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Sample records for agroecological landscape park

  1. Crop pathogen emergence and evolution in agro-ecological landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Papaïx, Julien; Burdon, Jeremy J; Zhan, Jiasui; Thrall, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Remnant areas hosting natural vegetation in agricultural landscapes can impact the disease epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of crop pathogens. However, the potential consequences for crop diseases of the composition, the spatial configuration and the persistence time of the agro-ecological interface – the area where crops and remnant vegetation are in contact – have been poorly studied. Here, we develop a demographic–genetic simulation model to study how the spatial and temporal distribution of remnant wild vegetation patches embedded in an agricultural landscape can drive the emergence of a crop pathogen and its subsequent specialization on the crop host. We found that landscape structures that promoted larger pathogen populations on the wild host facilitated the emergence of a crop pathogen, but such landscape structures also reduced the potential for the pathogen population to adapt to the crop. In addition, the evolutionary trajectory of the pathogen population was determined by interactions between the factors describing the landscape structure and those describing the pathogen life histories. Our study contributes to a better understanding of how the shift of land-use patterns in agricultural landscapes might influence crop diseases to provide predictive tools to evaluate management practices. PMID:25926883

  2. PARKS AND LANDSCAPE EMPLOYEE. TEACHERS COPY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT IS TO PROVIDE VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS PREPARING FOR EMPLOYMENT IN THE PARK AND LANDSCAPING FIELD WITH READING MATERIAL AND A GUIDE FOR STUDY. THE MATERIAL WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS ON THE BASIS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS. THE MATERIAL WAS TESTED IN…

  3. Analyzing anthropogenic pressures in soils of agro-ecological protected coastal wetlands in L'Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno, Eugenia; Picó, Yolanda

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands, despite the importance of their environmental and ecological functions, are areas that suffer of great pressures. Most of them are produced by the rapid development of the surrounding artificial landscapes. Socio-economic factors such as population growth and urban-industrial surfaces expansion introduce pressures on the nearby environment affecting the quality of natural and agricultural landscapes. The present research analyses interconnections among landscapes (urban, agricultural and natural) under the hypothesis that urban-artificial impacts could be detected on soils of an agro-ecological protected area, L'Albufera de Valencia, Natural Park, located in the vicinity or the urban area of the City of Valencia, Spain. It has been developed based on Environmental Forensics criteria witch attend two types of anthropogenic pressures: (1) direct, due to artificialization of soil covers that produce anthropogenic soil sealing, and (2) indirect, which are related to water flows coming from urban populations throw artificial water networks (sewage and irrigation systems) and that ultimately will be identified by the presence of o emerging-pharmaceuticals contaminants in soils of the protected area. For the first case, soil sealing a methodology based on temporal comparison of two digital layers for the years 1991 and 2011 applying Geographical Information Systems and Landscapes Metrics were undertaken. To determine presence of emerging contaminants 15 soil samples within the Natural Park were analyzed applying liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of 17 pharmaceutical compounds. Results show that both processes are present in the Natural Park with a clear geographical pattern. Either soil sealing or detection of pharmaceuticals are more intensive in the northern part of the study area. This is related to population density (detection of pharmaceuticals) and land cover conversion from agricultural and natural surfaces to

  4. The Impact of Recreational Facilities on National Park Landscapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Allan K.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses a study to examine developed acreage in 14 national parks. Total park acreage is compared to service center and campground acreage and total mileage of primary and secondary roads. The most probable future for national park landscapes is maintenance of the status quo. (Author/KC)

  5. Landscape effects on soundscape experience in city parks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Kang, Jian; Luo, Tao; Behm, Holger

    2013-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse the effects of various landscape factors on soundscape perception in city parks. This was based on the experience, which was supposed to reflect soundscape perception, of 580 users of five city parks in Xiamen, China. Visual and functional landscape characteristics were analysed in relation to experienced occurrence of and preference for individual sounds, as well as overall soundscape preference. The results suggest that landscape factors have more significant effects on experienced occurrence of individual sounds than preference for individual sounds. However, landscape effects on overall soundscape preference depend more on preferences for individual sounds. The effects of visual landscape on the perception of individual sounds could be more important in natural sounds than in artificial sounds, and more in experienced occurrence of than preference for individual sounds; for functional landscape the effects are reversed. In general, visual landscape effects on the perception of individual sounds are more significant than functional landscape effects, especially on experienced occurrence of individual sounds. Taking all factors into account, only the two landscape factors are highly correlated with the overall soundscape preference, with coefficient values of 0.325 and 0.204, respectively. Overall, the results reveal the close relationship between landscape and soundscape experience in real contexts, and that visual and functional aspects should be considered in terms of creating a better soundscape during park design and management processes. The analysis of users' social, demographical and behavioural factors such as age, visit frequency and length of stay, in relation to the soundscape experience, has also shown significant effects.

  6. Landscape ecology: a concept for protecting park resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig; Lissoway, John; Yarborough, Keith

    1990-01-01

    The Southwest Region has been supporting Resource Basic Inventory (RBI) efforts to establish baseline data for comparisons with long-term monitoring results to be conducted in the future. This “pulse taking” is a part of the Servicewide initiative being fostered so that resource managers, scientists, and park managers will be able to track the health of park resources by determining changes and trends. The RBI work is being linked with the development of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) at Bandelier, Big Thicket, Big Bend, Padre Island, and Guadalupe Mountains. Many of the parks in the southwest Region have only partially completed RBIs. This informational shortcoming is a pervasive threat to the parks because without detailed knowledge of the parks’ respective resources the Service cannot protect them adequately. To overcome this deficiency, the SWRO’s Division of Natural Resources Management and Science has fostered at Bandelier a pilot research effort, which started in FY ’87 and utilizes a landscape ecology paradigm. This concept links the RBI, GIS, and research activities in a park to present an overall picture of the park in its regional ecosystem setting. The flowchart diagrams this project’s concept. The results have been encouraging. A final report was recently completed (Allen 1989). This concept may now be applied to other Southwest Region parks.

  7. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  8. [Evaluation of view points in forest park based on landscape sensitivity].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Li, Yue-hui; Hu, Yuan-man; Liu, Miao

    2008-11-01

    Based on topographical characteristics, five factors including comparative slope, comparative distance, mutual visibility, vision probability, and striking degree were chosen to assess the landscape sensitivity of major view points in Houshi National Forest Park. Spatial analysis in GIS was used for exploring the theory and method of landscape sensitivity of view points. The results showed that in the Park, there were totally 23 view points, but none of them reached up to class I. Among the 23 points, 10 were of class II , accounting for 43.5% of the total, 8 were of class III, accounting for 34.8%, and 5 were of classes IV and V, accounting for 21.7%. Around the view points of class II, the landscape should be strictly protected to maintain their natural feature; around the view points of class III, human-made landscape points should be developed according to the natural landscape feature, and wide tourism roads and small-size buildings could be constructed but the style of the buildings should be harmonious with surrounding nature landscape; while around the view points of classes IV and V, large-size multifunctional items and roads could be built to perfect the natural landscape. Through the multi-perspective and quantitative evaluation of landscape sensitivity, this study enriched the theory of landscape visual assessment and landscape apperception, and provided scientific base and direction for the planning and management of forest parks and other tourism areas.

  9. Protocol for Landsat-Based Monitoring of Landscape Dynamics at North Coast and Cascades Network Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Robert E.; Cohen, Warren B.; Kirschbaum, Alan A.; Haunreiter, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives As part of the National Park Service's larger goal of developing long-term monitoring programs in response to the Natural Resource Challenge of 2000, the parks of the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) have determined that monitoring of landscape dynamics is necessary to track ecosystem health (Weber and others, 2005). Landscape dynamics refer to a broad suite of ecological, geomorphological, and anthropogenic processes occurring across broad spatial scales. The NCCN has sought protocols that would leverage remote-sensing technologies to aid in monitoring landscape dynamics.

  10. Visitor perceptions of rural landscapes: a case study in the Peak District National Park, England.

    PubMed

    Suckall, Natalie; Fraser, Evan D G; Cooper, Thomas; Quinn, Claire

    2009-02-01

    Maintaining national parks is an integral policy tool to conserve rare habitats. However, because national parks are funded by taxpayers, they must also serve the needs of the general public. Increasingly, and thanks to today's diverse society, there is evidence that this creates challenges for park managers who are pulled in two opposing directions: to conserve nature on the one hand and to meet different visitor expectations on the other. This tension was explored in the Peak District National Park, a rural landscape dominated by heather moorland and sheep farming in Northern England where research was conducted to determine how social class and ethnicity shaped perceptions of the park. Results uncovered that social class played a very strong role in shaping perceptions of this region with 'middle class' respondents reacting far more favourably to the park than people from more working class backgrounds. We observed ethnicity playing a similar role, though our results are less significantly different.

  11. 14 CFR 151.93 - Buildings; utilities; sidewalks; parking areas; and landscaping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Buildings; utilities; sidewalks; parking areas; and landscaping. 151.93 Section 151.93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards §...

  12. 14 CFR 151.93 - Buildings; utilities; sidewalks; parking areas; and landscaping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Buildings; utilities; sidewalks; parking areas; and landscaping. 151.93 Section 151.93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards §...

  13. 14 CFR 151.93 - Buildings; utilities; sidewalks; parking areas; and landscaping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Buildings; utilities; sidewalks; parking areas; and landscaping. 151.93 Section 151.93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards §...

  14. 14 CFR 151.93 - Buildings; utilities; sidewalks; parking areas; and landscaping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Buildings; utilities; sidewalks; parking areas; and landscaping. 151.93 Section 151.93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards §...

  15. Current anthropogenic pressures on agro-ecological protected coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan; Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Picó, Yolanda

    2015-01-15

    Coastal wetlands are areas that suffer from great pressure. Much of it is due to the rapid development of the surrounding artificial landscapes, where socio-economic factors lead to alterations in the nearby environment, affecting the quality of natural and agricultural systems. This work analyses interconnections among landscapes under the hypothesis that urban-artificial impacts could be detected on soils and waters of an agro-ecological protected area, L'Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, located in the vicinity of the City of Valencia, Spain. The methodological framework developed addresses two types of anthropogenic pressure: (1) direct, due to artificialisation of soil covers that cause soil sealing, and (2) indirect, which are related to water flows coming from urban populations through sewage and irrigation systems and which, ultimately, will be identified by the presence of emerging pharmaceutical contaminants in waters of the protected area. For soil sealing, a methodology based on temporal comparison of two digital layers for the years 1991 and 2011, applying Geographical Information Systems and landscapes metrics, was applied. To determine presence of emerging contaminants, 21 water samples within the Natural Park were analysed applying liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of 17 pharmaceutical compounds. Results showed that both processes are present in the Natural Park, with a clear geographical pattern. Soil sealing and presence of pharmaceuticals are more intensive in the northern part of the study area. This is related to population density (detection of pharmaceuticals) and land cover conversion from agricultural and natural surfaces to artificial ones (soil sealing).

  16. Landscape-Scale Canopy Complexity in and Near Braulio Carillo National Park, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Robert G.; Blair, J. B.; Weishampel, J. F.; Clark, D. B.; Hofton, M. A.; Dubayah, R.

    1999-01-01

    Using medium-large footprint lidar sampling of approximately 500 square km of Costa Rica, we assessed the vertical and horizontal complexity of a forest-dominated tropical landscape. As expected, vertical extents of structure and canopy heights estimated from lidar waveforms were smaller in high elevation forests than in forests at lower elevations. In areas of the park and long-protected areas of La Selva Biological Station, forests typically had more consistent ratios of median height to total height than areas with other types of recent land use. Areas outside the park exhibited both stronger and weaker spatial correlations in canopy properties than most areas within the park. We also simulated the effects of these differences on data products gridded from lidar transects, like those produced by the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) Mission.

  17. Use of quality indicators for long-term evaluation of heavy metals content in soils of an agro-ecological protected wetland: L'Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Valencia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Palop, Carla

    2015-04-01

    Due to the social, economical and environmental importance of agro-ecological wetlands, strategies for periodical evaluation of their environmental quality should be developed, particularly in those areas were a mixture of land uses are supporting the survival of wildlife and migrant species as is the case of most Mediterranean coastal wetlands. The aim of this work is to develop a strategy for a long-term assessment of the environmental quality of soils in a rice-wetland: L'Albufera Natural Park, Spain, in the surroundings of the metropolitan area of Valencia. The area was officially declared as Natural Park in 1986, integrating both the traditional irrigation system and the ecological importance derived from being a Mediterranean Wetland that is now transformed to a large extent in a rice-wetland allowing the presence of a large variety of migrant spices. The methodology consisted in the monitoring of 20 sites distributed in 5 sectors in and around the natural park of potentially contrasting anthropogenic pressure and land use. Soil samples collection were instrumented in two campaigns. The first one was in 1989 (three years after the official declaration as Natural Park of the wetland), and the second 19 years later in 2008. Seven heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed to determine its total and extractable fractions by treatment with EDTA. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, using graphite furnace when necessary, was used for the determination of metals. To evaluate the quality of soils at each sampling date four indicators were obtained, namely, Contamination Factor (CF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Results obtained with quality indicators were further compared to obtain temporal and spatial trends using Geographical Information systems procedures. In general, there is a reduction of metal contents in the study area in both dates. The trend of metals according to average

  18. Effects of River Regulation on Aeolian Landscapes, Grand Canyon National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draut, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment deposits in the Colorado River corridor include fluvial sandbars and aeolian dune fields, and the fluvial deposits are the primary sediment source for sand in the aeolian dunes. This 7-year study examined the effects of river regulation at Glen Canyon Dam (alteration of flow regime, sediment-supply reduction, and consequent loss of fluvial sandbars) on aeolian landscapes downstream in Grand Canyon National Park. A comparative study was developed between aeolian landscapes in Grand Canyon, Arizona, and Cataract Canyon, Utah, upstream of Glen Canyon Dam and its reservoir (Lake Powell), where hydrology and sediment supply of the Colorado River are affected substantially less by artificial river regulation than occurs in Grand Canyon. Before closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, sediment-rich floods (mean annual peak 2400 m3/s) formed sandbars from which wind moved sand inland to form aeolian dunes. After dam operations reduced the amplitude and frequency of high flows, and eliminated the mainstream fluvial sediment supply, Grand Canyon’s fluvial sandbars lost open sand area owing to erosion by river flows and the spread of riparian vegetation. Two types of aeolian landscapes now occur in Grand Canyon: (1) modern fluvial sourced, those downwind of post-dam sandbars; and (2) relict fluvial sourced, whose primary sediment source was deposits from pre-dam floods that were larger than any post-dam flows have been. Sediment supply has been reduced to type (1) dune fields because post-dam sandbars are smaller than in the pre-dam era; new sediment supply to type (2) dune fields essentially has been eliminated. Type 1 aeolian landscapes can receive new windblown sand from sandbars formed by controlled floods (1160 m3/s), which occurred in 1996, 2004, and 2008. Type 1 dune fields, being downwind and within 100 m of controlled-flood sandbars, have significantly higher aeolian sand-transport rates, more open sand, and less biologic soil crust than relict type 2 dune

  19. Quantifying Bufo boreas connectivity in Yellowstone National Park with landscape genetics.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Melanie A; Evans, Jeffrey S; Storfer, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A major objective of ecology is to understand how ecological processes limit population connectivity and species' distributions. By spatially quantifying ecological components driving functional connectivity, we can understand why some locally suitable habitats are unoccupied, resulting in observed discontinuities in distribution. However, estimating connectivity may be difficult due to population stochasticity and violations of assumptions of parametric statistics. To address these issues, we present a novel application of Random Forests to landscape genetic data. We address the effects of three key ecological components on Bufo boreas connectivity in Yellowstone National Park: ecological process, scale, and hierarchical organization. Habitat permeability, topographic morphology, and temperature-moisture regime are all significant ecological processes associated with B. boreas connectivity. Connectivity was influenced by growing-season precipitation, 1988 Yellowstone fires, cover, temperature, impervious surfaces (roads and development), and topographic complexity (56% variation explained). We found that habitat permeability generally operates on fine scales, while topographic morphology and temperature-moisture regime operate across multiple scales, thus demonstrating the importance of cross-scale analysis for ecological interpretation. In a hierarchical analysis, we were able to explain more variation within genetic clusters as identified using Structure (a Bayesian algorithm) (74%; dispersal cover, growing-season precipitation, impervious surfaces) as opposed to between genetic clusters (45%; ridgelines, hot, dry slopes, length of hot season, and annual precipitation). Finally, the analytical methods we developed are powerful and can be applied to any species or system with appropriate landscape and genetic data.

  20. Characterizing forest carbon stocks at tropical biome and landscape level in Mount Apo National Park, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubas, L. C.

    2012-12-01

    Forest resources sequester and store carbon, and serve as a natural brake on climate change. In the tropics, the largest source of greenhouse emission is from deforestation and forest degradation (Gibbs et al 2007). This paper attempts to compile sixty (60) existing studies on using remote sensing to measure key environmental forest indicators at two levels of scales: biome and landscape level. At the tropical forest biome level, there is not as much remote sensing studies that have been done as compared to other forest biomes. Also, existing studies on tropical Asia is still sparse compared to other tropical regions in Latin America and Africa. Biomass map is also produced for the tropical biome using keyhole macro language (KML) which is projected on Google Earth. The compiled studies showed there are four indicators being measured using remote sensors in tropical forest. These are biomass, landcover classification, deforestation and cloud cover. The landscape level will focus on Mount Apo National Park in the Philippines which is encompassing a total area of 54,974.87 hectares. It is one of the ten priority sites targeted in the World Bank-assisted Biodiversity Conservation Program. This park serves as the major watershed for the three provinces with 19 major rivers emanating from the montane formations. Only a small fraction of the natural forest that once covered the country remains. In spite of different policies that aim to reduce logging recent commercial deforestation, illegal logging and agricultural expansion pose an important threat to the remaining forest areas. In some locations in the country, these hotspots of deforestation overlap with the protected areas (Verburg et al 2006). The study site was clipped using ArcGIS from the forest biomass carbon density map produced by Gibbs and Brown (2007). Characterization on this national park using vegetation density, elevation, slope, land cover and precipitation will be conducted to determine factors that

  1. Picos de Europa National and Regional parks (Northern Spain): the karst underground landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Meléndez-Asensio, Mónica; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    Karst caves represent an environmental with a high value from the Geoheritage and Geodiversity points of view given by hidden underground landscape practically reserved to the speleologists. Nevertheless, cave surveys, 3d models of caves and DEMs, and pictures can be used to approach the endokarst geoheritage characterization. The Picos de Europa National and Regional parks include the 14% of World's Deepest Caves (>1 km depth); moreover these parks shows a high environmental value related with seven protection figures: Biosphere Reserve, Special Protection Area, the Site of Community Importance, and four Natural Monument. The aim of this work is to present the Geoheritage values of the underground landscape of the Picos de Europa National and Regional parks. These parks involve several alpine karst massifs up to 700 km2 and 2,600 m asl, as the Picos de Europa mountains (declared Global Geosite by its geomorphological interest), the Mampodre Massif, and the Peñas Pintas and Yordas peaks (sited in Riaño dam area). The alpine karst involves a large underground landscape formed by more than 3,700 epigenic caves with 403 km of conduits. The 95 % of the cave conduits are located in the Picos de Europa mountains and correspond to caves up to 18.9 km length and 1.6 km depth; the 5 % of cave conduits are sited in other small karst areas and include caves up to 1.5 km length and 200 m depth. The karst caves present high natural, scientific and cultural values. The natural value corresponds to the singularity and the spectacular vertical development of the caves and a very high Geodiversity of cave features. The karst shows a high concentration of deep caves (81 caves deeper than 500 m) that is twice higher than the concentration of other karst areas, as Arabika Massif (Western Caucasus). The natural value is mainly related to the presence of geomorphological and hydrogeological features, highlighting high vadose canyons and shafts, old phreatic and epiphreatic conduits

  2. Ungulate vs. landscape control of soil C and N processes in grasslands of Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.A.; Groffman, P.M.

    1998-10-01

    Within large grassland ecosystems, climatic and topographic gradients are considered the primary controls of soil processes. Ungulates also can influence soil dynamics; however the relative contribution of large herbivores to controlling grassland soil processes remains largely unknown. In this study, the authors compared the effects of native migratory ungulates and variable site (landscape) conditions, caused by combined climatic and topographic variability, on grassland of the northern winter range of Yellowstone National Park by determining soil C and N dynamics inside and outside 33--37 yr exclosures at seven diverse sites. Sites included hilltop, slope, and slope bottom positions across a climatic gradient and represented among the driest and wettest grasslands on the northern winter range. The authors performed two experiments: (1) a 12-mo in situ net N mineralization study and (2) a long-term (62-wk) laboratory incubation to measure potential N mineralization and microbial respiration. Results from the in situ experiment indicated that average net N mineralization among grazed plots was double that of fenced, ungrazed plots (1.9 g N{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}yr{sup {minus}1}). Mean grazer enhancement of net N mineralization across sites (1.9 g N{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}yr{sup {minus}1}), approached the maximum difference in net N mineralization among fenced plots (2.2 g N{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}yr{sup {minus}1}), i.e., the greatest landscape effect observed. Furthermore, ungulates substantially increased between-site variation in mineralization; grazed grassland, 1 SD = 2.2 g N{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}yr{sup {minus}1}, fenced grassland, 1 SD = 0.85 g N{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}yr{sup {minus}1}.

  3. Regional Assessment of the Relationship Between Landscape Attributes and Water Quality in Five National Parks of the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanus, L.; Williams, M. W.; Campbell, D. H.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of pollutants threatens pristine environments around the world. However, scientifically-based decisions regarding management of these environments has been confounded by spatial variability of atmospheric deposition, particularly across regional scales at which resource management is typically considered. A statistically based methodology coupled within GIS is presented that builds on small alpine lake and sub-alpine catchments scale to identify deposition-sensitive lakes across larger watershed and regional scales. The sensitivity of 874 alpine and subalpine lakes to acidification from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur was estimated using statistical models relating water quality and landscape attributes in Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Grand Teton National Park, Rocky Mountain National Park and Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve. Water-quality data measured during synoptic lake surveys were used to calibrate statistical models of lake sensitivity. In the case of nitrogen deposition, water quality data were supplemented with dual isotopic measurements of d15N and d18O of nitrate. Landscape attributes for the lake basins were derived from GIS including the following explanatory variables; topography (basin slope, basin aspect, basin elevation), bedrock type, vegetation type, and soil type. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, probability estimates were developed for acid-neutralizing capacity, nitrate, sulfate and DOC concentrations, and lakes with a high probability of being sensitive to atmospheric deposition were identified. Water-quality data collected at 60 lakes during fall 2004 were used to validate statistical models. Relationships between landscape attributes and water quality vary by constituent, due to spatial variability in landscape attributes and spatial variation in the atmospheric deposition of pollutants within and among the five National Parks. Predictive ability, model

  4. Declines in moose population density at Isle Royle National Park, MI, USA and accompanied changes in landscape patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Jager, N. R.; Pastor, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ungulate herbivores create patterns of forage availability, plant species composition, and soil fertility as they range across large landscapes and consume large quantities of plant material. Over time, herbivore populations fluctuate, producing great potential for spatio-temporal landscape dynamics. In this study, we extend the spatial and temporal extent of a long-term investigation of the relationship of landscape patterns to moose foraging behavior at Isle Royale National Park, MI. We examined how patterns of browse availability and consumption, plant basal area, and soil fertility changed during a recent decline in the moose population. We used geostatistics to examine changes in the nature of spatial patterns in two valleys over 18 years and across short-range and long-range distance scales. Landscape patterns of available and consumed browse changed from either repeated patches or randomly distributed patches in 1988-1992 to random point distributions by 2007 after a recent record high peak followed by a rapid decline in the moose population. Patterns of available and consumed browse became decoupled during the moose population low, which is in contrast to coupled patterns during the earlier high moose population. Distributions of plant basal area and soil nitrogen availability also switched from repeated patches to randomly distributed patches in one valley and to random point distributions in the other valley. Rapid declines in moose population density may release vegetation and soil fertility from browsing pressure and in turn create random landscape patterns. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  5. Romantic Joseph Lenné Landscape Park in Zatonie Near Zielona Góra as a Relic of Garden Art - Modern-Day Transformations and Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochańska, Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    The romantic landscape park was established in 1824 by order of one of the best-known aristocrats at the time, Princess Dorothea Talleyrand Perigold, Dutchess of Dino. The park is an example of amenity horticulture of artistic value that has survived to this day. The creator of the park was the talented landscape architect Peter Joseph Lenné. In its current state, the park differs significantly from the image on lithographs of the past. Upon carrying out field investigations and comparative studies, it was established that the maintained stand of tress holds high compositional value. The conclusions of the article define the current threats to the longevity of the park as well as highlighting the plan of revalorization works.

  6. Book review: Agroecology in action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroecology extends the boundaries of modern agriculture relying primarily on reductionistic scientific investigations of how plants and animals respond to and interact with the environment to a more holistic understanding between humans and nature to produce more sustainable agricultural systems th...

  7. Importance of landscape features and Earth observation derived habitat maps for modelling amphibian distribution in the Alta Murgia National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Adamo, Maria; Bonardi, Anna; De Pasquale, Vito; Liuzzi, Cristiano; Lovergine, Francesco; Marcone, Francesco; Mastropasqua, Fabio; Tarantino, Cristina; Blonda, Palma; Padoa-Schioppa, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    Traditionally, analyses of relationships between amphibians and habitat focused on breeding environments (i.e., pond features) more than on the features of the surrounding environment. Nevertheless, for most amphibians the terrestrial phase is longer than the aquatic phase, and consequently landscape features (i.e., habitat mosaics) may have an important role for modelling amphibian distribution. There were different aims in this analysis. Firstly, we compared the effectiveness of the information provided by land cover/use (LC/LU) classes and habitat classes defined according to a new habitat taxonomy named General Habitat Category (GHC), which is based on the concept of biological forms of dominant vegetation and class naturalness. The GHC map used was obtained from a pre-existing validated LC/LU map, by integrating spectral and spatial measurements from very high resolution Earth observation data according to ecological expert rules involving concepts related to spatial and temporal relationships among LC/LU and habitat classes. Then, we investigated the importance for amphibians of the landscape surrounding ponds within the Italian Alta Murgia National Park. The work assessed whether LC/LU classes in pond surrounds are important for the presence/absence of amphibians in this area, and identified which classes are more important for amphibians. The results obtained can provide useful indications to management strategies aiming at the conservation of amphibians within the study area. An information-theoretic approach was adopted to assess whether GHC maps allow to improve the performance of species distribution models. We used the Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc) to compare the effectiveness of GHC categories versus LC/LU categories in explaining the presence/absence of pool frogs. AICc weights suggest that GHC categories can better explain the distribution of frogs, compared to LC/LU classes.

  8. Climate Change Effects on Multiple Disturbance Interactions: Wildland Fire, Mountain Pine Beetles, and Blister Rust Simulations on a Yellowstone National Park Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, R. E.; Loehman, R.; Smithwick, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    Complex interactions between disturbance, climate, and vegetation will dramatically alter spatial patterns and ecosystem processes in the future, but the interactions between multiple disturbances may ultimately determine vegetation response and landscape dynamics. The frequency and extent of wildland fire, mountain pine beetles, and blister rust are predicted to increase with global warming, but the interactions and reciprocal feedbacks between these three disturbances could also alter landscape trajectories. We used the mechanistic, spatially explicit, landscape FireBGCv2 model parameterized for Yellowstone National Park to determine the extent to which climate altered ecosystem carbon storage, landscape composition and structure, and interacting disturbance regimes that include wildland fire, mountain pine beetles, and white pine blister rust for lodgepole and whitebark pine forests. Under two simulated future climate scenarios (B2 and A2) and three disturbance scenarios (fire only, fire and beetles/rust, beetles/rust only), it appears fire and bark beetle disturbance events interacted to moderate burn area and decrease insect/disease mortality. Landscape composition and structure was roughly the same across disturbance scenarios except whitebark pine disappears when rust is present in the simulation. Overall, we conclude that disturbance interactions are important to landscape dynamics under future climates and these interactions may overwhelm the direct effects of climate or single disturbances.

  9. Landscape-scale effects of fire severity on mixed-conifer and red fir forest structure in Yosemite National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Van R.; Lutz, James A.; Roberts, Susan L.; Smith, Douglas F.; McGaughey, Robert J.; Povak, Nicholas A.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    While fire shapes the structure of forests and acts as a keystone process, the details of how fire modifies forest structure have been difficult to evaluate because of the complexity of interactions between fires and forests. We studied this relationship across 69.2 km2 of Yosemite National Park, USA, that was subject to 32 fires ⩾40 ha between 1984 and 2010. Forests types included ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), white fir-sugar pine (Abies concolor/Pinus lambertiana), and red fir (Abies magnifica). We estimated and stratified burned area by fire severity using the Landsat-derived Relativized differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR). Airborne LiDAR data, acquired in July 2010, measured the vertical and horizontal structure of canopy material and landscape patterning of canopy patches and gaps. Increasing fire severity changed structure at the scale of fire severity patches, the arrangement of canopy patches and gaps within fire severity patches, and vertically within tree clumps. Each forest type showed an individual trajectory of structural change with increasing fire severity. As a result, the relationship between estimates of fire severity such as RdNBR and actual changes appears to vary among forest types. We found three arrangements of canopy patches and gaps associated with different fire severities: canopy-gap arrangements in which gaps were enclosed in otherwise continuous canopy (typically unburned and low fire severities); patch-gap arrangements in which tree clumps and gaps alternated and neither dominated (typically moderate fire severity); and open-patch arrangements in which trees were scattered across open areas (typically high fire severity). Compared to stands outside fire perimeters, increasing fire severity generally resulted first in loss of canopy cover in lower height strata and increased number and size of gaps, then in loss of canopy cover in higher height strata, and eventually the transition to open areas with few or no trees. However

  10. Landscape determinants of fine-scale genetic structure of a small rodent in a heterogeneous landscape (Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa).

    PubMed

    Russo, Isa-Rita M; Sole, Catherine L; Barbato, Mario; von Bramann, Ullrich; Bruford, Michael W

    2016-07-13

    Small mammals provide ecosystem services, acting, for example, as pollinators and seed dispersers. In addition, they are also disease reservoirs that can be detrimental to human health and they can also act as crop pests. Knowledge of their dispersal preferences is therefore useful for population management and landscape planning. Genetic data were used alongside landscape data to examine the influence of the landscape on the demographic connectedness of the Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) and to identify landscape characteristics that influence the genetic structure of this species across a spatially and temporally varying environment. The most significant landscape features shaping gene flow were aspect, vegetation cover, topographic complexity (TC) and rivers, with western facing slopes, topographic complexity and rivers restricting gene flow. In general, thicket vegetation was correlated with increased gene flow. Identifying features of the landscape that facilitate movement/dispersal in M. natalensis potentially has application for other small mammals in similar ecosystems. As the primary reservoir host of the zoonotic Lassa virus, a landscape genetics approach may have applications in determining areas of high disease risk to humans. Identifying these landscape features may also be important in crop management due to damage by rodent pests.

  11. Landscape determinants of fine-scale genetic structure of a small rodent in a heterogeneous landscape (Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Isa-Rita M.; Sole, Catherine L.; Barbato, Mario; von Bramann, Ullrich; Bruford, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Small mammals provide ecosystem services, acting, for example, as pollinators and seed dispersers. In addition, they are also disease reservoirs that can be detrimental to human health and they can also act as crop pests. Knowledge of their dispersal preferences is therefore useful for population management and landscape planning. Genetic data were used alongside landscape data to examine the influence of the landscape on the demographic connectedness of the Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) and to identify landscape characteristics that influence the genetic structure of this species across a spatially and temporally varying environment. The most significant landscape features shaping gene flow were aspect, vegetation cover, topographic complexity (TC) and rivers, with western facing slopes, topographic complexity and rivers restricting gene flow. In general, thicket vegetation was correlated with increased gene flow. Identifying features of the landscape that facilitate movement/dispersal in M. natalensis potentially has application for other small mammals in similar ecosystems. As the primary reservoir host of the zoonotic Lassa virus, a landscape genetics approach may have applications in determining areas of high disease risk to humans. Identifying these landscape features may also be important in crop management due to damage by rodent pests. PMID:27406468

  12. Modeling the habitat range of phototrophs in yellowstone national park: toward the development of a comprehensive fitness landscape.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Eric S; Fecteau, Kristopher M; Havig, Jeff R; Shock, Everett L; Peters, John W

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which geochemical variation shapes the distribution of phototrophic metabolisms was modeled based on 439 observations in geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were developed to predict the distribution of phototrophic metabolism as a function of spring temperature, pH, and total sulfide. GAMs comprised of temperature explained 38.8% of the variation in the distribution of phototrophic metabolism, whereas GAMs comprised of sulfide and pH explained 19.6 and 11.2% of the variation, respectively. These results suggest that of the measured variables, temperature is the primary constraint on the distribution of phototrophs in YNP. GAMs comprised of multiple variables explained a larger percentage of the variation in the distribution of phototrophic metabolism, indicating additive interactions among variables. A GAM that combined temperature and sulfide explained the greatest variation in the dataset (53.4%) while minimizing the introduction of degrees of freedom. In an effort to verify the extent to which phototroph distribution reflects constraints on activity, we examined the influence of sulfide and temperature on dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) uptake rates under both light and dark conditions. Light-driven DIC uptake decreased systematically with increasing concentrations of sulfide in acidic, algal-dominated systems, but was unaffected in alkaline, cyanobacterial-dominated systems. In both alkaline and acidic systems, light-driven DIC uptake was suppressed in cultures incubated at temperatures 10°C greater than their in situ temperature. Collectively, these quantitative results indicate that apart from light availability, the habitat range of phototrophs in YNP springs is defined largely by constraints imposed firstly by temperature and secondly by sulfide on the activity of these populations that inhabit the edges of the habitat range. These findings are consistent with the predictions

  13. The Role of Neotectonics in Landscape Formation in What Is Now the Divnogorie Nature Park (Southern East European Plain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskaya, M. A.; Bessudnov, A. N.; Kuznetsova, T. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Divnogorie Nature Park is in the basin of the middle Don River. Tectonically, it sits on the Ostrogozhskoye Neotectonic Uplift, a recent extension of the northern wing of the Voronezh Anteclise of the Russian Platform. The neotectonic uplift amplitude of this structure is estimated at more than 200 m. A structural geomorphological study of the area has shown that the Ostrogozhskoye Uplift is an actively growing structure. This is clearly demonstrated by the following: dramatic changes in the flow direction of the rivers Don and Tikhaya Sosna, forced to bypass the growing upland; instances of damming up, which created numerous oxbow lakes and led to waterlogging in floodplains; increase in the density of the erosion grid on the upland; fall of the groundwater table (Romanovskaya, 2015). Uplifting has intensified erosion and slope wash processes, forming numerous canyon-shaped ravines, very steep slopes (>60º) and interconnected bastion-like relief forms. Superimposed on the geology of the area, neotectonic movements and erosion have led to the formation of a peculiar relief (chalk outliers), microclimate and ecosystem (petrophytic steppe). Surrounded by protections in the form of steep slopes and water courses, this area is a natural fortress which has favored human habitation since the Late Paleolithic Age. In a location in the Tikhaya Sosna river basin, gully erosion has exposed a large accumulation of ancient horse (Equus caballus) bones. Now this location (50.9649ºN, 39.3031ºE) is known as the Upper Paleolithic (13.5-14 kaBP) multi-level archaeological site Divnogorie-9. About 8,000 horse bones and 65 human-made stone artifacts have been discovered here in Late Pleistocene diluvial-alluvial-colluvial deposits (Kuznetsova, 2014). The mass die-off of wild horses and their reburial at the site are most probably the result of landscape and geological impact of massive temporary water flows that will be addressed in some detail in the actual presentation of

  14. Modeling the Habitat Range of Phototrophs in Yellowstone National Park: Toward the Development of a Comprehensive Fitness Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Eric S.; Fecteau, Kristopher M.; Havig, Jeff R.; Shock, Everett L.; Peters, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which geochemical variation shapes the distribution of phototrophic metabolisms was modeled based on 439 observations in geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were developed to predict the distribution of phototrophic metabolism as a function of spring temperature, pH, and total sulfide. GAMs comprised of temperature explained 38.8% of the variation in the distribution of phototrophic metabolism, whereas GAMs comprised of sulfide and pH explained 19.6 and 11.2% of the variation, respectively. These results suggest that of the measured variables, temperature is the primary constraint on the distribution of phototrophs in YNP. GAMs comprised of multiple variables explained a larger percentage of the variation in the distribution of phototrophic metabolism, indicating additive interactions among variables. A GAM that combined temperature and sulfide explained the greatest variation in the dataset (53.4%) while minimizing the introduction of degrees of freedom. In an effort to verify the extent to which phototroph distribution reflects constraints on activity, we examined the influence of sulfide and temperature on dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) uptake rates under both light and dark conditions. Light-driven DIC uptake decreased systematically with increasing concentrations of sulfide in acidic, algal-dominated systems, but was unaffected in alkaline, cyanobacterial-dominated systems. In both alkaline and acidic systems, light-driven DIC uptake was suppressed in cultures incubated at temperatures 10°C greater than their in situ temperature. Collectively, these quantitative results indicate that apart from light availability, the habitat range of phototrophs in YNP springs is defined largely by constraints imposed firstly by temperature and secondly by sulfide on the activity of these populations that inhabit the edges of the habitat range. These findings are consistent with the predictions

  15. IT-based soil quality evaluation for agroecologically smart land-use planning in RF conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Activated in the first decades of XXI century global climate, economy and farming changes sharply actualized novel IT-based approaches in soil quality evaluation to address modern agricultural issues with agroecologically smart land-use planning. Despite global projected climate changes will affect a general decline of crop yields (IPCC 2014), RF boreal and subboreal regions will benefit from predicted and already particularly verified temperature warming and increased precipitation (Valentini, Vasenev, 2015) due to essential increasing of growing season length and mild climate conditions favorable for most prospective crops and best available agrotechnologies. However, the essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central European region of Russia which is one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF. In these conditions potentially favorable climate circumstances will increase not only soil fertility and workability features but also their dynamics and spatial variability that determine crucial issues of IT-based soil quality evaluation systems development and agroecologically smart farming planning. Developed and verified within the LAMP project (RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266) regionally adapted DSS (ACORD-R - RF #2012612944) gives effective informational and methodological support for smart farming agroecological optimization in global climate and farming changes challenges. Information basis for agroecologically smart land-use planning consists of crops and agrotechnologies requirements, regional and local systems of agroecological zoning, local landscape and soil cover patterns, land quality and degradation risk assessments, current and previous farming practices results, agroclimatic predictions and production agroecological models, environmental limitations and planned profitability, fertilizing efficiency DSS ACORD-R. Smart land-use practice refers to sustainable balance

  16. The Neoglacial landscape and human history of Glacier Bay, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, southeast Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, C.; Streveler, G.; Post, A.; Monteith, D.; Howell, W.

    2009-01-01

    The Neoglacial landscape of the Huna Tlingit homeland in Glacier Bay is recreated through new interpretations of the lower Bay's fjordal geomorphology, late Quaternary geology and its ethnographic landscape. Geological interpretation is enhanced by 38 radiocarbon dates compiled from published and unpublished sources, as well as 15 newly dated samples. Neoglacial changes in ice positions, outwash and lake extents are reconstructed for c. 5500?????"200 cal. yr ago, and portrayed as a set of three landscapes at 1600?????"1000, 500?????"300 and 300?????"200 cal. yr ago. This history reveals episodic ice advance towards the Bay mouth, transforming it from a fjordal seascape into a terrestrial environment dominated by glacier outwash sediments and ice-marginal lake features. This extensive outwash plain was building in lower Glacier Bay by at least 1600 cal. yr ago, and had filled the lower bay by 500 cal. yr ago. The geologic landscape evokes the human-described landscape found in the ethnographic literature. Neoglacial climate and landscape dynamism created difficult but endurable environmental conditions for the Huna Tlingit people living there. Choosing to cope with environmental hardship was perhaps preferable to the more severely deteriorating conditions outside of the Bay as well as conflicts with competing groups. The central portion of the outwash plain persisted until it was overridden by ice moving into Icy Strait between AD 1724?????"1794. This final ice advance was very abrupt after a prolonged still-stand, evicting the Huna Tlingit from their Glacier Bay homeland. ?? 2009 SAGE Publications.

  17. New Concepts in Agroecology: A Service-Learning Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Nicholas R.; Andow, David A.; Mercer, Kristin L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe our pedagogical approaches and experiences with a novel course in agroecology (one semester, three credit-hours, for graduate students and upper level undergraduates). Our course responds to recent proposals that agroecology expand its disciplinary focus to include human factors as well as ecological factors, thus taking a more…

  18. Students Learning Agroecology: Phenomenon-Based Education for Responsible Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostergaard, Edvin; Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Preparing students for a complex and dynamic future is a challenge for educators. This article explores three crucial issues related to agroecological education and learning: (1) the phenomenological foundation for learning agroecology in higher education; (2) the process of students' interactions with a wide range of various learners within and…

  19. Detecting Moorland Wildfire Scars and their Persistence in the Landscape using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in the Peak District National Park, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millin-chalabi, G. R.; McMorrow, J.; Agnew, C.

