitudes. Three study groups made up of 550 second grade students were divided into one control and two experimental groups.…

  16. Parents' Self-Reported Behaviors Related to Health and Safety of Very Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Charlotte M.; Reichert, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Reports a survey that documented the health and safety behaviors of parents of children in Head Start programs. Nearly all parents reported using car seats, teaching handwashing and pedestrian safety, and locking away medicine and alcohol. Sixty percent reported storing guns and bullets safely, possessing working fire extinguishers, and having…

  17. The effects of safety behaviors during exposure therapy for anxiety: Critical analysis from an inhibitory learning perspective.

    PubMed

    Blakey, Shannon M; Abramowitz, Jonathan S

    2016-11-01

    In the context of clinical anxiety, safety behaviors are actions performed to prevent, escape, or minimize feared catastrophes and/or associated distress. Research consistently implicates safety behaviors in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders; accordingly, safety behaviors are traditionally eliminated during exposure treatments for pathological anxiety. The notion that safety behaviors are ubiquitously deleterious in the context of exposure has recently been challenged, yet findings regarding safety behaviors' effects on exposure outcomes are limited, mixed, and controversial. Furthermore, developments in explanatory models for exposure's effectiveness (e.g., inhibitory learning theory) highlight other possible consequences of safety behaviors performed during exposure. Unfortunately, these theoretical advances are neglected in experimental research. The present review critically examines the literature addressing the role of safety behaviors in exposure therapy from an inhibitory learning perspective. Limitations, future directions, and clinical recommendations are also discussed.

  18. Intervention Effects on Safety Compliance and Citizenship Behaviors: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Johnson, Ryan C.; Crain, Tori L.; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Davis, Kelly; Kelly, Erin L.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Karuntzos, Georgia; Chosewood, L. Casey; Berkman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    We tested the effects of a work-family intervention on employee reports of safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors in 30 healthcare facilities using a group-randomized trial. Based on Conservation of Resources theory and the Work-Home Resources Model, we hypothesized that implementing a work-family intervention aimed at increasing contextual resources via supervisor support for work and family and employee control over work time would lead to improved personal resources and increased employee performance on the job in the form of self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Multilevel analyses used survey data from 1,524 employees at baseline, 6-month and 12-month post-intervention follow-ups. Significant intervention effects were observed for safety compliance at the 6-month and organizational citizenship behaviors at the 12-month follow-ups. More specifically, results demonstrate that the intervention protected against declines in employee self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors, compared to employees in the control facilities. The hypothesized mediators of perceptions of family supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict) were not significantly improved by the intervention. However, baseline perceptions of family supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family climate were significant moderators of the intervention effect on the self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behavior outcomes. PMID:26348479

  19. Agrochemicals against malaria, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Witschel, Matthias; Rottmann, Matthias; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto

    2012-01-01

    In tropical regions, protozoan parasites can cause severe diseases with malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease standing in the forefront. Many of the drugs currently being used to treat these diseases have been developed more than 50 years ago and can cause severe adverse effects. Above all, resistance to existing drugs is widespread and has become a serious problem threatening the success of control measures. In order to identify new antiprotozoal agents, more than 600 commercial agrochemicals have been tested on the pathogens causing the above mentioned diseases. For all of the pathogens, compounds were identified with similar or even higher activities than the currently used drugs in applied in vitro assays. Furthermore, in vivo activity was observed for the fungicide/oomyceticide azoxystrobin, and the insecticide hydramethylnon in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, and for the oomyceticide zoxamide in the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 mouse model, respectively.

  20. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  1. Development of a Universal Safety Behavior Management System for Coal Mine Workers

    PubMed Central

    LI, Jizu; LI, Yuejiao; LIU, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    Background: In China, over 80% of all work-related deaths in the mining industry occur in coal mines and human factors constitute 85% of the direct causes of coal mine accidents, which indicates that significant shortcomings currently exist in the safety behavior management of Chinese coal mine workers. We aimed to verify the impact of human psychological behavior in coal mine accidents systematically through experimental study, theoretical analysis and management application. Methods: Four test instruments (Sensory and cognitive capacity test, Sixteen-Personal Factor Questionnaire, Symptom Checklist 90 Questionnaire and the supervisors’ evaluation) were employed from November 2013 to June 2014 to identify unsafe behavior factors, the self-established Questionnaire of Safety Behavior Norms (QSBN) was also used to propose the safety behavior countermeasures of coal mine employees. Results: The mental health of most coal mine workers’ is relatively poor. The sensory and cognitive capacity of those in different work posts varies greatly, as does the sense of responsibility. Workers are susceptible to external influences, and score low in site management. When the 16-PF and SCL-90 sensory and cognitive assessments were combined, the psychological index predictive power was greatest for estimating sense of efficiency and degree of satisfaction in internal evaluations, while at the same time lowest for estimating control of introversion-extroversion and stress character. Conclusion: The psychological indicators can predict part of employee safety behavior, and assist a coal mine enterprise to recruit staff, develop occupational safety norms and improve the working environment. PMID:26258088

  2. Thick as thieves: the effects of ethical orientation and psychological safety on unethical team behavior.

    PubMed

    Pearsall, Matthew J; Ellis, Aleksander P J

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover compositional and emergent influences on unethical behavior by teams. Results from 126 teams indicated that the presence of a formalistic orientation within the team was negatively related to collective unethical decisions. Conversely, the presence of a utilitarian orientation within the team was positively related to both unethical decisions and behaviors. Results also indicated that the relationship between utilitarianism and unethical outcomes was moderated by the level of psychological safety within the team, such that teams with high levels of safety were more likely to engage in unethical behaviors. Implications are discussed, as well as potential directions for future research.

  3. The role of work habits in the motivation of food safety behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hinsz, Verlin B; Nickell, Gary S; Park, Ernest S

    2007-06-01

    The authors considered work habits within an integrated framework of motivated behavior. A distinction made between automatic and controlled action led to 2 measures of work habits: a habit strength measure reflecting the 4 characteristics of automaticity and a measure of work routines under conscious control. Workers at a turkey processing plant (N = 162) responded to an extensive survey of these work habits measures with regard to food safety. Results indicated that attitudes and subjective norms predicted food safety intentions. These intentions, along with perceived behavior control and work habits, predicted reports of food safety behaviors. A mediation analysis indicated that the work routines measure accounted for the variance in self-reported behavior and mediated any effect of the habit strength measure.

  4. An educational intervention to increase "speaking-up" behaviors in nurses and improve patient safety.

    PubMed

    Sayre, Michelle M; McNeese-Smith, Donna; Leach, Linda Searle; Phillips, Linda R

    2012-01-01

    "Speaking up" is a critical component in improving patient safety. Studies indicate, though, that most registered nurses prefer using behaviors of avoidance or accommodation in conflict situations. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine whether an educational intervention using scenarios, personal reflection, and peer support in small groups could improve speaking-up behaviors in registered nurses. Results showed a significant difference in speaking-up behaviors and scores in the intervention group (P < .001).

  5. Establishing fire safety skills using behavioral skills training.

    PubMed

    Houvouras, Andrew J; Harvey, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    The use of behavioral skills training (BST) to educate 3 adolescent boys on the risks of lighters and fire setting was evaluated using in situ assessment in a school setting. Two participants had a history of fire setting. After training, all participants adhered to established rules: (a) avoid a deactivated lighter, (b) leave the training area, and (c) report the lighter to an adult. The response sequence was maintained for both participants after training. The use of in situ assessment to evoke and observe infrequent behavior is discussed.

  6. Establishing Fire Safety Skills Using Behavioral Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houvouras, Andrew J., IV; Harvey, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The use of behavioral skills training (BST) to educate 3 adolescent boys on the risks of lighters and fire setting was evaluated using in situ assessment in a school setting. Two participants had a history of fire setting. After training, all participants adhered to established rules: (a) avoid a deactivated lighter, (b) leave the training area,…

  7. An alternative test battery in detecting ocular irritancy of agrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Tavaszi, J; Budai, P; Pálovics, A; Kismányoki, A

    2008-01-01

    Using animals in toxicological screening is a controversial issue. To get knowledge about eye irritation, recently only the in vivo Draize-test is accepted, which is one of the most criticized methods because of the injuries inflicted on the test animals. In recent years various in vitro methods have been developed to replace the primary irritation test. Most of these tests are in process of validation. The Draize rabbit eye test, or some modification of this test is essentially the only method for determining ocular irritation that is accepted by authorities. Several in vitro methods have been used to investigate the toxicity of potential eye irritants with the aim of replacing in vitro eye irritation testing. This study reports the results of an alternative approach for predicting irritation potential of agrochemicals. The approach was a two-stage test battery in vitro. The first stage was a cytotoxicity test, the MTT assay. The second stage was the HET-CAM test. The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), being a connective tissue sheet with a visible blood supply, has been proposed as a substrate to identify the eye irritation potential of chemicals. During the HET-CAM test the chemicals are placed directly onto the chorioallantoic membrane. The changes of the vascular injury (haemorrhage, lysis or coagulation) are indications of the potential of the chemical to damage mucous membranes in vivo. MTT assay is a simple method to determine the viability of cells in the presence of a chemical. Cells are cultured with several concentrations of a substance or product, then the ratio of cell destruction is determined. LCC50 (concentration lethal for the 50 % of the cells) is assessed. This is in correlation of the eye irrigative potential of the chemical. In our studies comparative screening was performed with 6 agrochemicals to establish parallel data on alternative test battery (HET-CAM, MTT) and in vivo (Draize) results. In most cases, this study showed a good

  8. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology should be renamed chronic agrochemical nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2014-04-01

    Epidemics of chronic kidney disease not attributable to common causes have recently been observed in Central America and Asia. Since the etiology is unclear, the disease is often known by terms such as chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology. There is growing evidence that risk factors include rural agricultural work and agrochemical exposure. The disease should be renamed chronic agrochemical nephropathy to highlight the most likely etiology and draw attention to the condition.

  9. A hybrid simulation approach for integrating safety behavior into construction planning: An earthmoving case study.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yang Miang; Askar Ali, Mohamed Jawad

    2016-08-01

    One of the key challenges in improving construction safety and health is the management of safety behavior. From a system point of view, workers work unsafely due to system level issues such as poor safety culture, excessive production pressure, inadequate allocation of resources and time and lack of training. These systemic issues should be eradicated or minimized during planning. However, there is a lack of detailed planning tools to help managers assess the impact of their upstream decisions on worker safety behavior. Even though simulation had been used in construction planning, the review conducted in this study showed that construction safety management research had not been exploiting the potential of simulation techniques. Thus, a hybrid simulation framework is proposed to facilitate integration of safety management considerations into construction activity simulation. The hybrid framework consists of discrete event simulation (DES) as the core, but heterogeneous, interactive and intelligent (able to make decisions) agents replace traditional entities and resources. In addition, some of the cognitive processes and physiological aspects of agents are captured using system dynamics (SD) approach. The combination of DES, agent-based simulation (ABS) and SD allows a more "natural" representation of the complex dynamics in construction activities. The proposed hybrid framework was demonstrated using a hypothetical case study. In addition, due to the lack of application of factorial experiment approach in safety management simulation, the case study demonstrated sensitivity analysis and factorial experiment to guide future research.

  10. Agrochemical fate models applied in agricultural areas from Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Yang, Jing; Andreoli, Romano; Binder, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    The misuse application of pesticides in mainly agricultural catchments can lead to severe problems for humans and environment. Especially in developing countries where there is often found overuse of agrochemicals and incipient or lack of water quality monitoring at local and regional levels, models are needed for decision making and hot spots identification. However, the complexity of the water cycle contrasts strongly with the scarce data availability, limiting the number of analysis, techniques, and models available to researchers. Therefore there is a strong need for model simplification able to appropriate model complexity and still represent the processes. We have developed a new model so-called Westpa-Pest to improve water quality management of an agricultural catchment located in the highlands of Colombia. Westpa-Pest is based on the fully distributed hydrologic model Wetspa and a fate pesticide module. We have applied a multi-criteria analysis for model selection under the conditions and data availability found in the region and compared with the new developed Westpa-Pest model. Furthermore, both models were empirically calibrated and validated. The following questions were addressed i) what are the strengths and weaknesses of the models?, ii) which are the most sensitive parameters of each model?, iii) what happens with uncertainties in soil parameters?, and iv) how sensitive are the transfer coefficients?

  11. Agrochemical spray drift; assessment and mitigation--a review.

    PubMed

    Felsot, Allan S; Unsworth, John B; Linders, Jan B H J; Roberts, Graham; Rautman, Dirk; Harris, Caroline; Carazo, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    During application of agrochemicals spray droplets can drift beyond the intended target to non-target receptors, including water, plants and animals. Factors affecting this spray drift include mode of application, droplet size, which can be modified by the nozzle types, formulation adjuvants, wind direction, wind speed, air stability, relative humidity, temperature and height of released spray relative to the crop canopy. The rate of fall of spray droplets depends upon the size of the droplets but is modified by entrainment in a mobile air mass and is also influenced by the rate of evaporation of the liquid constituting the aerosol. The longer the aerosol remains in the air before falling to the ground (or alternatively striking an object above ground) the greater the opportunity for it to be carried away from its intended target. In general, all size classes of droplets are capable of movement off target, but the smallest are likely to move the farthest before depositing on the ground or a non-target receptor. It is not possible to avoid spray drift completely but it can be minimized by using best-management practices. These include using appropriate nozzle types, shields, spray pressure, volumes per area sprayed, tractor speed and only spraying when climatic conditions are suitable. Field layout can also influence spray drift, whilst crop-free and spray-free buffer zones and windbreak crops can also have a mitigating effect. Various models are available to estimate the environmental exposure from spray drift at the time of application.

  12. Training Children in Pedestrian Safety: Distinguishing Gains in Knowledge from Gains in Safe Behavior

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian injuries contribute greatly to child morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve children’s street crossing skills, but may not convey knowledge about safety in street environments. We hypothesized that (a) children will gain pedestrian safety knowledge via videos/software/internet websites, but not when trained by virtual pedestrian environment or other strategies; (b) pedestrian safety knowledge will be associated with safe pedestrian behavior both before and after training; and (c) increases in knowledge will be associated with increases in safe behavior among children trained individually at streetside locations, but not those trained by means of other strategies. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating pedestrian safety training. We randomly assigned 240 children ages 7–8 to one of four training conditions: videos/software/internet, virtual reality (VR), individualized streetside instruction, or a no-contact control. Both virtual and field simulations of street crossing at 2-lane bi-directional mid-block locations assessed pedestrian behavior at baseline, post-training, and 6-month follow-up. Pedestrian knowledge was assessed orally on all three occasions. Children trained by videos/software/internet, and those trained individually, showed increased knowledge following training relative to children in the other groups (ps < 0.01). Correlations between pedestrian safety knowledge and pedestrian behavior were mostly non-significant. Correlations between change in knowledge and change in behavior from pre- to post-intervention also were non-significant, both for the full sample and within conditions. Children trained using videos/software/internet gained knowledge but did not change their behavior. Children trained individually gained in both knowledge and safer behavior. Children trained virtually gained in safer behavior but not knowledge. If VR is used

  13. The safety of functional analyses of self-injurious behavior.

    PubMed

    Kahng, SungWoo; Hausman, Nicole L; Fisher, Alyssa B; Donaldson, Jeanne M; Cox, Jessica R; Lugo, Monica; Wiskow, Katie M

    2015-01-01

    Functional analysis is the most precise method of identifying variables that maintain self-injurious behavior (SIB), and its use may lead to more effective treatment. One criticism and potential limitation of a functional analysis is that it may unnecessarily expose individuals to a higher risk of injury (Betz & Fisher, 2011). The purpose of this study was to determine if there were higher levels and severity of injury during the functional analysis than outside the functional analysis. We conducted a retrospective records review of 99 participants admitted to an inpatient unit for the treatment of SIB. The results showed that injury rates were relatively low across all situations and that when injuries occurred, they were usually not severe. These findings suggest that the functional analysis of SIB is relatively safe when appropriate precautions are taken.

  14. Impact of a pilot walking school bus intervention on children's pedestrian safety behaviors: a pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walking school buses (WSB) increased children's physical activity, but impact on pedestrian safety behaviors (PSB) is unknown. We tested the feasibility of a protocol evaluating changes to PSB during a WSB program. Outcomes were school-level street crossing PSB prior to (Time 1) and during weeks 4–5...

  15. Behavioral Skills Training to Improve Installation and Use of Child Passenger Safety Restraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himle, Michael B.; Wright, Kalon A.

    2014-01-01

    The risk for serious injury and death to children during motor vehicle accidents can be greatly reduced through the correct use of child passenger safety restraints (CPSRs). Unfortunately, most CPSRs are installed or used incorrectly. This study examined the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to teach 10 participants to install…

  16. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Interventions to Improve Child Pedestrian Safety

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Benjamin K.; Shen, Jiabin; Wells, Hayley L.; Bogar, Ashley; Heath, Gretchen; McCullough, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pedestrian injuries represent a pediatric public health challenge. This systematic review/meta-analysis evaluated behavioral interventions to teach children pedestrian safety. Methods Multiple strategies derived eligible manuscripts (published before April 1, 2013, randomized design, evaluated behavioral child pedestrian safety interventions). Screening 1,951 abstracts yielded 125 full-text retrievals. 25 were retained for data extraction, and 6 were later omitted due to insufficient data. In all, 19 articles reporting 25 studies were included. Risk of bias and quality of evidence were assessed. Results Behavioral interventions generally improve children’s pedestrian safety, both immediately after training and at follow-up several months later. Quality of the evidence was low to moderate. Available evidence suggested interventions targeting dash-out prevention, crossing at parked cars, and selecting safe routes across intersections were effective. Individualized/small-group training for children was the most effective training strategy based on available evidence. Conclusions Behaviorally based interventions improve children’s pedestrian safety. Efforts should continue to develop creative, cost-efficient, and effective interventions. PMID:24864275

  17. Home Safety, Safe Behaviors of Elderly People, and Fall Accidents At Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkal, Sibel

    2010-01-01

    The present study analyzed home safety and safe behaviors against fall accidents of elderly people living at home. The study group comprised 121 people aged 65+ living in the catchment area of Ankara Mamak Halil Ulgen Health Center. Data were collected via a personal information form and Home-Screen Scale. Statistical analysis used an independent…

  18. Prompting Safety Belt Use: Comparative Impact on the Target Behavior and Relevant Body Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Matthew G.; Geller, E. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Researchers used two behavioral prompts to compare increases in safety belt use: a Click It or Ticket prompt or a Flash-for-Life prompt. Participants were 1,822 unbuckled drivers exiting two student parking lots of a large university. Research assistants identified unbuckled drivers, flashed one of the two prompts, and recorded whether drivers…

  19. An empirical investigation of the influence of safety climate on organizational citizenship behavior in Taiwan's facilities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzai-Zang; Wu, Chien-Hsing; Hong, Chih-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Although the social exchange relationships between employers and employees are increasingly important to the performance of safety management systems, the psychological effects of work attitudes on this relationship have been less studied. Using a sample of first-line operators and their supervisors from 188 facilities in Taiwan which had Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18000 (OHSAS 18000) certification, the current research conducted an empirical investigation of the influence of safety climate on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Work attitude was used to disclose the psychological effect. Research results indicated that (a) safety climate was a significant predicator of OCB, (b) the psychological effect significantly influenced social exchange relationships, and (c) job satisfaction showed a stronger mediating influence than organizational commitment due to the frequent top management turnover. Discussions and implications are also addressed.

  20. Behavioral risk factors associated with listeriosis in the home: a review of consumer food safety studies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2014-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes causes human listeriosis, which is associated with the highest hospitalization and mortality rates of all foodborne illnesses. In recent years, the incidence of listeriosis has doubled in Europe, almost exclusively among older adults (≥ 60 years of age). Food safety factors associated with increased risk of listeriosis include lack of adherence to "use by" dates and ineffective refrigerated storage of foods. Consequently, older adult consumers' implementation of safe food practices should be evaluated. This article is a review of consumer food safety cognitive and behavioral data relating to risk factors associated with listeriosis in the home as reported in 165 consumer food safety studies. Overall, only 41% of studies included assessment of consumer cognitive or behavioral data associated with listeriosis; of these studies 59% included data on safe refrigeration, 54% included data on storage time for opened ready-to-eat foods, and 49% included data on adherence to use-by dates. In most (83%) of the studies, survey-based data collection methods (questionnaires/interviews) were used; thus, the majority of findings were based on self-report (74%) and knowledge (44%). Observation (31%) and focus groups (12%) were less commonly used, resulting in a lack of actual behaviors and attitudinal data relating to listeriosis risk factors. Only 7% of studies included food safety data for older adults. Although older adults may fail to implement recommended practices, this review reveals a need for in-depth research to determine food safety attitudes and actual behaviors of older adults in conjunction with knowledge and selfreport of practices linked to increased risks of listeriosis. Such data combined with review findings would inform targeted food safety education to reduce risks associated with listeriosis in the home.

  1. Behavior of radioactive materials and safety stock of contaminated sludge.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Ikuo

    2017-01-28

    The radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster in 2011 has flowed into and accumulated in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) via sewer systems; this has had a negative impact on WWTPs in eastern Japan. The behavior of radioactive materials was analyzed at four WWTPs in the Tohoku and Kanto regions to elucidate the mechanism by which radioactive materials are concentrated during the sludge treatment process from July 2011 to March 2013. Furthermore, numerical simulations were conducted to study the safe handling of contaminated sewage sludge stocked temporally in WWTPs. Finally, a dissolution test was conducted by using contaminated incinerated ash and melted slag derived from sewage sludge to better understand the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills. Measurements indicate that a large amount of radioactive material accumulates in aeration tanks and is becoming trapped in the concentrated sludge during the sludge condensation process. The numerical simulation indicates that a worker's exposure around contaminated sludge is less than 1 µSv/h when maintaining an isolation distance of more than 10 m, or when shielding with more than 20-cm-thick concrete. The radioactivity level of the eluate was undetectable in 9 out of 12 samples; in the remaining three samples, the dissolution rates were 0.5-2.7%.

  2. Relationship among Food-Safety Knowledge, Beliefs, and Risk-Reduction Behavior in University Students in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Sayaka; Akamatsu, Rie; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Marui, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify whether university students who have both food-safety knowledge and beliefs perform risk-reduction behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional research using a questionnaire that included food-safety knowledge, perceptions, risk-reduction behavior, stages for the selection of safer food based on the Transtheoretical Model, and…

  3. Red light violations by adult pedestrians and other safety-related behaviors at signalized crosswalks.

    PubMed

    Dommes, A; Granié, M-A; Cloutier, M-S; Coquelet, C; Huguenin-Richard, F

    2015-07-01

    To study human factors linked to red light violations, and more generally to safety-related behaviors at signalized crosswalks, the present study combines the collection of observational data with questionnaires answered by 422 French adult pedestrians. Thirteen behavioral indicators were extracted (12 before and while crossing, and red light violation), and the roles of several demographical, contextual and mobility-associated variables were examined. The results of the stepwise logistic regression analyses carried out on each of the 12 behavioral indicators observed before and while crossing revealed that gender had no major impact, but age did, with more cautious behaviors as pedestrians were older. The three contextual variables (group size, parked vehicles, and traffic density), as four mobility-associated variables (driving and walking experiences, self-reported crossing difficulties and falls in the street) were also found to be important factors in safety-related crossing behaviors. A wider logistic regression analysis, made specifically on red light violations with all behavioral indicators observed before and while crossings and the several demographical, contextual and mobility-associated variables put together, showed that red light violations were mostly affected by current situational factors (group size, parked vehicles) and particularly associated with some behavioral patterns (looking toward the traffic, the ground, the light, running and crossing diagonally). The overall results encourage the development of safer pedestrian infrastructures and engineering countermeasures.

  4. Does assisted driving behavior lead to safety-critical encounters with unequipped vehicles' drivers?

    PubMed

    Preuk, Katharina; Stemmler, Eric; Schießl, Caroline; Jipp, Meike

    2016-10-01

    With Intelligent Transport Systems (e.g., traffic light assistance systems) assisted drivers are able to show driving behavior in anticipation of upcoming traffic situations. In the years to come, the penetration rate of such systems will be low. Therefore, the majority of vehicles will not be equipped with these systems. Unequipped vehicles' drivers may not expect the driving behavior of assisted drivers. However, drivers' predictions and expectations can play a significant role in their reaction times. Thus, safety issues could arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter driving behavior of assisted drivers. This is why we tested how unequipped vehicles' drivers (N=60) interpreted and reacted to the driving behavior of an assisted driver. We used a multi-driver simulator with three drivers. The three drivers were driving in a line. The lead driver in the line was a confederate who was followed by two unequipped vehicles' drivers. We varied the equipment of the confederate with an Intelligent Transport System: The confederate was equipped either with or without a traffic light assistance system. The traffic light assistance system provided a start-up maneuver before a light turned green. Therefore, the assisted confederate seemed to show unusual deceleration behavior by coming to a halt at an unusual distance from the stop line at the red traffic light. The unusual distance was varied as we tested a moderate (4m distance from the stop line) and an extreme (10m distance from the stop line) parameterization of the system. Our results showed that the extreme parametrization resulted in shorter minimal time-to-collision of the unequipped vehicles' drivers. One rear-end crash was observed. These results provided initial evidence that safety issues can arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter assisted driving behavior. We recommend that future research identifies counteractions to prevent these safety issues. Moreover, we recommend that system developers

  5. Identification of Behavior Based Safety by Using Traffic Light Analysis to Reduce Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, A.; Nasution, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work present the safety assessment of a case study and describes an important area within the field production in oil and gas industry, namely behavior based safety (BBS). The company set a rigorous BBS and its intervention program that implemented and deployed continually. In this case, observers requested to have discussion and spread a number of determined questions related with work behavior to the workers during observation. Appraisal of Traffic Light Analysis (TLA) as one tools of risk assessment used to determine the estimated score of BBS questionnaire. Standardization of TLA appraisal in this study are based on Regulation of Minister of Labor and Occupational Safety and Health No:PER.05/MEN/1996. The result shown that there are some points under 84%, which categorized in yellow category and should corrected immediately by company to prevent existing bad behavior of workers. The application of BBS expected to increase the safety performance at work time-by-time and effective in reducing accidents.

  6. Characterization of trisiloxane surfactants from agrochemical adjuvants and pollinator-related matrices using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Mullin, Christopher A

    2015-06-03

    Trisiloxane surfactants (TSSs) have been associated with honeybee learning impairment and the ongoing global bee decline. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry strategy for the identification of TSSs from agrochemical adjuvants and pollinator-related matrices is introduced here. The strategy incorporates chromatographic retention behavior, isotope ratio, reference to a compiled database of accurate masses, and TSS hydrolysis when necessary. Using this analytical strategy, three TSSs (x = 0, R = H, m = 1, 2, or 3) were identified for the first time from almond flowers of a commercial orchard. The three major purified TSS components in popularly used spray tank adjuvants were identified as TSS (x = 0, m = 0, R = H, CH3, or C(O)CH3) and their structures confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These monitoring tools allow the assessment of the agricultural residues and potential risks of major TSS contaminants to important nontarget species such as honeybee and other essential pollinators.

  7. Natural products, their derivatives, mimics and synthetic equivalents: role in agrochemical discovery.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Thomas C; Hahn, Donald R; Garizi, Negar V

    2017-04-01

    Natural products (NPs) have a long history as a source of, and inspiration for, novel agrochemicals. Many of the existing herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides have their origins in a wide range of NPs from a variety of sources. Owing to the changing needs of agriculture, shifts in pest spectrum, development of resistance, and evolving regulatory requirements, the need for new agrochemical tools remains as critical as ever. As such, NPs continue to be an important source of models and templates for the development of new agrochemicals, demonstrated by the fact that NP models exist for many of the pest control agents that were discovered by other means. Interestingly, there appear to be distinct differences in the success of different NP sources for different pesticide uses. Although a few microbial NPs have been important starting points in recent discoveries of some insecticidal agrochemicals, historically plant sources have contributed the most to the discovery of new insecticides. In contrast, fungi have been the most important NP sources for new fungicides. Like insecticides, plant-sourced NPs have made the largest contribution to herbicide discovery. Available data on 2014 global sales and numbers of compounds in each class of pesticides indicate that the overall impact of NPs to the discovery of herbicides has been relatively modest compared to the impact observed for fungicides and insecticides. However, as new sourcing and approaches to NP discovery evolve, the impact of NPs in all agrochemical arenas will continue to expand. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Perceptions of farmers' and farmworkers' wives on the use and hazards of agrochemicals in rural Vellore.

    PubMed

    Francis, Mark Rohit; Raja, Leeberk; Inbarani, Esther; Regi, Harsh; Nicolas, Joel; Paul, Nitin; Thomas, Rohan; Earnest, Philip; Kiran, Ravi; War, Shaniah; Alex, Reginald; Balraj, Vinohar; Mohan, Venkata

    2013-01-01

    Poor handling, storage, and application of agrochemicals have resulted in a steep rise in mortality and morbidity associated with their use. This study aimed at assessing the awareness of wives of farmers and farmworkers in rural Vellore on the use and health effects of agrochemicals to identify gaps in their knowledge. A cross-sectional survey among 512 wives was conducted. Nearly 75 percent of the wives (384/512) did not know that agrochemicals could pass through skin. Also, wives who owned between 1 and 5 acres of land had a higher odds of knowing that agrochemicals were harmful (OR: 1.71(1.03-2-85), p < 0.05) and need to be disposed safely (OR: 4.76 (1.47-15.36), p < 0.05), than those owning less than an acre or no land. There is a need to educate women associated with agriculture in India on the harms and proper use of agrochemicals in order to better protect and inform their households and communities.

  9. Development and Initial Test of the Safety Behaviors in Test Anxiety Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Ross W; Valentiner, David P; Holzman, Jacob B

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the current studies is to identify safety behavior dimensions relevant to test anxiety, to develop a questionnaire to assess those dimensions, and to examine the validity of that questionnaire. Items were generated from interviews with college students ( N = 24). Another sample ( N = 301) completed an initial 33-item measure. Another sample ( N = 151) completed the final 19-item version the Safety Behaviors in Test Anxiety Questionnaire and provided access to their academic records. Interviews and expert evaluations were used to select items for the initial pool. An examination of item distributions and exploratory factor analysis were used to identify dimensions and reduce the item pool. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to validate the factorial structure. Correlational analyses were used to examine criterion validity of the final measure. The Safety Behaviors in Test Anxiety Questionnaire consists of a 9-item "Superstitious Behaviors" scale and a 10-item "Reassurance Seeking." The measure shows good content validity, factorial validity, internal consistency, and convergent and discriminant validity. Only the Reassurance Seeking scale showed good incremental criterion validity. Overall, these findings suggest that reassurance seeking may be a neglected target for interventions that might increase performance on high stakes tests.

  10. Identifying specific beliefs to target to improve restaurant employees' intentions for performing three important food safety behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Shanklin, Carol W; Howells, Amber D; Roberts, Kevin R

    2008-06-01

    Current national food safety training programs appear ineffective at improving food safety practices in foodservice operations, given the substantial number of Americans affected by foodborne illnesses after eating in restaurants each year. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) was used to identify important beliefs that may be targeted to improve foodservice employees' intentions for three food safety behaviors that have the most substantial affect on public health: hand washing, using thermometers, and proper handling of food contact surfaces. In a cross-sectional design, foodservice employees (n=190) across three midwestern states completed a survey assessing TpB components and knowledge for the three food safety behaviors. Multiple regression analyses were performed on the TpB components for each behavior. Independent-samples t tests identified TpB beliefs that discriminated between participants who absolutely intend to perform the behaviors and those with lower intention. Employees' attitudes were the one consistent predictor of intentions for performing all three behaviors. However, a unique combination of important predictors existed for each separate behavior. Interventions for improving employees' behavioral intentions for food safety should focus on TpB components that predict intentions for each behavior and should bring all employees' beliefs in line with those of the employees who already intend to perform the food safety behaviors. Registered dietitians; dietetic technicians, registered; and foodservice managers can use these results to enhance training sessions and motivational programs to improve employees' food safety behaviors. Results also assist these professionals in recognizing their responsibility for enforcing and providing adequate resources for proper food safety behaviors.

  11. Community ecology theory predicts the effects of agrochemical mixtures on aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem properties.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Neal T; McMahon, Taegan A; Johnson, Steve A; Raffel, Thomas R; Romansic, John M; Crumrine, Patrick W; Rohr, Jason R

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystems are often exposed to mixtures of chemical contaminants, but the scientific community lacks a theoretical framework to predict the effects of mixtures on biodiversity and ecosystem properties. We conducted a freshwater mesocosm experiment to examine the effects of pairwise agrochemical mixtures [fertiliser, herbicide (atrazine), insecticide (malathion) and fungicide (chlorothalonil)] on 24 species- and seven ecosystem-level responses. As postulated, the responses of biodiversity and ecosystem properties to agrochemicals alone and in mixtures was predictable by integrating information on each functional group's (1) sensitivity to the chemicals (direct effects), (2) reproductive rates (recovery rates), (3) interaction strength with other functional groups (indirect effects) and (4) links to ecosystem properties. These results show that community ecology theory holds promise for predicting the effects of contaminant mixtures on biodiversity and ecosystem services and yields recommendations on which types of agrochemicals to apply together and separately to reduce their impacts on aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Evaluation of the Thermosensitive Release Properties of Microspheres Containing an Agrochemical Compound.

    PubMed

    Terada, Takatoshi; Ohtsubo, Toshiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of the key physicochemical parameters involved in the release profiles of microsphere-encapsulated agrochemicals at different temperatures. Microspheres consisting of different polyurethanes (PUs) were prepared using our previously reported solventless microencapsulation technique. Notably, these microspheres exhibited considerable differences in their thermodynamic characteristics, including their glass transition temperature (Tg), extrapolated onset temperature (To) and extrapolated end temperature (Te). At test temperatures below the To of the PU, only 5-10% of the agrochemical was rapidly released from the microspheres within 1 d, and none was released thereafter. However, at test temperatures above the To of the PU, the rate of agrochemical release gradually increased with increasing temperatures, and the rate of release from the microspheres was dependent on the composition of the PU. Taken together, these results show that the release profiles of the microspheres were dependent on their thermodynamic characteristics and changes in their PU composition.

  13. Organic Phase Change Nanoparticles for in-Product Labeling of Agrochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Duong, Binh; Su, Ming

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop in-product covert barcodes for anti-counterfeiting of agrochemicals. This paper reports a new organic nanoparticle-based in-product barcode system, in which a panel of organic phase change nanoparticles is added as a barcode into in a variety of chemicals (herein agrochemicals). The barcode is readout by detecting melting peaks of organic nanoparticles using differential scanning calorimetry. This method has high labeling capacity due to small sizes of nanoparticles, sharp melting peaks, and large scan range of thermal analysis. The in-product barcode can be effectively used to protect agrochemical products from being counterfeited due to its large coding capacity, technical readiness, covertness, and robustness. PMID:28347096

  14. Reciprocal Effects of Positive Future Expectations, Threats to Safety, and Risk Behavior Across Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Prince, Dana M; Epstein, Marina; Nurius, Paula S; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B

    2016-09-12

    We examined the reciprocal relationships among positive future expectations, expected threats to future safety, depression, and individual substance use and delinquency using 4 waves of data (N = 248-338) from African American and Latino adolescent male participants in the Chicago Youth Development Study. Individual positive future expectations and expected threats to safety were assessed at each wave and modeled as latent constructs. Individual substance use and delinquency were assessed at each wave and represented as ordinal variables ranging from low to high. Categorical autoregressive cross-lagged structural models were used to examine the hypothesized reciprocal relationships between both aspects of future expectations construct and risk behavior across adolescence. Analyses show that future expectations has important effects on youth substance use and involvement in delinquency, both of which in turn decrease positive expectations and increase expectation of threats to future safety across adolescence. Similarly, low positive expectations for the future continued to predict increased substance use and involvement in delinquency. The expected threats to safety construct was significantly correlated with delinquency within time. These effects are observed across adolescence after controlling for youth depression and race. Findings support the reciprocal effects hypothesis of a negative reinforcing cycle in the relationships between future expectations and both substance use and involvement in delinquent behavior across adolescence. The enduring nature of these relationships underscores the importance of future expectation as a potential change mechanism for intervention and prevention efforts to promote healthy development; vulnerable racial and ethnic minority male adolescents may especially benefit from such intervention.

  15. Prompting safety belt use: comparative impact on the target behavior and relevant body language.

    PubMed

    Cox, Matthew G; Geller, E Scott

    2010-01-01

    ResearcherS used two behavioral prompts to compare increases in safety belt use: a Click It or Ticket prompt or a Flash-for-Life prompt. Participants were 1,822 unbuckled drivers exiting two student parking lots of a large university. Research assistants identified unbuckled drivers, flashed one of the two prompts, and recorded whether drivers buckled after the prompt and the drivers' facial expressions and hand gestures. Findings and implications are discussed.

  16. A system dynamics approach for modeling construction workers' safety attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mingyu; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Park, Moonseo; Moon, Myunggi; Han, Sangwon

    2014-07-01

    Construction accidents are caused by an unsafe act (i.e., a person's behavior or activity that deviates from normal accepted safe procedure) and/or an unsafe condition (i.e., a hazard or an unsafe mechanical or physical environment). While there has been dramatic improvement in creating safer construction environments, relatively little is known regarding the elimination of construction workers' unsafe acts. To address this deficiency, this paper aims to develop a system dynamics (SD)-based model of construction workers' mental processes that can help analyze the feedback mechanisms and the resultant dynamics regarding the workers' safety attitudes and safe behaviors. The developed model is applied to examine the effectiveness of three safety improvement policies: incentives for safe behaviors, and increased levels of communication and immersion in accidents. Application of the model verifies the strong potential of the developed model to provide a better understanding of how to eliminate unsafe acts, and to function as a robust test-bed to assess the effectiveness of safety programs or training sessions before their implementation.

  17. Food Safety Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior of Persons with AIDS: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Mark S.; Peterson, Caryn E.; Gao, Weihua; Mayor, Angel; Hunter, Robert; Negron, Edna; Fleury, Alison; Besch, C. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections including recurrent Salmonella septicemia and toxoplasmosis of the brain with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Patients with immunologic AIDS in Chicago, New Orleans, and Bayamon were interviewed to determine gaps in food safety knowledge and prevalence of related behaviors in order to create targeted educational material for this population. A food safety score was calculated based on responses to 40 knowledge, belief, and behavior questions. Among 268 AIDS patients interviewed, the overall food safety score was 63% (range 28% to 93%). Many patients believed it was okay to eat higher risk food (38% for eating eggs served loose or runny, 27% for eating store-bought hot dogs without heating them first), 40% did not know that eating unpasteurized cheese may get germs inside their body that could cause hospitalization and possibly death, and 40% would not throw away salad that had been splashed with a few drops of raw chicken juice. These data demonstrate substantial knowledge gaps and behavioral risk related to acquisition of foodborne disease among AIDS patients. Healthcare providers should incorporate education regarding foodborne disease risk into routine outpatient discussion of improving and maintaining their health. PMID:25061438

  18. Evaluation of the Safety Detective Program: A Classroom-Based Intervention to Increase Kindergarten Children's Understanding of Home Safety Hazards and Injury-Risk Behaviors to Avoid.