    2012-12-01

    The overall aim of this research is to assess the ability of SAR to detect moorland wildfire scars and their persistence in the landscape using the Peak District National Park (PDNP) in the UK as a case study. Spatially-robust data to monitor wildfire scar size and severity in UK moorlands is currently rare. Fires can burn deep into peat soils and contribute to the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and may also affect the water quality of nearby streams. Information on fire extent would be useful for conservation organisations such as Moors For The Future who are trying to preserve the delicate peatland environment. Knowing the size and location of fire scars would help the Fire and Rescue Service to plan future response to moorland fires. Fire scar boundaries can be mapped in the field using Global Positioning Systems (GPS), however this is labour intensive. Indeed in the PDNP wildfire scar mapping is conducted by park rangers which provides essential ground truth data for assessing against the SAR data. Therefore this particular area provides a unique opportunity for testing an alternative SAR technique for monitoring wildfire scars in the moorland landscape. Previous research shows that SAR has been successfully applied for wildfire scar detection in other types of environments such as boreal (Bourgeau-Chavez et al, 1997) and the tropics (Huang and Siegert, 2004). This research presents some of the first results of the project which tests the capability of ERS 2; ASAR (C-band) and PALSAR (L-band) data to detect several wildfire scars from 2003 - 2008 of various spatial scales and fire severity. Some of the key areas of interest the paper will explore are at Bleaklow and the Kinder plateau. The Bleaklow peat fire of 18th April 2003 was larger (7km2) and more severe than at Kinder, which burned between 26-29th May 2008 and covered an area of 10 ha. All the wildfire scars were GPS, mapped just after the fire event. Archival time-series SAR imagery was

  20. Landscape level estimate of lands and waters impacted by road runoff in the Adirondack Park of New York State.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Sean A; Kelting, Daniel L

    2015-08-01

    Road runoff is understood to be a significant stressor in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, yet the effects of this stressor are poorly understood at large spatial scales. We developed an efficient method for estimating the spatial impact of road runoff on lands and waters over large geographic areas and then applied our methodology to the 2.4 million ha Adirondack Park in New York State. We used TauDEM hydrologic modeling and a series of ESRI GIS processes to delineate surface flow downslope of paved roads, illustrating the potential movement of pollutants originating from paved roads through the USGS 10 m DEM topography. We then estimated the land and surface water areas, number of water bodies, and total stream length potentially impacted by road runoff from paved roads. We found that as much as 11% of land area, 77% of surface water area, 1/3 of the water bodies, and 52% of stream length in the Adirondack Park may be impacted by road runoff. The high degree of hydrologic association between paved roads and the lands and waters of this region strongly suggests that the environmental impacts of road runoff should be evaluated along with other regional stressors currently being studied. Being able to estimate the spatial impact of road runoff is important for designing monitoring programs that can explicitly monitor this stressor while also providing opportunities to understand the interaction of multiple environmental stressors.

  1. Postdam evolution of aeolian landscapes in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draut, A. E.; Collins, B. D.; Fairley, H. C.; Rubin, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    Sediment deposits within the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon, USA, include fluvial sandbars and aeolian dune fields; fluvial deposits are the primary sediment source for the dune fields. We present a conceptual model describing evolution of aeolian landscapes in Grand Canyon, based upon field measurements of wind and sand transport and on surveys of vegetation and substrate properties. The data indicate that Glen Canyon Dam operations can affect geomorphic evolution above the elevation reached by river flows because of the link between fluvial deposition and aeolian transport of sediment. Evolution of aeolian landscapes, in turn, can affect the stability and preservation of archaeological material that occurs in numerous dune fields. Before closure of Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River in 1963, sediment-rich floods (mean annual flood 2400 m3/s) formed sandbars from which wind moved sand inland to form aeolian dunes. After dam operations reduced the amplitude and frequency of high flows, and eliminated the mainstream fluvial sediment supply, fluvial sandbars lost open sand area owing to erosion by river flows and the spread of riparian vegetation. Two types of aeolian landscapes now occur: (1) modern fluvial sourced, those downwind of postdam sandbars; and (2) relict fluvial sourced, which are not downwind of postdam sandbars and whose primary sediment source was deposits from predam floods that were larger than any postdam flows have been. Sediment supply has been reduced to type (1) dune fields because postdam sandbars are smaller than in the predam era; new sediment supply to type (2) dune fields has been essentially eliminated. Decreased aeolian sediment supply leads to increased vegetation and biologic soil crust in dune fields, and can result in greater susceptibility to gully formation during rainfall due to lack of infilling aeolian sand. Modern-fluvial-sourced dunes can receive new windblown sand from sandbars formed by controlled

  2. [Ecological monitoring in agro-ecological systems].

    PubMed

    Baĭkov, B D

    1983-01-01

    The fundamental principles of the ecologic monitoring in the antropogenic ecosystems are dealt with. Analyzed are the structure and function of the agroecologic systems, and, on the basis of the particular aspects established a concept is developed of the ecologic control at autoecologic and biocoenologic level. An analysis is likewise made of the ecologic sequelae resulting from the chemical war launched by the American aggressors in Vietnam and the specific trends therefrom in the substantiation of the ecologic monitoring. Stated is the necessity of profound investigations to establish the bioaccumulation of dioxine, a poisonous agent which was contained in herbicides and defoliants used in the war, and which was distinguished by exclusively high toxicity, producing teratogenic and cancerogenic effects and possessing high resistance in the environment.

  3. Habitat selection by green turtles in a spatially heterogeneous benthic landscape in Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Hart, Kristen M.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined habitat selection by green turtles Chelonia mydas at Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, USA. We tracked 15 turtles (6 females and 9 males) using platform transmitter terminals (PTTs); 13 of these turtles were equipped with additional acoustic transmitters. Location data by PTTs comprised periods of 40 to 226 d in varying months from 2009 to 2012. Core areas were concentrated in shallow water (mean bathymetry depth of 7.7 m) with a comparably dense coverage of seagrass; however, the utilization distribution overlap index indicated a low degree of habitat sharing. The probability of detecting a turtle on an acoustic receiver was inversely associated with the distance from the receiver to turtle capture sites and was lower in shallower water. The estimated daily detection probability of a single turtle at a given acoustic station throughout the acoustic array was small (<0.1 in any year), and that of multiple turtle detections was even smaller. However, the conditional probability of multiple turtle detections, given at least one turtle detection at a receiver, was much higher despite the small number of tagged turtles in each year (n = 1 to 5). Also, multiple detections of different turtles at a receiver frequently occurred within a few minutes (40%, or 164 of 415, occurred within 1 min). Our numerical estimates of core area overlap, co-occupancy probabilities, and habitat characterization for green turtles could be used to guide conservation of the area to sustain the population of this species.

  4. "Dynamic Geodiversity" of glacial environments: new techniques for monitoring landscape variations on Alpine areas. Examples from the Gran Paradiso National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotto, Stefania; Giardino, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Mortara, Giovanni; Baroni, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    The importance of keeping memory of past morpho-climatic events is particular evident in recently deglaciated areas. The survival of glaciers is now very uncertain, due to climate changes and related effects occurring in the last decades. In the Western Alps, many glaciers are now extinct or show a dramatic reduction of area and thickness. Permafrost and periglacial areas are also responding promptly to climate changes as glaciers do, but they are not good "visual" indicators of climate changes, because they are not easily recognizable. Indeed, Italian glacial elements are constantly monitored by the Italian Glaciological Committe (CGI) in the last two centuries. The volunteers of CGI constantly monitor variations of glacier snout position of a great majority of Italian glaciers. CGI is not only a very important source of historical documentation and information, but also a very important scientific reference of the studies conducted in glacial areas. Particularly, thanks to CGI, it was created an inventory of Italian glaciers was created. Anyway, due to recent rapid changes, it is difficult to quickly update the inventory, also considering the difficulty of reaching alpine high mountain areas. The recent use of Geomatics in geological and geomorphological studies can be applied to evaluate landform changes in glacial and periglacial areas. The combination of remote sensing and on field techniques (i.e. aerial photogrammetry, GPS, Terrestrial photogrammetry, satellite images and LiDaR) provides constant monitoring of landform changes and updating inventories. The Gran Paradiso National Park (Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta Regions, Western Italian Alps) represents an excellent example of conservation of geodiversity. Many key-elements of the high mountain landscape are present here: glaciers, glacial cirques, rock glaciers, moraines (not only from Holocene, but also from Little Ice Age, of XVI-XIX centuries), steepled peaks, rock walls, roche moutonnée, ravines, debris

  5. Identification and characterization of agro-ecological infrastructures by remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducrot, D.; Duthoit, S.; d'Abzac, A.; Marais-Sicre, C.; Chéret, V.; Sausse, C.

    2015-10-01

    Agro-Ecological Infrastructures (AEIs) include many semi-natural habitats (hedgerows, grass strips, grasslands, thickets…) and play a key role in biodiversity preservation, water quality and erosion control. Indirect biodiversity indicators based on AEISs are used in many national and European public policies to analyze ecological processes. The identification of these landscape features is difficult and expensive and limits their use. Remote sensing has a great potential to solve this problem. In this study, we propose an operational tool for the identification and characterization of AEISs. The method is based on segmentation, contextual classification and fusion of temporal classifications. Experiments were carried out on various temporal and spatial resolution satellite data (20-m, 10-m, 5-m, 2.5-m, 50-cm), on three French regions southwest landscape (hilly, plain, wooded, cultivated), north (open-field) and Brittany (farmland closed by hedges). The results give a good idea of the potential of remote sensing image processing methods to map fine agro-ecological objects. At 20-m spatial resolution, only larger hedgerows and riparian forests are apparent. Classification results show that 10-m resolution is well suited for agricultural and AEIs applications, most hedges, forest edges, thickets can be detected. Results highlight the multi-temporal data importance. The future Sentinel satellites with a very high temporal resolution and a 10-m spatial resolution should be an answer to AEIs detection. 2.50-m resolution is more precise with more details. But treatments are more complicated. At 50-cm resolution, accuracy level of details is even higher; this amplifies the difficulties previously reported. The results obtained allow calculation of statistics and metrics describing landscape structures.

  6. [Research progress and trend on grassland agroecology].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jizhou; Li, Xianglin; Hou, Fujiang

    2002-08-01

    The connotation, progress, research frontiers and developmental trend of grassland agroecology are discussed in this paper. The interface theory, structure and function, coupling and discordance, and health assessment of grassland agroecosystems were recognized as the four research frontiers of the discipline. There exist three primary interfaces in a grassland agroecosystem, i.e., vegetation-site, grassland-animal and production-management. Research into a series of the ecological processes that occurred at these interfaces is the key to revealing the features of the system behavior. There are four sections in a grassland agroecosystem, i.e., pre-plant, plant, animal and post-biotic sections. System coupling and discordance are the two important concepts to describe interactions among the production sections. System coupling among the sections can lead to system improvement by exerting the potential of system capacity. Health of an ecosystem is a reflection of its structure and function, and health assessment is a measurement of its orderliness and service value.

  7. National parks: Chapter 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.; Allen, Craig D.; Fleishman, Erica; Gunderson, Lance; McKenzie, Don; Meyerson, Laura A.; Oropeza, Jill; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2008-01-01

    Covering about 4% of the United States, the 338,000 km² of protected areas in the National Park System contain representative landscapes of all of the nation’s biomes and ecosystems. The U.S. National Park Service Organic Act established the National Park System in 1916 “to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.”1 Approximately 270 national park system areas contain significant natural resources. Current National Park Service policy for natural resource parks calls for management to preserve fundamental physical and biological processes, as well as individual species, features, and plant and animal communities. Parks with managed natural resources range from large intact (or nearly intact) ecosystems with a full complement of native species— including top predators—to those diminished by disturbances such as within-park or surrounding-area legacies of land use, invasive species, pollution, or regional manipulation of resources. The significance of national parks as representatives of naturally functioning ecosystems and as refugia for natural processes and biodiversity increases as surrounding landscapes become increasingly altered by human activities.

  8. Geology of National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  9. Spatial variability in depth and landscape of heavy metal contents of volcanic soils of the National Cajas Park in the Azuay Andes (Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria; Boluda, Rafael; Gil, Carlos; Ramos-Miras, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Jose A.

    2015-04-01

    potential outliers from the data set and the calculation of the mean and the standard deviation for the remaining sub-collective. Andisols are dominated by amorphous aluminium silicates and Al-organic complexes. The soils of a volcanic area usually have an Ah-Bh-Bhs/ Bw-C horizon sequence. The Ah horizon is dark-coloured and very high in organic carbon. The pH NaF usually rises to 10.5 below 20 cm. Correlation metal concentration with pH NaF may reflect the impact of volcanic pedogenetic pathways of soils on the original trace elements distribution (Cr and Pb). Close relationships between organic matter have a marked affinity to trace elements (Cd and Cu) forming organomineral complexes. Ni and Zn present a close relationship with soil grain distribution. This may reflect the impact of wind or water on the original parent material distribution. The great dispersion of heavy metals between horizons could be horizon discontinuities. The elements Zr, Ti and Y, have been widely used as indices of immobile minerals. These studies must be performed to definitively confirm the complex profiles. Cadmium, Cu, Ni and Zn showed highly significant differences between Andisols. The complex association of the soils in the landscape was attributed to the difference in their parent material compositions. Occasional or continuous addition of volcanic deposits to soil becomes the soil forming process, and is decisive in the distribution of heavy metals. Although, the Azuay soils have shown a spatial variability of heavy metal concentrations in depth and landscape, the data sets were predominantly influenced by natural element distribution. In general, the upper limits of heavy metal background are (in mg•kg-1): Cd (1), Cr (44), Cu (54), Ni (10), Pb (69) and Zn (149). Only one point with slight enrichment Cd anomalies were observed: A4 (35-69 cm): 1.72 mg•kg-1. The concentrations of heavy metals found in the Cajas National Park are normal and do not show any sign of contamination

  10. Agroecology Education: Action-Oriented Learning and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles; Ostergaard, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines and evaluates the potential contributions from action learning and action research with stakeholders to higher education in agriculture and food systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on our experiences over the past two decades of running PhD courses and an MSc degree programme in Agroecology in…

  11. Agroecological evaluation of the principal microelements content in Chernozems at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, Sergey; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The ecological evaluation of the principal microelements content in soil cover of the agroecosystems is the important issue of the regional agroecological monitoring which results are actively used for landscape-adaptive land-use design with rational, environmental friendly fertilizing systems. The virgin forest-steppe plots without anthropogenous impacts are usually used as background data of microelements content in dominated zonal Chernozems. The average background content of zinc, copper, cobalt and manganese mobile forms (extracted with рН 4,8 buffer) in 10-20 cm layer of virgin Leached Chernozem at the federal reserve «Belogorye» (monitoring site «Jamskaya Steppe») are accordingly 0.75, 0.19, 0.14 and 12.8 mg/kg. According to RF actual evaluation scale for arable soils the background microelements content in the investigated virgin Chernozems have been corresponded to low level for mobile forms of zinc, copper and cobalt, and to middle level - for manganese ones that essentially limits their natural fertility. The results of carried out in the Belgorod Region in 2010-2014 agroecological monitoring have shown, that most of the arable soils are characterized by low content of the mobile forms of manganese (60 %) zinc (99,2 % of total area), cobalt (94,1 %) and copper (100 %) too that became a serious problem for intensive farming active development in the region. During active agroecological monitoring period since 1990-1994 to 2010-2014 the average regional contents of the principal microelements mobile forms have been essentially decreased: from 1,44 to 0,53 mg/kg in case of zinc, from 17,5 to 9,2 mg/kg in case of manganese - due to low level of micronutrient fertilizers and manure application. It determined the current priority in the agrochemical service development in the region with new DSS-supported agrotechnologies design and essentially increased level of profitable application of traditional and non-traditional organic and mineral

  12. Geomorphology applied to landscape analysis for planning and management of natural spaces. Case study: Las Batuecas-S. de Francia and Quilamas natural parks, (Salamanca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Graña, A M; Silva, P G; Goy, J L; Elez, J; Valdés, V; Zazo, C

    2017-04-15

    Geomorphology is fundamental to landscape analysis, as it represents the main parameter that determines the land spatial configuration and facilitates reliefs classification. The goal of this article is the elaboration of thematic maps that enable the determination of different landscape units and elaboration of quality and vulnerability synthetic maps for landscape fragility assessment prior to planning human activities. For two natural spaces, the final synthetic maps were created with direct (visual-perceptual features) and indirect (cartographic models and 3D simulations) methods from thematic maps with GIS technique. This enabled the creation of intrinsic and extrinsic landscape quality maps showing sectors needing most preservation, as well as intrinsic and extrinsic landscape fragility maps (environment response capacity or vulnerability towards human actions). The resulting map shows absorption capacity for areas of maximum and/or minimum human intervention. Sectors of high absorption capacity (minimum need for preservation) are found where the incidence of human intervention is minimum: escarpment bottoms, fitted rivers, sinuous high lands with thick vegetation coverage and valley interiors, or those areas with high landscape quality, low fragility and high absorption capacity, whose average values are found across lower hillsides of some valleys, and sectors with low absorption capacity (areas needing most preservation) found mainly in the inner parts of natural spaces: peaks and upper hillsides, synclines flanks and scattered areas. For the integral analysis of landscape, a mapping methodology has been set. It comprises a valid criterion for rational and sustainable planning, management and protection of natural spaces.

  13. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    PubMed

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals.

  14. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn

    PubMed Central

    Maine, Josiah J.; Boyles, Justin G.

    2015-01-01

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity. PMID:26371304

  15. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn.

    PubMed

    Maine, Josiah J; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-10-06

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity.

  16. Rapidly Deglaciating and Uplifting Landscapes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve GBNPP Provide Alaskan High School Students with Summer Field Research Experiences in Paleoclimate Disciplines and Exposure to Active Researchers in Synergistic Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, C. L.; Hekkers, M.; Schaller, S.; Parks, R.

    2011-12-01

    During summer 2011, ten Alaska high school students enrolled in a summer college introductory field science course through the Design Discover Research Program (DDR) at University Alaska Southeast, with support from the Juneau Economic Development Council, the University Alaska Fairbanks Alaska Summer Research Academy (ASRA), the National Park Service, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-Interdisciplinary Scientific Environmental Technology (ISET) Cooperative Science Center (CSC). They conducted field surveys in Glacier Bay National Park and across the adjacent Gustavus glacier forefield landscape. This was the 4th summer for this program. Following a 2-1/2 day orientation on the UAS campus, students traveled by a newly established (2011) Alaska Marine Highway service from Juneau to Gustavus. They utilized bicycles and hiking to access the Dude Creek Critical Habitat, Good Creek watershed, and the Nagoonberry Trail built by the Nature Conservancy along the emerging shoreline of Icy Strait. This region is currently experiencing uplift rates of 20-28 mm/year as a result of Little Ice Age deglaciation and isostatic rebound, rates much higher than eustatic sea level rise. North of the Gustavus ferry dock, roughly 19 acres of emergent land is now a 9-hole golf course, raised from the sea since the 1950s. DDR-students interacted with wildlife biologists, ornithologists, quaternary geologists, glaciologists, and botanists to integrate their understanding of the response of plants and animals to this dynamic landscape. Radio-collared moose populations, which migrated into this area from Haines since the mind-1960s, are being studied to asses their impacts to local vegetation and the behavior of local predators (bears, wolves, and coyotes). Sitka spruce forest expansion onto Icy Strait uplifting salt marshes, now threaten Sandhill Crane habitat and their flyover stops along the Pacific Flyway. Intertidal areas in Bartlett Cove in GBNPP feature

  17. Soil cover patterns influence on the land environmental functions, agroecological quality, land-use and monitoring efficiency in the Central Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Yashin, Ivan; Lukin, Sergey; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    First decades of XXI century actualized for soil researches the principal methodical problem of most modern geosciences: what spatial and temporal scale would be optimal for land quality evaluation and land-use practice optimizing? It is becoming obvious that this question cannot have one solution and have to be solved with especial attention on the features of concrete region and landscape, land-use history and practical issues, land current state and environmental functions, soil cover patterns and variability, governmental requirements and local society needs, best available technologies and their potential profitability. Central Russia is one of the most dynamical economic regions with naturally high and man-made complicated landscape and soil cover variability, long-term land-use history and self-contradictory issues, high potential of profitable farming and increased risks of land degradation. Global climate and technological changes essentially complicate the originally high and sharply increased in XX century farming land heterogeneity in the Central Russia that actualizes system analysis of its zonal, intra-zonal and azonal soil cover patterns according to their influence on land environmental functions, agroecological quality, and land-use and monitoring efficiency variability. Developed by the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, ecosystem modeling & prediction (LAMP / RTSAU with support of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266) regional systems of greenhouse gases environmental monitoring RusFluxNet (6 fixed & 1 mobile eddy covariance stations with zonal functional sets of key plots with chamber investigations in 5 Russian regions) and of agroecological monitoring (in representative key plots with different farming practice in 9 RF regions) allow to do this analysis in frame of enough representative regional multi-factorial matrix of soil cover patterns, bioclimatic conditions, landscape features, and land-use history and

  18. Manipulating Crop Density to Optimize Nitrogen and Water Use: An Application of Precision Agroecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, T. T.; Huggins, D. R.; Smith, J. L.; Keller, C. K.; Kruger, C.

    2011-12-01

    Rising levels of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the environment coupled with increasing population positions agriculture as a major contributor for supplying food and ecosystem services to the world. The concept of Precision Agroecology (PA) explicitly recognizes the importance of time and place by combining the principles of precision farming with ecology creating a framework that can lead to improvements in Nr use efficiency. In the Palouse region of the Pacific Northwest, USA, relationships between productivity, N dynamics and cycling, water availability, and environmental impacts result from intricate spatial and temporal variations in soil, ecosystem processes, and socioeconomic factors. Our research goal is to investigate N use efficiency (NUE) in the context of factors that regulate site-specific environmental and economic conditions and to develop the concept of PA for use in sustainable agroecosystems and science-based Nr policy. Nitrogen and plant density field trials with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were conducted at the Washington State University Cook Agronomy Farm near Pullman, WA under long-term no-tillage management in 2010 and 2011. Treatments were imposed across environmentally heterogeneous field conditions to assess soil, crop and environmental interactions. Microplots with a split N application using 15N-labeled fertilizer were established in 2011 to examine the impact of N timing on uptake of fertilizer and soil N throughout the growing season for two plant density treatments. Preliminary data show that plant density manipulation combined with precision N applications regulated water and N use and resulted in greater wheat yield with less seed and N inputs. These findings indicate that improvements to NUE and agroecosystem sustainability should consider landscape-scale patterns driving productivity (e.g., spatial and temporal dynamics of water availability and N transformations) and would benefit from policy incentives that promote a PA

  19. European Heritage Landscapes. An Account of the Conference on Planning and Management in European Naturparke/Parcs Naturels/National Parks (U.K.) and Equivalent Category "C" Reserves (Losehill Hall, Castleton, England, September 26-30, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Roland

    Presented are the proceedings of the Conference on Planning and Management in European National Parks and equivalent Category "C" reserves held at the Peak National Park Study Center, Castleton, England, in 1977. Fifty-two representatives from 16 countries focused practical solutions to management and planning problems in national parks. (BT)

  20. Park It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  1. Agroecology and the Sustainable Production of Food and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The silvopastoral, agricultural system of the montado in Southern Portugal is an example of the self-organization of an agroecological system adapted to the climate and soil conditions of the Mediterranean basin. This system with its consistent production of food, fiber, and ecosystem services along with its concomitant rural social organization has been sustained in the region for over 1000 years. However, the system has been gradually decreasing in extent since the 19th century and its rate of decline has accelerated since the 1980s. The causes of this decline have been traced in descending order of importance to land managment choices, spatial factors and environmental factors. In addition, past studies have shown that there is an optimum livestock support capacity for maintaining the health of the montado agroecosystem. In this study, we used the results of an emergy evaluation of a cattle farm as part of a montado agroecosystem to examine the effects of the European Union’s (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on the viability of both cattle rearing and the long term regional sustainability of montado agroecosystems. We found that the CAP and its two pillars for providing subsidies, (1) Common Market Organization (CMO) and (2) Rural Development Policy (RDP) are complex and take into account many aspects of prices and markets for particular products, e.g., beef and veal (CMO) and sustainable rural development, e.g., silvopastoral agroecosystems (RDP). How

  2. [Recreational attraction of urban park wetlands in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Li, Fen; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2012-08-01

    Taking the 20 urban park wetlands in Beijing as test objects, a 3-layer evaluation index system including urban park wetland landscape quality, location condition, and accessibility for the recreational attraction of urban bark wetlands was established, and, by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and an integrating index evaluation method, the recreational attraction of the urban park wetlands in Beijing was quantitatively assessed, and validated with questionnaire data. In Beijing, the urban park wetlands with high recreational attraction were in the order of the Summer Palace, Olympic Park, Qinglong Lake Park, Beihai Park, Yuanmingyuan Park, Yuyuantan Park, Shidu, Golden Sea Lake scenic area, Taoranting Park, and Yeyahu wetland. The Rice Fragrance Lake wetland and Zhenzhuhu scenic area had the lowest recreational attraction, and the others were fair. The evaluation results were supported by the questionnaire data, which indicated that the index system and evaluation model were useful. According to the recreational services, the 20 park wetlands in Beijing could be clustered into four categories, which could be managed in different ways. Appropriately assessing the recreational services of urban park wetlands could help the decision-making on the urban parks optimal planning and designing, improve human living environment, and optimize the spatial distribution of urban landscape.

  3. Agroecological zones and the assessment of crop production potential

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, M. V. K.; Valentin, C.

    1997-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population puts considerable pressure on the scarce natural resources, and there is an urgent need to develop more efficient and sustainable agricultural production systems to feed the growing population. This should be based on an initial assessment of the physical and biological potential of natural resources, which can vary greatly. The agroecological zonation (AEZ) approach presents a useful preliminary evaluation of this potential, and ensures that representation is maintained at an appropriate biogeographic scale for regional sustainable development planning. The principal AEZs of the world, as described by the Technical Advisory Committee of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, are presented along with their extent and characteristics. Net primary productivity of terrestrial vegetation can be assessed from weather data, and it varies from 1 t dry matter ha-1 yr-1 in high latitude zones and dry regions to 29 t ha-1 yr-1 in tropical wet regions, depending on the climatic conditions. To assess the crop production potential, length of the growing period zones, a concept introduced by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, is very useful as it describes an area within which rainfall and temperature conditions are suitable for crop growth for a given number of days in the year. These data, combined with the information on soils and known requirements of different food crops, can be used to assess the potential crop productivity. Some perspectives on AEZs and crop production potential are presented by describing the manner in which production potential can be integrated with present constraints. Efforts to intensify production should place emphasis on methods appropriate to the socio-economic conditions in a given AEZ, and on promotion of conservation-effective and sustainable production systems to meet the food, fodder and fuel needs for the future.

  4. Amplifying the benefits of agroecology by using the right cultivars.

    PubMed

    Noguera, D; Laossi, K-R; Lavelle, P; De Carvalho, M H Cruz; Asakawa, N; Botero, C; Barot, S

    2011-10-01

    Tropical soils are particularly vulnerable to fertility losses due to their low capacity to retain organic matter and mineral nutrients. This urges the development of new agricultural practices to manage mineral nutrients and organic matter in a more sustainable way while relying less on fertilizer inputs. Two methods pertaining to ecological engineering and agroecology have been tested with some success: (1) the addition of biochar to the soil, and (2) the maintenance of higher earthworm densities. However, modern crop varieties have been selected to be adapted to agricultural practices and to the soil conditions they lead to and common cultivars might not be adapted to new practices. Using rice as a model plant, we compared the responsiveness to biochar and earthworms of five rice cultivars with contrasted selection histories. These cultivars had contrasted responsivenesses to earthworms, biochar, and the combination of both. The mean relative increase in grain biomass, among all treatments and cultivars, was 94% and 32%, respectively, with and without fertilization. Choosing the best combination of cultivar and treatment led to a more than fourfold increase in this mean benefit (a 437% and a 353% relative increase in grain biomass, respectively, with and without fertilization). Besides, the more rustic cultivar, a local landrace adapted to diverse and difficult conditions, responded the best to earthworms in terms of total biomass, while a modern common cultivar responded the best in term of grain biomass. This suggests that cultivars could be selected to amplify the benefit of biochar- and earthworm-based practices. Overall, selecting new cultivars interacting more closely with soil organisms and soil heterogeneity could increase agriculture sustainability, fostering the positive feedback loop between soils and plants that has evolved in natural ecosystems.

  5. Salvadora persica agro-ecological suitability for oil production in Argentine dryland salinity.

    PubMed

    Falasca, Silvia; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra; del Fresno, Carolina Miranda

    2015-12-15

    One of the major causes of crop stress is soil or water salinity. Thus, selection of the best species for cultivation in semiarid and arid climates is fundamental. Salvadora persica is an evergreen perennial halophyte that can grow under extreme conditions, from very dry environments to highly saline soils. Based on international bibliography, the authors outlined an agro-ecological zoning model to determine the potential cultivation zones for S. persica in Argentina. This model may be applied to any part of the world, using the agro-ecological limits presented in this work. All the maps were developed by the implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) that can be updated by the further incorporation of complementary information, with the consequent improvement of the original database. The overlap of the agroclimatic suitability map on the drylands' saline soils and the drylands' alkaline soils maps, determined the agro-ecological zoning. Since some areas in the agro-ecological zoning can overlap with land that is already assigned for other uses, protected areas, current land use/cover of the different zones, and urban areas maps were incorporated into the GIS and subtracted by a mask. This resulted in the delimitation of "potential cultivation zoning", thus avoiding possible conflicts surrounding the use of land and making the agro-ecological zonation more efficient. There is a broad agro-ecological zone for cultivation of S. persica that extends from Northern Argentina to approximately 41° South latitude, under dry-subhumid to semiarid climates. Lands classified with different degrees of suitability in the potential cultivation zoning could be used for production of this species for energy purposes on lands that are either unsuitable for food production or currently assigned for other purposes. This paper represents pioneering work since there are no previous studies concerning the introduction of S. persica in Argentina.

  6. How to measure the agroecological performance of farming in order to assist with the transition process.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Meriam; Mandart, Elisabeth; Le Grusse, Philippe; Bord, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant protection products enables farmers to maximize economic performance and yields, but in return, the environment and human health can be greatly affected because of their toxicity. There are currently strong calls for farmers to reduce the use of these toxic products for the preservation of the environment and the human health, and it has become urgent to invest in more sustainable models that help reduce these risks. One possible solution is the transition toward agroecological production systems. These new systems must be beneficial economically, socially, and environmentally in terms of human health. There are many tools available, based on a range of indicators, for assessing the sustainability of agricultural systems on conventional farm holdings. These methods are little suitable to agroecological farms and do not measure the performance of agroecological transition farms. In this article, we therefore develop a model for the strategic definition, guidance, and assistance for a transition to agroecological practices, capable of assessing performance of this transition and simulating the consequences of possible changes. This model was built by coupling (i) a decision-support tool and a technico-economic simulator with (ii) a conceptual model built from the dynamics of agroecological practices. This tool is currently being tested in the framework of a Compte d'Affectation Spéciale pour le Développement Agricole et Rural (CASDAR) project (CASDAR: project launched in 2013 by the French Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry, on the theme "collective mobilisation for agroecology," http://agriculture.gouv.fr/Appel-a-projets-CASDAR ) using data from farms, most of which are engaged in agroenvironmental process and reducing plant protection treatments since 2008.

  7. 2. VIEW OF EAST PORTAL, FACING WEST. FORMER PARKING AREA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF EAST PORTAL, FACING WEST. FORMER PARKING AREA TO LEFT OF WALL NOW RE-LANDSCAPED. - Big Oak Flat Road Tunnel No. 3, Through mountain spur on New Big Oak Flat Road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  8. Mount Rainier National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Robert; Woodward, Andrea; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hagar, Joan; Cummings, Tonnie; Duriscoe, Dan; Kopper, Karen; Riedel, Jon; Samora, Barbara; Marin, Lelaina; Mauger, Guillaume S.; Bumbaco, Karen; Littell, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural Resource Condition Assessments (NRCAs) evaluate current conditions for a subset of natural resources and resource indicators in national parks. NRCAs also report on trends in resource condition (when possible), identify critical data gaps, and characterize a general level of confidence for study findings. The resources and indicators emphasized in a given project depend on the park’s resource setting, status of resource stewardship planning and science in identifying high-priority indicators, and availability of data and expertise to assess current conditions for a variety of potential study resources and indicators. Although the primary objective of NRCAs is to report on current conditions relative to logical forms of reference conditions and values, NRCAs also report on trends, when appropriate (i.e., when the underlying data and methods support such reporting), as well as influences on resource conditions. These influences may include past activities or conditions that provide a helpful context for understanding current conditions and present-day threats and stressors that are best interpreted at park, watershed, or landscape scales (though NRCAs do not report on condition status for land areas and natural resources beyond park boundaries). Intensive cause-andeffect analyses of threats and stressors, and development of detailed treatment options, are outside the scope of NRCAs. It is also important to note that NRCAs do not address resources that lack sufficient data for assessment. For Mount Rainier National Park, this includes most invertebrate species and many other animal species that are subject to significant stressors from climate change and other anthropogenic sources such as air pollutants and recreational use. In addition, we did not include an analysis of the physical hydrology associated with streams (such as riverine landforms, erosion and aggradation which is significant in MORA streams), due to a loss of staff expertise from the USGS

  9. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, D. R.; Rupp, R.; Gessler, P.; Pan, W.; Brown, D. J.; Machado, S.; Walden, V. P.; Eigenbrode, S.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Agroecological zones (AEZ's) have traditionally been defined by integrating multiple layers of biophysical (e.g. climate, soil, terrain) and occasionally socioeconomic data to create unique zones with specific ranges of land use constraints and potentials. Our approach to defining AEZ's assumes that current agricultural land uses have emerged as a consequence of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers. Therefore, we explore the concept that AEZ's can be derived from classifying the geographic distribution of current agricultural systems (e.g. the wheat-fallow cropping system zone) based on spatially geo-referenced annual cropland use data that is currently available through the National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS). By defining AEZ's in this way, we expect to: (1) provide baseline information that geographically delineates the boundaries of current AEZ's and subzones and therefore the capacity to evaluate shifts in AEZ boundaries over time; (2) assess the biophysical (e.g. climate, soils, terrain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. commodity prices) that are most useful for predicting and correctly classifying current AEZ's, subzones or future shifts in AEZ boundaries; (3) identify and develop AEZ-relevant climate mitigation and adaptation strategies; and (4) integrate biophysical and socioeconomic data sources to pursue a transdisciplinary examination of climate-driven AEZ futures. Achieving these goals will aid in realizing major objectives for a USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, Cooperative Agricultural Project entitled "Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) for Pacific Northwest Agriculture". REACCH is a research, education and extension project under the leadership of the University of Idaho with significant collaboration from Washington State University, Oregon State University and the USDA Agricultural Research Service that is working towards increasing the capacity of Inland Pacific

  10. Geology of Badlands National Park: a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2003-01-01

    Badlands National Park is host to perhaps the most scenic geology and landscape features in the Western Interior region of the United States. Ongoing erosion that forms the "badlands" exposes ancient sedimentary strata of Late Cretaceous through Oligocene age. Quaternary erosional and depositional processes are responsible for most of the modern landscape features in the park and surrounding region. This report provides a basic overview of the park geology The discussions presented within include both well-established concepts and theories and new, preliminary data and interpretations. Much emphasis is placed on presenting information about the oldest and least studied rocks in the park (particularly the Late Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary deposits that underlie the White River beds throughout the park region). Rock formations and selected fossils they contain are described. Faults, folds, unconformities, and other geologic structures in the North Unit of the park are illustrated, including features associated with the Sage Creek anticline and fault system.

  11. Agroecology and healthy food systems in semi-humid tropical Africa: Participatory research with vulnerable farming households in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Hanson; Kangmennaang, Joseph; Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Luginaah, Isaac; Dakishoni, Laifolo; Lupafya, Esther; Shumba, Lizzie; Katundu, Mangani

    2016-10-29

    This paper assesses the relationship between agroecology, food security, and human health. Specifically, we ask if agroecology can lead to improved food security and human health among vulnerable smallholder farmers in semi-humid tropical Africa. The empirical evidence comes from a cross-sectional household survey (n=1000) in two districts in Malawi, a small country in semi-humid, tropical Africa. The survey consisted of 571 agroecology-adoption and 429 non-agroecology-adoption households. Ordered logistics regression and average treatment effects models were used to determine the effect of agroecology adoption on self-reported health. Our results show that agroecology-adoption households (OR=1.37, p=0.05) were more likely to report optimal health status, and the average treatment effect shows that adopters were 12% more likely to be in optimal health. Furthermore, being moderately food insecure (OR=0.59, p=0.05) and severely food insecure (OR=0.89, p=0.10) were associated with less likelihood of reporting optimal health status. The paper concludes that with the adoption of agroecology in the semi-humid tropics, it is possible for households to diversify their crops and diets, a condition that has strong implications for improved food security, good nutrition and human health.

  12. Agroecology and the Sustainable Production of Food and Fiber: Emergy Evaluation of Agriculture in the Montado

    EPA Science Inventory

    The silvopastoral, agricultural system of the montado in Southern Portugal is an example of the self-organization of an agroecological system adapted to the climate and soil conditions of the Mediterranean basin. This system with its consistent production of food, fiber, and ecos...

  13. Farmers' Visions on Soils: A Case Study among Agroecological and Conventional Smallholders in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingen, Klarien Elisabeth; De Graaff, Jan; Botelho, Maria Izabel Vieira; Kessler, Aad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Why do farmers not take better care of their soils? This article aims to give insight into how farmers look at soil quality management. Design/methodology/approach: It analyses diverse land management practices and visions on soils and soil quality of ten agroecological and 14 conventional smallholder farmers in Araponga, Minas Gerais,…

  14. An Education in Gender and Agroecology in Brazil's Landless Rural Workers' Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwendler, Sônia Fátima; Thompson, Lucia Amaranta

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the implications of a blended agroecology and gender education within "Brazil's Landless Rural Workers' Movement" (MST). The discussion is first situated within MST's struggle for land and for peasant families' livelihoods, generally, and under neoliberalism, specifically. Central to the struggle against…

  15. Behavioral Changes Based on a Course in Agroecology: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Kristyn; King, James; Francis, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated and described student perceptions of a course in agroecology to determine if participants experienced changed perceptions and behaviors resulting from the Agroecosystems Analysis course. A triangulation validating quantitative data mixed methods approach included a written survey comprised of both quantitative and open-ended…

  16. The Brazilian Experience with Agroecological Extension: A Critical Analysis of Reform in a Pluralistic Extension System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesel, Vivien; Miná Dias, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the Brazilian experience in designing and implementing a recent extension policy reform based on agroecology, and reflect on its wider theoretical implications for extension reform literature. Design/methodology/approach: Using a critical public analysis we characterize the evolution of Brazilian federal extension policy…

  17. Park Smart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Parking Garage Automation System (PGAS) is based on a technology developed by a NASA-sponsored project called Robot sensorSkin(TM). Merritt Systems, Inc., of Orlando, Florida, teamed up with NASA to improve robots working with critical flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The system, containing smart sensor modules and flexible printed circuit board skin, help robots to steer clear of obstacles using a proximity sensing system. Advancements in the sensor designs are being applied to various commercial applications, including the PGAS. The system includes a smartSensor(TM) network installed around and within public parking garages to autonomously guide motorists to open facilities, and once within, to free parking spaces. The sensors use non-invasive reflective-ultrasonic technology for high accuracy, high reliability, and low maintenance. The system is remotely programmable: it can be tuned to site-specific requirements, has variable range capability, and allows remote configuration, monitoring, and diagnostics. The sensors are immune to interference from metallic construction materials, such as rebar and steel beams. Inside the garage, smart routing signs mounted overhead or on poles in front of each row of parking spots guide the motorist precisely to free spaces.

  18. 76 FR 70483 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Activities which will consist of Historic Landscape Rehabilitation, Park Projects, FY12 Appropriations and... be held at the Ford Education Center in the Gettysburg National Military Park Museum and Visitor Center, 1195 Baltimore Pike, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325. Agenda: The April 19, 2012 and September...

  19. Biodiversity and agro-ecology in field margins.

    PubMed

    De Cauwer, B; Reheul, D; Nijs, I; Milbau, A

    2005-01-01

    This multidisciplinary study investigates agro-ecological functions (nature conservation, agriculture, environment) and implications of newly created, mown sown and unsown field margin strips installed on ex-arable land to increase biodiversity. From conservational concern, the development of species rich field margin strips was not strongly affected by the installed type of margin strip since species diversity converged over time, whether strips were sown or not. Convergence between unsown and sown margin strips occurred also in terms of species composition: unsown and sown strips became similar over time. Mowing without removal of cuttings significantly reduced species richness, yielded more grassy margin strips and delayed similarity in species composition between sown and unsown margin strips. Species richness on the longer term was not significantly affected by light regime nor by disturbance despite significant temporary effects shortly after the disturbance event. On the contrary vegetation composition in terms of importance of functional groups changed after disturbance: the share of spontaneous species within functional groups increased resulting in higher similarity between the sown and unsown vegetation. Furthermore risk of invasion was highest in the disturbed unsown community on the unshaded side of a tree lane. A positive effect of botanical diversity on insect number and diversity was found. However the effects of botanical diversity on insect number was mediated by light regime. At high light availability differences between plant communities were more pronounced compared to low light availablilty. The abundance of some insect families was dependent on the vegetation composition. Furthermore light availability significantly influenced insect diversity as well as the spatial distribution of families. From agricultural concern, installing margin strips by sowing a species mixture and a mowing regime with removal of cuttings are good practices to

  20. Energetics and Cooling in Urban Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spronken-Smith, Rachel Anne

    While there has been a long tradition for the integration of architecture and landscape to improve the urban environment, little is known about the effect of urban parks on local climate. In this study the park effect is determined through an integrated research approach incorporating field measurements of the thermal regime and energetics of urban parks, together with scale modelling of nocturnal cooling in urban parks. The research is limited to consideration of the park effect in two cities with different summer climates: Sacramento, California (hot summer Mediterranean) and Vancoucer, British Columbia (cool summer Mediterranean). In both these cities, surveys of summer-time air temperature patterns associated with urban parks confirm and extend previous findings. In temperate Vancouver, the park effect is typically 1-2^circC, rarely more than 3^circC, although it can be higher under ideal conditions. However, in a hot, dry city, the effect is considerably enhanced with parks as much as 5-7^circC cooler than their urban surrounds. A comparison of the surface energy balance of small open, grassed parks in these two cities demonstrated the importance of evapotranspiration in park energetics. In hot, dry Sacramento, evaporation in the park was advectively -assisted and exceeded that at an irrigated rural site. Strong advective edge effects on evaporation were observed in this wet park. These decayed approximately exponentially with distance into the park. The urban park in Vancouver was moist, but unirrigated. While evaporation dominated the surface energy balance, the sensible heat flux was positive through most of the day, and evaporation was not strongly influenced by advection. The evaporation trend in the park probably reflected the turbulence and soil moisture regimes. However, an irrigated lawn in Vancouver did exhibit edge-type advection. This suggests the soil moisture regime may be critical in determining whether evaporation exceeds the potential rate

  1. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Beyecha, Kebede; Geloye, Mesula

    2012-10-23

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus in the highland (31.7%) than in both the lowland (0%) and midland (1.9%) was observed. The risk of tick infestation in the lowland and midland was 9.883 times and 13.988 times higher than the risk in the highland, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of Ctenocephalides species was encountered in both the lowland (OR = 4.738, p = 0.011) and midland (OR = 8.078, p = 0.000) than in the highland agro-ecological zone. However, a significant difference (p = 0.191) amongst agro-ecological zones was not found for the prevalence of Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult

  2. [Qingshishan watershed agro-ecology information system and its application with the support of Geographic Information System (GIS)].