    PubMed

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Bell, Melissa; Park, Katey; Pogrebtsova, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Home injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity for young children. Most programs that aim to improve their knowledge of home safety have been narrowly focused on one injury type and/or required specialized personnel for delivery. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new Safety Detective Program that was designed to teach young children (4-6 years) about several types of home safety hazards and unsafe behaviors, with the program delivered in a classroom setting by non-experts based on manualized training. The current study used a randomized group, pre-post design to evaluate the effectiveness of the program to increase children's knowledge and understanding of home safety hazards and injury-risk behaviors to avoid. Children participated in six structured sessions, covering burns, falls, drowning, and poisoning. Each session involved play-based activities (storybook, song, and game or craft) to teach main messages about hazards and injury-risk behaviors, a take home activity, and a parent information sheet about the injury type covered that day. An individually administered photo-sort task with follow-up interview was used to measure intervention and control group participants' knowledge and understanding of injury-risk behaviors before and after program delivery. Children in the intervention, but not the control, group exhibited significant gains in their knowledge and understanding of home safety hazards and injury-risk behaviors to avoid, establishing the effectiveness of the program. This evaluation indicates that the Safety Detective Program can be delivered in classrooms without requiring specialized personnel or extensive training and with positive changes obtained. The program holds much promise as a means of improving kindergarten children's understanding of a broad range of home hazards and injury-risk behaviors that are relevant to their safety.

  19. Sleep-Related Safety Behaviors and Dysfunctional Beliefs Mediate the Efficacy of Online CBT for Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lancee, Jaap; Eisma, Maarten C; van Straten, Annemieke; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2015-01-01

    Several trials have demonstrated the efficacy of online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. However, few studies have examined putative mechanisms of change based on the cognitive model of insomnia. Identification of modifiable mechanisms by which the treatment works may guide efforts to further improve the efficacy of insomnia treatment. The current study therefore has two aims: (1) to replicate the finding that online CBT is effective for insomnia and (2) to test putative mechanism of change (i.e., safety behaviors and dysfunctional beliefs). Accordingly, we conducted a randomized controlled trial in which individuals with insomnia were randomized to either online CBT for insomnia (n = 36) or a waiting-list control group (n = 27). Baseline and posttest assessments included questionnaires assessing insomnia severity, safety behaviors, dysfunctional beliefs, anxiety and depression, and a sleep diary. Three- and six-month assessments were administered to the CBT group only. Results show moderate to large statistically significant effects of the online treatment compared to the waiting list on insomnia severity, sleep measures, sleep safety behaviors, and dysfunctional beliefs. Furthermore, dysfunctional beliefs and safety behaviors mediated the effects of treatment on insomnia severity and sleep efficiency. Together, these findings corroborate the efficacy of online CBT for insomnia, and suggest that these effects were produced by changing maladaptive beliefs, as well as safety behaviors. Treatment protocols for insomnia may specifically be enhanced by more focused attention on the comprehensive fading of sleep safety behaviors, for instance through behavioral experiments.

  20. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  1. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  2. Gender Effects in Young Road Users on Road Safety Attitudes, Behaviors and Risk Perception

    PubMed Central

    Cordellieri, Pierluigi; Baralla, Francesca; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Sgalla, Roberto; Piccardi, Laura; Giannini, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated gender-related effects on road safety attitudes in 2681 young drivers (1458 males, 54.4%; aged 18–22) who filled out several scales assessing attitudes toward road safety issues, driving behavior in specific hypothetical situations, accident risk perception, and concerns about such a risk. We focused only on young drivers to better understand the role of gender in road safety attitudes in a period of life in which risky behaviors are widespread for males and females. Indeed, there is still no agreement as to the nature of these gender differences. According to some authors, the effects of gender on being involved in a crash due to driving skills are either non-existent or largely explained by differences in alcohol consumption. In our study, we found gender differences in road safety attitudes (i.e., “negative attitude toward traffic rules and risky driving”; “negative attitude toward drugs and alcohol” and “tolerance toward speeding”) and in driver behavior (i.e., “errors in inattentive driving” and “driving violations”). This result is consistent in all drivers coming from nine different European countries. Our analyses yielded an important finding concerning risk perception. The results indicate that the level of risk perception during driving is the same for males and females. However, these two groups differ in the level of concern about this risk, with males being less concerned about the risk of a road accident. This suggests that the main difference between these two groups is not strictly related to judgment of the perceived risk probability but rather to the level of concern experienced about the consequences of the risk. This difference between risk perception and worry could explain differences in the frequency of car accidents in the two groups. The present findings may provide new insights for the development of gender-based prevention programs. PMID:27729877

  3. The sensory insular cortex mediates the stress-buffering effects of safety signals but not behavioral control

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, J.P.; Benison, A.M.; Jennings, J.; Sandsmark, E.K.; Amat, J.; Kaufman, R.D.; Baratta, M.V.; Paul., E.D.; Campeau, S.; Watkins, L.R.; Barth, D.S.; Maier, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Safety signals are learned cues that predict stress-free periods while behavioral control is the ability to modify a stressor by behavioral actions. Both serve to attenuate the effects of stressors such as uncontrollable shocks. Internal and external cues produced by a controlling behavior are followed by a stressor-free interval, and so it is possible that safety learning is fundamental to the effect of control. If this is the case then behavioral control and safety should recruit the same neural machinery. Interestingly, safety signals that prevented a behavioral outcome of stressor exposure that is also blocked by control (reduced social exploration) failed to inhibit activity in the dorsal raphé nucleus or utilize the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the mechanisms by which behavioral control operates. However, bilateral lesions to a region of posterior insular cortex, termed the “sensory insula,” prevented the effect of safety but not of behavioral control, providing a double-dissociation. These results indicate that stressor-modulators can recruit distinct neural circuitry and imply a critical role of the sensory insula in safety learning. PMID:19074043

  4. The role of safety behaviors in exposure-based treatment for panic disorder and agoraphobia: associations to symptom severity, treatment course, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Helbig-Lang, Sylvia; Richter, Jan; Lang, Thomas; Gerlach, Alexander L; Fehm, Lydia; Alpers, Georg W; Ströhle, Andreas; Kircher, Tilo; Deckert, Jürgen; Gloster, Andrew T; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    The potentially detrimental effects of safety behaviors during exposure therapy are still subject to debate. Empirical findings are inconsistent, and few studies have investigated effects of idiosyncratic safety behavior manifestations during exposure or in everyday life. These limitations might be due to a lack of appropriate measures that address individual safety behaviors. We examined psychometric properties and predictive value of the Texas Safety Maneuver Scale (TSMS), a questionnaire specifically targeting safety behaviors in panic disorder and agoraphobia. Effects of safety behavior use, both during everyday life and during therapy, were examined using data from a multicenter RCT of N=268 patients that aimed at evaluating efficacy and mechanisms of action of two variants of an exposure-based therapy. The TSMS total score demonstrated good internal consistency (α=0.89), and it showed significant correlations with selected measures of baseline anxiety and impairment. The proposed factor structure could not be replicated. Frequent safety behavior use at baseline was associated with actual safety behavior during exposure exercises. Pronounced in-situ safety behavior, but not baseline safety behavior was associated to detrimental treatment outcome. The results underline the relevance of a rigorous safety behavior assessment in therapy. The actual relationship between safety behavior use and treatment outcome is yet to determine.

  5. Social environment and problem behavior: perceived school safety, gender, and sexual debut.

    PubMed

    March, Alice L; Serdar Atav, A

    2010-04-01

    In 2007, 48% of U.S. students of grades 9 to 12 had experienced sexual debut, 7% before the age of 13 years. Preventing early intercourse, sexually transmitted diseases, adolescent pregnancy, and the loss of educational opportunity are important concerns for nurses and educators. A secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) 2003 provided data identifying the relationships among age at sexual debut, gender, location of residence, and perceived school safety (PSS) as framed by the theory of problem behavior. Mean age at sexual debut was 14.4 years. Males were younger at sexual debut than females. Students reporting positive PSS were older at sexual debut. Age at sexual debut was significantly associated with PSS, gender, and location of residence. School nurses are positioned to identify evidence-based programs, facilitate the development of collaborative interventions to improve PSS, and change trajectories of sexual activity leading to poor health outcomes in adolescents and health risk behaviors in adults.

  6. Assessing safety awareness and knowledge and behavioral change among West Virginia loggers

    PubMed Central

    Helmkamp, J; Bell, J; Lundstrom, W; Ramprasad, J; Haque, A

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine if a video used during logger training influences safety attitude, knowledge, and workplace habits. Method: From April 2002 to October 2003, loggers receiving training through the West Virginia Division of Forestry were given a new safety module. This consisted of a pre-training survey, viewing video, brief introduction to field safety guide, and an immediate post-training survey. Six months after training, loggers were contacted by telephone to assess workplace behavioral changes. Results: 1197 loggers attended 80 training sessions and completed surveys; 21% were contacted at follow up. Pre-training surveys indicated that half said "accidents" were part of the job and had experienced a "close call" in their work. An overwhelming majority felt that safety management and periodic meetings were important. Over 75% indicated they would not take risks in order to make a profit. Several statistically significant improvements were noted in safety knowledge after viewing the video: logger's location in relation to the tree stump during fatal incidents and the pictorial identification of an overloaded truck and the safest cutting notch. At follow up, many of the loggers said they related to the real life victim stories portrayed in the video. Further, the field guide served as a quick and easy reference and taught them valuable tips on safe cutting and felling. Conclusions: Significant changes in safety knowledge and attitude among certified loggers resulted from viewing the video during training. Subsequent use of the video and field guide at the worksite encouraged positive change in self reported work habits and practices. PMID:15314051

  7. INFLUENCE OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER ON AGROCHEMICAL PHOTOREACTIONS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pioneering studies by Don Crosby and co-workers demonstrated that the sunlight-induced dissipation of agrochemicals in water often is strongly affected by natural constituents in the water such as nitrate and dissolved organic matter. In this presentation, the focus is on the rol...

  8. Inputs of heavy metals due to agrochemical use in tobacco fields in Brazil's Southern Region.

    PubMed

    Zoffoli, Hugo José Oliveira; do Amaral-Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil; Zonta, Everaldo; Luisi, Marcus Vinícius; Marcon, Gracioso; Tolón-Becerra, Alfredo

    2013-03-01

    Only a few studies have assessed the joint incorporation of heavy metals into agricultural systems based on the range of agrochemicals used on a specific agricultural crop. This study was conducted to assess the heavy metals input through application of the main agrochemicals used in Brazilian tobacco fields. A total of 56 samples of different batches of 5 fertilizers, 3 substrates, 8 insecticides, 3 fungicides, 2 herbicides, and 1 growth regulator commonly used in the cultivation of tobacco in Brazil's Southern Region were collected from 3 warehouses located in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and Paraná. The total As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn content of the samples was then determined and compared with the regulations of different countries and information found in the available literature. The fertilizers were identified as the primary source of heavy metals among the agrochemicals used. Application of pesticides directly to the shoots of tobacco plants contributed very little to the supply of heavy metals. The agrochemicals used in Brazilian tobacco fields provide lower inputs of the main heavy metals that are nonessential for plants than those registered in the international literature for the majority of crop fields in different regions of the world.

  9. Understanding children's injury-risk behavior: wearing safety gear can lead to increased risk taking.

    PubMed

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Walpole, Beverly; Lasenby, Jennifer

    2007-05-01

    The present study examined whether school-age children show risk compensation and engage in greater risk taking when wearing safety gear compared to when not doing so when running an obstacle course containing hazards that could lead to physical injury. Because sensation seeking has been shown to influence risk taking, this child attribute was also assessed and related to risk compensation. Children 7-12 years of age were videotaped navigating the obstacle course twice, once wearing safety gear and once without safety gear, with reverse directions used to minimize possible practice effects. The time it took the child to run through the course and the number of reckless behaviors (e.g., falls, trips, bumping into things) that the child made while running the course were compared for the gear and no-gear conditions. Results indicated that children went more quickly and behaved more recklessly when wearing safety gear than when not wearing gear, providing evidence of risk compensation. Moreover, those high in sensation seeking showed greater risk compensation compared with other children. Implications for childhood injury prevention are discussed.

  10. Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders.

    PubMed

    Langford, Brian Casey; Chen, Jiaoli; Cherry, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    As electric bicycles (e-bikes) have emerged as a new transportation mode, their role in transportation systems and their impact on users have become important issues for policy makers and engineers. Little safety-related research has been conducted in North America or Europe because of their relatively small numbers. This work describes the results of a naturalistic GPS-based safety study between regular bicycle (i.e., standard bicycle) and e-bike riders in the context of a unique bikesharing system that allows comparisons between instrumented bike technologies. We focus on rider safety behavior under four situations: (1) riding in the correct direction on directional roadway segments, (2) speed on on-road and shared use paths, (3) stopping behavior at stop-controlled intersections, and (4) stopping behavior at signalized intersections. We find that, with few exceptions, riders of e-bike behave very similarly to riders of bicycles. Violation rates were very high for both vehicles. Riders of regular bicycles and e-bikes both ride wrong-way on 45% and 44% of segments, respectively. We find that average on-road speeds of e-bike riders (13.3kph) were higher than regular bicyclists (10.4kph) but shared use path (greenway) speeds of e-bike riders (11.0kph) were lower than regular bicyclists (12.6kph); both significantly different at >95% confidence. At stop control intersections, both bicycle and e-bike riders violate the stop signs at the similar rate with bicycles violating stop signs at a slightly higher rate at low speed thresholds (∼80% violations at 6kph, 40% violations at 11kph). Bicycles and e-bikes violate traffic signals at similar rates (70% violation rate). These findings suggest that, among the same population of users, e-bike riders exhibit nearly identical safety behavior as regular bike riders and should be regulated in similar ways. Users of both technologies have very high violation rates of traffic control devices and interventions should occur to

  11. Food Safety Instruction Improves Knowledge and Behavior Risk and Protection Factors for Foodborne Illnesses in Pregnant Populations.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Patricia; Scharff, Robert; Baker, Susan; LeJeune, Jeffrey; Sofos, John; Medeiros, Lydia

    2017-02-21

    Objective This study compared knowledge and food-handling behavior after pathogen-specific (experimental treatment) versus basic food safety instruction (active control) presented during nutrition education classes for low-income English- and Spanish-language pregnant women. Methods Subjects (n = 550) were randomly assigned to treatment groups in two different locations in the United States. Food safety instruction was part of an 8-lesson curriculum. Food safety knowledge and behavior were measured pre/post intervention. Descriptive data were analyzed by Chi-Square or ANOVA; changes after intervention were analyzed by regression analysis. Results Knowledge improved after intervention in the pathogen-specific treatment group compared to active control, especially among Spanish-language women. Behavior change after intervention for the pathogen-specific treatment group improved for thermometer usage, refrigeration and consumption of foods at high risk for safety; however, all other improvements in behavior were accounted for by intervention regardless of treatment group. As expected, higher pre-instruction behavioral competency limited potential gain in behavior post-instruction due to a ceiling effect. This effect was more dominant among English-language women. Improvements were also linked to formal education completed, a partner at home, and other children in the home. Conclusions for Practice This study demonstrated that pathogen-specific food safety instruction leads to enhance knowledge and food handling behaviors that may improve the public health of pregnant women and their unborn children, especially among Spanish-language women. More importantly, food safety instruction, even at the most basic level, benefited pregnant women's food safety knowledge and food-handling behavior after intervention.

  12. Behavioral Self-Monitoring of Safety and Productivity in the Workplace: A Methodological Primer and Quantitative Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Ryan; Winchester, Jamey

    2008-01-01

    Workplace applications of behavioral self-monitoring (BSM) methods have been studied periodically for over 35 years, yet the literature has never been systematically reviewed. Recent occupational safety interventions including BSM resulted in relatively large behavior changes. Moreover, BSM methods are functional for addressing a broad range of…

  13. Psychosocial safety climate buffers effects of job demands on depression and positive organizational behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hall, Garry B; Dollard, Maureen F; Winefield, Anthony H; Dormann, Christian; Bakker, Arnold B

    2013-01-01

    In a general population sample of 2343 Australian workers from a wide ranging employment demographic, we extended research testing the buffering role of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a macro-level resource within the health impairment process of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Moderated structural equation modeling was used to test PSC as a moderator between emotional and psychological job demands and worker depression compared with control and social support as alternative moderators. We also tested PSC as a moderator between depression and positive organizational behaviors (POB; engagement and job satisfaction) compared with control and social support as moderators. As expected we found PSC moderated the effects of job demands on depression and further moderated the effects of depression on POB with fit to the data that was as good as control and social support as moderators. This study has shown that PSC is a macro-level resource and safety signal for workers acting to reduce demand-induced depression. We conclude that organizations need to focus on the development of a robust PSC that will operate to buffer the effects of workplace psychosocial hazards and to build environments conducive to worker psychological health and positive organizational behaviors.

  14. "Cooking the books"--behavior-based safety at the San Francisco Bay Bridge.

    PubMed

    Brown, Garrett D; Barab, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Practitioners of Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) claim dramatic reductions in worker injuries and illnesses through modifying workers' "unsafe behaviors." This case study of a BBS program implemented by KFM, a giant construction consortium rebuilding the eastern span of the San Francisco Bay Bridge in California, documents how BBS was used to suppress reporting of worker injuries and illnesses on site. The key elements of KFM's BBS "injury prevention" strategy included: 1) cash incentives to workers and supervisors who do not report injuries; 2) reprisals and threats of reprisals against those employees who do report injuries; 3) selection and use of employer friendly occupational health clinics and workers compensation insurance administrators; 4) strict limits on the activities of contract industrial hygiene consultants; and 5) a secretive management committee that decides whether reported injuries and illnesses are legitimate and recordable. KFM reported injury and illness rates 55% to 72% lower than other bridge builders in the Bay Area, but the California Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) issued Willful citations to the consortium in June 2006 for failing to record 13 worker injuries on its "OSHA Log 300," as required by law.

  15. Thermal-safety margins and the necessity of thermoregulatory behavior across latitude and elevation

    PubMed Central

    Sunday, Jennifer M.; Bates, Amanda E.; Kearney, Michael R.; Colwell, Robert K.; Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Longino, John T.; Huey, Raymond B.

    2014-01-01

    Physiological thermal-tolerance limits of terrestrial ectotherms often exceed local air temperatures, implying a high degree of thermal safety (an excess of warm or cold thermal tolerance). However, air temperatures can be very different from the equilibrium body temperature of an individual ectotherm. Here, we compile thermal-tolerance limits of ectotherms across a wide range of latitudes and elevations and compare these thermal limits both to air and to operative body temperatures (theoretically equilibrated body temperatures) of small ectothermic animals during the warmest and coldest times of the year. We show that extreme operative body temperatures in exposed habitats match or exceed the physiological thermal limits of most ectotherms. Therefore, contrary to previous findings using air temperatures, most ectotherms do not have a physiological thermal-safety margin. They must therefore rely on behavior to avoid overheating during the warmest times, especially in the lowland tropics. Likewise, species living at temperate latitudes and in alpine habitats must retreat to avoid lethal cold exposure. Behavioral plasticity of habitat use and the energetic consequences of thermal retreats are therefore critical aspects of species’ vulnerability to climate warming and extreme events. PMID:24616528

  16. Training as related to behavioral change. [Contains a list of publications of the System Safety Development Center

    SciTech Connect

    Nertney, R.J.; Buys, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This guide provides a basis for upgrading safety training programs and is based on the MORT philosophy of systemic upgrade and repair. It attempts to change the old reactive approach to accidents and events: If we tell or train people one more time, it won't happen again and everything will be all right.'' The ultimate objective of training programs is to change behavior of people. Many factors beyond our control influence human behavior on the job. Training elements must not be considered out of context. Behavioral changes may not occur due to emotional physiological sociological environmental, or managerial reasons. Once dominant factors have been identified it is possible to recognize problems and make effective changes. Training will ordinarily provide an effective solution to a behavioral problem only if the following conditions are met: Skill deficiencies are involved; performance is LTA now and has been in the past. It is possible to reach the desired optimum safety only if these conditions are met: Training is specifically targeted on priority safety problems; Safety problems are sensitive to training; Elements of training programs are coherent and mutually consistent; Training programs are consistent with communications to the trainees from other sources; Desired behavioral changes are logically related to existing individual and organizational attitudes. Efforts to alter human stereotype behavior will likely result in high error frequencies. The old behavior is likely to recur under stressful conditions.

  17. Impact of Temporal and Spatial Variations in agrochemical Fluxes within the Riparian Buffer on Exports from a First Order Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both agricultural nitrogen and metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA), a prevalent metabolite of metolachlor, are primarily delivered to streams via groundwater flows. The ability of riparian ecosystems to remove agrochemicals from exfiltrating groundwater is a potentially important control on the...

  18. Influence of xenobiotics on the microbiological and agrochemical parameters of soddy-podzolic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakkerov-Kouzova, N. D.

    2010-08-01

    We studied the influence of various chemical compounds, i.e., azobenzene (an insecticide and acaricide), nitrification inhibitors (DCD, dicyandiamide and DMPP, and 3,4-dimetylpyrazolphosphate), and inhibitors of urease activity (HQ-hydroquinone), on the agrochemical and microbiological parameters of a soddy-podzolic soil. It is proved that these xenobiotics are able to influence the agrochemical parameters (the pH and the content of NO{3/-} and NH{4/+}, the microbial activity (the basal respiration, the microbial mass carbon, and the microbial quotient), and the number of bacteria of different physiological groups in soddypodzolic soil. The influence of the xenobiotics was preserved for some time, which testified to their persistence in the soil. Upon cultivating the soil microorganisms in different media, the growth of the heterotrophic bacteria was inhibited, the radial growth velocity was slowed down, and the sporogenesis of the micromycetes was retarded. The toxic effect of the xenobiotics was higher with their increasing concentrations.

  19. [Chromosome instability induced by agrochemicals among farm workers in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Adil de Oliveira; Hackel, Christine

    2002-01-01

    A major share of the grain farming (wheat and soybeans) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul is in the Passo Fundo area. For crop pest control, large amounts of agrochemicals (fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides) are used. To evaluate the genotoxicity of these products, the micronucleus test was performed in farm workers directly exposed to these chemicals. Heparinized blood samples were drawn by venipuncture from 30 exposed workers and 30 non-exposed controls. Micronuclei frequency was evaluated by counting 1,000 binucleated cells per individual in both groups. Smoking habits, age, and duration of exposure showed no effect on the frequency of micronuclei in both groups. However, statistical analysis showed significantly higher mean numbers of binucleated cells with micronuclei in exposed individuals (14.3/1,000 cells) as compared to controls (7.1/1,000 cells), allowing the authors to conclude that the micronucleus test is an efficient biological assay for monitoring population exposure to mixtures of agrochemicals.

  20. Counterfactual simulations applied to SHRP2 crashes: The effect of driver behavior models on safety benefit estimations of intelligent safety systems.

    PubMed

    Bärgman, Jonas; Boda, Christian-Nils; Dozza, Marco

    2017-03-15

    As the development and deployment of in-vehicle intelligent safety systems (ISS) for crash avoidance and mitigation have rapidly increased in the last decades, the need to evaluate their prospective safety benefits before introduction has never been higher. Counterfactual simulations using relevant mathematical models (for vehicle dynamics, sensors, the environment, ISS algorithms, and models of driver behavior) have been identified as having high potential. However, although most of these models are relatively mature, models of driver behavior in the critical seconds before a crash are still relatively immature. There are also large conceptual differences between different driver models. The objective of this paper is, firstly, to demonstrate the importance of the choice of driver model when counterfactual simulations are used to evaluate two ISS: Forward collision warning (FCW), and autonomous emergency braking (AEB). Secondly, the paper demonstrates how counterfactual simulations can be used to perform sensitivity analyses on parameter settings, both for driver behavior and ISS algorithms. Finally, the paper evaluates the effect of the choice of glance distribution in the driver behavior model on the safety benefit estimation. The paper uses pre-crash kinematics and driver behavior from 34 rear-end crashes from the SHRP2 naturalistic driving study for the demonstrations. The results for FCW show a large difference in the percent of avoided crashes between conceptually different models of driver behavior, while differences were small for conceptually similar models. As expected, the choice of model of driver behavior did not affect AEB benefit much. Based on our results, researchers and others who aim to evaluate ISS with the driver in the loop through counterfactual simulations should be sure to make deliberate and well-grounded choices of driver models: the choice of model matters.

  1. Predicting multiple ecotoxicological profiles in agrochemical fungicides: a multi-species chemoinformatic approach.

    PubMed

    Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Kleandrova, Valeria V; Luan, Feng; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2012-06-01

    Agriculture is needed to deal with crop losses caused by biotic stresses like pests. The use of pesticides has played a vital role, contributing to improve crop production and harvest productivity, providing a better crop quality and supply, and consequently contributing with the improvement of the human health. An important group of these pesticides is fungicides. However, the use of these agrochemical fungicides is an important source of contamination, damaging the ecosystems. Several studies have been realized for the assessment of the toxicity in agrochemical fungicides, but the principal limitation is the use of structurally related compounds against usually one indicator species. In order to overcome this problem, we explore the quantitative structure-toxicity relationships (QSTR) in agrochemical fungicides. Here, we developed the first multi-species (ms) chemoinformatic approach for the prediction multiple ecotoxicological profiles of fungicides against 20 indicators species and their classifications in toxic or nontoxic. The ms-QSTR discriminant model was based on substructural descriptors and a heterogeneous database of compounds. The percentages of correct classification were higher than 90% for both, training and prediction series. Also, substructural alerts responsible for the toxicity/no toxicity in fungicides respect all ecotoxicological profiles, were extracted and analyzed.

  2. Agrochemical control of plant water use using engineered abscisic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Youl; Peterson, Francis C; Mosquna, Assaf; Yao, Jin; Volkman, Brian F; Cutler, Sean R

    2015-04-23

    Rising temperatures and lessening fresh water supplies are threatening agricultural productivity and have motivated efforts to improve plant water use and drought tolerance. During water deficit, plants produce elevated levels of abscisic acid (ABA), which improves water consumption and stress tolerance by controlling guard cell aperture and other protective responses. One attractive strategy for controlling water use is to develop compounds that activate ABA receptors, but agonists approved for use have yet to be developed. In principle, an engineered ABA receptor that can be activated by an existing agrochemical could achieve this goal. Here we describe a variant of the ABA receptor PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE 1 (PYR1) that possesses nanomolar sensitivity to the agrochemical mandipropamid and demonstrate its efficacy for controlling ABA responses and drought tolerance in transgenic plants. Furthermore, crystallographic studies provide a mechanistic basis for its activity and demonstrate the relative ease with which the PYR1 ligand-binding pocket can be altered to accommodate new ligands. Thus, we have successfully repurposed an agrochemical for a new application using receptor engineering. We anticipate that this strategy will be applied to other plant receptors and represents a new avenue for crop improvement.

  3. Environmental exposures to agrochemicals in the Sierra Nevada mountain range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeNoir, J.; Aston, L.; Data, S.; Fellers, G.; McConnell, L.; Sieber, J.

    2000-01-01

    The release of pesticides into the environment may impact human and environmental health. Despite the need for environmental exposure data, few studies quantify exposures in urban areas and even fewer determine exposures to wildlife in remote areas. Although it is expected that concentrations in remote regions will be low, recent studies suggest that even low concentrations may have deleterious effects on wildlife. Many pesticides are known to interfere with the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife, adversely affecting growth, development, and behavior. This chapter reviews the fate and transport of pesticides applied in the Central Valley of California and quantifies their subsequent deposition into the relatively pristine Sierra Nevada Mountain Range.

  4. Crash risk and aberrant driving behaviors among bus drivers: the role of personality and attitudes towards traffic safety.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that personality traits and attitudes toward traffic safety predict aberrant driving behaviors and crash involvement. However, this process has not been adequately investigated in professional drivers, such as bus drivers. The present study used a personality-attitudes model to assess whether personality traits predicted aberrant self-reported driving behaviors (driving violations, lapses, and errors) both directly and indirectly, through the effects of attitudes towards traffic safety in a large sample of bus drivers. Additionally, the relationship between aberrant self-reported driving behaviors and crash risk was also assessed. Three hundred and one bus drivers (mean age=39.1, SD=10.7 years) completed a structured and anonymous questionnaire measuring personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors (i.e., errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and accident risk in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that personality traits were associated to aberrant driving behaviors both directly and indirectly. In particular altruism, excitement seeking, and normlessness directly predicted bus drivers' attitudes toward traffic safety which, in turn, were negatively associated with the three types of self-reported aberrant driving behaviors. Personality traits relevant to emotionality directly predicted bus drivers' aberrant driving behaviors, without any mediation of attitudes. Finally, only self-reported violations were related to bus drivers' accident risk. The present findings suggest that the hypothesized personality-attitudes model accounts for aberrant driving behaviors in bus drivers, and provide the empirical basis for evidence-based road safety interventions in the context of public transport.

  5. Effects of an injury and illness prevention program on occupational safety behaviors among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Santaweesuk, Sapsatree; Chapman, Robert S; Siriwong, Wattasit

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an Injury and Illness Prevention (IIP) program intervention on occupational safety behavior among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand. This was a quasi-experimental study in an intervention group and a control group. It was carried out in two rice farming communities, in which most people are rice farmers with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Multistage sampling was employed, selecting one person per rice farming household. The intervention group was 62 randomly selected rice farmers living in a rural area; another 55 rice farmers served as the control group. A structured face-to-face interview questionnaire was administered to participants to evaluate their safety behaviors in four areas: equipment use, pesticide use, ergonomics, and working conditions. The 2-week intervention program consisted of four elements: 1) health education, 2) safety inspection, 3) safety communication, and 4) health surveillance. Data were collected at baseline and 4 months after the intervention (follow-up). We used a general linear model repeated-measures analysis of variance to assess the mean difference between baseline and follow-up occupational safety behavior points between the intervention and control groups. Pesticide safety behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the control group. Ergonomics and working conditions points also increased in the intervention group, but not significantly so. The equipment use score decreased in the intervention group. It is necessary to identify and develop further measures to improve occupational safety behaviors. Some methods, such as effective risk communication, could be added to increase risk perception.

  6. Efficacy of a Food Safety Comic Book on Knowledge and Self-Reported Behavior for Persons Living with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Mark S.; Peterson, Caryn E.; Gao, Weihua; Mayor, Angel; Hunter, Robert; Negron, Edna; Fleury, Alison; Besch, C. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Educational materials about foodborne enteric infections intended for this immunocompromised population have not been assessed for their efficacy in improving knowledge or encouraging behavior change. Methods/Results AIDS patients in four healthcare facilities in Chicago, New Orleans, and Puerto Rico were recruited using fliers and word of mouth to healthcare providers. Those who contacted research staff were interviewed to determine food safety knowledge gaps and risky behaviors. A food safety educational comic book that targeted knowledge gaps was created, piloted, and provided to these patients who were instructed to read it and return at least 2 weeks later for a follow-up interview. The overall food safety score was determined by the number of the 26 knowledge/belief/behavior questions from the survey answered correctly. Among 150 patients who participated in both the baseline and follow-up questionnaire, the intervention resulted in a substantial increase in the food safety score (baseline 59%, post-intervention 81%, p<0.001). The intervention produced a significant increase in all the food safety knowledge, belief, and behavior items that comprised the food safety score. Many of these increases were from baseline knowledge below 80 percent to well above 90%. Most (85%) of the patients stated they made a change to their behavior since receiving the educational booklet. Conclusion This comic book format intervention to educate persons living with AIDS was highly effective. Future studies should examine to what extent long-term behavioral changes result. PMID:24124447

  7. The effect of a road safety educational program for kindergarten children on their parents' behavior and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ben-Bassat, Tamar; Avnieli, Shani

    2016-10-01

    Road safety education for children is one of the most important means for raising awareness of road safety and for educating children to behave safely as pedestrians, bicycle riders, and vehicle passengers. The current research presents a novel attempt to examine the effect of a unique road safety educational program for kindergarten children on a secondary target group-the parents. The program, named the "Zahav Bagan" program (ZBP), is presented at kindergartens once a week during the entire academic year. It is conducted by senior citizen volunteers and is part of the formal education of the children. The main purpose of the current study was to compare the behavior, awareness, and knowledge about child road safety, of two groups of parents-those whose children participated in the ZBP group, and those whose children did not; this latter group was the control group. A telephone-based survey was conducted using a sample of 76 ZBP parents and 59 control group parents. Results of the survey showed no effect of ZBP on parents' knowledge of child road safety law and recommendations, but more importantly, the results did show a significant effect in terms of parents' observance of safe behavior and in their awareness of road safety in everyday life. These results confirm the importance of educational programs on road safety, especially as triggers and reminders to children and to their parents, to act as cautious road users.

  8. Computational Biology Tools for Identifying Specific Ligand Binding Residues for Novel Agrochemical and Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Neshich, Izabella Agostinho Pena; Nishimura, Leticia; de Moraes, Fabio Rogerio; Salim, Jose Augusto; Villalta-Romero, Fabian; Borro, Luiz; Yano, Inacio Henrique; Mazoni, Ivan; Tasic, Ljubica; Jardine, Jose Gilberto; Neshich, Goran

    2015-01-01

    The term "agrochemicals" is used in its generic form to represent a spectrum of pesticides, such as insecticides, fungicides or bactericides. They contain active components designed for optimized pest management and control, therefore allowing for economically sound and labor efficient agricultural production. A "drug" on the other side is a term that is used for compounds designed for controlling human diseases. Although drugs are subjected to much more severe testing and regulation procedures before reaching the market, they might contain exactly the same active ingredient as certain agrochemicals, what is the case described in present work, showing how a small chemical compound might be used to control pathogenicity of Gram negative bacteria Xylella fastidiosa which devastates citrus plantations, as well as for control of, for example, meningitis in humans. It is also clear that so far the production of new agrochemicals is not benefiting as much from the in silico new chemical compound identification/discovery as pharmaceutical production. Rational drug design crucially depends on detailed knowledge of structural information about the receptor (target protein) and the ligand (drug/agrochemical). The interaction between the two molecules is the subject of analysis that aims to understand relationship between structure and function, mainly deciphering some fundamental elements of the nanoenvironment where the interaction occurs. In this work we will emphasize the role of understanding nanoenvironmental factors that guide recognition and interaction of target protein and its function modifier, an agrochemical or a drug. The repertoire of nanoenvironment descriptors is used for two selected and specific cases we have approached in order to offer a technological solution for some very important problems that needs special attention in agriculture: elimination of pathogenicity of a bacterium which is attacking citrus plants and formulation of a new fungicide. Finally

  9. The SAFETY Program: a treatment-development trial of a cognitive-behavioral family treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Berk, Michele; Hughes, Jennifer L; Anderson, Nicholas L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe feasibility, safety, and outcome results from a treatment development trial of the SAFETY Program, a brief intervention designed for integration with emergency services for suicide-attempting youths. Suicide-attempting youths, ages 11 to 18, were enrolled in a 12-week trial of the SAFETY Program, a cognitive-behavioral family intervention designed to increase safety and reduce suicide attempt (SA) risk (N = 35). Rooted in a social-ecological cognitive-behavioral model, treatment sessions included individual youth and parent session-components, with different therapists assigned to youths and parents, and family session-components to practice skills identified as critical in the pathway for preventing repeat SAs in individual youths. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-ups. At the 3-month posttreatment assessment, there were statistically significant improvements on measures of suicidal behavior, hopelessness, youth and parent depression, and youth social adjustment. There was one reported SA by 3 months and another by 6 months, yielding cumulative attempt rates of 3% and 6% at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Treatment satisfaction was high. Suicide-attempting youths are at high risk for repeat attempts and continuing mental health problems. Results support the value of a randomized controlled trial to further evaluate the SAFETY intervention. Extension of treatment effects to parent depression and youth social adjustment are consistent with our strong family focus and social-ecological model of behavior change.

  10. Behavioral skills training to improve installation and use of child passenger safety restraints.

    PubMed

    Himle, Michael B; Wright, Kalon A

    2014-01-01

    The risk for serious injury and death to children during motor vehicle accidents can be greatly reduced through the correct use of child passenger safety restraints (CPSRs). Unfortunately, most CPSRs are installed or used incorrectly. This study examined the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to teach 10 participants to install rear-facing CPSRs correctly using a multiple baseline design. Results show that installation errors were common for all participants during baseline. After BST, all 10 participants were able to install the rear-facing CPSR without error. An extension probe to assess whether the skills taught during BST extended to forward-facing installation showed that each participant made at least 1 critical error.

  11. Setting culture apart: distinguishing culture from behavior and social structure in safety and injury research.

    PubMed

    Myers, Douglas J; Nyce, James M; Dekker, Sidney W A

    2014-07-01

    The concept of culture is now widely used by those who conduct research on safety and work-related injury outcomes. We argue that as the term has been applied by an increasingly diverse set of disciplines, its scope has broadened beyond how it was defined and intended for use by sociologists and anthropologists. As a result, this more inclusive concept has lost some of its precision and analytic power. We suggest that the utility of this "new" understanding of culture could be improved if researchers more clearly delineated the ideological - the socially constructed abstract systems of meaning, norms, beliefs and values (which we refer to as culture) - from concrete behaviors, social relations and other properties of workplaces (e.g., organizational structures) and of society itself. This may help researchers investigate how culture and social structures can affect safety and injury outcomes with increased analytic rigor. In addition, maintaining an analytical distinction between culture and other social factors can help intervention efforts better understand the target of the intervention and therefore may improve chances of both scientific and instrumental success.

  12. Testing the effects of safety climate and disruptive children behavior on school bus drivers performance: A multilevel model.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Dov; Lee, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The study was designed to test a multilevel path model whose variables exert opposing effects on school bus drivers' performance. Whereas departmental safety climate was expected to improve driving safety, the opposite was true for in-vehicle disruptive children behavior. The driving safety path in this model consists of increasing risk-taking practices starting with safety shortcuts leading to rule violations and to near-miss events. The study used a sample of 474 school bus drivers in rural areas, driving children to school and school-related activities. Newly developed scales for measuring predictor, mediator and outcome variables were validated with video data taken from inner and outer cameras, which were installed in 29 buses. Results partially supported the model by indicating that group-level safety climate and individual-level children distraction exerted opposite effects on the driving safety path. Furthermore, as hypothesized, children disruption moderated the strength of the safety rule violation-near miss relationship, resulting in greater strength under high disruptiveness. At the same time, the hypothesized interaction between the two predictor variables was not supported. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate in general and distracted driving in particular for professional drivers are discussed.