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Wang, Z

    2000-10-01

    Geographic Information System(GIS) is applied to establish Qingshishan Watershed Agro-Ecology Information System (QWAEIS), QWAEIS integrates spatial information such as land use, soil, water and topography with basic information such as population, climate and agricultural production. The watershed agro-ecology information was effectively analyzed and managed by QWAEIS, land suitable classes were evaluated by QWAEIS and the land evaluation result are given, QWAEIS also can support watershed planning with its spatial information.

  3. ACE Parking Workplace Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetwater Union High School District, Chula Vista, CA.

    This manual is designed for use in a four-session workshop to help new parking garage employees enhance their skills in the following areas: understanding the functions of parking employees, computing parking rates and filling out parking lot reconciliation forms, preparing miscellaneous parking lot forms and developing effective communication and…

  4. Agroecology in the tropics: Achieving a balance between land use and preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliessman, Stephen R.

    1992-11-01

    Agroecology is the application of ecological concepts and principles to the design and management of sustainable agricultural systems. An agroecological approach to agriculture has special importance in the humid tropics where agricultural development and the preservation of tropical forests are most often in direct conflict. It is proposed that a more sustainable approach to development is needed, where agroecosystems depend on low external inputs, function more on the use of locally available and renewable resources, have benign impacts on the environment, and are based on the knowledge and culture of the local inhabitants. Examples of traditional agroecosystem management in Mesoamerica that can provide this basis are presented. The preservation of both biological and cultural diversity are integral to the long-term sustainable management of natural resources in the tropics.

  5. Agroecological bases for raising the productivity of degraded soils in Khorasan province of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, V. A.; Nurberdiev, M.; Rangavar, A.

    2007-12-01

    Agroecological principles and approaches for the assessment of the soil water supply in Khorasan province of the Islamic Republic of Iran are suggested. The soil water supply is the crucial factor controlling the productivity of local pastures. The agroclimatic division of the province is suggested and the seasonal dynamics of the soil water and surface runoff on experimental plots are analyzed. Experimental materials that are used in semiempirical models and calculations of the potential productivity of pastures are discussed.

  6. National Environmental Research Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  7. Mars Landscapes

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spacecraft have studied the Martian surface for decades, giving Earthlings insights into the history, climate and geology of our nearest neighbor, Mars. These images are from "Mars Landscapes," a v...

  8. National Park Service Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet offers information on the employment needs of and career opportunities in the National Park Service. General information on the Service and employment is followed by specific information on these career opportunities: park ranger, park aide and technician, park police, administrative careers, and maintenance, trade, and craft…

  9. Increasing development in the surroundings of U.S. National Park Service holdings jeopardizes park effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Gimmi, Urs; Schmidt, Shelley L; Hawbaker, Todd J; Alcántara, Camilo; Gafvert, Ulf; Radeloff, Volker C

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas are cornerstones of biodiversity conservation, but they are in danger of becoming islands in a sea of human dominated landscapes. Our question was if protected areas may even foster development in their surroundings because they provide amenities that attract development, thus causing the isolation of the ecosystems they were designed to protect. Our study analyzed historic aerial photographs and topographical maps to reconstruct road development and building growth within and around Indiana Dunes and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshores in the U.S. Great Lakes region from 1938 to 2005, and to estimate the effects of park creation in 1966 on changes in landscape patterns. Historic U.S. census housing density data were used as a baseline to compare observed changes to. Our results showed that park establishment was effective in reducing and stopping the fragmenting impact of development within park boundaries. However, increased amenity levels following park establishment led to enhanced development in the surroundings of both parks. In the extreme case of Indiana Dunes, building density outside the park increased from 45 to 200buildings/km(2) and road density almost doubled from 3.6 to 6.6km/km(2) from 1938 to 2005. Development rates of change were much higher than in the broader landscape, particularly after park establishment. The potential amenity effect was up to 9500 new buildings in the 3.2-km zone around Indiana Dunes between 1966 and 2005. For Pictured Rocks the absolute effect was smaller but up to 70% of the observed building growth was potentially due to amenity effects. Our findings highlight the need for conservation planning at broader scales, incorporating areas beyond the boundaries of protected areas.

  10. Climate Change in Voyageurs National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeley, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    Voyageurs National Park was created in 1975. This beautifully forested and lake-dominated landscape shared between Minnesota and Canada has few roads and must be seen by water. The islands and Kabetogama Peninsula are part of the Canadian Shield, some of the oldest exposed rock in the world. Voyageurs National Park boasts many unique landscape and climatic attributes, and like most mid-latitude regions of the northern hemisphere climate change is in play there. The statistical signals of change in the climate record are evident from both temperature and precipitation measurements. The history of these measurements goes back over 100 years. Additionally, studies and measurements of the lakes and general ecosystem already show some consequences of these climate changes. Mean temperature measurements are generally warmer than they once were, most notably in the winter season. Minimum temperatures have changed more than maximum temperatures. Precipitation has trended upward, but has also changed in character with greater frequency and contribution from thunderstorm rainfalls across the park. In addition variability in annual precipitation has become more amplified, as the disparity between wet and dry years has grown wider. Some changes are already in evidence in terms of bird migration patterns, earlier lake ice-out dates, warmer water temperatures with more algal blooms, decline in lake clarity, and somewhat longer frost-free seasons. Climate change will continue to have impacts on Voyageurs National Park, and likely other national parks across the nation. Furthermore scientists may find that the study, presentation, and discussion about climate impacts on our national parks is a particularly engaging way to educate citizens and improve climate literacy as we contemplate what adaptation and mitigation policies should be enacted to preserve the quality of our national parks for future generations.

  11. Factors influencing the prevalence and infestation levels of Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies in two highland agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Chemurot, Moses; Akol, Anne M; Masembe, Charles; de Smet, Lina; Descamps, Tine; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2016-04-01

    Varroa mites are ecto-parasites of honeybees and are a threat to the beekeeping industry. We identified the haplotype of Varroa mites and evaluated potential factors that influence their prevalence and infestation levels in the eastern and western highland agro-ecological zones of Uganda. This was done by collecting samples of adult worker bees between December 2014 and September 2015 in two sampling moments. Samples of bees were screened for Varroa using the ethanol wash method and the mites were identified by molecular techniques. All DNA sequences obtained from sampled mite populations in the two zones were 100 % identical to the Korean Haplotype (AF106899). Mean mite prevalence in the apiaries was 40 and 53 % for the western and eastern zones, respectively, during the first sampling. Over the second sampling, mean mite prevalence increased considerably in the western (59 %) but not in the eastern (51 %) zone. Factors that were associated with Varroa mite infestation levels include altitude, nature of apiary slope and apiary management practices during the first sampling. Our results further showed that Varroa mites were spreading from lower to higher elevations. Feral colonies were also infested with Varroa mites at infestation levels not significantly different from those in managed colonies. Colony productivity and strength were not correlated to mite infestation levels. We recommend a long-term Varroa mite monitoring strategy in areas of varying landscape and land use factors for a clear understanding of possible changes in mite infestation levels among African honeybees for informed decision making.

  12. Agro-ecological analysis for the EU water framework directive: an applied case study for the river contract of the Seveso basin (Italy).

    PubMed

    Bocchi, Stefano; La Rosa, Daniele; Pileri, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    The innovative approach to the protection and management of water resources at the basin scale introduced by the European Union water framework directive (WFD) requires new scientific tools. WFD implementation also requires the participation of many stakeholders (administrators, farmers and citizens) with the aim of improving the quality of river waters and basin ecosystems through cooperative planning. This approach encompasses different issues, such as agro-ecology, land use planning and water management. This paper presents the results of a methodology suggested for implementing the WFD in the case of the Seveso river contract in Italy, one of the recent WFD applications. The Seveso basin in the Lombardy region has been one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Italy over the last 50 years. First, land use changes in the last 50 years are assessed with the use of historical aerial photos. Then, elements of an ecological network along the river corridor are outlined, and different scenarios for enhancing existing ecological connections are assessed using indicators from graph theory. These scenarios were discussed in technical workshops with involved stakeholders of the river contract. The results show a damaged rural landscape, where urbanization processes have decimated the system of linear green features (hedges/rows). Progressive reconnections of some of the identified network nodes may significantly increase the connectivity and circuitry of the study area.

  13. Agro-Ecological Analysis for the EU Water Framework Directive: An Applied Case Study for the River Contract of the Seveso Basin (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchi, Stefano; La Rosa, Daniele; Pileri, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    The innovative approach to the protection and management of water resources at the basin scale introduced by the European Union water framework directive (WFD) requires new scientific tools. WFD implementation also requires the participation of many stakeholders (administrators, farmers and citizens) with the aim of improving the quality of river waters and basin ecosystems through cooperative planning. This approach encompasses different issues, such as agro-ecology, land use planning and water management. This paper presents the results of a methodology suggested for implementing the WFD in the case of the Seveso river contract in Italy, one of the recent WFD applications. The Seveso basin in the Lombardy region has been one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Italy over the last 50 years. First, land use changes in the last 50 years are assessed with the use of historical aerial photos. Then, elements of an ecological network along the river corridor are outlined, and different scenarios for enhancing existing ecological connections are assessed using indicators from graph theory. These scenarios were discussed in technical workshops with involved stakeholders of the river contract. The results show a damaged rural landscape, where urbanization processes have decimated the system of linear green features (hedges/rows). Progressive reconnections of some of the identified network nodes may significantly increase the connectivity and circuitry of the study area.

  14. Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.

  15. Comparative nutrient composition of selected wild edible mushrooms from two agro-ecological zones, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nakalembe, Immaculate; Kabasa, John David; Olila, Deogratias

    2015-01-01

    In Uganda, wild mushrooms are mainly collected during the rainy season and valued as a traditionally nutritious food by the rural poor. However, their nutritional attributes have not been adequately studied and documented. Comparative nutrient composition of five wild edible mushroom species was determined, namely: P. tenucuilus, T. tyleranus, T. clypeatus, V. speciosa and T. microcarpus of sub-humid and humid agro-ecological zones. Standard analytical techniques following the AOAC were used for proximate and mineral contents determinations. Vitamins determination followed the established standard protocols of the laboratories where the analyses were conducted. Combined use of nutrient concentration and scores were used to compare the level of the contents in the mushroom species. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in nutrient values were demonstrated between and among the mushroom species obtained from the two agro-ecological zones. On dry weight basis, all proximate compositions were high in mushroom species obtained from the humid zone with exception of the total carbohydrates and energy values. Irrespective of the source of the mushrooms, significant amounts were demonstrated in protein, dry matter, ash and total carbohydrates ranging between 11.56-27.42%, 82.34-99.76%, 10.79-16.87%, and 37.12-61.05%, respectively. In comparison with recommended dietary daily intakes, the K, P, Se, Mn, Cu and Fe contents were relatively high with low Ca, Mg, Zn and Na. Thiamin, folic acid, vitamin C, and niacin levels were high but below the recommended FAO references. Considering mushrooms from different agro-ecological zones, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in all mushroom species in P except in T. clypeatus, T. tyleranus, T. microcarpus and T. clypeatus in potassium, T. clypeatus and T. microcarpus in Mg. Mushrooms from humid agro-ecological zones had relatively high overall mineral and vitamin supply potential. In conclusion, consumption of these

  16. Towards an agroecological assessment of dairy systems: proposal for a set of criteria suited to mountain farming.

    PubMed

    Botreau, R; Farruggia, A; Martin, B; Pomiès, D; Dumont, B

    2014-08-01

    Ruminant production systems have been facing the sustainability challenge, namely, how to maintain or even increase production while reducing their environmental footprint, and improving social acceptability. One currently discussed option is to encourage farmers to follow agroecological principles, that is, to take advantage of ecological processes to reduce inputs and farm wastes, while preserving natural resources, and using this diversity to increase system resilience. However, these principles need to be made more practical. Here, we present the procedure undertaken for the collaborative construction of an agroecological diagnostic grid for dairy systems with a focus on the mountain farming relying on the use of semi-natural grasslands. This diagnosis will necessarily rely on a multicriteria evaluation as agroecology is based on a series of complementary principles. It requires defining a set of criteria, based on practices to be recommended, that should be complied with to ensure agroecological production. We present how such agroecological criteria were identified and organized to form the architecture of an evaluation model. As a basis for this work, we used five agroecological principles already proposed for animal production systems. A group of five experts of mountain production systems and of their multicriteria evaluation was selected, with a second round of consultation with five additional experts. They first split up each principle into three to four generic sub-principles. For each principle, they listed three to eight categories of state variables on which the fulfilment of the principle should have a positive impact (e.g. main health disorders for the integrated health management principle). State variables are specific for a given production, for example, dairy farms. Crossing principles with state variables enabled experts to build five matrices, with 75 cells relevant for dairy systems. In each cell, criteria are specific to the local context

  17. Yellowstone Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen years after devastating forest fires burned over 1.6 million acres in Yellowstone National Park, the scars are still evident. In this simulated natural color ASTER image, burned areas appear gray, in contrast to the dark green of unburned forests. The image covers an area of 60 x 63 km. This image was acquired on July 2, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the

  18. The Cook Agronomy Farm LTAR: Knowledge Intensive Precision Agro-ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Drowning in data and starving for knowledge, agricultural decision makers require evidence-based information to enlighten sustainable intensification. The agro-ecological footprint of the Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF) Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) site is embedded within 9.4 million ha of diverse land uses primarily cropland (2.9 million ha) and rangeland (5.3 million ha) that span a wide annual precipitation gradient (150 mm through 1400 mm) with diverse social and natural capital (see Figure). Sustainable intensification hinges on the development and adoption of precision agro-ecological practices that rely on meaningful spatio-temporal data relevant to land use decisions at within-field to regional scales. Specifically, the CAF LTAR will provide the scientific foundation (socio-economical and bio-physical) for enhancing decision support for precision and conservation agriculture and synergistic cropping system intensification and diversification. Long- and short-term perspectives that recognize and assess trade-offs in ecosystem services inherent in any land use decision will be considered so as to promote the development of more sustainable agricultural systems. Presented will be current and future CAF LTAR research efforts required for the development of sustainable agricultural systems including cropping system cycles and flows of nutrients, water, carbon, greenhouse gases and other biotic and abiotic factors. Evaluation criteria and metrics associated with long-term agro-ecosystem provisioning, supporting, and regulating services will be emphasized.

  19. Structural diversity: a multi-dimensional approach to assess recreational services in urban parks.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Annette; Kabisch, Nadja; Wurster, Daniel; Haase, Dagmar; Breuste, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Urban green spaces provide important recreational services for urban residents. In general, when park visitors enjoy "the green," they are in actuality appreciating a mix of biotic, abiotic, and man-made park infrastructure elements and qualities. We argue that these three dimensions of structural diversity have an influence on how people use and value urban parks. We present a straightforward approach for assessing urban parks that combines multi-dimensional landscape mapping and questionnaire surveys. We discuss the method as well the results from its application to differently sized parks in Berlin and Salzburg.

  20. Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Janne; Angelstam, Per; Elmqvist, Thomas; Emanuelsson, Urban; Folke, Carl; Ihse, Margareta; Moberg, Fredrik; Nyström, Magnus

    2003-09-01

    In a world increasingly modified by human activities, the conservation of biodiversity is essential as insurance to maintain resilient ecosystems and ensure a sustainable flow of ecosystem goods and services to society. However, existing reserves and national parks are unlikely to incorporate the long-term and large-scale dynamics of ecosystems. Hence, conservation strategies have to actively incorporate the large areas of land that are managed for human use. For ecosystems to reorganize after large-scale natural and human-induced disturbances, spatial resilience in the form of ecological memory is a prerequisite. The ecological memory is composed of the species, interactions and structures that make ecosystem reorganization possible, and its components may be found within disturbed patches as well in the surrounding landscape. Present static reserves should be complemented with dynamic reserves, such as ecological fallows and dynamic successional reserves, that are part of ecosystem management mimicking natural disturbance regimes at the landscape level.

  1. National park development in China: conservation or commercialization?

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangyu; Innes, John L; Wu, Sara W; Krzyzanowski, Judi; Yin, Yongyuan; Dai, Shuanyou; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Sihui

    2012-05-01

    The rapid development of parks and ecotourism in China has attracted worldwide attention, not only for the beauty of the landscape that the parks are protecting but also for their abundant and often unique biodiversity. However, in some areas, the development of ecotourism has actually led to the degradation of local ecological, economic, and social systems. Using National Forest Parks for demonstration, this article analyzes the current political, institutional, legal, environmental, and economic issues concerning National Parks in China, and examines their potential future development. Although the intention of National Park systems in China is to raise environmental quality, and to protect biodiversity and social livelihoods, their success has varied. Future success will be measured by their capacity to reduce poverty, to promote long-term rehabilitation of wildlife habitats, and to simultaneously protect Chinese culture and biodiversity.

  2. Parks In Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Sally-Jo

    1998-01-01

    More than 50 National Park Service (NPS) sites interpret Native cultures or early Native contact with Europeans. In about 30 of those, American Indians, Alaska Natives, or Native Hawaiians, in partnership with the NPS, present their own heritage and issues. Describes Native-run aspects of Sitka National Historical Park, Glacier National Park, and…

  3. Detection and spatial distribution of multiple-contaminants in agro-ecological Mediterranean wetlands (Marjal de Pego-Oliva, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Picó, Yolanda; Masia, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Socio economic activities are more and more producing amounts (in quantity and quality) of non desirable chemical substances (contaminants) that can be found in open air environments. As many of these products persist and may also circulate among environmental compartments, the cumulative incidence of such multiple contaminants combination may be a cause of treat that should not exists taking only in consideration concentrations of each contaminant individually because the number and the type of compounds are not known, as well as their cumulative and interaction effects. Thus prior to any further work analyzing the environmental risk of multiple contaminants their identification and level of concentration is required. In this work the potential presence of multiple contaminants of anthropogenic origin in a protected agro-ecological Mediterranean wetland is studied: the Pego-Oliva Marsh Natural Park (Valencian Community, Spain), which is characterized by a long history of human pressures, such as marsh transformation for agricultural uses. Two major groups of relevant pollutants have been targeted according o two distinct environmental matrices: seven heavy metals in soils (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and fourteen emerging contaminants /drugs of abuse in surface waters of the natural lagoon, rivers and artificial irrigation networks (6-ACMOR, AMP, BECG, COC, ECGME, HER, KET, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, MET, MOR, THC, THC-COOH). The wetland was divided in nine representative zones with different types of land cover and land use. For soils, 24 samples were collected and for waters 33 taking in consideration the spatial representativeness of the above mention nine environments. Spatial analysis applying Geographical Information Systems to determine areas with greater incidence of both types of contaminants were also performed. With regard to heavy metals, Zn showed values under the detection limits in all samples, the remainder metals appeared in concentrations surpassing the

  4. Distribution and Toxigenicity of Aspergillus Species Isolated from Maize Kernels from Three Agro-ecological Zones in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize samples were collected during a survey in three agro-ecological zones in Nigeria to determine the distribution and aflatoxin-producing potential of members of Aspergillus section Flavi. Among Aspergillus, A. flavus was the most predominant and L-strains constituted > 90% of the species identi...

  5. Developing an Agro-Ecological Zoning Model for Tumbleweed (Salsola kali), as Energy Crop in Drylands of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falasca, Silvia; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra; Ulberich, Ana

    2016-12-01

    Salsola kali is considered extremely valuable as an energy crop worldwide because it adapts easily to environments with strong abiotic stresses (hydric, saline and alkaline) and produces large amounts of biomass in drylands. This species is categorized as an important weed in Argentina. The aim of this work was to design an agro-ecological zoning model for tumbleweed in Argentina, employing a Geography Information System. Based on the bioclimatic requirements for the species and the climatic data for Argentina (1981-2010 period), an agro-climatic suitability map was drawn. This map was superimposed on the saline and alkaline soil maps delineated by the Food and Agriculture Organization for dry climates, generating the agro-ecological zoning on a scale of 1 : 500 000. This zoning revealed very suitable and suitable cultivation areas on halomorphic soils. The potential growing areas extend from N of the Salta province (approximately 22° S) to the Santa Cruz province (50° S). The use of tumbleweed on halomorphic soils under semi-arid to arid conditions, for the dual purpose of forage use and source of lignocellulosic material for bioenergy, could improve agricultural productivity in these lands. Furthermore, it could also contribute to their environmental sustainability, since the species can be used to reclaim saline soils over the years. Based on international bibliography, the authors outlined an agro-ecological zoning model. This model may be applied to any part of the world, using the agro-ecological limits presented here.

  6. Open-Ended Cases in Agroecology: Farming and Food Systems in the Nordic Region and the US Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Charles; King, James; Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Salomonsson, Lennart; Sriskandarajah, Nadarajah; Porter, Paul; Wiedenhoeft, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Our aim is to describe open-ended case studies for learning real-life problem solving skills, and relate this approach to conventional, closed-ended decision case studies. Teaching methods are open-ended cases in agroecology, an alternative to traditional strategies that lead students through prepared materials and structured discussions to…

  7. Agroecology and sustainable food systems: Participatory research to improve food security among HIV-affected households in northern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Hanson; Mambulu, Faith Nankasa; Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Luginaah, Isaac; Lupafya, Esther

    2016-09-01

    This article shares results from a long-term participatory agroecological research project in northern Malawi. Drawing upon a political ecology of health conceptual framework, the paper explores whether and how participatory agroecological farming can improve food security and nutrition among HIV-affected households. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 farmers in HIV-affected households in the area near Ekwendeni Trading Centre in northern Malawi. The results show that participatory agroecological farming has a strong potential to meet the food, dietary, labour and income needs of HIV-affected households, whilst helping them to manage natural resources sustainably. As well, the findings reveal that place-based politics, especially gendered power imbalances, are imperative for understanding the human impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Overall, the study adds valuable insights into the literature on the human-environment dimensions of health. It demonstrates that the onset of disease can radically transform the social relations governing access to and control over resources (e.g., land, labour, and capital), and that these altered social relations in turn affect sustainable disease management. The conclusion highlights how the promotion of sustainable agroecology could help to partly address the socio-ecological challenges associated with HIV/AIDS.

  8. The long-term agroecological research (LTAR) experiment in Iowa: Organic resilience in soil quality and profitability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) experiment, at the Iowa State University Neely-Kinyon Farm in Greenfield, Iowa, was established in 1998 to compare the agronomic, ecological, and economic performance of conventional and organic cropping systems. The certified organic systems are designed...

  9. Distribution and toxigenicity of Aspergillus species isolated from maize kernels from three agro-ecological zones in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atehnkeng, Joseph; Ojiambo, Peter S; Donner, Matthias; Ikotun, T; Sikora, Richard A; Cotty, Peter J; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit

    2008-02-29

    Maize samples were collected during a survey in three agro-ecological zones in Nigeria to determine the distribution and aflatoxin-producing potential of members of Aspergillus section Flavi. The three agro-ecological zones were, Derived Savannah (DS) and Southern Guinea Savannah (SGS) in the humid south and North Guinea Savannah (NGS) in the drier north. Across agro-ecological zones, Aspergillus was the most predominant fungal genera identified followed by Fusarium with mean incidences of 70 and 24%, respectively. Among Aspergillus, A. flavus was the most predominant and L-strains constituted >90% of the species identified, while the frequency of the unnamed taxon S(BG) was <3%. The incidence of atoxigenic strains of A. flavus was higher in all the districts surveyed except in the Ogbomosho and Mokwa districts in DS and SGS zones, respectively, where frequency of toxigenic strains were significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of atoxigenic strains. The highest and lowest incidence of aflatoxin positive samples was recorded in the SGS (72%) and NGS (20%), respectively. Aflatoxin contamination in grain also followed a similar trend and the highest mean levels of B-aflatoxins were detected in maize samples obtained from Bida (612 ng g(-1)) and Mokwa (169 ng g(-1)) districts, respectively, in the SGS. Similarly, the highest concentrations of G-aflatoxins were detected in samples from Akwanga district in the SGS with a mean of 193 and 60 ng g(-1), respectively. When agro-ecological zones were compared, B-aflatoxins were significantly (P<0.05) higher in SGS than in NGS, and intermediate in maize samples from the DS agro-ecological zone.

  10. Prospects from agroecology and industrial ecology for animal production in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Dumont, B; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Jouven, M; Thomas, M; Tichit, M

    2013-06-01

    Agroecology and industrial ecology can be viewed as complementary means for reducing the environmental footprint of animal farming systems: agroecology mainly by stimulating natural processes to reduce inputs, and industrial ecology by closing system loops, thereby reducing demand for raw materials, lowering pollution and saving on waste treatment. Surprisingly, animal farming systems have so far been ignored in most agroecological thinking. On the basis of a study by Altieri, who identified the key ecological processes to be optimized, we propose five principles for the design of sustainable animal production systems: (i) adopting management practices aiming to improve animal health, (ii) decreasing the inputs needed for production, (iii) decreasing pollution by optimizing the metabolic functioning of farming systems, (iv) enhancing diversity within animal production systems to strengthen their resilience and (v) preserving biological diversity in agroecosystems by adapting management practices. We then discuss how these different principles combine to generate environmental, social and economic performance in six animal production systems (ruminants, pigs, rabbits and aquaculture) covering a long gradient of intensification. The two principles concerning economy of inputs and reduction of pollution emerged in nearly all the case studies, a finding that can be explained by the economic and regulatory constraints affecting animal production. Integrated management of animal health was seldom mobilized, as alternatives to chemical drugs have only recently been investigated, and the results are not yet transferable to farming practices. A number of ecological functions and ecosystem services (recycling of nutrients, forage yield, pollination, resistance to weed invasion, etc.) are closely linked to biodiversity, and their persistence depends largely on maintaining biological diversity in agroecosystems. We conclude that the development of such ecology

  11. Climate Regulation by Urban Parks (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobadilla Lagunas, E.; Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Arévalo Mejía, R.; Magaña-Lona, D.; Romero Contreras, T.

    2013-05-01

    Urban parks play an important role in cities; they regulate the environmental conditions because of its microclimate and human comfort (15°C-20°C for temperature and 30%-50% for humidity). The park coverage is quite important to preserve a good life quality, the World Health Organization (WHO) suggests a surface of 9 to 11m2/hab. In Mexico, the urbanization has drastically changed the landscape. It has become much more important to build economical and profitable spaces rather than increase the vegetal coverage. The city of Toluca is one of the most important cities in Mexico with an urban growth rate high, which represents a barely vegetation of 4m2/hab. The aim of this study was to analyze the climate effect that urban parks have in the city of Toluca. This was reached by temperature and moisture measurements in urban parks and nearby areas during autumn-winter period, 2012-2013.It was performed 20 measurements trough inside and outside transects of 4 parks with a HM70 Hand-Held Humidity (±0.60…100%) and Temperature Meter (±0.2°C). The transected areas were divided into homogeneous sections (e.g. same vegetation). To determine the possible microclimate similarities between park sections, a cluster analysis was made. In general, it was found that temperature can be decreased whilst moisture can be increased in a range of 1-3°C and 4-8% respectively. The cluster analysis made possible to perceive that these variation ranges are due to several factors such as: traffic jam, the amount of pedestrians, vegetal coverage and water bodies as well as hour and season in where transects were performed. Finally, the study allows features proposing that parks must have in order to optimize the human comfort.

  12. 76 FR 11812 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... consist of Historic Landscape Rehabilitation, Park Construction, Cyclorama Environmental Assessment Update... from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Location: The meetings will be held at the Ford Education Center in the Visitor Center/Museum Complex, 1195 Baltimore Pike, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325. Agenda: The April 14,...

  13. Some physicochemical properties of surface layer soils shelterbelts in agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskulska, R.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    Shelterbelts belong to very efficient biogeochemical barriers. They decrease the migration of chemical compounds between ecosystems. The investigations were carried out in the Chlapowski's Agroecological Park in Turew situated 40 km South-West of Poznań, Poland. This area is located on loamy soils, which contains 70% cultivated fields and 14% shelterbelts and small afforestations. The shelterbelts represent different ages and the content of plants as well as humus quantity in surface layer. The first one is 100-year-old shelterbelt, where predominant species is Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Quercus rober L., and Fraxinus excelsior (L.) and is characterized by a well-developed humus level. The other one is 14-year-old shelterbelt. It includes 13 species of trees and revealed a small amount of humus. The soil under both shelterbelts is mineral, grey-brown podzolic in surface layer compound from light loamy sands and weakly loamy sands. The soil samples were taken from surface layer (0-20 cm). pH 1N KCl, hydrolytic acidity, cation-exchange capacity, total proper area, total organic carbon and dissociation constants were determined in soils. The study showed that the soil under shelterbelts revealed acidic properties. It was observed that soils of 100-year-old shelterbelt characterizing lowest values pH = 4.2 revealed highest values of hydrolytic acidity equaled to 7.8 cmol(+)ṡkg-1. The physicochemical properties of investigated soils shoved specific surface areas (22.8 m2ṡg-1), cationic sorptive capacity (12.9 cmol(+)ṡkg-1). TOC (1.6%) 100-year-old shelterbelt was higher than in 14-year-old shelterbelt. The dissociation constants were determined by potentiometric titration. This investigation revealed that the pK value was the highest in the humus of 100-year-old shelterbelt (pKa = 3.1). However, soils of 14-year-old shelterbelt characterized by the lovest pK equaled to 2.8. The surface layer soils shelterbelts in agricultural landscape with good humus development

  14. [Energy value evaluation of dike-pond agro-ecological engineering modes].

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongfang; Peng, Shaolin; Lan, Shengfang; Chen, Feipeng

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, energy value analysis and new energy index for sustainable development (EISD) were used to evaluate three different dike-pond agro-ecological engineering modes in Sanshui city of Pearl River Delta in system and subsystem levels. The result showed that mode III was the best in its sustainable development ability. The EISD of mode III was 58.3% and 29.7% higher than that of modes I and II. With a higher economic benefit and higher environmental loading, the planting subsystem had the lowest sustainability. Although the economic benefit of stock raising subsystem was not high, its indirect benefit was higher. With a higher economic benefit and a lower environmental loading, fishing subsystem had the highest sustainability.

  15. The role of trees in agroecology and sustainable agriculture in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Leakey, Roger R B

    2014-01-01

    Shifting agriculture in the tropics has been replaced by sedentary smallholder farming on a few hectares of degraded land. To address low yields and low income both, the soil fertility, the agroecosystem functions, and the source of income can be restored by diversification with nitrogen-fixing trees and the cultivation of indigenous tree species that produce nutritious and marketable products. Biodiversity conservation studies indicate that mature cash crop systems, such as cacao and coffee with shade trees, provide wildlife habitat that supports natural predators, which, in turn, reduce the numbers of herbivores and pathogens. This review offers suggestions on how to examine these agroecological processes in more detail for the most effective rehabilitation of degraded land. Evidence from agroforestry indicates that in this way, productive and environmentally friendly farming systems that provide food and nutritional security, as well as poverty alleviation, can be achieved in harmony with wildlife.

  16. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  17. Mercury contamination of biota from Acadia National Park, Maine: a review.

    PubMed

    Bank, Michael S; Burgess, John R; Evers, David C; Loftin, Cynthia S

    2007-03-01

    We reviewed literature reporting both total and methylmercury from biota from Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. Our review of existing data indicates that 1) mercury contamination is widespread throughout the Park's various aquatic ecosystems; 2) mercury pollution likely represents a moderate to high risk to biota inhabiting the Park; and 3) biota at all trophic levels possess elevated concentrations of both total and methylmercury. Watershed fire history and the resulting post-fire forest succession patterns are an important landscape attribute governing mercury cycling at Acadia National Park. Therefore, park service personnel should consider these factors when planning and implementing Hg biomonitoring efforts. Additional baseline funding from the National Park Service for Hg research and biomonitoring will likely be required in order to further evaluate the spatial and temporal patterns of mercury contamination in the park's biota.

  18. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

  19. Generalizing ecological site concepts of the Colorado Plateau for landscape-level applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Colorado Plateau is an iconic landscape of the American West— containing dozens of national parks, monuments, historic sites, and several UNESCO World Heritage Sites— including some of the Nation’ s most recognizable landmarks, such as the Grand Canyon and the Arches National Park. The concentra...

  20. Oregon's first wind park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The bringing on-line of the 1.25 MW wind park at Whiskey Run, Oregon, is reported. The park features twenty-five 50 KW wind turbine generators and is expected to produce about three million kilowatt-hours per year for the Pacific Power and Light system.

  1. Splendor In The Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    1979-01-01

    Civilization is more and more intruding on the esthetic and recreational resources of the National Park System. Increased attention must be paid to controlling noise, pollution, and even the effects of urban lighting which detract from the enjoyment of the parks. (RE)

  2. Multiclass Classification of Agro-Ecological Zones for Arabica Coffee: An Improved Understanding of the Impacts of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Christian; Läderach, Peter; Pérez Jimenez, Juan Guillermo; Montagnon, Christophe; Schilling, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of Coffea arabica is highly sensitive to and has been shown to be negatively impacted by progressive climatic changes. Previous research contributed little to support forward-looking adaptation. Agro-ecological zoning is a common tool to identify homologous environments and prioritize research. We demonstrate here a pragmatic approach to describe spatial changes in agro-climatic zones suitable for coffee under current and future climates. We defined agro-ecological zones suitable to produce arabica coffee by clustering geo-referenced coffee occurrence locations based on bio-climatic variables. We used random forest classification of climate data layers to model the spatial distribution of these agro-ecological zones. We used these zones to identify spatially explicit impact scenarios and to choose locations for the long-term evaluation of adaptation measures as climate changes. We found that in zones currently classified as hot and dry, climate change will impact arabica more than those that are better suited to it. Research in these zones should therefore focus on expanding arabica's environmental limits. Zones that currently have climates better suited for arabica will migrate upwards by about 500m in elevation. In these zones the up-slope migration will be gradual, but will likely have negative ecosystem impacts. Additionally, we identified locations that with high probability will not change their climatic characteristics and are suitable to evaluate C. arabica germplasm in the face of climate change. These locations should be used to investigate long term adaptation strategies to production systems.

  3. Multiclass Classification of Agro-Ecological Zones for Arabica Coffee: An Improved Understanding of the Impacts of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Bunn, Christian; Läderach, Peter; Pérez Jimenez, Juan Guillermo; Montagnon, Christophe; Schilling, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of Coffea arabica is highly sensitive to and has been shown to be negatively impacted by progressive climatic changes. Previous research contributed little to support forward-looking adaptation. Agro-ecological zoning is a common tool to identify homologous environments and prioritize research. We demonstrate here a pragmatic approach to describe spatial changes in agro-climatic zones suitable for coffee under current and future climates. We defined agro-ecological zones suitable to produce arabica coffee by clustering geo-referenced coffee occurrence locations based on bio-climatic variables. We used random forest classification of climate data layers to model the spatial distribution of these agro-ecological zones. We used these zones to identify spatially explicit impact scenarios and to choose locations for the long-term evaluation of adaptation measures as climate changes. We found that in zones currently classified as hot and dry, climate change will impact arabica more than those that are better suited to it. Research in these zones should therefore focus on expanding arabica's environmental limits. Zones that currently have climates better suited for arabica will migrate upwards by about 500m in elevation. In these zones the up-slope migration will be gradual, but will likely have negative ecosystem impacts. Additionally, we identified locations that with high probability will not change their climatic characteristics and are suitable to evaluate C. arabica germplasm in the face of climate change. These locations should be used to investigate long term adaptation strategies to production systems. PMID:26505637

  4. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  5. Land agroecological quality assessment in conditions of high spatial soil cover variability at the Pereslavskoye Opolye.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morev, Dmitriy; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The essential spatial variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis and agroecological interpretation of representative soil cover spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. Pereslavskoye Opolye is traditionally actively used in agriculture due to dominated high-quality cultivated soddy-podzoluvisols which are relatively reached in organic matter (especially for conditions of the North part at the European territory of Russia). However, the soil cover patterns are often very complicated even within the field that significantly influences on crop yield variability and have to be considered in farming system development and land agroecological quality evaluation. The detailed investigations of soil regimes and mapping of the winter rye yield have been carried in conditions of two representative fields with slopes sharply contrasted both in aspects and degrees. Rye biological productivity and weed infestation have been measured in elementary plots of 0.25 m2 with the following analysis the quality of the yield. In the same plot soil temperature and moisture have been measured by portable devices. Soil sampling was provided from three upper layers by drilling. The results of ray yield detailed mapping shown high differences both in average values and within-field variability on different slopes. In case of low-gradient slope (field 1) there is variability of ray yield from 39.4 to 44.8 dt/ha. In case of expressed slope (field 2) the same species of winter rye grown with the same technology has essentially lower yield and within-field variability from 20 to 29.6 dt/ha. The

  6. Modeling the Agroecological Land Suitability for Coffea arabica L. in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Leonel; Rasche, Livia; Schneider, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Coffee production is an important income source for small farms in Central America, but climate change threatens the production. In order to develop efficient adaptation strategies, an assessment of local conditions and opportunities is essential. Lack or uncertainty of information are common challenges for such assessments. A tool to resolve these challenges is Bayesian network analysis. In this study, we developed ALECA, the first Bayesian network model to evaluate the agroecological land suitability for Coffea arabica L. A new set of suitability functions was created and subsequently used to populate the conditional probability tables of the variables. The variables include temperature, precipitation and dry season length for the climate, slope and aspect for the landform, and soil pH, cation exchange capacity and texture for the soil component. We validated ALECA by comparing a map of current coffee areas, and specific coffee areas with known suitability for coffee production in Central America to the suitability evaluations of the model; and proceeded to explore 1) the capabilities of the model to manage data uncertainty, and 2) the changes to suitability scores under climate change. The results showed that the area suitable for coffee production will decline in Central America under climate change, underlining the need for models like ALECA, which can be used to produce reliable land evaluations at local, national and regional scales under uncertainty.

  7. Fungal isolates and metabolites in locally processed rice from five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abdus-Salaam, Rofiat; Atanda, Olusegun; Fanelli, Francesca; Sulyok, Micheal; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Bavaro, Simona; Krska, Rudolf; Logrieco, Antonio F; Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Salami, Waheed A

    2016-12-01

    This study reports the distribution of fungal isolates and fungal metabolites that naturally contaminate locally processed rice from five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The fungal species were isolated by the dilution plate technique and identified by appropriate diagnostics, while metabolites were determined by a liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric method. Aspergillus and Penicillium species were the predominant isolates found in the rice samples while Fusarium spp. were not isolated. The mean fungal count differed significantly (p < 0.05) across the zones and ranged from 9.98 × 10(2) cfu g(-1) in the Southern Guinea Savannah to 96.97 × 10(2) cfu g(-1) in the Derived Savannah. For 16 fungal metabolites, selected from 63 positively identified fungal metabolites based on their concentration and spread across the zones, an occurrence map was constructed. The Northern Guinea Savannah recorded the highest contamination of fungal metabolites while the Sudan Savannah zone recorded the least.

  8. Variation in village chicken production systems among agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Muchadeyi, F C; Wollny, C B A; Eding, H; Weigend, S; Makuza, S M; Simianer, H

    2007-08-01

    The degree to which village chickens are integrated in the smallholder farming systems differs depending on the socio-economic, cultural and biological factors within each system. The objective of this study was to characterise the village chicken farming systems and identify possible threats to, and opportunities for, local chickens in the agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to households randomly selected from five districts, Risitu (n=97), Hurungwe (n=56), Gutu (n=77), Gokwe-South (n=104) and Beitbridge (n=37) in eco-zones I-V, respectively. Age of head of household averaged 47 years (SD = 14.3). Land holdings per household averaged 4.82 ha (SD = 3.6). Overall, 17.7 percent of the households ranked livestock as the major source of income compared to 70.8 percent who ranked crops as the main contributor. Chicken flock size averaged 16.7 (SD = 12.4), and the highest flock sizes were observed in eco-zones I and IV. Households owning cattle, goats and other livestock assigned less important ranks to chickens. Chickens were usedmainly for the provision of meat and eggs whilst the use of chicken feathers and investment were uncommon practises. Results indicate that more support is necessary for village chickens in the non-cropping regions of the country.