  13. Evaluating Behavioral Skills Training with and without Simulated in Situ Training for Teaching Safety Skills to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond; Gross, Amy; Knudson, Peter; Bosch, Amanda; Jostad, Candice; Breitwieser, Carrie Brower

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to BST plus simulated in situ training (SIT) for teaching safety skills to children to prevent gun play. The results were evaluated in a posttest only control group design. Following the first assessment, participants in both training groups and the control group who did not…

  14. Development of a Reality-Based Multimedia Case Study Teaching Method and Its Effect on Students' Planned Food Safety Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberts, Caitlin M.; Stevenson, Clinton D.

    2017-01-01

    There is opportunity to decrease the frequency of foodborne illnesses by improving food safety competencies and planned behaviors of college students before they begin careers in the food industry. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a multimedia case study teaching method that provides real world context for food science education;…

  15. The Principal's Role in Promoting Teachers' Extra-Role Behaviors: Some Insights from Road-Safety Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to understand the principal's role in promoting or inhibiting the appearance of teacher organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) in safety education. Based on semistructured interviews with 30 teachers and 10 principals working in the Israeli State Education System, it was found that the principal influences teacher OCB…

  16. Do you see what I see? Effects of national culture on employees' safety-related perceptions and behavior.

    PubMed

    Casey, Tristan W; Riseborough, Karli M; Krauss, Autumn D

    2015-05-01

    Growing international trade and globalization are increasing the cultural diversity of the modern workforce, which often results in migrants working under the management of foreign leadership. This change in work arrangements has important implications for occupational health and safety, as migrant workers have been found to be at an increased risk of injuries compared to their domestic counterparts. While some explanations for this discrepancy have been proposed (e.g., job differences, safety knowledge, and communication difficulties), differences in injury involvement have been found to persist even when these contextual factors are controlled for. We argue that employees' national culture may explain further variance in their safety-related perceptions and safety compliance, and investigate this through comparing the survey responses of 562 Anglo and Southern Asian workers at a multinational oil and gas company. Using structural equation modeling, we firstly established partial measurement invariance of our measures across cultural groups. Estimation of the combined sample structural model revealed that supervisor production pressure was negatively related to willingness to report errors and supervisor support, but did not predict safety compliance behavior. Supervisor safety support was positively related to both willingness to report errors and safety compliance. Next, we uncovered evidence of cultural differences in the relationships between supervisor production pressure, supervisor safety support, and willingness to report errors; of note, among Southern Asian employees the negative relationship between supervisor production pressure and willingness to report errors was stronger, and for supervisor safety support, weaker as compared to the model estimated with Anglo employees. Implications of these findings for safety management in multicultural teams within the oil and gas industry are discussed.

  17. A Step Towards Improving Food Safety in India: Determining Baseline Knowledge and Behaviors Among Restaurant Food Handlers in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Manes, Mindi R; Kuganantham, Paraswami; Jagadeesan, Murugesan; Laxmidevi, M; Dworkin, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    With the establishment of the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) and new food safety regulations, a precedent has been set to prevent foodborne illness in India. The objective of the authors' study was to identify knowledge gaps among food handlers in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, to establish priorities for future intervention. A 44-question survey was administered to 156 food handlers at 36 restaurants in Chennai between April and June of 2011. The overall mean knowledge score was 49% and knowledge gaps related to hand hygiene, proper food cooking and holding temperatures, and cross contamination were identified. Food handlers with a Medical Fitness Certificate scored significantly higher than those without a certificate, after controlling for food safety training and level of education (p < .05). As the FSSAI standards now require a medical certificate for restaurant licensure and registration, consideration should be given to include an educational component to this certification with an explanation of expected food safety behavior.

  18. Thermal behaviors, nonisothermal decomposition reaction kinetics, thermal safety and burning rates of BTATz-CMDB propellant.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Wang, Bo-Zhou; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Cheng; Hu, Rong-Zu; Ren, Ying-Hui; Xu, Si-Yu; Xu, Kang-Zhen; Ren, Xiao-Ning

    2010-09-15

    The composite modified double base (CMDB) propellants (nos. RB0601 and RB0602) containing 3,6-bis (1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-yl-amino)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (BTATz) without and with the ballistic modifier were prepared and their thermal behaviors, nonisothermal decomposition reaction kinetics, thermal safety and burning rates were investigated. The results show that there are three mass-loss stages in TG curve and two exothermic peaks in DSC curve for the BTATz-CMDB propellant. The first two mass-loss stages occur in succession and the temperature ranges are near apart, and the decomposition peaks of the two stages overlap each other, inducing only one visible exothermic peak appear in DSC curve during 350-550 K. The reaction mechanisms of the main exothermal decomposition processes of RB0601 and RB0602 are all classified as chemical reaction, the mechanism functions are f(alpha)=(1-alpha)(2), and the kinetic equations are dalpha/dt = 10(19.24)(1-alpha)(2)e(-2.32x10(4)/T) and dalpha/dt = 10(20.32)(1-alpha)(2)e(-2.32x10(4)/T). The thermal safety evaluation on the BTATz-CMDB propellants was obtained. With the substitution of 26% RDX by BTATz and with the help of the ballistic modifier in the CMDB propellant formulation, the burning rate can be improved by 89.0% at 8 MPa and 47.1% at 22 MPa, the pressure exponent can be reduced to 0.353 at 14-20 MPa.

  19. Application of calorimetry to microbial biodegradation studies of agrochemicals in oxisols.

    PubMed

    Critter, S A; Airoldi, C

    2001-01-01

    Calorimetry was used to monitor the inhibitory effect caused by the bipyridynium diquaternary salts paraquat, diquat, and phosphamidon on microbial activity in a Red Latosol soil (Oxisol). The thermal effect was recorded on samples composed of 1.50 g of soil, 6.0 mg of glucose, 6.0 mg of ammonium sulfate, and different masses of an inhibitor ranging from zero to 8.00 mg, under a controlled moisture content of 35%. Thermal effects of each pollutant on the degradation curves of glucose in the soil were compared. Increasing amounts of the inhibitor caused a decrease in the thermal effect from -2234 to -1987 kJ mol(-1) for paraquat, -1670 to -1306 kJ mol(-1) for diquat, and -2239 to -589 kJ mol(-1) for phosphamidon. The last xenobiotic agent caused a significant inhibitory effect on the microbial activity of the soil. The results of relative efficiency, eta = deltaH/deltaH', referring to the enthalpic value with (deltaH) and without (deltaH') agrochemical in the soil, exhibited a significant correlation. From this correlation obtained for the ranges 2.00 to 8.00, 1.30 to 8.00, and 1.20 to 5.80 mg of the agrochemicals paraquat, diquat, and phosphamidon, respectively, the following eta values were calculated: 0.993 to 0.894, 0.668 to 0.522, and 0.896 to 0.236, respectively, during the degradation of glucose in the soil. The largest relative efficiency for paraquat implies that this agrochemical can be metabolized by microbial activity.

  20. Degradation of selected agrochemicals by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Mir-Tutusaus, Josep Anton; Masís-Mora, Mario; Corcellas, Cayo; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Sarrà, Montserrat; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2014-12-01

    Use of agrochemicals is a worldwide practice that exerts an important effect on the environment; therefore the search of approaches for the elimination of such pollutants should be encouraged. The degradation of the insecticides imiprothrin (IP) and cypermethrin (CP), the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CBF) and the antibiotic of agricultural use oxytetracycline (OTC) were assayed with the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Experiments with fungal pellets demonstrated extensive degradation of the four tested agrochemicals, at rates that followed the pattern IP>OTC>CP>CBF. In vitro assays with laccase-mediator systems showed that this extracellular enzyme participates in the transformation of IP but not in the cases of CBF and OTC. On the other hand, in vivo studies with inhibitors of cytochrome P450 revealed that this intracellular system plays an important role in the degradation of IP, OTC and CBF, but not for CP. The compounds 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) were detected as transformation products of CP, as a result of the breakdown of the molecule. Meanwhile, 3-hydroxycarbofuran was detected as a transformation product of CBF; this metabolite tended to accumulate during the process, nonetheless, the toxicity of the system was effectively reduced. Simultaneous degradation of CBF and OTC showed a reduction in toxicity; similarly, when successive additions of OTC were done during the slower degradation of CBF, the fungal pellets were able to degrade both compounds. The simultaneous degradation of the four compounds successfully took place with minimal inhibition of fungal activity and resulted in the reduction of the global toxicity, thus supporting the potential use of T. versicolor for the treatment of diverse agrochemicals.

  1. Insight of the fusion behavior of volcanic ash: Implications for Volcanic ash Hazards to Aircraft Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wenjia; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Küppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Cimarelli, Corrado; Lavallée, Yan; Sohyun, Park; Gattermann, Ulf; Müller, Dirk; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2014-05-01

    The interaction of volcanic ash with jet turbines during via ingestion of ash into engines operating at supra-volcanic temperatures is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for jet aircraft. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The fusibility of volcanic ash is believed to impact strongly its deposition in the hotter parts of jet engines. Despite this, explicit investigation of ash sintering using standardized techniques is in its infancy. Volcanic ash may vary widely in its physical state and chemical composition between and even within explosive volcanic eruptions. Thus a comparative study of the fusibility of ash which involves a standard recognized techniques would be highly desirable. In this work, nine samples of fine ash, deposited from co-pyroclastic offrom nine different volcanoes which cover a broad range of chemical composition, were investigated. Eight of them were collected from 2001-2009 eruptions. Because of the currently elevated level of eruptive activity and its potential hazards to aircraft safety and the remaining one sample was collected from a 12,121 ± 114 yr B.P. eruption. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by defining four characteristic temperatures (shrinkage temperature, deformation temperature, hemispherical temperature, and flow temperature) by means of heating microscope instrument and different thermal analysis methods. Here, we find that there are similar sticking ability and flow behavior of

  2. An Analysis of Water Safety Behaviors among Migrant and Economically/Educationally Disadvantaged Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sbarbaro, Victor S.; Enyeart Smith, Theresa M.

    2011-01-01

    This water safety study was both descriptive and exploratory in nature. The purpose was for middle school students to assess their own water safety experiences and to help school decision-makers determine the extent of drowning/water accidents. In July 2009, a water safety survey was administered to 122 students participating in the local Summer…

  3. Sensory and metabolic profiles of "Fuji" apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) grown without synthetic agrochemicals: the role of ethylene production.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Fukuyo; Miyazawa, Toshio; Okazaki, Keiki; Tatsuki, Miho; Ito, Tsutae

    2015-01-01

    Flavors of "Fuji" apple cultivated with or without synthetic agrochemicals were compared using quantitative descriptive analyses (QDA) and metabolite profiling for 3 seasons. Experimental plots included conventional crops (with agrochemicals) and organic crops (without agrochemicals) at our institute and organic and conventional farms. Additionally, mass market samples were analyzed. Organic apples were weak in sweetness and floral characteristics and had enhanced green and sour flavors. Most esters and sugars were present in lower concentrations in organic than in conventional apples. Close relation of principal component 1 of QDA and metabolite profiles, to ethylene production suggested that ethylene is considerably involved in flavor synthesis. Reduced ethylene associated with immaturity accounted for insufficient flavor synthesis and weak aroma and flavor attributes of organic apples. Furthermore, organic apples from the farm were more flavorsome than those from the institute in 2012, suggesting possible recovery of ethylene production after a long organic cultivation period.

  4. An Implementation of Protocol Analysis and the Silent Dog Method in the Area of Behavioral Safety

    PubMed Central

    Alvero, Alicia M; Austin, John

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that conducting safety observations increases the safety performance of the observer. The purpose of this study was to help determine whether observers make self-verbalizations regarding their own safety performance and whether these reports are functionally related to safety performance. In order to answer these questions two experiments were conducted using both protocol analysis and the silent dog method. The objective of Experiment 1 was (a) to determine whether safety performance with continuous, concurrent talk-aloud procedures is functionally equivalent to safety performance without talk-aloud reports, and (b) to determine whether that safety performance is altered when participants are presented with a distracter task. The goal of Experiment 2 was to determine whether the safety-related verbalizations made by Experiment 1 participants were task-relevant and functionally related to safety performance. The results from both Experiments 1 and 2 provide support for the existence of a functional relationship between safety-related verbalizations and increases in safety performance. PMID:22477344

  5. The exploration of effects of Chinese cultural values on the attitudes and behaviors of Chinese restaurateurs toward food safety training.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Kwon, Junehee

    2013-06-01

    Foodborne illness is a challenge in the production and service of ethnic foods. The purpose of the study described in this article was to explore variables influencing the behaviors of U.S. Chinese restaurant owners/operators regarding the provision of food safety training in their restaurants. Seventeen major Chinese cultural values were identified through individual interviews with 20 Chinese restaurant owners/operators. Most participants felt satisfied with their previous health inspections. Several expressed having difficulty, however, following the health inspectors' instructions and in understanding the health inspection report. A few participants provided food safety training to their employees due to state law. Lack of money, time, labor/energy, and a perceived need for food safety training were recognized as major challenges to providing food safety training in Chinese restaurants. Videos, case studies, and food safety training handbooks were the most preferred food safety training methods of Chinese restaurant owners/operators, and Chinese was the preferred language in which to conduct the training.

  6. The contribution of family climate for road safety and social environment to the reported driving behavior of young drivers.

    PubMed

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Katz-Ben-Ami, Liat

    2012-07-01

    Two studies examined the contribution of the new concept of "family climate for road safety" and several aspects of the social environment to the driving behavior of young drivers. Study 1 (n=120) investigated the effect of the seven dimensions of the family climate for road safety - Modeling, Feedback, Communication, Monitoring, Noncommitment, Messages, and Limits - as well as a general tendency to conform to authority, and peer pressure. Study 2 (n=154) examined the dimensions of family climate for road safety and perceived popularity of reckless driving among peers. The findings indicate associations both between the familial and the social aspects, and between these variables and driving styles, willingness to take risks while driving, reckless driving habits, and personal commitment to safe driving. Positive aspects of the parent-child relationship and high levels of conformity to authority were related to greater endorsement of the careful driving style, whereas family's noncommitment to safety, higher peer pressure, and lower conformity to authority were associated with greater endorsement of the reckless driving style. In addition, positive aspects of the family climate for road safety and lower perceived popularity of reckless driving among friends were associated with more personal commitment to safe driving and a lower tendency for risky driving. The discussion stresses the need to look at the complex set of antecedents of reckless driving among young drivers and addresses the practical implications of the findings for road safety.

  7. Agrochemical synergism imposes higher risk to Neotropical bees than to honeybees.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Hudson V V; Ramos, Gabryele S; Araújo, Micaele F; Santana, Weyder C; Santos, Gil R; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Maciel, Carlos D; Newland, Philip L; Oliveira, Eugênio E

    2017-01-01

    Bees are key pollinators whose population numbers are declining, in part, owing to the effects of different stressors such as insecticides and fungicides. We have analysed the susceptibility of the Africanized honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the stingless bee, Partamona helleri, to commercial formulations of the insecticides deltamethrin and imidacloprid. The toxicity of fungicides based on thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil were investigated individually and in combination, and with the insecticides. Results showed that stingless bees were more susceptible to insecticides than honeybees. The commercial fungicides thiophanate-methyl or chlorothalonil caused low mortality, regardless of concentration; however, their combination was as toxic as imidacloprid to both species, and over 400-fold more toxic than deltamethrin for A. mellifera. There were highly synergistic effects on mortality caused by interactions in the mixture of imidacloprid and the fungicides thiophanate-methyl, chlorothalonil and the combined fungicide formulation in A. mellifera, and also to a lesser extent in P. helleri. By contrast, mixtures of the deltamethrin and the combined fungicide formulation induced high synergy in P. helleri, but had little effect on the mortality of A. mellifera. Differences in physiology and modes of action of agrochemicals are discussed as key factors underlying the differences in susceptibility to agrochemicals.

  8. Agrochemical synergism imposes higher risk to Neotropical bees than to honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Tomé, Hudson V. V.; Ramos, Gabryele S.; Araújo, Micaele F.; Santana, Weyder C.; Santos, Gil R.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Maciel, Carlos D.; Newland, Philip L.

    2017-01-01

    Bees are key pollinators whose population numbers are declining, in part, owing to the effects of different stressors such as insecticides and fungicides. We have analysed the susceptibility of the Africanized honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the stingless bee, Partamona helleri, to commercial formulations of the insecticides deltamethrin and imidacloprid. The toxicity of fungicides based on thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil were investigated individually and in combination, and with the insecticides. Results showed that stingless bees were more susceptible to insecticides than honeybees. The commercial fungicides thiophanate-methyl or chlorothalonil caused low mortality, regardless of concentration; however, their combination was as toxic as imidacloprid to both species, and over 400-fold more toxic than deltamethrin for A. mellifera. There were highly synergistic effects on mortality caused by interactions in the mixture of imidacloprid and the fungicides thiophanate-methyl, chlorothalonil and the combined fungicide formulation in A. mellifera, and also to a lesser extent in P. helleri. By contrast, mixtures of the deltamethrin and the combined fungicide formulation induced high synergy in P. helleri, but had little effect on the mortality of A. mellifera. Differences in physiology and modes of action of agrochemicals are discussed as key factors underlying the differences in susceptibility to agrochemicals. PMID:28280585

  9. Mapping agricultural fields with GPR and EMI to predict offsite movement of agrochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Ronald E.; Freeland, Robert S.; Ammons, J. T.; Leonard, L. L.

    2000-04-01

    Offsite movement of waterborne agrochemicals is increasingly targeted as a nonpoint source of water quality degradation. Our research has indicated that subsurface water movement is variable and site-specific, and that a small soil volume frequently conducts a large volume of flow. This concentrated flow is usually caused by soil morphology, and it often results in water moving rapidly offsite from certain areas of fields; little or no lateral subsurface flow may occur in other areas. Identifying these subsurface regions is difficult using conventional soil survey and vadose zone sampling techniques. In this study, traditional surveying is combined with electromagnetic induction (EMI) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) mapping to identify areas with high potential for subsurface offsite movement of agrochemicals, optimizing these identification techniques, and expanding the mapping procedures to make them useful at the field-scale for agricultural production practices. Conclusions from this research are: (1) EMI mapping provides rapid identification of areas of soil with a high potential for offsite movement of subsurface water, (2) GPR mapping of areas identified by EMI mapping provides a means to identify features that are known to conduct concentrated lateral flow of water, and (3) combining the capabilities of EMI and GPR instrumentation make possible the surveys of large areas that would otherwise be impossible or unfeasible to characterize.

  10. Cytogenetic damage in the buccal epithelium of Brazilian aviators occupationally exposed to agrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Minasi, L B; Costa, E O A; Silva, D M; Melo, C O A; de Almeida, J G; Vieira, T C; Silva Júnior, R L; Ribeiro, C L; da Silva, C C; da Cruz, A D

    2011-12-12

    The frequency of micronuclei in both buccal cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes is extensively used as a biomarker of chromosomal damage and genome stability in human populations. We examined whether prolonged exposure to complex mixtures of pesticides leads to an increase in cytogenetic damage. The exposed group comprised 50 agricultural aviators, mainly from Central and Southeast regions of Brazil, who had inhaled agrochemicals for more than 10 years without personal protection equipment; the control group consisted of 17 men from the same regions, without indication of exposure to pesticides, There were three times higher frequencies of micronuclei (P < 0.05) and 2.5 times higher frequencies of binucleated cells in the aviators when compared to controls. However, cytotoxic alterations such as broken eggs and karyorrhexis did not present statistically significant differences between the exposed and control groups. Therefore, diverse agrochemicals used to combat pests in agriculture possess genotoxic effects in the oral mucosa of the agricultural pilots, as showed in this study.

  11. Micronucleus assay as a biomarker of genotoxicity in the occupational exposure to agrochemicals in rural workers.

    PubMed

    Gentile, N; Mañas, F; Bosch, B; Peralta, L; Gorla, N; Aiassa, D

    2012-06-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the genotoxic effect of agrochemicals in rural workers occupationally exposed by the micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes and to promote the development of health and environmental preventive and protective practices. A total of 30 blood samples from 20 individuals occupationally exposed to different agrochemicals and 10 unexposed persons, who formed the reference group, were analyzed. We found statistically significant differences (p < 0.0005, Student's t Test) in the frequency of micronuclei between the two groups (7.20 ± 1.55 and 15.15 ± 5.10 CBMN for reference and exposed groups respectively). The analysis of age showed a positive correlation (Pearson Correlation Test) with the frequency of micronuclei in exposed population (p < 0.05; r(2) = 0.47), in contrast with smoking habits and years of exposure. Micronucleus assay allows an early detection of populations at higher risk of having genetic damage, allowing us to implement strategies of intervention for the purpose of contributing to reduce that risk.

  12. Mapping agricultural fields with GPR and EMI to identify offsite movement of agrochemicals1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Ronald E.; Freeland, Robert S.; Ammons, John T.; Leonard, Leroy L.

    2001-07-01

    Offsite movement of waterborne agrochemicals is increasingly targeted as a non-point source of water quality degradation. Our research has indicated that subsurface water movement is variable and site-specific, and that a small soil volume frequently conducts a large volume of flow. This concentrated flow is usually caused by soil morphology, and it often results in water moving rapidly offsite from certain areas of fields; little or no lateral subsurface flow may occur in other areas. Identifying these subsurface regions is difficult using conventional soil survey and vadose zone sampling techniques. In this study, traditional surveying is combined with electromagnetic induction (EMI) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) mapping to identify areas with high potential for subsurface offsite movement of agrochemicals, optimizing these identification techniques, and expanding the mapping procedures to make them useful at the field-scale for agricultural production practices. Conclusions from this research are: (1) EMI mapping provides rapid identification of areas of soil with a high electrical conductivity and presumably high potential for offsite movement of subsurface water, (2) GPR mapping of areas identified by EMI mapping provides a means to identify features that are known to conduct concentrated lateral flow of water, and (3) combining the capabilities of EMI and GPR instrumentation makes possible the surveys of large areas that would otherwise be impossible or unfeasible to characterize.

  13. Acquisition and extinction of human avoidance behavior: attenuating effect of safety signals and associations with anxiety vulnerabilities.

    PubMed

    Sheynin, Jony; Beck, Kevin D; Servatius, Richard J; Myers, Catherine E

    2014-01-01

    While avoidance behavior is often an adaptive strategy, exaggerated avoidance can be detrimental and result in the development of psychopathologies, such as anxiety disorders. A large animal literature shows that the acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior in rodents depends on individual differences (e.g., sex, strain) and might be modulated by the presence of environmental cues. However, there is a dearth of such reports in human literature, mainly due to the lack of adequate experimental paradigms. In the current study, we employed a computer-based task, where participants control a spaceship and attempt to gain points by shooting an enemy spaceship that appears on the screen. Warning signals predict on-screen aversive events; the participants can learn a protective response to escape or avoid these events. This task has been recently used to reveal facilitated acquisition of avoidance behavior in individuals with anxiety vulnerability due to female sex or inhibited personality. Here, we extended the task to include an extinction phase, and tested the effect of signals that appeared during "safe" periods. Healthy young adults (n = 122) were randomly assigned to a testing condition with or without such signals. Results showed that the addition of safety signals during the acquisition phase impaired acquisition (in females) and facilitated extinction of the avoidance behavior. We also replicated our recent finding of an association between female sex and longer avoidance duration and further showed that females continued to demonstrate more avoidance behavior even on extinction trials when the aversive events no longer occurred. This study is the first to show sex differences on the acquisition and extinction of human avoidance behavior and to demonstrate the role of safety signals in such behavior, highlighting the potential relevance of safety signals for cognitive therapies that focus on extinction learning to treat anxiety symptoms.

  14. Acquisition and Extinction of Human Avoidance Behavior: Attenuating Effect of Safety Signals and Associations with Anxiety Vulnerabilities

    PubMed Central

    Sheynin, Jony; Beck, Kevin D.; Servatius, Richard J.; Myers, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    While avoidance behavior is often an adaptive strategy, exaggerated avoidance can be detrimental and result in the development of psychopathologies, such as anxiety disorders. A large animal literature shows that the acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior in rodents depends on individual differences (e.g., sex, strain) and might be modulated by the presence of environmental cues. However, there is a dearth of such reports in human literature, mainly due to the lack of adequate experimental paradigms. In the current study, we employed a computer-based task, where participants control a spaceship and attempt to gain points by shooting an enemy spaceship that appears on the screen. Warning signals predict on-screen aversive events; the participants can learn a protective response to escape or avoid these events. This task has been recently used to reveal facilitated acquisition of avoidance behavior in individuals with anxiety vulnerability due to female sex or inhibited personality. Here, we extended the task to include an extinction phase, and tested the effect of signals that appeared during “safe” periods. Healthy young adults (n = 122) were randomly assigned to a testing condition with or without such signals. Results showed that the addition of safety signals during the acquisition phase impaired acquisition (in females) and facilitated extinction of the avoidance behavior. We also replicated our recent finding of an association between female sex and longer avoidance duration and further showed that females continued to demonstrate more avoidance behavior even on extinction trials when the aversive events no longer occurred. This study is the first to show sex differences on the acquisition and extinction of human avoidance behavior and to demonstrate the role of safety signals in such behavior, highlighting the potential relevance of safety signals for cognitive therapies that focus on extinction learning to treat anxiety symptoms. PMID

  15. The contribution of parents' driving behavior, family climate for road safety, and parent-targeted intervention to young male driving behavior.

    PubMed

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Musicant, Oren; Lotan, Tsippy; Farah, Haneen

    2014-11-01

    One of the prominent issues in contemporary research on young drivers deals with the mechanisms underlying parents' influences on their offspring's driving behavior. The present study combines two sets of data: the first gathered from in-vehicle data recorders tracking the driving of parents and their teenage sons, and the second derived from self-report questionnaires completed by the young drivers. The aim was to evaluate the contribution of parents' driving behavior, participation in a parent-targeted intervention, and the teen drivers' perception of the family climate for road safety, to the driving behavior of young drivers during solo driving. The data was collected over the course of 12 months, beginning with the licensure of the teen driver, and examined a sample of 166 families who were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups (receiving different forms of feedback) or a control group (with no feedback). Findings indicate that young male drivers' risky driving events rate was positively associated with that of their parents. In addition, any type of intervention led to a lower rate of risky driving events among young drivers compared to the control group. Finally, a higher perception of parents as not committed to safety and lower perceived parental monitoring were related to a higher risky driving events rate among young drivers. The results highlight the need to consider a complex set of antecedents in parents' attitudes and behavior, as well as the family's safety atmosphere, in order to better understand young drivers' risky driving. The practical implications refer to the effective use of the family as a lever in the attempt to promote safety awareness among young drivers.

  16. Axial compression behavior and partial composite action of SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai

    Steel-plate reinforced concrete (SC) composite walls typically consist of thick concrete walls with two exterior steel faceplates. The concrete core is sandwiched between the two steel faceplates, and the faceplates are attached to the concrete core using shear connectors, for example, ASTM A108 steel headed shear studs. The shear connectors and the concrete infill enhance the stability of the steel faceplates, and the faceplates serve as permanent formwork for concrete placement. SC composite walls were first introduced in the 1980's in Japan for nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. They are used in the new generation of nuclear power plants (GIII+) and being considered for small modular reactors (SMR) due to their structural efficiency, economy, safety, and construction speed. Steel faceplates can potentially undergo local buckling at certain locations of NPP structures where compressive forces are significant. The steel faceplates are usually thin (0.25 to 1.50 inches in Customary units, or 6.5 to 38 mm in SI units) to maintain economical and constructional efficiency, the geometric imperfections and locked-in stresses induced during construction make them more vulnerable to local buckling. Accidental thermal loading may also reduce the compressive strength and exacerbate the local buckling potential of SC composite walls. This dissertation presents the results from experimental and numerical investigations of the compressive behavior of SC composite walls at ambient and elevated temperatures. The results are used to establish a slenderness limit to prevent local buckling before yielding of the steel faceplates and to develop a design approach for calculating the compressive strength of SC composite walls with non-slender and slender steel faceplates at ambient and elevated temperatures. Composite action in SC walls is achieved by the embedment of shear connectors into the concrete core. The strength and stiffness of shear connectors govern the level of

  17. Leader personality traits and employee voice behavior: mediating roles of ethical leadership and work group psychological safety.

    PubMed

    Walumbwa, Fred O; Schaubroeck, John

    2009-09-01

    The antecedents and consequences of ethical leadership were examined in a study of 894 employees and their 222 immediate supervisors in a major financial institution in the United States. The leader personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness were positively related to direct reports' ratings of the leader's ethical leadership, whereas neuroticism was unrelated to these ratings. Ethical leadership influenced followers' voice behavior as rated by followers' immediate supervisors. This relationship was partially mediated by followers' perceptions of psychological safety. Implications for research on ethical leadership and means to enhance ethical behavior among leaders and nonleaders are discussed.

  18. Toxicological Risks of Agrochemical Spray Adjuvants: Organosilicone Surfactants May Not Be Safe

    PubMed Central

    Mullin, Christopher A.; Fine, Julia D.; Reynolds, Ryan D.; Frazier, Maryann T.

    2016-01-01

    Agrochemical risk assessment that takes into account only pesticide active ingredients without the spray adjuvants commonly used in their application will miss important toxicity outcomes detrimental to non-target species, including humans. Lack of disclosure of adjuvant and formulation ingredients coupled with a lack of adequate analytical methods constrains the assessment of total chemical load on beneficial organisms and the environment. Adjuvants generally enhance the pesticidal efficacy and inadvertently the non-target effects of the active ingredient. Spray adjuvants are largely assumed to be biologically inert and are not registered by the USA EPA, leaving their regulation and monitoring to individual states. Organosilicone surfactants are the most potent adjuvants and super-penetrants available to growers. Based on the data for agrochemical applications to almonds from California Department of Pesticide Regulation, there has been increasing use of adjuvants, particularly organosilicone surfactants, during bloom when two-thirds of USA honey bee colonies are present. Increased tank mixing of these with ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors and other fungicides and with insect growth regulator insecticides may be associated with recent USA honey bee declines. This database archives every application of a spray tank adjuvant with detail that is unprecedented globally. Organosilicone surfactants are good stand alone pesticides, toxic to bees, and are also present in drug and personal care products, particularly shampoos, and thus represent an important component of the chemical landscape to which pollinators and humans are exposed. This mini review is the first to possibly link spray adjuvant use with declining health of honey bee populations. PMID:27242985

  19. Multiparametric characterisation of neuronal network activity for in vitro agrochemical neurotoxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Alloisio, Susanna; Nobile, Mario; Novellino, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    The last few decades have seen the marketing of hundreds of new pesticide products with a forecasted expansion of the global agrochemical industry. As several pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity, alternative methods to routine in vivo animal testing, such as the Multi Electrode Array (MEAs)-based approach, have been proposed as an in vitro tool to perform sensitive, quick and low cost neuro-toxicological screening. Here, we examined the effects of a training set of eleven active substances known to have neuronal or non-neuronal targets, contained in the most commonly used agrochemicals, on the spontaneous electrical activity of cortical neuronal networks grown on MEAs. A multiparametric characterisation of neuronal network firing and bursting was performed with the aim of investigating how this can contribute to the efficient evaluation of in vitro chemical-induced neurotoxicity. The analysis of MFR, MBR, MBD, MISI_B and % Spikes_B parameters identified four different groups of chemicals: one wherein only inhibition is observed (chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, orysastrobin, dimoxystrobin); a second one in which all parameters, except the MISI_B, are inhibited (carbaryl, quinmerac); a third in which increases at low chemical concentration are followed by decreases at high concentration, with exception of MISI_B that only decreased (fipronil); a fourth in which no effects are observed (paraquat, glyphosate, imidacloprid, mepiquat). The overall results demonstrated that the multiparametric description of the neuronal networks activity makes MEA-based screening platform an accurate and consistent tool for the evaluation of the toxic potential of chemicals. In particular, among the bursting parameters the MISI_B was the best that correlates with potency and may help to better define chemical toxicity when MFR is affected only at relatively high concentration.

  20. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for trace analysis of agrochemicals in food.

    PubMed

    García-Reyes, Juan F; Jackson, Ayanna U; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-01-15

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is applied to the rapid, in situ, direct qualitative and quantitative (ultra)trace analysis of agrochemicals in foodstuffs. To evaluate the potential of DESI mass spectrometry (MS) in toxic residue testing in food, 16 representative multiclass agricultural chemicals (pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides) were selected (namely, ametryn, amitraz, azoxystrobin, bitertanol, buprofezin, imazalil, imazalil metabolite, isofenphos-methyl, malathion, nitenpyram, prochloraz, spinosad, terbuthylazine, thiabendazole, and thiacloprid). The DESI-MS experiments were performed using 3 microL of solution spotted onto conventional smooth poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) surfaces, with examination by MS and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an ion trap mass spectrometer. Optimization of the spray solvent led to the use of acetonitrile/water (80:20) (v/v), with 1% formic acid. Most of the compounds tested showed remarkable sensitivity in the positive ion mode, approaching that attainable with conventional direct infusion electrospray mass spectrometry. To evaluate the potential of the proposed approach in real samples, different experiments were performed including the direct DESI-MS/MS analysis of fruit peels and also of fruit/vegetable extracts. The results proved that DESI allows the detection and confirmation of traces of agrochemicals in actual market-purchased samples. In addition, MS/MS confirmation of selected pesticides in spiked vegetable extracts was obtained at absolute levels as low as 1 pg for ametryn. Quantitation of imazalil residues was also undertaken using an isotopically labeled standard. The data obtained were in agreement with those from the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) reference method, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values consistently below 15%. The results obtained demonstrate the sensitivity of DESI as they meet the stringent European Union pesticide regulation

  1. Screening of agrochemicals in foodstuffs using low-temperature plasma (LTP) ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Joshua S; García-Reyes, Juan F; Harper, Jason D; Charipar, Nicholas A; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

    2010-05-01

    Low-temperature plasma (LTP) permits direct ambient ionization and mass analysis of samples in their native environment with minimal or no prior preparation. LTP utilizes dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) to create a low power plasma which is guided by gas flow onto the sample from which analytes are desorbed and ionized. In this study, the potential of LTP-MS for the detection of pesticide residues in food is demonstrated. Thirteen multi-class agricultural chemicals were studied (ametryn, amitraz, atrazine, buprofezin, DEET, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, imazalil, isofenphos-methyl, isoproturon, malathion, parathion-ethyl and terbuthylazine). To evaluate the potential of the proposed approach, LTP-MS experiments were performed directly on fruit peels as well as on fruit/vegetable extracts. Most of the agrochemicals examined displayed remarkable sensitivity in the positive ion mode, giving limits of detection (LOD) for the direct measurement in the low picogram range. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to confirm identification of selected pesticides by using for these experiments spiked fruit/vegetable extracts (QuEChERS, a standard sample treatment protocol) at levels as low as 1 pg, absolute, for some of the analytes. Comparisons of the data obtained by direct LTP-MS were made with the slower but more accurate conventional LC-MS/MS procedure. Herbicides spiked in aqueous solutions were detectable at LODs as low as 0.5 microg L(-1) without the need for any sample preparation. The results demonstrate that ambient LTP-MS can be applied for the detection and confirmation of traces of agrochemicals in actual market-purchased produce and in natural water samples. Quantitative analysis was also performed in a few selected cases and displayed a relatively high degree of linearity over four orders of magnitude.

  2. Frequency and structure of precautionary behavior in the domains of hazard preparedness, crime prevention, vehicular safety, and health maintenance.

    PubMed

    Norris, F H

    1997-11-01

    A sample of 831 adults were interviewed by researchers using a 72-item inventory about their precautionary behaviors and attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted on random halves of the sample provided evidence of consistency and structure in precautionary behavior both within and across domains of concern. Hazard preparedness activities clustered into having basic supplies on hand, advance planning, and hazard alertness. Crime prevention acts organized according to person protection, neighborly cooperation, and professional guidance. Vehicular safety factored into auto care, responsible driving, and seat belt use. Health maintenance activities entailed healthy habits (diet and exercise), risk monitoring, and avoiding tobacco and alcohol. Higher order factor analyses evidenced intra-individual consistency in the use of Disciplined, Vigilant, and Proactive Behaviors across precautionary domains. At all levels, perceptions of the usefulness of precautionary measures were related strongly to the frequency of self-protective acts.

  3. Spatio-temporal changes in agrochemical inputs and the risk assessment before and after the Grain-For-Green Policy in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuhong

    2013-02-01

    China's Grain-For-Green Policy (GFGP) of returning marginal cropland to forest or grassland is one of the most important large-scale initiatives to combat land degradation in its ecologically vulnerable regions. In order to maintain and increase crop production from decreasing areas of cropland, substantial spatio-temporal changes in agrochemical inputs have occurred, which have strongly influenced the ecological and environmental status of land in China. Based on the agrochemical inputs (chemical fertilizer, pesticide, plastic sheeting, and agricultural diesel oil) at the provincial level between 1993 and 2009, cluster analysis and gravity center modeling were used to trace these spatio-temporal changes. A regional comparative study was also undertaken to investigate the changes in the relative size of agrochemical inputs in the eastern, central, and western regions of China. It was found that the agrochemical inputs increased considerably at the nation level after the GFGP, which in order of increasing rate were: plastic sheeting > agricultural diesel oil > pesticide > chemical fertilizer. The gravity centers of agrochemical inputs moved substantially towards the northwest or west during the latter period of GFGP and regional comparative analysis showed that the agrochemical inputs increased substantially in the western region between 2004 and 2009. The ecological degradation caused by the expansion of the area devoted to crop production in the western region and the potential risk of agricultural non-point pollution caused by the increasing agrochemical inputs are the main factors restricting this area's sustainable development.

  4. The effects of food safety education on adolescents' hand hygiene behavior: an analysis of stages of change.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Joo; Pai, Andrew J; Kang, Nam-E; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Young Soon; Moon, Hyun-Kyung; Ha, Ae Wha

    2012-04-01

    The hand hygiene behavior of 400 middle school students (grades 1-3) in Seoul and Gyeonggi-Do was studied to determine how stages of change were affected by food safety education, focusing on hand hygiene and general food safety. Subjects were 51.3% male and 44.3% of study subjects were first graders of middle school. Approximately 40% of subjects were at the stage of action, 42.7% were at the stage of contemplation, and 16.4% were at pre-contemplation. The most important factor that influenced proper hand washing was self efficacy (P < 0.001). Proper hand washing was also correlated significantly with positive belief (P < 0.01) and stages of change (P < 0.01). After food safety education by high-school mentors, middle-school students who were in the stages of pre-contemplation (11.1%) and contemplation (88.9%) showed significant progression toward the action stage (P < 0.001). Proper hand washing (P < 0.01) and food safety knowledge (P < 0.05) were also significantly increased after educational intervention.

  5. The influence of multiple goals on driving behavior: the case of safety, time saving, and fuel saving.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Ebru; Steg, Linda; Delhomme, Patricia

    2011-09-01

    Due to the innate complexity of the task drivers have to manage multiple goals while driving and the importance of certain goals may vary over time leading to priority being given to different goals depending on the circumstances. This study aimed to investigate drivers' behavioral regulation while managing multiple goals during driving. To do so participants drove on urban and rural roads in a driving simulator while trying to manage fuel saving and time saving goals, besides the safety goals that are always present during driving. A between-subjects design was used with one group of drivers managing two goals (safety and fuel saving) and another group managing three goals (safety, fuel saving, and time saving) while driving. Participants were provided continuous feedback on the fuel saving goal via a meter on the dashboard. The results indicate that even when a fuel saving or time saving goal is salient, safety goals are still given highest priority when interactions with other road users take place and when interacting with a traffic light. Additionally, performance on the fuel saving goal diminished for the group that had to manage fuel saving and time saving together. The theoretical implications for a goal hierarchy in driving tasks and practical implications for eco-driving are discussed.

  6. Food Safety Knowledge and Practices among Older Adults: Identifying Causes and Solutions for Risky Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cates, Sheryl C; Kosa, Katherine M; Karns, Shawn; Godwin, Sandria L; Speller-Henderson, Leslie; Harrison, Robert; Ann Draughon, F

    2009-04-01

    Adults aged 60 years and older are more likely than younger adults to experience complications, hospitalization, and death because of food-borne infections. Recognizing this risk, we conducted a nationally representative survey (n = 1,140) to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices as well as the demographic characteristics of older adults with risky food handling practices. The survey was conducted using a Web-enabled panel. We found that although older adults consider themselves to be knowledgeable about food safety, many are not following recommended food safety practices. Areas for improvement include the following: reheating deli meats to steaming hot, not eating store-bought deli salads, cooking eggs properly, monitoring refrigerator temperature using a thermometer, using a food thermometer to check doneness of meat/poultry/egg dishes, and storing leftovers properly. The survey results also suggest that food safety education targeting older adults is needed and that such initiatives should emphasize practices to prevent listeriosis, a potentially fatal illness among older adults. Our findings suggest that, in particular, men, individuals with higher incomes, and college-educated individuals would benefit from food safety education.

  7. Relationship between consumer food safety knowledge and reported behavior among students from health sciences in one region of Spain.

    PubMed

    Garayoa, Roncesvalles; Córdoba, María; García-Jalón, Isabel; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Vitas, Ana Isabel

    2005-12-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate the relationship between knowledge about food safety and actual food handling practices among Spanish university students (mainly from the health sciences disciplines) who usually prepare meals at home. Based on level of education in food safety topics, students were divided in three groups: high, which included students from Food Science and Nutrition; medium, which included students from other health sciences; and low, which included students from non-health-related studies. More than two thirds of the 562 people selected had an accurate knowledge of the eight foodborne pathogens included in the survey, but only 5.2% were able to identify Staphylococcus aureus as a foodborne pathogen. Significant differences in responses were found depending on educational level concerning the food safety topic. For food handling, up to 60% of the responses reflected accurate knowledge of proper storage of prepared meals and washing of hands and materials to avoid cross-contamination. However, with the exception of questions related to storage temperature, there was considerable difference between knowledge and reported behavior. Although 98.6% of the participants recognized the importance of hand washing before and during food preparation, only one quarter (24.4%) affirmed that they washed their hands with soap and water. On questions concerning food practices, more accurate answers were given by the older students. Women answered questions regarding cross-contamination more accurately, whereas men were more accurate in response to questions concerning temperature and food preservation. In general, students with more knowledge of food hygiene had better reported practices, but even these students reported some high-risk behaviors. These results confirm the need to improve educational programs, ensuring that the acquired knowledge actually modifies consumer behavior.

  8. Food Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Native American Families with Young Children: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Vlasin-Marty, Kara; Ritter-Gooder, Paula; Albrecht, Julie A

    2016-12-01

    Children are at increased risk for foodborne illness due to underdeveloped immune system. Limited research has been reported on food safety knowledge of Native American families with children 10 years of age and younger. This study was conducted to determine the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the main food preparer in these families by collecting quantitative and qualitative data simultaneously in a mixed method approach. A food safety knowledge survey created using FightBAC!(™) concepts was administered prior to focus groups discussions held in Native American communities using a script based upon the Health Belief Model. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Qualitative data were coded by three reviewers independently and then compared jointly for themes. Over three fourths of participants (n = 102) were female with an average age of 38.3 years. Over one half of participants were unemployed (54 %), lived on reservations (54 %), and 86 % had a high school degree or higher level of education. The following four themes emerged from the eight focus groups (n = 66): food can make one sick, I am not in control when others handle food, I know how to safely prepare foods for my family, and I do not have time or best equipment (for food safety). Mixed method analysis revealed that participants were aware of the severity and susceptibility for foodborne illness but were confident in preparing foods safely for their family. A food safety education program for Native American food preparers with young children is needed to prevent foodborne illness (FBI) in this population and promote safe food handling practice.

  9. Human performance cognitive-behavioral modeling: a benefit for occupational safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2002-01-01

    Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a computer-aided job analysis software methodology used to generate predictions of complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns with the goal of improving operator and system safety. The use of HPM tools has recently been increasing due to reductions in computational cost, augmentations in the tools' fidelity, and usefulness in the generated output. An examination of an Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (Air MIDAS) model evaluating complex human-automation integration currently underway at NASA Ames Research Center will highlight the importance to occupational safety of considering both cognitive and physical aspects of performance when researching human error.

  10. Impact of a pilot Walking School Bus intervention on children’s pedestrian safety behaviors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walking School Buses (WSB) are groups of children, led to and from school by parents or other adults, in which children are picked up at designated "bus stops." Pedestrian safety should be taught and modeled by the adults on the walk to school. WSB programs have been reported to increase children’s ...

  11. Food Safety Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitudes of Vendors of Poultry Products Sold at Pennsylvania Farmers' Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2013-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…

  12. The Behavioral Impact of an Advertising Campaign to Promote Safety Belt Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, John G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Safety belt use with and without addition of an incentive strategy was observed among 8,635 drivers at a drive-through restaurant. During the promotional campaign, average rate of belt use tripled compared to baseline following the introduction of a contingent reward (a large soft drink), and declined during followup. (JW)

  13. The Effects of a Violence Prevention Intervention on Prosocial Behavior and Perception of School Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Cheon C.

    2012-01-01

    In order for schools to be successful in providing students with developmentally appropriate instruction and social experiences, an atmosphere of safety and protection is required. The recent spike in school shootings over the past 15 years has created a sense of urgency to examine the dynamics of school violence in order to generate and implement…

  14. Safety-Seeking and Coping Behavior during Exposure Tasks with Anxious Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedtke, Kristina A.; Kendall, Philip C.; Tiwari, Shilpee

    2009-01-01

    This study examined child behavior during exposure tasks and characteristics of the exposure tasks as related to outcomes when treating anxious youth. Participants (aged 7-13) were 87 anxiety-disordered children (37 girls; 50 boys) and their parents (84 mothers; 70 fathers) who completed a 16-session cognitive-behavioral therapy. Videotapes of…

  15. Parent perceptions of neighborhood safety and children's physical activity, sedentary behavior, and obesity: evidence from a national longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy; Shier, Victoria

    2013-05-15

    We examined the relationship between parent-perceived neighborhood safety and children's physical activity, sedentary behavior, body mass, and obesity status using 9 years of longitudinal data (1999-2007) on a cohort of approximately 19,000 US kindergartners from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Children's height and weight measurements and parent perceptions of neighborhood safety were available in kindergarten and in the first, third, fifth, and eighth grades. Dependent variables included age- and gender-specific body mass index percentile, obesity status, and parent- or child-reported weekly physical activity and television-watching. Pooled cross-sectional and within-child longitudinal regression models that controlled for child, family, and school characteristics were fitted. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal models indicated that children whose parents perceived their neighborhoods as unsafe watched more television and participated in less physical activity, although the magnitude of this association was much weaker in longitudinal models. However, there was no significant association between parent-perceived neighborhood safety and children's body mass index.

  16. On an efficient and effective intelligent transportation system (ITS) safety and traffic efficiency application with corresponding driver behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekedebe, Nnanna; Yu, Wei; Lu, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Driver distraction could result in safety compromises attributable to distractions from in-vehicle equipment usage [1]. The effective design of driver-vehicle interfaces (DVIs) and other human-machine interfaces (HMIs) together with their usability, and accessibility while driving become important [2]. Driving distractions can be classified as: visual distractions (any activity that takes your eyes away from the road), cognitive distraction (any activity that takes your mind away from the course of driving), and manual distractions (any activity that takes your hands away from the steering wheel [2]). Besides, multitasking during driving is a distractive activity that can increase the risks of vehicular accidents. To study the driver's behaviors on the safety of transportation system, using an in-vehicle driver notification application, we examined the effects of increasing driver distraction levels on the evaluation metrics of traffic efficiency and safety by using two types of driver models: young drivers (ages 16-25 years) and middle-age drivers (ages 30-45 years). Our evaluation data demonstrates that as a drivers distraction level is increased, less heed is given to change route directives from the in-vehicle on-board unit (OBU) using textual, visual, audio, and haptic notifications. Interestingly, middle-age drivers proved more effective/resilient in mitigating the negative effects of driver distraction over young drivers [2].

  17. Measuring the Safety of Excreta Disposal Behavior in India with the New Safe San Index: Reliability, Validity and Utility

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Marion W.; Freeman, Matthew C.; Routray, Parimita

    2014-01-01

    Methods to assess household excreta disposal practices are critical for informing public health outcomes of efforts to improve sanitation in developing countries. We present a new metric, the Safe San Index (SSI), to quantify the hygienic safety of a household’s defecation and human feces disposal practices in India, where behavioral outcomes from on-going public expenditures to construct household sanitation facilities and eliminate open defecation are poorly measured. We define hygienic safety of feces disposal as capture in a hygienic sanitation facility. The SSI consists of 15 self-report items and two sub-scales, Latrine Use Frequency and Seven-Day Open Defecation Rate. Households are scored on a standardized scale from 0 (no defecation safely captured) to 100 (all defecation safely captured). We present results of a pilot study in Odisha, India to apply the Index to assess excreta disposal behaviors among rural households and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Index for estimating the rate of correct and consistent sanitation facility usage of household with an improved latrine. PMID:25153464

  18. Measuring the safety of excreta disposal behavior in India with the new Safe San Index: reliability, validity and utility.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Marion W; Freeman, Matthew C; Routray, Parimita

    2014-08-15

    Methods to assess household excreta disposal practices are critical for informing public health outcomes of efforts to improve sanitation in developing countries. We present a new metric, the Safe San Index (SSI), to quantify the hygienic safety of a household's defecation and human feces disposal practices in India, where behavioral outcomes from on-going public expenditures to construct household sanitation facilities and eliminate open defecation are poorly measured. We define hygienic safety of feces disposal as capture in a hygienic sanitation facility. The SSI consists of 15 self-report items and two sub-scales, Latrine Use Frequency and Seven-Day Open Defecation Rate. Households are scored on a standardized scale from 0 (no defecation safely captured) to 100 (all defecation safely captured). We present results of a pilot study in Odisha, India to apply the Index to assess excreta disposal behaviors among rural households and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Index for estimating the rate of correct and consistent sanitation facility usage of household with an improved latrine.

  19. OVERVIEW OF MODULAR HTGR SAFETY CHARACTERIZATION AND POSTULATED ACCIDENT BEHAVIOR LICENSING STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J

    2014-06-01

    This report provides an update on modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) accident analyses and risk assessments. One objective of this report is to improve the characterization of the safety case to better meet current regulatory practice, which is commonly geared to address features of today s light water reactors (LWRs). The approach makes use of surrogates for accident prevention and mitigation to make comparisons with LWRs. The safety related design features of modular HTGRs are described, along with the means for rigorously characterizing accident selection and progression methodologies. Approaches commonly used in the United States and elsewhere are described, along with detailed descriptions and comments on design basis (and beyond) postulated accident sequences.

  20. Understanding emergency workers' behavior and perspectives on design and safety in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Elizabeth; Camba, Jorge D

    2017-03-01

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a demanding and hazardous industry. Because of the changing roles in the emergency response system, EMS workers are increasingly expected to provide treatment and care in addition to transport, which increases their task load and susceptibility to harm. This paper serves to outline the EMS field from the worker's perspective with the purpose of understanding their views on health, safety, and the work environment, and identify where gaps in worker well-being are exposed. Through direct observation, field studies, and formal interviews with EMS professionals, we discuss where reluctance lies in addressing safety issues and the current efforts to address them. A high prevalence of responses regarding the inadequacy of ambulance restraining systems was reported, as existing interventions do not take into account medic needs.

  1. First report of field evolved resistance to agrochemicals in dengue mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Agrochemicals have been widely used in Pakistan for several years. This exposes mosquito populations, particularly those present around agricultural settings, to an intense selection pressure for insecticide resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of representative agrochemicals against various populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) collected from three different regions from 2008-2010. Results For organophosphates and pyrethroids, the resistance ratios compared with susceptible Lab-PK were in the range of 157-266 fold for chlorpyrifos, 24-52 fold for profenofos, 41-71 fold for triazofos, and 15-26 fold for cypermethrin, 15-53 fold for deltamethrin and 21-58 fold for lambdacyhalothrin. The resistance ratios for carbamates and new insecticides were in the range of 13-22 fold for methomyl, 24-30 fold for thiodicarb, and 41-101 fold for indoxacarb, 14-27 fold for emamectin benzoate and 23-50 fold for spinosad. Pair wise comparisons of the log LC50s of insecticides revealed correlation among several insecticides, suggesting a possible cross resistance mechanism. Moreover, resistance remained stable across 3 years, suggesting field selection for general fitness had also taken place for various populations of Ae. albopictus. Conclusion Moderate to high level of resistance to agrochemicals in Pakistani field populations of Ae. albopictus is reported here first time. The geographic extent of resistance is unknown but, if widespread, may lead to problems in future vector control. PMID:21781290

  2. Towards predictive resistance models for agrochemicals by combining chemical and protein similarity via proteochemometric modelling.

    PubMed

    van Westen, Gerard J P; Bender, Andreas; Overington, John P

    2014-10-01

    Resistance to pesticides is an increasing problem in agriculture. Despite practices such as phased use and cycling of 'orthogonally resistant' agents, resistance remains a major risk to national and global food security. To combat this problem, there is a need for both new approaches for pesticide design, as well as for novel chemical entities themselves. As summarized in this opinion article, a technique termed 'proteochemometric modelling' (PCM), from the field of chemoinformatics, could aid in the quantification and prediction of resistance that acts via point mutations in the target proteins of an agent. The technique combines information from both the chemical and biological domain to generate bioactivity models across large numbers of ligands as well as protein targets. PCM has previously been validated in prospective, experimental work in the medicinal chemistry area, and it draws on the growing amount of bioactivity information available in the public domain. Here, two potential applications of proteochemometric modelling to agrochemical data are described, based on previously published examples from the medicinal chemistry literature.

  3. Modifying physician behavior to improve cost-efficiency in safety-net ambulatory settings.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, Nancy; Gumus, Gulcin; Deckard, Gloria J

    2013-01-01

    Change interventions in one form or another are viewed as important tools to reduce variation in medical services, reduce costs, and improve quality of care. With the current focus on efficient resource use, the successful design and implementation of change strategies are of utmost importance for health care managers. We present a case study in which macro and micro level change strategies were used to modify primary care physicians' practice patterns of prescribing diagnostic services in a safety-net's ambulatory clinics. The findings suggest that health care managers using evidence-based strategies can create a practice environment that reduces barriers and facilitates change.

  4. The Role of Attitudes about Vaccine Safety, Efficacy, and Value in Explaining Parents' Reported Vaccination Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVail, Katherine Hart; Kennedy, Allison Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To explain vaccine confidence as it related to parents' decisions to vaccinate their children with recommended vaccines, and to develop a confidence measure to efficiently and effectively predict parents' self-reported vaccine behaviors. Method: A sample of parents with at least one child younger than 6 years ("n" = 376) was…

  5. The Role of Work Habits in the Motivation of Food Safety Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinsz, Verlin B.; Nickell, Gary S.; Park, Ernest S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors considered work habits within an integrated framework of motivated behavior. A distinction made between automatic and controlled action led to 2 measures of work habits: a habit strength measure reflecting the 4 characteristics of automaticity and a measure of work routines under conscious control. Workers at a turkey processing plant…

  6. Seeking Safety and Empathy: Adolescent Health Seeking Behavior during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood in Central Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K.; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. Methods: This was a qualitative study…

  7. Thick as Thieves: The Effects of Ethical Orientation and Psychological Safety on Unethical Team Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Matthew J.; Ellis, Aleksander P. J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover compositional and emergent influences on unethical behavior by teams. Results from 126 teams indicated that the presence of a formalistic orientation within the team was negatively related to collective unethical decisions. Conversely, the presence of a utilitarian orientation within the team was positively…

  8. Social Environment and Problem Behavior: Perceived School Safety, Gender, and Sexual Debut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Alice L.; Atav, A. Serdar

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, 48% of U.S. students of grades 9 to 12 had experienced sexual debut, 7% before the age of 13 years. Preventing early intercourse, sexually transmitted diseases, adolescent pregnancy, and the loss of educational opportunity are important concerns for nurses and educators. A secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)…

  9. Empowering Schools to Serve as Safety Nets for Children with Behavior Problems in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutlesic, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Children with special needs have been a focus of institutional reforms in Serbia for nearly two decades. Historically, as in other Eastern European countries, children with severe developmental, emotional, and/or behavior disorders in Serbia were often placed in institutions far from their families for much of their lives. Since the fall of…

  10. Measuring the impact of an interprofessional multimedia learning resource on Japanese nurses and nursing students using the Theory of Planned Behavior Medication Safety Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Omura, Mieko; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Stone, Teresa Elizabeth; Maguire, Jane; Lapkin, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Interprofessional communication and teamwork are essential for medication safety; however, limited educational opportunities for health professionals and students to develop these skills exist in Japan. This study evaluated the impact of an interprofessional multimedia learning resource on registered nurses' and nursing students' intention to practice in a manner promoting medication safety. Using a quasi-experimental design, Japanese registered nurses and nursing students (n = 203) were allocated to an experimental (n = 109) or control group (n = 94). Behavioral intentions of medication safety and the predictor variables of attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms were measured using a Japanese version of the Theory of Planned Behavior Medication Safety Questionnaire. Registered nurses in the experimental group demonstrated a greater intention to collaborate and practice in a manner that enhanced medication safety, evidenced by higher scores than the control group on all predictor variables. The results demonstrate the potential for interprofessional multimedia learning resources to positively impact the behaviors of Japanese registered nurses in relation to safe medication practices. Further research in other contexts and with other cohorts is warranted.

  11. Impact of a Pilot Walking School Bus Intervention on Children’s Pedestrian Safety Behaviors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A; Uscanga, Doris K; Hanfling, Marcus J

    2011-01-01

    Walking school buses (WSB) increased children’s physical activity, but impact on pedestrian safety behaviors (PSB) is unknown. We tested the feasibility of a protocol evaluating changes to PSB during a WSB program. Outcomes were school-level street crossing PSB prior to (Time 1) and during weeks 4-5 (Time 2) of the WSB. The protocol collected 1252 observations at Time 1 and 2548 at Time 2. Mixed model analyses yielded: intervention schoolchildren had 5-fold higher odds (p<0.01) of crossing at the corner/crosswalk but 5-fold lower odds (p<0.01) of stopping at the curb. The protocol appears feasible for documenting changes to school-level PSB. PMID:22243904

  12. Perceptions of risk, stressors, and locus of control influence intentions to practice safety behaviors in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Elkind, Pamela Dee

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that a combination of factors including risk perceptions, locus of control, and chronic stress influences farmers' intentions to behave safely. To demonstrate how these intervening variables influence behavioral intentions, results of 16 empirical research projects are superimposed upon an extensive literature review. Analyses include data collected from 3165 respondents via survey questionnaires, couple and key informant interviews, quasi-experimental evaluation instruments, and focus group dialogue. Using Ajzen's framework, this multilayered research process yields a wealth of both qualitative and quantitative data to support the argument. The results suggest that information alone will not affect behavior. Only when chronic stressors from occupational and structural processes are alleviated and coping mechanisms introduced, the political economy of farming improves, and farm populations perceive that they are in control of their work environment will meaningful reduction in agricultural injuries and agricultural-related disease be possible.

  13. Structural and Functional Elucidation of Yeast Lanosterol 14α-Demethylase in Complex with Agrochemical Antifungals.

    PubMed

    Tyndall, Joel D A; Sabherwal, Manya; Sagatova, Alia A; Keniya, Mikhail V; Negroni, Jacopo; Wilson, Rajni K; Woods, Matthew A; Tietjen, Klaus; Monk, Brian C

    2016-01-01

    Azole antifungals, known as demethylase inhibitors (DMIs), target sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway of fungal pathogens of both plants and humans. DMIs remain the treatment of choice in crop protection against a wide range of fungal phytopathogens that have the potential to reduce crop yields and threaten food security. We used a yeast membrane protein expression system to overexpress recombinant hexahistidine-tagged S. cerevisiae lanosterol 14α-demethylase and the Y140F or Y140H mutants of this enzyme as surrogates in order characterize interactions with DMIs. The whole-cell antifungal activity (MIC50 values) of both the R- and S-enantiomers of tebuconazole, prothioconazole (PTZ), prothioconazole-desthio, and oxo-prothioconazole (oxo-PTZ) as well as for fluquinconazole, prochloraz and a racemic mixture of difenoconazole were determined. In vitro binding studies with the affinity purified enzyme were used to show tight type II binding to the yeast enzyme for all compounds tested except PTZ and oxo-PTZ. High resolution X-ray crystal structures of ScErg11p6×His in complex with seven DMIs, including four enantiomers, reveal triazole-mediated coordination of all compounds and the specific orientation of compounds within the relatively hydrophobic binding site. Comparison with CYP51 structures from fungal pathogens including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Aspergillus fumigatus provides strong evidence for a highly conserved CYP51 structure including the drug binding site. The structures obtained using S. cerevisiae lanosterol 14α-demethylase in complex with these agrochemicals provide the basis for understanding the impact of mutations on azole susceptibility and a platform for the structure-directed design of the next-generation of DMIs.

  14. Structural and Functional Elucidation of Yeast Lanosterol 14α-Demethylase in Complex with Agrochemical Antifungals

    PubMed Central

    Sagatova, Alia A.; Keniya, Mikhail V.; Negroni, Jacopo; Wilson, Rajni K.; Woods, Matthew A.; Monk, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Azole antifungals, known as demethylase inhibitors (DMIs), target sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway of fungal pathogens of both plants and humans. DMIs remain the treatment of choice in crop protection against a wide range of fungal phytopathogens that have the potential to reduce crop yields and threaten food security. We used a yeast membrane protein expression system to overexpress recombinant hexahistidine-tagged S. cerevisiae lanosterol 14α-demethylase and the Y140F or Y140H mutants of this enzyme as surrogates in order characterize interactions with DMIs. The whole-cell antifungal activity (MIC50 values) of both the R- and S-enantiomers of tebuconazole, prothioconazole (PTZ), prothioconazole-desthio, and oxo-prothioconazole (oxo-PTZ) as well as for fluquinconazole, prochloraz and a racemic mixture of difenoconazole were determined. In vitro binding studies with the affinity purified enzyme were used to show tight type II binding to the yeast enzyme for all compounds tested except PTZ and oxo-PTZ. High resolution X-ray crystal structures of ScErg11p6×His in complex with seven DMIs, including four enantiomers, reveal triazole-mediated coordination of all compounds and the specific orientation of compounds within the relatively hydrophobic binding site. Comparison with CYP51 structures from fungal pathogens including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Aspergillus fumigatus provides strong evidence for a highly conserved CYP51 structure including the drug binding site. The structures obtained using S. cerevisiae lanosterol 14α-demethylase in complex with these agrochemicals provide the basis for understanding the impact of mutations on azole susceptibility and a platform for the structure-directed design of the next-generation of DMIs. PMID:27907120

  15. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Ruiz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition if the VM of the pure waste was added. This likely occurred because of the relatively low total N (1.16%) content and high C/N ratio (35.0). However, the comparatively low C decomposition of this VM type makes its application highly recommendable as a strategy to increase the levels of organic matter and C, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture.

  16. Abiotic reduction reactions of dichloroacetamide safeners: transformations of "inert" agrochemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Sivey, John D; Roberts, A Lynn

    2012-02-21

    Safeners are so-called "inert" constituents of herbicide formulations added to protect crops from the toxic effects of herbicides. We examined the reactivity of three dichloroacetamide safeners and 12 structural analogues [all neutral compounds of the form Cl(2)CXC(═O)NRR'; X = H, Cl; R-groups include alkyl, branched alkyl, n-allyl, and cyclic moieties] in one homogeneous and two heterogeneous reductant systems: solutions of Cr(H(2)O)(6)(2+), suspensions of Fe(II)-amended goethite, and suspensions of Fe(II)-amended hematite. Analyses of reaction products indicate each safener can undergo stepwise hydrogenolysis (replacement of chlorine by hydrogen) in each system at near-neutral pH. The first hydrogenolysis step generates compounds similar (in one case, identical) to herbicide active ingredients. Rates of product formation and (when reactions were sufficiently fast) parent loss were quantified; reaction rates in heterogeneous systems spanned 2 orders of magnitude and were strongly influenced by R-group structure. The length of n-alkyl R-groups exerted opposite effects on hydrogenolysis rates in homogeneous versus heterogeneous systems: as R-group size increased, reduction rates in heterogeneous systems increased, whereas reduction rates in the homogeneous system decreased. Branched alkyl R-groups decreased hydrogenolysis rates relative to their straight-chain homologues in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. Reaction rates in heterogeneous systems can be described via polyparameter linear free energy relationships employing molecular parameters likely to influence dichloroacetamide adsorption. The propensity of dichloroacetamide safeners to undergo reductive transformations into herbicide-like products challenges their classification as "inert" agrochemical ingredients.

  17. Low-dose agrochemicals and lawn-care pesticides induce developmental toxicity in murine preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Greenlee, Anne R; Ellis, Tammy M; Berg, Richard L

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposures to pesticides may increase parental risk of infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, and congenital anomalies. Less is known about residential use of pesticides and the risks they pose to reproduction and development. In the present study we evaluate environmentally relevant, low-dose exposures to agrochemicals and lawn-care pesticides for their direct effects on mouse preimplantation embryo development, a period corresponding to the first 5-7 days after human conception. Agents tested were those commonly used in the upper midwestern United States, including six herbicides [atrazine, dicamba, metolachlor, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)], pendimethalin, and mecoprop), three insecticides (chlorpyrifos, terbufos, and permethrin), two fungicides (chlorothalonil and mancozeb), a desiccant (diquat), and a fertilizer (ammonium nitrate). Groups of 20-25 embryos were incubated 96 hr in vitro with either individual chemicals or mixtures of chemicals simulating exposures encountered by handling pesticides, inhaling drift, or ingesting contaminated groundwater. Incubating embryos with individual pesticides increased the percentage of apoptosis (cell death) for 11 of 13 chemicals (p

  18. Quantifying exposure of wild bumblebees to mixtures of agrochemicals in agricultural and urban landscapes.

    PubMed

    Botías, Cristina; David, Arthur; Hill, Elizabeth M; Goulson, Dave

    2017-03-01

    The increased use of pesticides has caused concern over the possible direct association of exposure to combinations of these compounds with bee health problems. There is growing proof that bees are regularly exposed to mixtures of agrochemicals, but most research has been focused on managed bees living in farmland, whereas little is known about exposure of wild bees, both in farmland and urban habitats. To determine exposure of wild bumblebees to pesticides in agricultural and urban environments through the season, specimens of five different species were collected from farms and ornamental urban gardens in three sampling periods. Five neonicotinoid insecticides, thirteen fungicides and a pesticide synergist were analysed in each of the specimens collected. In total, 61% of the 150 individuals tested had detectable levels of at least one of the compounds, with boscalid being the most frequently detected (35%), followed by tebuconazole (27%), spiroxamine (19%), carbendazim (11%), epoxiconazole (8%), imidacloprid (7%), metconazole (7%) and thiamethoxam (6%). Quantifiable concentrations ranged from 0.17 to 54.4 ng/g (bee body weight) for individual pesticides. From all the bees where pesticides were detected, the majority (71%) had more than one compound, with a maximum of seven pesticides detected in one specimen. Concentrations and detection frequencies were higher in bees collected from farmland compared to urban sites, and pesticide concentrations decreased through the season. Overall, our results show that wild bumblebees are exposed to multiple pesticides when foraging in agricultural and urban landscapes. Such mixtures are detected in bee tissues not just during the crop flowering period, but also later in the season. Therefore, contact with these combinations of active compounds might be more prolonged in time and widespread in the environment than previously assumed. These findings may help to direct future research and pesticide regulation strategies to

  19. Exploring the safety implications of young drivers' behavior, attitudes and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hany M; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed A

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims at identifying and quantifying significant factors (i.e., demographic, aberrant driving behavior) associated with young drivers' involvement in at-fault crashes or traffic citations at the ages of 16-17 (while having the Operational License) and 18-24 years old (while having the Full License). A second objective was to investigate the main reason(s) for involvement in risky driving behavior by young drivers. The data used for the analyses were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire survey carried out among 680 young drivers in Central Florida. To achieve these goals, the structural equation modeling approach was adopted. The results revealed that aggressive violations, in-vehicle distractions and demographic characteristics were the significant factors affecting young drivers' involvement in at-fault crashes or traffic violations at the age of 16-17. However, in-vehicle distractions, attitudes toward speeding and demographic characteristics were the significant factors affecting young drivers' crash risk at 18-24. Additionally, the majority of participants reported that "running late" is the main reason for taking risk while driving (i.e., speeding, accept short gaps, or drive so close to the car in front) followed by "racing other cars". Additionally, "exceed speed limits" was the main reason for receiving traffic citations at 16-17 and 18-24 age groups. Practical suggestions on how to reduce crash risk and promote safe driving among young drivers are also discussed.

  20. Examining the link between forms of bullying behaviors and perceptions of safety and belonging among secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Goldweber, Asha; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2013-08-01

    Research suggests that students who bully may perceive the school climate less favorably. Person-centered analyses were used to identify distinct groupings of bullying behaviors and related social-emotional factors (i.e., victimization, internalizing, and perception of school and bullying climate). Latent class analyses were conducted on a sample of 10,254 middle and 2509 high school students and indicated four classes in middle school (Low Involvement, Verbal, High Physical/High Verbal, and High Involvement) and three classes in high school (Low Involvement, Verbal, and High Involvement). A Low Involvement bullying class characterized most students and was related to positive adjustment, whereas a High Involvement bullying class represented the smallest proportion of the sample (1.6% middle school and 7.3% in high school). Students in the High Involvement class reported increased victimization and internalizing problems, feeling less safe and less belonging, and perceiving the school climate to be more supportive of bullying (i.e., perceiving adults' prevention and intervention efforts as ineffective). In middle school, the High Physical/High Verbal class reported significantly higher levels of victimization as compared to the Verbal class. Findings highlight heterogeneity in bullying behaviors and underscore the importance of prevention and intervention programming that addresses safety and belonging.

  1. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...

  2. Current United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on understanding agrochemical fate and transport to prevent and mitigate adverse environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Rice, Clifford P; Sadeghi, Ali M; Schmidt, Walter F; McCarty, Gregory W; Starr, James L; Rice, Pamela J; Angier, Jonathan T; Harman-Fetcho, J A

    2003-01-01

    Environmentally and economically viable agriculture requires a variety of cultivation practices and pest management options as no one system will be appropriate for every situation. Agrochemicals are some of the many pest control tools used in an integrated approach to pest management. They are applied with the intent of maximizing efficacy while minimizing off-site movement; however, their judicious use demands a practical knowledge of their fate and effects in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Agrochemical distribution into environmental compartments is influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the agrochemical and environmental conditions, ie soil type and structure, and meteorological conditions. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) researchers working in the area of agrochemical fate have focused on accurately describing those processes that govern the transport, degradation and bioavailability of these chemicals under conditions reflecting actual agronomic practices. Results from ARS research concerning the environmental fate and effects of agrochemicals have led to the development of science-based management practices that will protect vulnerable areas of the ecosystem. The new challenge is to identify these vulnerable areas and the temporal and spatial variations prior to use of the chemical by predicting how it will behave in environmental matrices, and using that information, predict its transport and transformation within an air- or watershed. With the development of better predictive tools and GIS (Geographic Information System)-based modeling, the risks of agricultural management systems can be assessed at the watershed and basin levels, and management strategies can be identified that minimize negative environmental impacts.

  3. Assessment of diurnal systemic dose of agrochemicals in regulatory toxicity testing--an integrated approach without additional animal use.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Shakil A; Bartels, Michael J; Rick, David L; McCoy, Alene T; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Sue Marty, M; Terry, Claire; Bailey, Jason P; Billington, Richard; Bus, James S

    2012-07-01

    Integrated toxicokinetics (TK) data provide information on the rate, extent and duration of systemic exposure across doses, species, strains, gender, and life stages within a toxicology program. While routine for pharmaceuticals, TK assessments of non-pharmaceuticals are still relatively rare, and have never before been included in a full range of guideline studies for a new agrochemical. In order to better understand the relationship between diurnal systemic dose (AUC(24h)) and toxicity of agrochemicals, TK analyses in the study animals is now included in all short- (excluding acute), medium- and long-term guideline mammalian toxicity studies including reproduction/developmental tests. This paper describes a detailed procedure for the implementation of TK in short-, medium- and long-term regulatory toxicity studies, without the use of satellite animals, conducted on three agrochemicals (X11422208, 2,4-D and X574175). In these studies, kinetically-derived maximum doses (KMD) from short-term studies instead of, or along with, maximum tolerated doses (MTD) were used for the selection of the high dose in subsequent longer-term studies. In addition to leveraging TK data to guide dose level selection, the integrated program was also used to select the most appropriate method of oral administration (i.e., gavage versus dietary) of test materials for rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies. The integrated TK data obtained across toxicity studies (without the use of additional/satellite animals) provided data critical to understanding differences in response across doses, species, strains, sexes, and life stages. Such data should also be useful in mode of action studies and to improve human risk assessments.

  4. A modeling approach for agricultural water management in citrus orchards: cost-effective irrigation scheduling and agrochemical transport simulation.

    PubMed

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P

    2015-07-01

    The water flow and the mass transport of agrochemicals in the unsaturated and saturated zone were simulated in the extended alluvial basin of Keritis river in Crete, Greece (a predominantly flat and most productive citrus growing area) using the hydrological model MIKE SHE. This model was set up based on information on land use, geology, soil structure, meteorological data, as well as groundwater level data from pumping wells. Additionally, field measurements of the soil moisture at six different locations from three soil depths (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 m) were used as targets to calibrate and validate the unsaturated flow model while for saturated condition, groundwater level data from three well locations were used. Following the modeling approach, the agrochemical mass transport simulation was performed as well, based on different application doses. After the successful calibration processes, the obtained 1D modeling results of soil moisture-pressure related to soil depth at different locations were used to design a proper and cost-effective irrigation programme (irrigation timing, frequency, application rates, etc.) for citrus orchards. The results of the present simulation showed a very good correlation with the field measurements. Based on these results, a proper irrigation plan can be designed at every site of the model domain reducing the water consumption up to 38% with respect to the common irrigation practices and ensuring the citrus water productivity. In addition, the effect of the proposed irrigation scheduling on citrus yield was investigated. Regarding the agrochemical concentration in the groundwater for all dose cases was below the maximum permissible limit. The only exception was for the highest dose in areas where the water table is high. Thus, this modeling approach could be used as a tool for appropriate water management in an agricultural area estimating at each time and location the availability of soil water, contributing to a cost

  5. Improving patient safety by modifying provider ordering behavior using alerts (CDSS) in CPOE system.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Kshitij; Lung, Barry R; Becker, Jody R

    2011-01-01

    Medication errors are not unusual in acute care settings. This prospective time series analysis/study evaluates the use of Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS)/alerts in helping providers not to make errors, when putting in orders in a CPOE system. We reviewed electronic health records for all the inpatients coming to 5 community hospitals for a 6 months duration (July 2010 - December 2010). Responses to 9 synchronous alerts (CDSS tools) were studied, that were prompted on computer screens when providers were putting in medication orders in EMR. These alerts guided the providers regarding any drug duplications, interactions, contraindications of the prescribed medicine with patient's clinical condition etc. The CDSS system in place changed the physician behavior & patient therapy 41.75% of the times when medication orders were placed. These alerts substantially decreased the medication error rate/adverse drug events (ADE's) in the patients receiving care at these 5 hospitals.

  6. Long-Term Impact of Community-Based Information, Education and Communication Activities on Food Hygiene and Food Safety Behaviors in Vietnam: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Takanashi, Kumiko; Quyen, Dao To; Le Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-01-01

    Background Ingestion of contaminated water or food is a major contributor to childhood diarrhea in developing countries. In Vietnam, the use of community-based information, education and communication (IEC) activities could be a sustainable strategy to improve food hygiene and food safety behaviors. This study thus examined the long-term impact of community-based IEC activities on food hygiene and food safety behaviors. Methods In this longitudinal study, we interviewed caregivers of children aged between six months and four years in suburban Hanoi. Baseline data were collected in January 2006 (n = 125). After conducting IEC interventions, we collected a 1st set of evaluation data in January 2007 (n = 132). To examine the long-term impact of the interventions, we then collected a 2nd set of evaluation data in January 2008 (n = 185). Changes in childhood diarrhea prevalence, IEC coverage, and food hygiene and food safety behaviors were assessed over a two-year period using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Effective IEC channels were determined through multiple linear regression analysis. Results Childhood diarrhea was significantly reduced from 21.6% at baseline to 7.6% at the 1st post-intervention evaluation (P = 0.002), and to 5.9% at the 2nd evaluation. Among 17 food hygiene and food safety behaviors measured, a total of 11 behaviors were improved or maintained by the 2nd evaluation. Handwashing after toilet use was significantly improved at both evaluation points. Overall, 3 food safety behaviors and 7 food hygiene behaviors were found to have significantly improved at the 1st and at the 2nd evaluations, respectively. Flip chart communication administered by community groups was identified to be the most effective IEC channel for effecting behavior change (P = 0.018). Conclusions Flip chart communication administered by community groups is effective for improving multiple food hygiene and food safety behaviors in sustainable ways

  7. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Teaching Package Utilizing Behavioral Skills Training and In Situ Training to Teach Gun Safety Skills in a Preschool Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanratty, Laura A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Florentino, Samantha R.