  9. Ectoparasites of small ruminants in three selected agro-ecological sites of Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mulugeta, Y; Yacob, Hailu T; Ashenafi, Hagos

    2010-08-01

    A study on ectoparasites of small ruminants in three selected agro-ecological sites of Tigray Region, Ethiopia disclosed an overall prevalence of 55.5% and 58% in each examined 750 sheep and goats, respectively. In the sheep population, Melophagus ovinus (19.1%), tick infestations (16%), Damalinia ovis (15.3%), Linognathus africanus (11.5%), and Ctenocephalides felis (9%) were the major ectoparasites. The major ectoparasites identified in goats were tick infestations (29.7%), L. africanus (27.9%), Sarcoptes scabiei var. caprae (12.5%), C. felis (11.1%), and Demodex caprae (6.8%). In sheep, there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) in the prevalence of Damalinia ovis, M. ovinus, L. africanus, and ticks between midland and highland. In goats, the risk of Sarcoptes scabiei var. caprae infestation in midland (odds ratio (OR) = 17.2, P < 0.001) and lowland (OR = 5.2, P < 0.001) was 17.2 times and 5.2 times, respectively, higher than the highland. Favorable climatic conditions, backward level of management, poor level of consciousness and awareness of farmers, and weak animal health extension services are believed to have contributed for widespread distribution and occurrences of ectoparasites. The growing threat of ectoparasites to small ruminant production and the tanning industry needs well-coordinated and urgent control intervention.

  10. Evolutionary Agroecology: the potential for cooperative, high density, weed-suppressing cereals

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Jacob; Andersen, Sven B; Wille, Wibke K-M; Griepentrog, Hans W; Olsen, Jannie M

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary theory can be applied to improve agricultural yields and/or sustainability, an approach we call Evolutionary Agroecology. The basic idea is that plant breeding is unlikely to improve attributes already favored by millions of years of natural selection, whereas there may be unutilized potential in selecting for attributes that increase total crop yield but reduce plants’ individual fitness. In other words, plant breeding should be based on group selection. We explore this approach in relation to crop-weed competition, and argue that it should be possible to develop high density cereals that can utilize their initial size advantage over weeds to suppress them much better than under current practices, thus reducing or eliminating the need for chemical or mechanical weed control. We emphasize the role of density in applying group selection to crops: it is competition among individuals that generates the ‘Tragedy of the Commons’, providing opportunities to improve plant production by selecting for attributes that natural selection would not favor. When there is competition for light, natural selection of individuals favors a defensive strategy of ‘shade avoidance’, but a collective, offensive ‘shading’ strategy could increase weed suppression and yield in the high density, high uniformity cropping systems we envision. PMID:25567940

  11. Evolutionary Agroecology: the potential for cooperative, high density, weed-suppressing cereals.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Jacob; Andersen, Sven B; Wille, Wibke K-M; Griepentrog, Hans W; Olsen, Jannie M

    2010-09-01

    Evolutionary theory can be applied to improve agricultural yields and/or sustainability, an approach we call Evolutionary Agroecology. The basic idea is that plant breeding is unlikely to improve attributes already favored by millions of years of natural selection, whereas there may be unutilized potential in selecting for attributes that increase total crop yield but reduce plants' individual fitness. In other words, plant breeding should be based on group selection. We explore this approach in relation to crop-weed competition, and argue that it should be possible to develop high density cereals that can utilize their initial size advantage over weeds to suppress them much better than under current practices, thus reducing or eliminating the need for chemical or mechanical weed control. We emphasize the role of density in applying group selection to crops: it is competition among individuals that generates the 'Tragedy of the Commons', providing opportunities to improve plant production by selecting for attributes that natural selection would not favor. When there is competition for light, natural selection of individuals favors a defensive strategy of 'shade avoidance', but a collective, offensive 'shading' strategy could increase weed suppression and yield in the high density, high uniformity cropping systems we envision.

  12. Liriomyza Leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae) Parasitoid Complex in Different Agroecological Zones, Seasons, and Host Plants in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Foba, C N; Salifu, D; Lagat, Z O; Gitonga, L M; Akutse, K S; Fiaboe, K K M

    2016-04-01

    Liriomyza leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are severe pests of vegetables and ornamentals worldwide. Previous studies revealed low leafminer parasitism across different agroecological zones in Kenya. The present paper reports on the composition of leafminer parasitoids at different elevations, in different seasons, and on different host crops. Surveys were conducted monthly from January to November 2012, and nine parasitoid species were recovered. Total mean parasitism in the study sites was 31.23 ± 1.03% from a total of 20 different vegetable Liriomyza-infested crops belonging to seven families. Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), Phaedrotoma scabriventris, a newly released parasitoid, and Opius dissitus Muesebeck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the most abundant at all elevations, accounting for 67.3, 18.6, and 9.2% of total parasitoids, respectively. Elevation, season, and host crop significantly affected the parasitoid species present and their abundance. Diglyphus isaea was more abundant at the high- and mid-elevations at all seasons compared with the low-elevation, whereas the lower-elevation favored higher abundance of P. scabriventris and O. dissitus during the long rainy season compared with the high- and mid-elevations at all seasons. Of all the host crops surveyed, parasitoids were more abundant on tomato, local kidney bean, snow pea and French bean than other crops. The total parasitism rate observed in this study suggests a considerable improvement in leafminer parasitism compared with previous surveys in Kenya. The implications of these findings for leafminer management in vegetable and ornamental production in Kenya are discussed.

  13. 254. Doughton Park. View of the Martin Brinegar cabin which ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    254. Doughton Park. View of the Martin Brinegar cabin which was restored for interpretative purposed in 1941 with the preparation of measured drawings for the Historic American Buildings Survey. The actual restoration was carried out by WPA forces. The grounds around the cabin were treated as an interpretative landscape rather than a historic restoration. This one of two sites along the parkway where an individual homestead was relatively intact when it was obtained and kept as an interpretative display. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  14. An Interpretive Study of Yosemite National Park Visitors' Perspectives Toward Alternative Transportation in Yosemite Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Dave D.

    2007-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly focusing on alternative transportation systems in national parks to address environmental and social problems arising from a historical reliance on personal automobiles as the primary means of visitor access. Despite the potential advantages, alternative transportation may require a reorientation in the way that Americans have experienced national parks since the advent of auto-tourism in the early twentieth century. Little research exists, however, on visitor perspectives towards alternative transportation or the rationale underlying their perspectives. It remains unclear how transportation systems affect visitors’ experiences of the park landscape or the factors influencing their travel behavior in the parks. This report presents an interpretive study of visitor perspectives toward transportation management in the Yosemite Valley area of Yosemite National Park, California. Qualitative analysis of 160 semi-structured interviews identified individual psychological factors as well as situational influences that affect visitors’ behavior and perspectives. Individual psychological factors include perceived freedom, environmental values and beliefs, prior experience with Yosemite National Park and other national parks, prior experience with alternative transportation in national parks, and sensitivity to subjective perceptions of crowding. Situational factors included convenience, access, and flexibility of travel modes, as well as type of visit, type of group, and park use level. Interpretive communication designed to encourage voluntary visitor use of alternative transportation should focus on these psychological and situational factors. Although challenges remain, the results of this study suggest approaches for shaping the way Americans visit and experience their national parks to encourage environmental sustainability.

  15. An interpretive study of Yosemite National Park visitors' perspectives toward alternative transportation in Yosemite Valley.

    PubMed

    White, Dave D

    2007-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly focusing on alternative transportation systems in national parks to address environmental and social problems arising from a historical reliance on personal automobiles as the primary means of visitor access. Despite the potential advantages, alternative transportation may require a reorientation in the way that Americans have experienced national parks since the advent of auto-tourism in the early twentieth century. Little research exists, however, on visitor perspectives towards alternative transportation or the rationale underlying their perspectives. It remains unclear how transportation systems affect visitors' experiences of the park landscape or the factors influencing their travel behavior in the parks. This report presents an interpretive study of visitor perspectives toward transportation management in the Yosemite Valley area of Yosemite National Park, California. Qualitative analysis of 160 semi-structured interviews identified individual psychological factors as well as situational influences that affect visitors' behavior and perspectives. Individual psychological factors include perceived freedom, environmental values and beliefs, prior experience with Yosemite National Park and other national parks, prior experience with alternative transportation in national parks, and sensitivity to subjective perceptions of crowding. Situational factors included convenience, access, and flexibility of travel modes, as well as type of visit, type of group, and park use level. Interpretive communication designed to encourage voluntary visitor use of alternative transportation should focus on these psychological and situational factors. Although challenges remain, the results of this study suggest approaches for shaping the way Americans visit and experience their national parks to encourage environmental sustainability.

  16. Master Plans for Park Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Jerry R.

    This booklet is a general guide to park site planning. The four basic steps involved in developing a park site are a) determination of the uses of the site, b) analysis of the site potential for these uses, c) identification of the functional relationship among the uses, and d) coordination of the uses to the park sites. Uses of park sites are…

  17. Kruger National Park

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... above and to the right of image center is the Palabora Copper Mine, and the water body near upper right is Lake Massingir in ... South Africa showing Kruger Park, the Palabora Copper Mine, and Lake Massingir. project:  MISR ...

  18. The Campesino-to-Campesino agroecology movement of ANAP in Cuba: social process methodology in the construction of sustainable peasant agriculture and food sovereignty.

    PubMed

    Rosset, Peter Michael; Sosa, Braulio Machín; Jaime, Adilén María Roque; Lozano, Dana Rocío Ávila

    2011-01-01

    Agroecology has played a key role in helping Cuba survive the crisis caused by the collapse of the socialist bloc in Europe and the tightening of the US trade embargo. Cuban peasants have been able to boost food production without scarce and expensive imported agricultural chemicals by first substituting more ecological inputs for the no longer available imports, and then by making a transition to more agroecologically integrated and diverse farming systems. This was possible not so much because appropriate alternatives were made available, but rather because of the Campesino-a-Campesino (CAC) social process methodology that the National Association of Small Farmers (ANAP) used to build a grassroots agroecology movement. This paper was produced in a 'self-study' process spearheaded by ANAP and La Via Campesina, the international agrarian movement of which ANAP is a member. In it we document and analyze the history of the Campesino-to-Campesino Agroecology Movement (MACAC), and the significantly increased contribution of peasants to national food production in Cuba that was brought about, at least in part, due to this movement. Our key findings are (i) the spread of agroecology was rapid and successful largely due to the social process methodology and social movement dynamics, (ii) farming practices evolved over time and contributed to significantly increased relative and absolute production by the peasant sector, and (iii) those practices resulted in additional benefits including resilience to climate change.

  19. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes: I-selection goals and criteria.

    PubMed

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses natural processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to ensure production while limiting the environmental footprint of livestock and crop production systems. Selecting to achieve a maximization of target production criteria has long proved detrimental to fitness traits. However, since the 1990s, developments in animal breeding have also focussed on animal robustness by balancing production and functional traits within overall breeding goals. We discuss here how an agroecological perspective should further shift breeding goals towards functional traits rather than production traits. Breeding for robustness aims to promote individual adaptive capacities by considering diverse selection criteria which include reproduction, animal health and welfare, and adaptation to rough feed resources, a warm climate or fluctuating environmental conditions. It requires the consideration of genotype×environment interactions in the prediction of breeding values. Animal performance must be evaluated in low-input systems in order to select those animals that are adapted to limiting conditions, including feed and water availability, climate variations and diseases. Finally, we argue that there is no single agroecological animal type, but animals with a variety of profiles that can meet the expectations of agroecology. The standardization of both animals and breeding conditions indeed appears contradictory to the agroecological paradigm that calls for an adaptation of animals to local opportunities and constraints in weakly artificialized systems tied to their physical environment.

  20. Getting People to Parks,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    local communities to the park at a minimum of time and cost. Some indication of the importance of transportation can be found in study ing patterns of...Field, while park— ) ing lots are much more expensive to build at locations in Jamaica Bay. The Park Service should consider the cost—effectiveness...to Gateway does not not coincide with peak—hour work commuting. Third, the operat ing costs per passenger—mile for a bus are lower than for the subway

  1. North Cascades National Park Service Complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Robert; Woodward, Andrea; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hagar, Joan; Cummings, Tonnie; Duriscoe, Dan; Kopper, Karen; Riedel, Jon; Marin, Lelaina; Mauger, Guillaume S; Bumbaco, Karen; Littell, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Resource Condition Assessments (NRCAs) evaluate current conditions for a subset of natural resources and resource indicators in national parks. NRCAs also report on trends in resource condition (when possible), identify critical data gaps, and characterize a general level of confidence for study findings. The resources and indicators emphasized in a given project depend on the park’s resource setting, status of resource stewardship planning and science in identifying high-priority indicators, and availability of data and expertise to assess current conditions for a variety of potential study resources and indicators. Although the primary objective of NRCAs is to report on current conditions relative to logical forms of reference conditions and values, NRCAs also report on trends, when appropriate (i.e., when the underlying data and methods support such reporting), as well as influences on resource conditions. These influences may include past activities or conditions that provide a helpful context for understanding current conditions and present-day threats and stressors that are best interpreted at park, watershed, or landscape scales (though NRCAs do not report on condition status for land areas and natural resources beyond park boundaries). Intensive cause-andeffect analyses of threats and stressors, and development of detailed treatment options, are outside the scope of NRCAs.

  2. Guidelines for Recreation and Park Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Joseph J.; Storey, Edward H.

    In this publication, written for use in guiding community recreation and park systems, the following topics are discussed: why parks and recreational facilities should be developed, the need for governmental participation, and park-system development. Additionally, neighborhood parks, playlots, community parks, city-wide parks, regional parks and…

  3. Seroprevalence of and agroecological risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum infection among adult beef cattle in cow-calf herds in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Scott, H. Morgan; Sorensen, Ole; Wu, John T.Y.; Chow, Eva Y.W.; Manninen, Ken

    2007-01-01

    A province-wide cross-sectional seroprevalence and agroecological risk factor study of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and Neospora caninum (NC) infection among cattle in 100 cow-calf herds in Alberta was conducted. The seroprevalence of MAP in adult cattle was 1.5% across all herds. Using a widely accepted herd test cutpoint of 2 or more seropositive cows out of 30 animals tested, 7.9% of herds were estimated to be infected (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3–23.4%). Seroprevalence of MAP differed by agroecological region; specifically, cattle and herds in areas with high soil pH (> 7.0), southern latitudes, and arid climates had a moderately reduced risk of infection (P < 0.10). Seroprevalence of NC infection was 9.7% among adult beef cattle province-wide — these levels also varied by agroecological region — with 91.0% of herds infected overall. PMID:17494367

  4. Diversity of Rhizoctonia solani associated with pulse crops in different agro-ecological regions of India.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Sunil C; Tripathi, Aradhika; Upadhyay, Balendu K; Deka, Utpal K

    2014-06-01

    Four hundred seventy Rhizoctonia solani isolates from different leguminous hosts originating from 16 agro-ecological regions of India covering 21 states and 72 districts were collected. The disease incidence caused by R. solani varied from 6.8 to 22.2 % in the areas surveyed. Deccan plateau and central highlands, hot sub-humid ecoregion followed by northern plain and central highlands and hot semi-arid ecoregion showed the highest disease incidence. R. solani isolates were highly variable in growth diameter, number, size and pattern of sclerotia formation as well as hyphal width. The isolates obtained from aerial part of the infected plants showing web blight symptoms produced sclerotia of 1-2 mm in size whereas, the isolates obtained from infected root of the plants showing wet root rot symptoms produced microsclerotia (<1 mm). Majority of R. solani isolates showed <8 μm hyphal diameter. Based on morphological characters the isolates were categorized into 49 groups. Seven anastomosis groups (AGs) were identified among the populations of R. solani associated with the pulse crops. The frequency (25.6 %) of AG3 was the highest followed by AG2-3 (20.9 %) and AG5 (17.4 %). The cropping sequence of rice/sorghum/wheat-chickpea/mungbean/urdbean/cowpea/ricebean influenced the dominance of AG1 (16.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis utilizing ITS-5.8S rDNA gene sequences indicated high level of genetic similarity among isolates representing different AGs, crops and regions. ITS groups did not correspond to the morphological characters. The sequence data from this article has been deposited with NCBI data libraries with JF701707 to JF701795 accession numbers.

  5. Pathogen evolution across the agro-ecological interface: implications for disease management.

    PubMed

    Burdon, Jeremy J; Thrall, Peter H

    2008-02-01

    Infectious disease is a major causal factor in the demography of human, plant and animal populations. While it is generally accepted in medical, veterinary and agricultural contexts that variation in host resistance and pathogen virulence and aggressiveness is of central importance to understanding patterns of infection, there has been remarkably little effort to directly investigate causal links between population genetic structure and disease dynamics, and even less work on factors influencing host-pathogen coevolution. The lack of empirical evidence is particularly surprising, given the potential for such variation to not only affect disease dynamics and prevalence, but also when or where new diseases or pathotypes emerge. Increasingly, this lack of knowledge has led to calls for an integrated approach to disease management, incorporating both ecological and evolutionary processes. Here, we argue that plant pathogens occurring in agro-ecosystems represent one clear example where the application of evolutionary principles to disease management would be of great benefit, as well as providing model systems for advancing our ability to generalize about the long-term coevolutionary dynamics of host-pathogen systems. We suggest that this is particularly the case given that agro-ecological host-pathogen interactions represent a diversity of situations ranging from those that only involve agricultural crops through to those that also include weedy crop relatives or even unrelated native plant communities. We begin by examining some of the criteria that are important in determining involvement in agricultural pathogen evolution by noncrop plants. Throughout we use empirical examples to illustrate the fact that different processes may dominate in different systems, and suggest that consideration of life history and spatial structure are central to understanding dynamics and direction of the interaction. We then discuss the implications that such interactions have for

  6. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia.

  7. Agroecological management of a soil-dwelling orthopteran pest in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Nboyine, Jerry Asalma; Boyer, Stephane; Saville, David J; Wratten, Stephen David

    2016-11-28

    The efficacy of different combinations of undervine and inter-row treatments for managing a soil-dwelling orthopteran pest, weta (Hemiandrus sp.), in vineyards was investigated over 2 seasons. This insect damages vine buds, thus reducing subsequent grape yield. The undervine treatments comprised pea straw mulch, mussel shells, tick beans [Vicia faba Linn. var minor (Fab)], plastic sleeves on vine trunks (treated control) and control (no intervention), while inter-rows contained either the existing vegetation or tick beans. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 10 replicates. Data were collected on weta densities, damage to beans and components of yield. The latter were numbers of bud laid down per vine, shoots per bud, clusters per shoot, grape bunches per vine, bunch weight and yield. The undervine treatments significantly affected all variables except the number of shoots per bud. In contrast, none of the variables was significantly affected by the inter-row treatments or their interaction with undervine treatments, apart from weta density. At the end of the experiment, weta density in the shell treatment was about 58% lower than in the control. As a result, there was about 39% significant yield increase in that treatment compared to the control. Although the undervine beans and sleeves treatments increased yield, there were no reductions in weta density. With undervine beans, the insect fed on the bean plants instead of vine buds. Thus, yield in that treatment was approximately 28% higher than in the control. These results demonstrate that simple agroecological management approaches can reduce above-ground damage by soil-dwelling insects.

  8. Using Lake Superior Parks to Present the Midcontinent Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Blavascunas, E.

    2014-12-01

    Some of the Midwest's most spectacular scenery occurs near Lake Superior, in places like Pictured Rocks and Apostle Islands National Lakeshores, Isle Royale National Park, Interstate Park, and Porcupine Mountains State Park. These landscapes provide an enormous, but underutilized opportunity for park interpreters and educators to explain some of the most exciting concepts of modern geology. A crucial aspect of doing this is recognizing that many of the rocks and landforms in individual parks are pieces of a huge regional structure. This structure, called the Midcontinent Rift System (MCRS), is a 1.1 billion year old 3000 km (2000 mile) long scar along which the North American continent started to tear apart, just as Africa is splitting today along the East African Rift, but for some reason failed to form a new ocean. Drawing on our experience as researchers and teachers studying the MCRS (Steins) and as an interpreter at Isle Royale National Park (Blavascunas), we seek to give interpreters a brief introduction to MCRS to help them present information about what geologists know already and what they are learning from continuing research. Our goal is to help interpreters visualize how what they see at a specific site fits into an exciting regional picture spanning much of the Midwest.

  9. Stars Above, Earth Below: Astronomy in the National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordgren, Tyler E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. national parks that protect our enjoyment of the landscape around us by day, also protect our enjoyment of the sky above at night. With the growth of light pollution, the view of the stars and Milky Way overhead has become as rare as the views of glaciers, geysers, and grizzlies that bring millions of visitors to the parks every year. Through the pristine view of a starry sky at night park visitors are primed to learn about our planet, its place in the solar system, and the larger Universe in which we live. The national parks are therefore the largest informal educational setting for reaching millions of people from all over the world who might not otherwise encounter astronomical outreach. The material in this presentation has been field tested in national parks, campgrounds, lodges, and visitor centers over the last four years and is elaborated on in the just released book: "Stars Above, Earth Below: A Guide to Astronomy in the National Parks.” Funding for this project was provided by The Planetary Society.

  10. Persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus defined by agro-ecological niche

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; Wallace, Rob G.; Ottaviani, Daniela; Slingenbergh, Jan; Prosser, Diann; Bergmann, Luc; Gilbert, Marius

    2010-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has spread across Eurasia and into Africa. Its persistence in a number of countries continues to disrupt poultry production, impairs smallholder livelihoods, and raises the risk a genotype adapted to human-to-human transmission may emerge. While previous studies identified domestic duck reservoirs as a primary risk factor associated with HPAI H5N1 persistence in poultry in Southeast Asia, little is known of such factors in countries with different agro-ecological conditions, and no study has investigated the impact of such conditions on HPAI H5N1 epidemiology at the global scale. This study explores the patterns of HPAI H5N1 persistence worldwide, and for China, Indonesia, and India includes individual provinces that have reported HPAI H5N1 presence during the 2004–2008 period. Multivariate analysis of a set of 14 agricultural, environmental, climatic, and socio-economic factors demonstrates in quantitative terms that a combination of six variables discriminates the areas with human cases and persistence: agricultural population density, duck density, duck by chicken density, chicken density, the product of agricultural population density and chicken output/input ratio, and purchasing power per capita. The analysis identifies five agro-ecological clusters, or niches, representing varying degrees of disease persistence. The agro-ecological distances of all study areas to the medoid of the niche with the greatest number of human cases are used to map HPAI H5N1 risk globally. The results indicate that few countries remain where HPAI H5N1 would likely persist should it be introduced.

  11. Molecular diversity analysis of Rhizoctonia solani isolates infecting various pulse crops in different agro-ecological regions of India.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Sunil C; Tripathi, Aradhika; Upadhyay, B K

    2012-11-01

    Genetic diversity of 89 isolates of Rhizoctonia solani isolated from different pulse crops representing 21 states from 16 agro-ecological regions of India, 49 morphological, and 7 anastomosis groups (AGs) was analyzed using 12 universal rice primers (URPs), 22 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and 23 inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. Both URPs and RAPD markers provided 100 % polymorphism with the bands ranging from 0.1 to 5 kb in size, whereas ISSR markers gave 99.7 % polymorphism with the bands sizes ranging from 0.1 to 3 kb. The marker URP 38F followed by URP13R, URP25F, and URP30F, RAPD marker R1 followed by OPM6, A3 and OPA12 and ISSR3 followed by ISSR1, ISSR4, and ISSR20 produced the highest number of amplicons. R. solani isolates showed a high level of genetic diversity. Unweighted pair group method with an arithmetic average (UPGMA) analysis grouped the isolates into 7 major clusters at 35 % genetic similarity using the three sets of markers evaluated. In spite of using three different types of markers, about 95 % isolates shared common grouping patterns. The majority of the isolates representing various AGs were grouped together into different sub-clusters using all three types of markers. Molecular groups of the isolates did not correspond to agro-ecological regions or states and crops of the origin. An attempt was made for the first time in the present study to determine the genetic diversity of R. solani populations isolated from different pulse crops representing various AGs and agro-ecological regions.

  12. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes. II. Breeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could

  13. Landscape Management: Field Supervisor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Deborah; Newton, Steve

    This module is the third volume in a series of instructional materials on landscape management. The materials are designed to help teachers train students in the job skills they will need in landscape occupations. The module contains six instructional units that cover the following topics: orientation; basic landscape design principles; irrigation…

  14. Solar Park Impacts on Air and Soil Microclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, A.; Ostle, N. J.; Whitaker, J.

    2015-12-01

    The drive towards low carbon energy sources and increasing energy demand has resulted in a rapid rise in solar photovoltaics across the world. A substantial proportion of photovoltaics are large-scale ground-mounted systems, solar parks, causing a notable land use change. While the impacts of photovoltaic panel production and disposal have been considered, the consequences of the operation of solar parks on the hosting landscape are poorly resolved. Here, we present data which demonstrates that a solar park sited on permanent grassland in the UK significantly impacted the air and soil microclimate. Specifically, we observed (1) cooler soil under the photovoltaic panels during the summer and between the photovoltaic panel rows during the winter; (2) dampening of the diurnal variation in air temperature and absolute humidity from the spring to the autumn; (3) lower photosynthetically active radiation and a lower direct:diffuse under the panels; and (4) reduced wind speed between the panel rows and substantially reduced wind speeds under the panels. Further, there were differences in vegetation type and productivity and greenhouse gas emissions. Given the centrality of climate on ecosystem function, quantifying the microclimatic impacts of this emerging land use change is critical. We anticipate these data will help develop understanding of effects in other climates, under different solar park designs and the implications for the function and service provision of the hosting landscape.

  15. GIS, remote sensing and spatial modeling for conservation of stone forest landscape in Lunan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanrong

    The Lunan Stone Forest is the World's premier pinnacle karst landscape, with considerable scientific and cultural importance. Because of its inherent ecological fragility and ongoing human disruption, especially recently burgeoning tourism development, the landscape is stressed and is in danger of being destroyed. Conservation policies have been implemented by the local and national governments, but many problems remain in the national park. For example, there is no accurate detailed map and no computer system to help authorities manage the natural resources. By integrating GIS, remote sensing and spatial modeling this dissertation investigates the issue of landscape conservation and develops some methodologies to assist in management of the natural resources in the national park. Four elements are involved: (1) To help decision-makers and residents understand the scope of resource exploitation and develop appropriate protective strategies, the dissertation documents how the landscape has been changed by human activities over the past 3 decades; (2) To help authorities scientifically designate different levels of protection in the park and to let the public actively participate in conservation decision making, a web-based Spatial Decision Support System for the conservation of the landscape was developed; (3) To make data sharing and integration easy in the future, a GML-based interoperable database for the park was implemented; and (4) To acquire more information and provide the uncertainty information to landscape conservation decision-makers, spatial land use patterns were modeled and the distributional uncertainty of land cover categories was assessed using a triplex Markov chain (TMC) model approach.

  16. Landscape genetics of plants.

    PubMed

    Holderegger, Rolf; Buehler, Dominique; Gugerli, Felix; Manel, Stéphanie

    2010-12-01

    Landscape genetics is the amalgamation of landscape ecology and population genetics to help with understanding microevolutionary processes such as gene flow and adaptation. In this review, we examine why landscape genetics of plants lags behind that of animals, both in number of studies and consideration of landscape elements. The classical landscape distance/resistance approach to study gene flow is challenging in plants, whereas boundary detection and the assessment of contemporary gene flow are more feasible. By contrast, the new field of landscape genetics of adaptive genetic variation, establishing the relationship between adaptive genomic regions and environmental factors in natural populations, is prominent in plant studies. Landscape genetics is ideally suited to study processes such as migration and adaptation under global change.

  17. “Tertius gaudens”: germplasm exchange networks and agroecological knowledge among home gardeners in the Iberian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The idea that knowledge flows through social networks is implicit in research on traditional knowledge, but researchers have paid scant attention to the role of social networks in shaping its distribution. We bridge those two bodies of research and investigate a) the structure of network of exchange of plant propagation material (germplasm) and b) the relation between a person’s centrality in such network and his/her agroecological knowledge. Methods We study 10 networks of germplasm exchange (n = 363) in mountain regions of the Iberian Peninsula. Data were collected through participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and a survey. Results The networks display some structural characteristics (i.e., decentralization, presence of external actors) that could enhance the flow of knowledge and germplasm but also some characteristics that do not favor such flow (i.e., low density and fragmentation). We also find that a measure that captures the number of contacts of an individual in the germplasm exchange network is associated with the person’s agroecological knowledge. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of social relations in the construction of traditional knowledge. PMID:23883296

  18. Parking Structures and the Space Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Presents some solutions to overcrowded parking on college campuses. Tips on selecting sites for parking garages, making parking decks blend with adjacent communities, and turning parking garages into multi use facilities are addressed. (GR)

  19. Agro-ecology, household economics and malaria in Uganda: empirical correlations between agricultural and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper establishes empirical evidence relating the agriculture and health sectors in Uganda. The analysis explores linkages between agricultural management, malaria and implications for improving community health outcomes in rural Uganda. The goal of this exploratory work is to expand the evidence-base for collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors in Uganda. Methods The paper presents an analysis of data from the 2006 Uganda National Household Survey using a parametric multivariate Two-Limit Tobit model to identify correlations between agro-ecological variables including geographically joined daily seasonal precipitation records and household level malaria risk. The analysis of agricultural and environmental factors as they affect household malaria rates, disaggregated by age-group, is inspired by a complimentary review of existing agricultural malaria literature indicating a gap in evidence with respect to agricultural management as a form of malaria vector management. Crop choices and agricultural management practices may contribute to vector control through the simultaneous effects of reducing malaria transmission, improving housing and nutrition through income gains, and reducing insecticide resistance in both malaria vectors and agricultural pests. Results The econometric results show the existence of statistically significant correlations between crops, such as sweet potatoes/yams, beans, millet and sorghum, with household malaria risk. Local environmental factors are also influential- daily maximum temperature is negatively correlated with malaria, while daily minimum temperature is positively correlated with malaria, confirming trends in the broader literature are applicable to the Ugandan context. Conclusions Although not necessarily causative, the findings provide sufficient evidence to warrant purposefully designed work to test for agriculture health causation in vector management. A key constraint to modeling the

  20. History of malaria control in Tajikistan and rapid malaria appraisal in an agro-ecological setting

    PubMed Central

    Matthys, Barbara; Sherkanov, Tohir; Karimov, Saifudin S; Khabirov, Zamonidin; Mostowlansky, Till; Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar

    2008-01-01

    Background Reported malaria cases in rice growing areas in western Tajikistan were at the root of a rapid appraisal of the local malaria situation in a selected agro-ecological setting where only scarce information was available. The rapid appraisal was complemented by a review of the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan and Central Asia from 1920 until today. Following a resurgence in the 1990s, malaria transmission has been reduced considerably in Tajikistan as a result of concerted efforts by the government and international agencies. The goal for 2015 is transmission interruption, with control interventions and surveillance currently concentrated in the South, where foci of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum persist. Methods The rapid malaria appraisal was carried out in six communities of irrigated rice cultivation during the peak of malaria transmission (August/September 2007) in western Tajikistan. In a cross-sectional survey, blood samples were taken from 363 schoolchildren and examined for Plasmodium under a light microscope. A total of 56 farmers were interviewed about agricultural activities and malaria. Potential Anopheles breeding sites were characterized using standardized procedures. A literature review on the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan was conducted. Results One case of P. vivax was detected among the 363 schoolchildren examined (0.28%). The interviewees reported to protect themselves against mosquito bites and used their own concepts on fever conditions, which do not distinguish between malaria and other diseases. Three potential malaria vectors were identified, i.e. Anopheles superpictus, Anopheles pulcherrimus and Anopheles hyrcanus in 58 of the 73 breeding sites examined (79.5%). Rice paddies, natural creeks and man-made ponds were the most important Anopheles habitats. Conclusion The presence of malaria vectors and parasite reservoirs, low awareness of, and protection against malaria in the face of

  1. Spatial analysis of agro-ecological data: Detection of spatial patterns combining three different methodical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, A.; Casper, M. C.; Vohland, M.

    2009-04-01

    Processes in natural systems and the resulting patterns occur in ecological space and time. To study natural structures and to understand the functional processes it is necessary to identify the relevant spatial and temporal space at which these all occur; or with other words to isolate spatial and temporal patterns. In this contribution we will concentrate on the spatial aspects of agro-ecological data analysis. Data were derived from two agricultural plots, each of about 5 hectares, in the area of Newel, located in Western Palatinate, Germany. The plots had been conventionally cultivated with a crop rotation of winter rape, winter wheat and spring barley. Data about physical and chemical soil properties, vegetation and topography were i) collected by measurements in the field during three vegetation periods (2005-2008) and/or ii) derived from hyperspectral image data, acquired by a HyMap airborne imaging sensor (2005). To detect spatial variability within the plots, we applied three different approaches that examine and describe relationships among data. First, we used variography to get an overview of the data. A comparison of the experimental variograms facilitated to distinguish variables, which seemed to occur in related or dissimilar spatial space. Second, based on data available in raster-format basic cell statistics were conducted, using a geographic information system. Here we could make advantage of the powerful classification and visualization tool, which supported the spatial distribution of patterns. Third, we used an approach that is being used for visualization of complex highly dimensional environmental data, the Kohonen self-organizing map. The self-organizing map (SOM) uses multidimensional data that gets further reduced in dimensionality (2-D) to detect similarities in data sets and correlation between single variables. One of SOM's advantages is its powerful visualization capability. The combination of the three approaches leads to

  2. [Impacts of urban cooling effect based on landscape scale: a review].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhao-wu; Guo, Qing-hai; Sun, Ran-hao

    2015-02-01

    The urban cooling island (UCI) effect is put forward in comparison with the urban heat island effect, and emphasizes on landscape planning for optimization of function and way of urban thermal environment. In this paper, we summarized current research of the UCI effects of waters, green space, and urban park from the perspective of patch area, landscape index, threshold value, landscape pattern and correlation analyses. Great controversy was found on which of the two factors patch area and shape index has a more significant impact, the quantification of UCI threshold is particularly lacking, and attention was paid too much on the UCI effect of landscape composition but little on that of landscape configuration. More attention should be paid on shape, width and location for water landscape, and on the type of green space, green area, configuration and management for green space landscape. The altitude of urban park and human activities could also influence UCI effect. In the future, the threshold determination should dominate the research of UCI effect, the reasons of controversy should be further explored, the study of time sequence should be strengthened, the UCI effects from landscape pattern and landscape configuration should be identified, and more attention should be paid to spatial scale and resolution for the precision and accuracy of the UCI results. Also, synthesizing the multidisciplinary research should be taken into consideration.

  3. Pinnacles National Park Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Boxer, Barbara [D-CA

    2011-01-25

    05/11/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-124. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3641, which became Public Law 112-245 on 1/10/2013. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Park a La Cart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susie; Roell, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Using discovery stations offers solutions for increasing attendance at park interpretive programs. Compact, portable stations can be used in playgrounds, special events, trailheads, picnic areas, campgrounds, nursing homes, and scouts and day camps. Describes a case in which stations were used 85 times and reached 4,927 visitors between July 1996…

  5. Parks or Prisons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Gareth

    1998-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity in which students assume the role of grizzly bears in Banff National Park. Concepts such as species diversity, fitness, natural selection, habitat loss, extinction, and population dynamics are discussed. Children learn how human activities can affect the bear's reproductive success. Lists materials, instructional…

  6. Geology of Joshua Tree National Park geodatabase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.; Matti, Jonathan C.; Cossette, Pamela M.

    2015-09-16

    The database in this Open-File Report describes the geology of Joshua Tree National Park and was completed in support of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and in cooperation with the National Park Service (NPS). The geologic observations and interpretations represented in the database are relevant to both the ongoing scientific interests of the USGS in southern California and the management requirements of NPS, specifically of Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR).Joshua Tree National Park is situated within the eastern part of California’s Transverse Ranges province and straddles the transition between the Mojave and Sonoran deserts. The geologically diverse terrain that underlies JOTR reveals a rich and varied geologic evolution, one that spans nearly two billion years of Earth history. The Park’s landscape is the current expression of this evolution, its varied landforms reflecting the differing origins of underlying rock types and their differing responses to subsequent geologic events. Crystalline basement in the Park consists of Proterozoic plutonic and metamorphic rocks intruded by a composite Mesozoic batholith of Triassic through Late Cretaceous plutons arrayed in northwest-trending lithodemic belts. The basement was exhumed during the Cenozoic and underwent differential deep weathering beneath a low-relief erosion surface, with the deepest weathering profiles forming on quartz-rich, biotite-bearing granitoid rocks. Disruption of the basement terrain by faults of the San Andreas system began ca. 20 Ma and the JOTR sinistral domain, preceded by basalt eruptions, began perhaps as early as ca. 7 Ma, but no later than 5 Ma. Uplift of the mountain blocks during this interval led to erosional stripping of the thick zones of weathered quartz-rich granitoid rocks to form etchplains dotted by bouldery tors—the iconic landscape of the Park. The stripped debris filled basins along the fault zones.Mountain ranges

  7. Astronomy in the National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordgren, Tyler E.

    2009-01-01

    American national parks are fertile grounds for astronomy and planetary science outreach. They are some of the last remaining dark-sky sites the typical visitor (both U.S. and international) can still experience easily. An internal National Park Service (NPS) study shows a dark starry sky is an integral part of what visitors consider their park experience. As a result, the NPS Night Sky Team (a coordinated group of park rangers and astronomers) is measuring and monitoring the sky brightness over the parks in an attempt to promote within the park service protection of the night sky as a natural resource. A number of parks (e.g. Grand Canyon National Park) are currently expanding their night sky related visitor programs in order to take advantage of this resource and visitor interest. The national parks and their visitors are therefore an ideal audience fully "primed” to learn about aspects of astronomy or planetary science that can be, in any way, associated with the night sky. As one of the astronomers on the NPS Night Sky Team, I have been working with park service personnel on ways to target park visitors for astronomical outreach. The purpose of this outreach is twofold: 1) Strengthen popular investment in preserving dark skies, 2) Strengthen popular investment in current astronomical research. A number of avenues already being used to introduce astronomy outreach into the parks (beyond the simple "star party") will be presented.

  8. An assessment of psychological noise reduction by landscape plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Bao, Zhi Yi; Zhu, Zhu Jun

    2011-04-01

    The emphasis in the term 'Green Transportation' is on the word 'green'. Green transportation focuses on the construction of a slow transport system with a visually pleasing, easy and secure trip environment composed of urban parks, green roadside spaces and some other space that is full of landscape plants. This trip environment encourages residents to make trip choices that reduce fuel consumption and pollution and is one of the most important ways of popularizing green transportation. To study the psychological benefits provided by urban parks and other landscape environments, we combined a subjective approach (a questionnaire) with an objective quantitative approach (emotional tests using an electroencephalogram; EEG). Using a questionnaire survey, we found that 90% of the subjects believed that landscape plants contribute to noise reduction and that 55% overrated the plants' actual ability to attenuate noise. Two videos (showing a traffic scene and a plant scene) were shown to 40 participants on video glasses. We detected and recorded EEG values with a portable electroencephalograph, and a comparison between the results of the two groups revealed that there was a highly significant asymmetry between the EEG activity of the vegetation scene and traffic scene groups. The results suggest that the emotions aroused by noise and visual stimuli are manifested in the synchronization of beta frequency band and the desynchronization of alpha frequency band, indicating that landscape plants can moderate or buffer the effects of noise. These findings indicate that landscape plants provide excess noise attenuating effects through subjects' emotional processing, which we term 'psychological noise reduction'.

  9. A geodiversity basis for landscape conservation in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Jasper; Grab, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the South African landscape exhibits a palimpsest of different geologic and landform assemblages of different ages, and which record at the surface the effects of climate and environmental changes from the late Cretaceous to present. Previous studies have split the country into geomorphic provinces based on large-scale watersheds, uniformity of slope elements within the watersheds, and valley hypsometry. Geology, landforms and their homogeneity or diversity within a single area have not been considered. The existing network of provincial (Provincial Heritage Sites), national (National Parks/Transfrontier Parks), and international (World Heritage Sites, Ramsar sites) landscape conservation measures in South Africa do not explicitly and routinely include site or features of geoheritage or geodiversity interest. This present paper sets out to develop criteria by which landscapes of high geodiversity value can be identified, and provides examples of how these criteria can be applied. The close connection in South Africa between landscape-scale geology and geomorphology, and archaeology and ecosystems, suggests that geodiversity should and can be a key element of all landscape conservation strategies.

  10. Holocene changes in a park-forest vegetation mosaic in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, E.A. )

    1994-06-01

    The modern mod-elevation vegetation of the Rocky Mountains is a mosaic of conifer forests and open parks dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), grasses, and other herbs. It is not known how this pattern originated or how sensitive the balance between forest and park is to disturbance. Using pollen from sediments of five small ponds in Fish Creek Park, WY (elev. 2700 m), I reconstructed the last 8000 yrs of changes in the park-forest mosaic in an are about 16 km[sup 2]. Surface samples collected from 52 ponds in the Fish Creek Park area and from forest and park sites in Wyoming and Colorado indicate that park and forest pollen assemblages can be distinguished using multivariate statistical methods and conifer:herb pollen ratios. Fossil pollen from the five sediment cores shows that the distribution of the two vegetation types on the landscape has changed through the Holocene, and that the changes in vegetation are gradual. Past changes from park to forest have apparently occurred much more slowly than changes from forest to park, suggesting that areas subjected to recent clearcutting may remain unforested for centuries.

  11. Field Guide to the Plant Community Types of Voyageurs National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faber-Langendoen, Don; Aaseng, Norman; Hop, Kevin; Lew-Smith, Michael

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program is to classify, describe, and map vegetation for most of the park units within the National Park Service (NPS). The program was created in response to the NPS Natural Resources Inventory and Monitoring Guidelines issued in 1992. Products for each park include digital files of the vegetation map and field data, keys and descriptions to the plant communities, reports, metadata, map accuracy verification summaries, and aerial photographs. Interagency teams work in each park and, following standardized mapping and field sampling protocols, develop products and vegetation classification standards that document the various vegetation types found in a given park. The use of a standard national vegetation classification system and mapping protocol facilitate effective resource stewardship by ensuring compatibility and widespread use of the information throughout the NPS as well as by other Federal and state agencies. These vegetation classifications and maps and associated information support a wide variety of resource assessment, park management, and planning needs, and provide a structure for framing and answering critical scientific questions about plant communities and their relation to environmental processes across the landscape. This field guide is intended to make the classification accessible to park visitors and researchers at Voyageurs National Park, allowing them to identify any stand of natural vegetation and showing how the classification can be used in conjunction with the vegetation map (Hop and others, 2001).

  12. Characterizing the forest fragmentation of Canada's national parks.

    PubMed

    Soverel, Nicholas O; Coops, Nicholas C; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Michael A

    2010-05-01

    Characterizing the amount and configuration of forests can provide insights into habitat quality, biodiversity, and land use. The establishment of protected areas can be a mechanism for maintaining large, contiguous areas of forests, and the loss and fragmentation of forest habitat is a potential threat to Canada's national park system. Using the Earth Observation for Sustainable Development of Forests (EOSD) land cover product (EOSD LC 2000), we characterize the circa 2000 forest patterns in 26 of Canada's national parks and compare these to forest patterns in the ecological units surrounding these parks, referred to as the greater park ecosystem (GPE). Five landscape pattern metrics were analyzed: number of forest patches, mean forest patch size (hectare), standard deviation of forest patch size (hectare), mean forest patch perimeter-to-area ratio (meters per hectare), and edge density of forest patches (meters per hectare). An assumption is often made that forests within park boundaries are less fragmented than the surrounding GPE, as indicated by fewer forest patches, a larger mean forest patch size, less variability in forest patch size, a lower perimeter-to-area ratio, and lower forest edge density. Of the 26 national parks we analyzed, 58% had significantly fewer patches, 46% had a significantly larger mean forest patch size (23% were not significantly different), and 46% had a significantly smaller standard deviation of forest patch size (31% were not significantly different), relative to their GPEs. For forest patch perimeter-to-area ratio and forest edge density, equal proportions of parks had values that were significantly larger or smaller than their respective GPEs and no clear trend emerged. In summary, all the national parks we analyzed, with the exception of the Georgian Bay Islands, were found to be significantly different from their corresponding GPE for at least one of the five metrics assessed, and 50% of the 26 parks were significantly

  13. Landscape resistnace to dispersal: Predicting long-term effects of human disturbance on a small and isolated wolf population in southwestern Manitoba, Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape fragmentation affects wildlife population viability, in part through the effects it has on individual dispersal. Agricultural development over the past 60 years has resulted in considerable habitat fragmentation in the Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP) region in sou...

  14. A landscape ecology approach identifies important drivers of urban biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Turrini, Tabea; Knop, Eva

    2015-04-01

    Cities are growing rapidly worldwide, yet a mechanistic understanding of the impact of urbanization on biodiversity is lacking. We assessed the impact of urbanization on arthropod diversity (species richness and evenness) and abundance in a study of six cities and nearby intensively managed agricultural areas. Within the urban ecosystem, we disentangled the relative importance of two key landscape factors affecting biodiversity, namely the amount of vegetated area and patch isolation. To do so, we a priori selected sites that independently varied in the amount of vegetated area in the surrounding landscape at the 500-m scale and patch isolation at the 100-m scale, and we hold local patch characteristics constant. As indicator groups, we used bugs, beetles, leafhoppers, and spiders. Compared to intensively managed agricultural ecosystems, urban ecosystems supported a higher abundance of most indicator groups, a higher number of bug species, and a lower evenness of bug and beetle species. Within cities, a high amount of vegetated area increased species richness and abundance of most arthropod groups, whereas evenness showed no clear pattern. Patch isolation played only a limited role in urban ecosystems, which contrasts findings from agro-ecological studies. Our results show that urban areas can harbor a similar arthropod diversity and abundance compared to intensively managed agricultural ecosystems. Further, negative consequences of urbanization on arthropod diversity can be mitigated by providing sufficient vegetated space in the urban area, while patch connectivity is less important in an urban context. This highlights the need for applying a landscape ecological approach to understand the mechanisms shaping urban biodiversity and underlines the potential of appropriate urban planning for mitigating biodiversity loss.

  15. Regional secondary resource utilization parks: The industrial parks of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Kuusinen, T.L.; Beck, J.E.; Holter, G.M.

    1992-11-01

    Obstacles currently facing the solid waste recycling industry are often related to lack of public and investor confidence, issues of profitability and liability, and insufficient consumer identification with products made from recycled materials. Resolution of these issues may not be possible without major changes in the way the solid waste recycling business is structured. One potential solution takes the form of the secondary resource utilization park. The premise is simple: Provide a strategically located facility where a broad range of secondary resources are separated, refined or converted, and made into new products on the site. The secondary material resources would come from municipal solid waste, demolition waste, landscape trimmings, used tires, scrap metal, agricultural waste, food processing waste, and other non-hazardous forms. The park would consist of separation and conversion facilities, research and product standards laboratories, and industries that convert the materials into products and fuels. Energy conversion systems using some waste streams as fuel could be located at the park to supplement energy demands of the industrial operations. The strategic co-location of the resource providers and user industries would also minimize transportation costs and could provide a test case for an ``industrial ecology`` approach to sustainable economic development.

  16. Regional secondary resource utilization parks: The industrial parks of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Kuusinen, T.L.; Beck, J.E.; Holter, G.M.

    1992-11-01

    Obstacles currently facing the solid waste recycling industry are often related to lack of public and investor confidence, issues of profitability and liability, and insufficient consumer identification with products made from recycled materials. Resolution of these issues may not be possible without major changes in the way the solid waste recycling business is structured. One potential solution takes the form of the secondary resource utilization park. The premise is simple: Provide a strategically located facility where a broad range of secondary resources are separated, refined or converted, and made into new products on the site. The secondary material resources would come from municipal solid waste, demolition waste, landscape trimmings, used tires, scrap metal, agricultural waste, food processing waste, and other non-hazardous forms. The park would consist of separation and conversion facilities, research and product standards laboratories, and industries that convert the materials into products and fuels. Energy conversion systems using some waste streams as fuel could be located at the park to supplement energy demands of the industrial operations. The strategic co-location of the resource providers and user industries would also minimize transportation costs and could provide a test case for an industrial ecology'' approach to sustainable economic development.

  17. Another Paper Landscape?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radlak, Ted

    2001-01-01

    Describes the University of Toronto's extensive central campus revitalization plan to create lush landscapes that add to the school's image and attractiveness. Drawings and photographs are included. (GR)

  18. 41 CFR 102-74.270 - Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... display parking permits in parking facilities? 102-74.270 Section 102-74.270 Public Contracts and Property... to display parking permits in parking facilities? When the use of parking space is controlled as in... service areas must display a parking permit. This requirement may be waived in parking facilities...

  19. 41 CFR 102-74.270 - Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... display parking permits in parking facilities? 102-74.270 Section 102-74.270 Public Contracts and Property... to display parking permits in parking facilities? When the use of parking space is controlled as in... service areas must display a parking permit. This requirement may be waived in parking facilities...

  20. 41 CFR 102-74.270 - Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... display parking permits in parking facilities? 102-74.270 Section 102-74.270 Public Contracts and Property... to display parking permits in parking facilities? When the use of parking space is controlled as in... service areas must display a parking permit. This requirement may be waived in parking facilities...

  1. 41 CFR 102-74.270 - Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... display parking permits in parking facilities? 102-74.270 Section 102-74.270 Public Contracts and Property... to display parking permits in parking facilities? When the use of parking space is controlled as in... service areas must display a parking permit. This requirement may be waived in parking facilities...

  2. 41 CFR 102-74.270 - Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... display parking permits in parking facilities? 102-74.270 Section 102-74.270 Public Contracts and Property... to display parking permits in parking facilities? When the use of parking space is controlled as in... service areas must display a parking permit. This requirement may be waived in parking facilities...

  3. Chronology of awareness about US National Park external threats.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Craig L

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to raise understanding of the history of protected area external threat awareness in the United States and at World Protected Area Congresses. The earliest concerns about external threats to US national parks began in the late nineteenth century: a potential railroad transgression of Yellowstone National Park in the 1880s. During the early and mid 1930s, George Wright and colleagues focused on outside boundary concerns like of hunting and trapping of furbearers, grazing, logging, disease and hybridization between species. In the 1960s, a worldwide recognition began about the role of outside habitat fragmentation/isolation on nature reserves and human generated stressors crossing their boundaries. The State of the Park Report 1980 added a plethora of threats: oil/gas and geothermal exploration and development, hydropower and reclamation projects, urban encroachment, roads, resorts, and recreational facilities. The early 1980s ushered in political interference with NPS threats abatement efforts as well as Congressional legislative initiatives to support the abatement challenges of the agency. By 1987, the Government Accounting Office issued its first report on National Park Service (NPS) progress in dealing with external threats. Climate change impacts on parks, especially in terms of animals adjusting their temperature and moisture requirements by latitude and altitude, surfaced in the technical literature by the mid-1980s. By 1992, the world parks community stressed the need to integrate protected areas into the surrounding landscape and human community. The importance of the matrix has gradually gained appreciation in the scientific community. This chronology represents one example of national park and protected areas' institutional history contributing to the breath of modern conservation science.

  4. Chronology of Awareness About US National Park External Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Craig L.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to raise understanding of the history of protected area external threat awareness in the United States and at World Protected Area Congresses. The earliest concerns about external threats to US national parks began in the late nineteenth century: a potential railroad transgression of Yellowstone National Park in the 1880s. During the early and mid 1930s, George Wright and colleagues focused on outside boundary concerns like of hunting and trapping of furbearers, grazing, logging, disease and hybridization between species. In the 1960s, a worldwide recognition began about the role of outside habitat fragmentation/isolation on nature reserves and human generated stressors crossing their boundaries. The State of the Park Report 1980 added a plethora of threats: oil/gas and geothermal exploration and development, hydropower and reclamation projects, urban encroachment, roads, resorts, and recreational facilities. The early 1980s ushered in political interference with NPS threats abatement efforts as well as Congressional legislative initiatives to support the abatement challenges of the agency. By 1987, the Government Accounting Office issued its first report on National Park Service (NPS) progress in dealing with external threats. Climate change impacts on parks, especially in terms of animals adjusting their temperature and moisture requirements by latitude and altitude, surfaced in the technical literature by the mid-1980s. By 1992, the world parks community stressed the need to integrate protected areas into the surrounding landscape and human community. The importance of the matrix has gradually gained appreciation in the scientific community. This chronology represents one example of national park and protected areas' institutional history contributing to the breath of modern conservation science.

  5. Assessing the landscape context and conversion risk of protected areas using satellite data products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Svancara, L.K.; Scott, J.M.; Loveland, T.R.; Pidgorna, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of the first national park (Yellowstone National Park in 1872) and the first wildlife refuge (Pelican Island in 1903), dramatic changes have occurred in both ecological and cultural landscapes across the U.S. The ability of these protected areas to maintain current levels of biodiversity depend, at least in part, on the integrity of the surrounding landscape. Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent and pattern of natural land cover, risk of conversion, and relationships with demographic and economic variables in counties near National Park Service units and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuges with those counties distant from either type of protected area in the coterminous United States. Our results indicate that landscapes in counties within 10??km of both parks and refuges and those within 10??km of just parks were more natural, more intact, and more protected than those in counties within 10??km of just refuges and counties greater than 10??km from either protected area system. However, they also had greater human population density and change in population, indicating potential conversion risk since the percent of landscape protected averaged 2) in 76% of counties near both parks and refuges, 81% of counties near just parks, 91% of counties near just refuges, and 93% of distant counties. Thirteen percent of counties in the coterminous U.S. had moderate to high amounts of natural land cover (> 60%), low protection ( 20%). Although these areas are not the most critically endangered, they represent the greatest conservation opportunity, need, and urgency. Our approach is based on national level metrics that are simple, general, informative, and can be understood by broad audiences and by policy makers and managers to assess the health of lands surrounding parks and refuges. Regular monitoring of these metrics with satellite data products in counties surrounding protected areas provides a consistent, national level assessment

  6. A Walk in the Park: An Experiential Approach to Youth Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spier, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    A park design "walkshop" was facilitated by a lecturer as part of an undergraduate unit in youth participation at an Australian tertiary college. Inspired by the work of landscape architect Lawrence Halprin (1916-2009), the "scored" walkshop simulated a consultation walk designed to engage students in the hypothetical…

  7. Reading the Cosmic Landscape: An Observatory in the Nevada Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Hilary Jane

    This thesis aims to restore value to the phenomenological experience of the desert through architecture, exploring the desert as a physical, cultural and experiential landscape that ideally lends itself to the study of astronomy and to a greater understanding of a universal order. This project will create a recreational observatory allowing amateur observers to study the skies. The observatory will be located on the desert peak of Mount Washington, located in Great Basin National Park in Nevada. It will provide a venue for the astronomy-focused activities which already exist within the park, and will serve as a destination highlighting the cosmic properties of the desert. This thesis proposes that architecture can play a role in realizing the essential qualities of this unique landscape and can enhance the study of astronomy as an endeavor that goes beyond science to access a greater understanding of the human condition.

  8. Improving Urban Water Environment in Eastern China by Blending Traditional with Modern Landscape Planning.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiajie; Yu, Junjun; Tian, Yuan; Zhao, Cai; Wang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    As a fundamental part of greenspace, urban water landscape contributes greatly to the ecological system and at the same time supplies a leisure area for residents. The paper did an analysis on the number of aquatic plant communities, the form of water spaces, and water quality condition by investigating 135 quadrats (90 at amphibious boundary and the land, 45 in the water) in 45 transects of 15 urban and suburban parks. We found that water spaces had monotonous forms with low biodiversity and poor water quality. In addition, urban water landscapes hardly provided ecological functions given excessive construction. Accordingly, a proposition to connect tradition with modernism in the improvement and innovation of urban water landscape planning was put forward, and further, the way to achieve it was explored. By taking Qinhu Wetland Park as a case, the principles and specific planning methods on macro- and microperspectives were discussed to guide the development of urban landscape in eastern China.

  9. Improving Urban Water Environment in Eastern China by Blending Traditional with Modern Landscape Planning

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jiajie; Yu, Junjun; Tian, Yuan; Zhao, Cai

    2017-01-01

    As a fundamental part of greenspace, urban water landscape contributes greatly to the ecological system and at the same time supplies a leisure area for residents. The paper did an analysis on the number of aquatic plant communities, the form of water spaces, and water quality condition by investigating 135 quadrats (90 at amphibious boundary and the land, 45 in the water) in 45 transects of 15 urban and suburban parks. We found that water spaces had monotonous forms with low biodiversity and poor water quality. In addition, urban water landscapes hardly provided ecological functions given excessive construction. Accordingly, a proposition to connect tradition with modernism in the improvement and innovation of urban water landscape planning was put forward, and further, the way to achieve it was explored. By taking Qinhu Wetland Park as a case, the principles and specific planning methods on macro- and microperspectives were discussed to guide the development of urban landscape in eastern China. PMID:28386514

  10. Development of a grazing monitoring program for Great Sand Dunes National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2015-08-07

    National parks in the United States face the difficult task of managing natural resources within park boundaries that are influenced to a large degree by historical land uses or by forces outside of the park’s protection and mandate. Among the many challenges faced by parks is management of wildlife populations that occupy larger landscapes than individual park units but that concentrate within park lands both seasonally and opportunistically. Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve in south-central Colorado is currently developing an Ungulate Management Plan to address management of elk and bison populations within the park. Execution of the Ungulate Management Plan will require monitoring and assessment of habitat conditions in areas that appear sensitive to ungulate use or heavily used by elk and bison. Several sources of information on the various habitats within the park and their use and response to foraging elk and bison exist from recent and on-going research in Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve as well as from studies in other regions of the Intermountain West. All of this data can be used to inform the planning process. This report provides background on vegetation types that make up the primary bison and elk ranges in Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and on the potential effects of ungulate grazing and browsing in these specific vegetation communities (both locally and regionally). The report also provides a review of the elements necessary to develop a long-term monitoring program for Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve that addresses both the responses to ungulate herbivory seen in important habitats in the park and the amount and patterns of ungulate habitat use.

  11. What is the Risk for Exposure to Vector-Borne Pathogens in United States National Parks?

    PubMed Central

    EISEN, LARS; WONG, DAVID; SHELUS, VICTORIA; EISEN, REBECCA J.

    2015-01-01

    United States national parks attract >275 million visitors annually and collectively present risk of exposure for staff and visitors to a wide range of arthropod vector species (most notably fleas, mosquitoes, and ticks) and their associated bacterial, protozoan, or viral pathogens. We assessed the current state of knowledge for risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks through a review of relevant literature, including internal National Park Service documents and organismal databases. We conclude that, because of lack of systematic surveillance for vector-borne pathogens in national parks, the risk of pathogen exposure for staff and visitors is unclear. Existing data for vectors within national parks were not based on systematic collections and rarely include evaluation for pathogen infection. Extrapolation of human-based surveillance data from neighboring communities likely provides inaccurate estimates for national parks because landscape differences impact transmission of vector-borne pathogens and human-vector contact rates likely differ inside versus outside the parks because of differences in activities or behaviors. Vector-based pathogen surveillance holds promise to define when and where within national parks the risk of exposure to infected vectors is elevated. A pilot effort, including 5–10 strategic national parks, would greatly improve our understanding of the scope and magnitude of vector-borne pathogen transmission in these high-use public settings. Such efforts also will support messaging to promote personal protection measures and inform park visitors and staff of their responsibility for personal protection, which the National Park Service preservation mission dictates as the core strategy to reduce exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks. PMID:23540107

  12. What is the risk for exposure to vector-borne pathogens in United States national parks?

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lars; Wong, David; Shelus, Victoria; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2013-03-01

    United States national parks attract > 275 million visitors annually and collectively present risk of exposure for staff and visitors to a wide range of arthropod vector species (most notably fleas, mosquitoes, and ticks) and their associated bacterial, protozoan, or viral pathogens. We assessed the current state of knowledge for risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks through a review of relevant literature, including internal National Park Service documents and organismal databases. We conclude that, because of lack of systematic surveillance for vector-borne pathogens in national parks, the risk of pathogen exposure for staff and visitors is unclear. Existing data for vectors within national parks were not based on systematic collections and rarely include evaluation for pathogen infection. Extrapolation of human-based surveillance data from neighboring communities likely provides inaccurate estimates for national parks because landscape differences impact transmission of vector-borne pathogens and human-vector contact rates likely differ inside versus outside the parks because of differences in activities or behaviors. Vector-based pathogen surveillance holds promise to define when and where within national parks the risk of exposure to infected vectors is elevated. A pilot effort, including 5-10 strategic national parks, would greatly improve our understanding of the scope and magnitude of vector-borne pathogen transmission in these high-use public settings. Such efforts also will support messaging to promote personal protection measures and inform park visitors and staff of their responsibility for personal protection, which the National Park Service preservation mission dictates as the core strategy to reduce exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks.

  13. The energy Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2005-10-01

    If world development is to continue, per capita energy use in the developing world must increase to levels in the developed world. Restrictions on how much CO2 mankind can responsibly put into the atmosphere complicate the task further. Studies show that by 2050 the world will require an additional 10-30 terawatts (TW) of carbon free power, at least as much additional, as the 10 TW generated today with fossil fuel. Neither mined uranium nor renewable energy is capable of sustained power production at this level. This paper proposes, an "energy park", a self contained unit a square mile or two in area which supplies about 7 GW of electrical power or hydrogen, emits no CO2, has little or no proliferation problem, and cleans up its own waste. Most of the energy is supplied by conventional nuclear power plants. However the nuclear fuel is bred by a fusion reactor, which is the key to the energy park. The waste cleanup is done by a combination of fission, fusion, and patience. There is neither long time storage nor long distance travel for materials with proliferation risk or long lived radio nuclides. Thus only thorium comes into the park, and only electricity and hydrogen go out.

  14. Mercury in the National Parks: Current Status and Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, C.; Blett, T. F.; Morris, K.

    2012-12-01

    the current, large scale work on mercury in national parks is conducted in western and Alaskan parks and will be incorporated into the Western Mercury Synthesis project, a multi-agency/multi-organizational landscape scale synthesis linking large, spatiotemporal datasets about mercury cycling, bioaccumulation, and risk across western North America. Mercury findings in national parks are also communicated to other outlets, including public comment on EPA's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards and in video podcasts (e.g., http://www.nature.nps.gov/air/Multimedia/podcast/acadia_mercury/acadia_mercury.cfm). The NPS Organic Act states that national park resources are to remain unimpaired, and the toxic effects of mercury challenge that legal mandate. National park ecosystems are already experiencing multiple stressors (e.g., nitrogen deposition) and mercury impacts may push vulnerable species too far. This talk will give an overview of NPS-ARD mercury initiatives, and contribute to the overall understanding of mercury in the science, policy, and outreach arenas.

  15. Genetic Diversity of Cultivated Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and Its Relation to the World's Agro-ecological Zones.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Hamid; Caron, Carolyn T; Fedoruk, Michael; Diapari, Marwan; Vandenberg, Albert; Coyne, Clarice J; McGee, Rebecca; Bett, Kirstin E

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of germplasm collections plays a critical role in supporting conservation and crop genetic enhancement strategies. We used a cultivated lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) collection consisting of 352 accessions originating from 54 diverse countries to estimate genetic diversity and genetic structure using 1194 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers which span the lentil genome. Using principal coordinate analysis, population structure analysis and UPGMA cluster analysis, the accessions were categorized into three major groups that prominently reflected geographical origin (world's agro-ecological zones). The three clusters complemented the origins, pedigrees, and breeding histories of the germplasm. The three groups were (a) South Asia (sub-tropical savannah), (b) Mediterranean, and (c) northern temperate. Based on the results from this study, it is also clear that breeding programs still have considerable genetic diversity to mine within the cultivated lentil, as surveyed South Asian and Canadian germplasm revealed narrow genetic diversity.

  16. Genetic Diversity of Cultivated Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and Its Relation to the World's Agro-ecological Zones

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Hamid; Caron, Carolyn T.; Fedoruk, Michael; Diapari, Marwan; Vandenberg, Albert; Coyne, Clarice J.; McGee, Rebecca; Bett, Kirstin E.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of germplasm collections plays a critical role in supporting conservation and crop genetic enhancement strategies. We used a cultivated lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) collection consisting of 352 accessions originating from 54 diverse countries to estimate genetic diversity and genetic structure using 1194 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers which span the lentil genome. Using principal coordinate analysis, population structure analysis and UPGMA cluster analysis, the accessions were categorized into three major groups that prominently reflected geographical origin (world's agro-ecological zones). The three clusters complemented the origins, pedigrees, and breeding histories of the germplasm. The three groups were (a) South Asia (sub-tropical savannah), (b) Mediterranean, and (c) northern temperate. Based on the results from this study, it is also clear that breeding programs still have considerable genetic diversity to mine within the cultivated lentil, as surveyed South Asian and Canadian germplasm revealed narrow genetic diversity. PMID:27507980

  17. Vulnerabilities of national parks in the American Midwest to climate and land use changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, Esther D.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Shaver, David; Karstensen, Krista A.

    2016-06-08

    Many national parks in the American Midwest are surrounded by agricultural or urban areas or are in highly fragmented or rapidly changing landscapes. An environmental stressor is a physical, chemical, or biological condition that affects the functioning or productivity of species or ecosystems. Climate change is just one of many stressors on park natural resources; others include urbanization, land use change, air and water pollution, and so on. Understanding and comparing the relative vulnerability of a suite of parks to projected climate and land use changes is important for region-wide planning. A vulnerability assessment of 60 units in the 13-state U.S. National Park Service Midwestern administrative region to climate and land use change used existing data from multiple sources. Assessment included three components: individual park exposure (5 metrics), sensitivity (5 metrics), and constraints to adaptive capacity (8 metrics) under 2 future climate scenarios. The three components were combined into an overall vulnerability score. Metrics were measures of existing or projected conditions within park boundaries, within 10-kilometer buffers surrounding parks, and within ecoregions that contain or intersect them. Data were normalized within the range of values for all assessed parks, resulting in high, medium, and low relative rankings for exposure, sensitivity, constraints to adaptive capacity, and overall vulnerability. Results are consistent with assessments regarding patterns and rates of climate change nationwide but provide greater detail and relative risk for Midwestern parks. Park overall relative vulnerability did not differ between climate scenarios. Rankings for exposure, sensitivity, and constraints to adaptive capacity varied geographically and indicate regional conservation planning opportunities. The most important stressors for the most vulnerable Midwestern parks are those related to sensitivity (intrinsic characteristics of the park) and

  18. Effects of Introduced and Indigenous Viruses on Native Plants: Exploring Their Disease Causing Potential at the Agro-Ecological Interface

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Stuart J.; Coutts, Brenda A.; Jones, Roger A. C.

    2014-01-01

    The ever increasing movement of viruses around the world poses a major threat to plants growing in cultivated and natural ecosystems. Both generalist and specialist viruses move via trade in plants and plant products. Their potential to damage cultivated plants is well understood, but little attention has been given to the threat such viruses pose to plant biodiversity. To address this, we studied their impact, and that of indigenous viruses, on native plants from a global biodiversity hot spot in an isolated region where agriculture is very recent (<185 years), making it possible to distinguish between introduced and indigenous viruses readily. To establish their potential to cause severe or mild systemic symptoms in different native plant species, we used introduced generalist and specialist viruses, and indigenous viruses, to inoculate plants of 15 native species belonging to eight families. We also measured resulting losses in biomass and reproductive ability for some host–virus combinations. In addition, we sampled native plants growing over a wide area to increase knowledge of natural infection with introduced viruses. The results suggest that generalist introduced viruses and indigenous viruses from other hosts pose a greater potential threat than introduced specialist viruses to populations of native plants encountered for the first time. Some introduced generalist viruses infected plants in more families than others and so pose a greater potential threat to biodiversity. The indigenous viruses tested were often surprisingly virulent when they infected native plant species they were not adapted to. These results are relevant to managing virus disease in new encounter scenarios at the agro-ecological interface between managed and natural vegetation, and within other disturbed natural vegetation situations. They are also relevant for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species and avoiding spread of damaging viruses to undisturbed

  19. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Li, Meng-Hua; Kettunen-Præbel, Anne; Berg, Peer; Meuwissen, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources. There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection. Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programs for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species. PMID:25767477

  20. Effects of introduced and indigenous viruses on native plants: exploring their disease causing potential at the agro-ecological interface.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Stuart J; Coutts, Brenda A; Jones, Roger A C

    2014-01-01

    The ever increasing movement of viruses around the world poses a major threat to plants growing in cultivated and natural ecosystems. Both generalist and specialist viruses move via trade in plants and plant products. Their potential to damage cultivated plants is well understood, but little attention has been given to the threat such viruses pose to plant biodiversity. To address this, we studied their impact, and that of indigenous viruses, on native plants from a global biodiversity hot spot in an isolated region where agriculture is very recent (<185 years), making it possible to distinguish between introduced and indigenous viruses readily. To establish their potential to cause severe or mild systemic symptoms in different native plant species, we used introduced generalist and specialist viruses, and indigenous viruses, to inoculate plants of 15 native species belonging to eight families. We also measured resulting losses in biomass and reproductive ability for some host-virus combinations. In addition, we sampled native plants growing over a wide area to increase knowledge of natural infection with introduced viruses. The results suggest that generalist introduced viruses and indigenous viruses from other hosts pose a greater potential threat than introduced specialist viruses to populations of native plants encountered for the first time. Some introduced generalist viruses infected plants in more families than others and so pose a greater potential threat to biodiversity. The indigenous viruses tested were often surprisingly virulent when they infected native plant species they were not adapted to. These results are relevant to managing virus disease in new encounter scenarios at the agro-ecological interface between managed and natural vegetation, and within other disturbed natural vegetation situations. They are also relevant for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species and avoiding spread of damaging viruses to undisturbed natural

  1. A Natural Resource Condition Assessment for Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theobald, D.M.; Baron, J.S.; Newman, P.; Noon, B.; Norman, J. B.; Leinwand, I.; Linn, S.E.; Sherer, R.; Williams, K.E.; Hartman, M.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a natural resource assessment of Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO) to provide a synthesis of existing scientific data and knowledge to address the current conditions for a subset of important park natural resources. The intent is for this report to help provide park resource managers with data and information, particularly in the form of spatially-explicit maps and GIS databases, about those natural resources and to place emerging issues within a local, regional, national, or global context. With an advisory team, we identified the following condition indicators that would be useful to assess the condition of the park: Air and Climate: Condition of alpine lakes and atmospheric deposition Water: Extent and connectivity of wetland and riparian areas Biotic Integrity: Extent of exotic terrestrial plant species, extent of fish distributions, and extent of suitable beaver habitat Landscapes: Extent and pattern of major ecological systems and natural landscapes connectivity These indicators are summarized in the following pages. We also developed two maps of important issues for use by park managers: visitor use (thru accessibility modeling) and proportion of watersheds affected by beetle kill. Based on our analysis, we believe that there is a high degree of concern for the following indicators: condition of alpine lakes; extent and connectivity of riparian/wetland areas; extent of exotic terrestrial plants (especially below 9,500’); extent of fish distributions; extent of suitable beaver habitat; and natural landscapes and connectivity. We found a low degree of concern for: the extent and pattern of major ecological systems. The indicators and issues were also summarized by the 34 watershed units (HUC12) within the park. Generally, we found six watersheds to be in “pristine” condition: Black Canyon Creek, Comanche Creek, Middle Saint Vrain Creek, South Fork of the Cache la Poudre, Buchanan Creek, and East Inlet. Four watersheds were found to have

  2. Trends of forest dynamics in tiger landscapes across Asia.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Pinki; Nagendra, Harini

    2011-10-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are cornerstones of biodiversity conservation, but small parks alone cannot support wide-ranging species, such as the tiger. Hence, forest dynamics in the surrounding landscapes of PAs are also important to tiger conservation. Tiger landscapes often support considerable human population in proximity of the PA, sometimes within the core itself, and thus are subject to various land use activities (such as agricultural expansion and road development) driving habitat loss and fragmentation. We synthesize information from 27 journal articles in 24 tiger landscapes to assess forest-cover dynamics in tiger-range countries. Although 29% of the PAs considered in this study have negligible change in overall forest cover, approximately 71% are undergoing deforestation and fragmentation. Approximately 58% of the total case studies have human settlements within the core area. Most changes-including agricultural expansion, plantation, and farming (52%), fuelwood and fodder collection (43%), logging (38%), grazing (38%), and tourism and development (10%)-can be attributed to human impacts largely linked to the nature of the management regime. This study highlights the need for incorporating new perspectives, ideas, and lessons learned locally and across borders into management plans to ensure tiger conservation in landscapes dominated by human activities. Given the increasing isolation of most parks due to agricultural, infrastructural, and commercial developments at the periphery, it is imperative to conduct planning and evaluation at the landscape level, as well as incorporate multiple actors and institutions in planning, instead of focusing solely on conservation within the PAs as is currently the case in most tiger parks.

  3. Trends of Forest Dynamics in Tiger Landscapes Across Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Pinki; Nagendra, Harini

    2011-10-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are cornerstones of biodiversity conservation, but small parks alone cannot support wide-ranging species, such as the tiger. Hence, forest dynamics in the surrounding landscapes of PAs are also important to tiger conservation. Tiger landscapes often support considerable human population in proximity of the PA, sometimes within the core itself, and thus are subject to various land use activities (such as agricultural expansion and road development) driving habitat loss and fragmentation. We synthesize information from 27 journal articles in 24 tiger landscapes to assess forest-cover dynamics in tiger-range countries. Although 29% of the PAs considered in this study have negligible change in overall forest cover, approximately 71% are undergoing deforestation and fragmentation. Approximately 58% of the total case studies have human settlements within the core area. Most changes—including agricultural expansion, plantation, and farming (52%), fuelwood and fodder collection (43%), logging (38%), grazing (38%), and tourism and development (10%)—can be attributed to human impacts largely linked to the nature of the management regime. This study highlights the need for incorporating new perspectives, ideas, and lessons learned locally and across borders into management plans to ensure tiger conservation in landscapes dominated by human activities. Given the increasing isolation of most parks due to agricultural, infrastructural, and commercial developments at the periphery, it is imperative to conduct planning and evaluation at the landscape level, as well as incorporate multiple actors and institutions in planning, instead of focusing solely on conservation within the PAs as is currently the case in most tiger parks.

  4. Trails through time: A geologist's guide to Jefferson County open space parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Jefferson County Open Space Parks, as well as other nearby parks and National Forest lands, offer marvelousopportunities to explore the geologic story behind this singular landscape. At first the distribution of rocks of differentages and types seems almost random, but careful study of the rocks and landscape features reveals a captivatinggeologic story, a history that tells of the building of the foundations of the continent, the rise and destruction of longvanishedmountain ranges, the ebb and flow of ancient seas, and the constant shaping and reshaping of the landscape inresponse to the never-ending interplay between uplift and erosion. This historical account is constantly being improvedand expanded as new evidence accumulates and new interpretations evolve.

  5. Shenandoah National Park Phenology Project-Weather data collection, description, and processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, John W.; Aiello, Danielle P.; Osborne, Jesse D.

    2010-01-01

    The weather data described in this document are being collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of changes in Shenandoah National Park (SNP) landscape phenology (Jones and Osbourne, 2008). Phenology is the study of the timing of biological events, such as annual plant flowering and seasonal bird migration. These events are partially driven by changes in temperature and precipitation; therefore, phenology studies how these events may reflect changes in climate. Landscape phenology is the study of changes in biological events over broad areas and assemblages of vegetation. To study climate-change relations over broad areas (at landscape scale), the timing and amount of annual tree leaf emergence, maximum foliage, and leaf fall for forested areas are of interest. To better link vegetation changes with climate, weather data are necessary. This report documents weather-station data collection and processing procedures used in the Shenandoah National Park Phenology Project.

  6. Geologic map of the national parks in the National Capital region, Washington, D.C., Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Denenny, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    More than 51,000 acres within the National Capital Region (NCR) are administered by the National Park Service (NPS). These parks consist of parkways, trails, statues, monuments, memorials, historic sites, scenic areas, theatres, parks for performing arts, and Civil War battlefields. Although largely established for historical and cultural resources, each park is situated on a landscape that is influenced by bedrock and surficial geology of the central Appalachian mid-Atlantic region. Geologic mapping and field studies conducted for over 130 years are summarized here to provide the earliest history of the parklands. The age, type, names, and the interpreted origin of the rocks, as well as the processes active in the formation of surficial deposits and the landscape are discussed. These data are intended for educational and interpretative programs for visitors as well as the management of natural resources.

  7. A spatial exploration of informal trail networks within Great Falls Park, VA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wimpey, Jeremy; Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Informal (visitor-created) trails represent a threat to the natural resources of protected natural areas around the globe. These trails can remove vegetation, displace wildlife, alter hydrology, alter habitat, spread invasive species, and fragment landscapes. This study examines informal and formal trails within Great Falls Park, VA, a sub-unit of the George Washington Memorial Parkway, managed by the U.S. National Park Service. This study sought to answer three specific questions: 1) Are the physical characteristics and topographic alignments of informal trails significantly different from formal trails, 2) Can landscape fragmentation metrics be used to summarize the relative impacts of formal and informal trail networks on a protected natural area? and 3) What can we learn from examining the spatial distribution of the informal trails within protected natural areas? Statistical comparisons between formal and informal trails in this park indicate that informal trails have less sustainable topographic alignments than their formal counterparts. Spatial summaries of the lineal and areal extent and fragmentation associated with the trail networks by park management zones compare park management goals to the assessed attributes. Hot spot analyses highlight areas of high trail density within the park and findings provide insights regarding potential causes for development of dense informal trail networks.

  8. Microclimate Patterns of Residential Landscapes Across the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Learned, J.; Hall, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Urban development has altered the physical and biological properties of native ecosystems worldwide. Research on the environmental outcomes of development continues to increase in scope. Climate phenomena, such as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) and Park Cool Island (PCI), are frequently used to illustrate how cities and managed landscapes differ from rural lands. The UHI describes the disparity between urban and rural temperatures, and results from heat retention within the built environment. These effects may be locally mitigated by vegetation (PCI). While the UHI is a useful tool for examining cities on a large scale, the methods are often too coarse to describe what individuals experience. We wondered: What large-scale climate trends are detectable at microclimate levels? Are microclimate patterns within residential landscapes typical, or are they geographically variable? To investigate, we installed sensors to monitor the air temperature within yards (residential landscapes) and native landscapes of 6 US cities from unique climate zones; Los Angeles, Phoenix, Minneapolis, Baltimore, Miami, and Boston. We hypothesized that microclimate trends would be similar among cities, and that microclimate patterns would predominate over large-scale climate trends within residential landscapes, especially when atmospheric mixing is low. Air temperature data collected between Aug. 2012 and July 2014 reveal that residential landscapes experience significantly different temperatures than native landscapes (pre-sunrise). The differences drive cities toward similarity, despite the variability of climate zones. The 6 cities also experience similar patterns of diurnal temperature fluctuations. Daily temperature ranges in yards are significantly greater than in their corresponding native landscapes during cooler months (p < 0.05; Oct - Mar, except Boston; no difference), and greater (p < 0.05; Baltimore and Miami) or not significantly different from May - September. Our results

  9. Planetary Landscape Geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  10. Thermal Characteristics of Urban Landscapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    1998-01-01

    Although satellite data are very useful for analysis of the urban heat island effect at a coarse scale, they do not lend themselves to developing a better understanding of which surfaces across the city contribute or drive the development of the urban heat island effect. Analysis of thermal energy responses for specific or discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape (e.g., asphalt, building rooftops, vegetation) requires measurements at a very fine spatial scale (i.e., less than 15 m) to adequately resolve these surfaces and their attendant thermal energy regimes. Additionally, very fine scale spatial resolution thermal infrared data, such as that obtained from aircraft, are very useful for demonstrating to planning officials, policy makers, and the general populace the benefits of the urban forest. These benefits include mitigating the urban heat island effect, making cities more aesthetically pleasing and more habitable environments, and aid in overall cooling of the community. High spatial resolution thermal data are required to quantify how artificial surfaces within the city contribute to an increase in urban heating and the benefit of cool surfaces (e.g., surface coatings that reflect much of the incoming solar radiation as opposed to absorbing it thereby lowering urban temperatures). The TRN (thermal response number) is a technique using aircraft remotely sensed surface temperatures to quantify the thermal response of urban surfaces. The TRN was used to quantify the thermal response of various urban surface types ranging from completely vegetated surfaces to asphalt and concrete parking lots for Huntsville, AL.

  11. Canyonlands National Park, UT, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Desert and mountain scenery along the Utah/Colorado border are displayed in this scene of the Canyonlands National Park, UT (39.0N, 110.0W). The Park occuppies the near center of the image, displaying spectacular incised meanders and the bulls-eye structure of Upheaval Dome (a salt dome). The Green River and the Colorado River flow southward to join off scene before flowing through the Grand Canyon National Park.

  12. Canyonlands National Park, UT, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Desert and mountain scenery along the Utah/Colorado border are displayed in this scene of the Canyonlands National Park, UT (39.0N, 110.0W). The park occupies the near center of the image, displaying spectacular incised meanders and the bulls-eye structure of Upheaval Dome (a salt dome). The Green River and the Colorado River flow southward to join (off scene) before flowing through the Grand Canyon National Park.

  13. Automated Car Park Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  14. [Landscape and ecological genomics].

    PubMed

    Tetushkin, E Ia

    2013-10-01

    Landscape genomics is the modern version of landscape genetics, a discipline that arose approximately 10 years ago as a combination of population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. It studies the effects of environmental variables on gene flow and other microevolutionary processes that determine genetic connectivity and variations in populations. In contrast to population genetics, it operates at the level of individual specimens rather than at the level of population samples. Another important difference between landscape genetics and genomics and population genetics is that, in the former, the analysis of gene flow and local adaptations takes quantitative account of landforms and features of the matrix, i.e., hostile spaces that separate species habitats. Landscape genomics is a part of population ecogenomics, which, along with community genomics, is a major part of ecological genomics. One of the principal purposes of landscape genomics is the identification and differentiation of various genome-wide and locus-specific effects. The approaches and computation tools developed for combined analysis of genomic and landscape variables make it possible to detect adaptation-related genome fragments, which facilitates the planning of conservation efforts and the prediction of species' fate in response to expected changes in the environment.

  15. 76 FR 22001 - National Park Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8656 of April 15, 2011 National Park Week, 2011 By the President of the.... ``Healthy Parks, Healthy People,'' the focus for this year's National Park Week, highlights the role of... waived during National Park Week. All Americans can visit www.NPS.gov to find nearby parks where...

  16. Nutritional condition of elk in rocky mountain national park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Cook, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that elk in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) were at ecological carrying capacity by determining herd-specific levels of nutritional condition and fecundity. Ingesta-free body fat levels in adult cows that were lactating were 10.6% (s = 1.7; range = 6.2-15.4) and 7.7% (s = 0.5; range = 5.9-10.1) in November 2001 for the Horseshoe and Moraine Park herds, respectively. Cows that were not lactating were able to accrue significantly more body fat: 14.0% (s = 1.1; range = 7.7-19.3) and 11.5% (s = 0.8; range = 8.6-15.1) for the Horseshoe and Moraine Park herds, respectively. Cow elk lost most of their body fat over winter (April 2002 levels were 3.9% [s = 0.4] and 2.9% [s = 0.4] for the Horseshoe and Moraine Park herds, respectively). Nutritional condition indicated that both Horseshoe Park and Moraine Park elk were well below condition levels elk can achieve on very good-excellent nutrition (i.e., >15% body fat; Cook et al. 2004) and were comparable to other free-ranging elk populations. However, condition levels were higher than those expected at a "food-limited" carrying capacity, and a proportion of elk in each herd were able to achieve condition levels indicative of very good-excellent nutrition. Elk in RMNP are likely regulated and/or limited by a complex combination of density-independent (including significant heterogeneity in forage conditions across RMNP's landscape) and density-dependent processes, as condition levels contradict a simple density-dependent model of a population at ecological carrying capacity.