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of different safety threats that children face in their lives. One infrequent, but highly dangerous situation a child can face is finding a firearm. Hundreds of children are injured or killed by firearms each year. Fortunately, behavioral skills training (BST) and in situ training (IST) are effective approaches for teaching a…

  8. Changes in the agrochemical properties of major arable soils in the south of the Far East of Russia under the impact of their long-term agricultural use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdukovskii, M. L.; Golov, V. I.; Kovshik, I. G.

    2016-10-01

    Agrochemical properties of meadow-brown (Gleyic Cambisols (Clayic, Aric)) and meadow-chernozemic (Luvic Gleyic Chernic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric, Pachic)) soils under the impact of long-term application of mineral and organic fertilizers were studied. The investigations were performed at the agrochemical experimental stations of the Primorskii region and Amur oblast founded in 1941 and 1962, respectively. It was shown that the long-term crop cultivation without fertilizers or with great rates of mineral fertilizers and lime resulted in the soil dehumification, a rise in the soil acidity, and a decrease of the content of exchangeable bases. These processes were slowed down by the application of organic fertilizers. Agrochemical parameters of meadow-chernozemic and floodplain meadow (Fluvic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric, Oxyaquic)) soils of Amur oblast (Russia) and the Heilongjiang border province (China) were compared.

  9. Feasibility of bioengineered two-stages sequential batch reactor and filtration-adsorption process for complex agrochemical effluent.

    PubMed

    Manekar, Pravin; Biswas, Rima; Urewar, Chaitali; Pal, Sukdeb; Nandy, Tapas

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, the feasibility of a bioengineered two-stages sequential batch reactor (BTSSBR) followed by filtration-adsorption process was investigated to treat the agrochemical effluent by overcoming factor affecting process stability such as microbial imbalance and substrate sensitivity. An air stripper stripped 90% of toxic ammonia, and combined with other streams for bio-oxidation and filtration-adsorption. The BTSSBR system achieved bio-oxidation at 6 days hydraulic retention time by fending off microbial imbalance and substrate sensitivity. The maximum reduction in COD and BOD by heterotrophic bacteria in the first reactor was 87% and 90%, respectively. Removal of toxic ammoniacal-nitrogen by autotrophic bacteria in a post-second stage bio-oxidation was 97%. The optimum filtration and adsorption of pollutants were achieved at a filtration rate of 10 and 9 m(3)m(-2)h(-1), respectively. The treatment scheme comprising air stripper, BTSSBR and filtration-adsorption process showed a great promise for treating the agrochemical effluent.

  10. Mechanisms of resistance and cross-resistance to agrochemicals in the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus (Crustacea: Anostraca).

    PubMed

    Brausch, John M; Smith, Philip N

    2009-05-05

    Extensive pesticide usage in the Southern High Plains has led to the development of resistance in many pest species, as well as some non-target organisms. Thamnocephalus platyurus derived from agriculturally impacted watersheds are between two and three times less sensitive to commonly applied agrochemicals than T. platyurus from native grassland watersheds. Biological mechanisms that convey such resistance are currently unknown. This study identified the contribution of metabolic enzymes to T. platyurus pesticide resistance using the synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) to inhibit cytochrome P450s or hydrolases, respectively. Inhibition of cytochrome P450s and hydrolases partially restored cyfluthrin and DDT sensitivity in T. platyurus, suggesting other resistance inferring mechanism(s) were also involved. However, inhibition of hydrolases with DEF completely restored methyl parathion sensitivity in pesticide resistant T. platyurus. DDT resistance paralleled cyfluthrin resistance, but did not for methyl parathion resistance. These data suggest that the primary mechanism for the development of resistance to agrochemicals in T. platyurus is due to increased metabolic detoxification.

  11. High-Frequency Regeneration of the Drought-Tolerant Tree Melia volkensii Gurke Using Low-Cost Agrochemical Thidiazuron

    PubMed Central

    Mulanda, Eliud Sagwa; Adero, Mark Ochieng; Amugune, Nelson Onzere; Akunda, Elijah; Kinyamario, Jenesio I.

    2012-01-01

    Melia volkensii Gurke is a drought-tolerant tree native to East Africa's arid and semiarid lands (ASALs), with vast but underutilized potential for agroforestry and sustainable livelihoods in the ASALs. Its cultivation is limited by difficulties in propagation via conventional means. Full exploitation of the ability of thidiazuron (TDZ) to elicit regeneration in plant tissue cultures, as sole plant growth regulator (PGR), is hampered by high costs. This study tested the effectiveness of a low-cost agrochemical TDZ for in vitro propagation of M. volkensii. Zygotic embryos from mature seeds were cultured on Gamborg's B5 medium containing 0 to 4 mg/L of agrochemical TDZ from Kingtai Chemicals Co.,Ltd., China. Callus induction frequency was 96.67 to 100%. Significantly large callus fresh mass was produced at 0.05 mg/L TDZ concentration (ANOVA, P < 0.001). The effect of TDZ on embryogenicity was significant over certain ranges of concentrations (Anova, P < 0.001). Multiple somatic embryos developed within 14 days of subculture to hormone-free B5 medium. Somatic embryos developed into microshoots which elongated when transferred to 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine plus 10% coconut water. The Kingtai-TDZ showed a high potency and suitability for use in M. volkensii tissue culture. PMID:23227344

  12. The influence of microrelief on the agrochemical properties of chernozems and the yield of spring wheat and barley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpedt, A. A.; Nikitina, V. I.

    2009-08-01

    The influence of microrelief on the fertility of ordinary chernozems and the yield of cereal crops was studied in the Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe. The microrelief was shown to affect the humus state and the agrochemical properties of the chernozem. The productivity of the cereals was shown to differ by 1.3-2.6 times in the areas where the microrelief was strongly pronounced, and the yield of the cereal crops grown in depressions was lower by 1.1-1.8 times as compared to that on the flat areas. The correlation between the plant productivity and the humus content and the pHsalt in the soil was revealed. In order to take into account the influence of the microrelief and to reduce its effects on the yield of crops, the scale of soil and agrochemical investigations is recommended to be increased. Within the boundaries of the existing agricultural lands, the geochemical zones of removal, transport, and accumulation of soil material should be determined.

  13. Amphibian (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis) in vitro ovarian culture system to assess impact of aquatic agrochemical contaminants on female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Katti, Pancharatna A; Ghodgeri, Manjunath G; Goundadkar, Basavaraj B

    2016-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to screen impacts of aquatic agrochemical contaminants (acephate, atrazine and cypermethrin) on development and growth of follicles, in in vitro-cultured ovarian fragments of frog (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis). Ovarian lobes removed surgically from gravid females were cut into small pieces and cultured in vitro in presence of graded (0.01 or 0.1 μg/ml of culture medium) concentrations of test chemicals or estradiol-17β (positive controls) or culture medium alone (controls) in quadruplicate sets at 23 ± 1 °C temperature for 20 days in a humidified sterile chamber. On 21st day, they were fixed in Bouin's fluid and used for differential follicle counting (n = 3 sets) and histology (n = 1 set). In vitro exposure of ovarian fragments to test chemicals caused a decline in previtellogenic follicles, maintenance of large yolky follicles, incorporation of brown granules into early vitellogenic follicles and decrease in follicular atresia compared to corresponding controls. These results suggest that ovarian follicles are greatly sensitive to chemical exposure during their transition from previtellogenic to vitellogenic growth phase and in vitro ovarian culture system may be used as a tool to assess the effects of aquatic agrochemical contaminants on ovarian function.

  14. School Bus Safety Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This publication provides a summary and update of school bus-safety activities conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). This report discusses Congressional mandates and NHTSA's actions to improve school-bus safety (which include programs that affect human behavior and motor-vehicle safety performance), the magnitude…

  15. Neonatal lesions of orbital frontal areas 11/13 in monkeys alter goal-directed behavior but spare fear conditioning and safety signal learning.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Andy M; Davis, Michael; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in monkeys have demonstrated that damage to the lateral subfields of orbital frontal cortex (OFC areas 11/13) yields profound changes in flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and deficits in fear regulation. Yet, little consideration has been placed on its role in emotional and social development throughout life. The current study investigated the effects of neonatal lesions of the OFC on the flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and fear responses in monkeys. Infant monkeys received neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 or sham-lesions during the first post-natal week. Modulation of goal-directed behaviors was measured with a devaluation task at 3-4 and 6-7 years. Modulation of fear reactivity by safety signals was assessed with the AX+/BX- fear-potentiated-startle paradigm at 6-7 years. Similar to adult-onset OFC lesions, selective neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 yielded a failure to modulate behavioral responses guided by changes in reward value, but spared the ability to modulate fear responses in the presence of safety signals. These results suggest that these areas play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation during goal-directed behaviors, but not or less so, in the development of the ability to process emotionally salient stimuli and to modulate emotional reactivity using environmental contexts, which could be supported by other OFC subfields, such as the most ventromedial subfields (i.e., areas 14/25). Given similar impaired decision-making abilities and spared modulation of fear after both neonatal lesions of either OFC areas 11 and 13 or amygdala (Kazama et al., 2012; Kazama and Bachevalier, 2013), the present results suggest that interactions between these two neural structures play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation; an ability essential for the self-regulation of emotion and behavior that assures the maintenance of successful social relationships.

  16. The Study Of Soil And Agrochemical Features Of Zonal Soils Of Coal Mining Enterprises In Kemerovo Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovchenko, M. A.; Kosolapova, A. A.; Ermolaev, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper represents the results of the study of soil and agrochemical features of zonal soils: the grain-size composition, the content of humus, phosphorus and potassium, and heavy metals, the reaction of soil solution of the territory of the open-pit coal mine No12 of Kemerovo region in the areas of the working enterprise. The species composition of the lignose and herbaceous vegetation of the undisturbed territories has been studied. It has been revealed that the fertile soil layer of the studied areas of the open-pit coal mine is characterized as fertile but can’t be removed and stored because the surface of the whole area under study is forest-covered very much, rumpled, there are gullies and a lot of wind-fallen trees.

  17. Model based decision support system for agrochemical applications for MMAT nozzles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Droplet size, which is affected by nozzle type, nozzle setups and operation, and spray solution, is one of the most critical factors influencing spray performance (Gajtkowski 1985, Matthews 2000, Giles et al. 2005, Miller Tuck 2005, drift (Hewitt 1997), and food safety (Czaczyk Gnusowski 2007), and ...

  18. Monitoring wheat mitochondrial compositional and respiratory changes using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy in response to agrochemical treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Matthew; Wegner, Casey; Phansak, Piyaporn; Sarath, Gautam; Gaussoin, Roch; Schlegel, Vicki

    2017-02-01

    Fungicides and plant growth regulators can impact plant growth outside of their effects on fungal pathogens. Although many of these chemicals are inhibitors of mitochondrial oxygen uptake, information remains limited as to whether they are able to modify other mitochondrial constituents. Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-mIR) offers a high sample throughput method to comparatively and qualitatively evaluate the effects of exogenously added compounds on mitochondrial components. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the ability of FT-mIR to detect effects mitochondrial fractions isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings in response to several agrochemical treatments, with an emphasis on fungicides. The accessed need was to develop FT-mIR analytical and statistical routines as an effective approach to differentiate spectra obtained from chemically-treated or untreated mitochondria. An NADH-dependent oxygen uptake approach was initially used as a comparative method to determine whether the fungicides (azoxystrobin, boscalid, cyazofamid, fluazinam, isopyrazam, and pyraclostrobin) and the plant growth regulator, (trinexapac-ethyl) reduced respiration inhibition on isolated mitochondria. Pyraclostrobin was the most effective inhibitor, whereas amisulbrom did not impact oxygen uptake. However, hierarchical clustering of FT-mIR spectra of isolated mitochondria treated with these different compounds separated into clades consistent with each of their expected mode of action. Analysis of the FT-mIR amide protein region indicated that amisulbrom and pyraclostrobin interacted with the isolated wheat mitochondria. Both chemicals were statistically different from the control signifying that respiration was indeed influenced by these treatments. Moreover, the entire FT-mIR region showed differences in various biological bands thereby providing additional information on mitochondria responses to agrochemicals, if so warranted.

  19. Ethnic Minority Children’s Active Commuting to School and Association with Physical Activity and Pedestrian Safety Behaviors*

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Jason A.; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Uscanga, Doris K.; Nguyen, Nga; Hanfling, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    -to-vigorous physical activity, active commuting to school was positively associated (std. beta = 0.31, p <0.001). Among the Latino subsample, child acculturation was negatively associated with active commuting to school (std. beta = −0.23, p=0.01). With regard to school-level pedestrian safety observations, 37% of students stopped at the curb and 2.6% looked left-right-left before crossing the street. Conclusion Although still below national goals, the rate of active commuting was relatively high, while the rate of some pedestrian safety behaviors was low among this low-income, ethnic minority population. Programs and policies to encourage safe active commuting to school are warranted and should consider the influence of parents, acculturation, and ethnicity. PMID:21874160

  20. Examination of the Safety of Pediatric Vaccine Schedules in a Non-Human Primate Model: Assessments of Neurodevelopment, Learning, and Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Britni; Liberato, Noelle; Rulien, Megan; Morrisroe, Kelly; Kenney, Caroline; Yutuc, Vernon; Ferrier, Clayton; Marti, C. Nathan; Mandell, Dorothy; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Sackett, Gene P.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the 1990s, the mercury-based preservative thimerosal was used in most pediatric vaccines. Although there are currently only two thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) recommended for pediatric use, parental perceptions that vaccines pose safety concerns are affecting vaccination rates, particularly in light of the much expanded and more complex schedule in place today. Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the safety of pediatric vaccine schedules in a non-human primate model. Methods We administered vaccines to six groups of infant male rhesus macaques (n = 12–16/group) using a standardized thimerosal dose where appropriate. Study groups included the recommended 1990s Pediatric vaccine schedule, an accelerated 1990s Primate schedule with or without the measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine, the MMR vaccine only, and the expanded 2008 schedule. We administered saline injections to age-matched control animals (n = 16). Infant development was assessed from birth to 12 months of age by examining the acquisition of neonatal reflexes, the development of object concept permanence (OCP), computerized tests of discrimination learning, and infant social behavior. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, multilevel modeling, and survival analyses, where appropriate. Results We observed no group differences in the acquisition of OCP. During discrimination learning, animals receiving TCVs had improved performance on reversal testing, although some of these same animals showed poorer performance in subsequent learning-set testing. Analysis of social and nonsocial behaviors identified few instances of negative behaviors across the entire infancy period. Although some group differences in specific behaviors were reported at 2 months of age, by 12 months all infants, irrespective of vaccination status, had developed the typical repertoire of macaque behaviors. Conclusions This comprehensive 5-year case–control study, which closely examined

  1. Influence of rice field agrochemicals on the ecological status of a tropical stream.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Reiler, Emilie Marie; Carazo, Elizabeth; Matarrita, Jessie; Muñoz, Alejandro; Cedergreen, Nina

    2016-01-15

    Many tropical countries contain a high density of protected ecosystems, and these may often be bordered by intensive agricultural systems. We investigated the chemical and ecological status of a stream connecting an area with conventional rice production and a downstream protected nature reserve; Mata Redonda. Three sites were sampled: 1) an upstream control, 2) in the rice production area and 3) a downstream site in Mata Redonda. We sampled benthic macroinvertebrates and pesticides in water and sediments along with supporting physical and chemical data. Pesticide concentrations in water exceeded current safety thresholds at sites 2 and 3, especially during the rainy season, and sediment associated pesticide concentrations exceeded current safety thresholds in three of six samples. Importantly, the highest predicted pesticide toxicity in sediments was observed at site 3 in the Mata Redonda confirming that the nature reserve received critical levels of pesticide pollution from upstream sections. The currently used macroinvertebrate index in Costa Rica (BMWP-CR) and an adjusted version of the SPecies At Risk index (SPEAR) were not significantly correlated to any measure of anthropogenic stress, but the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT) index was significantly correlated with the predicted pesticide toxicity (sumTUD.magna), oxygen concentrations and substrate composition. Our results suggest that pesticide pollution was likely involved in the impairment of the ecological status of the sampling sites, including site 3 in Mata Redonda. Based on our results, we give guidance to biomonitoring in Costa Rica and call for increased focus on pesticide transport from agricultural regions to protected areas.

  2. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  3. Personal Protective Equipment Use and Safety Behaviors among Farm Adolescents: Gender Differences and Predictors of Work Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah B.; Browning, Steven R.; Westneat, Susan C.; Kidd, Pamela S.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Children on farms perform work that places them at risk for acute and chronic negative health outcomes. Despite strategies for preventing and reducing the risk of disease and injury, children's use of personal protective equipment and safety equipped farm machinery has generally remained unreported. Purpose: This paper reports the use of…

  4. Tiered application of the neutral red release and EpiOcular™ assays for evaluating the eye irritation potential of agrochemical formulations.

    PubMed

    Settivari, Raja S; Amado, Ricardo Acosta; Corvaro, Marco; Visconti, Nicolo R; Kan, Lynn; Carney, Edward W; Boverhof, Darrell R; Gehen, Sean C

    2016-11-01

    Agrochemical formulations have been underrepresented in validation efforts for implementing alternative eye irritation approaches but represent a significant opportunity to reduce animal testing. This study assesses the utility of the neutral red release assay (NRR) and EpiOcular™ assay (EO) for predicting the eye irritation potential of 64 agrochemical formulations relative to Draize data. In the NRR, formulations with an NRR50 value ≤ 50 mg/mL were categorized as UN GHS Cat 1 and those >250 mg/mL were classified as UN GHS Non Classified (NC). The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 78, 85 and 76% and 73, 85 and 61% for identifying UN GHS 1 and NC formulations, respectively. Specificity was poor for formulations with NRR50 > 50 to ≤250 mg/mL. The EO (ET-40 method) was explored to differentiate formulations that were UN GHS 1/2 and UN GHS NC. The EO resulted in accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 65%, 58% and 75% for identifying UN GHS NC formulations. To improve the overall performance, the assays were implemented using a tiered-approach where the NRR was run as a first-tier followed by the EO. The tiered-approach resulted in improved accuracy (75%) and balanced sensitivity (73%) and specificity (77%) for distinguishing between irritating and non-irritating agrochemical formulations.

  5. The First Order Transfer Function in the Analysis of Agrochemical Data in Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L.): Proboscis Extension Reflex (PER) Studies

    PubMed Central

    De Stefano, Lisa A.; Stepanov, Igor I.; Abramson, Charles I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of the learning process suitable for studies of conditioning using the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in honey bees when bees are exposed to agrochemicals. Although procedural variations exist in the way laboratories use the PER paradigm, proboscis conditioning is widely used to investigate the influence of pesticides and repellents on honey bee learning. Despite the availability of several mathematical models of the learning process, no attempts have been made to apply a mathematical model to the learning curve in honey bees exposed to agrochemicals. Our model is based on the standard transfer function in the form Y = B3e−B2 (X−1) + B4 (1−e−B2 (X−1)) where X is the trial number, Y is the proportion of correct responses, B2 is the learning rate, B3 is readiness to learn, and B4 is ability to learn. We reanalyze previously published data on the effect of several classes of agrochemicals including: (1) those that are considered harmless to bees (e.g., pymetrozine, essential oils, dicofol); (2) sublethal exposure to pesticides known to harm honey bees (e.g., coumaphos, cyfluthrin, fluvalinate, permethrin); and (3) putative repellents of honey bees (e.g., butyric acid, citronella). The model revealed additional effects not detected with standard statistical tests of significance. PMID:26462584

  6. Agrochemicals in field margins--assessing the impacts of herbicides, insecticides, and fertilizer on the common buttercup (Ranunculus acris).

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Juliane; Schäfer, Karoline; Brühl, Carsten A

    2013-04-01

    The effects of herbicide, insecticide, and fertilizer inputs on the common buttercup Ranunculus acris in field margins were studied in an experimental field study. The test design allowed us to investigate the single and combined effects of repeated herbicide, insecticide, and fertilizer applications in successive growing seasons. To assess the effects of the agrochemical applications on R. acris, plant community assessments were carried out and a photodocumentation of the flowering intensity was performed over two years. In addition, the authors conducted a monitoring survey of R. acris in field margins in the proximity of the study site. In the field experiment, R. acris plant density decreased significantly with treatments including fertilizer. The herbicide caused a sublethal effect by reducing flower intensity by 85%. In the long run, both effects will result in a decline of R. acris and lead to shifts in plant communities in field margins. This was confirmed by the monitoring survey, where R. acris could hardly be observed in field margins directly adjacent to cereal fields, whereas in margins next to meadows the species was recorded frequently. Besides the implications for the plants, the sublethal effects may also affect many flower-visiting insects. The results indicate that the current risk assessment for nontarget plants is insufficiently protective for wild plant species in field margins and that consideration of sublethal effects is crucial to preserve biodiversity in agricultural landscapes.

  7. 3,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetate interleaved into anionic clay for controlled release formulation of a new environmentally friendly agrochemical

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A new layered organic–inorganic nanohybrid material, zinc-aluminum-3,4-dicholorophenoxyacetate (N3,4-D) in which an agrochemical, 3,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (3,4-D), is intercalated into zinc-aluminum-layered double hydroxide (ZAL), was synthesized by coprecipitation method. A well-ordered nanomaterial was formed with a percentage loading of 53.5% (w/w). Due to the inclusion of 3,4-D, basal spacing expanded from 8.9 Å in ZAL to 18.7 Å in N3,4-D. The Fourier transform infrared study shows that the absorption bands of the resulting nanohybrid composed of both the 3,4-D and ZAL further confirmed the intercalation episode. Thermal analysis shows that ZAL host enhances the thermal stability of 3,4-D. Controlled-release experiment shows that the release of 3,4-D in the aqueous media is in the order of phosphate > carbonate > sulfate > chloride. These studies demonstrate the successful intercalation of the 3,4-D and its controlled release property in various aqueous media. PMID:23968197

  8. Vectorization of agrochemicals: amino acid carriers are more efficient than sugar carriers to translocate phenylpyrrole conjugates in the Ricinus system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanxiang; Marhadour, Sophie; Lei, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Wen; Marivingt-Mounir, Cécile; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis; Chollet, Jean-François

    2016-12-13

    Producing quality food in sufficient quantity while using less agrochemical inputs will be one of the great challenges of the twenty-first century. One way of achieving this goal is to greatly reduce the doses of plant protection compounds by improving the targeting of pests to eradicate. Therefore, we developed a vectorization strategy to confer phloem mobility to fenpiclonil, a contact fungicide from the phenylpyrrole family used as a model molecule. It consists in coupling the antifungal compound to an amino acid or a sugar, so that the resulting conjugates are handled by active nutrient transport systems. The method of click chemistry was used to synthesize three conjugates combining fenpiclonil to glucose or glutamic acid with a spacer containing a triazole ring. Systemicity tests with the Ricinus model have shown that the amino acid promoiety was clearly more favorable to phloem mobility than that of glucose. In addition, the transport of the amino acid conjugate is carrier mediated since the derivative of the L series was about five times more concentrated in the phloem sap than its counterpart of the D series. The systemicity of the L-derivative is pH dependent and almost completely inhibited by the protonophore carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). These data suggest that the phloem transport of the L-derivative is governed by a stereospecific amino acid carrier system energized by the proton motive force.

  9. Effect of agrochemical use on the drinking water quality of Agogo, a tomato growing community in Ashanti Akim, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri-Danso, K; Adonadaga, M G; Hogarh, J N

    2011-01-01

    The effect of agrochemical use in agricultural activities on the drinking water quality of ground and surface water within Agogo, a prominent tomato growing area in the Ashanti region of Ghana was assessed by monitoring physicochemical parameters, trace metals and microbial quality of two water sources. Levels of contamination were greater in surface water than groundwater. Trace metal levels (mg/L) were 1.40, 0.12, 0.08 and 0.18 in surface water and 0.08, 0.10, 0.05 and 0.08 in groundwater for Fe, Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. Lead and Cd in surface and groundwater exceeded USEPA maximum acceptable levels (MCLs) for drinking water. Bacterial indicator numbers (geometric means/100 mL) in surface water varied from 9.35 x 10⁵ to 1.57 x 10¹¹ for total coliforms, 4.15 x 10⁴ to 2.10 x 10⁷ for faecal coliforms and 2.80 x 10 to 3.25 x 10² for enterococci, but none was found in groundwater.

  10. Spatiotemporal scaling of hydrological and agrochemical export dynamics in a tile-drained Midwestern watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, K.; Thompson, S. E.; Harman, C. J.; Basu, N. B.; Rao, P. S. C.; Sivapalan, M.; Packman, A. I.; Kalita, P. K.

    2011-10-01

    Conceptualizing catchments as physicochemical filters is an appealing way to link streamflow discharge and concentration time series to hydrological and biogeochemical processing in hillslopes and drainage networks. Making these links explicit is challenging in complex watersheds but may be possible in highly modified catchments where hydrological and biogeochemical processes are simplified. Linking hydrological and biogeochemical filtering in highly modified watersheds is appealing from a water quality perspective in order to identify the major controls on chemical export at different spatial and temporal scales. This study investigates filtering using a 10 year data set of hydrological and biogeochemical export from a small (<500 km2) agricultural watershed in Illinois, the Little Vermilion River (LVR) Watershed. A number of distinct scaling regimes were identified in the Fourier power spectrum of discharge and nitrate, phosphate, and atrazine concentrations. These scaling regimes were related to different runoff pathways and spatial scales throughout the catchment (surface drainage, tile drains, and channel flow in the river). Wavelet analysis indicated increased coupling between discharge and in-stream concentrations at seasonal-annual time scales. Using a multiresolution analysis, nitrate, phosphate, and atrazine loads exported at annual scales were found to exhibit near-linear scaling with annual streamflow, suggesting that at these scales the export dynamics could be approximated as chemostatic responses. This behavior was pronounced for nitrate and less so for phosphate and atrazine. The analysis suggests that biogeochemical inputs built up legacy loads, leading to the emergence of chemostatic behavior at annual time scales, even at the relatively small scale of the LVR.

  11. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  12. Distribution of agrochemicals in the lower Mississippi River and its tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Mississippi River and its tributaries drain extensive agricultural regions of the Mid-Continental United States. Millions of pounds of herbicides are applied annually in these areas to improve crop yields. Many of these compounds are transported into the river from point and nonpoint sources, and eventually are discharged into the Gulf of Mexico. Studies being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey along the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries, representing a 2000 km river reach, have confirmed that several triazine and acetanilide herbicides and their degradation products are ubiquitous in this riverine system. These compounds include atrazine and its degradation products desethyl and desisopropylatrazine, cyanazine, simazine, metolachlor, and alachlor and its degradation products 2-chloro-2',6'-diethylacetanilide, 2-hydroxy-2',6-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline. Loads of these compounds were determined at 16 different sampling stations. Stream-load calculations provided information concerning (a) conservative or nonconservative behavior of herbicides; (b) point sources or nonpoint sources; (c) validation of sampling techniques; and (d) transport past each sampling station.

  13. The effect of falsely balanced reporting of the autism-vaccine controversy on vaccine safety perceptions and behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Graham; Clarke, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    Controversy surrounding an autism-vaccine link has elicited considerable news media attention. Despite being widely discredited, research suggests that journalists report this controversy by presenting claims both for and against a link in a relatively 'balanced' fashion. To investigate how this reporting style influences judgments of vaccine risk, we randomly assigned 320 undergraduate participants to read a news article presenting either claims both for/against an autism-vaccine link, link claims only, no-link claims only or non-health-related information. Participants who read the balanced article were less certain that vaccines are safe, more likely to believe experts were less certain that vaccines are safe and less likely to have their future children vaccinated. Results suggest that balancing conflicting views of the autism-vaccine controversy may lead readers to erroneously infer the state of expert knowledge regarding vaccine safety and negatively impact vaccine intentions.

  14. A School-Based Study of Adolescent All-Terrain Vehicle Exposure, Safety Behaviors, and Crash Experience

    PubMed Central

    Jennissen, Charles A.; Harland, Karisa K.; Wetjen, Kristel; Peck, Jeffrey; Hoogerwerf, Pam; Denning, Gerene M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE More youth are killed every year in the United States in all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes than on bicycles, and since 2001, one-fifth of all ATV fatalities have involved victims aged 15 years or younger. Effectively preventing pediatric ATV-related deaths and injuries requires knowledge about youth riding practices. Our objective was to examine ATV use, crash prevalence, and riding behaviors among adolescent students in a rural state. METHODS We administered a cross-sectional survey to 4,684 youths aged 11 to 16 years at 30 schools across Iowa from November 2010 to April 2013. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed. RESULTS Regardless of rurality, at least 75% of students reported having been on an ATV, with 38% of those riding daily or weekly. Among ATV riders, 57% had been in a crash. Most riders engaged in risky behaviors, including riding with passengers (92%), on public roads (81%), or without a helmet (64%). Almost 60% reported engaging in all 3 behaviors; only 2% engaged in none. Multivariable modeling revealed male youth, students riding daily/weekly, and those reporting both riding on public roads and with passengers were 1.61 (95% CI, 1.36–1.91), 3.73 (95% CI, 3.10–4.50), and 3.24 (95% CI, 2.09–5.04) times more likely to report a crash, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Three-fourths of youths surveyed were exposed to ATVs. The majority of riders had engaged in unsafe behaviors and experienced a crash. Given this widespread use and the potentially considerable morbidity of pediatric ATV crashes, prevention efforts, including anticipatory guidance by primary care clinicians serving families at risk, should be a higher priority. PMID:25024238

  15. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  16. The effects of behavioral health reform on safety-net institutions: a mixed-method assessment in a rural state.

    PubMed

    Willging, Cathleen E; Sommerfeld, David H; Aarons, Gregory A; Waitzkin, Howard

    2014-03-01

    In July 2005, New Mexico initiated a major reform of publicly-funded behavioral healthcare to reduce cost and bureaucracy. We used a mixed-method approach to examine how this reform impacted the workplaces and employees of service agencies that care for low-income adults in rural and urban areas. Information technology problems and cumbersome processes to enroll patients, procure authorizations, and submit claims led to payment delays that affected the financial status of the agencies, their ability to deliver care, and employee morale. Rural employees experienced lower levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment and higher levels of turnover intentions under the reform when compared to their urban counterparts.

  17. Efficacy and safety comparison of DL-3-n-butylphthalide and Cerebrolysin: Effects on neurological and behavioral outcomes in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    XUE, LI-XIA; ZHANG, TING; ZHAO, YU-WU; GENG, ZHI; CHEN, JING-JIONG; CHEN, HAO

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrolysin and DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) have each shown neuroprotective efficacy in preclinical models of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and passed clinical trials as therapeutic drugs for AIS. The present study was a clinical trial to assess and compare the efficacy and safety of NBP and Cerebrolysin in the reduction of neurological and behavioral disability following AIS. A randomized, double-blind trial was conducted with enrolment of 60 patients within 12 h of AIS. In addition to routine treatment, patients were randomly assigned to receive a 10-day intravenous administration of NBP, Cerebrolysin or placebo. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and Barthel Index (BI) scores were used to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment in the patients with AIS at 11 and 21 days after the initiation of therapy. Adverse events were also analyzed among the three groups. After 10 days of treatment with NBP or Cerebrolysin, the NIHSS and BI scores at day 21 showed statistical differences compared with those in the placebo group (P<0.05). The improvements of NIHSS and BI scores in the NBP and Cerebrolysin groups were higher than those in the placebo group at days 11 and 21 (P<0.05). A statistically significant difference in the improvement of 21-day NIHSS scores was observed between the two treatment groups (P<0.05). No significant difference was found among the three groups with regard to the rate of adverse events. Favorable outcomes and good safety were observed in the patients with moderate AIS treated with NBP or Cerebrolysin. The results indicate that NBP may be more effective than Cerebrolysin in improving short-term outcomes following AIS. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with clinical trial identifier number NCT02149875. PMID:27168844

  18. Efficacy and safety comparison of DL-3-n-butylphthalide and Cerebrolysin: Effects on neurological and behavioral outcomes in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Xue, Li-Xia; Zhang, Ting; Zhao, Yu-Wu; Geng, Zhi; Chen, Jing-Jiong; Chen, Hao

    2016-05-01

    Cerebrolysin and DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) have each shown neuroprotective efficacy in preclinical models of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and passed clinical trials as therapeutic drugs for AIS. The present study was a clinical trial to assess and compare the efficacy and safety of NBP and Cerebrolysin in the reduction of neurological and behavioral disability following AIS. A randomized, double-blind trial was conducted with enrolment of 60 patients within 12 h of AIS. In addition to routine treatment, patients were randomly assigned to receive a 10-day intravenous administration of NBP, Cerebrolysin or placebo. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and Barthel Index (BI) scores were used to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment in the patients with AIS at 11 and 21 days after the initiation of therapy. Adverse events were also analyzed among the three groups. After 10 days of treatment with NBP or Cerebrolysin, the NIHSS and BI scores at day 21 showed statistical differences compared with those in the placebo group (P<0.05). The improvements of NIHSS and BI scores in the NBP and Cerebrolysin groups were higher than those in the placebo group at days 11 and 21 (P<0.05). A statistically significant difference in the improvement of 21-day NIHSS scores was observed between the two treatment groups (P<0.05). No significant difference was found among the three groups with regard to the rate of adverse events. Favorable outcomes and good safety were observed in the patients with moderate AIS treated with NBP or Cerebrolysin. The results indicate that NBP may be more effective than Cerebrolysin in improving short-term outcomes following AIS. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with clinical trial identifier number NCT02149875.

  19. Human aspects of mission safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.

    1989-01-01

    Recent discussions of psychology's involvement in spaceflight have emphasized its role in enhancing space living conditions and incresing crew productivity. While these goals are central to space missions, behavioral scientists should not lose sight of a more basic flight requirement - that of crew safety. This paper examines some of the processes employed in the American space program in support of crew safety and suggests that behavioral scientists could contribute to flight safety, both through these formal processes and through less formal methods. Various safety areas of relevance to behavioral scientists are discussed.

  20. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  1. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs about Vaccine Safety Research Publications HDM Reports ISO Scientific Agenda Ensuring Safety History Understanding Side Effects ... Datalink Publications Emergency Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  2. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Slider, J.E. ); Patterson, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of superabsorbent polymer prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto carboxymethyl cellulose for controlled release of agrochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemvichian, Kasinee; Chanthawong, Auraruk; Suwanmala, Phiriyatorn

    2014-10-01

    Superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was synthesized by radiation-induced grafting of acrylamide (AM) onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in the presence of a crosslinking agent, N,N‧-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA). The effects of various parameters, such as dose, the amount of CMC, AM, MBA and ionic strength on the swelling ratio were investigated. In order to evaluate its controlled release potential, SAP was loaded with potassium nitrate (KNO3) as an agrochemical model and its potential for controlled release of KNO3 was studied. The amount of released KNO3 was analyzed by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results from controlled release experiment agreed very well with the results from swelling experiment. The synthesized SAP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The obtained SAP exhibited a swelling ratio of 190 g/g of dry gel.

  4. High-performance liquid chromatographic separations of stereoisomers of chiral basic agrochemicals with polysaccharide-based chiral columns and polar organic mobile phases.

    PubMed

    Matarashvili, Iza; Shvangiradze, Iamze; Chankvetadze, Lali; Sidamonidze, Shota; Takaishvili, Nino; Farkas, Tivadar; Chankvetadze, Bezhan

    2015-12-01

    The separation of the stereoisomers of 23 chiral basic agrochemicals was studied on six different polysaccharide-based chiral columns in high-performance liquid chromatography with various polar organic mobile phases. Along with the successful separation of analyte stereoisomers, emphasis was placed on the effect of the chiral selector and mobile phase composition on the elution order of stereoisomers. The interesting phenomenon of reversal of enantiomer/stereoisomer elution order function of the polysaccharide backbone (cellulose or amylose), type of derivative (carbamate or benzoate), nature, and position of the substituent(s) in the phenylcarbamate moiety (methyl or chloro) and the nature of the mobile phase was observed. For several of the analytes containing two chiral centers all four stereoisomers were resolved with at least one chiral selector/mobile phase combination.

  5. Archetypes for Organisational Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marais, Karen; Leveson, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a framework using system dynamics to model the dynamic behavior of organizations in accident analysis. Most current accident analysis techniques are event-based and do not adequately capture the dynamic complexity and non-linear interactions that characterize accidents in complex systems. In this paper we propose a set of system safety archetypes that model common safety culture flaws in organizations, i.e., the dynamic behaviour of organizations that often leads to accidents. As accident analysis and investigation tools, the archetypes can be used to develop dynamic models that describe the systemic and organizational factors contributing to the accident. The archetypes help clarify why safety-related decisions do not always result in the desired behavior, and how independent decisions in different parts of the organization can combine to impact safety.

  6. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  7. Testing for Software Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ken; Lee, Yann-Hang; Wong, W. Eric; Xu, Dianxiang

    2007-01-01

    This research focuses on testing whether or not the hazardous conditions identified by design-level fault tree analysis will occur in the target implementation. Part 1: Integrate fault tree models into functional specifications so as to identify testable interactions between intended behaviors and hazardous conditions. Part 2: Develop a test generator that produces not only functional tests but also safety tests for a target implementation in a cost-effective way. Part 3: Develop a testing environment for executing generated functional and safety tests and evaluating test results against expected behaviors or hazardous conditions. It includes a test harness as well as an environment simulation of external events and conditions.

  8. Auto Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... kids by following simple safety measures and by teaching some basic rules. Importance of Child Safety Seats ... your child correctly — a small child in a large seat may not be the best option. Models ...

  9. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety A A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  10. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Water Safety KidsHealth > For Teens > Water Safety A A ... tied to alcohol use. previous continue At the Water Park OK, so you do more splashing than ...

  11. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safety of fish caught in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. Advisories may recommend that ... Charts Picky Eating Physical Activity Food Safety Resources Kids Students Adults Families Professionals Multiple Languages MyPlate, MyWins ...

  12. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety Print A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  13. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Water Safety KidsHealth > For Teens > Water Safety Print A ... tied to alcohol use. previous continue At the Water Park OK, so you do more splashing than ...