  17. Quasispecies on Fitness Landscapes.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Selection-mutation dynamics is studied as adaptation and neutral drift on abstract fitness landscapes. Various models of fitness landscapes are introduced and analyzed with respect to the stationary mutant distributions adopted by populations upon them. The concept of quasispecies is introduced, and the error threshold phenomenon is analyzed. Complex fitness landscapes with large scatter of fitness values are shown to sustain error thresholds. The phenomenological theory of the quasispecies introduced in 1971 by Eigen is compared to approximation-free numerical computations. The concept of strong quasispecies understood as mutant distributions, which are especially stable against changes in mutations rates, is presented. The role of fitness neutral genotypes in quasispecies is discussed.

  18. Multi-scale factors influencing the characteristics of avian communities in urban parks across Beijing during the breeding season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shilin; Lu, Fei; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Weiqi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the factors that influence the characteristics of avian communities using urban parks at both the patch and landscape level is important to focus management effort towards enhancing bird diversity. Here, we investigated this issue during the breeding season across urban parks in Beijing, China, using high-resolution satellite imagery. Fifty-two bird species were recorded across 29 parks. Analysis of residence type of birds showed that passengers were the most prevalent (37%), indicating that Beijing is a major node in the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Park size was crucial for total species abundance, but foliage height diversity was the most important factor influencing avian species diversity. Thus, optimizing the configuration of vertical vegetation structure in certain park areas is critical for supporting avian communities in urban parks. Human visitation also showed negative impact on species diversity. At the landscape level, the percentage of artificial surface and largest patch index of woodland in the buffer region significantly affected total species richness, with insectivores and granivores being more sensitive to the landscape pattern of the buffer region. In conclusion, urban birds in Beijing are influenced by various multi-scale factors; however, these effects vary with different feeding types.

  19. Multi-scale factors influencing the characteristics of avian communities in urban parks across Beijing during the breeding season

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shilin; Lu, Fei; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Weiqi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors that influence the characteristics of avian communities using urban parks at both the patch and landscape level is important to focus management effort towards enhancing bird diversity. Here, we investigated this issue during the breeding season across urban parks in Beijing, China, using high-resolution satellite imagery. Fifty-two bird species were recorded across 29 parks. Analysis of residence type of birds showed that passengers were the most prevalent (37%), indicating that Beijing is a major node in the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Park size was crucial for total species abundance, but foliage height diversity was the most important factor influencing avian species diversity. Thus, optimizing the configuration of vertical vegetation structure in certain park areas is critical for supporting avian communities in urban parks. Human visitation also showed negative impact on species diversity. At the landscape level, the percentage of artificial surface and largest patch index of woodland in the buffer region significantly affected total species richness, with insectivores and granivores being more sensitive to the landscape pattern of the buffer region. In conclusion, urban birds in Beijing are influenced by various multi-scale factors; however, these effects vary with different feeding types. PMID:27404279

  20. Enhancement Through Landscaping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Charles

    1985-01-01

    Landscaping can make the school environment more attractive, thus encouraging students' intellectual, emotional, and physical development. Guidelines are offered for comprehensive site planning, tree and plant selection, and grounds maintenance. (MLF)

  1. New Challenges in Campus Parking Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mah, Allan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the challenges campus parking professionals face from the increased demands of organizations to improve parking service levels with diminishing resources. Campus parking operations are explored with an awareness of the needs, attitudes, and demands of customers in mind. (GR)

  2. 32 CFR 636.14 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.14 Parking... parking in handicapped and Commanding General reserved parking spaces at Fort Stewart/Hunter Army...

  3. California Community Colleges Parking Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Chuck

    In 1990, a representative sample of 25 California community colleges was contacted by telephone to determine their parking policies and practices. The colleges were sampled on the basis of location and size. Study findings included the following: (1) 17 of the colleges reported that they had insufficient numbers of on-campus parking spaces; (2)…

  4. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  5. AmeriFlux US-PFa Park Falls/WLEF

    DOE Data Explorer

    Desai, Ankur [University of Wisconsin

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-PFa Park Falls/WLEF. Site Description - The flux footprint encompasses a highly heterogeneous landscape of upland forests and wetlands (forested and nonforested). The forests are mainly deciduous but also include substantial coniferous coverage. The upland/lowland variability occurs on spatial scales of a few hundred meters. This heterogeneous landscape is further complicated by a nonuniform, small scale mosaic of thinning and clearcutting of the forest. At larger scales (1 km or greater) the forest cover mosaic is quite homogeneous for many kilometers. The site was chosen not for study of a simple stand, but for upscaling experiments. The daytime fetch of flux measurements from the 396m level is on the order of 5-10 km, yielding a flux footprint roughly 100x the area of a typical stand-level flux tower. AC power (tower is a TV transmitter).

  6. Landscape evolution (A Review)

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Robert P.

    1982-01-01

    Landscapes are created by exogenic and endogenic processes acting along the interface between the lithosphere and the atmosphere and hydrosphere. Various landforms result from the attack of weathering and erosion upon the highly heterogeneous lithospheric surface. Landscapes are dynamic, acutely sensitive to natural and artificial perturbation. Undisturbed, they can evolve through a succession of stages to a plain of low relief. Often, the progression of an erosion cycle is interrupted by tectonic or environmental changes; thus, many landscapes preserve vestiges of earlier cycles useful in reconstructing the recent history of Earth's surface. Landforms are bounded by slopes, so their evolution is best understood through study of slopes and the complex of factors controlling slope character and development. The substrate, biosphere, climatic environment, and erosive processes are principal factors. Creep of the disintegrated substrate and surface wash by water are preeminent. Some slopes attain a quasisteady form and recede parallel to themselves (backwearing); others become ever gentler with time (downwearing). The lovely convex/rectilinear/concave profile of many debris-mantled slopes reflects an interplay between creep and surface wash. Landscapes of greatest scenic attraction are usually those in which one or two genetic factors have strongly dominated or those perturbed by special events. Nature has been perturbing landscapes for billions of years, so mankind can learn about landscape perturbation from natural examples. Images

  7. Wheeling and Dealing in the National Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Sydney

    1973-01-01

    Motor vehicles and commercialism have generated serious problems within the national park system. A Conservation Foundation suggests new directions in management for the National Park Service. (Editors)

  8. Spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies with reference to indigenous cattle populations among contrasting agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kabi, Fredrick; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous cattle populations exhibit various degrees of agro-ecological fitness and provide desirable opportunities for investments to improve sustainable production for better rural small-scale farmers' incomes globally. However, they could be a source of infection to their attendants and other susceptible livestock if their brucellosis status remains unknown. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda. Sera from a total of 925 indigenous cattle (410 Ankole Bos taurus indicus, 50 Nganda and 465 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) - B. indicus) obtained randomly from 209 herds spread throughout Uganda were sequentially analysed for Brucella antibodies using the indirect (I) and competitive (C) enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA). Recent incidences of abortion within the previous 12 months and routine hygienic practices during parturition were explored for public health risks. Brucella antibodies occurred in approximately 8.64% (80/925) and 28.70% (95% CI: 22.52, 34.89) of the sampled individual cattle and herds, respectively. Findings have shown that Ankole and EASZ cattle had similar seroprevalences. Indigenous cattle from the different study agro-ecological zones (AEZs) exhibited varying seroprevalences ranging from approximately 1.78% (95% CI: 0, 5.29) to 19.67% (95% CI: 8.99, 30.35) in the Lake Victoria Crescent (LVC) and North Eastern Drylands (NED) respectively. Significantly higher odds for Brucella antibodies occurred in the NED (OR: 3.40, 95% CI: 1.34, 8.57, p=0.01) inhabited by EASZ cattle compared to the KP (reference category) AEZ. Recent incidences of abortions within the previous 12 months were significantly (p<0.001) associated with seropositive herds. These findings add critical evidence to existing information on the widespread occurrence of brucellosis among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda and could guide allocation of meagre resources for awareness creation

  9. Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, Gerald A; Yin, Tongming

    2008-10-01

    Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

  10. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    Landscape is the object of human perceptions, being the image of spatial organization of elements and structures: mankind lives the first approach with the environment, viewing and feeling the landscape. Many definitions of landscape have been given over time: in this case we refer to the Landscape defined as the result of interaction among physical, biotic and anthropic phenomena acting in a different spatial-temporal scale (Foreman & Godron) Following an Aristotelic approach in studying nature, we can assert that " Shape is synthesis": so it is possible to read the land features as the expression of the endogenous and exogenous processes that mould earth surfaces; moreover, Landscape is the result of the interaction of natural and cultural components, and conditions the spatial-temporal development of a region. The study of the Landscape offers results useful in order to promote sustainable development, ecotourism, enhancement of natural and cultural heritage, popularization of the scientific knowledge. In Italy, a very important GIS-based tool to represent the territory is the "Carta della Natura" ("Map of Nature", presently coordinated by the ISPRA) that aims at assessing the state of the whole Italian territory, analyzing Landscape. The methodology follows a holistic approach, taking into consideration all the components of a landscape and then integrating the information. Each individual landscape, studied at different scales, shows distinctive elements: structural, which depend on physical form and specific spatial organization; functional, which depend on relationships created between biotic and abiotic elements, and dynamic, which depend on the successive evolution of the structure. The identification of the landscape units, recognized at different scales of analysis, allows an evaluation of the state of the land, referring to the dual risk/resource which characterizes the Italian country. An interesting opportunity is to discover those areas of unusual

  11. Perceptions of risk in communities near parks in an African biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Hartter, Joel; Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; MacKenzie, Catrina A; Ryan, Sadie J; Diem, Jeremy E; Palace, Michael W; Chapman, Colin A

    2016-10-01

    Understanding conservation and livelihood threats in park landscapes is important to informing conservation policy. To identify threats, we examined perceived risks of residents living near three national parks in Uganda. We used cross-sectional household data to document, rank, and measure severity of perceived risks. Three risk categories, grouped into protected area, climate, and health, were cited by 80 % of respondents and received the highest severity scores. Elevation, proximity to the park, local forest loss, recent population change, and measures of poverty were the most important variables in predicting whether or not an individual identified these risks as the most or second most severe risk. Health issues were cited throughout the landscape, while problems attributed to climate (mainly insufficient rainfall) were reported to be most severe farther from the park. Increased population density was associated with increased perceived risk of health challenges, but decreased perceived risks attributed to the park and climate. Participatory risk mapping provides the opportunity to make standardized comparisons across sites, to help identify commonalities and differences, as a first step to examining the degree to which conservation management might address some of these local challenges and where mitigation techniques might be transferable between different sites or conflict scenarios.

  12. A floral survey of cliff habitats along Bull Run at Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, Esther D.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Grabner, Keith W.

    2015-08-06

    Isolated patches of native vegetation in human-modified landscapes are important reservoirs of biological diversity because they may be the only places in which rare or native species can persist. Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia, is an island embedded in a matrix of intensively modified lands; it is becoming increasingly isolated due to growth of the greater Washington, D.C. area. A series of cliffs along Bull Run support an eastern white pine community disjunct from its more typical range in the Appalachian Mountains. Cliffs frequently support vegetation communities that differ from surrounding habitat. In this ecological context, the cliffs along Bull Run are islands of specialized habitat within an island of natural and semi-natural communities (the park), surrounded by a human-dominated landscape. A floral survey of these cliffs was a top priority identified by the National Park Service National Capital Region via the National Resource Preservation Program; in 2014, we completed a floral survey of 11 cliffs in the park. We recorded 282 species in 194 genera and 83 families, including 23 newly documented species for the park.

  13. Aftermath of Griffith Park Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  14. 78 FR 14822 - Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Concessions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Concessions AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (National Park Service, NPS... Madonna L. Baucum, Information Collection Clearance Officer, National Park Service, 1201 I Street NW.,...

  15. Effect of agro-ecological zone, season of birth and sex on pre-weaning performance of Nguni calves in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mpofu, T J; Ginindza, M M; Siwendu, N A; Nephawe, K A; Mtileni, B J

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of agro-ecological zone, season of birth and sex on Nguni calves' pre-weaning performance. Production indices such as birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), pre-weaning average daily gain (P-ADG) and pre-weaning gain (P-WG) were assessed in the different agro-ecological zones. Herd records on performance of 826 Nguni calves' from nine Nguni herds representing different agro-ecological zones: arid zone (n = 217); semi-arid zone (n = 296); dry sub-humid zone (n = 118) and humid zone (n = 195) were used for the analysis of pre-weaning calf performance. General linear model (GLM) procedure of SAS (2013) was used to analyse data, whereas mean separation was conducted using Tukey's HSD test. Agro-ecological zone had a great influence (P < 0.01) on performance levels arising from pasture conditions which were dependent on rain, temperature, topography and soil type. Fluctuations in WW, P-ADG and P-WG performance across agro-ecological zones depicted the sensitivity of Nguni calves' to postnatal stress. Calves' in humid zone had higher performance with 121.21 kg for WW, 96.83 kg for P-WG and 0.477 kg/day for P-ADG. The lowest WW (114.51 kg), P-WG (89.98 kg) and P-ADG (0.438 kg/day) were observed in arid zone. Male calves were heavier at weaning (128.18 kg), P-ADG (0.503 kg/day) and total gain (103.03 kg); however, similar BW of 25 kg was observed for both male and female calves. Season had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on BW, P-ADG and P-WG. The P-ADG was 0.461 kg/day for calves born in summer and 0.449 kg/day for calves born in winter season. Calves born in summer gained 94.69 kg and calves born in winter gained 92.10 kg. Summer calves gained 2.59 kg more than winter calves. Summer heifer calves performed poorly whilst summer male calves outperformed heifer calves in terms of WW, P-WG and P-ADG. Pre-weaned calves in humid zone outperformed all calves in other agro-ecological zones

  16. Serosurvey of peste des petits ruminants virus in small ruminants from different agro-ecological zones of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Woma, Timothy Y; Ekong, Pius S; Bwala, Dauda G; Ibu, John O; Ta'ama, Louisa; Dyek, Dyek Y; Saleh, Ladi; Shamaki, David; Kalla, Demo J U; Bailey, Dalan; Kazeem, Haruna M; Quan, Melvyn

    2016-03-11

    Peste des petits ruminants, caused by the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), is a highly contagious and economically important transboundary viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants and a major hindrance to small-ruminant production in Nigeria. The seroprevalence and distribution of PPRV antibodies in small ruminants in rural households, farms, live animal markets and slaughter slabs across the six different agro-ecological zones of Nigeria were determined. A total of 4548 serum samples from 3489 goats and 1059 sheep were collected in 12 states. A PPRV competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to test the samples and the data analysed with R statistical software version 3.0.1. The study animals included all ages and both sexes. The overall prevalence estimate of sera positive for PPRV antibodies was 23.16% (n = 1018 positive samples per 4548 total samples, 95% confidence interval: 21.79% - 24.57%). There were significant differences in the seroprevalence between the states (p = 0.001). Taraba State had the highest seroprevalence of 29.51%, whilst the lowest seroprevalence of 14.52% was observed in Cross River State. There were no significant differences in the PPRV seroprevalence between male and female animals (p = 0.571), age (p = 0.323) and between species (p = 0.639). These data indicate the current seroprevalence to PPRV in the small-ruminant population in Nigeria.

  17. Fungal and bacterial metabolites of stored maize (Zea mays, L.) from five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adetunji, Modupeade; Atanda, Olusegun; Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Sulyok, Michael; Warth, Benedikt; Beltrán, Eduardo; Krska, Rudolf; Obadina, Olusegun; Bakare, Adegoke; Chilaka, Cynthia A

    2014-05-01

    Seventy composite samples of maize grains stored in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Nigeria where maize is predominantly produced were evaluated for the presence of microbial metabolites with the LC-MS/MS technique. The possible relationships between the storage structures and levels of mycotoxin contamination were also evaluated. Sixty-two fungal and four bacterial metabolites were extracted from the grains, 54 of which have not been documented for maize in Nigeria. Aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 were quantified in 67.1 and 92.9% of the grains, while 64.1 and 57.1% exceeded the European Union Commission maximum acceptable limit (MAL) for aflatoxin B1 and fumonisins, respectively. The concentration of deoxynivalenol was, however, below the MAL with occurrence levels of 100 and 10% for its masked metabolite, deoxynivalenol glucoside. The bacterial metabolites had low concentrations and were not a source of concern. The storage structures significantly correlated positively or negatively (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05), respectively with the levels of grain contamination. Consumption of maize grains, a staple Nigerian diet, may therefore expose the population to mycotoxin contamination. There is need for an immediate action plan for mycotoxin mitigation in Nigeria, especially in the Derived Savannah zone, in view of the economic and public health importance of the toxins.

  18. Toxigenic potential of Aspergillus species occurring on maize kernels from two agro-ecological zones in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Okoth, Sheila; Nyongesa, Beatrice; Ayugi, Vincent; Kang'ethe, Erastus; Korhonen, Hannu; Joutsjoki, Vesa

    2012-10-25

    Two agro-ecological zones in Kenya were selected to compare the distribution in maize of Aspergillus spp. and their toxigenicity. These were Nandi County, which is the main maize growing region in the country but where no human aflatoxicoses have been reported, and Makueni County where most of the aflatoxicosis cases have occurred. Two hundred and fifty-five households were sampled in Nandi and 258 in Makueni, and Aspergillus was isolated from maize. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus isolates were tested for the presence of aflD and aflQ genes. Positive strains were induced to produce aflatoxins on yeast extract sucrose and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Aspergillus flavus was the most common contaminant, and the incidence of occurrence in Nandi and Makueni was not significantly different (82.33% and 73.26%, respectively). Toxigenic strains were more prevalent than non-toxigenic strains. All the toxigenic strains from Makueni were of the S-type while those from Nandi belonged to the l-type. Quantitative differences in aflatoxin production in vitro between isolates and between strains were detected with S strains producing relatively larger amounts of total aflatoxins, B toxins and lower values for G toxins. This was in accord with the frequent aflatoxicosis outbreaks in Makueni. However some L strains produced considerable amounts of B toxins. Given the widespread distribution of toxigenic strains in both regions, the risk of aflatoxin poisoning is high when favorable conditions for toxin production occur.

  19. A Survey of Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus sp. from Peanut Field Soils in Four Agroecological Zones of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chushu; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Yang, Qingli; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Peanut pods are easily infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp.ecies from field soil. To assess the aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp. in different peanut field soils, 344 aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus strains were isolated from 600 soil samples of four agroecological zones in China (the Southeast coastal zone (SEC), the Yangtze River zone (YZR), the Yellow River zone (YR) and the Northeast zone (NE)). Nearly 94.2% (324/344) of strains were A. flavus and 5.8% (20/344) of strains were A. parasiticus. YZR had the highest population density of Aspergillus sp. and positive rate of aflatoxin production in isolated strains (1039.3 cfu·g−1, 80.7%), the second was SEC (191.5 cfu·g−1, 48.7%), the third was YR (26.5 cfu·g−1, 22.7%), and the last was NE (2.4 cfu·g−1, 6.6%). The highest risk of AFB1 contamination on peanut was in YZR which had the largest number of AFB1 producing isolates in 1g soil, followed by SEC and YR, and the lowest was NE. The potential risk of AFB1 contamination in peanuts can increase with increasing population density and a positive rate of aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp. in field soils, suggesting that reducing aflatoxigenic Aspergillus sp. in field soils could prevent AFB1 contamination in peanuts. PMID:28117685

  20. The agro-ecological suitability of Atriplex nummularia and A. halimus for biomass production in Argentine saline drylands.

    PubMed

    Falasca, Silvia Liliana; Pizarro, María José; Mezher, Romina Nahir

    2014-09-01

    The choice of the best species to cultivate in semi-arid and arid climates is of fundamental importance, and is determined by many factors, including temperature and rainfall, soil type, water availability for irrigation and crop purposes. Soil or water salinity represents one of the major causes of crop stress. Species of the genus Atriplex are characterized by high biomass productivity, high tolerance to drought and salinity, and high efficiency in use of solar radiation and water. Based on a search of the international literature, the authors outline an agro-climatic zoning model to determine potential production areas in Argentina for Atriplex halimus and Atriplex numularia. Using the agroclimatic limits presented in this work, this model may be applied to any part of the world. When superimposed on the saline areas map, the agroclimatic map shows the suitability of agro-ecological zoning for both species for energy purposes on land unsuitable for food production. This innovative study was based on the implementation of a geographic information system that can be updated by further incorporation of complementary information, with consequent improvement of the original database.

  1. The agro-ecological suitability of Atriplex nummularia and A. halimus for biomass production in Argentine saline drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falasca, Silvia Liliana; Pizarro, María José; Mezher, Romina Nahir

    2014-09-01

    The choice of the best species to cultivate in semi-arid and arid climates is of fundamental importance, and is determined by many factors, including temperature and rainfall, soil type, water availability for irrigation and crop purposes. Soil or water salinity represents one of the major causes of crop stress. Species of the genus Atriplex are characterized by high biomass productivity, high tolerance to drought and salinity, and high efficiency in use of solar radiation and water. Based on a search of the international literature, the authors outline an agro-climatic zoning model to determine potential production areas in Argentina for Atriplex halimus and Atriplex numularia. Using the agroclimatic limits presented in this work, this model may be applied to any part of the world. When superimposed on the saline areas map, the agroclimatic map shows the suitability of agro-ecological zoning for both species for energy purposes on land unsuitable for food production. This innovative study was based on the implementation of a geographic information system that can be updated by further incorporation of complementary information, with consequent improvement of the original database.

  2. Estimated ultraviolet radiation doses in wetlands in six national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diamond, S.A.; Trenham, P.C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hossack, B.R.; Knapp, R.A.; Stark, L.; Bradford, D.; Corn, P.S.; Czarnowski, K.; Brooks, P.D.; Fagre, D.B.; Breen, B.; Dentenbeck, N.E.; Tonnessen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280–320-nm wavelengths) doses were estimated for 1024 wetlands in six national parks: Acadia (Acadia), Glacier (Glacier), Great Smoky Mountains (Smoky), Olympic (Olympic), Rocky Mountain (Rocky), and Sequoia/Kings Canyon (Sequoia). Estimates were made using ground-based UV-B data (Brewer spectrophotometers), solar radiation models, GIS tools, field characterization of vegetative features, and quantification of DOC concentration and spectral absorbance. UV-B dose estimates were made for the summer solstice, at a depth of 1 cm in each wetland. The mean dose across all wetlands and parks was 19.3 W-h m−2 (range of 3.4–32.1 W-h m−2). The mean dose was lowest in Acadia (13.7 W-h m−2) and highest in Rocky (24.4 W-h m−2). Doses were significantly different among all parks. These wetland doses correspond to UV-B flux of 125.0 μW cm−2 (range 21.4–194.7 μW cm−2) based on a day length, averaged among all parks, of 15.5 h. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a key determinant of water-column UV-B flux, ranged from 0.6 (analytical detection limit) to 36.7 mg C L−1 over all wetlands and parks, and reduced potential maximal UV-B doses at 1-cm depth by 1%–87 %. DOC concentration, as well as its effect on dose, was lowest in Sequoia and highest in Acadia (DOC was equivalent in Acadia, Glacier, and Rocky). Landscape reduction of potential maximal UV-B doses ranged from zero to 77% and was lowest in Sequoia. These regional differences in UV-B wetland dose illustrate the importance of considering all aspects of exposure in evaluating the potential impact of UV-B on aquatic organisms.

  3. From landscape to domain: Soils role in landscape classifications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil landscape classifications are designed to divide landscapes into units with significance for the provisioning and regulating of ecosystem services and the development of conservation plans for natural resources. More specifically, such classifications serve as the basis for stratifying manageme...

  4. Landscapes, tourism, and conservation

    PubMed

    Burger

    2000-04-17

    One key aspect of global change is a decrease in ecological integrity as more and more landscapes are developed, leaving a mosaic of intact refuges and degraded patches that may not be sufficient for conserving biodiversity. While increases in human population and shifts in the distribution of people affect land use, the temporary movement of people can have major implications for conservation and biodiversity. Three examples are presented where recreation/tourism can enhance the conservation of land on a landscape scale, leading to habitat protection and biodiversity preservation: (1) Shorebirds often require a matrix of different habitat types during migratory stopovers, and ecotourism can serve as a catalyst for landscape scale protection of habitat. (2) Riparian habitats can serve as corridors to link diverse habitat patches, as well as serving as biodiversity hotspots. (3) Remediation and rehabilitation of contaminated lands, such as those of the US Department of Energy, aimed at developing recreational activities on the uncontaminated portions, can be the most economical form of re-development with no increase in human or ecological risk. Since large areas on many DOE sites have been undisturbed since the Second World War, when they were acquired, they contain unique or valuable ecosystems that serve an important role within their regional landscapes. In all three cases the judicious development of recreational/tourist interests can encourage both the conservation of habitats and the wise management of habitats on a landscape scale. While some species or habitats are too fragile for sustained tourism, many can be managed so that species, ecosystems and ecotourists flourish. By contributing to the economic base of regions, ecotourists/recreationists can influence the protection of land and biodiversity on a landscape scale, contributing to ecosystem management. The human dimensions of land preservation and biodiversity protection are key to long

  5. 77 FR 24575 - National Park Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8801 of April 20, 2012 National Park Week... National Park Week, all 397 National Parks will offer free admission from April 21 through April 29, 2012... as our National Parks.'' This week, we honor the uniquely American idea behind them: that each of...

  6. Teacher's Guide to Independence National Historical Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Philadelphia, PA. Independence National Historical Park.

    Independence National Historical Park, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is operated by the National Park Service. The park was authorized by an Act of Congress on June 28, 1948, and formally established on July 4, 1956. The mission of Independence National Historical Park is to preserve its stories, buildings, and artifacts as a source of…

  7. Geothermal Monitoring in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heasler, H. P.; Jaworowski, C.; Susong, D. D.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2007-12-01

    When the first exploring parties surveyed the Yellowstone region in the late 19th Century, it was the geologic wonders - geysers, hot springs, mudpots, fumaroles - that captured their imaginations. Because of these treasures, the U.S. Congress set aside and dedicated this land of "natural curiosities" as the world's first "public pleasuring ground". Protection of Yellowstone's unique geothermal features is a key mission of Yellowstone National Park as mandated by U. S. Congressional law. In response to that mandate, the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program developed a peer-reviewed, Geothermal Monitoring Plan in 2003. With partial Congressional funding of the Plan in 2005, implementation of a scientific monitoring effort began. Yellowstone's scientific geothermal monitoring effort includes the acquisition of time-temperature data using electronic data loggers, basic water quality data, chloride flux data, estimates of radiative heat flux using airborne, thermal infrared imagery, geothermal gas monitoring, and the monitoring of groundwater wells. Time- temperature data are acquired for geysers, hot springs, steam vents, wells, rivers, and the ground. Uses of the time-temperature data include public safety, calibrating airborne thermal infrared-imagery, monitoring selected thermal features for potential hydrothermal explosions, and determining the spatial and temporal changes in thermal areas. Since 2003, upgrades of Yellowstone's stream gaging network have improved the spatial and temporal precision of the chloride flux, water quality, and groundwater components of the Geothermal Monitoring Plan. All of these methods serve both for geothermal monitoring and volcano monitoring as part of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. A major component of the Geothermal Monitoring Plan is remote sensing of the Yellowstone volcano and its active hydrothermal areas at various scales. The National Center for Landscape Fire Analysis at the University of Montana and the USDA

  8. Landscape evolutionary genomics.

    PubMed

    Lowry, David B

    2010-08-23

    Tremendous advances in genetic and genomic techniques have resulted in the capacity to identify genes involved in adaptive evolution across numerous biological systems. One of the next major steps in evolutionary biology will be to determine how landscape-level geographical and environmental features are involved in the distribution of this functional adaptive genetic variation. Here, I outline how an emerging synthesis of multiple disciplines has and will continue to facilitate a deeper understanding of the ways in which heterogeneity of the natural landscapes mould the genomes of organisms.

  9. Labyrinthine granular landscapes.

    PubMed

    Caps, H; Vandewalle, N

    2001-11-01

    We have numerically studied a model of granular landscape eroded by wind. We show the appearance of labyrinthic patterns when the wind orientation turns by 90 degrees. The occurrence of such structures is discussed. Moreover, we introduce the density n(k) of "defects" as the dynamic parameter governing the landscape evolution. A power-law behavior of n(k) is found as a function of time. In the case of wind variations, the exponent (drastically) shifts from two to one. The presence of two asymptotic values of n(k) implies the irreversibility of the labyrinthic formation process.

  10. Jurassic Park: Adventure in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shams, Marcia; Boteler, Trina

    1993-01-01

    Describes using the movie "Jurassic Park" as a foundation for a middle school interdisciplinary unit involving science, math, language arts, history, and geography. Suggested books and activities are presented. (PR)

  11. 76 FR 77131 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... National Park Service 36 CFR Part 7 RIN 1024-AD92 Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule... winter visitation and certain recreational activities in Yellowstone National Park for the...

  12. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.W.; Giraud, K.M.

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  13. An amusement park physics competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-07-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition reveals positive effects such as the acquisition of experimentation skills and improved attitudes towards physics.

  14. The risks associated with wastewater reuse and xenobiotics in the agroecological environment.

    PubMed

    Fatta-Kassinos, D; Kalavrouziotis, I K; Koukoulakis, P H; Vasquez, M I

    2011-09-01

    Treated wastewater reuse for irrigation, landscape and surface or groundwater replenishment purposes is being widely implemented. Although the reuse practice is accompanied by a number of benefits relating to the enhancement of water balances and soil nutrition by the nutrients existing in the treated effluents, a number of unanswered questions are still related to this practice. Besides the lack of knowledge in respect to possible elemental interactions that may influence the accumulation of heavy metals and other elements in the soil and the subsequent uptake by plants and crops, during the last several years, the technological progress in respect to analytical chromatographic methods has enabled the identification and quantitation of a number of organic xenobiotic compounds in treated wastewater. Therefore it is now known that the effluents' remaining organic matter most usually expressed as Chemical Oxygen Demand consists of a number of biorecalcitrant organic xenobiotic compounds including potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, etc. It is also widely accepted that the currently applied treatment processes for urban wastewater abatement fail to completely remove such contaminants and this lead to their subsequent release in the terrestrial and aquatic environment through disposal and reuse applications. The number of studies focusing on the analysis and the toxicological assessment of such compounds in the environment is constantly increasing the aim being to bridge the various knowledge gaps associated with these issues. The existing knowledge in respect to the relevant existing legislation framework, the types of elements and chemicals of concern, the uptake of xenobiotic pollutants and also that of other neglected chemical elements along with their potential environmental interactions constitute the focus of the present review paper. The review addresses the problems that might be related to the repeated treated wastewater release

  15. Climate Exposure of US National Parks in a New Era of Change

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, William B.; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    US national parks are challenged by climate and other forms of broad-scale environmental change that operate beyond administrative boundaries and in some instances are occurring at especially rapid rates. Here, we evaluate the climate change exposure of 289 natural resource parks administered by the US National Park Service (NPS), and ask which are presently (past 10 to 30 years) experiencing extreme (<5th percentile or >95th percentile) climates relative to their 1901–2012 historical range of variability (HRV). We consider parks in a landscape context (including surrounding 30 km) and evaluate both mean and inter-annual variation in 25 biologically relevant climate variables related to temperature, precipitation, frost and wet day frequencies, vapor pressure, cloud cover, and seasonality. We also consider sensitivity of findings to the moving time window of analysis (10, 20, and 30 year windows). Results show that parks are overwhelmingly at the extreme warm end of historical temperature distributions and this is true for several variables (e.g., annual mean temperature, minimum temperature of the coldest month, mean temperature of the warmest quarter). Precipitation and other moisture patterns are geographically more heterogeneous across parks and show greater variation among variables. Across climate variables, recent inter-annual variation is generally well within the range of variability observed since 1901. Moving window size has a measureable effect on these estimates, but parks with extreme climates also tend to exhibit low sensitivity to the time window of analysis. We highlight particular parks that illustrate different extremes and may facilitate understanding responses of park resources to ongoing climate change. We conclude with discussion of how results relate to anticipated future changes in climate, as well as how they can inform NPS and neighboring land management and planning in a new era of change. PMID:24988483

  16. Climate exposure of US national parks in a new era of change.

    PubMed

    Monahan, William B; Fisichelli, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    US national parks are challenged by climate and other forms of broad-scale environmental change that operate beyond administrative boundaries and in some instances are occurring at especially rapid rates. Here, we evaluate the climate change exposure of 289 natural resource parks administered by the US National Park Service (NPS), and ask which are presently (past 10 to 30 years) experiencing extreme (<5th percentile or >95th percentile) climates relative to their 1901-2012 historical range of variability (HRV). We consider parks in a landscape context (including surrounding 30 km) and evaluate both mean and inter-annual variation in 25 biologically relevant climate variables related to temperature, precipitation, frost and wet day frequencies, vapor pressure, cloud cover, and seasonality. We also consider sensitivity of findings to the moving time window of analysis (10, 20, and 30 year windows). Results show that parks are overwhelmingly at the extreme warm end of historical temperature distributions and this is true for several variables (e.g., annual mean temperature, minimum temperature of the coldest month, mean temperature of the warmest quarter). Precipitation and other moisture patterns are geographically more heterogeneous across parks and show greater variation among variables. Across climate variables, recent inter-annual variation is generally well within the range of variability observed since 1901. Moving window size has a measureable effect on these estimates, but parks with extreme climates also tend to exhibit low sensitivity to the time window of analysis. We highlight particular parks that illustrate different extremes and may facilitate understanding responses of park resources to ongoing climate change. We conclude with discussion of how results relate to anticipated future changes in climate, as well as how they can inform NPS and neighboring land management and planning in a new era of change.

  17. Zion National Park, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though the Grand Canyon may receive all the attention due to its tremendous size, the smaller canyons of the Southwest are arguably more sublime. This true-color image of Zion Canyon in southwestern Utah was taken by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus aboard the Landsat 7 satellite on October 10, 2001. Zion Canyon is located in the lower half of the image amidst the crisscross pattern of rock formations. The canyon walls, made of red and white sandstone, rise 2,000-3,000 feet from the canyon floor and are peppered with hanging vegetation. Over a period of four million years, the Virgin River cut a path through the western edge of the Colorado Plateau to form the canyon. The river and its tributaries resemble branches across the gray-green landscape in the upper section of the image. They eventually join the canyon, often as spectacular slot canyons only a few feet wide, and exit at the bottom of the image on the way to the Colorado River. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data provided by the Landsat 7 Science Team and the Arizona Regional Image Archive

  18. Shaping the Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on various agents that change the landscape. Includes teaching activities on weathering, water, wind and ice erosion, plate tectonics, sedimentation, deposition, mountain building, and determining contour lines. Contains reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  19. The New Postsecondary Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandeen, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Cathy Sandeen states that the new postsecondary landscape requires looking at higher education as a system that provides multiple pathways in and through the various parts of the system, all with the goal of helping students complete a postsecondary degree, credential, or certificate. Sandeen observes two strengths in professional…

  20. Landscape Management: Field Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carole A.

    These materials for a six-unit course were developed to prepare secondary and postsecondary students for entry-level positions in landscape management. The six units are on orientation, hand tools, light power equipment, water and watering techniques, planting and maintaining plant beds, and establishing and maintaining turf. The first section is…

  1. Landscape Management: Field Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Deborah; Newton, Steve

    This module is the second volume in a series of three publications on landscape management. The module contains five instructional units that cover the following topics: orientation; equipment; irrigation systems and maintenance; plant material identification and pests; and turf identification and pests. Each instructional unit follows a standard…

  2. Landscape Designs for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Patricia

    This annotated bibliography includes summaries of 15 books and articles dealing with the topic of school landscape design, as well as a brief introduction that comments on recent trends in the field. Most of the publications cited are fairly recent; about two-thirds of them were published after 1970. Annotations range from approximately 125 to 250…

  3. A Curious Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 'postcard' from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the view of the martian landscape southwest of the rover. The image was taken in the late martian afternoon at Meridiani Planum on Mars, where Opportunity landed at approximately 9:05 p.m. PST on Saturday, Jan. 24.

  4. Landscapes of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Maxine

    The commitment of educators to human development goals is a major theme of the booklet's 17 essays. Compiled from lectures written by the author during 1974-77, the essays explore individual potential, the cultural significance of various life situations, and personal fulfillment within each individual's particular landscape of work, experience,…

  5. Desert landscape irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, R.

    1995-06-01

    Industrialization can take place in an arid environment if a long term, overall water management program is developed. The general rule to follow is that recharge must equal or exceed use. The main problem encountered in landscape projects is that everyone wants a lush jungle setting, tall shade trees, ferns, with a variety of floral arrangements mixed in. What we want, what we can afford, and what we get are not always the same. Vegetation that requires large quantities of water are not native to any desert. Surprisingly; there are various types of fruit trees, and vegetables that will thrive in the desert. Peaches, plums, nut trees, do well with drip irrigation as well as tomatoes. Shaded berry plans will also do well, the strawberry being one. In summary; if we match our landscape to our area, we can then design our irrigation system to maintain our landscape and grow a variety of vegetation in any arid or semiarid environment. The application of science and economics to landscaping has now come of age.

  6. LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USDA Conservation Practices are applied at various scales ranging from a portion of a field or a specific farm operation to the watershed or landscape scale. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project is a joint effort of USDA Conservation and Research agencies to determine the...

  7. Landscape in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Christopher L.; Lloyd, William J.

    One of a series of Resource Papers for College Geography, this thematic study guide focuses on literary setting and the personal space of fictional characters as an approach to comparative literary study, and concurrently uses fictional treatments of landscape and place as a means to encourage greater sensitivity to geographical and architectural…

  8. Landscapes. Artists' Workshop Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Penny; Roundhill, Clare

    This instructional resource, designed to be used by and with elementary level students, provides inspiration for landscape painting by presenting the work of six different artists. These include: "Fuji in Clear Weather" (Katsushika Hokusai, 1823-29); "The Tree of Life" (Gustav Klimt, c. 1905-1909); "The Waterlily…

  9. Sharing a Disparate Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali-Khan, Carolyne

    2010-01-01

    Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, "Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged…

  10. Measuring and modelling light pollution at the Zselic Starry Sky Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolláth, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    One of the first 'International Dark-sky Parks' in Europe was established at the Zselic Landscape Protection Area in Hungary. A special monitoring program has been carrying on to survey the quality of the night sky using 'Sky Quality Meters' and DSLR cameras. The main conclusion of our measurements is that the local villages have only a minimal effect on the quality of the sky. There are light-domes due to the neighbouring cities only close to the horizon, the main source of obtrusive light is the city of Kaposvár. The anthropogenic component of zenith luminance of the night sky is obtained as the function of the distance from the city centre of Kaposvár. Our data were modelled by radiation transfer calculations. These results can help to draw attention to the energy emitted useless to the space and to protect our nocturnal landscape of nature parks for the next generations.

  11. Landscape Morphology of the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinlan, K. T.; Barnes, J. B.; Pavelsky, T.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers and rivers can significantly modify the shape of mountain landscapes. Following deformation and glaciation, bedrock river form and incision patterns are primarily controlled by variations in geologic structure, the glacial preconditioning of the landscape, and climate. However, the extent to which these factors integrate to affect Holocene patterns and rates of fluvial processes is poorly understood. Fluvial processes dominate the morphology of the Canadian Rocky Mountains today, though the inherited imprint of glaciers remains substantial. This study of fluvial geomorphology in the Athabasca River watershed in Jasper National Park, Alberta, addresses two primary ideas: (1) the fluvial response to deglaciation in alpine environments, and (2) the role of thrust belt geology affecting differential erosion in shaping post-orogenic topography. We use the 0.75 arc-second GeoBase Digital Elevation Model (~18m resolution) to analyze patterns of river concavity (θ) and normalized steepness index (ksn), estimate rock erodibility with field-based proxy measurements, and determine basin-averaged erosion rates using existing river gauge data. We find that bedrock geology and glacial preconditioning exhibit different yet recognizable morphological signatures and that they appear to be related to basin erosion rate. The principal differences we observe include the shape and scale of knickzones, magnitude of channel steepness values, channel concavity patterns, and relationship to bedrock geology. We find that lithologically controlled channel steepness patterns are contained to local spatial scales (<500m) and feature sharp increases in channel steepness at or near contacts between lithologies with differences in measured erodibility. By contrast, glacially controlled steepness patterns are expansive in spatial extent (1-10km), are insensitive to bedrock geology, and have higher overall channel steepness values than areas of lithologically controlled channel steepness

  12. Geomorphology of anthropogenic landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The construction of urban areas and the development of road networks leave a significant signature on the Earth surface, providing a geomorphological evidence to support the idea that humans are nowadays a geomorphic agent having deep effects on the morphological organization of the landscape. The reconstruction or identification of anthropogenic topographies, therefore, provides a mechanism for quantifying anthropogenic changes to the landscape systems in the Anthropocene. Following this research line, the present study tests the effectiveness of a recently published topographic index, the Slope Local Length of Autocorrelation (SLLAC, Sofia et al. 2014) to portrait anthropogenic geomorphology, focusing in particular on road network density, and urban complexity (UCI). At first, the research considers the increasing of anthropic structures and the resulting changes in the SLLAC and in two derived parameters (mean SLLAC per km2 and SLLAC roughness, or Surface Peak Curvature -Spc). As a second step, considering the SLLAC derived indices, the anthropogenic geomorphology is automatically depicted using a k-means clustering algorithm. In general, the increasing of road network density or of the UCI is positively correlated to the mean SLLAC per km2, while the Spc is negatively correlated to the increasing of the anthropic structures. Areas presenting different road network organization are effectively captured considering multiple combinations of the defined parameters. Landscapes with small scattered towns, and a network with long roads in a dendritic shape (with hierarchical branching) are characterized simultaneously by high mean SLLAC and low Spc. Large and complex urban areas served by rectilinear networks with numerous short straight lines and right angles, have either a maximized mean SLLAC or a minimized Spc or both. In all cases, the anthropogenic landscape identified by the procedure is comparable to the ones identified manually from orthophoto, with the

  13. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  14. Conflict Bear Translocation: Investigating Population Genetics and Fate of Bear Translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth ‘conflict bears’ from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape. PMID:26267280

  15. Epidemiological and evolutionary management of plant resistance: optimizing the deployment of cultivar mixtures in time and space in agricultural landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Frédéric; Rousseau, Elsa; Mailleret, Ludovic; Moury, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    The management of genes conferring resistance to plant–pathogens should make it possible to control epidemics (epidemiological perspective) and preserve resistance durability (evolutionary perspective). Resistant and susceptible cultivars must be strategically associated according to the principles of cultivar mixture (within a season) and rotation (between seasons). We explored these questions by modeling the evolutionary and epidemiological processes shaping the dynamics of a pathogen population in a landscape composed of a seasonal cultivated compartment and a reservoir compartment hosting pathogen year-round. Optimal deployment strategies depended mostly on the molecular basis of plant–pathogen interactions and on the agro-ecological context before resistance deployment, particularly epidemic intensity and landscape connectivity. Mixtures were much more efficient in landscapes in which between-field infections and infections originating from the reservoir were more prevalent than within-field infections. Resistance genes requiring two mutations of the pathogen avirulence gene to be broken down, rather than one, were particularly useful when infections from the reservoir predominated. Combining mixture and rotation principles were better than the use of the same mixture each season as (i) they controlled epidemics more effectively in situations in which within-field infections or infections from the reservoir were frequent and (ii) they fulfilled the epidemiological and evolutionary perspectives. PMID:26640518

  16. Community-based alternative breeding plans for indigenous sheep breeds in four agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mirkena, T; Duguma, G; Willam, A; Wurzinger, M; Haile, A; Rischkowsky, B; Okeyo, A M; Tibbo, M; Solkner, J

    2012-06-01

    Based on the results of participatory approaches to define traits in the breeding objectives, four scenarios of ram selection and ram use were compared via deterministic modelling of breeding plans for community-based sheep breeding programmes in four diverse agro-ecological regions of Ethiopia. The regions (and production systems) were Afar (pastoral/agro-pastoral), Bonga and Horro (both mixed crop-livestock) and Menz (sheep-barley). The schemes or scenarios differed in terms of selection intensity and duration of ram use. The predicted genetic gains per year in yearling weight (kilograms) were comparable across the schemes but differed among the breeds and ranged from 0.399 to 0.440 in Afar, 0.813 to 0.894 in Bonga, 0.850 to 0.940 in Horro, and 0.616 to 0.699 in Menz. The genetic gains per year in number of lambs born per ewe bred ranged from 0.009 to 0.010 in both Bonga and Horro. The predicted genetic gain in the proportion of lambs weaned per ewe joined was nearly comparable in all breeds ranging from 0.008 to 0.011. The genetic gain per year in milk yield of Afar breed was in the order of 0.018 to 0.020 kg, while the genetic gain per generation for greasy fleece weight (kg) ranged from 0.016 to 0.024 in Menz. Generally, strong selection and shorter duration of ram use for breeding were the preferred options. The expected genetic gains are satisfactory but largely rely on accurate and continuous pedigree and performance recording.

  17. Evaluations on the potential productivity of winter wheat based on agro-ecological zone in the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Li, Q.; Du, X.; Zhao, L.; Lu, Y.; Li, D.; Liu, J.

    2015-04-01

    Wheat is the most widely grown crop globally and an essential source of calories in human diets. Maintaining and increasing global wheat production is therefore strongly linked to food security. In this paper, the evaluation model of winter wheat potential productivity was proposed based on agro-ecological zone and the historical winter wheat yield data in recent 30 years (1983-2011) obtained from FAO. And the potential productions of winter wheat in the world were investigated. The results showed that the realistic potential productivity of winter wheat in Western Europe was highest and it was more than 7500 kg/hm2. The realistic potential productivity of winter wheat in North China Plain were also higher, which was about 6000 kg/hm2. However, the realistic potential productivity of winter wheat in the United States which is the main winter wheat producing country were not high, only about 3000 kg/hm2. In addition to these regions which were the main winter wheat producing areas, the realistic potential productivity in other regions of the world were very low and mainly less than 1500 kg/hm2, like in southwest region of Russia. The gaps between potential productivity and realistic productivity of winter wheat in Kazakhstan and India were biggest, and the percentages of the gap in realistic productivity of winter wheat in Kazakhstan and India were more than 40%. In Russia, the gap between potential productivity and realistic productivity of winter wheat was lowest and the percentage of the gap in realistic productivity of winter wheat in Russia was only 10%.

  18. Procedure for assessing visual quality for landscape planning and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimblett, H. Randal; Fitzgibbon, John E.; Bechard, Kevin P.; Wightman, J. A.; Itami, Robert M.

    1987-07-01

    Incorporation of aesthetic considerations in the process of landscape planning and development has frequently met with poor results due to its lack of theoretical basis, public involvement, and failure to deal with spatial implications. This problem has been especially evident when dealing with large areas, for example, the Adirondacks, Scenic Highways, and National Forests and Parks. This study made use of public participation to evaluate scenic quality in a portion of the Niagara Escarpment in Southern Ontario, Canada. The results of this study were analyzed using the visual management model proposed by Brown and Itami (1982) as a means of assessing and evaluating scenic quality. The map analysis package formulated by Tomlin (1980) was then applied to this assessment for the purpose of spatial mapping of visual impact. The results of this study illustrate that it is possible to assess visual quality for landscape/management, preservation, and protection using a theoretical basis, public participation, and a systematic spatial mapping process.

  19. Parking Assistance Systems using Human Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Massaki; Yoon, Kang Sup; Hashimoto, Hideki

    This paper dicusses the problem of parking assistance system development. Firstly, we propose the driver assistance systems general architecture based on path planning and human interface modules. A path generation method based on parking possibility area is developed for the parking assistance systems. The human interface designed for the parking assistance systems is then described. A prototype of the parking assistance systems based on the proposed architecture and approaches have been constructed. Proposed algorithms and implementation solutions in the prototype construction are described. The lane and row parking experimental results obtained with the prototype systems are also shown.

  20. Use of single large or several small policies as strategies to manage people-park interactions.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Catrina A; Baird, Timothy D; Hartter, Joel

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity conservation has been criticized for undermining or ignoring social well-being. Currently efforts to mutually promote social justice, rural development, and biodiversity conservation, which have been contentious and yielded mixed results, continue to spread despite a general dearth of effective management strategies. We contend that social and economic concerns should be integral to conservation planning and propose that the scale of these phenomena is also critical. To evaluate the merit of this proposal, we adopted and expanded a conservation management strategy framework developed by Joel Heinen and examined how population density, economic disparity, and ethnic heterogeneity vary spatially surrounding 2 contrasting protected areas in East Africa: Kibale National Park in Uganda and Tarangire National Park in Tanzania. Analyses of demographic, wealth, and ethnicity data from regional censuses and household surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010 indicated that choice of scale (landscape or community) changed the management strategies recommended by the model. Therefore, "several small" people-park management strategies varying around a given protected area may be more appropriate than a "single large" people-park strategy applied across an entire protected area. Correspondingly, scale adjusted Heinen recommendations offered new strategies for effective conservation management within these human landscapes not incorporated in current in situ management plans.

  1. Wildfire and landscape change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santi, P.; Cannon, S.; DeGraff, J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire is a worldwide phenomenon that is expected to increase in extent and severity in the future, due to fuel accumulations, shifting land management practices, and climate change. It immediately affects the landscape by removing vegetation, depositing ash, influencing water-repellent soil formation, and physically weathering boulders and bedrock. These changes typically lead to increased erosion through sheetwash, rilling, dry ravel, and increased mass movement in the form of floods, debris flow, rockfall, and landslides. These process changes bring about landform changes as hillslopes are lowered and stream channels aggrade or incise at increased rates. Furthermore, development of alluvial fans, debris fans, and talus cones are enhanced. The window of disturbance to the landscape caused by wildfire is typically on the order of three to four years, with some effects persisting up to 30 years.

  2. Sharing a disparate landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Khan, Carolyne

    2010-06-01

    Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, " Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged atmosphere of Israel. This forum article offers a response to their efforts. Writing from a framework of critical pedagogy, I use the concepts of space and time to anchor my analysis, as I examine the issue of power in this Jew/Arab collaborative environmental project. This response problematizes "sharing" in a landscape fraught with disparities. It also looks to further Tal and Alkaher's work by geographically and politically grounding it in the broader current conflict and by juxtaposing sustainability with equity.

  3. Driving the Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired

  4. Simulations of Fluvial Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattan, D.; Birnir, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Smith-Bretherton-Birnir (SBB) model for fluvial landsurfaces consists of a pair of partial differential equations, one governing water flow and one governing the sediment flow. Numerical solutions of these equations have been shown to provide realistic models in the evolution of fluvial landscapes. Further analysis of these equations shows that they possess scaling laws (Hack's Law) that are known to exist in nature. However, the simulations are highly dependent on the numerical methods used; with implicit methods exhibiting the correct scaling laws, but the explicit methods fail to do so. These equations, and the resulting models, help to bridge the gap between the deterministic and the stochastic theories of landscape evolution. Slight modifications of the SBB equations make the results of the model more realistic. By modifying the sediment flow equation, the model obtains more pronounced meandering rivers. Typical landsurface with rivers.

  5. Landscape approach to the formation of the ecological frame of Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman

    2015-04-01

    operating transit functions should include unified landscape systems of river valleys, their hollow-beam upstreams and drained lows. The most important elements of environmental infrastructure include the most valuable forest and wetland complexes, springs and other landscape and aquatic complexes, cultural and historical landscape complexes, landscape complexes with high concentration of cultural heritage sites, sites of natural and green areas with great potential of natural and recreational resources, natural and recreational parks, natural monuments. They can serve as centers of landscape and biological diversity and perform partial transit (migration) and buffer functions. The territory of the ecological framework can be used for strictly regulated or limited recreation (tourism, short leisure). The adjacent natural and green spaces and natural parks may play a buffer role for the SPNAs and valuable landscape complexes. The spatial pattern of the landscape complexes of Moscow allows to create a single ecological framework based on the landscape, distinct for its interrelated and complementary components. Its basis may be consisted of uniform landscape complexes of valley outwash plains and river valleys, their hollow-beam upstreams and drained lows which perform system forming, environmental and transit functions. In the plan river valleys and small erosional forms are as if enclosed in the gullies and constitute single paradynamic systems unified by lateral flows. Therefore not only the edges of river valleys, but also the rear seams of the valley outwash plains should become important natural boundaries, limiting urban development of the area. Their most important functional feature is that they serve as local collectors and surface water runoff channels. These landscape complexes are distinct for most dynamic natural processes and thus negative exogenous processes. The authors have drawn indigenous (conditionally restored) and modern landscapes of Moscow on a scale

  6. Anurans in a Subarctic Tundra Landscape Near Cape Churchill, Manitoba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, M.E.; Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships of anurans inhabiting subarctic regions are poorly understood, and anuran monitoring protocols developed for temperate regions may not be applicable across large roadless areas of northern landscapes. In addition, arctic and subarctic regions of North America are predicted to experience changes in climate and, in some areas, are experiencing habitat alteration due to high rates of herbivory by breeding and migrating waterfowl. To better understand subarctic anuran abundance, distribution, and habitat associations, we conducted anuran calling surveys in the Cape Churchill region of Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada, in 2004 and 2005. We conducted surveys along ~l-km transects distributed across three landscape types (coastal tundra, interior sedge meadow-tundra, and boreal forest-tundra interface) to estimate densities and probabilities of detection of Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata) and Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus). We detected a Wood Frog or Boreal Chorus Frog on 22 (87%) of 26 transects surveyed, but probability of detection varied between years and species and among landscape types. Estimated densities of both species increased from the coastal zone inland toward the boreal forest edge. Our results suggest anurans occur across all three landscape types in our study area, but that species-specific spatial patterns exist in their abundances. Considerations for both spatial and temporal variation in abundance and detection probability need to be incorporated into surveys and monitoring programs for subarctic anurans.

  7. Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul

    1995-05-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  8. Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul

    1995-01-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  9. Astrobiological Landscape and Neocatastrophism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, M. M.; Vukotic, B.

    2009-09-01

    We review results of the simple 1-D models of the Galactic Habitable Zone constructed within neocatastrophic paradigm. The emerging astrobiological landscape demonstrates the capability of this theoretical framework to resolve the classical puzzles of Fermi's paradox and Carter's anthropic argument against extraterrestrial intelligence. Preliminary results show that astrobiology offers a clear rationale for the "Copernican" assumption of typicality of the age of the terrestrial biosphere.

  10. Lichens of the U. S. national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. Copyright ?? 2005 by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

  11. Using Landscape and Bioclimatic Features to Predict the Distribution of Lions, Leopards and Spotted Hyaenas in Tanzania's Ruaha Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Abade, Leandro; Macdonald, David W.; Dickman, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Tanzania's Ruaha landscape is an international priority area for large carnivores, supporting over 10% of the world's lions and important populations of leopards and spotted hyaenas. However, lack of ecological data on large carnivore distribution and habitat use hinders the development of effective carnivore conservation strategies in this critical landscape. Therefore, the study aimed to (i) identify the most significant ecogeographical variables influencing the potential distribution of lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas across the Ruaha landscape; (ii) identify zones with highest suitability for harbouring those species; and (iii) use species distribution modelling algorithms (SDMs) to define important areas for conservation of large carnivores. Habitat suitability was calculated based on environmental features from georeferenced presence-only carnivore location data. Potential distribution of large carnivores appeared to be strongly influenced by water availability; highly suitable areas were situated close to rivers and experienced above average annual precipitation. Net primary productivity and tree cover also exerted some influence on habitat suitability. All three species showed relatively narrow niche breadth and low tolerance to changes in habitat characteristics. From 21,050 km2 assessed, 8.1% (1,702 km2) emerged as highly suitable for all three large carnivores collectively. Of that area, 95.4% (1,624 km2) was located within 30 km of the Park-village border, raising concerns about human-carnivore conflict. This was of particular concern for spotted hyaenas, as they were located significantly closer to the Park boundary than lions and leopards. This study provides the first map of potential carnivore distribution across the globally important Ruaha landscape, and demonstrates that SDMs can be effective for understanding large carnivore habitat requirements in poorly sampled areas. This approach could have relevance for many other important wildlife

  12. Using landscape and bioclimatic features to predict the distribution of lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas in Tanzania's Ruaha landscape.

    PubMed

    Abade, Leandro; Macdonald, David W; Dickman, Amy J

    2014-01-01

    Tanzania's Ruaha landscape is an international priority area for large carnivores, supporting over 10% of the world's lions and important populations of leopards and spotted hyaenas. However, lack of ecological data on large carnivore distribution and habitat use hinders the development of effective carnivore conservation strategies in this critical landscape. Therefore, the study aimed to (i) identify the most significant ecogeographical variables influencing the potential distribution of lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas across the Ruaha landscape; (ii) identify zones with highest suitability for harbouring those species; and (iii) use species distribution modelling algorithms (SDMs) to define important areas for conservation of large carnivores. Habitat suitability was calculated based on environmental features from georeferenced presence-only carnivore location data. Potential distribution of large carnivores appeared to be strongly influenced by water availability; highly suitable areas were situated close to rivers and experienced above average annual precipitation. Net primary productivity and tree cover also exerted some influence on habitat suitability. All three species showed relatively narrow niche breadth and low tolerance to changes in habitat characteristics. From 21,050 km2 assessed, 8.1% (1,702 km2) emerged as highly suitable for all three large carnivores collectively. Of that area, 95.4% (1,624 km2) was located within 30 km of the Park-village border, raising concerns about human-carnivore conflict. This was of particular concern for spotted hyaenas, as they were located significantly closer to the Park boundary than lions and leopards. This study provides the first map of potential carnivore distribution across the globally important Ruaha landscape, and demonstrates that SDMs can be effective for understanding large carnivore habitat requirements in poorly sampled areas. This approach could have relevance for many other important wildlife

  13. Surficial Geology of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1969-01-01

    Much of the ground surface around Mount Rainier volcano is directly underlain by loose geologic deposits that veneer the hard rock formations. Examples of these deposits are sand and gravel bars along the rivers, ridges of loose rock debris beside the glaciers, and sloping aprons of rock fragments beneath almost every cliff. Even though they are generally thin and inconspicuous when compared with the rock formations, these surficial deposits are clues to geologic events that have profoundly influenced the shape of the park's landscape. Thus, from the character and extent of glacial deposits one can judge the age and size of former glaciers that carved the cirques and deep canyons of the park; from the mudflows which streamed down nearly every valley one can infer the age and size of huge landslides of the past that helped determine Mount Rainier's present shape; and from the pumice deposits some of the volcano's recent eruptive activity can be reconstructed. The map (plate 1, in pocket) that accompanies this description of the surficial deposits of Mount Rainier National Park shows the location of the various geologic formations, and the explanation shows the formations arranged in order of their relative age, with the oldest at the bottom. The text describes the surficial deposits in sequence from older to younger. A discussion of the pumice deposits of the park, which were not mapped, is followed by a description of the formations shown on the geologic map. Inspection of the geologic map may lead the viewer to question why the surficial deposits are shown in more detail in a zone several miles wide around the base of the volcano than elsewhere. This is partly because the zone is largely near or above timberline, relatively accessible, and the surficial deposits there can be readily recognized, differentiated, and mapped. In contrast, access is more difficult in the heavily timbered parts of the park, and surficial deposits there are generally blanketed by a dense

  14. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  15. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, M. Cristina; Ssegane, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  16. Understanding patchy landscape dynamics: towards a landscape language.

    PubMed

    Gaucherel, Cédric; Boudon, Frédéric; Houet, Thomas; Castets, Mathieu; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Patchy landscapes driven by human decisions and/or natural forces are still a challenge to be understood and modelled. No attempt has been made up to now to describe them by a coherent framework and to formalize landscape changing rules. Overcoming this lacuna was our first objective here, and this was largely based on the notion of Rewriting Systems, also called Formal Grammars. We used complicated scenarios of agricultural dynamics to model landscapes and to write their corresponding driving rule equations. Our second objective was to illustrate the relevance of this landscape language concept for landscape modelling through various grassland managements, with the final aim to assess their respective impacts on biological conservation. For this purpose, we made the assumptions that a higher grassland appearance frequency and higher land cover connectivity are favourable to species conservation. Ecological results revealed that dairy and beef livestock production systems are more favourable to wild species than is hog farming, although in different ways. Methodological results allowed us to efficiently model and formalize these landscape dynamics. This study demonstrates the applicability of the Rewriting System framework to the modelling of agricultural landscapes and, hopefully, to other patchy landscapes. The newly defined grammar is able to explain changes that are neither necessarily local nor Markovian, and opens a way to analytical modelling of landscape dynamics.

  17. Understanding Patchy Landscape Dynamics: Towards a Landscape Language

    PubMed Central

    Gaucherel, Cédric; Boudon, Frédéric; Houet, Thomas; Castets, Mathieu; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Patchy landscapes driven by human decisions and/or natural forces are still a challenge to be understood and modelled. No attempt has been made up to now to describe them by a coherent framework and to formalize landscape changing rules. Overcoming this lacuna was our first objective here, and this was largely based on the notion of Rewriting Systems, also called Formal Grammars. We used complicated scenarios of agricultural dynamics to model landscapes and to write their corresponding driving rule equations. Our second objective was to illustrate the relevance of this landscape language concept for landscape modelling through various grassland managements, with the final aim to assess their respective impacts on biological conservation. For this purpose, we made the assumptions that a higher grassland appearance frequency and higher land cover connectivity are favourable to species conservation. Ecological results revealed that dairy and beef livestock production systems are more favourable to wild species than is hog farming, although in different ways. Methodological results allowed us to efficiently model and formalize these landscape dynamics. This study demonstrates the applicability of the Rewriting System framework to the modelling of agricultural landscapes and, hopefully, to other patchy landscapes. The newly defined grammar is able to explain changes that are neither necessarily local nor Markovian, and opens a way to analytical modelling of landscape dynamics. PMID:23049935

  18. Prevalence of the gastro-intestinal parasites of domestic chicken Gallus domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 in Tunisia according to the agro-ecological zones.

    PubMed

    Ben Slimane, Badreddine

    2016-09-01

    Helminthosis is a very important disease affecting the poultry industry, especially the traditionally reared free ranging chickens. In Tunisia, the poultry production is considered as the most important source of protein in as much as chickens provide 53 % of animal protein production. The traditionally reared poultry farming system exposes chickens to many types of parasites, however, very little work has been done to establish the extend of helminth infection in Tunisia. The aim of this work is to investigate various aspects of helminth infections. A significant difference (p < 0.01) was found between the prevalence rates of helminth parasites in the different agro-ecological zones. The highest prevalence was observed in lowland areas of northern Tunisia (Siliana district). This suggests that agro-ecology has a major influence on the distribution of helminth parasites. Recovered nematodes included Heterakis spp. (100 %), Ascaridia galli (53.33 %) and Acuaria hamulosa (37 %). The principal cestode species encountered were Hymenolepis spp. (73.33 %) and Raillietina spp. (33.33 %).

  19. Economic linkages to changing landscapes.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jeffrey M; Caldas, Marcellus M; Bergtold, Jason S; Sturm, Belinda S; Graves, Russell W; Earnhart, Dietrich; Hanley, Eric A; Brown, J Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Many economic processes are intertwined with landscape change. A large number of individual economic decisions shape the landscape, and in turn the changes in the landscape shape economic decisions. This article describes key research questions about the economics of landscape change and reviews the state of research knowledge. The rich and varied economic-landscape interactions are an active area of research by economists, geographers, and others. Because the interactions are numerous and complex, disentangling the causal relationships in any given landscape system is a formidable research challenge. Limited data with mismatched temporal and spatial scales present further obstacles. Nevertheless, the growing body of economic research on these topics is advancing and shares fundamental challenges, as well as data and methods, with work in other disciplines.

  20. Pastoral wildfires in the Mediterranean: understanding their linkages to land cover patterns in managed landscapes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Jabier; Martínez-Fernández, Jesús; Vega-García, Cristina

    2012-05-15

    The pastoral use of fire to regenerate rangelands is a major cause of wildfires in many Mediterranean countries. Despite producing important environmental impacts, this phenomenon has hardly ever been studied separately from other wildfire ignition causes. As extensive livestock breeding relies on the available pasture resources, we hypothesised that a higher rate of pastoral wildfire ignitions could be associated with land cover patterns, as these reflect the spatial arrangement of human activities in managed landscapes. To investigate these patterns, we studied landscape structure and the pastoral wildfires recorded between 1988 and 2000 in 24 Nature Park landscapes in Andalusia (Spain). The CORINE Land Cover map was reclassified according to five levels of grazing use and landscape metrics were calculated. Neural networks were developed to model the relationship between landscape metrics and pastoral wildfires, obtaining a set of significant variables which are discussed in the frame of land and livestock management in the region. We conclude that pastoral wildfire ignitions are more likely in landscapes where the pattern of being dominated by a matrix composed of several large patches of low to moderate grazing use, and having abundant small and elongated patches of higher grazing use, is more extreme. This pattern could be reflecting the persistence of numerous small livestock farms within an increasingly abandoned agrarian landscape. To prevent pastoral wildfires, land management could attempt to enlarge and merge those small patches of higher grazing use, reducing the amount of interface and their intermixture with the surrounding poorer pasture resources.

  1. Symmetry in the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

  2. Coltsville National Historical Park Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Blumenthal, Richard [D-CT

    2013-03-19

    04/23/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-27. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3979, which became Public Law 113-291 on 12/19/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Coltsville National Historical Park Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lieberman, Joseph I. [ID-CT

    2011-07-12

    10/19/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-224. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. 'Shockley park' stirs racism row

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-07-01

    A local authority in Northern California has encountered unexpected resistance to its decision to name a park after the Nobel-prize-winning physicist William Shockley, with a coalition of churches and civic groups preparing to petition against the name at a meeting scheduled for 23 July.

  5. Parking garage threats and countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sam

    2004-01-01

    Preventing and dealing with crime in hospital parking facilities poses a serious challenge to administration and security. Multiple methods to effectively combat the threats are described by the author, but their implementation depends on how seriously a healthcare organization views its responsibility to provide a safe and secure environment for its staff, patients and visitors.

  6. Egmont National Park, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lush forests of Egmont National Park, on New Zealand's North Island, contrast with the pasturelands outside the circular park boundaries. The unique shape of the park results from its first protection in 1881, which specified that a forest reserve would extend in a 9.6 km radius from the summit of Mt. Taranaki (named Mt. Egmont by Captain Cook). The park covers about 33,500 hectares and Mt. Egmont stands at 2518 m. The volcano began forming 70,000 years ago, and last erupted in 1755. A series of montane habitats occur in procession up the flanks of the volcano-from rainforest, to shrubs, to alpine, and finally snow cover. Image STS110-726-6, was taken by Space Shuttle crewmembers on 9 April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  7. Designing an Amusement Park Ride

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Robles, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    To improve access to STEM curriculum, an activity was planned that presents the opportunity to design and build using gears and other tools. In this challenge, preservice elementary school teachers were asked to mathematically analyze gears and create an amusement park ride that uses gears to spin. Although this lesson was implemented with…

  8. 78 FR 24323 - National Park Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8961 of April 19, 2013 National Park Week, 2013 By the President of the... be passed on. During National Park Week, we celebrate the wonders entrusted to us by our forebears..., and they summon us to experience it firsthand. This week, the National Park Service will make...

  9. Moon Park: A research and educational facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi; Saito, Takao; Ogawa, Yukimasa

    1992-01-01

    Moon Park has been proposed as an International Space Year (ISY) event for international cooperative efforts. Moon Park will serve as a terrestrial demonstration of a prototype lunar base and provide research and educational opportunities. The kind of data that can be obtained in the Moon Park facilities is examined taking the minimum number of lunar base residents as an example.

  10. 75 FR 12254 - National Park Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... National Park Service AGENCY: National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. ACTION: National... National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, National Park Service, will meet on Thursday and.... Cordell, Executive Director, National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, National......

  11. Theme Parks: Program Variety and Employment Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Jack B.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes a number of privately operated theme parks, explains why the parks have been successful, and looks at career opportunities for leisure professionals in this expanding area. Implications for recreation education are pointed out, and names and addresses of major companies in the theme park business are provided. (PP)

  12. "The Rosa Parks Story": Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onish, Liane B.

    On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, refused to give up her seat to a white man on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and she was arrested. On that day, Rosa Parks became the mother of the modern civil rights movement. This study guide may be used as a companion to "The Rosa Parks Story" video which aired on CBS…

  13. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parking. 263.10 Section 263.10 National Defense... VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless otherwise... parking space marked as not intended for his or her use. (9) Where directed not to do so by a...

  14. The Paradox of Parks in Low-Income Areas: Park Use and Perceived Threats

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn P.; Williamson, Stephanie; Marsh, Terry; Raaen, Laura; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about safety and perceived threats have been considered responsible for lower use of parks in high poverty neighborhoods. To quantify the role of perceived threats on park use we systematically observed 48 parks and surveyed park users and household residents in low-income neighborhoods in the City of Los Angeles. Across all parks, the majority of both park users and local residents perceive parks as safe or very safe. We noted apparently homeless individuals during nearly half of all observations, but very few instances of fighting, intimidating groups, smoking and intoxication. The presence of homeless individuals was associated with higher numbers of park users, while the presence of intoxicated persons was associated with lower numbers. Overall the strongest predictors of increased park use were the presence of organized and supervised activities. Therefore, to increase park use, focusing resources on programming may be more fruitful than targeting perceived threats. PMID:27065480

  15. A multivariate approach for mapping fire ignition risk: the example of the National Park of Cilento (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Guglietta, Daniela; Migliozzi, Antonello; Ricotta, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in fire management led landscape managers to adopt an integrated fire fighting strategy in which fire suppression is supported by prevention actions and by knowledge of local fire history and ecology. In this framework, an accurate evaluation of fire ignition risk and its environmental drivers constitutes a basic step toward the optimization of fire management measures. In this paper, we propose a multivariate method for identifying and spatially portraying fire ignition risk across a complex and heterogeneous landscape such as the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano, and Alburni (southern Italy). The proposed approach consists first in calculating the fire selectivity of several landscape features that are usually related to fire ignition, such as land cover or topography. Next, the fire selectivity values of single landscape features are combined with multivariate segmentation tools. The resulting fire risk map may constitute a valuable tool for optimizing fire prevention strategies and for efficiently allocating fire fighting resources.

  16. The concept of hydrologic landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrologic landscapes are multiples or variations of fundamental hydrologic landscape units. A fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is defined on the basis of land-surface form, geology, and climate. The basic land-surface form of a fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is an upland separated from a lowland by an intervening steeper slope. Fundamental hydrologic landscape units have a complete hydrologic system consisting of surface runoff, ground-water flow, and interaction with atmospheric water. By describing actual landscapes in terms of land-surface slope, hydraulic properties of soils and geologic framework, and the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration, the hydrologic system of actual landscapes can be conceptualized in a uniform way. This conceptual framework can then be the foundation for design of studies and data networks, syntheses of information on local to national scales, and comparison of process research across small study units in a variety of settings. The Crow Wing River watershed in central Minnesota is used as an example of evaluating stream discharge in the context of hydrologic landscapes. Lake-research watersheds in Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Nebraska are used as an example of using the hydrologic-landscapes concept to evaluate the effect of ground water on the degree of mineralization and major-ion chemistry of lakes that lie within ground-water flow systems.

  17. Long-term colonization ecology of forest-dwelling species in a fragmented rural landscape – dispersal versus establishment

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Kertu; Paal, Taavi; Liira, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    Species colonization in a new habitat patch is an efficiency indicator of biodiversity conservation. Colonization is a two-step process of dispersal and establishment, characterized by the compatibility of plant traits with landscape structure and habitat conditions. Therefore, ecological trait profiling of specialist species is initially required to estimate the relative importance of colonization filters. Old planted parks best satisfy the criteria of a newly created and structurally matured habitat for forest-dwelling plant species. We sampled species in 230 ancient deciduous forests (source habitat), 74 closed-canopy manor parks (target habitats), 151 linear wooded habitats (landscape corridors), and 97 open habitats (isolating matrix) in Estonia. We defined two species groups of interest: forest (107 species) and corridor specialists (53 species). An extra group of open habitat specialists was extracted for trait scaling. Differing from expectations, forest specialists have high plasticity in reproduction mechanisms: smaller seeds, larger dispersules, complementary selfing ability, and diversity of dispersal vectors. Forest specialists are shorter, less nutrient-demanding and mycorrhizal-dependent, stress-tolerant disturbance-sensitive competitors, while corridor specialists are large-seeded disturbance-tolerant competitors. About 40% of species from local species pools have immigrated into parks. The historic forest area, establishment-related traits, and stand quality enhance the colonization of forest specialists. The openness of landscape and mowing in the park facilitate corridor specialists. Species traits in parks vary between a forest and corridor specialist, except for earlier flowering and larger propagules. Forest species are not dispersal limited, but they continue to be limited by habitat properties even in the long term. Therefore, the shady parts of historic parks should be appreciated as important forest biodiversity-enhancing landscape

  18. Long-term colonization ecology of forest-dwelling species in a fragmented rural landscape - dispersal versus establishment.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Kertu; Paal, Taavi; Liira, Jaan

    2014-08-01

    Species colonization in a new habitat patch is an efficiency indicator of biodiversity conservation. Colonization is a two-step process of dispersal and establishment, characterized by the compatibility of plant traits with landscape structure and habitat conditions. Therefore, ecological trait profiling of specialist species is initially required to estimate the relative importance of colonization filters. Old planted parks best satisfy the criteria of a newly created and structurally matured habitat for forest-dwelling plant species. We sampled species in 230 ancient deciduous forests (source habitat), 74 closed-canopy manor parks (target habitats), 151 linear wooded habitats (landscape corridors), and 97 open habitats (isolating matrix) in Estonia. We defined two species groups of interest: forest (107 species) and corridor specialists (53 species). An extra group of open habitat specialists was extracted for trait scaling. Differing from expectations, forest specialists have high plasticity in reproduction mechanisms: smaller seeds, larger dispersules, complementary selfing ability, and diversity of dispersal vectors. Forest specialists are shorter, less nutrient-demanding and mycorrhizal-dependent, stress-tolerant disturbance-sensitive competitors, while corridor specialists are large-seeded disturbance-tolerant competitors. About 40% of species from local species pools have immigrated into parks. The historic forest area, establishment-related traits, and stand quality enhance the colonization of forest specialists. The openness of landscape and mowing in the park facilitate corridor specialists. Species traits in parks vary between a forest and corridor specialist, except for earlier flowering and larger propagules. Forest species are not dispersal limited, but they continue to be limited by habitat properties even in the long term. Therefore, the shady parts of historic parks should be appreciated as important forest biodiversity-enhancing landscape

  19. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  20. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  1. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  2. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  4. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  5. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  6. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  7. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  10. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... College Park. (a) The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park,...

  11. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park....

  12. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park....

  13. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Voyageurs National Park. 7.33 Section 7.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless...

  14. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  15. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  16. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  17. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  18. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voyageurs National Park. 7.33 Section 7.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless...

  19. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  20. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  1. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voyageurs National Park. 7.33 Section 7.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless...

  2. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  4. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voyageurs National Park. 7.33 Section 7.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless...

  5. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel Islands National Park. 7.84 Section 7.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park....

  7. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...

  8. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  10. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  11. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...

  12. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  13. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  14. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  15. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  16. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  17. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  18. 36 CFR 7.27 - Dry Tortugas National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dry Tortugas National Park. 7.27 Section 7.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.27 Dry Tortugas National Park. (a) What...

  19. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  20. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  1. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Channel Islands National Park. 7.84 Section 7.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park....

  4. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  5. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  7. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a)...

  10. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  11. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  12. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  15. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  16. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

  17. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  18. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

  19. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky Mountains National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) License. A person fishing within the park must have in possession the...

  20. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky Mountains National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) License. A person fishing within the park must have in possession the...

  1. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  2. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a)...

  3. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  4. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  7. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...

  8. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...

  10. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  11. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  12. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  14. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  15. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  16. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  17. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky Mountains National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) License. A person fishing within the park must have in possession the...

  18. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  19. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  20. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky Mountains National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) License. A person fishing within the park must have in possession the...

  1. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

  3. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a)...

  4. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycling. (1) The...

  6. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  7. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  8. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  10. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  11. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  12. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...

  13. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  14. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  15. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky Mountains National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) License. A person fishing within the park must have in possession the...

  16. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  17. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

  18. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  19. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  20. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

  1. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  2. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  3. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycling. (1) The...

  4. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  5. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  7. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-10-01

    Humans are now the dominant driver of global climate change. From ocean acidification to sea level rise, changes in precipitation patterns, and rising temperatures, global warming is presenting us with an uncertain future. However, this is not the first time human civilizations have faced a changing world. In the AGU monograph Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations, editors Liviu Giosan, Dorian Q. Fuller, Kathleen Nicoll, Rowan K. Flad, and Peter C. Clift explore how some ancient peoples weathered the shifting storms while some faded away. In this interview, Eos speaks with Liviu Giosan about the decay of civilizations, ancient adaptation, and the surprisingly long history of humanity's effect on the Earth.

  8. Wind-Eroded Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    5 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust-mantled, wind-eroded landscape in the Medusae Sulci region of Mars. Wind eroded the bedrock in this region, and then, later, windblown dust covered much of the terrain.

    Location near: 5.7oS, 160.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  9. Probing the String Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Dienes

    2009-12-01

    We are currently in the throes of a potentially huge paradigm shift in physics. Motivated by recent developments in string theory and the discovery of the so-called "string landscape", physicists are beginning to question the uniqueness of fundamental theories of physics and the methods by which such theories might be understood and investigated. In this colloquium, I will give a non-technical introduction to the nature of this paradigm shift and how it developed. I will also discuss some of the questions to which it has led, and the nature of the controversies it has spawned.

  10. Stonehenge and its Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    In the 1960s and 1970s, Stonehenge polarized academic opinion between those (mainly astronomers) who claimed it demonstrated great astronomical sophistication and those (mainly archaeologists) who denied it had anything to do with astronomy apart from the solstitial alignment of its main axis. Now, several decades later, links to the annual passage of the sun are generally recognized as an essential part of the function and meaning not only of Stonehenge but also of several other nearby monuments, giving us important insights into beliefs and actions relating to the seasonal cycle by the prehistoric communities who populated this chalkland landscape in the third millennium BC Links to the moon remain more debatable.

  11. Probing the String Landscape

    ScienceCinema

    Keith Dienes

    2016-07-12

    We are currently in the throes of a potentially huge paradigm shift in physics. Motivated by recent developments in string theory and the discovery of the so-called "string landscape", physicists are beginning to question the uniqueness of fundamental theories of physics and the methods by which such theories might be understood and investigated. In this colloquium, I will give a non-technical introduction to the nature of this paradigm shift and how it developed. I will also discuss some of the questions to which it has led, and the nature of the controversies it has spawned.

  12. Vegetation and substrate on aeolian landscapes in the Colorado River corridor, Cataract Canyon, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Gillette, Elizabeth R.

    2010-01-01

    Vegetation and substrate data presented in this report characterize ground cover on aeolian landscapes of the Colorado River corridor through Cataract Canyon, Utah, in Canyonlands National Park. The 27-km-long Cataract Canyon reach has undergone less anthropogenic alteration than other reaches of the mainstem Colorado River. Characterizing ecosystem parameters there provides a basis against which to evaluate future changes, such as those that could result from the further spread of nonnative plant species or increased visitor use. Upstream dams have less effect on the hydrology and sediment supply in Cataract Canyon compared with downstream reaches in Grand Canyon National Park. For this reason, comparison of these vegetation and substrate measurements with similar data from aeolian landscapes of Grand Canyon will help to resolve the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on the Colorado River corridor ecosystem.

  13. Conceptual models as hypotheses in monitoring urban landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lookingbill, Todd R; Gardner, Robert H; Townsend, Philip A; Carter, Shawn L

    2007-08-01

    Many problems and challenges of ecosystem management currently are driven by the rapid pace and spatial extent of landscape change. Parks and reserves within areas of high human population density are especially challenged to meet the recreational needs of local populations and to preserve valued environmental resources. The complex problem of managing multiple objectives and multiple resources requires an enormous quantity of information, and conceptual models have been proposed as tools for organizing and interpreting this information. Academics generally prefer a bottom-up approach to model construction that emphasizes ecologic theory and process, whereas managers often use a top-down approach that takes advantage of existing information to address more pragmatic objectives. The authors propose a formal process for developing, applying, and testing conceptual models to be used in landscape monitoring that reconciles these seemingly opposing perspectives. The four-step process embraces the role of hypothesis testing in the development of models and evaluation of their utility. An example application of the process to a network of national parks in and around Washington, DC illustrates the ability of the approach to systematically identify monitoring data that would both advance ecologic theory and inform management decisions.

  14. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  15. Norwegian millstone quarry landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Meyer, Gurli; Grenne, Tor

    2013-04-01

    Rotary querns and millstones were used in Norway since just after the Roman Period until the last millstone was made in the 1930s. Throughout all this time millstone mining was fundamental for daily life: millstones were needed to grind grain, our most important food source. We can find millstone quarries in many places in the country from coast to mountain. Some of them cover many square kilometers and count hundreds of quarries as physical testimonies of a long and great production history. Other quarries are small and hardly visible. Some of this history is known through written and oral tradition, but most of it is hidden and must be reconstructed from the traces we can find in the landscape today. The Millstone project has put these quarry landscapes on the map, and conducted a range of case studies, including characterization of archaeological features connected to the quarrying, interpretation of quarrying techniques and evolution of such and establishing distribution and trade patterns by the aid of geological provenance. The project also turned out to be a successful cooperation between different disciplines, in particular geology and archaeology.

  16. The oxidation of landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempe, D.; Hahm, W. J.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2015-12-01

    At the base of the critical zone, fresh rock is transformed through chemical alteration of minerals and fracturing. The resulting hydrologically dynamic weathered bedrock zone strongly influences how mass is routed throughout a landscape. Studies of weathering in a variety of lithologies and climates have documented the role of oxygen in driving the onset of weathering. Porosity is generated through processes such as the formation of sulfuric acid via oxidative pyrite dissolution and strain via iron oxidation in biotite. The transport of meteoric oxygen is therefore a mechanism that links the topographic surface to weathering processes at depth. Here, we present an alternative to the theory that the advance of an oxidation front is driven by downward advection and diffusion of meteoric fluid. We present field data and theory that suggest that the slow drainage of groundwater within fresh bedrock drives the displacement of unreactive pore fluid from low-porosity fresh bedrock. This drainage, and the subsequent introduction of meteoric fluid to fresh rock, is a hillslope scale process driven by channel incision. The resulting distribution of weathered rock across the landscape is thus controlled by the fresh bedrock porosity and permeability and the rate of channel incision.

  17. Landscapes Impacted by Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, B.; Roca, J.

    2016-06-01

    The gradual spread of urbanization, the phenomenon known under the term urban sprawl, has become one of the paradigms that have characterized the urban development since the second half of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. However, there is no unanimous consensus about what means "urbanization". The plurality of forms of human settlement on the planet difficult to identify the urbanization processes. The arrival of electrification to nearly every corner of the planet is certainly the first and more meaningful indicator of artificialization of land. In this sense, the paper proposes a new methodology based on the analysis of the satellite image of nighttime lights designed to identify the highly impacted landscapes worldwide and to build an index of Land Impacted by Light per capita (LILpc) as an indicator of the level of urbanization. The used methodology allows the identification of different typologies of urbanized areas (villages, cities or metropolitan areas), as well as "rural", "rurban", "periurban" and "central" landscapes. The study identifies 186,134 illuminated contours (urbanized areas). In one hand, 404 of these contours could be consider as real "metropolitan areas"; and in the other hand, there are 161,821 contours with less than 5,000 inhabitants, which could be identify as "villages". Finally, the paper shows that 44.5 % live in rural areas, 15.5 % in rurban spaces, 26.2 % in suburban areas and only 18.4 % in central areas.

  18. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium.