  14. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  15. Fire Safety in Extraterrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Despite rigorous fire-safety policies and practices, fire incidents are possible during lunar and Martian missions. Fire behavior and hence preventive and responsive safety actions in the missions are strongly influenced by the low-gravity environments in flight and on the planetary surfaces. This paper reviews the understanding and key issues of fire safety in the missions, stressing flame spread, fire detection, suppression, and combustion performance of propellants produced from Martian resources.

  16. Organizational Culture and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    '..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

  17. Safety and Sex Practices among Nebraska Adolescents. Technical Report 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; Perry-Hunnicutt, Christina

    This report describes a range of adolescent behaviors related to their safety and the safety of others. The behaviors reported here range from ordinary safety precautions such as only swimming in supervised areas and wearing helmets when riding a motorcycle to less talked about behaviors such as using condoms during sexual intercourse and carrying…

  18. Twenty-second water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 2: Severe accident research, thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs, high-burnup fuel behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1995-04-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Second Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 24-26, 1994. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting.

  19. Medication safety.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  20. Safety in Cyberspace: Adolescents' Safety and Exposure Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Michele J.; Greentree, Shane; Cocotti-Muller, Dayana; Elias, Kristy A.; Morrison, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted among 692 Australian 13-to 16-year-olds to examine aspects of their Internet use and, in particular, their exposure to inappropriate material and behaviors online and their online safety practices. Significant differences were found in the amount of exposure to inappropriate material or behaviors online according to sex and…

  1. Lightning safety guidelines.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Christoph; Cooper, Mary Ann; Holle, Ronald L

    2002-06-01

    On average, lightning causes more casualties annually in the United States than any other storm-related phenomenon except floods. Although 90% of those injured survive, they may have permanent sequelae and disability. Many of these people incur injuries or are killed by lightning because of misinformation and inappropriate behavior during thunderstorms. A few simple precautions can reduce lightning injury risk. To standardize recommended actions during thunderstorms, the Lightning Safety Group (LSG), composed of lightning experts from many lightning-related backgrounds, met at the American Meteorological Society meeting Phoenix, AZ, in January 1998 to collectively address personal lightning safety. This paper is a summary of the recommendations developed by the LSG.

  2. Model-Based Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Anjali; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Miller, Steven P.; Whalen, Mike W.

    2006-01-01

    System safety analysis techniques are well established and are used extensively during the design of safety-critical systems. Despite this, most of the techniques are highly subjective and dependent on the skill of the practitioner. Since these analyses are usually based on an informal system model, it is unlikely that they will be complete, consistent, and error free. In fact, the lack of precise models of the system architecture and its failure modes often forces the safety analysts to devote much of their effort to gathering architectural details about the system behavior from several sources and embedding this information in the safety artifacts such as the fault trees. This report describes Model-Based Safety Analysis, an approach in which the system and safety engineers share a common system model created using a model-based development process. By extending the system model with a fault model as well as relevant portions of the physical system to be controlled, automated support can be provided for much of the safety analysis. We believe that by using a common model for both system and safety engineering and automating parts of the safety analysis, we can both reduce the cost and improve the quality of the safety analysis. Here we present our vision of model-based safety analysis and discuss the advantages and challenges in making this approach practical.

  3. Solidifying Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Solidifying Safety: NASA s new safety organization spools up, as the 1SS program grapples with long-term risk. 2. Earth to Orbit O'Keefe telling skeptical lawmakers Orbital Space Plan (OSP) will cover exploration vision. China's rapid pace.

  4. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  5. Lab Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sandra S.

    1991-01-01

    In response to the Texas Hazardous Communication Act (THCA) of 1986 which raised many new health and liability issues regarding students in science laboratories, a laboratory safety survey was generated for use in evaluating laboratory safety. This article contains the easy-to-use survey. (ZWH)

  6. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  7. Biodegradation study of enzymatically catalyzed interpenetrating polymer network: Evaluation of agrochemical release and impact on soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Saruchi; Kaith, B S; Kumar, Vaneet; Jindal, R

    2016-03-01

    A novel interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) has been synthesized through enzymatic initiation using lipase as initiator, glutaraldehyde as cross-linker, acrylic acid as primary monomer and acrylamide as secondary monomer. Biodegradability of synthesized interpenetrating polymer network was studied through soil burial and composting methods. Synthesized hydrogel was completely degraded within 70 days using composting method, while it was 86.03% degraded within 77 days using soil burial method. This was confirmed by Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Synthesized interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel was used as a device for controlled release of urea and also act as water releasing device. Their impact on soil fertility and plant growth was also studied. The initial diffusion coefficient has a greater value than the later diffusion coefficient indicating a higher fertilizer release rate during the early stage. Fertilizer release kinetic was also studied which showed Non-Fickian diffusion behavior, as the rate of fertilizer release was comparable to the relaxation time of the synthesized matrix. Synthesized IPN enhance the water uptake capacity up to 6.2% and 7.2% in sandy loam and clay soil, respectively.

  8. The Hidden Effects of Dairy Farming on Public and Environmental Health in the Netherlands, India, Ethiopia, and Uganda, Considering the Use of Antibiotics and Other Agro-chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Groot, Maria J.; van’t Hooft, Katrien E.

    2016-01-01

    The current and expected growth of the world’s population warrants an increased production of high-quality animal protein. Dairy farming is regarded as one of the important ways of satisfying this need to meet the growing demand for milk, especially in developing countries. The focus on crossbreeding and increasing the productivity of dairy cattle has, besides enhanced milk production, also resulted in an increased use of agro-­chemicals, mainly antibiotics and anti-parasite drugs. The residues of these agro-chemicals, if not managed properly, could leak into the environment, affecting natural processes, biodiversity, and soil life. Public health can also be affected due to residues in milk and meat, especially in countries with insufficient food quality controls. These processes contribute to the growing global threat to human and animal health posed by multi-resistant microbes. This article discusses the differences and similarities of dairy farming, and the effect on public and environmental health, between the Netherlands, India, Ethiopia, and Uganda, emphasizing the strategies that have been developed during the E-Motive exchange project to reduce the use of antibiotics and other chemicals in dairy farming. Proposed solutions include raising consciousness about the risk of antibiotics and their effect on food quality, and implementing the Natural Livestock Farming five-layer approach for reducing the use of antibiotics and other chemicals. This approach is based on improving animal and farm management, revitalizing ethno veterinary knowledge and the use of medicinal plants, genetic improvement through strategic use of local breeds, establishing quality control systems in the dairy chain, and extra payment to farmers for residue-free milk. PMID:26942171

  9. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  10. Disentangling the roles of safety climate and safety culture: Multi-level effects on the relationship between supervisor enforcement and safety compliance.

    PubMed

    Petitta, Laura; Probst, Tahira M; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Ghezzi, Valerio

    2017-02-01

    Despite increasing attention to contextual effects on the relationship between supervisor enforcement and employee safety compliance, no study has yet explored the conjoint influence exerted simultaneously by organizational safety climate and safety culture. The present study seeks to address this literature shortcoming. We first begin by briefly discussing the theoretical distinctions between safety climate and culture and the rationale for examining these together. Next, using survey data collected from 1342 employees in 32 Italian organizations, we found that employee-level supervisor enforcement, organizational-level safety climate, and autocratic, bureaucratic, and technocratic safety culture dimensions all predicted individual-level safety compliance behaviors. However, the cross-level moderating effect of safety climate was bounded by certain safety culture dimensions, such that safety climate moderated the supervisor enforcement-compliance relationship only under the clan-patronage culture dimension. Additionally, the autocratic and bureaucratic culture dimensions attenuated the relationship between supervisor enforcement and compliance. Finally, when testing the effects of technocratic safety culture and cooperative safety culture, neither safety culture nor climate moderated the relationship between supervisor enforcement and safety compliance. The results suggest a complex relationship between organizational safety culture and safety climate, indicating that organizations with particular safety cultures may be more likely to develop more (or less) positive safety climates. Moreover, employee safety compliance is a function of supervisor safety leadership, as well as the safety climate and safety culture dimensions prevalent within the organization.

  11. [Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].

    PubMed

    Spendeler, Liliane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability.

  12. The Psychology of Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brenda Lindley

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of mishaps show that human error is a factor in a significant majority of accidents. Trying to decide how to change human behavior to be safer is generally the biggest challenge of any safety program. However, understanding the human psyche is the first step to changing behavior. Many studies focus on the before and after of an accident, but what about the thoughts of a person in the commission of an unsafe act? This is a less understood area. Examining it reveals why it is not well comprehended. This paper attempts to examine a part of the thought process, with an eye to helping influence people to less hurtful actions.

  13. Sun Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Buttons and Badges Stay Informed Cancer Home Sun Safety Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays can damage your skin in ...

  14. Transient heat transfer behavior of water spray evaporative cooling on a stainless steel cylinder with structured surface for safety design application in high temperature scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Hong, Wang; Xun, Zhu; Song, Sihong; Sajid, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    High heat transfer performance of spray cooling on structured surface might be an additional measure to increase the safety of an installation against any threat caused by rapid increase in the temperature. The purpose of present experimental study is to explore heat transfer performance of structured surface under different spray conditions and surface temperatures. Two cylindrical stainless steel samples were used, one with pyramid pins structured surface and other with smooth surface. Surface heat flux of 3.60, 3.46, 3.93 and 4.91 MW/m2 are estimated for sample initial average temperature of 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C, respectively for an inlet pressure of 1.0 MPa. A maximum cooling rate of 507 °C/s was estimated for an inlet pressure of 0.7 MPa at 900 °C for structured surface while for smooth surface maximum cooling rate of 356 °C/s was attained at 1.0 MPa for 700 °C. Structured surface performed better to exchange heat during spray cooling at initial sample temperature of 900 °C with a relative increase in surface heat flux by factor of 1.9, 1.56, 1.66 and 1.74 relative to smooth surface, for inlet pressure of 0.4, 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 MPa, respectively. For smooth surface, a decreasing trend in estimated heat flux is observed, when initial sample temperature was increased from 600 to 900 °C. Temperature-based function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Limited published work is available about the application of structured surface spray cooling techniques for safety of stainless steel structures at very high temperature scenario such as nuclear safety vessel and liquid natural gas storage tanks.

  15. Engineering Safety-Related Requirements for Software-Intensive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Climate Orbiter ($125 million) English vs. Metric units mismatch Mars Polar Lander Missing requirement concerning touchdown sensor behavior Therac – 25 ...Engineering Safety-Related Requirements for Software-Intensive Systems 25 Corresponding Safety Subfactors Safety SubfactorSafety Safety Problem Type Safety...station with the doors open for boarding, the horizontal gap between the station platform and the vehicle door threshold shall be no greater than 25 mm

  16. Aspartame: review of safety.

    PubMed

    Butchko, Harriett H; Stargel, W Wayne; Comer, C Phil; Mayhew, Dale A; Benninger, Christian; Blackburn, George L; de Sonneville, Leo M J; Geha, Raif S; Hertelendy, Zsolt; Koestner, Adalbert; Leon, Arthur S; Liepa, George U; McMartin, Kenneth E; Mendenhall, Charles L; Munro, Ian C; Novotny, Edward J; Renwick, Andrew G; Schiffman, Susan S; Schomer, Donald L; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Spiers, Paul A; Tephly, Thomas R; Thomas, John A; Trefz, Friedrich K

    2002-04-01

    Over 20 years have elapsed since aspartame was approved by regulatory agencies as a sweetener and flavor enhancer. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic constituents was established through extensive toxicology studies in laboratory animals, using much greater doses than people could possibly consume. Its safety was further confirmed through studies in several human subpopulations, including healthy infants, children, adolescents, and adults; obese individuals; diabetics; lactating women; and individuals heterozygous (PKUH) for the genetic disease phenylketonuria (PKU) who have a decreased ability to metabolize the essential amino acid, phenylalanine. Several scientific issues continued to be raised after approval, largely as a concern for theoretical toxicity from its metabolic components--the amino acids, aspartate and phenylalanine, and methanol--even though dietary exposure to these components is much greater than from aspartame. Nonetheless, additional research, including evaluations of possible associations between aspartame and headaches, seizures, behavior, cognition, and mood as well as allergic-type reactions and use by potentially sensitive subpopulations, has continued after approval. These findings are reviewed here. The safety testing of aspartame has gone well beyond that required to evaluate the safety of a food additive. When all the research on aspartame, including evaluations in both the premarketing and postmarketing periods, is examined as a whole, it is clear that aspartame is safe, and there are no unresolved questions regarding its safety under conditions of intended use.

  17. Motivational and organizational factors affecting implementation of worker safety training.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M K

    1994-01-01

    Training is unlikely to affect behavior on the job if the worker views it as unnecessary. This chapter describes types of safety behaviors and training activities, the implementation of safety training, current perspectives on motivation, and other motivational and organizational factors affecting the implementation of worker safety training.

  18. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  19. Fire safety. Explosion safety - Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratov, Anatolii Nikolaevich

    The physicochemical principles underlying combustion and explosion processes are examined, and the main fire and explosion safety characteristics of materials are reviewed with particular reference to the ignition limits of combustible mixtures, the minimal oxygen content that constitutes an explosion hazard, and the flash point and ignition temperatures. Fire-fighting and explosion suppression methods and equipment are described. The discussion also covers the efficiency of fire prevention measures and safety engineering in fire fighting.

  20. [Contributions of the Council of Europe's Blood Transfusion Steering Committee to the determination of rules for the selection of donors of blood and blood components and the study of sexual behaviors having an impact on blood safety].

    PubMed

    Behr-Gross, M-E; Heiden, M; Norda, R

    2013-05-01

    In November 2009, the Council of Europe's Blood Transfusion Steering Committee created a group of experts to explore the problem of behaviors having an impact on the management of donors of blood and blood components and on blood transfusion safety in Europe. This ad hoc group sought a harmonised interpretation of temporary exclusion (or temporary deferral), as opposed to permanent exclusion (or permanent deferral), in the context of the selection of donors of blood and blood components. It was also given the mandate to assess, on the basis of available data, the possibility of differentiating "at risk" behaviours from behaviours "at high risk" of contamination by serious infectious diseases transmitted by blood, blood components or derived therapeutic products. The primary objective of this work was to ensure the safety of blood, blood components and derived therapeutic products for future recipients by promoting a risk analysis-based approach, given that some countries envisaged amending their provisions for donor selection. However, a risk analysis can only be performed on groups, not individuals, which may give the impression of a discriminatory approach, so it needed to be justified in the context of transfusion safety. A collaborative project, which included an investigation phase, led to the drafting of a technical memorandum that summarised the data collected in ten Council of Europe member states on the selection criteria for blood donors and the epidemiology of infectious diseases (with a focus on human immunodeficiency virus) in the general population and among blood donors. The technical memorandum was published in 2011 on the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare website dedicated to this project. A draft resolution of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe was then developed by the Council of Europe's Blood Transfusion Steering Committee. This text was circulated among member and observer states of the Council

  1. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  2. Community gun safety in Central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Christina; Erdman, Deborah A; Smith, Jill Gray; Widom, Kenneth; Reardon, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Firearm-related injuries are a public health issue in the United States. In rural Pennsylvania, it is a familiar way of life to have a gun or guns in the home. Safety behaviors along with gun storage in the home, specifically where there are young children (aged 6 years and younger), are a concern for this level I regional resource center in rural Pennsylvania. Head Start families were surveyed regarding gun safety habits before and after safety educational activities. A noteworthy number of families reported changing behaviors regarding better safety habits for storing and use of firearms in the home postsurvey.

  3. Safety First!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

  4. Art Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and…

  5. Home Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Pune (October 2015) Preventing accidental injuries to children in India. Video Changing the News with Neal McDonough: Fire Safety Together, we can change the news by learning simple, effective ways to prevent injuries to children due to fire. Infographic Escuche el Bip Donde ...

  6. Safety Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoot, James L.; Bartkowiak, Elaine T.

    1994-01-01

    Lists 72 organizations and programs that deal with child safety, grouped by the following categories: (1) general; (2) general violence; (3) gun violence; (4) media violence; (5) drugs and alcohol; (6) child abuse and at-risk children; (7) parenting programs; (8) community service programs; (9) leadership programs; (10) peer counseling; (11)…

  7. Vaccine safety.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2003-11-01

    Rates of reported adverse events are remarkably low. VAERS identifies an adverse event rate approximating 11.4 reports per 100,000 vaccine doses. Approximately 15% of these reports represent SAEs, but less than 2% involve death; in most cases, reviews have shown no causal relation between the events and the vaccine. Across the spectrum of vaccines in use (including those directed against influenza and hepatitis B virus), many claims of adverse events regarding vaccines represent typical reactions to vaccinations. These reactions can be thought of as foreign-body reactions and predominate among the inactivated vaccines. In controlled studies, the adverse event rates that occur with vaccination resemble those that occur with placebo injections. Typical reactions associated with live viral and bacterial vaccines, such as MMR and varicella vaccines, may resemble attenuated forms of the disease for which the vaccine is directed. Other claims against vaccines represent chance-coincidence or misunderstood data; further studies of claims have vindicated the overall safety of the vaccines in most cases. Two documented safety concerns with vaccines, however, have demonstrated that vaccines (like other biologics and pharmacologic) can result in harm (eg, rotavirus and OPV vaccines). The denouement with these vaccines indicates the broad postmarketing data collection and evaluation that extends efforts made with prelicensure study to balance the benefits from vaccination with the risk for harm. Overall, measures including prelicensure study and postlicensure surveillance, such as VAERS, the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project, and the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Centers, have resulted in an exceptional safety profile for the vaccines in use.

  8. Patient safety: the what, how, and when.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Roxie M

    2015-12-01

    Patient safety is a construct that implies behavior intended to minimize the risk of harm to patients through effectiveness and individual performance designed to avoid injuries to patients from the care that is intended to help them. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has made patient safety a focused area in the new Clinical Learning Environment Review process. This lecture will focus on definitions of patient safety terminology; describe the culture of patient safety and a just culture; discuss what to report, who to report it too, and methods of conducting patient safety investigations.

  9. Alternatives to animal testing in the safety evaluation of products.

    PubMed

    Knight, Derek J; Breheny, Damien

    2002-01-01

    The conventional method for assessing the safety of products, ranging from pharmaceuticals to agrochemicals, biocides and industrial and household chemicals - including cosmetics - involves determining their toxicological properties by using experimental animals. The aim is to identify any possible adverse effects in humans by using these animal models. Providing safe products is undoubtedly of the utmost importance but, over the last decade or so, this aim has come into conflict with strong public opinion, especially in Europe, against animal testing. Industry, academia and the regulators have worked in partnership to find other ways of evaluating the safety of products, by non-animal testing, or at least by reducing the numbers of animals required and the severity of the tests in which they are used. There is a long way to go before products can be evaluated without any animal studies, and it may be that this laudable aim is an impossible dream. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made by using a combination of in vitro tests and the prediction of properties based on chemical structure. The aim of this review is to describe these important and worthwhile developments in various areas of toxicological testing, with a focus on the European regulatory framework for general industrial and household chemicals.

  10. Criticality Safety Evaluation of a LLNL Training Assembly for Criticality Safety (TACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrichs, D P

    2006-06-26

    Hands-on experimental training in the physical behavior of multiplying systems is one of ten key areas of training required for practitioners to become qualified in the discipline of criticality safety as identified in DOE-STD-1135-99, ''Guidance for Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineer Training and Qualification''. This document is a criticality safety evaluation of the training activities (or operations) associated with HS-3200, ''Laboratory Class for Criticality Safety''. These activities utilize the Training Assembly for Criticality Safety (TACS). The original intent of HS-3200 was to provide LLNL fissile material handlers with a practical hands-on experience as a supplement to the academic training they receive biennially in HS-3100, ''Fundamentals of Criticality Safety'', as required by ANSI/ANS-8.20-1991, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Training''. HS-3200 is to be enhanced to also address the training needs of nuclear criticality safety professionals under the auspices of the NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program.

  11. N-Methyl, N-propynyl-2-phenylethylamine (MPPE), a Selegiline Analog, Attenuates MPTP-induced Dopaminergic Toxicity with Guaranteed Behavioral Safety: Involvement of Inhibitions of Mitochondrial Oxidative Burdens and p53 Gene-elicited Pro-apoptotic Change.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Nam, Yunsung; Lee, Ji Won; Nguyen, Phuong-Khue Thi; Yoo, Ji Eun; Tran, The-Vinh; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jang, Choon-Gon; Oh, Young J; Youdim, Moussa B H; Lee, Phil Ho; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Selegiline is a monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor with anti-Parkinsonian effects, but it is metabolized to amphetamines. Since another MAO-B inhibitor N-Methyl, N-propynyl-2-phenylethylamine (MPPE) is not metabolized to amphetamines, we examined whether MPPE induces behavioral side effects and whether MPPE affects dopaminergic toxicity induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Multiple doses of MPPE (2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day) did not show any significant locomotor activity and conditioned place preference, whereas selegiline (2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day) significantly increased these behavioral side effects. Treatment with MPPE resulted in significant attenuations against decreases in mitochondrial complex I activity, mitochondrial Mn-SOD activity, and expression induced by MPTP in the striatum of mice. Consistently, MPPE significantly attenuated MPTP-induced oxidative stress and MPPE-mediated antioxidant activity appeared to be more pronounced in mitochondrial-fraction than in cytosolic-fraction. Because MPTP promoted mitochondrial p53 translocation and p53/Bcl-xL interaction, it was also examined whether mitochondrial p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ attenuates MPTP neurotoxicity. MPPE, selegiline, or pifithrin-μ significantly attenuated mitochondrial p53/Bcl-xL interaction, impaired mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cytosolic cytochrome c release, and cleaved caspase-3 in wild-type mice. Subsequently, these compounds significantly ameliorated MPTP-induced motor impairments. Neuroprotective effects of MPPE appeared to be more prominent than those of selegiline. MPPE or selegiline did not show any additional protective effects against the attenuation by p53 gene knockout, suggesting that p53 gene is a critical target for these compounds. Our results suggest that MPPE possesses anti-Parkinsonian potentials with guaranteed behavioral safety and that the underlying mechanism of MPPE requires inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial

  12. Safety harness

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, L.W.

    1991-04-08

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment. The safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  13. Safety harness

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  14. Safety Checklists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    all rags, waste, etc., soiled by combustible or flaxmable materials kept In tightly rnosed metal containers for daily disposal? 3. Are fire plans ...To prevent cold weather injuries, does the cowmander ensure that: (TBMad 81, pars, 5) a. Safety is included in planning ? b. Suitable cold weather gear...pages 2-2 thru 2-6) 2. Are prior planning and coordination of sling load operations always accomplished between the ground crews and aviation crews

  15. Safety valve

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Ulf C.

    1984-01-01

    The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.

  16. Farm Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

  17. Safety coaches in radiology: decreasing human error and minimizing patient harm.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Julie M; Koch, Bernadette L; Adams, Janet M; Goodfriend, Martha A; Donnelly, Lane F

    2010-09-01

    Successful programs to improve patient safety require a component aimed at improving safety culture and environment, resulting in a reduced number of human errors that could lead to patient harm. Safety coaching provides peer accountability. It involves observing for safety behaviors and use of error prevention techniques and provides immediate feedback. For more than a decade, behavior-based safety coaching has been a successful strategy for reducing error within the context of occupational safety in industry. We describe the use of safety coaches in radiology. Safety coaches are an important component of our comprehensive patient safety program.

  18. California Guide to Traffic Safety Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    The guide proposes an elementary through high school program encompassing many aspects of traffic safety. Chapter 1 presents definitions, instructional goals, behavioral objectives, and K-6 traffic safety concepts coupled with student performance indicators. Various elements of program administration are covered in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 includes…

  19. Why Motivation Is Important in Safety Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim

    The changing face of the workplace and composition of the work force have necessitated new approaches to workplace safety that focus on motivating trainees to learn and practice safe workplace behaviors. Unfortunately, most knowledge regarding work motivation is theoretical and not directly usable by safety training professionals. The notions of…

  20. Space station internal environmental and safety concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Matthew B.

    1987-01-01

    Space station environmental and safety concerns, especially those involving fires, are discussed. Several types of space station modules and the particular hazards associated with each are briefly surveyed. A brief history of fire detection and suppression aboard spacecraft is given. Microgravity fire behavior, spacecraft fire detector systems, space station fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire safety in hyperbaric chambers are discussed.

  1. Payload safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheller, J.

    1979-01-01

    Space Shuttle payload safety requirements are summarized. Consideration is given to NASA objectives on STS payloads, payload safety documents, STS payload safety management, safety implementation possibilities, the hazard control procedure, and significant technical requirements.

  2. Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

  3. The role of ions, heavy metals, fluoride, and agrochemicals: critical evaluation of potential aetiological factors of chronic kidney disease of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo/CKDu) and recommendations for its eradication.

    PubMed

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2016-06-01

    The pollution of water and food through human waste and anthropogenic activities, including industrial waste and agricultural runoff, is a mounting problem worldwide. Water pollution from microbes causes identifiable diarrhoeal illnesses. The consumption of water contaminated with heavy metals, fluoride, and other toxins causes insidious illnesses that lead to protracted, non-communicable diseases and death. Chronic kidney disease of unusual/uncertain/unknown aetiology is one such example, began to manifest in the mid-1960s in several dry-zonal agricultural societies in developing economies that are located around the equator. In Sri Lanka, such a disease is affecting the North Central Province, the rice bowl of the country that first appeared in the mid-1990s. Several potential causes have been postulated, including heavy metals, fluoride, cyanobacterial and algae toxins, agrochemicals, and high salinity and ionicity in water, but no specific source or causative factor has been identified for CKD of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo). Three large studies conducted in the recent past failed to find any of the postulated components (heavy metals, cyanobacterial toxins, fluoride, salinity, or agrochemicals) at levels higher than those deemed safe by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. At the reported low levels in water and with the heterogeneous geographical distribution, it is unrealistic to expect any of these components individually could cause this disease. However, the additive or synergistic effects of a combination of factors and components, even at lower exposure levels, together with malnutrition and harmful behaviours, and/or a yet-unidentified (or not investigated) toxin, can cause this epidemic. Because the cause is unknown, scientists need to work on broader hypotheses, so that key causative elements are not missed. Taken together the plausibility of multiple factors in the genesis of this disease, the appropriate

  4. Safety Grooving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Safety grooving, the cutting of grooves in concrete to increase traction and prevent injury, was first developed to reduce aircraft accidents on wet runways. Represented by the International Grooving and Grinding Association (IG&GA), the industry expanded into highway and pedestrian applications. The technique originated at Langley, which assisted in testing the grooving at airports and on highways. Skidding was reduced, stopping distance decreased, and a vehicle's cornering ability on curves was increased. The process has been extended to animal holding pens, steps, parking lots and other potentially slippery surfaces.

  5. Lacking applicability of in vitro eye irritation methods to identify seriously eye irritating agrochemical formulations: Results of bovine cornea opacity and permeability assay, isolated chicken eye test and the EpiOcular™ ET-50 method to classify according to UN GHS.

    PubMed

    Kolle, Susanne N; Van Cott, Andrew; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2017-04-01

    In vitro methods have gained regulatory acceptance for the prediction of serious eye damage (UN GHS Cat 1). However, the majority of in vitro methods do not state whether they are applicable to agrochemical formulations. This manuscript presents a study of up to 27 agrochemical formulations tested in three in vitro assays (three versions of the bovine corneal opacity and permeability test (BCOP, OECD TG 437) assay, the isolated chicken eye test (ICE, OECD TG 438) and the EpiOcular™ ET-50 assay). The results were compared with already-available in vivo data. In the BCOP only one of the four, one of five in the ICE and six of eleven tested formulations in the EpiOcular™ ET-50 Neat Protocol resulted in the correct UN GHS Cat 1 prediction. Overpredictions occurred in all assays. These data indicate a lack of applicability of the three in vitro methods to reliably predict UN GHS Cat 1 of agrochemical formulations. In order to ensure animal-free identification of seriously eye damaging agrochemical formulations testing protocols and/or prediction models need to be modified or classification rules should be tailored to in vitro testing rather than using in vivo Draize data as a standard.

  6. A Process-Centered Tool for Evaluating Patient Safety Performance and Guiding Strategic Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    interdepartmental coordination of patient safety activities, would be crucial for introducing and improving patient safety. Two performance measures received a...seeking feedback and use of the information for improvement and creating a culture of safety. 1.2. Social Responsibility Ethical Behavior: How...all stakeholders, actively seeking feedback on patient safety and using the information for patient safety improvements . • Ensure ethical

  7. Applying Behavioral Principles to Motor Vehicle Occupant Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleet, David A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Successful programs designed to encourage protective behaviors (e.g., wearing safety belts and using child safety seats) have applied such behavioral principles as a combination of rewards, feedback, guidance, contingency management, and modeling. (Author/DB)

  8. Structural equation modeling of pesticide poisoning, depression, safety, and injury.

    PubMed

    Beseler, Cheryl L; Stallones, Lorann

    2013-01-01

    The role of pesticide poisoning in risk of injuries may operate through a link between pesticide-induced depressive symptoms and reduced engagement in safety behaviors. The authors conducted structural equation modeling of cross-sectional data to examine the pattern of associations between pesticide poisoning, depressive symptoms, safety knowledge, safety behaviors, and injury. Interviews of 1637 Colorado farm operators and their spouses from 964 farms were conducted during 1993-1997. Pesticide poisoning was assessed based on a history of ever having been poisoned. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale was used to assess depressive symptoms. Safety knowledge and safety behaviors were assessed using ten items for each latent variable. Outcomes were safety behaviors and injuries. A total of 154 injuries occurred among 1604 individuals with complete data. Pesticide poisoning, financial problems, health, and age predicted negative affect/somatic depressive symptoms with similar effect sizes; sex did not. Depression was more strongly associated with safety behavior than was safety knowledge. Two safety behaviors were significantly associated with an increased risk of injury. This study emphasizes the importance of financial problems and health on depression, and provides further evidence for the link between neurological effects of past pesticide poisoning on risk-taking behaviors and injury.

  9. The Effects of Conducting Behavioral Observations on the Behavior of the Observer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvero, Alicia M.; Austin, John

    2004-01-01

    Behavior-analytic approaches to occupational safety are often effective for improving safety in organizations, and have been successful in a wide variety of settings. The effects of these safety processes are thought to arise primarily from the behavioral observation process and the delivery of feedback. Typically, supervisors or employee…

  10. Safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    1995-01-01

    We are engaged in a research program in safety-critical computing that is based on two case studies. We use these case studies to provide application-specific details of the various research issues, and as targets for evaluation of research ideas. The first case study is the Magnetic Stereotaxis System (MSS), an investigational device for performing human neurosurgery being developed in a joint effort between the Department of Physics at the University of Virginia and the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Iowa. The system operates by manipulating a small permanent magnet (known as a 'seed') within the brain using an externally applied magnetic field. By varying the magnitude and gradient of the external magnetic field, the seed can be moved along a non-linear path and positioned at a site requiring therapy, e.g., a tumor. The magnetic field required for movement through brain tissue is extremely high, and is generated by a set of six superconducting magnets located in a housing surrounding the patient's head. The system uses two X-ray cameras positioned at right angles to detect in real time the locations of the seed and of X-ray opaque markers affixed to the patient's skull. the X-ray images are used to locate the objects of interest in a canonical frame of reference. the second case study is the University of Virginia Research Nuclear Reactor (UVAR). It is a 2 MW thermal, concrete-walled pool reactor. The system operates using 20 to 25 plate-type fuel assemblies placed on a rectangular grid plate. There are three scramable safety rods, and one non-scramable regulating rod that can be put in automatic mode. It was originally constructed in 1959 as a 1 MW system, and it was upgraded to 2 MW in 1973. Though only a research reactor rather than a power reactor, the issues raised are significant and can be related to the problems faced by full-scale reactor systems.

  11. The Hermes safety strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, R.

    1992-08-01

    The principal safety objectives and safety assurance strategies of the Hermes space vehicle program are discussed. The highlights of the Hermes safety assurance strategy are reviewed with particular reference to risk identification, risk evaluation, risk reduction, and risk acceptance. The application of the safety assurance strategy to Phase I definition studies and safety objectives of the Hermes X 2000 mission are then discussed.

  12. Rebuilding a safety culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodney, George A.

    1991-11-01

    The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

  13. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    PubMed

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended.

  14. Promoting safety voice with safety-specific transformational leadership: the mediating role of two dimensions of trust.

    PubMed

    Conchie, Stacey M; Taylor, Paul J; Donald, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    Although safety-specific transformational leadership is known to encourage employee safety voice behaviors, less is known about what makes this style of leadership effective. We tested a model that links safety-specific transformational leadership to safety voice through various dimensions of trust. Data from 150 supervisor-employee dyads from the United Kingdom oil industry supported our predictions that the effects of safety-specific transformational leadership are sequentially mediated by affect-based trust beliefs and disclosure trust intentions. Moreover, we found that reliance trust intentions moderated the effect of disclosure: employees' disclosure intentions mediated the effects of affect-based trust on safety voice behaviors only when employees' intention to rely on their leader was moderate to high. These findings suggest that leaders seeking to encourage safety voice behaviors should go beyond "good reason" arguments and develop affective bonds with their employees.

  15. Evaluation of food safety education for consumers.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, L; Hillers, V; Kendall, P; Mason, A

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, nutrition educators have used a fairly global approach to teach food safety by teaching a broad range of safe food handling behaviors in the expectation that this will lead to the avoidance of foodborne illness. This approach can be confusing and lead to evaluation data that are difficult to interpret. This article suggests that food safety education and evaluation in the future be organized around five behavioral constructs: practice personal hygiene, cook foods adequately, avoid cross-contamination, keep foods at safe temperatures, and avoid food from unsafe sources. These five constructs are derived from data on actual outbreaks and estimated incidences of foodborne illness. Research is needed to establish reliable and valid evaluation measures for these five behavioral constructs. Evaluation instruments can be tailored to fit specific education programs. If evaluation instruments focus on these five behavior areas, the result will be meaningful evaluation data that can be more easily summarized across food safety education programs for consumers.

  16. Organizational safety climate and supervisor safety enforcement: Multilevel explorations of the causes of accident underreporting.

    PubMed

    Probst, Tahira M

    2015-11-01

    According to national surveillance statistics, over 3 million employees are injured each year; yet, research indicates that these may be substantial underestimates of the true prevalence. The purpose of the current project was to empirically test the hypothesis that organizational safety climate and transactional supervisor safety leadership would predict the extent to which accidents go unreported by employees. Using hierarchical linear modeling and survey data collected from 1,238 employees in 33 organizations, employee-level supervisor safety enforcement behaviors (and to a less consistent extent, organizational-level safety climate) predicted employee accident underreporting. There was also a significant cross-level interaction, such that the effect of supervisor enforcement on underreporting was attenuated in organizations with a positive safety climate. These results may benefit human resources and safety professionals by pinpointing methods of increasing the accuracy of accident reporting, reducing actual safety incidents, and reducing the costs to individuals and organizations that result from underreporting.

  17. Car Seat Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Car Seat Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  18. Surveying Science Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlovich, Jack A.; Parsa, Rahul

    2002-01-01

    Reports the results of a National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) study that analyzed science classroom safety. Examines the potential need for a national safety indexing system to rank states with regard to science safety. (DDR)

  19. Medical Device Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Medical Device Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... 17 More Medical Device Recalls Recent Medical Device Safety Communications FDA analyses and recommendations for patients and ...

  20. Physician leadership: essential in creating a culture of safety.

    PubMed

    Gluck, Paul A

    2010-09-01

    Advances in patient safety require a receptive culture that values transparency, communication, and mutual respect. The Safety Attitude Questionnaire is an effective tool that can be used to assess the safety culture in a variety of clinical settings. Transformational leadership is essential in promoting a culture of safety. There are several strategies available to these leaders that will improve patient safety including Patient Safety Leadership Walkrounds, briefings, huddles, debriefings, and conflict resolution. Finally, leaders must maintain a "just culture" that recognizes most errors involve system deficiencies not human error and that disruptive behavior cannot be tolerated.

  1. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  2. Bromine Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  3. Recipe Modification Improves Food Safety Practices during Cooking of Poultry.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Curtis; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers Iv, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions. They were observed to track hand washing and thermometer use. Participants who received recipes with food safety instructions (n = 73) demonstrated significantly improved food safety preparation behaviors compared with those who did not have food safety instructions in the recipe (n = 82). In addition, the majority of consumers stated that they thought the recipes with instructions were easy to use and that they would be likely to use similar recipes at home. This study demonstrates that recipes could be a good source of food safety information for consumers and that they have the potential to improve behaviors to reduce foodborne illness.

  4. Consumer Product Safety Commission

    MedlinePlus

    ... VIDEOS REPORTS Related Links Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources OnSafety Blogs International Newsroom ...

  5. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  6. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  7. Ferrocyanide safety study

    SciTech Connect

    Wegeng, R.S.

    1989-05-01

    The overall objective of this study is to investigate the potentially rapid reactions between the ferrocyanide-containing salts, present in the SST's, and oxidants, such as nitrate, also present in the SST's. The objective of the energetics subtask is to investigate, on a screening basis, SST operational and compositional parameters which could affect the reaction between nickel cesium ferrocyanide, the expected form of cyanide in the SST, and nitrates and/or the nitrate radiolysis product nitrite. The objective of the large-scale explosion study is to independently confirm the results of the PNL laboratory-scale experiments and to determine the explosive behavior of a large sample of ferrocyanide and oxidant. The objective of the PNL-5441 revision subtask is to revise the complexant stability report, PNL-5441, to provide a current overview of the ferrocyanide safety issue and provide information to permit establishment of guidelines for SST management. 1 fig.

  8. Rewarding safe behavior: strategies for change.

    PubMed

    Fell-Carlson, Deborah

    2004-12-01

    Effective, sustainable safety incentives are integrated into a performance management system designed to encourage long term behavior change. Effective incentive program design integrates the fundamental considerations of compensation (i.e., valence, instrumentality, expectancy, equity) with behavior change theory in the context of a strong merit based performance management system. Clear expectations are established and communicated from the time applicants apply for the position. Feedback and social recognition are leveraged and used as rewards, in addition to financial incentives built into the compensation system and offered periodically as short term incentives. Rewards are tied to specific objectives intended to influence specific behaviors. Objectives are designed to challenge employees, providing opportunities to grow and enhance their sense of belonging. Safety contests and other awareness activities are most effective when used to focus safety improvement efforts on specific behaviors or processes, for a predetermined period of time, in the context of a comprehensive safety system. Safety incentive programs designed around injury outcomes can result in unintended, and undesirable, consequences. Safety performance can be leveraged by integrating safety into corporate cultural indicators. Symbols of safety remind employees of corporate safety goals and objectives (e.g., posted safety goals and integrating safety into corporate mission and vision). Rites and ceremonies provide opportunities for social recognition and feedback and demonstrate safety is a corporate value. Feedback opportunities, rewards, and social recognition all provide content for corporate legends, those stories embellished over time, that punctuate the overall system of organizational norms, and provide examples of the organizational safety culture in action.