  19. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium. PMID:25999294

  20. Assessing simulated ecosystem processes for climate variability research at Glacier National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.D.; Running, S.W.; Thornton, P.E.; Keane, R.E.; Ryan, K.C.; Fagre, D.B.; Key, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    Glacier National Park served as a test site for ecosystem analyses than involved a suite of integrated models embedded within a geographic information system. The goal of the exercise was to provide managers with maps that could illustrate probable shifts in vegetation, net primary production (NPP), and hydrologic responses associated with two selected climatic scenarios. The climatic scenarios were (a) a recent 12-yr record of weather data, and (b) a reconstituted set that sequentially introduced in repeated 3-yr intervals wetter-cooler, drier-warmer, and typical conditions. To extrapolate the implications of changes in ecosystem processes and resulting growth and distribution of vegetation and snowpack, the model incorporated geographic data. With underlying digital elevation maps, soil depth and texture, extrapolated climate, and current information on vegetation types and satellite-derived estimates of a leaf area indices, simulations were extended to envision how the park might look after 120 yr. The predictions of change included underlying processes affecting the availability of water and nitrogen. Considerable field data were acquired to compare with model predictions under current climatic conditions. In general, the integrated landscape models of ecosystem processes had good agreement with measured NPP, snowpack, and streamflow, but the exercise revealed the difficulty and necessity of averaging point measurements across landscapes to achieve comparable results with modeled values. Under the extremely variable climate scenario significant changes in vegetation composition and growth as well as hydrologic responses were predicted across the park. In particular, a general rise in both the upper and lower limits of treeline was predicted. These shifts would probably occur along with a variety of disturbances (fire, insect, and disease outbreaks) as predictions of physiological stress (water, nutrients, light) altered competitive relations and hydrologic

  1. Landscape genetics of the blotched tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum).

    PubMed

    Spear, Stephen F; Peterson, Charles R; Matocq, Marjorie D; Storfer, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The field of landscape genetics has great potential to identify habitat features that influence population genetic structure. To identify landscape correlates of genetic differentiation in a quantitative fashion, we developed a novel approach using geographical information systems analysis. We present data on blotched tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum) from 10 sites across the northern range of Yellowstone National Park in Montana and Wyoming, USA. We used eight microsatellite loci to analyse population genetic structure. We tested whether landscape variables, including topographical distance, elevation, wetland likelihood, cover type and number of river and stream crossings, were correlated with genetic subdivision (F(ST)). We then compared five hypothetical dispersal routes with a straight-line distance model using two approaches: (i) partial Mantel tests using Akaike's information criterion scores to evaluate model robustness and (ii) the BIOENV procedure, which uses a Spearman rank correlation to determine the combination of environmental variables that best fits the genetic data. Overall, gene flow appears highly restricted among sites, with a global F(ST) of 0.24. While there is a significant isolation-by-distance pattern, incorporating landscape variables substantially improved the fit of the model (from an r2 of 0.3 to 0.8) explaining genetic differentiation. It appears that gene flow follows a straight-line topographic route, with river crossings and open shrub habitat correlated with lower F(ST) and thus, decreased differentiation, while distance and elevation difference appear to increase differentiation. This study demonstrates a general approach that can be used to determine the influence of landscape variables on population genetic structure.

  2. Proceedings of the fourth conference on research in California's National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veirs, Stephen D.; Stohlgren, Thomas; Schonewald-Cox, Christine

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this proceedings were selected from the 63 presentations given at the Fourth Biennial Conference on Research in National Parks in California. The overall theme for this meeting was a recurring one: “The Integration of Research into National Park Service Resource Management Decisions.” The conference was held at the University of California, Davis, on 10-12 September 1991 and was sponsored by the National Park Service Cooperative Park Studies Unit and the Institute of Ecology at the University of California, Davis. This proceedings highlights a variety of research and resource management efforts to improve the stewardship of our most treasured landscapes. In the future, it will become increasingly more important for federal and state agencies, university scientists and students, and the public to cooperate fully to improve the quantity and quality of science and resource management programs in units of the National Park System. As many of the papers in this proceedings attest, we must look beyond the political boundaries of protected landscapes to incorporate entire ecosystems. Competing resource uses inside and outside parklands must be reexamined to weave a common thread of biological conservation. As scientists, our studies must bridge the gap from plots to landscapes and from landscapes to regions. Our studies must built on information from species and populations to ecosystems and the processes that influence them. The papers in this proceedings are modest but important contribution to those ideals. Each paper represents original research and has been peer-reviewed. Many agencies, institutions, and individuals contributed in the development of this product. In the planning stages, National Park Service Western Region scientists provided advice and assistance in structuring the conference format. University of California, Davis, graduate students, directed by Sharon Lynch, assisted with logistics at the meeting, and provided general assistance

  3. Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas

  4. The Geologic Story of Canyonlands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohman, Stanley William

    1974-01-01

    On September 12, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed an act of Congress establishing Canyonlands as our thirty second national park, the first addition to the park system since 1956. The birth of Canyonlands National Park was not without labor pains. In the 1930's virtually all the vast canyon country between Moab, Utah, and Grand Canyon, Ariz., was studied for a projected Escalante National Park. But Escalante failed to get off the ground, even when a second attempt was made in the 1950's. Not until another proposal had been made and legislative compromises had been worked out did the park materialize, this time under a new name - Canyonlands. Among the many dignitaries who witnessed the signature on September 12 was one of the men most responsible for the park's creation, park superintendent Bates E. Wilson, who did the pioneer spade work in the field.

  5. Wild pig populations in the National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Francis J.

    1981-05-01

    Populations of introduced European wild boar, feral pigs, and combinations of both types (all Sus scrola L.) inhabit thirteen areas in the National Park Service system. All parks have relatively stable populations, with the exception of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which reported a rapidly expanding wild boar population. Suspected and documented impacts were apparently related to pig densities and sensitivity of the ecosystem; the three largest units with dense wild pig populations reported the most damage. Overall, wild pigs are a relatively minor problem for the Park Service; however, problems are severe in at least three parks, and there is potential for invasion of wild boars into several additional parks in the Appalachian Mountains. More specific information is needed on numbers of wild pigs and their impacts in the various parks.

  6. Landscaping With Maintenance in Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Examines school ground landscape design that enhances attractive of the school and provides for easier maintenance. Landscape design issues discussed include choice of grass, trees, and shrubs; irrigation; and safety and access. Other considerations for lessening maintenance problems for facility managers are also highlighted. (GR)

  7. Landscape Solutions to School Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    Discusses key lessons in school landscape design. Landscapes should: (1) include trees and plants that themselves provide hands-on teaching opportunities; (2) enhance health and safety in a number of ways while performing their other functions; (3) be sensitively designed relative to location to cut energy costs; and (4) be aesthetic as well as…

  8. Complex Landscape Terms in Seri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Carolyn; Bohnemeyer, Jurgen

    2008-01-01

    The nominal lexicon of Seri is characterized by a prevalence of analytical descriptive terms. We explore the consequences of this typological trait in the landscape domain. The complex landscape terms of Seri classify geographic entities in terms of their material make-up and spatial properties such as shape, orientation, and merological…

  9. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  10. Fantasy Landscapes with a Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The author of this article describes using a Fantasy Landscapes lesson to get students expressing environmental issues through art. The Fantasy Landscapes lesson is an exploration of art elements and design principles through visual problem solving that links ideas, language, and theory to art. To get students thinking specifically about…

  11. Parks and golf course workers.

    PubMed

    Duvall, K

    2001-01-01

    Most of the work done by parks and golf course workers is performed outside, and they are subject to risks similar to those of other outdoor workers, such as temperature and weather-related problems, infectious diseases, and poisonous plants, snakes, and spiders. They are also exposed to physical hazards related to noise and operation of heavy equipment. Chemical hazards result from use of pesticides and solvents. This chapter reviews pertinent OSHA regulations, pre-placement strategies, and medical surveillance exams, and recommends preventive programs. More research is needed to determine specific hazards and work-related injury and illness rates for parks and golf course workers, so that effective preventive programs can be designed.

  12. Buddingtonite in Menlo Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pampeyan, Earl H.

    2010-01-01

    The mineral buddingtonite, named after A.F. Buddington, long-time professor of petrology at Princeton University, was first identified at the Sulfur Bank mine in Lake County, California (Erd and others, 1964). The ammonium feldspar was recognized in Menlo Park, California, in 1964 by the author, with Erd's help, shortly before publication of the original description of the new mineral. Subsequently, buddingtonite has been widely recognized in hydrothermal mineral deposits and has been used in remote-sensing applications by the mineral industry. Buddingtonite also has been identified in the Phosphoria Formation and in oil shales of the Green River Formation. This paper briefly describes the geologic setting and mineralogy of the occurrences of buddingtonite and other ammonium-bearing minerals in the vicinity of Menlo Park.

  13. Mercury in fishes from 21 national parks in the Western United States: inter- and intra-park variation in concentrations and ecological risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Willacker, James J.; Flanagan Pritz, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    of fish sampled were above a benchmark for risk to highly sensitive avian consumers (90 ng/g ww), and THg concentrations in 68 percent of fish sampled were above exposure levels recommended by the Great Lakes Advisory Group (50 ng/g ww) for unlimited consumption by humans. Of the fish assessed for risk to human consumers (that is, species that are large enough to be consumed by recreational or subsistence anglers), only one individual fish from Yosemite National Park had a muscle Hg concentration exceeding the benchmark (950 ng/g ww) at which no human consumption is advised. Zion, Capital Reef, Wrangell-St. Elias, and Lake Clark National Parks all contained sites in which most fish exceeded benchmarks for the protection of human and wildlife health. This finding is particularly concerning in Zion and Capitol Reef National Parks because the fish from these parks were speckled dace, a small, invertebrate-feeding species, yet their Hg concentrations were as high or higher than those in the largest, long-lived predatory species, such as lake trout. Future targeted research and monitoring across park habitats would help identify patterns of Hg distribution across the landscape and facilitate management decisions aimed at reducing the ecological risk posed by Hg contamination in sensitive ecosystems protected by the National Park Service.

  14. Heritage Park Facilities PV Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hobaica, Mark

    2013-09-26

    Project Objective: To procure a photovoltaic array (PV) system which will generate approximately 256kW of power to be used for the operations of the Aquatic Complex and the adjacent Senior Facility at the Heritage Park. This project complies with the EERE’s work and objectives by promoting the development and deployment of an energy system that will provide current and future generations with clean, efficient, affordable, and reliable energy.

  15. Genetic population substructure in bison at Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Natalie D; Gogan, Peter J P; Hedrick, Philip W; Wahl, Jacquelyn M; Derr, James N

    2012-01-01

    The Yellowstone National Park bison herd is 1 of only 2 populations known to have continually persisted on their current landscape since pre-Columbian times. Over the last century, the census size of this herd has fluctuated from around 100 individuals to over 3000 animals. Previous studies involving radiotelemetry, tooth wear, and parturition timing provide evidence of at least 2 distinct groups of bison within Yellowstone National Park. To better understand the biology of Yellowstone bison, we investigated the potential for limited gene flow across this population using multilocus Bayesian clustering analysis. Two genetically distinct and clearly defined subpopulations were identified based on both genotypic diversity and allelic distributions. Genetic cluster assignments were highly correlated with sampling locations for a subgroup of live capture individuals. Furthermore, a comparison of the cluster assignments to the 2 principle winter cull sites revealed critical differences in migration patterns across years. The 2 Yellowstone subpopulations display levels of differentiation that are only slightly less than that between populations which have been geographically and reproductively isolated for over 40 years. The identification of cryptic population subdivision and genetic differentiation of this magnitude highlights the importance of this biological phenomenon in the management of wildlife species.

  16. Deadly Fire in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An explosive fire in Kruger National Park in the northern Republic of South Africa has killed at least 21 people and injured several others, perhaps fatally. This true-color image from NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the location of that fire and several others in the region indicated in red. Kruger National Park runs along the border of The Republic of South Africa, which takes up most of the western half of the image, and Mozambique, which takes up most of the eastern half. The deadly fire started on Tuesday, September 4, and burned just to the right of the center of this image, near the town of Skukuza. The fire spread rapidly in the winds that blow across South Africa at the end of the region's dry season. This image, made from MODIS data acquired on September 5, shows the perimeter of the fire burning and emitting heavy smoke. An irregularly shaped burn scar stands out in dark brown against the landscape, indicating the extent of the fire. What appears to be another large burn scar can be seen just to the southeast. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  17. Landscape effects on gene flow for a climate-sensitive montane species, the American pika.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jessica A; Epps, Clinton W; Davis, Anne R; Cushman, Samuel A

    2014-02-01

    Climate change is arguably the greatest challenge to conservation of our time. Most vulnerability assessments rely on past and current species distributions to predict future persistence but ignore species' abilities to disperse through landscapes, which may be particularly important in fragmented habitats and crucial for long-term persistence in changing environments. Landscape genetic approaches explore the interactions between landscape features and gene flow and can clarify how organisms move among suitable habitats, but have suffered from methodological uncertainties. We used a landscape genetic approach to determine how landscape and climate-related features influence gene flow for American pikas (Ochotona princeps) in Crater Lake National Park. Pikas are heat intolerant and restricted to cool microclimates; thus, range contractions have been predicted as climate changes. We evaluated the correlation between landscape variables and genetic distance using partial Mantel tests in a causal modelling framework, and used spatially explicit simulations to evaluate methods of model optimization including a novel approach based on relative support and reciprocal causal modelling. We found that gene flow was primarily restricted by topographic relief, water and west-facing aspects, suggesting that physical restrictions related to small body size and mode of locomotion, as well as exposure to relatively high temperatures, limit pika dispersal in this alpine habitat. Our model optimization successfully identified landscape features influencing resistance in the simulated data for this landscape, but underestimated the magnitude of resistance. This is the first landscape genetic study to address the fundamental question of what limits dispersal and gene flow in the American pika.

  18. Modelling vegetated dune landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, A. C. W.; Nield, J. M.

    2007-03-01

    This letter presents a self-organising cellular automaton model capable of simulating the evolution of vegetated dunes with multiple types of plant response in the environment. It can successfully replicate hairpin, or long-walled, parabolic dunes with trailing ridges as well as nebkha dunes with distinctive deposition tails. Quantification of simulated landscapes with eco-geomorphic state variables and subsequent cluster analysis and PCA yields a phase diagram of different types of coastal dunes developing from blow-outs as a function of vegetation vitality. This diagram indicates the potential sensitivity of dormant dune fields to reactivation under declining vegetation vitality, e.g. due to climatic changes. Nebkha simulations with different grid resolutions demonstrate that the interaction between the (abiotic) geomorphic processes and the biological vegetation component (life) introduces a characteristic length scale on the resultant landforms that breaks the typical self-similar scaling of (un-vegetated) bare-sand dunes.

  19. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Dave; Stephan, Eric G.; Wang, Weimin; Corbin, Charles D.; Widergren, Steven E.

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  20. Parking, energy consumption and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Höglund, Paul G

    2004-12-01

    This paper examines the impacts of different ways of parking on environmental effects, mainly vehicle emissions and air pollution. Vehicle energy consumption and the urban air quality at street level, related to location and design of parking establishments, need to be assessed and quantified. In addition, the indoor parking environment needs attention. This paper gives a description of a methodological approach when comparing different parking establishments. The paper also briefly describes a Swedish attempt to create methods and models for assessing and quantifying such problem. The models are the macrolevel model BRAHE, for regional traffic exhaust emission, and the micromodel SimPark, a parking search model attempt combined with emission models. Until now, very limited knowledge exists regarding the various aspects of vehicle parking and environmental effects in the technical field as well as in the social and human behaviour aspects. This requires an interdisciplinary approach to this challenging area for research, development and more directly practically implemented surveys and field studies. In order to illustrate the new evaluation methodology, the paper also contains some results from a pilot study in Stockholm. Given certain assumptions, a study of vehicle emissions from parking in an underground garage compared with kerbside parking has given an emission reduction of about 40% in favour of the parking garage. This study has been done using the models mentioned above.

  1. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  2. Landscape influences on genetic differentiation among bull trout populations in a stream-lake network.

    PubMed

    Meeuwig, Michael H; Guy, Christopher S; Kalinowski, Steven T; Fredenberg, Wade A

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the influence of landscape heterogeneity on genetic differentiation between migratory bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. An information-theoretic approach was used to compare different conceptual models of dispersal associated with barriers, different models of isolation by distance, and the combined effects of barriers, waterway distance, patch size, and intra- and inter-drainage distribution of populations on genetic differentiation between bull trout populations. The effect of distance between populations on genetic differentiation was best explained by partitioning the effects of mainstem and tributary stream sections. Models that categorized barriers as having a one-way effect (i.e. allowed downstream dispersal) or a two-way effect were best supported. Additionally, patch size and the distribution of populations among drainages influenced genetic differentiation. Genetic differentiation between bull trout populations in Glacier National Park is linked to landscape features that restrict dispersal. However, this analysis illustrates that modelling variability within landscape features, such as dispersal corridors, will benefit landscape genetic analyses. Additionally, the framework used for evaluating the effects of barriers must consider not just barrier presence, but also potential asymmetries in barrier effects with respect to the organism under investigation.

  3. Landscape influences on genetic differentiation among bull trout populations in a stream-lake network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Guy, C.S.; Kalinowski, S.T.; Fredenberg, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the influence of landscape heterogeneity on genetic differentiation between migratory bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. An information-theoretic approach was used to compare different conceptual models of dispersal associated with barriers, different models of isolation by distance, and the combined effects of barriers, waterway distance, patch size, and intra- and inter-drainage distribution of populations on genetic differentiation between bull trout populations. The effect of distance between populations on genetic differentiation was best explained by partitioning the effects of mainstem and tributary stream sections. Models that categorized barriers as having a one-way effect (i.e. allowed downstream dispersal) or a two-way effect were best supported. Additionally, patch size and the distribution of populations among drainages influenced genetic differentiation. Genetic differentiation between bull trout populations in Glacier National Park is linked to landscape features that restrict dispersal. However, this analysis illustrates that modelling variability within landscape features, such as dispersal corridors, will benefit landscape genetic analyses. Additionally, the framework used for evaluating the effects of barriers must consider not just barrier presence, but also potential asymmetries in barrier effects with respect to the organism under investigation.

  4. Molecular diversity and multifarious plant growth promoting attributes of Bacilli associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rhizosphere from six diverse agro-ecological zones of India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Yadav, Ajar Nath; Khannam, Kazy Sufia; Kumar, Sanjay; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Suman, Archna

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of culturable Bacilli was investigated in six wheat cultivating agro-ecological zones of India viz: northern hills, north western plains, north eastern plains, central, peninsular, and southern hills. These agro-ecological regions are based on the climatic conditions such as pH, salinity, drought, and temperature. A total of 395 Bacilli were isolated by heat enrichment and different growth media. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis using three restriction enzymes AluI, MspI, and HaeIII led to the clustering of these isolates into 19-27 clusters in the different zones at >70% similarity index, adding up to 137 groups. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 55 distinct Bacilli that could be grouped in five families, Bacillaceae (68%), Paenibacillaceae (15%), Planococcaceae (8%), Staphylococcaceae (7%), and Bacillales incertae sedis (2%), which included eight genera namely Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Planomicrobium, Sporosarcina, and Staphylococcus. All 395 isolated Bacilli were screened for their plant growth promoting attributes, which included direct-plant growth promoting (solubilization of phosphorus, potassium, and zinc; production of phytohormones; 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity and nitrogen fixation), and indirect-plant growth promotion (antagonistic, production of lytic enzymes, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia). To our knowledge, this is the first report for the presence of Bacillus endophyticus, Paenibacillus xylanexedens, Planococcus citreus, Planomicrobium okeanokoites, Sporosarcina sp., and Staphylococcus succinus in wheat rhizosphere and exhibit multifunctional PGP attributes. These niche-specific and multifarious PGP Bacilli may serve as inoculants for crops growing in respective climatic conditions.

  5. Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes are associated with household food diversity and children's animal source food intake across different agro-ecological zones in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Christian, Aaron K; Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Lartey, Anna; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Ahunu, Ben K; Butler, Lorna M

    2016-01-28

    Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes may influence the variety of foods available in the household and the quality of children's diets. To test the link, this study collected data on caregivers' (n 608) nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes as well as the diets of their household and of their 2-5-year-old children in twelve rural communities nested in the three main agro-ecological zones of Ghana. Household foods and children's animal source foods (ASF) consumed in the past 7 d were categorised into one of fourteen and ten groups, respectively. About 28 % of caregivers believed that their children needed to be fed only 2-3 times/d. Reasons for having adult supervision during child meal times, feeding diverse foods, prioritising a child to receive ASF and the perceived child benefits of ASF differed across zones (P<0·001). Households with caregivers belonging to the highest tertile of nutrition knowledge and attitude scores consumed more diverse diets compared with those of caregivers in the lowest tertile group (11·2 (sd 2·2) v. 10·0 (sd 2·4); P<0·001). After controlling for the effect of agro-ecological zone, caregivers' nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes positively predicted household dietary diversity and the frequency and diversity of children's ASF intakes (P<0·001). The number of years of formal education of caregivers also positively predicted household dietary diversity and children's ASF diversity (P<0·001). A key component to improving child nutrition is to understand the context-specific nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes in order to identify relevant interventions.

  6. The Potential for Pocket Parks to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Marsh, Terry; Williamson, Stephanie; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Golinelli, Daniella; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the use of new pocket parks in low-income neighborhoods. Setting Los Angeles Subjects Parks users and residents living within ½ mile of 3 pocket parks and 15 neighborhood parks Intervention The creation of pocket parks Design Quasi-experimental post-only comparison Measures We used the System of Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) to measure park use and park-based physical activity and surveyed park users and residents about their park use. Analysis We surveyed 392 and 432 household members within one-half mile of the 3 pocket parks before and after park construction, respectively, as well as 71 pocket park users and compared them to 992 neighborhood park users and 342 residents living within ½ mile of other neighborhood parks. We compared pocket park use to playground area use in the larger neighborhood parks. We used descriptive statistics and Generalized Estimating Equations for the analysis. Results Overall, pocket park use compared favorably in promoting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity with that of existing playground space in nearby parks and they were cost-effective at $0.73/MET hour gained. Pocket park visitors walked an average of 0.25 miles to get there. Conclusions Pocket parks, when perceived as attractive and safe destinations, may increase physical activity by encouraging families with children to walk there. Additional strategies and programs may be needed to encourage more residents to use the parks. PMID:24380461

  7. Identifying resource manager information needs for the North Pacific Landscape Conservation Cooperative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Liedtke, Theresa; Jenni, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are a network of 22 public-private partnerships, defined by ecoregion, that share and provide science to ensure the sustainability of land, water, wildlife and cultural resources in North America. LLCs were established by the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI) in recognition that response to climate change must be coordinated on a landscape-level basis because important resources, ecosystem processes and resource management challenges extend beyond national wildlife refuges, Bureau of Land Management lands, national parks, and even international boundaries. Therefore, DOI agencies must work with other Federal, State, Tribal (U.S. indigenous peoples), First Nation (Canadian indigenous peoples), and local governments, as well as private landowners, to develop landscape-level strategies for understanding and responding to climate change.

  8. Landscape heterogeneity shapes predation in a newly restored predator-prey system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kauffman, M.J.; Varley, N.; Smith, D.W.; Stahler, D.R.; MacNulty, D.R.; Boyce, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Because some native ungulates have lived without top predators for generations, it has been uncertain whether runaway predation would occur when predators are newly restored to these systems. We show that landscape features and vegetation, which influence predator detection and capture of prey, shape large-scale patterns of predation in a newly restored predator-prey system. We analysed the spatial distribution of wolf (Canis lupus) predation on elk (Cervus elaphus) on the Northern Range of Yellowstone National Park over 10 consecutive winters. The influence of wolf distribution on kill sites diminished over the course of this study, a result that was likely caused by territorial constraints on wolf distribution. In contrast, landscape factors strongly influenced kill sites, creating distinct hunting grounds and prey refugia. Elk in this newly restored predator-prey system should be able to mediate their risk of predation by movement and habitat selection across a heterogeneous risk landscape. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Landscape heterogeneity shapes predation in a newly restored predator-prey system.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Matthew J; Varley, Nathan; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Boyce, Mark S

    2007-08-01

    Because some native ungulates have lived without top predators for generations, it has been uncertain whether runaway predation would occur when predators are newly restored to these systems. We show that landscape features and vegetation, which influence predator detection and capture of prey, shape large-scale patterns of predation in a newly restored predator-prey system. We analysed the spatial distribution of wolf (Canis lupus) predation on elk (Cervus elaphus) on the Northern Range of Yellowstone National Park over 10 consecutive winters. The influence of wolf distribution on kill sites diminished over the course of this study, a result that was likely caused by territorial constraints on wolf distribution. In contrast, landscape factors strongly influenced kill sites, creating distinct hunting grounds and prey refugia. Elk in this newly restored predator-prey system should be able to mediate their risk of predation by movement and habitat selection across a heterogeneous risk landscape.

  10. Therapeutic landscapes and wellbeing in later life: Impacts of blue and green spaces for older adults.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Jessica; Franke, Thea; McKay, Heather; Sims-Gould, Joanie

    2015-07-01

    This paper extends the concept of therapeutic landscapes by investigating how green and blue spaces affect older adult health and wellbeing. We draw on interview data from participants aged 65-86 years old who described their everyday experiences with green and especially blue spaces across Metro Vancouver, Canada. Landscapes embedded with therapeutic qualities included parks, gardens, street greenery, lakes, and the ocean. Interactions with these spaces influenced participants' perceived physical, mental, and social health. Issues of safety, accessibility, and personal perception complicated this relationship. Overall, the findings indicate that nature plays a nuanced and influential role in the everyday lives of older adults. Better understanding how older adults experience health and landscape is critical towards developing everyday contact with nature that can improve quality of life for ageing populations.

  11. Landscape characterization and biodiversity research

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; Offerman, H.; Frohn, R.; Gardner, R.H.

    1995-03-01

    Rapid deforestation often produces landscape-level changes in forest characteristics and structure, including area, distribution, and forest habitat types. Changes in landscape pattern through fragmentation or aggregation of natural habitats can alter patterns of abundance for single species and entire communities. Examples of single-species effects include increased predation along the forest edge, the decline in the number of species with poor dispersal mechanisms, and the spread of exotic species that have deleterious effects (e.g., gypsy moth). A decrease in the size and number of natural habitat patches increases the probability of local extirpation and loss of diversity of native species, whereas a decline in connectivity between habitat patches can negatively affect species persistence. Thus, there is empirical justification for managing entire landscapes, not just individual habitat types, in order to insure that native plant and animal diversity is maintained. A landscape is defined as an area composed of a mosaic of interacting ecosystems, or patches, with the heterogeneity among the patches significantly affecting biotic and abiotic processes in the landscape. Patches comprising a landscape are usually composed of discrete areas of relatively homogeneous environmental conditions and must be defined in terms of the organisms of interest. A large body of theoretical work in landscape ecology has provided a wealth of methods for quantifying spatial characteristics of landscapes. Recent advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems allow these methods to be applied over large areas. The objectives of this paper are to present a brief overview of common measures of landscape characteristics, to explore the new technology available for their calculation, to provide examples of their application, and to call attention to the need for collection of spatially-explicit field data.

  12. Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) distribution, activity patterns and relative abundance in the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Robert; Ayala, Guido; Viscarra, Maria

    2012-12-01

    Lowland tapir distribution is described in northwestern Bolivia and southeastern Peru within the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape, a priority Tapir Conservation Unit, using 1255 distribution points derived from camera trapping efforts, field research and interviews with park guards from 5 national protected areas and hunters from 19 local communities. A total of 392 independent camera trapping events from 14 camera trap surveys at 11 sites demonstrated the nocturnal and crepuscular activity patterns (86%) of the lowland tapir and provide 3 indices of relative abundance for spatial and temporal comparison. Capture rates for lowland tapirs were not significantly different between camera trapping stations placed on river beaches versus those placed in the forest. Lowland tapir capture rates were significantly higher in the national protected areas of the region versus indigenous territories and unprotected portions of the landscape. Capture rates through time suggested that lowland tapir populations are recovering within the Tuichi Valley, an area currently dedicated towards ecotourism activities, following the creation (1995) and subsequent implementation (1997) of the Madidi National Park in Bolivia. Based on our distributional data and published conservative estimates of population density, we calculated that this transboundary landscape holds an overall lowland tapir population of between 14 540 and 36 351 individuals, of which at least 24.3% are under protection from national and municipal parks. As such, the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape should be considered a lowland tapir population stronghold and priority conservation efforts are discussed in order to maintain this population.

  13. How soil shapes the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minasny, Budiman; Finke, Peter; Vanwalleghem, Tom Tom; Stockmann, Uta; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    There has been an increase in interest in quantitative modelling of soil genesis, which can provide prediction of environmental changes through numerical models. Modelling soil formation is a difficult task because soil itself is highly complex with interactions between water, inorganic materials and organic matter. This paper will provide a review on the research efforts of modelling soil genesis, their connection with landscape models and the inexorable genesis of the IUSS soil landscape modelling working group. Quantitative modelling soil formation using mechanistic models have begun in the 1980s such as the 'soil deficit' model by Kirkby (1985), Hoosbeek & Bryant's pedodynamic model (1992), and recently the SoilGen model by Finke (2008). These profile models considered the chemical reactions and physical processes in the soil at the horizon and pedon scale. The SoilGen model is an integration of sub-models, such as water and solute movement, heat transport, soil organic matter decomposition, mineral dissolution, ion exchange, adsorption, speciation, complexation and precipitation. The model can calculate with detail the chemical changes and materials fluxes in a profile and has been successfully applied. While they can simulate soil profile development in detail, there is still a gap how the processes act in the landscape. Meanwhile research in landscape formation in geomorphology is progressing steadily over time, slope development models model have been developed since 1970s (Ahnert, 1977). Soil was also introduced in a landscape, however soil processes are mainly modelled through weathering and transport processes (Minasny & McBratney 1999, 2001). Recently, Vanwalleghem et al. (2013) are able to combine selected physical, chemical and biological processes to simulate a full 3-D soil genesis in the landscape. Now there are research gaps between the 2 approaches: the landscape modellers increasingly recognise the importance of soil and need more detailed soil

  14. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  15. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Noord-Brabant has the largest variety of cover sand landscapes in The Netherlands, and probably in Western Europe. During the Last Ice Age the area was not covered by land ice and a polar desert developed in which sand dunes buried the existing river landscapes. Some of these polar dune landscapes experienced a geomorphological and soil development that remained virtually untouched up to the present day, such as the low parabolic dunes of the Strabrechtse Heide or the later and higher dunes of the Oisterwijkse Vennen. As Noord-Brabant lies on the fringe of a tectonic basin, the thickness of cover sand deposits in the Centrale Slenk, part of a rift through Europe, amounts up to 20 metres. Cover sand deposits along the fault lines cause the special phenomenon of 'wijst' to develop, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the boarding lower grounds. Since 4000 BC humans settled in these cover sand landscapes and made use of its small-scale variety. An example are the prehistoric finds on the flanks and the historic towns on top of the 'donken' in northwest Noord-Brabant, where the cover sand landscapes are buried by river and marine deposits and only the peaks of the dunes protrude as donken. Or the church of Handel that is built beside a 'wijst' source and a site of pilgrimage since living memory. Or the 'essen' and plaggen agriculture that developed along the stream valleys of Noord-Brabant from 1300 AD onwards, giving rise to geomorphological features as 'randwallen' and plaggen soils of more than a metre thickness. Each region of Brabant each has its own approach in attracting tourists and has not yet used this common landscape history to connect, manage and promote their territories. We propose a landscape-historical approach to develop a national or European Geopark Brabants' cover sand landscapes, in which each region focuses on a specific part of the landscape history of Brabant, that stretches from the Late Weichselian polar desert when the dune

  16. The impact of industrial oil development on a protected area landscape: A case study on human population growth and landscape level change in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Congalton, Russell G.; Palace, Michael W.; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2016-04-01

    Protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa are sanctuaries for rich biodiversity and are important economic engines for African nations, but they are becoming increasingly threatened by discoveries of mineral deposits within and nearby their boundaries. In 2006, viable oil reserves were discovered in Murchison Falls Conservation Area (MFCA) in northern Uganda. Exploratory and appraisal activities concluded in 2014, and production is expected to begin in 2016. The oil development is associated with a substantial increase in human population outside MFCA, with people seeking jobs, land, and economic opportunity. Concomitant with this change is increased truck traffic, a sprawling and denser road network, and infrastructure within the park, which could have large impacts on both the flora and fauna. We examined the broader protected area landscape and the potential feedbacks from resource development on the ecosystem and local livelihoods. Our analysis combines a land cover analysis using Object Based Image Analysis of Landsat data (2002 and 2014), migration patterns and population change (1959-2014), and qualitative interview data. Our results suggest that most of the larger-scale impacts on the landscape and people are occurring in the western and northern sections, both inside and outside of the park. Additionally, oil development is not the only factor in the region influencing population growth and landscape change. Post conflict regrowth in the north, sugarcane production in the south, and migration to this region from conflict-ridden neighboring countries are also playing a vital role in human migration shaping the MFCA Landscape. Understanding the social and environmental changes and impacts in the MFCA and its surrounding areas will add to limited literature on the impacts of resource extraction on local, subsistence communities and landscape level change, which will be important as access and pressure for oil and minerals within protected areas continues to rise.

  17. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.78 Harpers Ferry...

  18. 76 FR 9360 - Kalaupapa National Historical Park Advisory Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... National Park Service Kalaupapa National Historical Park Advisory Commission Meeting AGENCY: National Park..., 2011, Meeting of the Kalaupapa National Historical Park Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meeting...). ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at McVeigh Social Hall, Kalaupapa National Historical Park,...

  19. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.78 Harpers Ferry...

  20. 75 FR 13572 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... National Park Service Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... dates of the April 7, 2006 and October 5, 2006 meetings of the Gettysburg National Military Park... Park Activities which consists of an update on Gettysburg National Battlefield Museum Foundation...

  1. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  2. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  3. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  4. 75 FR 52969 - National Park System Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... National Park Service National Park System Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the National Park System Advisory Board will meet September 15-16... in the afternoon will tour park sites in the National Capital Region. On September 16, the Board...

  5. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  6. 78 FR 44596 - Minor Boundary Revision at Yosemite National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision at Yosemite National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notification of Boundary Revision. SUMMARY: The boundary of Yosemite National Park is... boundary of Yosemite National Park. DATES: The effective date of this boundary revision is July 24,...

  7. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  8. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  9. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  10. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  11. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  12. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  13. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  14. Neighborhood poverty, park use, and park-based physical activity in a Southern California city.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah A; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Williamson, Stephanie; Marsh, Terry; Rudick, Jodi; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2012-12-01

    A rich literature indicates that individuals of lower socio-economic status engage in less leisure time physical activity than individuals of higher socio-economic status. However, the source of the difference is believed to be, in part, due to differential access to resources that support physical activity. However, it has not been shown as to whether equal access to parks can mitigate differences in leisure time physical activity. Using systematic direct observation, we quantified physical activity in neighborhood parks in a large Southern California city located in areas with high, medium, and a low percentage of households in poverty. We documented how neighborhood parks are managed and programmed and also interviewed both a sample of park users and a random sample of households within a mile radius of the parks. We found that parks are used less in high-poverty areas compared to medium- and low-poverty area parks, even after accounting for differences in size, staffing, and programming. The strongest correlates of park use were the number of part time staff, the number of supervised and organized programs, and knowing the park staff. Perceptions of safety were not relevant to park use among those interviewed in the park, however it had a small relationship with reported frequency of park use among local residents. Among park users, time spent watching electronic media was negatively correlated with the frequency of visiting the park. Future research should test whether increasing park staffing and programming will lead to increased park use in high-poverty neighborhoods.

  15. Fire history of southeastern Glacier National Park: Missouri River Drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    information existed for GNP's east-side forests, which are dominated primarily by lodgepole pine. In fall 1992, the park initiated a study to determine the fire history of the Missouri River drainage portion of southeastern GNP. Given the known variation in pre-1900 fire patterns for lodgepole pine, this study was seen as a potentially important contribution to GNP's Fire Management Plan, and to the expanding data base of fire history studies in the region. Resource managers sought this information to assist their development of appropriate fire management strategies for the east-side forests, and the fire history data also would be a useful interactive component of the park's Geographic Information System (GIS). Primary objectives were to: 1) determine pre-1900 fire periodicities, severities, burning patterns, and post-fire succession for major forest types, and 2) document and map the forest age class mosaic, reflecting the history of stand replacing fires at the landscape level of analysis. Secondary objectives were to interpret the possible effects of modern fire suppression on area forests, and to determine fire regime patterns relative to other lodgepole pine ecosystems in the Northern Rockies.

  16. Control of the spread of inorganic elements by shelterbelt in agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Życzyńska-Bałoniak, Irena; Wojciech Szajdak, Lech

    2010-05-01

    Non-point pollution from agricultural lands involves primarily three transport processes: runoff, leaching, and erosion-sedimentation. The primary transport medium for all three processes is water, which is also a significant carrier of nutrients and sediments. Hydrologic processes important relative to non-point pollution are: (a) infiltration, (b) subsurface flow, (c) overland flow. A better understanding of the impact of shelterbelt on the decrease the quantities of chemical compounds in ground water should increase our ability to predict the improvement of the quality of ground water. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of shelterbelt on the decrease of calcium, magnesium and inorganic carbon in ground water passing through the shelterbelt from adjoining cultivated fields. The investigations were carried out in Turew in Chlapowski's Agroecological Park situated 40 km South-West of Poznań (West Polish Lowland). Afforestations represent well developed network of shelterbelts (mid-field rows of trees afforestation). The established network of shelterbelts in Turew is the unique in Europe. Ground water under cultivated field and shelterbelt from the artificial wells ones a month during 7 years from 2000 to 2006 was sampled and investigated. Ground water under shelterbelt flows away from adjoining cultivated field and passing through the shelterbelt. The first distance of this shelterbelt 104 m long is located on mineral soils (division-autogenic soils, order-brown forest soils, type-hapludalfs, subtype-glossudalfs) next from 104 to 125 m on mineral organic soils (division-hydrogenic soils, order-post-bog, soils, type-mucky soils, subtype-muckous). Calcium, magnesium and mineral carbon quantities have been investigated in the ground water of shelterbelts. The direction of water flow was estimated on the basis of the water level in the wells. Shelterbelt includes different species with the dominations of the maple, ash, beech, and hawthorn. Ground

  17. INEEL Vadose Zone Research Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, G.; Hull, L.; Ansley, S.; Versteeg, R.; Scott, C.; Street, L.

    2003-12-01

    The Vadose Zone Research Park was developed to address mission critical issues related to operations, waste management, and environmental restoration at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are located over thick vadose zones. The research park provides instrumentation and facilities for scientists to address vadose zone processes that are important in assessing operational activities, remedial measures, and long-term stewardship of DOE lands. The park, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is strategically located along the Big Lost River, an intermittent river, and around two new percolation ponds. This location provides the opportunity to study variable recharge from the river, continuous recharge from the ponds, and the interactions between the two sources. Drilling began in September 2000 and was completed in June 2001. Thirty one wells and instrumented boreholes have been installed at the park to monitor perched water, measure moisture movement, collect water and gas samples, and study intra-well geophysical properties. Nine of the boreholes, ranging in depth from 150 ft to 504 ft below land surface (bls), are instrumented to monitor moisture in the vadose zone. Instruments include: tensiometers, moisture content sensors, suction lysimeters, temperature sensors, gas ports and electrodes for electrical resistance tomography. Electrodes are evenly spaced throughout the borehole with hydrologic instruments concentrated in and near the sedimentary interbeds-discontinuous layers of silts and clays that occur between some basalt flows. Eighteen monitoring wells, ranging in depth from 60 ft to 250 ft bls, are completed with 4 or 6 inch PVC casing, and generally include an electrical resistivity electrode array attached to the casing. Three bore holes are constructed for testing cross-hole ground penetrating radar as well as for testing new nuclear logging tools being designed at the INEEL. The remaining borehole contains only

  18. Amphibians of Olympic National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Amphibians evolved from fishes about 360 million years ago and were the first vertebrates adapted to life on land. The word amphibian means "double life." It refers to the life history of many amphibians, which spend part of their life in water and part on land. There are three major groups of amphibians: salamanders, frogs, and toads, and caecilians. Salamanders, frogs, and toads can be found in Olympic National Park (ONP), but caecilians live only in tropical regions. Many amphibians are generalist predators, eating almost any prey they can fit into their mouths.

  19. Energy landscapes for machine learning.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Andrew J; Das, Ritankar; Martiniani, Stefano; Mehta, Dhagash; Sagun, Levent; Stevenson, Jacob D; Wales, David J

    2017-04-03

    Machine learning techniques are being increasingly used as flexible non-linear fitting and prediction tools in the physical sciences. Fitting functions that exhibit multiple solutions as local minima can be analysed in terms of the corresponding machine learning landscape. Methods to explore and visualise molecular potential energy landscapes can be applied to these machine learning landscapes to gain new insight into the solution space involved in training and the nature of the corresponding predictions. In particular, we can define quantities analogous to molecular structure, thermodynamics, and kinetics, and relate these emergent properties to the structure of the underlying landscape. This Perspective aims to describe these analogies with examples from recent applications, and suggest avenues for new interdisciplinary research.

  20. Economic Growth and Landscape Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prato, Tony; Fagre, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Sustaining Rocky Mountain Landscapes provides a scientific basis for communities to develop policies for managing the growth and economic transformation of the CCE without sacrificing the quality of life and environment for which the land is renowned. This forthcoming edited volume focuses on five aspects of sustaining mountain landscapes in the CCE and similar regions in the Rocky Mountains. The five aspects are: 1) how social, economic, demographic and environmental forces are transforming ecosystem structure and function, 2) trends in use and conditions for human and environmental resources, 3) activating science, policy and education to enhance sustainable landscape management, 4) challenges to sustainable management of public and private lands, and 5) future prospects for achieving sustainable landscapes.