  9. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Powerplant systems and procedures that ensure the day-to-day health and safety of people in and around the plant is referred to as operational safety. This safety is the result of careful planning, good engineering and design, strict licensing and regulation, and environmental monitoring. Procedures that assure operational safety at nuclear…

  10. Safety Standards for Projectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Raymond

    1979-01-01

    The safety of projectors and related viewing devices for school, home, and business use is of paramount importance. The Advisory Committee on Safety (ACOS) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has established a working group to consider the problem of projector safety and to make recommendations for safety standards. (CMV)

  11. Launch Services Safety Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA/KSC Launch Services Division Safety (SA-D) services include: (1) Assessing the safety of the launch vehicle (2) Assessing the safety of NASA ELV spacecraft (S/C) / launch vehicle (LV) interfaces (3) Assessing the safety of spacecraft processing to ensure resource protection of: - KSC facilities - KSC VAFB facilities - KSC controlled property - Other NASA assets (4) NASA personnel safety (5) Interfacing with payload organizations to review spacecraft for adequate safety implementation and compliance for integrated activities (6) Assisting in the integration of safety activities between the payload, launch vehicle, and processing facilities

  12. Social Safety for Young Children: A Review of the Literature on Safety Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevill, Alicia R.; Gast, David L.

    1998-01-01

    This review of 12 research studies related to safety-skills instruction for young children with and without disabilities found that young children have the capacity to learn safe behaviors related to abduction and sexual-abuse prevention. Behavioral teaching approaches involving modeling, role play, and corrective feedback were more effective. (CR)

  13. Explosives Safety Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-13

    Safety Awareness in NATO and Multi- National Operations *Explosives Safety “ Rosetta Stone ” *under development Distance Learning/ Instructor-Led Training...and Multi- National Operations *Explosives Safety “ Rosetta Stone ” Ammo-18 (Basics of Naval Explosives Hazard Control) Ammo-29 (Electrical Explosives...National Operations *Explosives Safety “ Rosetta Stone ” Ammo-47 (Lightning Protection for Air Force Facilities) *Explosives Safety Awareness in NATO and

  14. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Equipment Design in Mining Ergonomic Interventions in the Building, Repair, and Dismantling of Ships Eye Safety Fall Injuries Prevention Green, Safe, and Healthy Jobs - Prevention through Design Hierarchy ...

  15. TWRS safety program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, L.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    Management of Nuclear Safety, Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, and Fire Protection programs, functions, and field support resources for Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) has, until recently, been centralized in TWRS Safety, under the Emergency, Safety, and Quality organization. Industrial hygiene technician services were also provided to support operational needs related to safety basis compliance. Due to WHC decentralization of safety and reengineering efforts in West Tank Farms, staffing and safety responsibilities have been transferred to the facilities. Under the new structure, safety personnel for TWRS are assigned directly to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and a core Safety Group in TWRS Engineering. The Characterization Project Operations (CPO) safety organization will remain in tact as it currently exists. Personnel assigned to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and CPO will perform facility-specific or project-specific duties and provide field implementation of programs. Those assigned to the core group will focus on activities having a TWRS-wide or programmatic focus. Hanford-wide activities will be the responsibility of the Safety Center of Expertise. In order to ensure an effective and consistent safety program for TWRS under the new organization program functions, goals, organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and path forward must be clearly established. The purpose of the TWRS Safety Program Plan is to define the overall safety program, responsibilities, relationships, and communication linkages for safety personnel under the new structure. In addition, issues associated with reorganization transition are addressed, including training, project ownership, records management, and dissemination of equipment. For the purpose of this document ``TWRS Safety`` refers to all safety professionals and technicians (Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, Fire Protection, and Nuclear Safety) within the TWRS organization, regardless of their

  16. Range Safety Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrock, Kenneth W.; Humphries, Ricky H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The high kinetic and potential energy of a launch vehicle mandates there be a mechanism to minimize possible damage to provide adequate safety for the launch facilities, range, and, most importantly, the general public. The Range Safety System, sometimes called the Flight Termination System or Flight Safety System, provides the required level of safety. The Range Safety System section of the Avionics chapter will attempt to describe how adequate safety is provided, the system's design, operation, and it's interface with the rest of the launch vehicle.

  17. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system is designed to initiate control procedures which will minimize damage to the engine and vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. This report describes the features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems. Specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions are discussed. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given from recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, a general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  18. Transformational leadership, intrinsic motivation, and trust: a moderated-mediated model of workplace safety.

    PubMed

    Conchie, Stacey M

    2013-04-01

    Two studies examine the role of motivation and trust in the relationship between safety-specific transformational leadership and employees' safety behavior. Study 1 tested the prediction that intrinsic and identified regulation motivations mediate the relationship between safety-specific transformational leadership and employees' safety behaviors. Study 2 further explored this relationship by testing the prediction that the mediating role of intrinsic motivation is dependent on employees' level of trust in their leader. Survey data from the U.K. construction industry supported both predictions. However, the mediating role of intrinsic motivation was found only for challenge safety citizenship behaviors (i.e., voice) and not for affiliative safety citizenship behaviors (i.e., helping). These findings suggest that employees' intrinsic motivation is important to the effectiveness of leaders' efforts to promote some but not all forms of safety behavior.

  19. Chemical food safety issues in the United States: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren S

    2009-09-23

    Considerable advances have been made over the past century in the understanding of the chemical hazards in food and ways for assessing and managing these risks. At the turn of the 20th century, many Americans were exposed to foods adulterated with toxic compounds. In the 1920s the increasing use of insecticides led to concerns of chronic ingestion of heavy metals such as lead and arsenic from residues remaining on crops. By the 1930s, a variety of agrochemicals were commonly used, and food additives were becoming common in processed foods. During the 1940s and 1950s advances were made in toxicology, and more systematic approaches were adopted for evaluating the safety of chemical contaminants in food. Modern gas chromatography and liquid chromatography, both invented in the 1950s and 1960s, were responsible for progress in detecting, quantifying, and assessing the risk of food contaminants and adulterants. In recent decades, chemical food safety issues that have been the center of media attention include the presence of natural toxins, processing-produced toxins (e.g., acrylamide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and furan), food allergens, heavy metals (e.g., lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium), industrial chemicals (e.g., benzene, perchlorate), contaminants from packaging materials, and unconventional contaminants (melamine) in food and feed. Due to the global nature of the food supply and advances in analytical capabilities, chemical contaminants will continue to be an area of concern for regulatory agencies, the food industry, and consumers in the future.

  20. Vocational Education Safety Instruction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropley, Russell, Ed.; Doherty, Susan Sloan, Ed.

    This manual describes four program areas in vocational education safety instruction: (1) introduction to a safety program; (2) resources to ensure laboratory safety; (3) safety program implementation; and (4) safety rules and safety tests. The safety rules and tests included in section four are for the most common tools and machines used in…

  1. Motor Vehicle Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  2. Safety in Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents 12 amendments to the second edition of Safety in Science Laboratories. Covers topics such as regular inspection of equipment, wearing safety glasses, dating stock chemicals, and safe use of chemicals. (MA)

  3. Security vs. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Provides administrative advice on how some safety experts have made college campuses safer and friendlier without breaking the budget. Tips on security and advice on safety management that encompasses the whole environment are highlighted. (GR)

  4. Medicine safety and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000619.htm Medicine safety and children To use the sharing features ... especially careful if you have toddlers around. Keep Medicines out of Reach and Sight Safety tips: DO ...

  5. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  6. Child Safety Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... contacting the manufacturer, or by looking up safety complaints records on your child's safety seat at www. ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  7. National Safety Council

    MedlinePlus

    ... Now Honor Someone Safety Awards Awards Introduction Rising Stars Workplace Safe Driver Campbell Award DSSA Green Cross ... Give Donate Now Honor Someone Safety Awards Rising Stars Workplace Safe Driver Campbell Award DSSA Green Cross ...

  8. Facility safety study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The safety of NASA's in house microelectronics facility is addressed. Industrial health standards, facility emission control requirements, operation and safety checklists, and the disposal of epitaxial vent gas are considered.

  9. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... issues? Additional Information I gave my dog a drug and he got sick. How do I report ...

  10. FoodSafety.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Temperatures Food Poisoning Food Safety News for Educators Report a Problem Contaminated Carbo Load Top Searches Cumin E.Coli Salmonella Listeria Ground Turkey Botulism Tuna Stay Connected Our Partners About FoodSafety.gov ...

  11. Safety organizations and experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, G.; Rubinstein, R. I.; Pinto, J. J.; Meschkow, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    Handbook lists organizations and experts in specific, well defined areas of safety technology. Special emphasis is given to relevant safety information sources on aircraft fire hazards and aircraft interior flammability.

  12. Water safety and drowning

    MedlinePlus

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR Never swim alone Never dive into water unless ...

  13. Electrical safety guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  14. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  15. Safety analysts training

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, P.

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this task was to support ESH-3 in providing Airborne Release Fraction and Respirable Fraction training to safety analysts at LANL who perform accident analysis, hazard analysis, safety analysis, and/or risk assessments at nuclear facilities. The task included preparation of materials for and the conduct of two 3-day training courses covering the following topics: safety analysis process; calculation model; aerosol physic concepts for safety analysis; and overview of empirically derived airborne release fractions and respirable fractions.

  16. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  17. DOE handbook electrical safety

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  18. Driver Behavior and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  19. SNTP environmental, safety, and health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) environmental, safety, and health are presented. Topics covered include: program safety policy; program safety policies; and DEIS public hearing comments.

  20. HSE's safety assessment principles for criticality safety.

    PubMed

    Simister, D N; Finnerty, M D; Warburton, S J; Thomas, E A; Macphail, M R

    2008-06-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) published its revised Safety Assessment Principles for Nuclear Facilities (SAPs) in December 2006. The SAPs are primarily intended for use by HSE's inspectors when judging the adequacy of safety cases for nuclear facilities. The revised SAPs relate to all aspects of safety in nuclear facilities including the technical discipline of criticality safety. The purpose of this paper is to set out for the benefit of a wider audience some of the thinking behind the final published words and to provide an insight into the development of UK regulatory guidance. The paper notes that it is HSE's intention that the Safety Assessment Principles should be viewed as a reflection of good practice in the context of interpreting primary legislation such as the requirements under site licence conditions for arrangements for producing an adequate safety case and for producing a suitable and sufficient risk assessment under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (SI1999/3232 www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1999/uksi_19993232_en.pdf).

  1. Safety as a Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntress, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Safety should be a priority in every classroom for every age group. Most art teachers know the chemicals to avoid in the student environment. It is their responsibility as art teachers to include safety information in every lesson plan and inform each student of the safety precautions they must take with each activity, without depriving them of…

  2. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  3. Safety in the Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settles, Mimi

    Guidelines for safety in the cooperative preschool are outlined, emphasizing control of the physical environment to insure maximum freedom for the children compatible with maximum safety. Building standards are set for stairways, rooms, lavatories, parking lots, harmful supplies, and wading pools. Orientation for safety is discussed in regard to…

  4. School Safety Audit Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMary, Jo Lynne; Owens, Marsha; Ramnarain, A. K. Vijay

    The 1997 Virginia General Assembly passed legislation directing school boards to require all schools to conduct safety audits. This audit is designed to assess the safety conditions in each public school to: (1) identify and, if necessary, develop solutions for physical safety concerns, including building security issues; and (2) identify and…

  5. Protection and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1964

    1964-01-01

    Several aspects of school safety and protection are presented for school administrators and architects. Among those topics discussed are--(1) life safety, (2) vandalism controlled through proper design, (3) personal protective devices, and (4) fire alarm systems. Another critical factor in providing a complete school safety program is proper…

  6. Virtual Safety Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Scott; Davis, Jason

    2003-01-01

    The Multimedia Tool Box Talk is a web-based quick reference safety guide and training tool for construction personnel. An intended outcome of this effort was to provide an efficient and effective way to locate and interpret crucial safety information while at the job site. The tool includes information from the Occupational Safety and Health…

  7. School Bus Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroup, Karen Bruner; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Equipment to allow safe transportation of disabled children is reviewed. Such equipment includes infant car seats, child safety seats, safety vests, and accommodations for children in casts and/or braces. Five principles for evaluation and selection of safe seating options are given as are safety rules and information on standards and resources.…

  8. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-07-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipeto- pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  9. School Safety & Youth Violence: A Legal Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Kirk A.; Ross, Catherine J.

    This legal primer on violence in schools addresses the responsibility of school officials to respond to undisciplined youths whose behavior threatens the welfare and safety of other children in attendance. It is broken down into sections that provide a brief overview of the key rules and guidelines for school officials and teachers in each topic…

  10. Caregiver Health and Safety, Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.; Rafanello, Donna; Wortman, Alicia M.; Buffin, Lilli-ann; Albrecht, Kay

    2001-01-01

    Presents five articles on health and safety of caregivers: (1) "Taking Care of Caregivers: Wellness for Every Body" (Aronson); (2) "Caregiver Mental Health" (Aronson); (3) "Show and Tell: Modeling Healthy Behaviors and Attitudes" (Rafanello); (4) "Preventing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Injuries" (Wortman);…

  11. Safety and IVHM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    When we address safety in a book on the business case for IVHM, the question arises whether safety isn t inherently in conflict with the need of operators to run their systems as efficiently (and as cost effectively) as possible. The answer may be that the system needs to be just as safe as needed, but not significantly more. That begs the next question: How safe is safe enough? Several regulatory bodies provide guidelines for operational safety, but irrespective of that, operators do not want their systems to be known as lacking safety. We illuminate the role of safety within the context of IVHM.

  12. DOE/DOE Tight Oil Flammability & Transportation Spill Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, David L.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation describes crude oils, their phase behavior, the SPR vapor pressure program, and presents data comparisons from various analytical techniques. The overall objective is to describe physical properties of crude oil relevant to flammability and transport safety

  13. NASA Safety Manual. Volume 3: System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This Volume 3 of the NASA Safety Manual sets forth the basic elements and techniques for managing a system safety program and the technical methods recommended for use in developing a risk evaluation program that is oriented to the identification of hazards in aerospace hardware systems and the development of residual risk management information for the program manager that is based on the hazards identified. The methods and techniques described in this volume are in consonance with the requirements set forth in NHB 1700.1 (VI), Chapter 3. This volume and future volumes of the NASA Safety Manual shall not be rewritten, reprinted, or reproduced in any manner. Installation implementing procedures, if necessary, shall be inserted as page supplements in accordance with the provisions of Appendix A. No portion of this volume or future volumes of the NASA Safety Manual shall be invoked in contracts.

  14. Behavioral Health Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveton, Lauren B.

    2006-01-01

    The project goal is to develop behavioral health prevention and maintenance system for continued crew health, safety, and performance for exploration missions. The basic scope includes a) Operationally-relevant research related to clinical cognitive and behavioral health of crewmembers; b) Ground-based studies using analog environments (Antarctic, NEEMO, simulations, and other testbeds; c) ISS studies (ISSMP) focusing on operational issues related to behavioral health outcomes and standards; d) Technology development activities for monitoring and diagnostic tools; and e) Cross-disciplinary research (e.g., human factors and habitability research, skeletal muscle, radiation).

  15. Pediatric safety pin ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sarihan, H; Kaklikkaya, I; Ozcan, F

    1998-08-01

    Fifteen consecutive children with ingested safety pins were evaluated retrospectively. Eight patients were males and seven were girls. The mean age of the patients was 5.4 years ranging from 7 months to 16 years. Two of 15 patients were mentally retarded Seven safety pins ingestion were noted by parents, three older children applied with safety pin swallowing. Three infants referred with hypersalivation and swallowing difficulty. One of two mentally retarded patients had recurrent aspiration pneumonia, the other had neck abscess. These patients' lesions were detected incidentally by thoracic X-ray. Nine safety pins were at the level of the cricopharyngeus, one at the level of the aortic arch and five at the esophagogastric junction. A right esophagoscopy was used for extraction of safety pins under general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation were used. Before esophagoscopy control plain X-ray was obtained for location of safety pin. Nine safety pins were extracted by esophagoscopy. Three safety pins spontaneously and three during anesthesia induction passed through the esophagus falling down the stomach. Five of these six safety pins were spontaneously extracted without complication. However one open safety pin lodged at the duodenum and laparotomy was required. In this article, etiology and management of safety pin ingestion in children are discussed.

  16. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 14: Pedestrian Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 14 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on pedestrian safety. The purpose and objectives of a pedestrian safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pedestrian safety and policies regarding a safety program…

  17. Promoting Automobile Safety Belt Use by Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowers-Hoag, Karen M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A program of behavioral practice, assertiveness training, and social and contrived reinforcers was successful in establishing and maintaining automobile safety belt use by 16 children (ages 4-7) who never used them during a five-day preobservation period. Safety belt use occurred during 76%-90% of follow-up observations after two-three months.…

  18. [Patient safety, – a current and ongoing problem].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Carlos Alberto; Braem, Virginia; Giuliani, Amalia; Restelli, Emilio

    2014-04-22

    Patient safety is a current and ongoing problem of increasing importance in healthcare. The implementation of a safety culture leads to behavioral change in all processes and responsibility centers. It means a long, slow, arduous path and requires effort, persistence and commitment, but it is increasingly necessary and indispensable in hospital management.

  19. Safety: System Safety Engineering and Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Review system safety status and issues during each milestone decision review ( MDR ) of new or improved Army Acquisition Executive (AAE)-managed systems...under research, development, or modification. (3) Review system safety status and issues during each MDR of new or improved DISC4-managed systems. (4) Act...for acceptance in all MDR packages and forward to the appropriate decision level. Institute risk management procedures as described in appendix B and

  20. Workplace Safety: Indoor Environmental Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Other Resources Email IEQ Questions Related Topics Asbestos Asthma and Allergies Chemical Safety Construction Safety and ... Resources Other Resources Email IEQ Questions Related Topics Asbestos Asthma and Allergies Chemical Safety Construction Safety and ...

  1. Safety Psychology Applicating on Coal Mine Safety Management Based on Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Baoyue; Chen, Fei

    In recent years, with the increase of intensity of coal mining, a great number of major accidents happen frequently, the reason mostly due to human factors, but human's unsafely behavior are affected by insecurity mental control. In order to reduce accidents, and to improve safety management, with the help of application security psychology, we analyse the cause of insecurity psychological factors from human perception, from personality development, from motivation incentive, from reward and punishment mechanism, and from security aspects of mental training , and put forward countermeasures to promote coal mine safety production,and to provide information for coal mining to improve the level of safety management.

  2. A Synthetic Vision Preliminary Integrated Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Houser, Scott

    2001-01-01

    This report documents efforts to analyze a sample of aviation safety programs, using the LMI-developed integrated safety analysis tool to determine the change in system risk resulting from Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) technology implementation. Specifically, we have worked to modify existing system safety tools to address the safety impact of synthetic vision (SV) technology. Safety metrics include reliability, availability, and resultant hazard. This analysis of SV technology is intended to be part of a larger effort to develop a model that is capable of "providing further support to the product design and development team as additional information becomes available". The reliability analysis portion of the effort is complete and is fully documented in this report. The simulation analysis is still underway; it will be documented in a subsequent report. The specific goal of this effort is to apply the integrated safety analysis to SV technology. This report also contains a brief discussion of data necessary to expand the human performance capability of the model, as well as a discussion of human behavior and its implications for system risk assessment in this modeling environment.

  3. Missouri Elementary Science Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Judith L.

    The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. Information on general laboratory safety, science equipment safety, safety with plants, safety with animals, safety with chemicals, field…

  4. Safety and the Human Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann

    1982-01-01

    Discusses four elements of safety programs: (1) safety training; (2) safety inspections; (3) accident investigations; and (4) protective safety equipment. Also discusses safety considerations in water/wastewater treatment facilities focusing on falls, drowning hazards, trickling filters, confined space entry, collection/distribution system safety,…

  5. Principles of safety pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

    2008-08-01

    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.).

  6. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  7. Safety management by walking around (SMBWA): a safety intervention program based on both peer and manager participation.

    PubMed

    Luria, Gil; Morag, Ido

    2012-03-01

    "Management by walking around" (MBWA) is a practice that has aroused much interest in management science and practice. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate adaptation of this practice to safety management. We describe a three-year long case study that collected empirical data in which a modified MBWA was practiced in order to improve safety in a semiconductor fabrication facility. The main modification involved integrating an information system with the MBWA in order to create a practice that would generate safety leadership development and an organizational safety learning mechanism, while promoting employee safety participation. The results of the case study demonstrate that the SMBWA practice facilitated thousands of tours in which safety leadership behaviors were practiced by managers and by employees (employees performed five times as many tours as managers). The information system collected information about safety behaviors and safety conditions that could not otherwise be obtained. Thus, this study presents a new organizational safety practice SMBWA, and demonstrates the ways in which SMBWA may improve safety in organizations.

  8. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  9. [Safety nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs].

    PubMed

    Oscanoa-Espinoza, Teodoro Julio

    2015-01-01

    The choice of a specific medication belonging to a drug class is under the criteria of efficacy, safety, cost and suitability. NSAIDs currently constitute one of the most consumed drug in the world, so it is very important review of the safety aspects of this drug class. This review has the objective of analyze the safety of NSAIDs on 3 main criteria: gastrolesivity, cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  10. The EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test is the Method of Choice for the In Vitro Eye Irritation Testing of Agrochemical Formulations: Correlation Analysis of EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test and BCOP Test Data According to the UN GHS, US EPA and Brazil ANVISA Classification Schemes.

    PubMed

    Kolle, Susanne N; Rey Moreno, Maria Cecilia; Mayer, Winfried; van Cott, Andrew; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test is commonly used for the identification of severe ocular irritants (GHS Category 1), but it is not recommended for the identification of ocular irritants (GHS Category 2). The incorporation of human reconstructed tissue model-based tests into a tiered test strategy to identify ocular non-irritants and replace the Draize rabbit eye irritation test has been suggested (OECD TG 405). The value of the EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test (EIT) for the prediction of ocular non-irritants (GHS No Category) has been demonstrated, and an OECD Test Guideline (TG) was drafted in 2014. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the BCOP test, in conjunction with corneal histopathology (as suggested for the evaluation of the depth of the injury( and/or the EpiOcular-EIT, could be used to predict the eye irritation potential of agrochemical formulations according to the UN GHS, US EPA and Brazil ANVISA classification schemes. We have assessed opacity, permeability and histopathology in the BCOP assay, and relative tissue viability in the EpiOcular-EIT, for 97 agrochemical formulations with available in vivo eye irritation data. By using the OECD TG 437 protocol for liquids, the BCOP test did not result in sufficient correct predictions of severe ocular irritants for any of the three classification schemes. The lack of sensitivity could be improved somewhat by the inclusion of corneal histopathology, but the relative viability in the EpiOcular-EIT clearly outperformed the BCOP test for all three classification schemes. The predictive capacity of the EpiOcular-EIT for ocular non-irritants (UN GHS No Category) for the 97 agrochemical formulations tested (91% sensitivity, 72% specificity and 82% accuracy for UN GHS classification) was comparable to that obtained in the formal validation exercise underlying the OECD draft TG. We therefore conclude that the EpiOcular-EIT is currently the best in vitro method for the prediction

  11. Lift truck safety review

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  12. Technical Seminar: "Crash Safety"""

    NASA Video Gallery

    This seminar addresses the history and successful progress in predicting and improving the crash safety characteristics of vehicles, with particular emphasis on rotary wing aircraft and composite s...

  13. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The results of the Panel's activities are presented in a set of findings and recommendations. Highlighted here are both improvements in NASA's safety and reliability activities and specific areas where additional gains might be realized. One area of particular concern involves the curtailment or elimination of Space Shuttle safety and reliability enhancements. Several findings and recommendations address this area of concern, reflecting the opinion that safety and reliability enhancements are essential to the continued successful operation of the Space Shuttle. It is recommended that a comprehensive and continuing program of safety and reliability improvements in all areas of Space Shuttle hardware/software be considered an inherent component of ongoing Space Shuttle operations.

  14. CONTROLLING BEHAVIOR CHANGERS' BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARKLE, DAVID G.

    AN EMERGING METHODOLOGY OF PROGRAMING AVOIDS SOME OF THE UNFORTUNATE EFFECTS ON PROGRAMER BEHAVIOR PRODUCED BY INTERPRETATIONS OF TWO EARLIER METHODOLOGIES. WHILE SKINNERIAN PROGRAMING OFTEN HAS LED TO TRIVIAL PROGRAMS THROUGH PROBLEMS OF APPLICATION OF THE CRITERIA OF SPECIFIED BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES AND LOW ERROR RATES, CROWDERIAN PROGRAMING HAS…

  15. Individual employee's perceptions of " Group-level Safety Climate" (supervisor referenced) versus " Organization-level Safety Climate" (top management referenced): Associations with safety outcomes for lone workers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lee, Jin; McFadden, Anna C; Rineer, Jennifer; Robertson, Michelle M

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that safety climate is among the strongest predictors of safety behavior and safety outcomes in a variety of settings. Previous studies have established that safety climate is a multi-faceted construct referencing multiple levels of management within a company, most generally: the organization level (employee perceptions of top management's commitment to and prioritization of safety) and group level (employee perceptions of direct supervisor's commitment to and prioritization of safety). Yet, no research to date has examined the potential interaction between employees' organization-level safety climate (OSC) and group-level safety climate (GSC) perceptions. Furthermore, prior research has mainly focused on traditional work environments in which supervisors and workers interact in the same location throughout the day. Little research has been done to examine safety climate with regard to lone workers. The present study aims to address these gaps by examining the relationships between truck drivers' (as an example of lone workers) perceptions of OSC and GSC, both potential linear and non-linear relationships, and how these predict important safety outcomes. Participants were 8095 truck drivers from eight trucking companies in the United States with an average response rate of 44.8%. Results showed that employees' OSC and GSC perceptions are highly correlated (r= 0.78), but notable gaps between the two were observed for some truck drivers. Uniquely, both OSC and GSC scores were found to have curvilinear relationships with safe driving behavior, and both scores were equally predictive of safe driving behavior. Results also showed the two levels of climate significantly interacted with one another to predict safety behavior such that if either the OSC or GSC scores were low, the other's contribution to safety behavior became stronger. These findings suggest that OSC and GSC may function in a compensatory manner and promote safe driving behavior even

  16. Reactor Safety Research: Semiannual report, July-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting, under USNRC sponsorship, phenomenological research related to the safety of commercial nuclear power reactors. The research includes experiments to simulate the phenomenology of the accident conditions and the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety systems performance and behavior under abnormal conditions. The objective of this work is to provide NRC requisite data bases and analytical methods to (1) identify and define safety issues, (2) understand the progression of risk-significant accident sequences, and (3) conduct safety assessments. The collective NRC-sponsored effort at Sandia National Laboratories is directed at enhancing the tehcnology base supporting licensing decisions.

  17. Reporting among nurses and its correlation with hospital safety culture.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chunxiang; Xie, Jianfei; Jiang, Juan; Zhen, Feng; Ding, Siqing

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the behaviors of nurses in China toward reporting safety events, the barriers to reporting, and the correlations of these aspects with hospital safety culture. A convenience sampling of 1125 nurses from 8 hospitals was performed. The perceptions of nurse managers and colleagues as well as reporting procedures played key roles in the barriers to safety event reporting. To increase the safety culture and facilitate reporting, attention should be paid to job satisfaction and recognition of nurses' stress.

  18. Middle School Risk Behavior 1995 Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability Services/Research.

    The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) Middle School Questionnaire, produced by the National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was administered for the first time in North Carolina in 1995. The survey monitored high-priority health-risk behaviors, including: (1) weapons and violence; (2) suicide-related behaviors; (3) vehicle safety; (4)…

  19. Designing for reliability and safety control

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, E.J.; Kumamoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    This work provides a quantitative treatment of the optimal design of safety systems focusing on information links (human and computer), sensors, and control systems. It deals with the important topics of protection from terrorist attacks and sabotage. Its shows the complex interactions between plant equipment and human operators, automatic control systems, computer hardware and software, and protective systems. This book expands the scope and role of reliability and safety engineers by introducing them to new concepts such as human behavior, computer failures, artificial intelligence techniques, alarm optimization, and fault-free synthesis.

  20. A Silent Safety Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) referred 8 times to the NASA "Silent Safety Program." This term, "Silent Safety Program" was not an original observation but first appeared in the Rogers Commission's Investigation of the Challenger Mishap. The CAIB on page 183 of its report in the paragraph titled 'Encouraging Minority Opinion,' stated "The Naval Reactor Program encourages minority opinions and "bad news." Leaders continually emphasize that when no minority opinions are present, the responsibility for a thorough and critical examination falls to management. . . Board interviews revealed that it is difficult for minority and dissenting opinions to percolate up through the agency's hierarchy. . ." The first question and perhaps the only question is - what is a silent safety program? Well, a silent safety program may be the same as the dog that didn't bark in Sherlock Holmes' "Adventure of the Silver Blaze" because system safety should behave as a devil's advocate for the program barking on every occasion to insure a critical review inclusion. This paper evaluates the NASA safety program and provides suggestions to prevent the recurrence of the silent safety program alluded to in the Challenger Mishap Investigation. Specifically targeted in the CAM report, "The checks and balances the safety system was meant to provide were not working." A silent system safety program is not unique to NASA but could emerge in any and every organization. Principles developed by Irving Janis in his book, Groupthink, listed criteria used to evaluate an organization's cultural attributes that allows a silent safety program to evolve. If evidence validates Jams's criteria, then Jams's recommendations for preventing groupthink can also be used to improve a critical evaluation and thus prevent the development of a silent safety program.

  1. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

  2. Investigating Change in Adolescent Self-Efficacy of Food Safety through Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Amy S.; Murphy, Lindsay; Richards, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    A successfully targeted intervention can influence food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, as well as encourage participants to recognize their own responsibility for safe food handling. This acknowledgement of an individual's responsibility and capacity to address food safety can be understood as self-efficacy of food safety (SEFS). This…

  3. 77 FR 75443 - Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public... by BSEE establish and maintain a positive safety culture commensurate with the significance of their... culture as the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and...

  4. A Review of Research on Procedures for Teaching Safety Skills to Persons with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Dennis R.; Bergstrom, Ryan; Smith, Marlena N.; Tarbox, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Safety skills are an important but often neglected area of training for persons with developmental disabilities (DD). The present study reviewed the literature on teaching safety skills to persons with DD. Safety skills involve a variety of behaviors such as knowing how to cross the street or what to do in case of a house fire. A number of studies…

  5. Impact of cycling at low temperatures on the safety behavior of 18650-type lithium ion cells: Combined study of mechanical and thermal abuse testing accompanied by post-mortem analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Alex; Horsthemke, Fabian; Mönnighoff, Xaver; Brunklaus, Gunther; Krafft, Roman; Börner, Markus; Risthaus, Tim; Winter, Martin; Schappacher, Falko M.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of cycling at low temperatures on the thermal and mechanical abuse behavior of commercial 18650-type lithium ion cells was compared to fresh cells. Post-mortem analyses revealed a deposition of high surface area lithium (HSAL) metal on the graphite surface accompanied by severe electrolyte decomposition. Heat wait search (HWS) tests in an accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) were performed to investigate the thermal abuse behavior of aged and fresh cells under quasi-adiabatic conditions, showing a strong shift of the onset temperature for exothermic reactions. HSAL deposition promotes the reduction of the carbonate based electrolyte due to the high reactivity of lithium metal with high surface area, leading to a thermally induced decomposition of the electrolyte to produce volatile gaseous products. Nail penetration tests showed a change in the thermal runaway (TR) behavior affected by the decomposition reaction. This study indicates a greater thermal hazard for LIB cells at higher SOC and experiencing aging at low temperature.

  6. Main contributions of the KfK nuclear safety project in the LWR safety area

    SciTech Connect

    Kuczera, B.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Project (PNS) was established at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in 1972. At that time, nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany was in a transition phase proceeding from light water reactor (LWR) demonstration plants (300 MW(e)) to commercial size plants of 1200 to 1300 MW(e) which are standard units today. Simultaneously, general questions about LWR safety and reliability as well as questions on risk-oriented features became more pronounced in the public discussion. As a consequence, various already existing LWR safety activities were brought together and combined in the organizational framework of the PNS. The overriding objectives of PNS research and development (R and D) effort were at the quantification of safety margins of reactor systems and components, and the improvement of existing safety systems to avoid accident occurrence and to minimize accident consequences. In close cooperation with governmental authorities, manufacturers, and utilities, an R and D program was developed, comprised of four main areas: 1) dynamic behavior of reactor components; 2) fuel element behavior under accident conditions; 3) core meltdown accident analyses; and 4) retention of radioactive fission products and limitation of severe accident consequences. An overview on the KfK contribution to LWR safety research is given. It deals in a comprehensive matter with results obtained in the areas listed above.

  7. Safety and Excellence. Safety in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrow, John

    2004-01-01

    As far as schools are concerned, there are three kinds of safety: physical, emotional, and intellectual. Excellence demands all three, while "good enough" schools are simply physically safe. How can parents and others determine whether a school is physically safe? It's always good to find out how many students were suspended at a particular…

  8. Safety for Older Consumers. Home Safety Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    A home safety checklist geared to the needs of older adults is presented in this document. The beginning of the checklist highlights potential hazards which may need to be checked in more than one area of the home, such as electric cords, smoke detectors, rugs, telephone areas, and emergency exit plans. The rest of the checklist is organized…

  9. Safety Precautions for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folks, John; And Others

    Safety information is discussed and outlined in this guide. Areas include: (1) general laboratory safety rules; (2) general rules and guidelines for animals in the elementary classroom; (3) general guidelines for the physical sciences; (4) general rules for using animals in investigations, with specifics on the care and handling of mammals,…

  10. Biology Laboratory Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Christine L.

    The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends that schools prepare or adapt a biosafety manual, and that instructors develop a list of safety procedures applicable to their own lab and distribute it to each student. In this way, safety issues will be brought to each student's attention. This document is an example of such a manual. It contains…

  11. Safety Practices for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    Designed to promote the use of safe, controlled investigations in science classrooms in Texas, this publication describes procedures to help teachers ensure the safety of all students in class and on field trips. Safety in the elementary science classroom and in secondary school science courses is discussed. Included are first-aid procedures,…

  12. Safety in Aquaculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durborow, Robert M.; Myers, Melvin L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, occupational safety interventions for agriculture-related jobs, specifically in aquaculture, are reviewed. Maintaining quality of life and avoiding economic loss are two areas in which aquaculturists can benefit by incorporating safety protocols and interventions on their farms. The information in this article is based on farm…

  13. Querying Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Naylor, Dwight; Pai, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Querying a safety case to show how the various stakeholders' concerns about system safety are addressed has been put forth as one of the benefits of argument-based assurance (in a recent study by the Health Foundation, UK, which reviewed the use of safety cases in safety-critical industries). However, neither the literature nor current practice offer much guidance on querying mechanisms appropriate for, or available within, a safety case paradigm. This paper presents a preliminary approach that uses a formal basis for querying safety cases, specifically Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) argument structures. Our approach semantically enriches GSN arguments with domain-specific metadata that the query language leverages, along with its inherent structure, to produce views. We have implemented the approach in our toolset AdvoCATE, and illustrate it by application to a fragment of the safety argument for an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) being developed at NASA Ames. We also discuss the potential practical utility of our query mechanism within the context of the existing framework for UAS safety assurance.

  14. Safety of isotropic flywheels

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.W.

    1981-04-30

    A probabilistic safety criterion for isotropic flywheel rotors is established based on the tolerated noncontainment failure rates of commercial aircraft turbojet engine rotors. A technique is developed combining reliability with fracture mechanics, and a sample calculation provided, to show the energy-storage levels that isotropic flywheel rotors could achieve within the constraints of this safety criterion.

  15. Serving Up Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Patricia L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes what principals can do to protect children from food-related illness in school: Forming of food-safe school teams, developing food-safety procedures, including food safety in crises-management plans, educating staff on plans and procedures, encouraging hand washing, making sure the cafeteria works properly, and encouraging the hiring of…

  16. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  17. Educating for Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, J. Peter

    1991-01-01

    To enhance the chance for success in educating young drivers, there should be a balance between the content, structure, and goals of traffic safety programs and the normative rules governing young people's lives. Presents recommendations for safety education based on the notion of complementarity and using a multiperspective approach. (AF)

  18. The color of safety

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.A.

    2006-06-15

    The industry's workforce is getting grayer as veteran miners approach retirement, and greener as new hires come onboard. Will the changing complexion of the industry affect future safety technology? The article discusses problems of noise, vibration, and communication faced by coal miners and reports some developments by manufacturers of mining equipment to improve health and safety. 1 fig., 4 photos.

  19. Safety Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Carlee S.

    The safety education program for Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools was prepared as a simplified guide for teachers to use in grades 1-12. Safety programs in schools should develop knowledge, habits, and attitudes in order to eliminate, as far as possible, the dangers of accidental death or injury to children. It should inform these future…

  20. Child Transportation Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  1. School Safety and Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document offers additional guidelines for school facilities in California in the areas of safety and security, lighting, and cleanliness. It also offers a description of technology resources available on the World Wide Web. On the topic of safety and security, the document offers guidelines in the areas of entrances, doors, and controlled…

  2. Radiological Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    Written to be used concurrently with the U.S. Army's Radiological Safety Course, this publication discusses the causes, sources, and detection of nuclear radiation. In addition, the transportation and disposal of radioactive materials are covered. The report also deals with the safety precautions to be observed when working with lasers, microwave…

  3. Workplace Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. It is a short guide to workplace health and safety issues, laws, and regulations, especially in Massachusetts. Topics covered include the following: (1) safety issues--workplace ergonomics, the…

  4. Food safety attitudes in college students: a structural equation modeling analysis of a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Booth, Rachelle; Hernandez, Magaly; Baker, Erica L; Grajales, Tevni; Pribis, Peter

    2013-01-30

    College students are one of the most at-risk population groups for food poisoning, due to risky food safety behaviors. Using the Likert Scale, undergraduate students were asked to participate in a Food Safety Survey which was completed by 499 students ages 18-25. Data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS statistical software. Four conceptual definitions regarding food safety were defined as: general food safety, bacterial food safety, produce food safety, and politics associated with food safety. Knowledge seems to be an important factor in shaping students attitudes regarding general and bacterial safety. Ethnicity plays a role in how people view the politics of food safety, and the safety of organic foods.

  5. Understanding Clinical Alarm Safety.

    PubMed

    Lukasewicz, Carol L; Mattox, Elizabeth Andersson

    2015-08-01

    Patient safety organizations and health care accreditation agencies recognize the significance of clinical alarm hazards. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, a nonprofit organization focused on development and use of safe and effective medical equipment, identifies alarm management as a major issue for health care organizations. ECRI Institute, a nonprofit organization that researches approaches for improving patient safety and quality of care, identifies alarm hazards as the most significant of the "Top Ten Health Technology Hazards" for 2014. A new Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal focusing on clinical alarm safety contains new requirements for accredited hospitals to be fully implemented by 2016. Through a fictional unfolding case study, this article reviews selected contributing factors to clinical alarm hazards present in inpatient, high-acuity settings. Understanding these factors improves contributions by nurses to clinical alarm safety practice.

  6. K Basin safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  7. Teaching Safety Skills to Children to Prevent Gun Play: An Evaluation of in Situ Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Gatheridge, Brian J.; Satterlund, Melisa; Egemo-Helm, Kristin R.; Johnson, Brigitte M.; Jostad, Candice; Kelso, Pamela; Flessner, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated behavioral skills training with added in situ training for teaching safety skills to prevent gun play. Following baseline, each child received two sessions of behavioral skills training and one in situ training session. Additional in situ training sessions were conducted until the child exhibited the safety skills (don't touch…

  8. A long-term open-label extension study assessing cognition and behavior, tolerability, safety, and efficacy of adjunctive levetiracetam in children aged 4 to 16 years with partial-onset seizures.

    PubMed

    Schiemann-Delgado, Jimmy; Yang, Haichen; Loge, Christine de la; Stalvey, Tracy J; Jones, John; Legoff, Daniel; Mintz, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess cognition and behavior in children (4-16 years; n = 103) with partial-onset seizures using the Leiter-R International Performance Scale and Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist. The study was a multicenter, open-label, noncomparative 48-week extension study (NCT00152516) of adjunctive levetiracetam (20-100 mg/kg/d, mean 50.2 mg/kg/d). Improvement from baseline in Leiter-R Memory Screen composite score at weeks 24 and 48 (mean [SD] change, +4.8 [12.6] and +4.5 [15.3]) was similar to changes observed with levetiracetam and placebo in a prior study. Child Behavior Checklist Syndrome scores improved from baseline at weeks 24 and 48 (total problems mean [SD] change, -9.3 [22.2] and -10.4 [23.4]). Adjunctive levetiracetam was well tolerated (most frequently reported central nervous system-related treatment-emergent adverse events: headache [24.3%], aggression [7.8%], irritability [7.8%]). Of the patients, 4.9% discontinued because of treatment-emergent adverse events. Levetiracetam provided good and sustained seizure control (median percentage reduction from baseline in partial-onset seizure frequency/wk during maintenance: 86.4%); 24.7% of patients had continuous seizure freedom from all seizure types for ≥40 weeks. In children, adjunctive levetiracetam was associated with long-term stability in cognitive functioning and improvement in emotional/behavioral functioning over time.

  9. 76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... Rulemaking (ANPRM) titled: ``Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines'' seeking comments on the need for changes to the regulations covering gas transmission pipelines. PHMSA has received requests to extend...

  10. Child Passenger Safety in the Somali Communities of Columbus, Ohio.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Lara B; Fowler, Erica; Roberts, Kristin J; Kaercher, Roxanne M

    2017-04-01

    Children (particularly low-income minorities and refugees) are at high risk for serious injury or death from motor vehicle crashes. Interpreter-assisted data collection included key informant interviews, focus groups and face-to-face surveys with the Somali community of Columbus, Ohio about child passenger safety. Measurements included prevalence of child safety seats use, awareness and knowledge of and barriers to proper use in order to inform development, implementation, and initial evaluation of a culturally-appropriate intervention for Somali families. Somali parents regarded child passenger safety as an important topic, but many reported improper restraint behaviors of one or more children and/or did not have an adequate number of child safety seats. Few parents reported having child safety seats installed by a professional technician. Child passenger safety practices in the Somali communities of Columbus are a public health concern that should be addressed with culturally-appropriate interventions.

  11. Managing patient safety through NPSGs and employee performance.

    PubMed

    Adair, Liberty

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety can only exist in a culture of patient safety, which implies it is a value perceived by all. Culture predicts safety outcomes and leadership predicts the culture. Leaders are obligated to continually mitigate hazard and take action consciously. Healthcare workers should focus on preventing and reporting mistakes with the National Patient Safety Goals (NPSGs) in mind. These include: accuracy of patient identification, effectiveness of communication among caregivers, improving safety of medications, reducing infections, reducing risk of falls, and encouraging patients to be involved in care. Poor performers and reckless behavior need to be mitigated. If employees recognize their roles in the process, feel empowered,and have appropriate tools, resources,and data to implement solutions, errors can be avoided and patient safety becomes paramount.

  12. Safety in passenger ships: The influence of environmental design characteristics on people's perception of safety.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Markus; Mugge, Ruth

    2017-03-01

    Although objective safety is a widely studied topic in ergonomics, subjective safety has received far less research attention. Nevertheless, most of human decision-making and behavior depends on how we perceive our environment. This study investigates the effects of various environmental design characteristics on people's safety perception in a passenger ship context. Five different environmental design characteristics were manipulated to increase the openness of the space or to create more clear navigation, resulting in 20 different cabin corridors for a passenger ship. Ninety-seven respondents were asked to rate these corridors on the perceived safety in an experiment. The results showed that people feel more safe when the corridors have a curved ceiling, when the walls do not have a split-level design, and when there is a view to the outside. Designers can use these insights when designing future environments.

  13. Safety recommendations and responses availability. [Tank car safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-28

    Documents available from the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) include a response by the US Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) to NTSB's report, ''The Accident Performance of Tank Car Safeguards''. FRA has agreed to extend the requirements for top-and-bottom shelf couplers to all tank cars used to transport hazardous materials, and those for head shields and thermal protection to new and rebuilt specification DOT 105 tank cars; to examine the protection afforded to ''nonpressure'' tank cars used to transport specialty products and Class A poisons; to study the ways in which to minimize the damage to the top fittings and bottom outlet valves following train accidents and incorporate these with new car construction; to collect data on tank car derailment behavior to identify breach mechanisms (FRA work in progress); and to conduct studies to evaluate the safe positions in freight trains for placarded hazardous materials rail cars.

  14. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2005-01-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft (manned or unmanned) launched that did not have a computer on board that provided vital command and control services. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Led by the NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard (STD-18l9.13B) has recently undergone a significant update in an attempt to provide that consistency. This paper will discuss the key features of the new NASA Software Safety Standard. It will start with a brief history of the use and development of software in safety critical applications at NASA. It will then give a brief overview of the NASA Software Working Group and the approach it took to revise the software engineering process across the Agency.

  15. Safety management practices and safety behaviour: assessing the mediating role of safety knowledge and motivation.

    PubMed

    Vinodkumar, M N; Bhasi, M

    2010-11-01

    Safety management practices not only improve working conditions but also positively influence employees' attitudes and behaviours with regard to safety, thereby reducing accidents in workplace. This study measured employees' perceptions on six safety management practices and self-reported safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation by conducting a survey using questionnaire among 1566 employees belonging to eight major accident hazard process industrial units in Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The reliability and unidimesionality of all the scales were found acceptable. Path analysis using AMOS-4 software showed that some of the safety management practices have direct and indirect relations with the safety performance components, namely, safety compliance and safety participation. Safety knowledge and safety motivation were found to be the key mediators in explaining these relationships. Safety training was identified as the most important safety management practice that predicts safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation. These findings provide valuable guidance for researchers and practitioners for identifying the mechanisms by which they can improve safety of workplace.

  16. Safety shutdown separators

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  17. Aerostructural safety factor criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    The present modification of the conventional safety factor method for aircraft structures evaluation involves the expression of deterministic safety factors in probabilistic tolerance limit ratios; these are found to involve a total of three factors that control the interference of applied and resistive stress distributions. The deterministic expression is extended so that it may furnish a 'relative ultimate safety' index that encompasses all three distribution factors. Operational reliability is developed on the basis of the applied and the yield stress distribution interferences. Industry standards are suggested to be derivable from factor selections that are based on the consequences of failure.

  18. Hierarchical Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Whiteside, Iain J.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce hierarchical safety cases (or hicases) as a technique to overcome some of the difficulties that arise creating and maintaining industrial-size safety cases. Our approach extends the existing Goal Structuring Notation with abstraction structures, which allow the safety case to be viewed at different levels of detail. We motivate hicases and give a mathematical account of them as well as an intuition, relating them to other related concepts. We give a second definition which corresponds closely to our implementation of hicases in the AdvoCATE Assurance Case Editor and prove the correspondence between the two. Finally, we suggest areas of future enhancement, both theoretically and practically.

  19. Safety Panel Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore what resources are potentially available to safety panels and to provide some guidance on how to utilize those resources. While the examples used in this paper will concentrate on the Flight Equipment and Reliability Review Panel (FESRRP) and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) hardware that have come through that panel, as well as resources at Johnson Space Center, the paper will address how this applies to safety panels in general, and where possible cite examples for other safety panels.

  20. Encouraging sun safety for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boe, Kathy; Tillotson, Elizabeth A

    2006-06-01

    The rise in the number of cases of skin cancers, both melanomas and nonmelanomas, has prompted increased awareness and educational efforts to limit sun exposure. Because 80% of lifetime sun exposure occurs before the age of 18, educating parents and adolescents to incorporate sun-protective behaviors into daily routines is particularly important. Education of parents is essential to establishing healthy behavior patterns in children. Educational interventions are recommended that encourage the following: using sunscreen, wearing hats with wide brims and clothing that blocks or absorbs ultraviolet rays, using sunglasses that block ultraviolet radiation, and seeking shade. Continued efforts are important through adolescence to maintain the established behaviors. School nurses are in a position to affect the health education curriculum, as well as school policies that promote sun safety behaviors.

  1. Future challenges to microbial food safety.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Brul, Stanley; de Jong, Aarieke; de Jonge, Rob; Zwietering, Marcel H; Ter Kuile, Benno H

    2010-05-30

    improved outbreak detection and source attribution, sero-epidemiology and disease burden estimation. Current developments in molecular techniques make it possible to rapidly assemble information on the genome of various isolates of microbial species of concern. Such information can be used to develop new tracking and tracing methods, and to investigate the behavior of micro-organisms under environmentally relevant stress conditions. These novel tools and insight need to be applied to objectives for food safety strategies, as well as to models that predict microbial behavior. In addition, the increasing complexity of the global food systems necessitates improved communication between all parties involved: scientists, risk assessors and risk managers, as well as consumers.

  2. Environmental, safety, and health engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Woodside, G.; Kocurek, D.

    1997-12-31

    A complete guide to environmental, safety, and health engineering, including an overview of EPA and OSHA regulations; principles of environmental engineering, including pollution prevention, waste and wastewater treatment and disposal, environmental statistics, air emissions and abatement engineering, and hazardous waste storage and containment; principles of safety engineering, including safety management, equipment safety, fire and life safety, process and system safety, confined space safety, and construction safety; and principles of industrial hygiene/occupational health engineering including chemical hazard assessment, personal protective equipment, industrial ventilation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, noise, and ergonomics.

  3. The spent fuel safety experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, G.A.; Davis, F.J.; Ford, J.T.

    1995-08-01

    The Department of Energy is conducting an ongoing investigation of the consequences of taking fuel burnup into account in the design of spent fuel transportation packages. A series of experiments, collectively called the Spent Fuel Safety Experiment (SFSX), has been devised to provide integral benchmarks for testing computer-generated predictions of spent fuel behavior. A set of experiments is planned in which sections of unirradiated fuel rods are interchanged with similar sections of spent PWR fuel rods in a critical assembly. By determining the critical size of the arrays, one can obtain benchmark data for comparison with criticality safety calculations. The SFSX provides a direct measurement of the reactivity effects of spent PWR fuel using a well-characterized, spent fuel sample. The SFSX also provides an experimental measurement of the end-effect, i.e., the reactivity effect of the variation of the burnup profile at the ends of PWR fuel rods. The design of the SFSX is optimized to yield accurate benchmark measurements of the effects of interest, well above experimental uncertainties.

  4. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft launched that does not have a computer on board that will provide command and control services. There have been recent incidents where software has played a role in high-profile mission failures and hazardous incidents. For example, the Mars Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, the DART (Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology), and MER (Mars Exploration Rover) Spirit anomalies were all caused or contributed to by software. The Mission Control Centers for the Shuttle, ISS, and unmanned programs are highly dependant on software for data displays, analysis, and mission planning. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been little to no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Meanwhile, academia and private industry have been stepping forward with procedures and standards for safety critical systems and software, for example Dr. Nancy Leveson's book Safeware: System Safety and Computers. The NASA Software Safety Standard, originally published in 1997, was widely ignored due to its complexity and poor organization. It also focused on concepts rather than definite procedural requirements organized around a software project lifecycle. Led by NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard has recently undergone a significant update. This new standard provides the procedures and guidelines for evaluating a project for safety criticality and then lays out the minimum project lifecycle requirements to assure the software is created, operated, and maintained in the safest possible manner. This update of the standard clearly delineates the minimum set of software safety requirements for a project without detailing the implementation for those

  5. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Cancer.gov

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  6. Updated Lightning Safety Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, R. James; Holle, Ronald L.; Lopez, Raul E.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the recommendations of the Lightning Safety Group (LSG), which was first convened during the 1998 American Meteorological Society Conference. Findings outline appropriate actions under various circumstances when lightning threatens. (WRM)

  7. Bug repellent safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... gone. Alternative Names Insect repellent safety Images Bee sting References Fradin MS, Carroll SP. Protection from blood- ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Insect Bites and Stings Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  8. Focusing on dam safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lagassa, G.

    1993-01-01

    With increased relicensing activity and a federal emphasis on safety, dam repair and refurbishment is a growing business. Providers of goods and services are gearing up to meet the dam repair and rehabilitation needs that result.

  9. Chemical Safety Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need to enhance understanding of chemical safety in educational facilities that includes adequate staff training and drilling requirements. The question of what is considered proper training is addressed. (GR)

  10. Freezing and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... thousands of callers to the USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline aren't sure about the safety of ... mayonnaise, cream sauce and lettuce. Raw meat and poultry maintain their quality longer than their cooked counterparts ...

  11. Older Consumers Safety Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur. Home Electrical Safety Checklist in Spanish Indoor Air Pollution: Introduction for Health Professionals Learn about the signs and symptoms of indoor air pollution and remedial actions that can be taken. Protect ...

  12. National Patient Safety Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... ASPPS Members e-News Archive Current Awareness Alert BMJ Q&S for ASPPS Members ASPPS Member News Member ... Stand Up e-News Archive Current Awareness Alert BMJ Quality & Safety Resource Guides PLS Webcast Archives Stand ...

  13. Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  14. Nanosensors for food safety.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixiong; Sheng, Chenxing

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes recent research and development of nanosensors applied to the food safety. Since the food safety is directly related to the people's health and life, the food detection has received considerable attentions. However, this food security has emerged in China as a severe problem in recent years. Food safety problems frequently compromised due to formaldehyde, poison vegetables, excessive pesticide residues, etc. These kinds of food contaminations could not be detected efficiently by traditional methods. Applying nanotechnology and nanominerals, various food contaminations can be identified accurately. Therefore nanosensors have been widely used in the food detection. We introduce current research on nanosensors followed by the industrial application of nanosensors. Finally, the challenges for the future food safety using nanosensors are discussed.

  15. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  16. Practicing Fireworks Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... recent fireworks injury report (PDF) from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, fireworks injuries in the in ... to help. For those who decide to purchase consumer fireworks because they live in states where they ...

  17. MRI Safety during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z MRI Safety During Pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Illness ... during the exam? Contrast material MRI during pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) If you are pregnant and your doctor ...

  18. The Hermes safety strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, R.

    The Hermes space vehicle currently in project for the European Space Agency will open the road to European autonomous manned space missions at the beginning of the 21st century. The safety objectives are very ambitious and will require the implementation of a comprehensive safety assurance program, aimed at reducing the risks to an acceptable level. The risk acceptance is based on identification, ranking and minimization of Critical Items including all potential departures from the safety requirements. Prime contractors shall prepare a Critical Item List for their elements, and submit it to the Hermes Program Directorate for review; approval of the residual open critical items shall be obtained before launch. An independent committee (HESAC) has been set up by the ESA and the French National Space Center (CNES) Directors General to assess the adequacy of the Safety Control Program.

  19. Campus Fire Safety Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Reviews information on recent college and university dormitory fire fatalities, and highlights five examples of building features reported to be major contributing factors in residence-hall fires. Explains how public awareness and expectations are affecting school dormitory safety. (GR)

  20. Swimming Pool Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to keep my child safe around swimming pools? An adult should actively watch children at ...

  1. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  2. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An assessment of NASA's safety performance for 1983 affirms that NASA Headquarters and Center management teams continue to hold the safety of manned flight to be their prime concern, and that essential effort and resources are allocated for maintaining safety in all of the development and operational programs. Those conclusions most worthy of NASA management concentration are given along with recommendations for action concerning; product quality and utility; space shuttle main engine; landing gear; logistics and management; orbiter structural loads, landing speed, and pitch control; the shuttle processing contractor; and the safety of flight operations. It appears that much needs to be done before the Space Transportation System can achieve the reliability necessary for safe, high rate, low cost operations.

  3. Food safety in home kitchens: a synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Berning, Jacqueline; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Quick, Virginia

    2013-09-02

    Although foodborne illness is preventable, more than 56,000 people per year become ill in the U.S., creating high economic costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life for many. Experts agree that the home is the primary location where foodborne outbreaks occur; however, many consumers do not believe the home to be a risky place. Health care professionals need to be aware of consumers' food safety attitudes and behaviors in the home and deliver tailored food safety interventions that are theory-based. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize/summarize the food safety literature by examining the following: consumers' perceptions and attitudes towards food safety and their susceptibility to foodborne illness in the home, work, and school; common risky food safety practices and barriers to handling food safely; and the application of theory-based food safety interventions. Findings will help healthcare professionals become more aware of consumers' food safety attitudes and behaviors and serve to inform future food safety interventions.

  4. Food Safety in Home Kitchens: A Synthesis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Berning, Jacqueline; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Quick, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Although foodborne illness is preventable, more than 56,000 people per year become ill in the U.S., creating high economic costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life for many. Experts agree that the home is the primary location where foodborne outbreaks occur; however, many consumers do not believe the home to be a risky place. Health care professionals need to be aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors in the home and deliver tailored food safety interventions that are theory-based. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize/summarize the food safety literature by examining the following: consumers’ perceptions and attitudes towards food safety and their susceptibility to foodborne illness in the home, work, and school; common risky food safety practices and barriers to handling food safely; and the application of theory-based food safety interventions. Findings will help healthcare professionals become more aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors and serve to inform future food safety interventions. PMID:24002725

  5. The Effects of Positive Behavior Interventions and Support on Changing the Behavior of Red Zone Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Fredrick

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve culture, safety, and climate, numerous schools nationwide are implementing Positive Behavior Interventions and Support (PBIS). The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Positive Behavior Interventions and Support (PBIS) model for reducing high-risk behaviors of students identified as red zone. The…

  6. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Ross, James G.; Gowda, Vani R.; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2000-01-01

    The 1998 National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey measured health risk behaviors at alternative high schools. Many alternative students engaged in behaviors that made them high-risk for serious problems (e.g., motor vehicle safety, violence, nutrition, sexuality, exercise, and substance abuse). Their prevalence of high risk…

  7. [Patient safety: Glossary].

    PubMed

    Sabio Paz, Verónica; Panattieri, Néstor D; Cristina Godio, Farmacéutica; Ratto, María E; Arpí, Lucrecia; Dackiewicz, Nora

    2015-10-01

    Patient safety and quality of care has become a challenge for health systems. Health care is an increasingly complex and risky activity, as it represents a combination of human, technological and organizational processes. It is necessary, therefore, to take effective actions to reduce the adverse events and mitigate its impact. This glossary is a local adaptation of key terms and concepts from the international bibliographic sources. The aim is providing a common language for assessing patient safety processes and compare them.

  8. Software system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uber, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Software itself is not hazardous, but since software and hardware share common interfaces there is an opportunity for software to create hazards. Further, these software systems are complex, and proven methods for the design, analysis, and measurement of software safety are not yet available. Some past software failures, future NASA software trends, software engineering methods, and tools and techniques for various software safety analyses are reviewed. Recommendations to NASA are made based on this review.

  9. Criticality safety training

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, S.K.

    1997-06-01

    Criticality safety training is an important element of the Plutonium Facility safety program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Training consists of student self-study handbooks and hands-on performance-based training in a mock-up laboratory containing gloveboxes, trolley conveyor system, and self-monitoring instruments. A 10-minute video tape and lecture was presented to describe how training in this area is conducted.

  10. Fires and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Food Safety / Fires and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  11. Safety Auditing and Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald (Ronnie)

    2005-01-01

    Safety professionals typically do not engage in audits and independent assessments with the vigor as do our quality brethren. Taking advantage of industry and government experience conducting value added Independent Assessments or Audits benefits a safety program. Most other organizations simply call this process "internal audits." Sources of audit training are presented and compared. A relation of logic between audit techniques and mishap investigation is discussed. An example of an audit process is offered. Shortcomings and pitfalls of auditing are covered.

  12. Bear Spray Safety Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

  13. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  14. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report from the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) contains findings, recommendations, and supporting material concerning safety issues with the space station program, the space shuttle program, aeronautics research, and other NASA programs. Section two presents findings and recommendations, section three presents supporting information, and appendices contain data about the panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1993 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the past year.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Safety

    PubMed Central

    Sammet, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has a superior soft-tissue contrast compared to other radiological imaging modalities and its physiological and functional applications have led to a significant increase in MRI scans worldwide. A comprehensive MRI safety training to protect patients and other healthcare workers from potential bio-effects and risks of the magnetic fields in an MRI suite is therefore essential. The knowledge of the purpose of safety zones in an MRI suite as well as MRI appropriateness criteria is important for all healthcare professionals who will work in the MRI environment or refer patients for MRI scans. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of current magnetic resonance safety guidelines and discuss the safety risks of magnetic fields in an MRI suite including forces and torque of ferromagnetic objects, tissue heating, peripheral nerve stimulation and hearing damages. MRI safety and compatibility of implanted devices, MRI scans during pregnancy and the potential risks of MRI contrast agents will also be discussed and a comprehensive MRI safety training to avoid fatal accidents in an MRI suite will be presented. PMID:26940331

  16. Safety system status monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  17. Safety Basis Report

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  18. Maintaining plant safety margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report Forms the basis of demonstrating that the plant can operate safely and meet all applicable acceptance criteria. In order to assure that this continues through each operating cycle, the safety analysis is reexamined for each reload core. Operating limits are set for each reload core to assure that safety limits and applicable acceptance criteria are not exceeded for postulated events within the design basis. These operating limits form the basis for plant operation, providing barriers on various measurable parameters. The barriers are refereed to as limiting conditions for operation (LCO). The operating limits, being influenced by many factors, can change significantly from cycle to cycle. In order to be successful in demonstrating safe operation for each reload core (with adequate operating margin), it is necessary to continue to focus on ways to maintain/improve existing safety margins. Existing safety margins are a function of the plant type (boiling water reactor/pressurized water reactor (BWR/PWR)), nuclear system supply (NSSS) vendor, operating license date, core design features, plant design features, licensing history, and analytical methods used in the safety analysis. This paper summarizes the experience at Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) in its efforts to provide adequate operating margin for the plants that it supports.

  19. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  20. Patient safety: mindful, meaningful, and fulfilling.

    PubMed

    Winokur, Steven C; Beauregard, Kay J

    2005-01-01

    Five years after the landmark report of the Institute of Medicine To Err Is Human (Kohn, Corrigan, and Donaldson 2000), many are asking, "Is U.S. healthcare safer?" A number of articles addressing this question have been written, interviews with nationally recognized patient safety leaders have been published, and governing boards of many healthcare organizations are examining reports of care provided by their institutions. Robert M. Wachter, writing in the November 2004 issue of Health Affairs, concludes that, "At this point, I would give our efforts an overall grade of C+, with striking areas of progress tempered by clear opportunities for improvement." We describe in this article the pursuit of a culture of safety at William Beaumont Hospital in Royal Oak, Michigan. Our experience has offered us the opportunity to ponder a number of key questions: How does leadership guide an organization toward a culture of safety? Does culture truly drive behavior, or is it really the reverse? How can a culture of safety be measured or observed? What levels of resources and commitment are required for success? Is safety all about systems and processes, or are core values also involved? What role does the patient play in ensuring safe care? We attempt to offer guidance, and share lessons learned, for each of these important questions.

  1. Safety Learning, Organizational Contradictions and the Dynamics of Safety Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripamonti, Silvio Carlo; Scaratti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the enactment of safety routines in a transshipment port. Research on work safety and reliability has largely neglected the role of the workers' knowledge in practice in the enactment of organisational safety. The workers' lack of compliance with safety regulations represents an enduring problem…

  2. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research.

  3. The role of organizational trust in safety climate's influence on organizational outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kath, Lisa M; Magley, Vicki J; Marmet, Matthew

    2010-09-01

    Based on elements of social exchange theory and other conceptualizations of trust, a model was developed situating organizational trust as a central component to the relationship that safety climate has with organizational outcomes. Specifically, the model specified that two facets of safety climate--upward safety communication and management attitudes toward safety--would be positively related to organizational trust. Increased levels of trust would then predict increased motivation to engage in safe job-related behaviors, increased job satisfaction, and decreased turnover intentions. Another hypothesis investigated whether job safety relevance would moderate the relationship between safety climate and trust. Online survey research was conducted with 599 employees from 97 work groups across a New England grocery store chain. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated support for trust mediating the relationship between safety climate and organizational outcomes; further, the relationship between safety climate and trust was stronger within work groups where safety was more relevant.

  4. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-02-11

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  5. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety Standards contain technical and process-oriented safety requirements. Technical requirements are those such as "must work" and "must not work" functions in the system. Process-Oriented requirements are software engineering and safety management process requirements. Address the system perspective and some cover just software in the system > NASA-STD-8719.13B Software Safety Standard is the current standard of interest. NASA programs/projects will have their own set of safety requirements derived from the standard. Safety Cases: a) Documented demonstration that a system complies with the specified safety requirements. b) Evidence is gathered on the integrity of the system and put forward as an argued case. [Gardener (ed.)] c) Problems occur when trying to meet safety standards, and thus make retrospective safety cases, in legacy safety-critical computer systems.

  6. Novel approach on the risk assessment of oxidized fats and oils for perspectives of food safety and quality. I. Oxidized fats and oils induces neurotoxicity relating pica behavior and hypoactivity.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, N; Watanabe, H; Osato, R; Inagaki, K; Iwasawa, A; Wada, S

    2006-04-01

    Food poisoning caused by deteriorated fat and oil in instant noodles was first reported in Japan approximately 40 years ago. In these cases, many people developed neurotoxic symptoms such as emesis and discomfort. The degree of oxidation of the fat and oil in the instant noodles that induced food poisoning was at least 100 meq/kg in peroxide value (PV). No general toxicity studies with animals, however, have examined the toxicity of fat and oil oxidized to that extent. In this study, pica behavior, a behavior characterized by eating a nonfood material such as kaolin and that relates to the degree of discomfort in animals, and alterations of locomotor activity of rats eating deteriorated fat and oil were measured. The groups fed fat and oil with at least 138.5 meq/kg PV consumed significantly more kaolin compared to the control group. Furthermore, rats that ate deteriorated fat and oil with at least 107.2 meq/kg PV had significantly decreased locomotor activity compared to control rats. These phenomena suggest that oxidized fat and oil with at least 100 meq/kg PV induce neurotoxicity. The toxicity of oxidized fat and oil has only been addressed using general toxicity tests, but the present results reveal the importance of evaluating toxicity by using other measures.

  7. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Safety criteria for ferrocyanide watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Meacham, J.E.; Barney, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides a technical basis for closing the ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) at the Hanford Site. Three work efforts were performed in developing this technical basis. The efforts described herein are: 1. The formulation of criteria for ranking the relative safety of waste in each ferrocyanide tank. 2. The current classification of tanks into safety categories by comparing available information on tank contents with the safety criteria; 3. The identification of additional information required to resolve the ferrocyanide safety issue.

  8. Safety Control and Safety Education at Technical Institutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Hiroshi

    The importance of safety education for students at technical institutes is emphasized on three grounds including safety of all working members and students in their education, research and other activities. The Kanazawa Institute of Technology re-organized the safety organization into a line structure and improved safety minds of all their members and now has a chemical materials control system and a set of compulsory safety education programs for their students, although many problems still remain.

  9. Aviation Safety: FAA and DOD Response to Similar Safety Concerns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    General Accounting Office GAO January 2002 AVIATION SAFETY FAA and DOD Response to Similar Safety Concerns GAO-02-77 Report Documentation Page Report...Date 00JAN2002 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle AVIATION SAFETY FAA and DOD: Response to Similar Safety Concerns ...public release, distribution unlimited Supplementary Notes Abstract Safety of aircraft is a paramount concern in both civilian and military aviation

  10. Correlates of sun safety practices in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents: Implications for skin cancer prevention interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B.; Tyc, Vida L.; Atkins, Michael B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of pediatric well-visits. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and non-white minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial/ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention and anti-smoking counseling. PMID:26269134

  11. Correlates of Sun Safety Practices in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Sample of Adolescents: Implications for Skin Cancer Prevention Interventions.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B; Tyc, Vida L; Atkins, Michael B; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2015-01-01

    To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of their pediatric wellness visit. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and nonwhite minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial and ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention with antismoking counseling.

  12. Organic food: buying more safety or just peace of mind? A critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Magkos, Faidon; Arvaniti, Fotini; Zampelas, Antonis

    2006-01-01

    Consumer concern over the quality and safety of conventional food has intensified in recent years, and primarily drives the increasing demand for organically grown food, which is perceived as healthier and safer. Relevant scientific evidence, however, is scarce, while anecdotal reports abound. Although there is an urgent need for information related to health benefits and/or hazards of food products of both origins, generalized conclusions remain tentative in the absence of adequate comparative data. Organic fruits and vegetables can be expected to contain fewer agrochemical residues than conventionally grown alternatives; yet, the significance of this difference is questionable, inasmuch as actual levels of contamination in both types of food are generally well below acceptable limits. Also, some leafy, root, and tuber organic vegetables appear to have lower nitrate content compared with conventional ones, but whether or not dietary nitrate indeed constitutes a threat to human health is a matter of debate. On the other hand, no differences can be identified for environmental contaminants (e.g. cadmium and other heavy metals), which are likely to be present in food from both origins. With respect to other food hazards, such as endogenous plant toxins, biological pesticides and pathogenic microorganisms, available evidence is extremely limited preventing generalized statements. Also, results for mycotoxin contamination in cereal crops are variable and inconclusive; hence, no clear picture emerges. It is difficult, therefore, to weigh the risks, but what should be made clear is that 'organic' does not automatically equal 'safe.' Additional studies in this area of research are warranted. At our present state of knowledge, other factors rather than safety aspects seem to speak in favor of organic food.

  13. NSTA Portal to Science Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The National Science Teachers Association's (NSTA) Science Safety Advisory Board recently launched the Safety in the Science Classroom portal. This portal serves as a gateway to safety resources for teachers, supervisors, and administrators. It also contains an evolving list of safety resources for elementary, middle, and high schools. The list…

  14. (Mis)understanding Safety Culture and Its Relationship to Safety Management.

    PubMed

    Guldenmund, Frank W

    2010-10-01

    Although the concept of safety culture was coined in relation to major accidents like Chernobyl and Piper Alpha, it has been embraced by the safety community at large as a cause for unsafe practice. In this article, three approaches to safety culture are discussed in terms of their underlying concepts of culture and organizational culture. Culture is an intangible, fuzzy concept encompassing acquired assumptions that is shared among the members of a group and that provides meaning to their perceptions and actions and those of others. The basic assumptions that form the essence of a culture are shared, yet tacit, convictions, which manifest themselves subtly in the visible world. As applied by safety researchers, the culture concept is deprived of much of its depth and subtlety, and is morphed into a grab bag of behavioral and other visible characteristics, without reference to the meaning these characteristics might actually have, and often infused with normative overtones. By combining the three approaches, we can resurrect the notion of safety culture and strengthen its analytical potential in understanding the development and implementation of safety management systems.

  15. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) presents results of activities during calendar year 2001. The year was marked by significant achievements in the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs and encouraging accomplishments by the Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Unfortunately, there were also disquieting mishaps with the X-43, a LearJet, and a wind tunnel. Each mishap was analyzed in an orderly process to ascertain causes and derive lessons learned. Both these accomplishments and the responses to the mishaps led the Panel to conclude that safety and risk management is currently being well served within NASA. NASA's operations evidence high levels of safety consciousness and sincere efforts to place safety foremost. Nevertheless, the Panel's safety concerns have never been greater. This dichotomy has arisen because the focus of most NASA programs has been directed toward program survival rather than effective life cycle planning. Last year's Annual Report focused on the need for NASA to adopt a realistically long planning horizon for the aging Space Shuttle so that safety would not erode. NASA's response to the report concurred with this finding. Nevertheless, there has been a greater emphasis on current operations to the apparent detriment of long-term planning. Budget cutbacks and shifts in priorities have severely limited the resources available to the Space Shuttle and ISS for application to risk-reduction and life-extension efforts. As a result, funds originally intended for long-term safety-related activities have been used for operations. Thus, while safety continues to be well served at present, the basis for future safety has eroded. Section II of this report develops this theme in more detail and presents several important, overarching findings and recommendations that apply to many if not all of NASA's programs. Section III of the report presents other significant findings, recommendations and supporting

  16. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Child passenger safety has dramatically evolved over the past decade; however, motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death of children 4 years and older. This policy statement provides 4 evidence-based recommendations for best practices in the choice of a child restraint system to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence: (1) rear-facing car safety seats for most infants up to 2 years of age; (2) forward-facing car safety seats for most children through 4 years of age; (3) belt-positioning booster seats for most children through 8 years of age; and (4) lap-and-shoulder seat belts for all who have outgrown booster seats. In addition, a fifth evidence-based recommendation is for all children younger than 13 years to ride in the rear seats of vehicles. It is important to note that every transition is associated with some decrease in protection; therefore, parents should be encouraged to delay these transitions for as long as possible. These recommendations are presented in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate implementation of the recommendations by pediatricians to their patients and families and should cover most situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics urges all pediatricians to know and promote these recommendations as part of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit.

  17. Safety equipment list

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.C.; Roe, N.A.

    1995-04-13

    This analysis assigns preliminary safety class (SC) designations to major systems and structures associated with the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project in accordance with the Multi-Function QAPP, W-236A (Hall 1994). Also included are SC assignments for those subsystems and major components of the major systems discussed in this document (see Appendices A and B). Component safety classifications have been completed through inspection (using engineering judgement) for simple systems, and through use of logic models (i.e., fault trees) for complicated systems. This analysis is intended to augment the SC systems list supplied in Chapter 9 of the MWTF Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (WHC 1994). Whereas WHC (1994) only addresses select systems, this analysis addresses the SC ramifications of all MWTF systems and structures as identified in the Title 1 design media. This document provides additional analyses of the system safety classifications assignments, and classifies systems not addressed in WHC (1994). This analysis specifically describes the safety functions) that must be performed by each MWTF system.

  18. An irreplaceable safety culture.

    PubMed

    Render, Marta L; Hirschhorn, Larry

    2005-01-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) clinicians are sources of errors and of resilience. When they learn how to juggle many competing goals, remain vigilant, and tell safety stories--all in the context of changing technologies and demand--they can create safe settings of care. Other strategies (eg, using computerized tools and implementing safety procedures) are important, but alone they are not sufficient. An ICU needs a safety culture that is rooted in a committed leadership, the acknowledgment that error is inevitable, a reporting system, and continuous learning. The all too common norm, "no harm no foul," is an obstacle. ICU leaders can use a campaign strategy to spread the safety practices that sustain a safety culture. They should attend to the political, marketing, and military aspects of such campaigns and recognize that people's time and attention are limited and built projects from existing ongoing pilots. Pilots can compete for people's attention; it has pull when it exemplifies a moral idea, simplifies work, and gives the health care professional more control and feedback. Under these conditions, the campaign will release individuals' passions and add energy and insight to the campaign itself.

  19. Shared safety management

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, L.; Stumpf, C.

    1995-11-01

    In the past 18 months, American Ref-Fuel, a Houston-based waste-to-energy company, has had three of its plants designated as Star facilities under the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) administered by OSHA. The VPP Star participants are a select group of facilities that have designed and implemented exemplary health and safety programs. They must show performance consistent with the VPP goal of aligning labor, management and OSHA into a cooperative relationship. Having a safe work environment has always been one of the core culture issues at American Ref-Fuel. They have learned the best way to maintain excellence is to listen to how each employee is affected in daily activities by safety issues and take actions to constantly reinforce the message that safety concerns never fall on deaf ears. The VPP process encourages identification of potential safety problems before they occur. The program promotes ongoing integration of safety into all facility activities, with the overall objective of eliminating employee injuries and improving plant performance; two important considerations for plant owners and facility managers searching for new tools to improve their overall bottom line.

  20. Quo Vadis Payload Safety?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodroci, Michael P.; Schwartz, MaryBeth

    2008-01-01

    As we complete the preparations for the fourth Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission, we note an anniversary approaching: it was 30 years ago in July that the first HST payload safety review panel meeting was held. This, in turn, was just over a year after the very first payload safety review, a Phase 0 review for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite and its Inertial Upper Stage, held in June of 1977. In adapting a process that had been used in the review and certification of earlier Skylab payloads, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineers sought to preserve the lessons learned in the development of technical payload safety requirements, while creating a new process that would serve the very different needs of the new space shuttle program. Their success in this undertaking is substantiated by the fact that this process and these requirements have proven to be remarkably robust, flexible, and adaptable. Furthermore, the payload safety process has, to date, served us well in the critical mission of safeguarding our astronauts, cosmonauts, and spaceflight participants. Both the technical requirements and their interpretation, as well as the associated process requirements have grown, evolved, been streamlined, and have been adapted to fit multiple programs, including the International Space Station (ISS) program, the Shuttle/Mir program, and most recently the United States Constellation program. From its earliest days, it was anticipated that the payload safety process would be international in scope, and so it has been. European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), German Space Agency (DLR), Canadian Space Agency (CSA), Russian Space Agency (RSA), and many additional countries have flown payloads on both the space shuttle and on the ISS. Our close cooperation and long-term working relationships have culminated in the franchising of the payload safety review process itself to our partners in ESA, which in